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Sample records for optimal alkaline treatment

  1. Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption

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    Obdulia Medina-Juárez

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR, and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries, present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization.

  2. Optimal Surface Amino-Functionalization Following Thermo-Alkaline Treatment of Nanostructured Silica Adsorbents for Enhanced CO2 Adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Juárez, Obdulia; García-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel; Arellano-Sánchez, Ulises; Kornhauser-Straus, Isaac; Rojas-González, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Special preparation of Santa Barbara Amorphous (SBA)-15, mesoporous silica with highly hexagonal ordered, these materials have been carried out for creating adsorbents exhibiting an enhanced and partially selective adsorption toward CO2. This creation starts from an adequate conditioning of the silica surface, via a thermo-alkaline treatment to increase the population of silanol species on it. CO2 adsorption is only reasonably achieved when the SiO2 surface becomes aminated after put in contact with a solution of an amino alkoxide compound in the right solvent. Unfunctionalized and amine-functionalized substrates were characterized through X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption, Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy, 29Si solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), and NH3 thermal programmed desorption. These analyses proved that the thermo-alkaline procedure desilicates the substrate and eliminates the micropores (without affecting the SBA-15 capillaries), present in the original solid. NMR analysis confirms that the hydroxylated solid anchors more amino functionalizing molecules than the unhydroxylated material. The SBA-15 sample subjected to hydroxylation and amino-functionalization displays a high enthalpy of interaction, a reason why this solid is suitable for a strong deposition of CO2 but with the possibility of observing a low-pressure hysteresis phenomenon. Contrastingly, CH4 adsorption on amino-functionalized, hydroxylated SBA-15 substrates becomes almost five times lower than the CO2 one, thus giving proof of their selectivity toward CO2. Although the amount of retained CO2 is not yet similar to or higher than those determined in other investigations, the methodology herein described is still susceptible to optimization. PMID:28774017

  3. Optimization of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces sp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hacene

    2016-06-29

    Jun 29, 2016 ... The results showed the presence of an alkaline protease with optimal pH and ... significant effect on the production of the enzyme (fructose and malt extract), then defining theirs ..... Urease test. + ..... terminating inhibitors. Proc.

  4. Use Alkalinity Monitoring to Optimize Bioreactor Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher S; Kult, Keegan J

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, the agricultural community has reduced flow of nitrogen from farmed landscapes to stream networks through the use of woodchip denitrification bioreactors. Although deployment of this practice is becoming more common to treat high-nitrate water from agricultural drainage pipes, information about bioreactor management strategies is sparse. This study focuses on the use of water monitoring, and especially the use of alkalinity monitoring, in five Iowa woodchip bioreactors to provide insights into and to help manage bioreactor chemistry in ways that will produce desirable outcomes. Results reported here for the five bioreactors show average annual nitrate load reductions between 50 and 80%, which is acceptable according to established practice standards. Alkalinity data, however, imply that nitrous oxide formation may have regularly occurred in at least three of the bioreactors that are considered to be closed systems. Nitrous oxide measurements of influent and effluent water provide evidence that alkalinity may be an important indicator of bioreactor performance. Bioreactor chemistry can be managed by manipulation of water throughput in ways that produce adequate nitrate removal while preventing undesirable side effects. We conclude that (i) water should be retained for longer periods of time in bioreactors where nitrous oxide formation is indicated, (ii) measuring only nitrate and sulfate concentrations is insufficient for proper bioreactor operation, and (iii) alkalinity monitoring should be implemented into protocols for bioreactor management.

  5. Optimization of Soilless Media for Alkaline Irrigation Water

    OpenAIRE

    Tramp, Cody Alexander; Chard, Julie K.; Bugbee, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    High root zone pH reduces nutrient availability and high alkalinity water is strongly buffered around an alkaline pH. Soilless media can be altered to improve nutrient availability. This study was conducted to optimize the composition of soilless media for use with high alkalinity water. Mixes of peat and/or perlite or vermiculite in 50/50 and 33/33/33 volumetric ratios were tested. In some studies, mixes were also amended with up to 2.4 g/L of dolomite limestone to neutralize the initial aci...

  6. Effects of alkaline treatment for fibroblastic adhesion on titanium

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    Miryam Cuellar-Flores

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The treatment of Ti plates with NaOH enhances cell adhesion and the proliferation of HPLF cells. Clinically, the alkaline treatment of Ti-based implants could be an option to improve and accelerate osseointegration.

  7. Advances in alkaline cooling water treatment technology: An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaffer, A.E. Jr.; Klatskin, S.D.

    1985-01-01

    A series of chromate and non-chromate treatment programs, specifically designed for alkaline pH cooling waters, have been developed. The treatments provide excellent corrosion and scale control over a broad range of water chemistries and are applicable to high conductivity and iron contaminated waters. Low levels of zinc are used to reduce the dependency on alkalinity, chromate and calcium carbonate supersaturation for corrosion control. The precipitation and fouling problems previously encountered with zinc containing treatments have been eliminated by the use of polymeric dispersants.

  8. Screening of Alkaline Protease-Producing Streptomyces diastaticus and Optimization of Enzyme Production

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    Elham Dawoodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Alkaline proteases are used in pharmaceutical, film and photography, silk production and food, leather and detergent industries. Actinomycetes are gram positive bacteria that produce different enzymes such as proteases. The aims of this research were isolation of native alkaline protease-producing Actinomycete spp. from different soil samples as well as optimizing the conditions for enzyme production. Materials and Methods: The different soil samples were collected from different locations of the provinces of Khouzestan, Chahar Mahalo Bakhtiari and Isfahan, Iran. After determining of the best alkaline protease producing species using Lowry method, the optimization of alkaline protease was performed. Results: The alkaline protease producing Actinomycete spp. was isolated from soil. The most enzyme activity was measured in S.diastaticus. The best concentration of sucrose as the carbon source for the highest production of alkaline protease was 10 g/l. The optimum pH and temperature for the alkaline protease production by S. diastaticus were 10 and 30°C respectively. The maximum activity of alkaline protease was measured at 200 rpm as the best aeration speed. Conclusions: This is the first report of alkaline protease production by Streptomyces diastaticus in Iran. The accomplished examinations in this research confirmed the previous theories of alkaline protease production by Actinomycetes relatively. Regarding the immense applications of alkaline proteases in several industries and isolation of a native alkaline protease producing Actinomycete, The production potential of this enzyme in our country could be accessible in the near future.

  9. Optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp for production of bioethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Evandro G T; do Carmo, Juliana R; Alves, José Guilherme L F; Menezes, Aline G T; Guimarães, Isabela C; Queiroz, Fabiana; Pimenta, Carlos J

    2014-01-01

    The use of lignocellulosic raw materials in bioethanol production has been intensively investigated in recent years. However, for efficient conversion to ethanol, many pretreatment steps are required prior to hydrolysis and fermentation. Coffee stands out as the most important agricultural product in Brazil and wastes such as pulp and coffee husk are generated during the wet and dry processing to obtain green grains, respectively. This work focused on the optimization of alkaline pretreatment of coffee pulp with the aim of making its use in the alcoholic fermentation. A central composite rotatable design was used with three independent variables: sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide concentrations and alkaline pretreatment time, totaling 17 experiments. After alkaline pretreatment the concentration of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin remaining in the material, the subsequent hydrolysis of the cellulose component and its fermentation of substrate were evaluated. The results indicated that pretreatment using 4% (w/v) sodium hydroxide solution, with no calcium hydroxide, and 25 min treatment time gave the best results (69.18% cellulose remaining, 44.15% hemicelluloses remaining, 25.19% lignin remaining, 38.13 g/L of reducing sugars, and 27.02 g/L of glucose) and produced 13.66 g/L of ethanol with a yield of 0.4 g ethanol/g glucose.

  10. Optimizing clozapine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkier, P; Lublin, H; Taylor, D

    2011-01-01

    Clozapine treatment remains the gold standard for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but treatment with clozapine is associated with several side-effects that complicate the use of the drug. This clinical overview aims to provide psychiatrists with knowledge about how to optimize clozapine...... treatment. Relevant strategies for reducing side-effects and increasing the likelihood of response are discussed....

  11. Effects of alkaline treatment for fibroblastic adhesion on titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuellar-Flores, Miryam; Acosta-Torres, Laura Susana; Martínez-Alvarez, Omar; Sánchez-Trocino, Benjamin; de la Fuente-Hernández, Javier; Garcia-Garduño, Rigoberto; Garcia-Contreras, Rene

    2016-01-01

    Background: The surface energy of titanium (Ti) implants is very important when determining hydrophilicity or hydrophobicity, which is vital in osseointegration. The purpose of this study was to determine how Ti plates with an alkaline treatment (NaOH) affect the adhesion and proliferation of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF). Materials and Methods: In vitro experimental study was carried out. Type 1 commercially pure Ti plates were analyzed with atomic force microscopy to evaluate surface roughness. The plates were treated ultrasonically with NaOH at 5 M (pH 13.7) for 45 s. HPLF previously established from periodontal tissue was inoculated on the treated Ti plates. The adhered and proliferated viable cell numbers were determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide method for 60 min and 24 h, respectively. The data were analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis tests and multiple comparisons of the Mann–Whitney U-test,P value was fixed at 0.05. Results: The mean roughness values equaled 0.04 μm with an almost flat surface and some grooves. The alkaline treatment of Ti plates caused significantly (P < 0.05) more pronounced HPLF adhesion and proliferation compared to untreated Ti plates. Conclusion: The treatment of Ti plates with NaOH enhances cell adhesion and the proliferation of HPLF cells. Clinically, the alkaline treatment of Ti-based implants could be an option to improve and accelerate osseointegration. PMID:28182066

  12. Adsorptive desulfurization over hierarchical beta zeolite by alkaline treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fuping Tian; Xiaojian Yang; Yanchun Shi; Cuiying Jia; Yongying Chen

    2012-01-01

    Hierarchical beta zeolites with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratios of 16 to 25 were obtained by alkaline treatment in NaOH solution.The effects of treatment temperature on crystallinity,textural properties and chemical composites were studied by XRD,N2 sorption,FT-IR and XRF techniques.The desulfurization performance of parent and alkaline-treated beta zeolites was investigated by static absorption in four model fuels,containing four sulfur compounds of different molecular sizes like thiophene (TP),3-methylthiophene (3-MT),benzothiophene (BT) and dibenzothiophene (DBT),respectively.The crystallinity was observed to be successfully maintained when the treatment temperature was below 50℃.Mesoporosity of beta zeolite was evidently developed with alkaline treatment.The formation of mesopore remarkably improved the desulfurization performance for TP,3-MT,BT and DBT,especially for DBT with larger molecular diameter.Though the addition of toluene in the model fuels resulted in a significant drop of the desulfurization performance of mesoporous beta zeolite,the introduction of cerium ions to some extent mitigated the effect of toluene,which means that both the adsorbents porous structure and the adsorption mode are responsible for the desulfurization performance.The adsorbent of cerium ion-exchanged mesoporous beta showed about 80% recovery of desulfurization after the first regeneration.

  13. Prophylactic treatment with alkaline phosphatase in cardiac surgery induces endogenous alkaline phosphatase release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kats, Suzanne; Brands, Ruud; Hamad, Mohamed A. Soliman; Seinen, Willem; Schamhorst, Volkher; Wulkan, Raymond W.; Schoenberger, Jacques P.; van Oeveren, Wim

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Laboratory and clinical data have implicated endotoxin as an important factor in the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass. We assessed the effects of the administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (bIAP), an endotoxin detoxifier, on alkaline phosphatase levels

  14. Nixtamalized flour from quality protein maize (Zea mays L). optimization of alkaline processing.

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    Milán-Carrillo, J; Gutiérrez-Dorado, R; Cuevas-Rodríguez, E O; Garzón-Tiznado, J A; Reyes-Moreno, C

    2004-01-01

    Quality of maize proteins is poor, they are deficient in the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan. Recently, in Mexico were successfully developed nutritionally improved 26 new hybrids and cultivars called quality protein maize (QPM) which contain greater amounts of lysine and tryptophan. Alkaline cooking of maize with lime (nixtamalization) is the first step for producing several maize products (masa, tortillas, flours, snacks). Processors adjust nixtamalization variables based on experience. The objective of this work was to determine the best combination of nixtamalization process variables for producing nixtamalized maize flour (NMF) from QPM V-537 variety. Nixtamalization conditions were selected from factorial combinations of process variables: nixtamalization time (NT, 20-85 min), lime concentration (LC, 3.3-6.7 g Ca(OH)2/l, in distilled water), and steep time (ST, 8-16 hours). Nixtamalization temperature and ratio of grain to cooking medium were 85 degrees C and 1:3 (w/v), respectively. At the end of each cooking treatment the steeping started for the required time. Steeping was finished by draining the cooking liquor (nejayote). Nixtamal (alkaline-cooked maize kernels) was washed with running tap water. Wet nixtamal was dried (24 hours, 55 degrees C) and milled to pass through 80-US mesh screen to obtain NMF. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied as optimization technique, over four response variables: In vitro protein digestibility (PD), total color difference (deltaE), water absorption index (WAI), and pH. Predictive models for response variables were developed as a function of process variables. Conventional graphical method was applied to obtain maximum PD, WAI and minimum deltaE, pH. Contour plots of each of the response variables were utilized applying superposition surface methodology, to obtain three contour plots for observation and selection of best combination of NT (31 min), LC (5.4 g Ca(OH)2/l), and ST (8.1 hours) for producing

  15. Statistical optimization of alkaline protease production from Penicillium citrinum YL-1 under solid-state fermentation.

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    Xiao, Yun-Zhu; Wu, Duan-Kai; Zhao, Si-Yang; Lin, Wei-Min; Gao, Xiang-Yang

    2015-01-01

    Proteases from halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms were found in traditional Chinese fish sauce. In this study, 30 fungi were isolated from fermented fish sauce in five growth media based on their morphology. However, only one strain, YL-1, which was identified as Penicillium citrinum by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis, can produce alkaline protease. This study is the first to report that a protease-producing fungus strain was isolated and identified in traditional Chinese fish sauce. Furthermore, the culture conditions of alkaline protease production by P. citrinum YL-1 in solid-state fermentation were optimized by response surface methodology. First, three variables including peptone, initial pH, and moisture content were selected by Plackett-Burman design as the significant variables for alkaline protease production. The Box-Behnken design was then adopted to further investigate the interaction effects between the three variables on alkaline protease production and determine the optimal values of the variables. The maximal production (94.30 U/mL) of alkaline protease by P. citrinum YL-1 took place under the optimal conditions of peptone, initial pH, and moisture content (v/w) of 35.5 g/L, 7.73, and 136%, respectively.

  16. Enhanced coagulation for high alkalinity and micro-polluted water: the third way through coagulant optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Mingquan; Wang, Dongsheng; Qu, Jiuhui; Ni, Jinren; Chow, Christopher W K

    2008-04-01

    Conventional coagulation is not an effective treatment option to remove natural organic matter (NOM) in water with high alkalinity/pH. For this type of water, enhanced coagulation is currently proposed as one of the available treatment options and is implemented by acidifying the raw water and applying increased doses of hydrolyzing coagulants. Both of these methods have some disadvantages such as increasing the corrosive tendency of water and increasing cost of treatment. In this paper, an improved version of enhanced coagulation through coagulant optimization to treat this kind of water is demonstrated. A novel coagulant, a composite polyaluminum chloride (HPAC), was developed with both the advantages of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) and the additive coagulant aids: PACl contains significant amounts of highly charged and stable polynuclear aluminum hydrolysis products, which is less affected by the pH of the raw water than traditional coagulants (alum and ferric salts); the additives can enhance both the charge neutralization and bridging abilities of PACl. HPAC exhibited 30% more efficiency than alum and ferric salts in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) removal and was very effective in turbidity removal. This result was confirmed by pilot-scale testing, where particles and organic matter were removed synergistically with HPAC as coagulant by sequential water treatment steps including pre-ozonation, coagulation, flotation and sand filtration.

  17. Transcriptome exploration in Leymus chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment using 454 pyrosequencing.

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    Yepeng Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leymus chinensis (Trin. Tzvel. is a high saline-alkaline tolerant forage grass genus of the tribe Gramineae family, which also plays an important role in protection of natural environment. To date, little is known about the saline-alkaline tolerance of L. chinensis on the molecular level. To better understand the molecular mechanism of saline-alkaline tolerance in L. chinensis, 454 pyrosequencing was used for the transcriptome study. RESULTS: We used Roche-454 massive parallel pyrosequencing technology to sequence two different cDNA libraries that were built from the two samples of control and under saline-alkaline treatment (optimal stress concentration-Hoagland solution with 100 mM NaCl and 200 mM NaHCO(3. A total of 363,734 reads in control group and 526,267 reads in treatment group with an average length of 489 bp and 493 bp were obtained, respectively. The reads were assembled into 104,105 unigenes with MIRA sequence assemable software, among which, 73,665 unigenes were in control group, 88,016 unigenes in treatment group and 57,576 unigenes in both groups. According to the comparative expression analysis between the two groups with the threshold of "log2 Ratio ≥1", there were 36,497 up-regulated unegenes and 18,218 down-regulated unigenes predicted to be the differentially expressed genes. After gene annotation and pathway enrichment analysis, most of them were involved in stress and tolerant function, signal transduction, energy production and conversion, and inorganic ion transport. Furthermore, 16 of these differentially expressed genes were selected for real-time PCR validation, and they were successfully confirmed with the results of 454 pyrosequencing. CONCLUSIONS: This work is the first time to study the transcriptome of L. chinensis under saline-alkaline treatment based on the 454-FLX massively parallel DNA sequencing platform. It also deepened studies on molecular mechanisms of saline-alkaline in L. chinensis, and

  18. Alkaline chemistry of transuranium elements and technetium and the treatment of alkaline radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, C.H. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Peretrukhin, V.F.; Shilov, V.P.; Pikaev, A.K. [Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation). Inst. of Physical Chemistry

    1995-05-01

    Goal of this survey is to generalize the known data on fundamental physical-chemical properties of TRUs and Tc, methods for their isolation, and to provide recommendations that will be useful for partitioning them from alkaline high-level wastes.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi alkaline 2-DE: Optimization and application to comparative proteome analysis of flagellate life stages

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    Santana Jaime M

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trypanosoma cruzi, a flagellate protozoan, is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a chronic illness that causes irreversible damage to heart and digestive tract in humans. Previous 2-DE analyses of T. cruzi proteome have not focused on basic proteins, possibly because of inherent difficulties for optimizing 2-DE in the alkaline pH range. However, T. cruzi wide pH range 2-DE gels have shown few visible spots in the alkaline region, indicating that the parasite either did not have an appreciable amount of alkaline proteins or that these proteins were underrepresented in the 2-DE gels. Results Different IEF conditions using 6–11 pH gradient strips were tested for separation of T. cruzi alkaline proteins. The optimized methodology described here was performed using anodic "paper bridge" sample loading supplemented by increased concentration of DTT and Triton X-100 on Multiphor II (GE Healthcare equipment and an electrode pad embedded in DTT- containing solution near the cathode in order to avoid depletion of reducing agent during IEF. Landmark proteins were identified by peptide mass fingerprinting allowing the production of an epimastigote 2-DE map. Most identified proteins corresponded to metabolic enzymes, especially those related to amino acid metabolism. The optimized 2-DE protocol was applied in combination with the "two-in-one gel" method to verify the relative expression of the identified proteins between samples from epimastigote and trypomastigote life stages. Conclusion High resolution 2-DE gels of T. cruzi life forms were achieved using the optimized methodology and a partial epimastigote alkaline 2-DE map was built. Among 700 protein spots detected, 422 were alkaline with a pI above 7.0. The "two-in-one gel" method simplified the comparative analysis between T. cruzi life stages since it minimized variations in spot migration and silver-stained spot volumes. The comparative data were in agreement with

  20. Surface-treatment of Alkaline Earth Sulfides Based Phosphor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chong-feng; CHU Ben-li; XU Jian; SU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A series of alkaline earth sulfides based phosphors Ca0.8Sr0.2S∶Eu2+, Tm3+ were covered with a layer of protective coating with alkaline earth fluorides by heating the mixture of phosphor and NH4HF2 at elevated temperatures. The coatings were characterized by means of XRD and SEM. The optical properties of the coated phosphors and the influences of the coating on their properties have been discussed extensively. The stabilities of the coated and uncoated phosphors have been compared.

  1. Optimized coagulation of high alkalinity, low temperature and particle water: pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jianfeng; Wang, Dongsheng; Yan, Mingquan; Ye, Changqing; Yang, Min; Ge, Xiaopeng

    2007-08-01

    The Yellow River in winter as source water is characterized as high alkalinity, low temperature and low particle concentrations, which have brought many difficulties to water treatment plants. This study fully examines the optimized coagulation process of the Yellow River by conventional and pre-polymerized metal coagulants, pH adjustment and polyelectrolytes as the primary coagulants or coagulant aids. For all the metal coagulants, polyaluminum chlorides are superior to traditional metal coagulants due to their stable polymeric species and low consumption of alkalinity. The removal of natural organic matter by monomeric metal coagulants can be improved through pH adjustment, which is in accordance with the higher concentration of polymeric species formed at corresponding pH value. With the addition of polyelectrolytes as coagulant aids, the coagulation performance is significantly improved. The effective removal of dissolved organic matter is consistent with high charge density, while molecular weight is relatively important for removing particles, which is consistent with polyelectrolytes as primary coagulants. These results suggest that the coagulation mechanisms in the removal of dissolved organic matter and particles are different, which may be exploited for optimized coagulation for the typical source water in practice.

  2. Influence of alkalinity and VFAs on the performance of an UASB reactor with recirculation for the treatment of Tequila vinasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-López, Alberto; León-Becerril, Elizabeth; Rosales-Contreras, María Elena; Villegas-García, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    The main problem linked to the stability of upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors during the treatment of Tequila vinasse is the high acidity and the null alkalinity present in this effluent. This research evaluates the effect of alkalinity and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentration on the performance of an UASB reactor with recirculation of the effluent for removing organic matter and biogas production from Tequila vinasses. Recirculation of the effluent reduces the impact of VFAs and organic matter concentration present in the influent, inducing the stability of the reactor. The UASB reactor was operated during 235 days at organic loading rates from 2.5 to 20.0 kg m(-3) d(-1), attaining a removal efficiency of COD greater than 75% with a methane yield of 335 ml CH4 g(-1) COD at SPT, maintaining a ratio of VFAs/Alk ≤ 0.5. Therefore, an optimal ratio of VFAs/Alk was established for the system operating in stable conditions for the treatment of Tequila vinasses. Under these conditions, the alkalinity was recuperated by the system itself, without the addition of external alkalinity.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF MEDIA CONSTITUENTS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ALKALINE PROTEASE FROM BACILLUS LICHENIFORMIS Mohideen

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    Mohideen Askar Nawas P

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Production of alkaline protease by Bacillus licheniformis has been investigated under submerged fermentation. The physical and chemical parameters influencing submerged fermentation were optimized. The effect of incubation time, temperature, pH, carbon sources and nitrogen sources and additional nutrients on the production of alkaline protease was characterized. The optimum conditions for the protease production by Bacillus licheniformis were found to be at pH 9.0 and temperature at 40ºC. The outcome of carbon and inorganic nitrogen sources on protease production proved that glucose and casein were the effective medium ingredients for Bacillus licheniformis respectively. The maximum amount of protease production was recorded in medium supplemented with ammonium sulphate. Among the tested metal ions, the level of protease yield was found to be high in medium supplemented with magnesium chloride. The protease production was amplified in the presence of 1.5% sodium chloride. The extreme stability towards Triton X-100, Tween 20 and SDS was observed in Bacillus licheniformis alkaline protease.

  4. Optimal Antihypertensive Combination Treatments

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    Massimo Volpe

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past three decades it has been consistently shown that optimal blood pressure (BP control significantly reduced cardiovascular (CV morbidity and mortality [1]. Despite solid evidence in favour of benefits derived from BP reductions, however, hypertension control in treated hypertensive patients remains suboptimal worldwide [2, 3]. In addition, proportions of diagnosed and treated hypertensive patients remain largely unchanged over the last two decades[4]. Multiple factors may be advocated to explain this observation, including variation in healthcare access and availability [5, 6], attitudes amongst clinicians towards hypertension [7, 8], inaccuracy in BP measurements [9] and underuse or under dosage of antihypertensive drugs in both monotherapy and in combination therapy [10, 11].On the basis of these considerations, it is beyond the aim of this article to discuss the socioeconomic impact on healthcare and BP measurement techniques. Instead it will seek to explain the importance of attaining early optimal BP control and the use of combination therapy as a new paradigm for the modern clinical management of hypertension.

  5. Identification of a New Marine Bacterial Strain SD8 and Optimization of Its Culture Conditions for Producing Alkaline Protease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongxia; Yang, Muyang; Wang, Liping; Xian, Cory J

    2015-01-01

    While much attention has been given to marine microorganisms for production of enzymes, which in general are relatively more stable and active compared to those from plants and animals, studies on alkaline protease production from marine microorganisms have been very limited. In the present study, the alkaline protease producing marine bacterial strain SD8 isolated from sea muds in the Geziwo Qinhuangdao sea area of China was characterized and its optimal culture conditions were investigated. Strain SD8 was initially classified to belong to genus Pseudomonas by morphological, physiological and biochemical characterizations, and then through 16S rDNA sequence it was identified to be likely Pseudomonas hibiscicola. In addition, the culture mediums, carbon sources and culture conditions of strain SD8 were optimized for maximum production of alkaline protease. Optimum enzyme production (236U/mL when cultured bacteria being at 0.75 mg dry weight/mL fermentation broth) was obtained when the isolate at a 3% inoculum size was grown in LB medium at 20 mL medium/100mL Erlenmeyer flask for 48h culture at 30°C with an initial of pH 7.5. This was the first report of strain Pseudomonas hibiscicola secreting alkaline protease, and the data for its optimal cultural conditions for alkaline protease production has laid a foundation for future exploration for the potential use of SD8 strain for alkaline protease production.

  6. Data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from newly isolated alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India

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    Mukundraj Govindrao Rathod

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline proteases are one of the industrially important enzymes and generally preferred from alkaliphilic sources. Here we have provided the data on optimized production and characterization of alkaline proteases from five newly isolated and identified alkaliphiles from Lonar soda lake, India. The data provided for optimization of physicochemical parameters for maximum alkaline proteases production is based on OVAT (one variable at a time approach. Alkaline protease production (U/mL recorded by using different agro industrial residues is included in the given data. Further readers can find more information in our previously published research article where we have already described about the methods used and comparative analysis of the data recorded regarding optimized production, characterization and application of alkaline proteases isolated from Lonar soda lake isolates (http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcab.2016.06.002 [1]. The data provided here by us is useful to other researchers for setting up various suitable statistical models to perform optimization studies other than OVAT approach.

  7. Volatile Fatty Acids Production from Codigestion of Food Waste and Sewage Sludge Based on β-Cyclodextrins and Alkaline Treatments

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    Xue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile fatty acids (VFAs are preferred valuable resources, which can be produced from anaerobic digestion process. This study presents a novel technology using β-cyclodextrins (β-CD pretreatment integrated alkaline method to enhance VFAs production from codigestion of food waste and sewage sludge. Experiment results showed that optimized ratio of food waste to sewage sludge was 3 : 2 because it provided adequate organic substance and seed microorganisms. Based on this optimized ratio, the integrated treatment of alkaline pH 10 and β-CD addition (0.2 g/g TS performed the best enhancement on VFAs production, and the maximum VFAs production was 8631.7 mg/L which was 6.13, 1.38, and 1.57 times higher than that of control, initial pH 10, and 0.2 g β-CD/g TS treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the hydrolysis rate of protein and polysaccharides was greatly improved in integration treatment, which was 1.18–3.45 times higher than that of other tests. Though the VFAs production and hydrolysis of polymeric organics were highly enhanced, the primary bacterial communities with different treatments did not show substantial differences.

  8. Acid and alkaline treatments for enhancing the growth of rhizobia in sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebah, F. B.; Tyagi, R. D. [Quebec Univ., Institut national de la recherche scientifique, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada); Prevost, D. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Centre de recherche et de developpement sur les sols et les grandes cultures, Sainte Foy, PQ (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    Wastewater treatment processes produce large amounts of sludge. The application of sludge to agricultural soils improves the soil's physical and biological properties because it contains organic matter and plant nutrients. Wastewater sludge has been used for producing certain bacteria. It has also been proposed as an effective method for the production of rhizobia. Although the amount of sludge required for the production of bacterial inoculum is low, this new application constitutes an additional and suitable alternative for wastewater sludge recycling. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential of using acid or alkaline pre-treatments in sludges having different solid concentrations, to increase the biodegradability of organic material, thereby to enhance the growth of rhizobia, while using sludge as a culture medium. Results of the experiment show that both acid and alkaline treatments improved the rhizobial cell count and reduced mean generation time in primary and secondary sludges, but the efficiency of the treatment was also dependent on the total suspended solids (TSS) concentration. The highest cell count was obtained with primary sludge at 0.65 per cent TSS under alkaline treatment. For secondary sludge, the highest cell count was reached under acid hydrolysis. The mean generation time was reduced by both pre-treatments, with best values obtained for alkaline treatment in primary sludge. 31 refs., 6 tabs.

  9. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  10. Alkaline catalyzed biodiesel production from moringa oleifera oil with optimized production parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafuku, G.; Mbarawa, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, 0001 Pretoria (South Africa)

    2010-08-15

    The utilization of non-edible feedstock such as moringa oleifera for biodiesel production attracts much attention owing to the issue with regards to avoiding a threat to food supplies. In this study, the optimization of biodiesel production parameters for moringa oleifera oil was carried out. The free fatty acid value of moringa oil was found to be 0.6%, rendering the one step alkaline transesterification method for converting moringa fatty acids to their methyl esters possible. The optimum production parameters: catalyst amount, alcohol amount, temperature, agitation speed and reaction time were determined experimentally and found to be: 1.0 wt% catalyst amount, 30 wt% methanol amount, 60 C reaction temperature, 400 rpm agitation rate and 60 min reaction time. With these optimal conditions the conversion efficiency was 82%. The properties of the moringa biodiesel that was produced were observed to fall within the recommended international biodiesel standards. However, moringa biodiesel showed high values of cloud and pour points of 10 C and 3 C respectively, which present a problem as regards use in cold temperatures. (author)

  11. Optimization of Gas-Water Absorption Equilibrium of Carbon Dioxide for Algae Liquors: Selection of Alkaline Buffering Chemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hsi Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The apparent Henry’s Law constant (H′, which quantifies the concentration partition of a gas-liquid equilibrium of carbon dioxide (CO2, is used to optimize the absorption of carbon dioxide in algae liquors. The values of H′ were examined under various conditions: in water at different temperatures (27 and 37°C, in alkaline buffering chemicals (sodium hydroxide (NaOH and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3, and in aquatic algae plants (Egeria densa and Anubias barteri nana. The optimal conditions for CO2 absorption can be obtained by controlling the aqueous pH values (around weak alkalinity with pH 9-10 using sodium carbonate as an alkaline buffering chemical at 27°C, yielding exact H′ values of around 16.3–21.3 atm/M, which were obtained from the mean gaseous CO2 concentration of 803 ppm and the total aqueous carbonate concentration of 4.085 mg/L. The experimental results reveal that an alkaline buffering compound, sodium carbonate, can be added to water to maintain a constant aqueous alkalinity enough for the fixation of carbon dioxide by the photosynthesis of green algae in a photobioreactor.

  12. Biological treatment of refinery spent caustics under halo-alkaline conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaff, de M.; Bijmans, M.F.M.; Abbas, B.; Euverink, G.J.W.; Muyzer, G.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2011-01-01

    The present research demonstrates the biological treatment of refinery sulfidic spent caustics in a continuously fed system under halo-alkaline conditions (i.e. pH 9.5; Na(+)= 0.8M). Experiments were performed in identical gas-lift bioreactors operated under aerobic conditions (80-90% saturation) at

  13. Alkaline treatment on commercially available aluminum rich mordenite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laak, A.N.C.; Gosselink, R.W.; Sagala, S.L.; Meeldijk, J.D.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Several commercially available samples consisting of agglomerated small mordenite crystallites with low Si/Al ratios (5.7–10 at/at) have been treated in aqueous NaOH solution. It was found that the porosity can be enhanced when the sodium hydroxide solution is sufficiently concentrated. Treatment in

  14. Feasibility study of an alkaline-based chemical treatment for the purification of polyhydroxybutyrate produced by a mixed enriched culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Y.; Mikova, G.; Kleerebezem, R.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.; Cuellar Soares, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    This study focused on investigating the feasibility of purifying polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from mixed culture biomass by alkaline-based chemical treatment. The PHB-containing biomass was enriched on acetate under non-sterile conditions. Alkaline treatment (0.2 M NaOH) together with surfactant SDS (0

  15. Statistical Approach for Optimization of Physiochemical Requirements on Alkaline Protease Production from Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Bhunia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of physiochemical parameters for alkaline protease production using Bacillus licheniformis NCIM 2042 were carried out by Plackett-Burman design and response surface methodology (RSM. The model was validated experimentally and the maximum protease production was found 315.28 U using optimum culture conditions. The protease was purified using ammonium sulphate (60% precipitation technique. The HPLC analysis of dialyzed sample showed that the retention time is 1.84 min with 73.5% purity. This enzyme retained more than 92% of its initial activity after preincubation for 30 min at 37∘C in the presence of 25% v/v DMSO, methanol, ethanol, ACN, 2-propanol, benzene, toluene, and hexane. In addition, partially purified enzyme showed remarkable stability for 60 min at room temperature, in the presence of anionic detergent (Tween-80 and Triton X-100, surfactant (SDS, bleaching agent (sodium perborate and hydrogen peroxide, and anti-redeposition agents (Na2CMC, Na2CO3. Purified enzyme containing 10% w/v PEG 4000 showed better thermal, surfactant, and local detergent stability.

  16. Optimization of alkaline and dilute acid pretreatment of agave bagasse by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael I. Ávila-Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA and alkaline (AL catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15% since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification which will be reflected in lower capital costs, however this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables such as catalyst loading, retention time and solids loading, were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS yield. Pretreated biomass

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF ALKALINE Α-AMYLASE PRODUCTION BY THERMOPHILIC BACILL US SUBTILIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Johani, Nuha Bakeet; Al-Seeni, Madeha N; Ahmed, Youssri Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Starch-degrading amylase enzyme is important in biotechnological applications as food, fermentation, textile, paper and pharmaceutical purposes. The aim of current study to isolate alkaline thermostable α-amylase bacteria and then study the composition of medium and culture conditions to optimize cells growth and a-amylase production. Thermophilic amylase producing bacterium was isolated from local hot water-springs in Gazan city Saudi Arabia. Phylogenetic analysis of 16 S rRNA sequence for the strain revealed that the strain have the same sequence of Bacillus subtilis. Maximum amylase production was observed, when B. subtilis cultured in medium containing starch at concentration 0.5%, and 10 g/L peptones as nitrogen source at pH 8.5 in when it was incubated for 48 h at 45°C. An amylase-producing bacterium were isolated from hot-spring water and was identified as B. subtilis. Amylase produced from B.subtilis had optimum temperature 45°C and pH 8.5 in shaking media.

  18. Optimizing production of hydroxyapatite from alkaline residue for removal of Pb2+ from wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yubo; Wang, YanPeng; Sun, Xiuyun; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun

    2014-10-01

    Alkaline residue, a common solid waste generated from the ammonia-soda process for the production of soda ash, has been converted into hydroxyapatite for Pb2+ removal from wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions which were Ca/P (molar ratio), reaction temperature and reaction time, with the Pb2+ removal percentage as targeted response. The optimum conditions were identified to be Ca/P of 1.29, reaction temperature of 165.87 °C and reaction time of 14.5 h. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of optimum adsorbent (O-HAP), and the adsorption data were analyzed with different kinetic and isotherm models. The results showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model could best describe the adsorption of Pb2+ on O-HAP. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 1429 mg/g, which was greater than other familiar adsorbents. The MINTEQ results predicted that the formation of different Pb precipitates was the main mechanism in Pb2+ removal process, which was in good agreement with the kinetic and thermodynamic studies and were confirmed by the SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. In addition to aqueous medium, the O-HAP also could efficiently immobilize Pb2+ from contaminated soil.

  19. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  20. Optimizing production of hydroxyapatite from alkaline residue for removal of Pb{sup 2+} from wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Yubo; Wang, YanPeng; Sun, Xiuyun, E-mail: sunxyun@njust.edu.cn; Li, Jiansheng; Shen, Jinyou; Han, Weiqing; Liu, Xiaodong; Wang, Lianjun, E-mail: wanglj@njust.edu.cn

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • The solid waste from Soda Ash Plants was firstly converted into the high-efficiency adsorbent (O-HAP). • The response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions of O-HAP. • The O-HAP showed excellent immobilization ability for Pb{sup 2+} in both aqueous and soil medium. • The maximum adsorption capacity for Pb{sup 2+} (1429 mg/g) was considerably greater than other familiar adsorbents. - Abstract: Alkaline residue, a common solid waste generated from the ammonia-soda process for the production of soda ash, has been converted into hydroxyapatite for Pb{sup 2+} removal from wastewater. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the preparation conditions which were Ca/P (molar ratio), reaction temperature and reaction time, with the Pb{sup 2+} removal percentage as targeted response. The optimum conditions were identified to be Ca/P of 1.29, reaction temperature of 165.87 °C and reaction time of 14.5 h. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the adsorption performance of optimum adsorbent (O-HAP), and the adsorption data were analyzed with different kinetic and isotherm models. The results showed that the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Langmuir isotherm model could best describe the adsorption of Pb{sup 2+} on O-HAP. The maximum adsorption capacity calculated from Langmuir equation was 1429 mg/g, which was greater than other familiar adsorbents. The MINTEQ results predicted that the formation of different Pb precipitates was the main mechanism in Pb{sup 2+} removal process, which was in good agreement with the kinetic and thermodynamic studies and were confirmed by the SEM-EDS and XRD analysis. In addition to aqueous medium, the O-HAP also could efficiently immobilize Pb{sup 2+} from contaminated soil.

  1. Isolation, identification and optimization of alkaline protease production by Candida viswanathii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Lotfi

    2014-03-01

    Conclusion: Due to the high demand for industrial enzymes in the Country and the high activity of alkaline proteases produced by strain. It seems that the native strain can achieve high production of alkaline proteases.These native strains could be resulted in the independence of our country in industrial enzymes production.

  2. Comparative study of low-energy ultrasonic and alkaline treatment on biosludge from secondary industrial wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongzhe; Tan, Youming; Zhou, Yan; Pathak, Santosh; Sendjaja, Antonius Yudi; Abdul Majid, Maszenan; Chowdhury, Prannoy; Ng, Wun Jern

    2015-01-01

    In this study, low-energy ultrasonic (3 and 6 kJ/g volatile solids of feed biomass (FB) which was lower than the heat value of the FB), alkaline, and ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatments were applied on FB, a biosludge from secondary industrial wastewater treatment. Biochemical methane potential (BMP), particle size distribution, Biomass Stress Index (BSI™), soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), protein, carbohydrate, and size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) fingerprints were used to comparatively study the mechanisms of these pretreatment methods. The results indicated that low-energy ultrasonication and alkali exhibited significantly different impacts on the FB. After ultrasonication with energy input of 6 kJ/g-VS, the average particle size of FB was reduced from 102.6 to 19.4 µm. However, ultrasonication had no obvious effect on microbial cells rupture, solubilization of protein and carbohydrate, and SEC fingerprint. Consequently, low-energy ultrasonication could not enhance methane generation. However, after alkaline pretreatment with dosage of 0.3 g-NaOH/g-VS, SCOD, soluble protein, and soluble carbohydrate concentration of FB increased from 0.66, 0.00, 0.07 to 2.83, 0.83, 0.47 g/L, respectively. At the same time, BSI™ increased from 5.3% to 96.8%, and the SEC fingerprint changed significantly. Consequently, the methane generation in the BMP test increased from 68.9 to 135.0 mL. Ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatment was similar to alkaline pretreatment in terms of methane generation. Based on this study, alkaline pretreatment is recommended over both low-energy ultrasonic and low-energy ultrasonic-alkaline pretreatment to enhance the biodegradability of FB.

  3. Significantly enhancing recombinant alkaline amylase production in Bacillus subtilis by integration of a novel mutagenesis-screening strategy with systems-level fermentation optimization

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background Alkaline amylase has significant potential for applications in the textile, paper and detergent industries, however, low yield of which cannot meet the requirement of industrial application. In this work, a novel ARTP mutagenesis-screening method and fermentation optimization strategies were used to significantly improve the expression level of recombinant alkaline amylase in B. subtilis 168. Results The activity of alkaline amylase in mutant B. subtilis 168 mut-16# strain was 1.34...

  4. Inactivation of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores by alkaline hydrolysis applied to medical waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Sílvia C; Nunes, Olga C; Lobo-da-Cunha, Alexandre; Almeida, Manuel F

    2015-09-15

    Although alkaline hydrolysis treatment emerges as an alternative disinfection/sterilization method for medical waste, information on its effects on the inactivation of biological indicators is scarce. The effects of alkaline treatment on the resistance of Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores were investigated and the influence of temperature (80 °C, 100 °C and 110 °C) and NaOH concentration was evaluated. In addition, spore inactivation in the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, used as surrogate of medical waste, was also assessed. The effectiveness of the alkaline treatment was carried out by determination of survival curves and D-values. No significant differences were seen in D-values obtained at 80 °C and 100 °C for NaOH concentrations of 0.5 M and 0.75 M. The D-values obtained at 110 °C (2.3-0.5 min) were approximately 3 times lower than those at 100 °C (8.8-1.6 min). Independent of the presence of animal tissues and discarded medical components, 6 log10 reduction times varied between 66 and 5 min at 100 °C-0.1 M NaOH and 110 °C-1 M NaOH, respectively. The alkaline treatment may be used in future as a disinfection or sterilization alternative method for contaminated waste.

  5. Anaerobic digestion of poplar processing residues for methane production after alkaline treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yiqing; He, Mulan; Ren, Yubing; Ma, Liying; Luo, Yang; Sheng, Hongmei; Xiang, Yun; Zhang, Hua; Li, Qien; An, Lizhe

    2013-04-01

    Poplar processing residues were used for methane production by anaerobic digestion after alkaline treatment and methane production was measured. The highest methane production of 271.9 L/kg volatile solid (VS) was obtained at conditions of 35 g/L and 5.0% NaOH, which was 113.8% higher than non-alkaline treated samples, and 28.9% higher than that of corn straw, which is the conventional anaerobic digestion material in China. The maximal enhancement of 275.5% obtained at conditions of 50 g/L and 7.0% NaOH. Degradation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin after treatment increased by 4.0-9.0%, 3.3-6.2%, and 11.1-20.5%, respectively, with NaOH dose ranged from 3.0% to 7.0%. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), FTIR spectra and Crystallinity measurements showed that the lignocellulosic structures were disrupted by NaOH. The results indicate poplar processing residues might be an efficient substrate for methane production after alkaline treatment.

  6. Physicochemical Properties of Defatted Rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum Seed Flour after Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirawat Eiamwat

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rambutan seeds were subjected to SC-CO2 extraction at 35 MPa, 45 °C to obtain defatted rambutan seed flour. Its physicochemical properties before and after treatment with alakali solution using 0.075 N NaOH were investigated. Alkali-treated flour had a significant increment in bulk density, swelling power, water adsorption capacity, emulsion capacity and stability but a reduction in turbidity, solubility and oil absorption capacity. Pasting measurements showed peak viscosity, breakdown, setback and final viscosity increased significantly for the alkali-treated flour, while pasting temperature decreased. The alkaline treatment decreased the least gelation concentration, but increased the apparent viscosity.

  7. Hydraulic Performance Modifications of a Zeolite Membrane after an Alkaline Treatment: Contribution of Polar and Apolar Surface Tension Components

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Hydraulic permeability measurements are performed on low cut-off Na-mordenite (MOR-type zeolites) membranes after a mild alkaline treatment. A decrease of the hydraulic permeability is systematically observed. Contact angle measurements are carried out (with three polar liquids) on Na-mordenite films seeded onto alumina plates (flat membranes). A decrease of the contact angles is observed after the alkaline treatment for the three liquids. According to the theory of Lifshitz-van der Waals in...

  8. Fibrillation of Aspen by Alkaline Cold Pre-treatment and Vibration Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kärt KÄRNER

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article an attempt to fibrillate aspen bleached chemi-thermo mechanical pulp (BCTMP fibre in an environmentally friendly way is reported. The effects of various NaOH, KOH, urea and ethanol aqueous solutions at lowered temperature were tested for pre-treatment. The pre-treatment was followed by vibration milling aiming to peel off outer cell wall layers and to fibrillate S2 layer of the aspen wood fibre. The effects of the treatments were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The results show that it is possible to fibrillate BCTMP aspen fibres by using alkaline aqueous solutions at low temperatures followed by a mechanical treatment. A strong dependence on fibrillation of cellulose on temperature, time and alkali concentration was established.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.3.7412

  9. Stability analysis of alkaline nitrobenzene-containing wastewater by a catalyzed Fe-Cu treatment process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jinhong; XU Wenying; GAO Tingyao; MA Luming

    2007-01-01

    Iron and copper bimetallic system (catalyzed Fe-Cu process) is a promising technology for alkaline nitrobenzene-containing wastewater treatment.However,little is currently known about the changes of treatment efficiency with time going.This research investigated the long-term performance of the catalyzed Fe-Cu process to reduce nitrobenzene (NB) in alkaline wastewater.In addition,the changes of the metal surfaces morphologies and matters before and after the reaction were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in conjunction with energydispersion spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD).The results showed that the surface properties of copper almost remained unchanged after weeks of operation,which spelled its strong chemical stability and resistance to poisoning.Moreover,the results indicated that there were two reasons for the treatment efficiency decreasing with time.One was the gradual iron element consumption due to corrosion.The other was iron reactivity weakened due to the precipitates accumulation on the surfaces that were mainly Fe3O4 and FeCO.

  10. Production and characterization of thermostable alkaline protease of Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) from optimized solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Joyee; Giri, Sudipta; Maity, Sujan; Sinha, Ankan; Ranjan, Ashish; Rajshekhar; Gupta, Suvroma

    2015-01-01

    Proteases are the most important group of enzymes utilized commercially in various arenas of industries, such as food, detergent, leather, dairy, pharmaceutical, diagnostics, and waste management, accounting for nearly 20% of the world enzyme market. Microorganisms of specially Bacillus genera serve as a vast repository of diverse set of industrially important enzymes and utilized for the large-scale enzyme production using a fermentation technology. Approximately 30%-40% of the cost of industrial enzymes originates from the cost of the growth medium. This study is attempted to produce protease from Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6633) after optimization of various process parameters with the aid of solid-state fermentation using a cheap nutrient source such as wheat bran. B. subtilis (ATCC 6633) produces proteases of molecular weight 36 and 20 kDa, respectively, in the fermented medium as evident from SDS zymogram. Alkaline protease activity has been detected with optimum temperature at 50 °C and is insensitive to ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. This thermostable alkaline protease exhibits dual pH optimum at 7 and 10 with moderate pH stability at alkaline pH range. It preserves its activity in the presence of detergent such as SDS, Tween 20, and Triton X-100 and may be considered as an effective additive to detergent formulation with some industrial importance.

  11. Summary technical report on the electrochemical treatment of alkaline nuclear wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1994-07-30

    This report summarizes the laboratory studies investigating the electrolytic treatment of alkaline solutions carried out under the direction of the Savannah River Technology Center from 1985-1992. Electrolytic treatment has been demonstrated at the laboratory scale to be feasible for the destruction of nitrate and nitrite and the removal of radioactive species such as {sup 99}Tc and {sup 106}Ru from Savannah River Site (SRS) decontaminated salt solution and other alkaline wastes. The reaction rate and current efficiency for the removal of these species are dependent on cell configuration, electrode material, nature of electrode surface, waste composition, current density, and temperature. Nitrogen, ammonia, and nitrous oxide have been identified as the nitrogen-containing reaction products from the electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite under alkaline conditions. The reaction mechanism for the reduction is very complex. Voltammetric studies indicated that the electrode reactions involve surface phenomena and are not necessarily mass transfer controlled. In an undivided cell, results suggest an electrocatalytic role for oxygen via the generation of the superoxide anion. In general, more efficient reduction of nitrite and nitrate occurs at cathode materials with higher overpotentials for hydrogen evolution. Nitrate and nitrite destruction has also been demonstrated in engineering-scale flow reactors. In flow reactors, the nitrate/nitrite destruction efficiency is improved with an increase in the current density, temperature, and when the cell is operated in a divided cell configuration. Nafion{reg_sign} cation exchange membranes have exhibited good stability and consistent performance as separators in the divided-cell tests. The membranes were also shown to be unaffected by radiation at doses approximating four years of cell operation in treating decontaminated salt solution.

  12. Mesoporous mordenites obtained by sequential acid and alkaline treatments – Catalysts for cumene production with enhanced accessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Laak, A.N.C.; Sagala, S.L.; Zecevic, J.; Friedrich, H.; de Jongh, P.E.; de Jong, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    Two commercially available mordenites, obtained from Zeolyst (Si/Al = 10 at/at) and BASF (Si/Al = 8 at/at), were subjected to post-synthesis treatments. The impact of acid treatment, alkaline treatment (desilication) and a combination of both on porosity, crystallinity and catalysis were studied in

  13. Comparison of the chemical properties of wheat straw and beech fibers following alkaline wet oxidation and laccase treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, A. S.; Mallon, S.; Thomsen, Anne Belinda;

    2002-01-01

    Wheat straw (Triticum aestivum) and beech (Fagus sylvatica), were used to evaluate the effects of two pre-treatment processes (alkaline wet oxidation and enzyme treatment with laccase) on lignocellulosic materials for applications in particleboards and fiberboards. Wheat straw and beech fibers...... reacted differently in the two processes. The chemical composition changed little following enzyme treatment. After alkaline wet oxidation, fibers enriched in cellulose were obtained. With both materials, almost all hemicellulose (80%) together with a large portion of the lignin were solubilised...... by alkaline wet oxidation, but essentially all cellulose remained in the solid fraction. Following enzyme treatment most material remained as a solid. For wheat straw, reaction with acetic anhydride indicated that both treatments resulted in more hydroxyl groups being accessible for reaction. The enzyme...

  14. Investigation on application of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis for alkaline waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilov, V.P.; Bessonov, A.A.; Garnov, A.Y.; Gelis, A.V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Institute of Physical Chemistry] [and others

    1997-09-01

    The stabilization of neptunium(IV) in alkaline solution by chemical reductants under various conditions was studied. Testing showed that neptunium(V) is slowly reduced to Np(IV) by V(IV) at room temperature in alkaline solutions. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction. Complete reduction of 2 x 10{sup -4} M Np(V) occurs in three hours at 80{degrees}C in 1 M NaOH with 0.02 M VOSO{sub 4-}. Under similar conditions, but in 5 M NaOH, only 15 to 20% of the Np(V) was reduced in 5 hours. In all cases, about 98 % of the initial neptunium was found in the precipitate. Thus V(IV) acts both as a reductant and as a precipitation carrier. Tests showed Np(V) reduction by hydrazine hydrate could be catalyzed by Pd(II). Reduction increased with temperature and catalyst concentration and decreased with hydroxide concentration. Reduction of Np(V) also takes place in 1 M NaOH solutions containing 1 M sodium formate and palladium. Increasing temperature accelerates reduction; with three hours` treatment in 5 M NaOH solution at 90{degrees}C, about 95 % of the initial 2 x 10{sup -4} M neptunium(V) is transformed to Np(IV). Organic complexants and organic acid anions hinder the decontamination of alkaline solutions from neptunium and plutonium by coprecipitation with d-element hydroxides (the Method of Appearing Reagents). It was found that ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) and N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylenediaminetriacetate (HEDTA) are decomposed by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in alkaline solution in the presence of cobalt compounds with heating and by Na2S208 at moderate temperatures. Citrate, glycolate, and oxalate are decomposed by Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 8} with heating. Oxidant amounts must be increased when NaNO{sub 2} also is present in solution. 8 refs., 25 figs., 16 tabs.

  15. Structural elucidation of sorghum lignins from an integrated biorefinery process based on hydrothermal and alkaline treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shao-Long; Wen, Jia-Long; Ma, Ming-Guo; Sun, Run-Cang

    2014-08-13

    An integrated process based on hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) (i.e., 110-230 °C, 0.5-2.0 h) and alkaline post-treatment (2% NaOH at 90 °C for 2.0 h) has been performed for the production of xylooligosaccharide, lignin, and digestible substrate from sweet sorghum stems. The yield, purity, dissociation mechanisms, structural features, and structural transformations of alkali lignins obtained from the integrated process were investigated. It was found that the HTP process facilitated the subsequent alkaline delignification, releasing lignin with the highest yield (79.3%) and purity from the HTP residue obtained at 190 °C for 0.5 h. All of the results indicated that the cleavage of the β-O-4 linkages and degradation of β-β and β-5 linkages occurred under the harsh HTP conditions. Depolymerization and condensation reactions simultaneously occurred at higher temperatures (≥ 170 °C). Moreover, the thermostability of lignin was positively related to its molecular weight, but was also affected by the inherent structures, such as β-O-4 linkages and condensed units. These findings will enhance the understanding of structural transformations of the lignins during the integrated process and maximize the potential utilizations of the lignins in a current biorefinery process.

  16. Rapid Formation of 1D Titanate Nanotubes Using Alkaline Hydrothermal Treatment and Its Photocatalytic Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Wei Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-dimensional (1D titanate nanotubes (TNT were successfully synthesized using alkaline hydrothermal treatment of commercial TiO2 nanopowders in a Teflon lined stainless steel autoclave at 150°C. The minimum time required for the formation of the titanate nanotubes was 9 h significantly. After the hydrothermal processing, the layered titanate was washed with acid and water in order to control the amount of Na+ ions remaining in the sample solutions. In this study, the effect of different reaction durations in a range of 3 h to 24 h on the formation of nanotubes was carried out. As the reaction duration is extended, the changes in structure from particle to tubular shapes of alkaline treated TiO2 were obtained via scanning electron microscope (SEM. Also, the significant impact on the phase transformation and crystal structure of TNT was characterized through XRD and Raman analysis. Indeed, the photocatalytic activity of TNT was investigated through the degradation of methyl orange aqueous solution under the ultraviolet light irradiation. As a result, TNT with reaction duration at 6 h has a better photocatalytic performance than other samples which was correlated to the higher crystallinity of the samples as shown in XRD patterns.

  17. Effect of Proteolysis with Alkaline Protease Following High Hydrostatic Pressure Treatment on IgE Binding of Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaeyoon; Lee, Wonhui; Han, Youngshin; Oh, Sangsuk

    2017-03-01

    Buckwheat is a popular food material in many Asian countries and it contains major allergenic proteins. This study was performed to analyze the effects of hydrolysis with alkaline protease following high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatment on the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. Extracted buckwheat protein was treated with HHP at 600 MPa for 30 min and hydrolyzed with alkaline protease for 240 min. IgE binding was examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with serum samples from 14 patients who were allergic to buckwheat. Depending on the serum samples, HHP treatment of buckwheat protein without enzymatic hydrolysis decreased the IgE binding by 8.9% to 73.2% or increased by 31% to 78%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease decreased by 73.8% to 100%. The IgE binding of buckwheat protein hydrolyzed with alkaline protease following HHP treatment decreased by 83.8% to 100%. This suggested that hydrolysis with alkaline protease following HHP treatment could be applied to reduce the IgE binding of buckwheat protein. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  18. Sorption of water alkalinity and hardness from high-strength wastewater on bifunctional activated carbon: process optimization, kinetics and equilibrium studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amosa, Mutiu K

    2016-08-01

    Sorption optimization and mechanism of hardness and alkalinity on bifunctional empty fruit bunch-based powdered activation carbon (PAC) were studied. The PAC possessed both high surface area and ion-exchange properties, and it was utilized in the treatment of biotreated palm oil mill effluent. Batch adsorption experiments designed with Design Expert(®) were conducted in correlating the singular and interactive effects of the three adsorption parameters: PAC dosage, agitation speed and contact time. The sorption trends of the two contaminants were sequentially assessed through a full factorial design with three factor interaction models and a central composite design with polynomial models of quadratic order. Analysis of variance revealed the significant factors on each design response with very high R(2) values indicating good agreement between model and experimental values. The optimum operating conditions of the two contaminants differed due to their different regions of operating interests, thus necessitating the utility of desirability factor to get consolidated optimum operation conditions. The equilibrium data for alkalinity and hardness sorption were better represented by the Langmuir isotherm, while the pseudo-second-order kinetic model described the adsorption rates and behavior better. It was concluded that chemisorption contributed majorly to the adsorption process.

  19. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash filtrates into zeolites 2: utilization in wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2005-01-01

    Filtrates were collected using a codisposal reaction wherein fly ash was reacted with acid mine drainage. These codisposal filtrates were then analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence spectrometry for quantitative determination of the SiO2 and Al2O3 content. Alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis was then applied to the filtrates to convert the fly ash material into zeolites. The zeolites formed under the experimental conditions were faujasite, sodalite, and zeolite A. The use of the fly ash-derived zeolites and a commercial zeolite was explored in wastewater decontamination experiments as it was applied to acid mine drainage in different dosages. The concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, As, and Pb metal ions in the treated wastewater were investigated. The results of the treatment of the acid mine drainage with the prepared fly ash zeolites showed that the concentrations of Ni, Zn, Cd, and Hg were decreased as the zeolite dosages of the fly ash zeolite (FAZ1) increased.

  20. In-situ potentiostatic activation to optimize electrodeposited cobalt-phosphide electrocatalyst for highly efficient hydrogen evolution in alkaline media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mengmeng; Yang, Liming; Wang, Longlu; Liu, Tian; Liu, Chengbin; Tang, Yanhong; Luo, Shenglian

    2017-08-01

    We first report a novel cobalt-phosphide (Co-P) hybrid with flake-like structure by a facile one-step electrodeposition combined with in-situ potentiostatic activation technique. Exotic microstructure transformation of Co-P hybrid from microspheres to nanosheets has been noted during the activation process. The Co-P catalyst exhibits striking kinetic metrics with an overpotential of 85 mV (at 10 mA cm-2) and Tafel slope of 37 mV dec-1, performing among the best of all the HER catalysts in strong alkaline media (at pH 14). This study offers a new in-situ approach to optimize catalytic materials for high-performance electrocatalysts towards energy-related applications.

  1. [Chemical structure of bioethanol lignin by low-temperature alkaline catalytic hydrothermal treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Huan; Zhang, Ming-Ming; Wang, Ji-Fu; Xu, Yu-Zhi; Wang, Chun-Peng; Chu, Fu-Xiang

    2013-11-01

    In order to improve the reaction activity of bioethanol lignin, we investigated the activation of bioethanol lignin by a hydrothermal treatment method. Catalytic hydrothermal treatment of bioethanol lignin was performed at 180 degrees C for 3 h in the presence of alkaline solutions (NaOH, Na2 CO3, KOH and K2 CO3), the change in bioethanol lignin structures was studied comparatively by FTIR, 1H NMR,GPC and elemental analysis. FTIR spectra showed that after alkali hydrothermal treatment, the band at 1 375 cm(-1) attributed to the phenolic hydroxyl groups increased, and the band intensity at 1 116 cm(-1) attributed to the ether bond decreased. On the other hand, the band at 1 597 and 1 511 cm(-1) attributed to aromatic skeletal vibration remained almost unchanged. 1H NMR spectra showed that after alkali hydrothermal treatment, the number of aromatic methoxyl is increased, and based on the increment of the content of phenolic hydroxyl, the catalytic activity can be ranked as follows: KOH > NaOH > K2 CO3 > Na2 CO3. Especially for KOH, the increment of the content of phenolic hydroxyl was 170%, because the ion radius of potassium cation is bigger than sodium cation, so the potassium cations more easily formed cation adducts with lignin. GPC results showed that the molecular weight of alkali hydrothermal treatment lignin decreased and the molecular distribution got wider. Elemental analysis showed that hydrothermal treatment could break the interlinkage between lignin and protein, which can reduce the protein content and increase the purity of lignin, meanwhile, the content of O and H both decreased,while C fell, indicating that the bioethanol lignin had suffered a decarbonylation reaction. This is the most benefit of the lignin as a substitute for phenol.

  2. Optimization of Alkaline Flocculation for Harvesting of Scenedesmus quadricauda #507 and Chaetoceros muelleri #862

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhao Huo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A response surface methodology (RSM was used to evaluate the effects of pH and microalgal biomass concentration (BC on alkaline flocculating activity for harvesting one freshwater green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda #507 and one marine diatom Chaetoceros muelleri #862. The pH value and BC were in range of 9.0–12.0 and 0.20–2.30 g/L, respectively. Very high regression coefficient between the variables and the response indicates excellent evaluation of experimental data by second-order regressions. Optimum conditions for flocculating activity were estimated as follows: (i pH 11.6, BC 0.54 g/L for strain #507 and (ii pH 11.5, BC 0.42 g/L for strain #862. The maximum flocculating activity was around 94.7% and 100%, respectively. Furthermore, the addition of synthetic ocean water (SOW to the freshwater #507 culture can increase the flocculating activity from 82.13%–88.79% in low algae concentration (0.52 g/L and 82.92%–95.60% in high concentration (2.66 g/L.

  3. Hydraulic Performance Modifications of a Zeolite Membrane after an Alkaline Treatment: Contribution of Polar and Apolar Surface Tension Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Dutournié

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic permeability measurements are performed on low cut-off Na-mordenite (MOR-type zeolites membranes after a mild alkaline treatment. A decrease of the hydraulic permeability is systematically observed. Contact angle measurements are carried out (with three polar liquids on Na-mordenite films seeded onto alumina plates (flat membranes. A decrease of the contact angles is observed after the alkaline treatment for the three liquids. According to the theory of Lifshitz-van der Waals interactions in condensated state, surface modifications are investigated and a variation of the polar component of the material surface tension is observed. After the alkaline treatment, the electron-donor contribution (mainly due to the two remaining lone electron pairs of the oxygen atoms present in the zeolite extra frameworks decreases and an increase of the electron-receptor contribution is observed and quantified. The contribution of the polar component to the surface tension is attributed to the presence of surface defaults, which increase the surface hydrophilicity. The estimated modifications of the surface interaction energy between the solvent (water and the Na-mordenite active layer are in good agreement with the decrease of the hydraulic permeability observed after a mild alkaline treatment.

  4. A statistical approach for optimization of alkaline lipase production by ascidian associated—Halobacillus trueperi RSK CAS9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamoorthy Sathishkumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A marine ascidian-associated bacterium, Halobacillus trueperi RSK CAS9, was optimized for lipase production by response surface methodology using marine waste as substrate. The central composite design was employed, and the optimal medium constituents for maximum lipase production (1355.81 U/ml were determined to be tuna powder (14.58 g/l, olive oil (5.05 ml/l; NaCl (72.42 g/l, temperature (45 °C and pH 9.0. An alkaline lipase was purified to 8.46 fold with 1193.59 U mg−1 specific activities with the molecular weight of 44 kDa. The activity was substantially inhibited by EDTA and PMSF, indicating that it was a metalloenzyme serine residue which was essential for catalytic activity. Thus, lipase production by microbial conversion of marine fish wastes in this study suggested its potential utilization for the production of high value products.

  5. Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Production of Fibrinolytic Alkaline Metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Pranaw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Xenorhabdus indica KB-3, a well-known protease producer, was isolated from its entomopathogenic nematode symbiont Steinernema thermophilum. Since medium constituents are critical to the protease production, the chemical components of the selected medium (soya casein digest broth were optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD using response surface methodology (RSM. The effects of all five chemical components (considered as independent variables, namely tryptone, soya peptone, dextrose, NaCl, and dipotassium phosphate, on protease production (dependent variable were studied, and it was found that tryptone and dextrose had maximum influence on protease production. The protease production was increased significantly by 66.31% under optimal medium conditions (tryptone—5.71, soya peptone—4.9, dextrose—1.45, NaCl—6.08, and dipotassium phosphate—0.47 in g/L. To best of knowledge, there are no reports on optimization of medium component for protease production by X. indica KB-3 using RSM and their application in fibrinolysis. This study will be useful for industrial processes for production of protease enzyme from X. indica KB-3 for its application in the field of agriculture and medicine.

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal synthesis of homogeneous titania microspheres with urchin-like nanoarchitectures for dye effluent treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Jin-Ming, E-mail: msewjm@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Song, Xiao-Mei [State Key Laboratory of Silicon Materials, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yan, Mi, E-mail: mse_yanmi@zju.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Zhejiang University, ZheDa Road 38, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2011-10-30

    Highlights: {yields} Alkali-hydrothermal treatments of a remnant of Ti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} reaction achieve titania microspheres. {yields} Inhibited heterogeneous nucleation and low supersaturation contribute to the uniform size. {yields} Radially aligned anatase nanowires construct the microspheres. {yields} The microspheres possess a BET surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} The microspheres exhibit a high activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water. - Abstract: The heterogeneous photocatalysis technique to treat dye effluents demands micrometer-sized titania aggregates with one-dimensional nanostructures, which possess high photocatalytic activity and at the same time facilitate the catalyst-recovery from a slurry system. In this study, the solution remained after interactions between metallic Ti and hydrogen peroxide was subjected to an alkaline hydrothermal treatment. Microspheres with extremely uniform sizes of ca. 2 {mu}m in diameter were achieved after a subsequent proton exchange followed by calcination in air. The microspheres were urchin-like aggregates of radially assembled nanowires, which consisted of chain-like anatase single crystallites with an average diameter of 20-25 nm. The homogeneous microspheres calcinated at 600 {sup o}C possessed a surface area of 45.4 m{sup 2}/g and exhibited an excellent activity to assist photodegradation of rhodamine B in water, which is significantly higher than that of P25 titania nanoparticles. Because of the much easier recovery of the photocatalyst, the homogeneous microspheres synthesized herein may find practical applications in efficient photocatalytic treatments of dye effluents.

  7. Extraction of Continuous Fiber from Mengkuang Leaves: The Influence of Process Parameters during Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamizol Muhammad Syahmi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently, natural cellulose fiber composite is a promising prospect in the composite world. However, achieving uniform strength in natural fiber composite is a challenge due to limited fiber length and its random orientation in the composite. Thus, the focus of this paper was to obtain a continuous cellulose fiber from mengkuang leaves using chemical extraction process. The chemical extraction involved alkaline treatment of the mengkuang leave followed by bleaching. This paper focused on extraction using sodium hydroxide (NaOH and its process parameters. The process parameters of the extraction were varied in terms of concentration of NaOH solution and also the soaking time. The texture and structure of the chemically purified continuous cellulose fiber were observed by visual inspection. Detailed microstructural analysis was carried out using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM while chemical composition analysis in term of cellulose percentage was conducted using Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry (TAPPI; TAPPI T203. Preliminary results showed that increment in cellulose percentage when the concentration of NaOH and soaking time were increased.

  8. Thermal treatment for recovery of manganese and zinc from zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardi, G; Lavecchia, R; Medici, F; Piga, L

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this paper is the recovery of manganese and zinc from a mixture of zinc-carbon and alkaline spent batteries, containing 40.9% of Mn and 30.1% of Zn, after preliminary physical treatment followed by removal of mercury. Separation of the metals has been carried out on the basis of their different boiling points, being 357°C and 906°C the boiling point of mercury and zinc and 1564°C the melting point of Mn(2)O(3). Characterization by chemical analysis, TGA/DTA and X-ray powder diffraction of the mixture has been carried out after comminution sieving and shaking table treatment to remove the anodic collectors and most of chlorides contained in the mixture. The mixture has been roasted at various temperatures and resident times in a flow of air to set the best conditions to remove mercury that were 400°C and 10 min. After that, the flow of air has been turned into a nitrogen one (inert atmosphere) and the temperatures raised, thus permitting the zinc oxide to be reduced to metallic zinc by the carbon present in the original mixture and recovered after volatilization as a high grade concentrate, while manganese was left in the residue. The recovery and the grade of the two metals, at 1000°C and 30 min residence time, were 84% and 100% for zinc and 85% and 63% for manganese, respectively. The recovery of zinc increased to 99% with a grade of 97% at 1200°C and 30 min residence time, while the recovery and grade of manganese were 86% and 87%, respectively, at that temperature. Moreover, the chlorinated compounds that could form by the combustion of the plastics contained in the spent batteries, are destroyed at the temperature required by the process.

  9. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Münster, M. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ravn, H. [RAM-løse edb, Æblevangen 55, 2765 Smørum (Denmark); Hedegaard, K.; Juul, N. [System Analysis Department, DTU Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Frederiksborgvej 399, 4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Ljunggren Söderman, M. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Box 53021, SE-40014 Gothenburg (Sweden); Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Optimizing waste treatment by incorporating LCA methodology. • Applying different objectives (minimizing costs or GHG emissions). • Prioritizing multiple objectives given different weights. • Optimum depends on objective and assumed displaced electricity production. - Abstract: This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management options. The model renders it possible to apply different optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritize several objectives given different weights. A simple illustrative case is analysed, covering alternative treatments of one tonne of residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system – illustrated with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model.

  10. Optimizing operating conditions and electrochemical characterization of glucose-gluconate alkaline fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasta, M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica ' ' Lamberto Malatesta' ' , Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milano (Italy); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); La Mantia, F. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Ruffo, R.; Mari, C.M. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartmento di Scienza dei Materiali, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Peri, F. [Universita degli Studi di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Biotecnologia e Bioscienze, P.zza della Scienza 2, 20126 Milano (Italy); Pina, C. Della [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica, Metallorganica e Analitica ' ' Lamberto Malatesta' ' , Via Venezian 21, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-02-01

    The direct oxidation of glucose to produce electrical energy has been widely investigated because of renewability, abundance, high energy density and easy handling of the carbohydrate. Most of the previous studies have been conducted in extreme conditions in order to achieve complete glucose oxidation to CO{sub 2}, neglecting the carbohydrate chemical instability that generally leads to useless by-products mixtures. The partial oxidation to gluconate, originally studied for implantable fuel cells, has the advantage of generating a commercially valuable chemical. In the present paper we optimized fuel composition and operating conditions in order to selectively oxidize glucose to gluconate, maximizing the power density output of a standard commercial platinum based anode material. A deep electrochemical characterization concerning reversible potential, cyclic voltammetry and overpotential measurements have been carried out at 25 C in the D-(+)-glucose concentration range 1.0 x 10{sup -2} to 1.0 M. NMR and EIS investigation clarify the role of the buffer in enhancing the electrochemical performance. (author)

  11. Optimization of alkaline sulfite pretreatment and comparative study with sodium hydroxide pretreatment for improving enzymatic digestibility of corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Pang, Bo; Wang, Haisong; Li, Haiming; Lu, Jie; Niu, Meihong

    2015-04-01

    In this study, alkaline sulfite pretreatment of corn stover was optimized. The influences of pretreatments on solid yield, delignification, and carbohydrate recovery under different pretreatment conditions and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated. The effect of pretreatment was evaluated by enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency and the total sugar yield. The optimum pretreatment conditions were obtained, as follows: the total titratable alkali (TTA) of 12%, liquid/solid ratio of 6:1, temperature of 140 °C, and holding time of 20 min. Under those conditions, the solid yield was 55.24%, and the removal of lignin was 82.68%. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan for pretreated corn stover were 85.38% and 70.36%, and the total sugar yield was 74.73% at cellulase loading of 20 FPU/g and β-glucosidase loading of 10 IU/g for 48 h. Compared with sodium hydroxide pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 10.43%. Additionally, the corn stover pretreated under the optimum pretreatment conditions was beaten by PFI at 1500 revolutions. After beating, enzymatic hydrolysis rates of glucan and xylan were 89.74% and 74.06%, and the total sugar yield was 78.58% at the same enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. Compared with 1500 rpm of PFI beating after sodium pretreatment with the same amount of total titratable alkali, the total sugar yield was raised by about 14.05%.

  12. Global optimization and oxygen dissociation on polyicosahedral Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster for alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, N; Chen, F Y; Wu, X Q

    2015-07-07

    The structure of 38 atoms Ag-Cu cluster is studied by using a combination of a genetic algorithm global optimization technique and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. It is demonstrated that the truncated octahedral (TO) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is less stable than the polyicosahedral (pIh) Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster from the atomistic models and the DFT calculation shows an agreeable result, so the newfound pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is further investigated for potential application for O2 dissociation in oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The activation energy barrier for the O2 dissociation on pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster is 0.715 eV, where the d-band center is -3.395 eV and the density of states at the Fermi energy level is maximal for the favorable absorption site, indicating that the catalytic activity is attributed to a maximal charge transfer between an oxygen molecule and the pIh Ag32Cu6 core-shell cluster. This work revises the earlier idea that Ag32Cu6 core-shell nanoparticles are not suitable as ORR catalysts and confirms that Ag-Cu nanoalloy is a potential candidate to substitute noble Pt-based catalyst in alkaline fuel cells.

  13. The production of glucose from corn stalk using hydrothermal process with pre-treatment ultrasound assisted alkaline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yolanda, Dora; Prasutiyo, Indry; Trisanti, P. N.; Sumarno

    2015-12-01

    The production of glucose from corn stalk by using subcritical hydrothermal technology is studied in this work. Ultrasound-assisted alkaline delignification methods are used as pre-treatment. The corn stalk powder were pretreated with ultrasound-assisted alkaline (NaOH 2% w/w, solid to liquid ratio 1:22 w/v) at room temperature and 30 minutes. After pre-treatment, solid residue and liquid fractions are separated by filtration. Pretreated solids are further submitted to hydrothermal process for glucose production. Hydrothermal process was carried out at 100 Bar and 120°C in various times. The solid product was characterized by SEM and XRD. And liquid product was analysis using DNS method to determine percentage of glucose. From XRD analysis showed that crystallinity of material was lower than delignification product.

  14. Fractionation of bagasse into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin with ionic liquid treatment followed by alkaline extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Wu; Liu, Chuan-Fu; Sun, Run-Cang

    2011-08-24

    Lignocellulose materials are potentially valuable resources for transformation into biofuels and bioproducts. However, their complicated structures make it difficult to fractionate them into cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, which limits their utilization and economical conversion into value-added products. This study proposes a novel and feasible fractionation method based on complete dissolution of bagasse in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(4)mim]Cl) followed by precipitation in acetone/water (9:1, v/v) and extraction with 3% NaOH solution. The ionic liquid [C(4)mim]Cl was easily recycled after concentration and treatment with acetonitrile. (1)H NMR analysis confirmed that there was no obvious difference between the recycled [C(4)mim]Cl and fresh material. Bagasse was fractionated with this method to 36.78% cellulose, 26.04% hemicelluloses, and 10.51% lignin, accounting for 47.17 and 33.85% of the original polysaccharides and 54.62% of the original lignin, respectively. The physicochemical properties of the isolated fractions were characterized by chemical analysis, high-performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC), gel permeation chromatography (GPC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and (1)H and 2D (13)C-(1)H correlation (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results showed that the acetone-soluble lignin and alkaline lignin fractions had structures similar to those of milled wood lignin (MWL). The easy extraction of the noncellulose components from homogeneous bagasse solution and amorphous regenerated materials resulted in the relatively high purity of cellulosic fraction (>92%). The hemicellulosic fraction was mainly 4-O-methyl-D-glucuronoxylans with some α-L-arabinofuranosyl units substituted at C-2 and C-3.

  15. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Coutanceau; Marc Reinholdt; Jean Durand; Valérie Flaud; Serguei Martemianov; Alina Ilie; Eric Beche; Stéphanie Roualdès; Mauricio Schieda; Jérémy Frugier

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, com...

  16. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  17. Effects of co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals on corn growth and bioavailable phosphorus and aluminum in alkaline soils in egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdy, A M; Elkhatib, E A; Fathi, N O; Lin, Z-Q

    2009-01-01

    The co-application of biosolids and water treatment residuals (WTRs) has been previously trialed to reduce excessive bioavailable P in the soil treated with biosolids. However, uncertainty still exists regarding the environmental consequences of the co-application of biosolids and WTRs, especially in alkaline soils in Egypt or the Middle East region. A greenhouse pot study was conducted with Egyptian alkaline soils to (i) quantify the effects of co-application of biosolids and drinking WTRs on biomass production of corn (Zea mays L. cultivar single hybrid 10), (ii) determine the co-application effects on Olsen-P and KCl-extractable Al in relation to their accumulation in plant tissues, and (iii) optimize the co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs for the best yield and effective reduction of soil bioavailable P. The results show that, among the studied soils treated with 1% biosolids along with various rates of WTRs, the corn yield increased significantly (P soil water holding capacity that increased with the addition of WTRs. Phosphorus uptake by plants significantly (P soils that were treated with 1, 2, or 3% WTRs. The application of 4% WTRs in the biosolid-amended soils resulted in a significant reduction in soil Olsen-P values, but without having observable phytotoxicity of metals (such as Al) to corn during the growth period. The effective co-application ratio of biosolids to WTRs, for increasing corn yield and minimizing the potential for bioavailable P in runoff, was approximately 1:1 at the application rate of 3% biosolids and 4% WTRs in the alkaline soils.

  18. Combination of Successive Alkalinity Producing System (SAPS) and Aeration for Passive Treatment of Highly Acidic Mine Drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, C.; Ji, S.

    2015-12-01

    Passive treatment system has been widely used for remediation of mine drainage since its advantage of low installation and maintenance cost. The system, however, has also a disadvantage in assuring remediation and management efficiency if the drainage is highly acidic mine drainage. To remediate acid mine drainage (AMD) especially showing high acidity, passive treatment system which consists of successive alkalinity producing system (SAPS) and subsequent aeration pond was proposed and its mechanisms and efficiency was evaluated in this research. Target AMD was obtained from Waryong coal mine and showed typical characteristics of AMD having high metal concentration and low pH (acidity > 300 mg/L as CaCO3). Four experimental cases were conducted; untreated, treated with SAPS, treated with aeration, treated with SAPS and aeration to compare role and mechanism of each unit. Between organic matter and limestone layer which constitute SAPS, the former eliminated most of Fe(III) and Al in the AMD so that the latter was kept from being clogged by precipitates. Net acidity of the AMD rapidly decreased by supplement of alkalinity at the limestone layer. A primary function of SAPS, producing alkalinity constantly without clogging, was attained due to addition a portion of limestone particle into the organic matter layer. The discharge from SAPS had low ORP and DO values because of an anaerobic environment formed at the organic matter layer although its alkalinity was increased. This water quality was unfavorable for Fe(II) to be oxidized. Installation of aeration pond after SAPS, therefore, could be effective way of enhancing oxidation rate of Fe(II). Among the experimental cases, the combination of SAPS and aeration pond was only able to remediate the AMD. This concluded that to remediate highly acidic mine drainage with passive treatment system, three critical conditions were required; pre-precipitation of Fe(III) and Al at organic matter layer in SAPS, constant alkalinity

  19. Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with superior water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Chung-Yi; Tu, Kuan-Ju; Lo, Yu-Shiu [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Pang, Yean Ling [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lee Kong Chian Faculty of Engineering and Science, Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Wu, Chien-Hou, E-mail: chwu@mx.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, College of Nuclear Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2016-09-15

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide treatment was proposed as a simple and green way to improve the performance of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder for water-dispersibility and visible-light photocatalytic activity on the degradation of dye pollutants. The performance of treated TiO{sub 2} was evaluated as a function of NaOH concentration, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, and treatment time. The optimal conditions were determined to be 24 h in 100 mM H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and 8 M NaOH. The treated samples were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. The analysis revealed that the crystal structure, morphology, and absorption band gap were retained, but the surface of the treated TiO{sub 2} was dramatically changed. The treated TiO{sub 2} was highly dispersible with a uniform hydrodynamic size of 41 ± 12 nm and stable over months in water at pH 3 without any stabilizing ligand and could significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dye pollutants. The superior performance might be attributed to the formation of abundant surface hydroxyl groups. This treatment paves the way for developing water-dispersible TiO{sub 2} with superior visible-light induced photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants without any complicated and expensive surface modification. - Highlights: • Alkaline hydrogen peroxide is proposed to treat commercial TiO{sub 2} powder. • The treated TiO{sub 2} powder exhibits superior water-dispersibility with a uniform size distribution. • The treated TiO{sub 2} powder can significantly enhance the visible-light photodegradation of dyes.

  20. Imaging TMS: antidepressant mechanisms and treatment optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Marc

    2017-04-01

    With the antidepressant efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation well-established by several meta-analyses, there is growing interest in its mechanism of action. TMS has been shown to engage, and in some cases, normalize functional connectivity and neurotransmitter levels within networks dysfunctional in the depressed state. In this review, I will suggest candidate biomarkers, based on neuroimaging, that may be predictive of response to TMS. I will then review the effects of TMS on networks and neurotransmitter systems involved in depression. Throughout, I will also discuss how our current understanding of response predication and network engagement may be used to personalize treatment and optimize its efficacy.

  1. Optimizing the treatment of rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad Nouri

    2016-01-01

    within one year after initial surgery with pneumatic retinopexy, scleral buckling and VTX with gas, and one and a half years after surgery with VTX with oil. Also lack of oil removal within the first year is a failed operation. It is widely accepted that RRD is an acute disease but when should surgery...... as an acute eye disease that needs immediate treatment. With the increasing number of cataract surgeries and an increased elderly population, the numbers of RRD occurrences are increasing. The aim of this thesis is to create knowledge on how treatment and care of RRD patients can be optimized. In the first...... of cataract surgeries and an increased elderly population. Using data from the NPR, we estimated that the risk of a RRD occurring on the fellow eye is 100 times larger than on the first eye and that middle aged men have the highest risk. Having an increase in the incidence of RRD we need to ensure...

  2. Optimization on alkaline hydrolysis of potato dietary fiber by response surface methodology%马铃薯膳食纤维碱法处理工艺优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖红梅; 钟葵; 赵俊杰; 廖小军; 胡小松

    2013-01-01

    马铃薯膳食纤维为原料,采用碱法对其进行改性,并应用响应面法对碱处理工艺进行优化.结果表明,马铃薯膳食纤维改性的最佳工艺条件为:碱处理时间40rmin,温度83℃,碱液浓度0.6%,料液比1∶30.在此工艺条件下,实际测得的碱处理后可溶性膳食纤维得率为17.01%,与预测值相接近.碱处理后的马铃薯渣可溶性膳食纤维膨胀力可达11.64mL/g,持>=以水力达到3.81g/g.%Alkaline hydrolysis process of potato dietary fiber was optimized by response surface methodology.The results showed that the optimum conditions for alkali modification of potato dietary fiber were as follows:treatment time was 40min,temperature was 83℃,alkali concentration was 0.6% and solid-to-liquid ratio was 1∶30.Under the optimum conditions,17.01% soluble dietary fiber was obtained,and yield of soluble dietary fiber was similar to predict value.After alkali modification,the swelling and water retention ability of soluble dietary fiber(SDF) were 11.64mL/g and 3.81g/g,respectively.

  3. Optimization of alkaline cellulase production by the marine-derived fungus Chaetomium sp. using agricultural and industrial wastes as substrates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ravindran, C; Naveenan, T.; Varatharajan, G.R.

    seed SSF conditions at 50 degrees C had higher stability and activity than under non-alkaline conditions (range tested: pH 5, 7, 12). The agricultural and industrial wastes used as carbon sources were economical for commercial production of cellulose...

  4. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic com

  5. Systematic Phase Behaviour Study and Foam Stability Analysis for Optimal Alkaline/Surfactant/Foam Enhanced Oil Recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini Nasab, S.M.; Zitha, P.L.J.

    2015-01-01

    Alkaline-Surfactant-Foam (ASF) flooding is a recently introduced enhanced oil recovery (EOR) method. This paper presents laboratory study of this ASF to better understand its mechanisms. The focus is on the interaction of ASF chemical agents with oil and in the presence and absence of naphthenic com

  6. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  7. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coutanceau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  8. Computation of interactive effects and optimization of process parameters for alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepali Bisht

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Alkaline lipase production by mutant strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10,055 was optimized in shake flask batch fermentation using response surface methodology. An empirical model was developed through Box-Behnken experimental design to describe the relationship among tested variables (pH, temperature, castor oil, starch and triton-X-100. The second-order quadratic model determined the optimum conditions as castor oil, 1.77 mL.L-1; starch, 15.0 g.L-1; triton-X-100, 0.93 mL.L-1; incubation temperature, 34.12 ºC and pH 8.1 resulting into maximum alkaline lipase production (3142.57 U.mL-1. The quadratic model was in satisfactory adjustment with the experimental data as evidenced by a high coefficient of determination (R² value (0.9987. The RSM facilitated the analysis and interpretation of experimental data to ascertain the optimum conditions of the variables for the process and recognized the contribution of individual variables to assess the response under optimal conditions. Hence Box-Behnken approach could fruitfully be applied for process optimization.

  9. Mathematical Optimization Techniques for Multi-Phase Radiation Treatment Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sonderman, David

    1983-01-01

    A mathematical model for optimal external beam radiotherapy treatment design over multiple treatment phases is presented. The solution procedure is discussed and illustrated on a case of boost treatment for lung cancer. The models are integrated with current radiobiological software to produce an optimal design over both phases of treatment displayed by means of computer graphics.

  10. Acid rock drainage passive remediation: Potential use of alkaline clay, optimal mixing ratio and long-term impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, Fernando; Wen, Yipei; Perone, Hanna; Xu, Yi; Liang, Xu

    2017-01-15

    Acid rock drainage (ARD) is one of the most adverse environmental problems of the mining industry. Surface and ground water affected by this pollution are characterized by their acidity and the high content of sulfates and metals/metalloids. In this study, alkaline clay (AC), an industrial waste with a high alkalinity, which is utilized in the alumina refining process, was used as the remediation material to inhibit pyrite oxidation in waste coal piles. Through a series of laboratory experiments (static and kinetic), complemented with field measurements and geochemical modeling, three important issues associated with this passive and sustainable ARD remediation method were investigated: 1) the potential use of alkaline clay as an ARD remediation material, 2) the adequate alkaline clay/coal refuse mixing ratio (AC/CR) to ensure pH values close to neutral conditions, and, 3) the implications for long-term performance, in terms of the trends of the main parameters involved in this process such as pH, concentrations of sulfate, iron and other dissolved contaminants. Both field measurements and the samples used for the experiments came from a local waste coal site. Through the analysis of the field measurements and the outcome of the laboratory experiments, AC proved to be an effective remediation material for ARD. Compared to those found in mine tailings, the concentrations of contaminants such as iron, manganese or sulfate were significantly reduced with this remediation approach. Moreover, results suggest a reliable long-term stability of the remediation (i.e. neutral pH conditions are maintained), thus enhancing the generation of iron precipitates that could produce pyrite grain coating. These processes also made the amended layer less porous, thus increased water retention and hindered oxygen diffusion.

  11. Optimal control of HIV/AIDS dynamic: Education and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sule, Amiru; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2014-07-01

    A mathematical model which describes the transmission dynamics of HIV/AIDS is developed. The optimal control representing education and treatment for this model is explored. The existence of optimal Control is established analytically by the use of optimal control theory. Numerical simulations suggest that education and treatment for the infected has a positive impact on HIV/AIDS control.

  12. Preparation by alkaline treatment and detailed characterisation of empty hepatitis B virus core particles for vaccine and gene therapy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strods, Arnis; Ose, Velta; Bogans, Janis; Cielens, Indulis; Kalnins, Gints; Radovica, Ilze; Kazaks, Andris; Pumpens, Paul; Renhofa, Regina

    2015-06-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) core (HBc) virus-like particles (VLPs) are one of the most powerful protein engineering tools utilised to expose immunological epitopes and/or cell-targeting signals and for the packaging of genetic material and immune stimulatory sequences. Although HBc VLPs and their numerous derivatives are produced in highly efficient bacterial and yeast expression systems, the existing purification and packaging protocols are not sufficiently optimised and standardised. Here, a simple alkaline treatment method was employed for the complete removal of internal RNA from bacteria- and yeast-produced HBc VLPs and for the conversion of these VLPs into empty particles, without any damage to the VLP structure. The empty HBc VLPs were able to effectively package the added DNA and RNA sequences. Furthermore, the alkaline hydrolysis technology appeared efficient for the purification and packaging of four different HBc variants carrying lysine residues on the HBc VLP spikes. Utilising the introduced lysine residues and the intrinsic aspartic and glutamic acid residues exposed on the tips of the HBc spikes for chemical coupling of the chosen peptide and/or nucleic acid sequences ensured a standard and easy protocol for the further development of versatile HBc VLP-based vaccine and gene therapy applications.

  13. Childhood cancer treatment optimization: In rhabdomyosarcoma and supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers two subjects investigating optimization of cancer cure: prevention and treatment of central venous catheter related complications and improvement of local treatment in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma survivors. Central venous catheters are indispensable in the modern day treatment

  14. Childhood cancer treatment optimization: In rhabdomyosarcoma and supportive care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoot, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis covers two subjects investigating optimization of cancer cure: prevention and treatment of central venous catheter related complications and improvement of local treatment in head and neck rhabdomyosarcoma survivors. Central venous catheters are indispensable in the modern day treatment

  15. Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

    2014-05-01

    Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient.

  16. OPTIMIZATION OF TETRANDRINE TREATMENT IN RAT HEPATIC FIBROSIS MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective To optimize the therapeutic dosage of tetrandrine (Tet) in rat hepatic fibrosis model. Methods 50 Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups at random including normal control, model control, Tettreated model groups of l0mg·kg-1 ·d-1, 5mg·kg-1 ·d-1 and 2.5mg·kg-1 ·d-1 ( n =10 in each group). All rats,except for the normal controls, were injected with axenic porcine serum (0. 5ml each time, twice a week) intraperitoneally for 8 weeks to establish hepatic fibrosis. After the 8th week, rats of Tet-treated model groups were given by gavage once a day with different doses of Tet for another 8 weeks. Then the liver function, serum levels of hyaluronic acid (HA) , laminin ( LM) , and procollagen type Ⅲ (PCⅢ) were tested. Collagen type Ⅰ and Ⅲ, pathological changes in liver tissue were also assessed. Results Most indices of liver function including alanine minotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase ( AST), albumin (ALB), albumin/globulin ratio (A/G) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) improved significantly in Tet-treated groups with the exception of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GT) and total bilirubin (TBIL). Secondly, markedly lowered levels of HA, LM and collagen type Ⅰ, Ⅲ were also detected by radioimmunology and immunohistochemistry in the 5 mg · kg- 1 · d- 1 Tet-treated model group. Moreover, pathological findings confirmed the statistically significant improvement in hepatofibrotic degree resulted from the treatment of 5mg · kg- 1 · d-1 rather than other doses of Tet. Conclusion For experimental Wistar rats, Tet exhibited an anti-hepatofibrotic action in doses within the range of 2.5mg·kg-1 ·d-1 to 10mg·kg 1 ·d-1, and 5mg·kg-1 ·d-1 may be theoptimum one among all doses.

  17. Volatile fatty acids production from anaerobic treatment of cassava waste water: effect of temperature and alkalinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Salah Din Mahmud; Giongo, Citieli; Fiorese, Mônica Lady; Gomes, Simone Damasceno; Ferrari, Tatiane Caroline; Savoldi, Tarcio Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The production of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), intermediates in the anaerobic degradation process of organic matter from waste water, was evaluated in this work. A batch reactor was used to investigate the effect of temperature, and alkalinity in the production of VFAs, from the fermentation of industrial cassava waste water. Peak production of total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) was observed in the first two days of acidogenesis. A central composite design was performed, and the highest yield (3400 mg L(-1) of TVFA) was obtained with 30°C and 3 g L(-1) of sodium bicarbonate. The peak of VFA was in 45 h (pH 5.9) with a predominance of acetic (63%) and butyric acid (22%), followed by propionic acid (12%). Decreases in amounts of cyanide (12.9%) and chemical oxygen demand (21.6%) were observed, in addition to the production of biogas (0.53 cm(3) h(-1)). The process was validated experimentally and 3400 g L(-1) of TVFA were obtained with a low relative standard deviation.

  18. Charge-Discharge Properties of the Surface-Modified ZrNi Alloy Electrode with Different Degrees of Boiling Alkaline Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Matsuyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Charge-discharge properties of the surface-modified ZrNi negative electrodes with different degrees of boiling alkaline treatment were investigated. The boiling alkaline treatment was performed by immersing the ZrNi electrode in a boiling 6 M KOH aqueous solution for 2 h or 4 h. The initial discharge capacity for the untreated ZrNi negative electrode was 21 mAh·g−1, but it was increased to 114 mAh·g−1 and 308 mAh·g−1 after the boiling alkaline treatments for 2 h and 4 h, respectively. The discharge capacity for the ZrNi negative electrode after the treatment for 2 h steadily increased with repeating charge-discharge cycles as well as that of the untreated electrode, whereas that for the ZrNi negative electrode after the 4 h treatment greatly decreased. The high rate of dischargeability was improved with an increase in the treatment period of time, and the charge-transfer resistance was drastically decreased. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy demonstrated the ZrO2 passive layer on the ZrNi alloy surface was removed by the boiling alkaline treatment to form a porous morphology containing Ni(OH2, which can be reduced to Ni during charging, leading to the reduction of a barrier for the charge-discharge reactions.

  19. Recovery of MnO2 from a spent alkaline battery leach solution via ozone treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Díaz, Martín R.; Arauz-Torres, Yennifer; Caballero, Francisco; Lapidus, Gretchen T.; González, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the reaction rate of Mn(II) to generate solid manganese dioxide (MnO2) as a function of the gaseous ozone mass flow rate (27.5-77 g h-1). The experimental studies were carried out in a semi-continuous reactor, using a synthetic solution (300 mL of 1 M H2SO4 with 6000 ppm of Mn(II) added as MnSO4) that simulated the composition of an acid leaching solution from spent alkaline battery material (SBM). It was observed that at 1.3-1.45 V/SHE and pH < 1.0 a selective formation of MnO2 powder was obtained; at values greater than 1.45 V/SHE, permanganate ion (MnO41-) was formed. On the other hand, a linear relation was perceived between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (kLa) and the ozone mass flow rate (19.3-77 g h-1 in 600 mL of the 1 M H2SO4 solution). The rate constant (k) was determined in the presence and absence of nonporous plastic spheres (D = 3 mm). In both cases the rate of Mn(II) conversion increased proportionally with the ozone mass flow rate, although the conversions obtained with non-porous plastic spheres (x = 82%) were always higher than those without non-porous plastic spheres (x = 72%). A pseudo-homogenous mass transfer model adequately approximated the experimental data.

  20. Passive aerobic treatment of net-alkaline, iron-laden drainage from a flooded underground anthracite mine, Pennsylvania, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report evaluates the results of a continuous 4.5-day laboratory aeration experiment and the first year of passive, aerobic treatment of abandoned mine drainage (AMD) from a typical flooded underground anthracite mine in eastern Pennsylvania, USA. During 1991-2006, the AMD source, locally known as the Otto Discharge, had flows from 20 to 270 L/s (median 92 L/s) and water quality that was consistently suboxic (median 0.9 mg/L O2) and circumneutral (pH ??? 6.0; net alkalinity >10) with moderate concentrations of dissolved iron and manganese and low concentrations of dissolved aluminum (medians of 11, 2.2, and iron (Fe 2+) without supplemental alkalinity; the initial Fe2+ concentration of 16.4 mg/L decreased to less than 0.5 mg/L within 24 h; pH values increased rapidly from 5.8 to 7.2, ultimately attaining a steady-state value of 7.5. The increased pH coincided with a rapid decrease in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) from an initial value of 10 -1.1atm to a steady-state value of 10-3.1atm. From these results, a staged aerobic treatment system was conceptualized consisting of a 2 m deep pond with innovative aeration and recirculation to promote rapid oxidation of Fe2+, two 0.3 m deep wetlands to facilitate iron solids removal, and a supplemental oxic limestone drain for dissolved manganese and trace-metal removal. The system was constructed, but without the aeration mechanism, and began operation in June 2005. During the first 12 months of operation, estimated detention times in the treatment system ranged from 9 to 38 h. However, in contrast with 80-100% removal of Fe2+ over similar elapsed times during the laboratory aeration experiment, the treatment system typically removed less than 35% of the influent Fe2+. Although concentrations of dissolved CO2 decreased progressively within the treatment system, the PCO2 values for treated effluent remained elevated (10-2.4 to 10-1.7atm). The elevated PCO 2 maintained the pH within the system at values less

  1. Alkaline phosphatase predicts relapse in chronic hepatitis C patients with end-of-treatment response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gerd; Bodlaj; Rainer; Hubmann; Karim; Saleh; Tatjana; Stojakovic; Georg; Biesenbach; Jrg; Berg

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate relapse predictors in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with end-of-treatment response (ETR), after pegylated interferon-α (PegIFN-α) and ribavirin treatment. METHODS: In a retrospective study we evaluated a spectrum of predictors of relapse after PegIFN-α and ribavirin treatment in 86 CHC patients with ETR. Viral loads were determined with real-time reverse transcrip-tion polymerase chain reaction. Hepatitis C virus geno-typing was performed by sequencing analysis. Patients with genoty...

  2. Study of Topical Human Umbilical Cord Blood Serum in the Treatment of Alkaline Corneal Epithelial Wounds in Rabbit Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Sharifi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: One of the important functions of the cornea is to maintain normal vision by refracting light onto the lens and retina. This property is dependent in part on the ability of the corneal epithelium to undergo continuous renewal. Ocular surface failure which follows a variety of endogenous and exogenous precipitating factors, the most common being: chemical trauma, infection, alkaline burn, inflammation and hereditary conditions, lid or lash abnormalities, tear deficiency or reduced sensation. The core principal underpinning management strategy for ocular surface failure is establishing or promoting new growth of healthy conjunctiva and corneal epithelium. This process is mediated by many proteins that are inducers of corneal cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The current study was performed to investigate the efficacy of umbilical cord serum on alkaline corneal epithelial wound healing in the rabbit model. Materials & Methods: In this study conducted at Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2010, thirty two rabbits were randomly assigned into two equal groups. Central corneal alkali wound was formed in one eye of the rabbits by applying a 6-mm round filter paper, soaked in 1 N NaOH, for 60 seconds. Group one of animals received umbilical cord blood serum and group two received Sno*Tear in the eyes. The treatment was dosed 4 times a day with the eye drops, and epithelial wound closure was recorded using slit lamp. The data were analyzed to determine the rate of wound closure. Results: The mean wound radius closure rate was 0.77 mm/day (SD=0.013 for umbilical cord blood serum-treated eyes, 0.73 mm/day (SD=0.018 for artificial tear-treated eyes. Conclusion: This study shows that alkali-injured corneal epithelial wound heal faster when treated with umbilical cord blood serum than with artificial tear in rabbit model.

  3. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment

  4. Aortic stenosis: From diagnosis to optimal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavčiovski Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aortic stenosis is the most frequent valvular heart disease. Aortic sclerosis is the first characteristic lesion of the cusps, which is considered today as the process similar to atherosclerosis. Progression of the disease is an active process leading to forming of bone matrix and heavily calcified stiff cusps by inflammatory cells and osteopontin. It is a chronic, progressive disease which can remain asymptomatic for a long time even in the presence of severe aortic stenosis. Proper physical examination remains an essential diagnostic tool in aortic stenosis. Recognition of characteristic systolic murmur draws attention and guides further diagnosis in the right direction. Doppler echocardiography is an ideal tool to confirm diagnosis. It is well known that exercise tests help in stratification risk of asymptomatic aortic stenosis. Serial measurements of brain natriuretic peptide during a follow-up period may help to identify the optimal time for surgery. Heart catheterization is mostly restricted to preoperative evaluation of coronary arteries rather than to evaluation of the valve lesion itself. Currently, there is no ideal medical treatment for slowing down the disease progression. The first results about the effect of ACE inhibitors and statins in aortic sclerosis and stenosis are encouraging, but there is still not enough evidence. Onset symptoms based on current ACC/AHA/ESC recommendations are I class indication for aortic valve replacement. Aortic valve can be replaced with a biological or prosthetic valve. There is a possibility of percutaneous aortic valve implantation and transapical operation for patients that are contraindicated for standard cardiac surgery.

  5. Optimizing municipal wastewater treatment plants using an improved multi-objective optimization method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Xie, Wen-Ming; Yu, Han-Qing; Li, Wen-Wei

    2014-04-01

    An improved multi-objective optimization (MOO) model was established and used for simultaneously optimizing the treatment cost and multiple effluent quality indexes (including effluent COD, NH4(+)-N, NO3(-)-N) of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Compared with previous models that were mainly based on the use of fixed decision factors and did not taken into account the treatment cost, this model introduces a relationship model based on back propagation algorithm to determine the set of decision factors according to the expected optimization targets. Thus, a more flexible and precise optimization of the treatment process was allowed. Moreover, a MOO of conflicting objectives (i.e., treatment cost and effluent quality) was achieved. Applying this method, an optimal balance between operating cost and effluent quality of a WWTP can be found. This model may offer a useful tool for optimized design and control of practical WWTPs.

  6. Efficient visible-light photocatalytic oxidation of gaseous NO with graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) activated by the alkaline hydrothermal treatment and mechanism analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Haoyu; Ou, Man; Zhong, Qin; Zhang, Shule; Yu, Lemeng

    2015-12-30

    In this paper, an enhanced visible-light photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) of NO (∼ 400 ppm) in the presence of the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) treated by the alkaline hydrothermal treatment is evaluated. Various g-C3N4 samples were treated in different concentrations of NaOH solutions and the sample treated in 0.12 mol L(-1) of NaOH solution possesses the largest BET specific surface area as well as the optimal ability of the PCO of NO. UV-vis diffuse reflection spectra (DRS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were also conducted, and the highly improved photocatalytic performance is ascribed to the large specific surface area and high pore volume, which provides more adsorption and active sites, the wide visible-light adsorption edge and the narrow band gap, which is favorable for visible-light activation, as well as the decreased recombination rate of photo-generated electrons and holes, which could contribute to the production of active species. Fluorescence spectra and a trapping experiment were conducted to further the mechanism analysis of the PCO of NO, illustrating that superoxide radicals (O2(-)) play the dominant role among active species in the PCO of NO.

  7. Optimization of soybean processing into kinema, a Bacillus-fermented alkaline food, with respect to a minimum level of antinutrients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharma, A.; Kumari, S.; Wongputtisin, P.; Nout, M.J.R.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Optimization of traditional processing of soybeans using response surface methodology (RSM) to achieve a minimum level of antinutritional factors (ANFs) in kinema. Methods and Results Central composite rotatable designs were used to optimize the processing stages of kinema preparation. In each

  8. Modification of a montmorillonite-illite clay using alkaline hydrothermal treatment and its application for the removal of aqueous Cs+ ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztop, B; Shahwan, T

    2006-03-15

    A montmorillonite-illite clay was modified using alkaline hydrothermal treatment (reflux method) and applied to the removal of aqueous Cs+ ions. The alkaline solutions were prepared by dissolving NaOH in seawater and in distilled water, and the effect of the two alkaline media on the sorption capacities of the modified clay was discussed. The modified materials were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and FTIR. As a result of the modification, the original mineral was partially transformed into a zeolitic material with spherical morphology. The results showed that the modification improved the Cs+ uptake capacity of the starting clay, with the clay modified in distilled water medium demonstrating higher sorption capacity. The sorption data were adequately described using the Freundlich and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models.

  9. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten;

    2015-01-01

    waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated......This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  10. Economic and environmental optimization of waste treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    with different assumptions regarding displaced electricity production. The article shows that it is feasible to combine LCA methodology with optimization. Furthermore, it highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.......This article presents the new systems engineering optimization model, OptiWaste, which incorporates a life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. As part of the optimization, the model identifies the most attractive waste management...... waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste for biogas production for either combined heat and power generation or as fuel in vehicles. The case study illustrates that the optimal solution depends on the objective and assumptions regarding the background system - illustrated...

  11. Optimization model for the design of distributed wastewater treatment networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrić Nidret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we address the synthesis problem of distributed wastewater networks using mathematical programming approach based on the superstructure optimization. We present a generalized superstructure and optimization model for the design of the distributed wastewater treatment networks. The superstructure includes splitters, treatment units, mixers, with all feasible interconnections including water recirculation. Based on the superstructure the optimization model is presented. The optimization model is given as a nonlinear programming (NLP problem where the objective function can be defined to minimize the total amount of wastewater treated in treatment operations or to minimize the total treatment costs. The NLP model is extended to a mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP problem where binary variables are used for the selection of the wastewater treatment technologies. The bounds for all flowrates and concentrations in the wastewater network are specified as general equations. The proposed models are solved using the global optimization solvers (BARON and LINDOGlobal. The application of the proposed models is illustrated on the two wastewater network problems of different complexity. First one is formulated as the NLP and the second one as the MINLP. For the second one the parametric and structural optimization is performed at the same time where optimal flowrates, concentrations as well as optimal technologies for the wastewater treatment are selected. Using the proposed model both problems are solved to global optimality.

  12. Modification of chemical reactivity of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin by ultrasound treatment in dilute alkaline solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhuoming; Li, Shujun; Fang, Guizhen; Patil, Nikhil; Yan, Ning

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we have explored various ultrasound treatment conditions for structural modification of enzymatic hydrolysis lignin (EHL) for enhanced chemical reactivity. The key structural modifications were characterized by using a combination of analytical methods, including, Fourier Transform-Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance ((1)H NMR), Gel permeation chromatography (GPC), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Folin-Ciocalteu (F-C) method. Chemical reactivity of the modified EHL samples was determined by both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and their reactivity towards formaldehyde. It was observed that the modified EHL had a higher phenolic hydroxyl group content, a lower molecular weight, a higher reactivity towards formaldehyde, and a greater antioxidant property. The higher reactivity demonstrated by the samples after treatment suggesting that ultrasound is a promising method for modifying enzymatic hydrolysis lignin for value-added applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dark-state suppression and optimization of laser cooling and fluorescence in a trapped alkaline-earth-metal single ion

    CERN Document Server

    Lindvall, T; Tittonen, I; Madej, A A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.86.033403

    2012-01-01

    We study the formation and destabilization of dark states in a single trapped 88Sr+ ion caused by the cooling and repumping laser fields required for Doppler cooling and fluorescence detection of the ion. By numerically solving the time-dependent density matrix equations for the eight-level system consisting of the sublevels of the 5s 2S1/2, 5p 2P1/2, and 4d 2D3/2 states, we analyze the different types of dark states and how to prevent them in order to maximize the scattering rate, which is crucial for both the cooling and the detection of the ion. The influence of the laser linewidths and ion motion on the scattering rate and the dark resonances is studied. The calculations are then compared with experimental results obtained with an endcap ion trap system located at the National Research Council of Canada and found to be in good agreement. The results are applicable also to other alkaline earth ions and isotopes without hyperfine structure.

  14. Efficiency of non-optimized direct carbon fuel cell with molten alkaline electrolyte fueled by carbonized biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, A.; Kobyłecki, R.; Włodarczyk, R.; Bis, Z.

    2016-07-01

    The direct carbon fuel cells (DCFCs) belong to new generation of energy conversion devices that are characterized by much higher efficiencies and lower emission of pollutants than conventional coal-fired power plants. In this paper the DCFC with molten hydroxide electrolyte is considered as the most promising type of the direct carbon fuel cells. Binary alkali hydroxide mixture (NaOH-LiOH, 90-10 mol%) is used as electrolyte and the biochar of apple tree origin carbonized at 873 K is applied as fuel. The performance of a lab-scale DCFC with molten alkaline electrolyte is investigated and theoretical, practical, voltage, and fuel utilization efficiencies of the cell are calculated and discussed. The practical efficiency is assessed on the basis of fuel HHV and LHV and the values are estimated at 40% and 41%, respectively. The average voltage efficiency is calculated as roughly 59% (at 0.65 V) and it is in a relatively good agreement with the values obtained by other researchers. The calculated efficiency of fuel utilization exceeds 95% thus indicating a high degree of carbon conversion into the electric power.

  15. 40 CFR 141.82 - Description of corrosion control treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... corrosion control treatment for that system: (i) Alkalinity and pH adjustment; (ii) Calcium hardness... evaluating the corrosion control treatments listed above: (i) Lead; (ii) Copper; (iii) pH; (iv) Alkalinity... alkalinity is adjusted as part of optimal corrosion control treatment, a minimum concentration or a range...

  16. New ways to optimize breast cancer treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schröder, Carolina Pia

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer patients without apparent distant metastases at the time of primary tumor removal, may later suffer from a distant relapse, indicating the presence of occult micrometastases at the time of diagnosis. Sensitive methods to detect micrometastatic breast cancer may be helpful in optimizing

  17. Production of class a biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Orf, M.M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R.S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D.

    2003-07-01

    The feasibility of full-scale anoxic disinfection of dewatered and digested sludge from Winnipeg, Manitoba with low lime doses and lagoon fly ash was investigated to determine if a class A product could be produced. Lime doses of 50g, 100g, and 200g per kg of biosolids (dry) were used along with fly ash doses of 500g. 1000g. and 1500g per kg of biosolids (dry). The mixed product was buried in eight-10 cubic meter trenches at the West End Water Pollution Control Center In Winnipeg. The trenches were backfilled with dirt and trapped to simulate anoxic conditions. Sampling cages were packed with the mixed product and pathogens non-indigenous to Winnipeg's biosolids. The cages were buried amongst the mixed biosolids in the trench. The non-indigenous pathogens spiked in the laboratory were the helminth Ascaris suum and the enteric virus reovirus. Samples were removed at days 12, 40, 69, 291, and 356 and were tested for the presence of fecal Coliform, Clostridium perfringens spores, Ascaris suum eggs, and reovirus. The pH, total solids, and free ammonia content of the mixed product were also determined for each sample. Odor was quantified for samples at both 291 and 356 days. Fecal Coliform bacteria and reovirus were completely inactivated for doses as low as 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) and 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry). Spores of the bacteria C. perfringens experienced a 4-log reduction when treated with 100g lime per kg biosolids and a 5-log reduction when treated with doses as low as 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Ascaris eggs were completely inactivated in 5 gram packets for all treatments involving 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Class A pathogen requirements were met for all treatments involving a lime dose of at least 100g per kg biosolids. The odor potential from the produced biosolids is also assessed. (author)

  18. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Zakaria Gomaa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg2+, Fe2+ and Ag+ showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cu2+ and Ag+ caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97% of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed.

  19. Optimization and characterization of alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase produced by Bacillus pumillus grown on Ficus nitida wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Eman Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    The potentiality of 23 bacterial isolates to produce alkaline protease and carboxymethyl-cellulase (CMCase) on Ficus nitida wastes was investigated. Bacillus pumillus ATCC7061 was selected as the most potent bacterial strain for the production of both enzymes. It was found that the optimum production of protease and CMCase were recorded at 30 °C, 5% Ficus nitida leaves and incubation period of 72 h. The best nitrogen sources for protease and CMCase production were yeast extract and casein, respectively. Also maximum protease and CMCase production were reported at pH 9 and pH 10, respectively. The enzymes possessed a good stability over a pH range of 8-10, expressed their maximum activities at pH10 and temperature range of 30-50 °C, expressed their maximum activities at 50 °C. Ions of Hg(2+), Fe2+ and Ag(+) showed a stimulatory effect on protease activity and ions of Fe(2+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cu(2+) and Ag(+) caused enhancement of CMCase activity. The enzymes were stable not only towards the nonionic surfactants like Triton X-100 and Tween 80 but also the strong anionic surfactant, SDS. Moreover, the enzymes were not significantly inhibited by EDTA or cystein. Concerning biotechnological applications, the enzymes retained (51-97%) of their initial activities upon incubation in the presence of commercials detergents for 1 h. The potential use of the produced enzymes in the degradation of human hair and cotton fabric samples were also assessed.

  20. [Recovery of the sensitivity of J-41 cells to Coxsackie B3 virus by treatment with exogenous alkaline phosphatase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronina, F V; Gulevich, N E; Khesin, Ia E

    1980-12-01

    It has been shown that injection of G-41 cell cultures, deficient as regards alkaline phosphatase and resistant to Coxsackie B3 virus, in conjunction with exposure to an alkaline phosphatase preparation from the calf intestine results in virus reproduction. Depending on the dose administered and multiplicity of infection there occur either complete destruction of the monolayer or death of some cells with the development of cytopathic changes specific for Coxackie virus.

  1. Alkaline pH Is a signal for optimal production and secretion of the heat labile toxin, LT in enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Gonzales

    Full Text Available Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC cause secretory diarrhea in children and travelers to endemic areas. ETEC spreads through the fecal-oral route. After ingestion, ETEC passes through the stomach and duodenum before it colonizes the lower part of the small intestine, exposing bacteria to a wide range of pH and environmental conditions. This study aimed to determine the impact of external pH and activity of the Cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP on the regulation of production and secretion of heat labile (LT enterotoxin. ETEC strain E2863wt and its isogenic mutant E2863ΔCRP were grown in LBK media buffered to pH 5, 7 and 9. GM1 ELISA, cDNA and cAMP analyses were carried out on bacterial pellet and supernatant samples derived from 3 and 5 hours growth and from overnight cultures. We confirm that CRP is a repressor of LT transcription and production as has been shown before but we show for the first time that CRP is a positive regulator of LT secretion both in vitro and in vivo. LT secretion increased at neutral to alkaline pH compared to acidic pH 5 where secretion was completely inhibited. At pH 9 secretion of LT was optimal resulting in 600 percent increase of secreted LT compared to unbuffered LBK media. This effect was not due to membrane leakage since the bacteria were viable at pH 9. The results indicate that the transition to the alkaline duodenum and/or exposure to high pH close to the epithelium as well as activation of the global transcription factor CRP are signals that induce secretion of the LT toxin in ETEC.

  2. [Clinical laboratory approaches to parodontitis treatment optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soboleva, L A; Shul'diakov, A A; Oseeva, A O; Aleksandrova, E A

    2010-01-01

    In order to determine cycloferon liniment clinical-pathogenetic efficacy in comprehensive parodontitis therapy examination and treatment of 80 patients was done. It was determined that the cycloferon liniment use in comprehensive treatment of patients with parodontitis let to reduce infectious load in parodontal pockets and local inflammation intensity, to normalize the secretory immunoglobulin level and immune status indices that provided speed up of healing process and reduction relapse frequency.

  3. Statistical medium optimization of an alkaline protease from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC 10501, its characterization and application in leather processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boopathy, Naidu Ramachandra; Indhuja, Devadas; Srinivasan, Krishnan; Uthirappan, Mani; Gupta, Rishikesh; Ramudu, Kamini Numbi; Chellan, Rose

    2013-04-01

    Proteases are shown to have greener mode of application in leather processing for dehairing of goat skins and cow hides. Production of protease by submerged fermentation with potent activity is reported using a new isolate P. aeruginosa MTCC 10501. The production parameters were optimized by statistical methods such as Plackett-Burman and response surface methodology. The optimized production medium contained (g/L); tryptone, 2.5; yeast extract, 3.0; skim milk 30.0; dextrose 1.0; inoculum concentration 4%: initial pH 6.0; incubation temperature 30 degrees C and optimum production at 48 h with protease activity of 7.6 U/mL. The protease had the following characteristics: pH optima, 9.0; temperature optima 50 degrees C; pH stability between 5.0-10.0 and temperature stability between 10-40 degrees C. The protease was observed to have high potential for dehairing of goat skins in the pre- tanning process comparable to that of the chemical process as evidenced by histology. The method offers cleaner processing using enzyme only instead of toxic chemicals in the pre-tanning process of leather manufacture.

  4. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    This article presents an optimization model that incorporates LCA methodology and captures important characteristics of waste management systems. The most attractive waste management options are in the model identified as part the optimization. The model renders it possible to apply different...... optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...... shows that it is feasible to combine LCA approaches with optimization and highlights the need for including the integrated waste and energy system into the model....

  5. Superhydrophilic surface modification of fabric via coating with nano-TiO{sub 2} by UV and alkaline treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Mingyu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Deng, Tingting [College of Textile and Garment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Liu, Shuxian [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu, E-mail: zhangfx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textile and Garment, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We reported a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for PET fabric surface modification. • The modified PET fabric became superhydrophilic and the water contact angles were decreased to 0° via coating with nano-TiO{sub 2} by UV and alkaline treatment. • The excellent mechanical and physical properties of modified PET fabric were retained. - Abstract: Increasing the hydrophilicity of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric has been an ongoing research goal. In this study, a rapid, environmentally friendly, and highly efficient method for modifying the surface of PET fabric is presented. In a solution of 30 g/L nano-TiO{sub 2}, 50 g/L H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and 30 g/L NaOH, PET fabric was modified to become superhydrophilic by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation (1000 W) for only 30–40 min. The water contact angle of the modified PET fabric was decreased to 0°, and the water absorption rate of the modified PET fabric was increased from 85% to 104%. The capillary rise height increased from 0.2 cm to 6.2 cm, and the spraying rating decreased from 4 to 1. The crease recovery angles of modified PET fabrics were reduced by only 1.2–8.8%. The mechanical and physical properties of the modified PET fabric remained good. Compared to the surface of unmodified PET fabric, scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface of the modified PET fiber was rough and covered by a layer of other materials. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed the materials on the surface of modified PET fibers likely included -COOH and -OH groups. X-ray diffraction demonstrated the formation of crystalline material. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry thermograms showed that the modification process slightly improved the thermostability of PET fibers.

  6. Optimal vaccination and treatment of an epidemic network model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lijuan; Sun, Jitao

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we firstly propose an epidemic network model incorporating two controls which are vaccination and treatment. For the constant controls, by using Lyapunov function, global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model is investigated. For the non-constant controls, by using the optimal control strategy, we discuss an optimal strategy to minimize the total number of the infected and the cost associated with vaccination and treatment. Table 1 and Figs. 1-5 are presented to show the global stability and the efficiency of this optimal control.

  7. Optimal treatment of anaphylaxis: antihistamines versus epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Stanley M

    2014-07-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid, systemic, often unanticipated, and potentially life-threatening immune reaction occurring after exposure to certain foreign substances. The main immunologic triggers include food, insect venom, and medications. Multiple immunologic pathways underlie anaphylaxis, but most involve immune activation and release of immunomodulators. Anaphylaxis can be difficult to recognize clinically, making differential diagnosis key. The incidence of anaphylaxis has at least doubled during the past few decades, and in the United States alone, an estimated 1500 fatalities are attributed to anaphylaxis annually. The increasing incidence and potentially life-threatening nature of anaphylaxis coupled with diagnostic challenges make appropriate and timely treatment critical. Epinephrine is universally recommended as the first-line therapy for anaphylaxis, and early treatment is critical to prevent a potentially fatal outcome. Despite the evidence and guideline recommendations supporting its use for anaphylaxis, epinephrine remains underused. Data indicate that antihistamines are more commonly used to treat patients with anaphylaxis. Although histamine is involved in anaphylaxis, treatment with antihistamines does not relieve or prevent all of the pathophysiological symptoms of anaphylaxis, including the more serious complications such as airway obstruction, hypotension, and shock. Additionally, antihistamines do not act as rapidly as epinephrine; maximal plasma concentrations are reached between 1 and 3 hours for antihistamines compared with < 10 minutes for intramuscular epinephrine injection. This demonstrates the need for improved approaches to educate physicians and patients regarding the appropriate treatment of anaphylaxis.

  8. Optimal vaccination and treatment of an epidemic network model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Lijuan [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); College of Mathematics and Computer Science, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Sun, Jitao, E-mail: sunjt@sh163.net [Department of Mathematics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2014-08-22

    In this Letter, we firstly propose an epidemic network model incorporating two controls which are vaccination and treatment. For the constant controls, by using Lyapunov function, global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium of the model is investigated. For the non-constant controls, by using the optimal control strategy, we discuss an optimal strategy to minimize the total number of the infected and the cost associated with vaccination and treatment. Table 1 and Figs. 1–5 are presented to show the global stability and the efficiency of this optimal control. - Highlights: • Propose an optimally controlled SIRS epidemic model on heterogeneous networks. • Obtain criteria of global stability of the disease-free equilibrium and the endemic equilibrium. • Investigate existence of optimal control for the control problem. • The results be illustrated by some numerical simulations.

  9. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic investigation of the role of alkaline pre-treatment in corrosion resistance of a silane coating on magnesium alloy, ZE41

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty Banerjee, P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); CAST Cooperative Research Centre, Hawthorn, VIC-3122 (Australia); Singh Raman, R.K., E-mail: raman.singh@eng.monash.edu.a [Department of Chemical Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC-3800 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    The protective performance of the coatings of bis-1,2-(triethoxysilyl) ethane (BTSE) on ZE41 magnesium alloy with different surface pre-treatments were evaluated using potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. Electrical equivalent circuits were developed based upon hypothetical corrosion mechanisms and simulated to correspond to the experimental data. The morphology and cross section of the alloy subjected to different pre-treatments and coatings were characterized using scanning electron microscope. A specific alkaline pre-treatment of the substrate prior to the coating has been found to improve the corrosion resistance of the alloy.

  10. The effects on DNA migration of altering parameters in the comet assay protocol such as agarose density, electrophoresis conditions and durations of the enzyme or the alkaline treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersson, Clara; Möller, Lennart

    2011-11-01

    The single cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay) is a popular method for measuring DNA migration as an estimate of DNA damage. No standardised comet assay protocol exists, which make comparisons between studies complicated. In a previous inter-laboratory validation study of the comet assay, we identified important parameters in the protocol that might affect DNA migration. The aim of this study was to assess how different comet assay protocols affect DNA migration. The results in this study suggest that (i) there is a significant linear dose-response relationship between the agarose gel's density and DNA migration and that damaged cells are more sensitive to the agarose gel's density; (ii) incubation with formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase for 10 min is inadequate, whereas 30 min is sufficient; (iii) the typically used 20 min of alkaline treatment might be to short when analysing samples that contain particular alkali-labile sites (ALS) and (iv) the duration of electrophoresis as well as the strength of the electric field applied affects the DNA migration. By using protocol-specific calibration curves, it is possible to reduce the variation in DNA migration caused by differences in comet assay protocols. This does, however, not completely remove the impact of the durations of alkaline treatment and electrophoresis when analysing cells containing ALS that are relatively resistant to high alkaline treatment.

  11. Optimization of wastewater treatment plant operation for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongwook; Bowen, James D; Ozelkan, Ertunga C

    2015-11-01

    This study deals with the determination of optimal operation of a wastewater treatment system for minimizing greenhouse gas emissions, operating costs, and pollution loads in the effluent. To do this, an integrated performance index that includes three objectives was established to assess system performance. The ASMN_G model was used to perform system optimization aimed at determining a set of operational parameters that can satisfy three different objectives. The complex nonlinear optimization problem was simulated using the Nelder-Mead Simplex optimization algorithm. A sensitivity analysis was performed to identify influential operational parameters on system performance. The results obtained from the optimization simulations for six scenarios demonstrated that there are apparent trade-offs among the three conflicting objectives. The best optimized system simultaneously reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 31%, reduced operating cost by 11%, and improved effluent quality by 2% compared to the base case operation.

  12. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants

  13. Integrated modeling of ozonation for optimization of drinking water treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Helm, A.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water treatment plants automation becomes more sophisticated, more on-line monitoring systems become available and integration of modeling environments with control systems becomes easier. This gives possibilities for model-based optimization. In operation of drinking water treatment plants

  14. Alkaline Treatment of Oil Palm Frond Fibers by Using Extract of Oil Palm EFB Ash for Better Adhesion toward Polymeric Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warman Fatra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Indonesia, 187 million tons of biomass were produced from 8.11 million ha of oil palm plantation in 2009. This massive amount of biomass mainly consists of oil palm fronds (OPF and oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB, which are normally categorized as waste. The properties of OPF fibers compared to those of synthetic fibers, such as low density, low cost, less abrasion of equipment, and safer production, makes them an attractive reinforcement for composite materials. In this work, the utilization of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash for OPF fiber-polyester resin composite and the effect of process conditions were studied. Water absorption, tensile and flexural strength were used to characterize the effects of alkaline treatment on modified OPF fibers in polyester resin. The investigation focused on the effect of alkaline treatment time. Treatment temperature and liquid to solid ratio were analyzed using Response Surface Method-Central Composite Design (RSM-CCD. The highest tensile strength (44.87 MPa was achieved at 12 hours soaking time, at 40°C treatment temperature and 5:1 water to ash ratio. The highest flexural strength (120.50 MPa was obtained at 1.3 hours soaking time, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. The lowest water absorption of composite (3.00% was achieved at the longest soaking time (14.7 hours, 4 dissolving ratio and 35°C treatment temperature. Variance of soaking time, dissolving ratio and temperature in the alkaline treatment process using extract of oil palm empty fruit bunch ash significantly affected the mechanical and physical properties of the oil palm frond fibers reinforced composite.

  15. Selection of alkalinity regulator for water supply treatment%给水处理碱性调节剂的选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘江华; 邵寿强

    2013-01-01

    为提高原水的pH值,强化混凝、沉淀效果,优化出水水质,在给水处理过程中需投加碱性调节剂.研究对比了食品级氢氧化钠和碳酸钠调节pH值的效果,以及对出水水质的影响.分析了2种碱性调节剂的投加成本,结果表明,采用食品级固体氢氧化钠作为碱性调节剂时效果良好,生产成本更低.%Abstraet:In order to increase the pH value of the raw water,strengthen the coagulation and sedimentation effect,improve the effluent water quality,alkalinity regulator should be added during the water supply treatment.The adjusting effects of food-grade NaOH and Na2CO3 to pH value,and the influences of them on effluent water quality were compared and studied.Furthermore,the costs of the said two alkalinity regulators were analyzed,and the results indicated that,using food-grade solid NaOH as the alkalinity for water supply treatment could obtain a good effect and the production cost was lower.

  16. Full, Reactive Solubilization of Humin Byproducts by Alkaline Treatment and Characterization of the Alkali-Treated Humins Formed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandvoort, Ilona; van Eck, Ernst R. H.; de Peinder, Peter; Heeres, Hero J.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2015-01-01

    The valorization of the humin byproducts that are formed during hydrothermal, acid-catalyzed dehydration of carbohydrates is hampered by the insolubility of these byproducts. Here, we report on an alkaline pretreatment method that allows for the insolubility of this highly recalcitrant and structura

  17. Optimal Heating in Heat-Treatment Process Based on Grey Asynchronous Particle Swarm Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    To ensure plate heating quality and reduce energy consumption in heat-treatment process, optimal heating for plates in a roller hearth furnace was investigated and a new strategy for heating procedure optimization was developed. During solving process, plate temperature forecast model based on heat transfer mechanics was established to calculate plate temperature with the assumed heating procedure. In addition, multi-objective feature of optimal heating was analyzed. And the method, which is composed of asynchronous particle swarm optimization and grey relational analysis, was adopted for solving the multi-objective problem. The developed strategy for optimizing heating has been applied to the mass production. The result indicates that the absolute plate discharging temperature deviation between measured value and target value does not exceed ± 8 ℃, and the relative deviation is less than ± 0.77%.

  18. Modeling Vertical Flow Treatment Wetland Hydraulics to Optimize Treatment Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    Shelley (Member) Date //signed// 10 Mar 2011 Robert Ritzi (Member) Wright State University Date iv AFIT/GES/ENV/11-M03...members; Dr. Michael Shelley, for his invaluable insights into past research of the treatment wetland at Wright Patterson AFB; and Dr. Robert Ritzi, for...Amon, J.P., A. Agrawal, M.L. Shelley, B.C. Opperman, M.P. Enright , N.D. Clemmer, T. Slusser, J. Lach, T. Sobolewski, W. Gruner, and A.C. Entingh

  19. Urine alkalinization may be enough for the treatment of bilateral renal pelvis stones associated with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Mi; Ham, Byeong Kuk; Kang, Seok Ho; Bae, Jae Hyun; Kim, Je Jong; Yoo, Ki Hwan; Yoon, Duck Ki; Moon, Du Geon

    2011-10-01

    Lesch-Nyhan syndrome is a rare sex-linked disorder of purine metabolism that is caused by a mutation in the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) gene which causes marked hyperuricemia and hyperuricosuria, with signs of gouty arthritis and uric acid stone disease in early childhood. We report a case of renal pelvis calculi which was dissolved within 10 days of urine alkalinization and hydration.

  20. Challenges when performing economic optimization of waste treatment: A review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, H.

    2013-01-01

    Strategic and operational decisions in waste management, in particular with respect to investments in new treatment facilities, are needed due to a number of factors, including continuously increasing amounts of waste, political demands for efficient utilization of waste resources......, and the decommissioning of existing waste treatment facilities. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies are economically feasible.Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing on transport are one...... example, but models focusing on energy production have also been developed, as well as models which take into account a plant’s economies of scale, environmental impact, material recovery and social costs. Finally, models combining different criteria for the selection of waste treatment methods in multi...

  1. Challenges when Performing Economic Optimization of Waste Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Nina; Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans

    2011-01-01

    New investments in waste treatment facilities are needed due to a number of factors including continuously increasing waste amounts, political demands for efficient utilization of the waste resources in terms of recycling or energy production, and decommissioning of existing waste treatment...... facilities due to age and stricter environmental regulation. Optimization models can assist in ensuring that these investment strategies will be economically feasible. Various economic optimization models for waste treatment have been developed which focus on different parameters. Models focusing...... in multi criteria analysis have been developed. A thorough updated review of the existing models is presented and the main challenges and the crucial parameters to take into account when assessing the economic performance of waste treatment alternatives are identified. The review article will assist both...

  2. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Iniesta, R.; Malki, K.; Maier, W; Rietschel, M.; Mors, O; Hauser, J; Henigsberg, N.; Dernovsek, M. Z.; Souery, D.; Stahl, D.; Dobson, R.; Aitchison, K. J.; Farmer, A; Lewis, C.M.; McGuffin, P.

    2016-01-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remissio...

  3. Economic optimization of waste treatment and energy production in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münster, Marie; Ravn, Hans; Hedegaard, Karsten

    2013-01-01

    optimization objectives such as minimizing costs or greenhouse gas emissions or to prioritise several objectives given different weights. An illustrative case is analyzed, covering alternative treatments of 1 tonne residual household waste: incineration of the full amount or sorting out organic waste...

  4. Fighting the Hydra: Optimizing treatment for type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, A.C.R.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis focused on optimizing treatment for type 2 diabetes. We evaluated short-term risk (hypoglycaemia) and long-term risk (cancer) of sulfonylurea derivatives and insulin and reviewed the (dis)advantages of the long-acting insulin analogues, insulin glargine and insulin detemir. Furthermore,

  5. Combination of alkaline and enzymatic treatments as a process for upgrading sisal paper-grade pulp to dissolving-grade pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, David; Köpcke, Viviana; Larsson, Per Tomas; Jääskeläinen, Anna-Stiina; Ek, Monica

    2010-10-01

    A sequence of treatments consisting of an initial xylanase treatment followed by cold alkaline extraction and a final endoglucanase treatment was investigated as a process for upgrading non-wood paper-grade pulps to dissolving-grade pulps for viscose production. Five commercial dried bleached non-wood soda/AQ paper pulps, from flax, hemp, sisal, abaca, and jute, were studied for this purpose. Commercial dried bleached eucalyptus dissolving pulp was used as reference sample. Sisal pulp showed the highest improvement in Fock's reactivity, reaching levels nearly as high or even higher than that of eucalyptus dissolving pulp (65%), and a low hemicellulose content (3-4%) when was subjected to this sequence of treatments. The viscosity, however, decreased considerably. A uniform and narrow molecular weight distribution was observed by size exclusion chromatography. (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and Raman microspectroscopy revealed that the cellulose structure consisted of cellulose I.

  6. Optimization of Alkaline Extraction Process for Capsaicin from Chili Pepper%碱法提取辣椒素工艺条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙净; 李存芝; 彭宁; 黄雪松

    2012-01-01

    In order to obtain the maximum extraction yield of capsaicin, extraction parameters such as pH, ethanol concentration, extraction time and temperature were optimized using an L9(3^4) orthogonal array design. Capsaicin content was determined by GC-MS. The results showed that capsaicin was decomposed at temperatures above 50 ℃. Slightly alkaline pH values were beneficial to the extraction of capsaicin. The extraction parameters could be ranked in decreasing order of importance in their effect on the extraction yield of capsaicin as follows: temperature 〉 ethanol concentration 〉 pH 〉 extraction time. The optimal conditions of pH, ethanol concentration, temperature and extraction time were 8, 70%, 50 ℃ and 3.5 h, respectively. Under these conditions, the average extraction yield of capsaicin were 6.812 mg/g (n = 4).%以干辣椒为原料,利用L9(3^4)正交试验设计研究pH值、乙醇体积分数、温度、时间对辣椒素提取率的影响,并利用气相色谱一质谱法(gaschromatography-mass spectrometry,GC-Ms)测定不同提取条件下的辣椒素含量。结果表明:高于50℃辣椒素易受热破坏;微碱性pH值有利于辣椒素提取;影响辣椒素提取量的因素依次为:温度〉乙醇体积分数〉pH值〉时间,其最佳工艺条件为pH8、乙醇体积分数70%、50℃浸提3.5h,该组合条件下的平均提取量为6.812mg/g。

  7. Optimizing stormwater treatment practices a handbook of assessment and maintenance

    CERN Document Server

    Erickson, Andrew J; Gulliver, John S

    2013-01-01

    Optimizing Stormwater Treatment Practices: A Handbook of Assessment and Maintenance provides the information necessary for developing and operating an effective maintenance program for stormwater treatment. The book offers instructions on how to measure the level of performance of stormwater treatment practices directly and bases proposed maintenance schedules on actual performance and historical maintenance efforts and costs. The inspection methods, which are proven in the field and have been implemented successfully, are necessary as regulatory agencies are demanding evaluations of the performance of stormwater treatment practices. The authors have developed a three-tiered approach that offers readers a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices currently in place. This book also: Provides a standard protocol for how to determine the effectiveness of stormwater treatment practices Assists readers with identifying which assessment techniques to use for stormwa...

  8. Removal of toxic and alkali/alkaline earth metals during co-thermal treatment of two types of MSWI fly ashes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Qiao, Yu; Jin, Limei; Ma, Chuan; Paterson, Nigel; Sun, Lushi

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to vaporize heavy metals and alkali/alkaline earth metals from two different types of fly ashes by thermal treatment method. Fly ash from a fluidized bed incinerator (HK fly ash) was mixed with one from a grate incinerator (HS fly ash) in various proportions and thermally treated under different temperatures. The melting of HS fly ash was avoided when treated with HK fly ash. Alkali/alkaline earth metals in HS fly ash served as Cl-donors to promote the vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment. With temperature increasing from 800 to 900°C, significant amounts of Cl, Na and K were vaporized. Up to 1000°C in air, less than 3% of Cl and Na and less than 5% of K were retained in ash. Under all conditions, Cd can be vaporized effectively. The vaporization of Pb was mildly improved when treated with HS fly ash, while the effect became less pronounced above 900°C. Alkali/alkaline earth metals can promote Cu vaporization by forming copper chlorides. Comparatively, Zn vaporization was low and only slightly improved by HS fly ash. The low vaporization of Zn could be caused by the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4. Under all conditions, less than 20% of Cr was vaporized. In a reductive atmosphere, the vaporization of Cd and Pb were as high as that in oxidative atmosphere. However, the vaporization of Zn was accelerated and that of Cu was hindered because the formation of Zn2SiO4, ZnFe2O4 and ZnAl2O4 and copper chloride was depressed in reductive atmosphere. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Selection of an optimal treatment method for acute periodontitis disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliev, Rafik A; Aliyev, B F; Gardashova, Latafat A; Huseynov, Oleg H

    2012-04-01

    The present paper is devoted to selection of an optimal treatment method for acute periodontitis by using fuzzy Choquet integral-based approach. We consider application of different treatment methods depending on development stages and symptoms of the disease. The effectiveness of application of different treatment methods in each stage of the disease is linguistically evaluated by a dentist. The stages of the disease are also linguistically described by a dentist. Dentist's linguistic evaluations are represented by fuzzy sets. The total effectiveness of the each considered treatment method is calculated by using fuzzy Choquet integral with fuzzy number-valued integrand and fuzzy number-valued fuzzy measure. The most effective treatment method is determined by using fuzzy ranking method.

  10. Optimal treatment increased the seed germination of Salvia verticillata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALALEH KHAKPOOR

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most seeds of the medicinal species are variable regarding their ecological compatibility with environmental conditions. Therefore, identifying the ecophysiological factors that affect dormancy and create optimal conditions for seed germination of medicinal plants is necessary for their culture and production. To evaluate the effect of different treatments on seed germination of medicinal species of Salvia verticillata, collected in the summer of 2010 in Eastern Azarbaijan, we have performed completely randomized experimental tests with 4 replications. The experimental design of treatment prior to growth included: scrape the skin with sandpaper, treatment with 500 ppm gibberellic acid for 24 and 48 h, treatment with citric acid for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, chilling for 2 and 4 weeks, treatment with warm water at 70°C and control treatment. Results showed that the effect of different treatments was significant on seed germination percent of the medicinal plant Salvia verticillata. Scrape the skin with sandpaper, citric acid treatment for 10, 20 and 30 minutes, and gibberellic acid treatment for 24 hours, increased the germination percentage compared to the control treatment. The most positive impact was observed on the dormancy breaking and germination of medicinal species Salvia verticillata.

  11. Optimization of stereotactic body radiotherapy treatment planning using a multicriteria optimization algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghandour, Sarah; Cosinschi, Adrien; Mazouni, Zohra; Pachoud, Marc; Matzinger, Oscar [Riviera-Chablais Hospital, Vevey (Switzerland). Cancer Center, Radiotherapy Dept.

    2016-07-01

    To provide high-quality and efficient dosimetric planning for various types of stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for tumor treatment using a multicriteria optimization (MCO) technique fine-tuned with direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). Eighteen patients with lung (n = 11), liver (n = 5) or adrenal cell cancer (n = 2) were treated using SBRT in our clinic between December 2014 and June 2015. Plans were generated using the RayStation trademark Treatment Planning System (TPS) with the VMAT technique. Optimal deliverable SBRT plans were first generated using an MCO algorithm to find a well-balanced tradeoff between tumor control and normal tissue sparing in an efficient treatment planning time. Then, the deliverable plan was post-processed using the MCO solution as the starting point for the DMPO algorithm to improve the dose gradient around the planning target volume (PTV) while maintaining the clinician's priorities. The dosimetric quality of the plans was evaluated using dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters, which account for target coverage and the sparing of healthy tissue, as well as the CI100 and CI50 conformity indexes. Using a combination of the MCO and DMPO algorithms showed that the treatment plans were clinically optimal and conformed to all organ risk dose volume constraints reported in the literature, with a computation time of approximately one hour. The coverage of the PTV (D99% and D95%) and sparing of organs at risk (OAR) were similar between the MCO and MCO + DMPO plans, with no significant differences (p > 0.05) for all the SBRT plans. The average CI100 and CI50 values using MCO + DMPO were significantly better than those with MCO alone (p < 0.05). The MCO technique allows for convergence on an optimal solution for SBRT within an efficient planning time. The combination of the MCO and DMPO techniques yields a better dose gradient, especially for lung tumors.

  12. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W.; Epelman, Marina A.; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H. Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Ten Haken, Randall K.; Matuszak, Martha M.

    2016-09-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) (conventional ‘\\ell \\text{EUD} model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted \\ell \\text{EUD} (\\text{fEUD} ) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting \\ell \\text{EUD} , fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target \\ell \\text{EUD} are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6 % ≤ft(7.5 % \\right) more liver function than the fEUD (\\ell \\text{EUD} ) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5 % ≤ft(5.6 % \\right) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in \\ell \\text{EUD} of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and

  13. Optimizing global liver function in radiation therapy treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Victor W; Epelman, Marina A; Wang, Hesheng; Romeijn, H Edwin; Feng, Mary; Cao, Yue; Haken, Randall K Ten; Matuszak, Martha M

    2017-01-01

    Liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) patients differ in both pre-treatment liver function (e.g. due to degree of cirrhosis and/or prior treatment) and radiosensitivity, leading to high variability in potential liver toxicity with similar doses. This work investigates three treatment planning optimization models that minimize risk of toxicity: two consider both voxel-based pre-treatment liver function and local-function-based radiosensitivity with dose; one considers only dose. Each model optimizes different objective functions (varying in complexity of capturing the influence of dose on liver function) subject to the same dose constraints and are tested on 2D synthesized and 3D clinical cases. The normal-liver-based objective functions are the linearized equivalent uniform dose (ℓEUD) (conventional ‘ℓEUD model’), the so-called perfusion-weighted ℓEUD (fEUD) (proposed ‘fEUD model’), and post-treatment global liver function (GLF) (proposed ‘GLF model’), predicted by a new liver-perfusion-based dose-response model. The resulting ℓEUD, fEUD, and GLF plans delivering the same target ℓEUD are compared with respect to their post-treatment function and various dose-based metrics. Voxel-based portal venous liver perfusion, used as a measure of local function, is computed using DCE-MRI. In cases used in our experiments, the GLF plan preserves up to 4.6%(7.5%) more liver function than the fEUD (ℓEUD) plan does in 2D cases, and up to 4.5%(5.6%) in 3D cases. The GLF and fEUD plans worsen in ℓEUD of functional liver on average by 1.0 Gy and 0.5 Gy in 2D and 3D cases, respectively. Liver perfusion information can be used during treatment planning to minimize the risk of toxicity by improving expected GLF; the degree of benefit varies with perfusion pattern. Although fEUD model optimization is computationally inexpensive and often achieves better GLF than ℓEUD model optimization does, the GLF model directly optimizes a more clinically

  14. MO-B-BRB-00: Optimizing the Treatment Planning Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  15. Characterization of the products attained from a thermal treatment of a mix of zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Yi-Ming; Lin, Chitsan; Wang, Jian-Wen; Huang, Kuo-Lin; Tsai, Cheng-Hsien; Wang, Chih-Ta

    2016-01-01

    This study applies a thermal separation process (TSP) to recover Fe, Mn, and Zn from hazardous spent zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. In the TSP, the batteries were heated together with a reducing additive and the metals in batteries, according to their boiling points and densities, were found to move into three major output materials: slag, ingot (mainly Fe and Mn), and particulate (particularly Zn). The slag well encapsulated the heavy metals of interest and can be recycled for road pavement or building materials. The ingot had high levels of Fe (522,000 mg/kg) and Mn (253,000 mg/kg) and can serve as an additive for stainless steel-making processes. The particulate phase had a Zn level of 694,000 mg/kg which is high enough to be directly sold for refinement. Overall, the TSP effectively recovered valuable metals from the hazardous batteries.

  16. Tool Steel Heat Treatment Optimization Using Neural Network Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornik, Bojan; Belič, Igor; Leskovšek, Vojteh; Godec, Matjaz

    2016-11-01

    Optimization of tool steel properties and corresponding heat treatment is mainly based on trial and error approach, which requires tremendous experimental work and resources. Therefore, there is a huge need for tools allowing prediction of mechanical properties of tool steels as a function of composition and heat treatment process variables. The aim of the present work was to explore the potential and possibilities of artificial neural network-based modeling to select and optimize vacuum heat treatment conditions depending on the hot work tool steel composition and required properties. In the current case training of the feedforward neural network with error backpropagation training scheme and four layers of neurons (8-20-20-2) scheme was based on the experimentally obtained tempering diagrams for ten different hot work tool steel compositions and at least two austenitizing temperatures. Results show that this type of modeling can be successfully used for detailed and multifunctional analysis of different influential parameters as well as to optimize heat treatment process of hot work tool steels depending on the composition. In terms of composition, V was found as the most beneficial alloying element increasing hardness and fracture toughness of hot work tool steel; Si, Mn, and Cr increase hardness but lead to reduced fracture toughness, while Mo has the opposite effect. Optimum concentration providing high KIc/HRC ratios would include 0.75 pct Si, 0.4 pct Mn, 5.1 pct Cr, 1.5 pct Mo, and 0.5 pct V, with the optimum heat treatment performed at lower austenitizing and intermediate tempering temperatures.

  17. Speed optimized influence matrix processing in inverse treatment planning tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegenhein, Peter; Wilkens, Jan J; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Department of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Ludwig, Thomas [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Computer Science, Research Group Parallel and Distributed Systems, Im Neuenheimer Feld 348, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)], E-mail: p.ziegenhein@dkfz.de, E-mail: u.oelfke@dkfz.de

    2008-05-07

    An optimal plan in modern treatment planning tools is found through the use of an iterative optimization algorithm, which deals with a high amount of patient-related data and number of treatment parameters to be optimized. Thus, calculating a good plan is a very time-consuming process which limits the application for patients in clinics and for research activities aiming for more accuracy. A common technique to handle the vast amount of radiation dose data is the concept of the influence matrix (DIJ), which stores the dose contribution of each bixel to the patient in the main memory of the computer. This study revealed that a bottleneck for the optimization time arises from the data transfer of the dose data between the memory and the CPU. In this note, we introduce a new method which speeds up the data transportation from stored dose data to the CPU. As an example we used the DIJ approach as is implemented in our treatment planning tool KonRad, developed at the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg. A data cycle reordering method is proposed to take the advantage of modern memory hardware. This induces a minimal eviction policy which results in a memory behaviour exhibiting a 2.6 times faster algorithm compared to the naive implementation. Although our method is described for the DIJ approach implemented in KonRad, we believe that any other planning tool which uses a similar approach to store the dose data will also benefit from the described methods. (note)

  18. Treatment of PCR products with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase improves the visibility of combined bisulfite restriction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Kousuke; Emoto, Noriko; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Kawakami, Masanori; Kage, Hidenori; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya [Department of Respiratory Medicine, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan); Takai, Daiya, E-mail: dtakai-ind@umin.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Laboratory, The University of Tokyo Hospital, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8655 (Japan)

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Incubating PCR products at a high temperature causes smears in gel electrophoresis. {yields} Smears interfere with the interpretation of methylation analysis using COBRA. {yields} Treatment with exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase eliminates smears. {yields} The elimination of smears improves the visibility of COBRA. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays a vital role in the regulation of gene expression. Abnormal promoter hypermethylation is an important mechanism of inactivating tumor suppressor genes in human cancers. Combined bisulfite restriction analysis (COBRA) is a widely used method for identifying the DNA methylation of specific CpG sites. Here, we report that exonuclease I and heat-labile alkaline phosphatase can be used for PCR purification for COBRA, improving the visibility of gel electrophoresis after restriction digestion. This improvement is observed when restriction digestion is performed at a high temperature, such as 60 {sup o}C or 65 {sup o}C, with BstUI and TaqI, respectively. This simple method can be applied instead of DNA purification using spin columns or phenol/chloroform extraction. It can also be applied to other situations when PCR products are digested by thermophile-derived restriction enzymes, such as PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis.

  19. [Optimal Treatment for Rheumatoid Arthritis with Companion Diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Shunichi

    2015-11-01

    The medical strategy for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has markedly advanced in recent years. The introduction of biologics in addition to methotrexate, an anchor drug, has made it possible to not only suppress pain and inflammation (clinical remission), but also inhibit joint destruction (structural remission), leading to cure from the disease. Since the condition and pathology are heterogeneous among individual patients, optimal treatment for each patient based on the use of companion diagnostics is desired (precision medicine). ACPA is important to diagnose RA, but also to assess the prognosis. ACPA is also a part of companion diagnostics for preclinical RA because it has been found to be positive before the onset. Treatment should be performed under consideration of the disease state such as activity, prognosis regarding joint destruction, and complications. It is also important to clarify the patient characteristics, such as responsiveness to the drugs and risk of adverse effects. Biomarkers, such as proteomics and pharmacogenomics, have been reported as companion diagnostics for optimal treatment of RA. RA is a multifactorial disorder with clinically heterogeneous features. Gene-environment interaction is closely involved in the production of ACPA, and then secondary stimuli to joints may lead to symptoms of RA. Joint injury, emotional stress, and infections often trigger the onset of RA. It is possible to cure RA, achieving complete remission, by early aggressive treatment and returning to the pre-clinical state with environmental improvement. [Review

  20. Optimal partial-arcs in VMAT treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Wala, Jeremiah; Chen, Wei; Craft, David

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the delivery efficiency of VMAT by extending the recently published VMAT treatment planning algorithm vmerge to automatically generate optimal partial-arc plans. Methods and materials: A high-quality initial plan is created by solving a convex multicriteria optimization problem using 180 equi-spaced beams. This initial plan is used to form a set of dose constraints, and a set of partial-arc plans is created by searching the space of all possible partial-arc plans that satisfy these constraints. For each partial-arc, an iterative fluence map merging and sequencing algorithm (vmerge) is used to improve the delivery efficiency. Merging continues as long as the dose quality is maintained above a user-defined threshold. The final plan is selected as the partial arc with the lowest treatment time. The complete algorithm is called pmerge. Results: Partial-arc plans are created using pmerge for a lung, liver and prostate case, with final treatment times of 127, 245 and 147 seconds. Treatment times...

  1. Optimal flow sensor placement on wastewater treatment plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villez, Kris; Vanrolleghem, Peter A; Corominas, Lluís

    2016-09-15

    Obtaining high quality data collected on wastewater treatment plants is gaining increasing attention in the wastewater engineering literature. Typical studies focus on recognition of faulty data with a given set of installed sensors on a wastewater treatment plant. Little attention is however given to how one can install sensors in such a way that fault detection and identification can be improved. In this work, we develop a method to obtain Pareto optimal sensor layouts in terms of cost, observability, and redundancy. Most importantly, the resulting method allows reducing the large set of possibilities to a minimal set of sensor layouts efficiently for any wastewater treatment plant on the basis of structural criteria only, with limited sensor information, and without prior data collection. In addition, the developed optimization scheme is fast. Practically important is that the number of sensors needed for both observability of all flows and redundancy of all flow sensors is only one more compared to the number of sensors needed for observability of all flows in the studied wastewater treatment plant configurations.

  2. Optimal treatment sequence in COPD: Can a consensus be found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, J; Drummond, M; Pires, N; Reis, G; Alves, C; Robalo-Cordeiro, C

    2016-01-01

    There is currently no consensus on the treatment sequence in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although it is recognized that early diagnosis is of paramount importance to start treatment in the early stages of the disease. Although it is fairly consensual that initial treatment should be with an inhaled short-acting beta agonist, a short-acting muscarinic antagonist, a long-acting beta-agonist or a long-acting muscarinic antagonist. As the disease progresses, several therapeutic options are available, and which to choose at each disease stage remains controversial. When and in which patients to use dual bronchodilation? When to use inhaled corticosteroids? And triple therapy? Are the existing non-inhaled therapies, such as mucolytic agents, antibiotics, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, methylxanthines and immunostimulating agents, useful? If so, which patients would benefit? Should co-morbidities be taken into account when choosing COPD therapy for a patient? This paper reviews current guidelines and available evidence and proposes a therapeutic scheme for COPD patients. We also propose a treatment algorithm in the hope that it will help physicians to decide the best approach for their patients. The authors conclude that, at present, a full consensus on optimal treatment sequence in COPD cannot be found, mainly due to disease heterogeneity and lack of biomarkers to guide treatment. For the time being, and although some therapeutic approaches are consensual, treatment of COPD should be patient-oriented.

  3. Using Chemical Reaction Kinetics to Predict Optimal Antibiotic Treatment Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel zur Wiesch, Pia; Cohen, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Identifying optimal dosing of antibiotics has proven challenging—some antibiotics are most effective when they are administered periodically at high doses, while others work best when minimizing concentration fluctuations. Mechanistic explanations for why antibiotics differ in their optimal dosing are lacking, limiting our ability to predict optimal therapy and leading to long and costly experiments. We use mathematical models that describe both bacterial growth and intracellular antibiotic-target binding to investigate the effects of fluctuating antibiotic concentrations on individual bacterial cells and bacterial populations. We show that physicochemical parameters, e.g. the rate of drug transmembrane diffusion and the antibiotic-target complex half-life are sufficient to explain which treatment strategy is most effective. If the drug-target complex dissociates rapidly, the antibiotic must be kept constantly at a concentration that prevents bacterial replication. If antibiotics cross bacterial cell envelopes slowly to reach their target, there is a delay in the onset of action that may be reduced by increasing initial antibiotic concentration. Finally, slow drug-target dissociation and slow diffusion out of cells act to prolong antibiotic effects, thereby allowing for less frequent dosing. Our model can be used as a tool in the rational design of treatment for bacterial infections. It is easily adaptable to other biological systems, e.g. HIV, malaria and cancer, where the effects of physiological fluctuations of drug concentration are also poorly understood. PMID:28060813

  4. Using Chemical Reaction Kinetics to Predict Optimal Antibiotic Treatment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel Zur Wiesch, Pia; Clarelli, Fabrizio; Cohen, Ted

    2017-01-01

    Identifying optimal dosing of antibiotics has proven challenging-some antibiotics are most effective when they are administered periodically at high doses, while others work best when minimizing concentration fluctuations. Mechanistic explanations for why antibiotics differ in their optimal dosing are lacking, limiting our ability to predict optimal therapy and leading to long and costly experiments. We use mathematical models that describe both bacterial growth and intracellular antibiotic-target binding to investigate the effects of fluctuating antibiotic concentrations on individual bacterial cells and bacterial populations. We show that physicochemical parameters, e.g. the rate of drug transmembrane diffusion and the antibiotic-target complex half-life are sufficient to explain which treatment strategy is most effective. If the drug-target complex dissociates rapidly, the antibiotic must be kept constantly at a concentration that prevents bacterial replication. If antibiotics cross bacterial cell envelopes slowly to reach their target, there is a delay in the onset of action that may be reduced by increasing initial antibiotic concentration. Finally, slow drug-target dissociation and slow diffusion out of cells act to prolong antibiotic effects, thereby allowing for less frequent dosing. Our model can be used as a tool in the rational design of treatment for bacterial infections. It is easily adaptable to other biological systems, e.g. HIV, malaria and cancer, where the effects of physiological fluctuations of drug concentration are also poorly understood.

  5. Treatment optimization in MS: Canadian MS Working Group updated recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Mark S; Selchen, Daniel; Arnold, Douglas L; Prat, Alexandre; Banwell, Brenda; Yeung, Michael; Morgenthau, David; Lapierre, Yves

    2013-05-01

    The Canadian Multiple Sclerosis Working Group (CMSWG) developed practical recommendations in 2004 to assist clinicians in optimizing the use of disease-modifying therapies (DMT) in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis. The CMSWG convened to review how disease activity is assessed, propose a more current approach for assessing suboptimal response, and to suggest a scheme for switching or escalating treatment. Practical criteria for relapses, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) progression and MRI were developed to classify the clinical level of concern as Low, Medium and High. The group concluded that a change in treatment may be considered in any RRMS patient if there is a high level of concern in any one domain (relapses, progression or MRI), a medium level of concern in any two domains, or a low level of concern in all three domains. These recommendations for assessing treatment response should assist clinicians in making more rational choices in their management of relapsing MS patients.

  6. Age-related macular degeneration: epidemiology and optimal treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, Morten; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2002-01-01

    (exudative cases); the remainder has only geographic atrophy. In cross-sectional population-based studies about 45% of eyes with AMD have visual acuity reduced to 20/200 or worse. This is true both for exudative AMD and pure geographic atrophy. Age and genetic predisposition are known risk factors for AMD...... a fluorescein angiographic study and a physician capable of interpreting it. For CNV not involving the foveal centre, the only evidence-based treatment is laser photocoagulation. For AMD cases with subfoveal CNV, good visual acuity, and predominantly classic fluorescence pattern on fluorescein angiography....... Smoking is probably also a risk factor. Preventive strategies using macular laser photocoagulation are under investigation, but their efficacy in preventing visual loss is as yet unproven. There is no treatment with proven efficacy for geographic atrophy. Optimal treatment for exudative AMD requires...

  7. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  8. Moisture-heating Treatment and Processing Optimization of Parboiled Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Siming; Xiong Shanbai

    2001-01-01

    Effect of moisture-heating treatment on the quality of parboiled rice and processing optimization were studied. Results indicated that the riboflavine content of parboiled rice is higher, and the color is light, aroma is strong and the head yield ratio is higher by soaking with acid and ethanol, cooking at high-pressure and then drying with high temperature-high moisture. Optimal processing parameters are soaking paddy with citrate acid for 2h, then with 1.5% ethanol for 1.5h, high pressure cooking for 30min, and then drying under 55%RH, 90℃ for 30min, cooling slowly for 2.5h, and shelling and milling immediately. Head yield ratio and whole rice ratio was 67.3% and 87.0% respectively, the color of finished product is light, rice aroma is strong, and the content of riboflavine is 2.47mg/100g.

  9. Moisture-heating Treatment and Processing Optimization of Parboiled Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoSiming; XiongShanbai

    2001-01-01

    Abstract: Effect of moisture-heating treatment on the quality ofparboiled rice and processing optimization were studied. Resultsindicated that the riboflavine content of parboiled rice is higher, and thecolor is light, aroma is strong and the head yield ratio is higher bysoaking with acid and ethanol, cooking at high-pressure and thendrying with high temperature-high moisture. Optimal processingparameters are soaking paddy with citrate acid for 2h, then with 1.5%ethanol for 1.5h, high pressure cooking for 30min, and then dryingunder 55%RH, 90~C for 30min, cooling slowly for 2.5h, and shelling andmilling immediately. Head yield ratio and whole rice ratio was 67.3%and 87.0% respectively, the color of finished product is light, ricearoma is strong, and the content of riboflavine is 2.47mg/100g.

  10. Optimization of CO{sub 2} use for cores and molds production using phenolic alkaline resin; Otimizacao do uso do CO{sub 2} na fabricacao de machos e moldes, utilizando resina fenolica alcalina gasada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Negro Sutter, Luiz Edmundo; Egreja, Jose Amilcar; Andrade, Jose Espedito de; Doroteu Neto, Antonio

    1996-12-31

    This technical paper describes the experiments held in lab scale with objective of optimizing CO{sub 2} gassing in the phenolic alkaline process. This paper also emphasizes the influence and the concern of the pressure and gassing time, CO{sub 2} temperature and flow rate control in order to obtain a complete hardening of the core and mould. After these experiments, and additional analysis was held in order to evaluate the quality of the casting as compared to the traditional process for cores and molds production. (author) 3 refs., 11 figs., 16 tabs.

  11. Recommendations for optimizing methotrexate treatment for patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Alfonso E; Perkins, Elizabeth L; Jay, Randy; Efthimiou, Petros

    2017-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) remains the cornerstone therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), with well-established safety and efficacy profiles and support in international guidelines. Clinical and radiologic results indicate benefits of MTX monotherapy and combination with other agents, yet patients may not receive optimal dosing, duration, or route of administration to maximize their response to this drug. This review highlights best practices for MTX use in RA patients. First, to improve the response to oral MTX, a high initial dose should be administered followed by rapid titration. Importantly, this approach does not appear to compromise safety or tolerability for patients. Treatment with oral MTX, with appropriate dose titration, then should be continued for at least 6 months (as long as the patient experiences some response to treatment within 3 months) to achieve an accurate assessment of treatment efficacy. If oral MTX treatment fails due to intolerability or inadequate response, the patient may be “rescued” by switching to subcutaneous delivery of MTX. Consideration should also be given to starting with subcutaneous MTX given its favorable bioavailability and pharmacodynamic profile over oral delivery. Either initiation of subcutaneous MTX therapy or switching from oral to subcutaneous administration improves persistence with treatment. Upon transition from oral to subcutaneous delivery, MTX dosage should be maintained, rather than increased, and titration should be performed as needed. Similarly, if another RA treatment is necessary to control the disease, the MTX dosage and route of administration should be maintained, with titration as needed. PMID:28435338

  12. Evaluation of various concentrations of alkaline surface treatment on interfacial bond strengths of amalgam bonded to amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Asaad Javaid; Ahmad, Asif; Mohammad, Taqi; Khan, Zahid Akhter

    2013-09-01

    This study was done to assess the influence of alkaline surface modification on interfacial bond strength of existing fractured (old) amalgam restoration bonded to fresh amalgam. Old and Fresh amalgam interfaced samples were prepared by applying a 4-methacryloyloxyethy trimellitate anhydride (4-META) containing adhesive. The adhesive used was Amalgabond (Parkell, Farmingdale, NY 11735, USA). Four concentrations of calcium hydroxide Ca(OH)2 solutions were used as a surface modifiers for old amalgam to increase the pH of the amalgam surfaces. The concentrations used were 2.5, 5, 10 and 15%. Direct measurement of the interfacial bond strength was carried out using an electromechanical universal tensile testing machine at crosshead speed of 10mm per minute. Results show that all the calcium hydroxide modified samples produced the increased tensile bond strength (TBS) as compared to their control group. The highest values of bond strength were achieved using 15% Ca(OH)2 solution as surface modifier. Pretreatment of fractured amalgam with calcium hydroxide improves the bond strength of 4-META adhesives. Its use in repair of amalgam may therefore be considered.

  13. Optimization of Pre-treatment Process of Cocoa Pod Husk Using Various Chemical Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novizar Nazir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to see the effect of type of reagent (NaOH, H2O2 and H2SO4 and the condition of  pre-treatment  of cocoa pod husk towards lignin content after pre-treatment and hydrolysis,  reducing sugar and total sugar content.  Response Surface Method (RSM was used to optimize process conditions of pre-treatment (delignification.  Hydrolysis for all pre-treated sample were carried out using 3% H2SO4 with a ratio of cocoa pod husk to solvent (1:10  for 2 hours at a temperature of 110 oC using an autoclave.  The chemical  pre-treatment with NaOH was optimized by varying the  concentrations of NaOH (4-8% (w/v, centre point: 6%,  reaction time (60-100 minutes, centre point: 80 minutes and ratio of biomass to solvent (1:15-1:25, centre point 1:20 w/v.  The optimum conditions in this study was at the concentration of NaOH (X1 of 4% w/v, reaction time  (X2 of 100 minutes; ratio of biomass/solvent  (X3 of 1:25 (w/v.   The lignin content after pre-treatment was  15.03% lignin, lignin content after hydrolysis was  19.57%,  11.75% of reducing sugar, and 12.78% of total sugar. The chemical  pre-treatment with alkaline peroxide  (H2O2  was optimized by varying the  concentrations of H2O2  (4-7% w/v, centre point 5.5% (w/v,  reaction time (40-90 minutes, centre point: 65 minutes, and ratio of biomass/solvent (4-7% w/v.   The optimum conditions in this study was at the concentration of H2O2 concentration (X1 of 5.52% w/v, reaction time (X2 of 61.97 minutes, biomass loading in solvent (X3 7% w/v.  The lignin content after pre-treatment was  8.759, lignin content after  hydrolysis was 25.029%,  8.169%  of reducing sugar, and 10.371% of total sugar.  The chemical pre-treatment with H2SO4  was optimized by varying the  concentrations of H2SO4  (0.5-1.5% w/v,  reaction time (60-120 minutes, centre point: 90 minutes, and ratio of biomass to solvent (1:4-1:6 w/v, centre point 1:5 w/v. The

  14. Alkaline treatment of timber sawdust: A straightforward route toward effective low-cost adsorbent for the enhanced removal of basic dyes from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamina Djilali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study assesses the ability of two low-cost adsorbents – timber sawdust (TS–OH and its alkaline treated analog (TS–ONa – to remove two basic dyes, namely, Methylene Blue and Methyl Green, from aqueous solutions. The presence of new functional groups on the surface of TS–ONa resulted in a dramatic increase of surface polarity and the density of sorption sites, thereby improving the sorption efficiency of the cationic dyes. The results obtained from the sorption characteristics have revealed that the sorption process for TS–ONa was uniform and rapid. The adsorption of cationic dyes reached equilibrium within the first 10 min of contact time and the treated material acts efficiently in a wide pH range of dye solutions. The extent of adsorption was measured through equilibrium sorption isotherms and analyzed using the Langmuir model. The monolayer saturation capacities for Methylene Blue are 694.44 and 1928.31 mg g−1 and for Methyl Green are 892.86 and 1821.33 mg g−1 for TS–OH and TS–ONa, respectively. Therefore, the chemically treated sawdust proved two- to threefold higher adsorption capacities of these dyes than those of the untreated analog. The exothermic nature of adsorption is demonstrated by a decrease of adsorption capacity with increasing temperature, and the negative value of free energy change indicated the spontaneity of adsorption. Desorption experiments with 1 M aqueous NaCl put into evidence that cationic dyes were completely desorbed from the matrices and the reusability of the TS–ONa matrix after three repeated cycles led to just a slight attenuation in its performance. These results show that alkaline treatment of a low value by-product of the timber industry leads to a powerful and efficient low-cost adsorbent, which may be used for the treatment of colored wastewaters.

  15. Sustainable Optimization for Wastewater Treatment System Using PSF-HS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong Woo Geem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The sustainability in a river with respect to water quality is critical because it is highly related with environmental pollution, economic expenditure, and public health. This study proposes a sustainability problem of wastewater treatment system for river ecosystem conservation which helps the healthy survival of the aquatic biota and human beings. This study optimizes the design of a wastewater treatment system using the parameter-setting-free harmony search algorithm, which does not require the existing tedious value-setting process for algorithm parameters. The real-scale system has three different options of wastewater treatment, such as filtration, nitrification, and diverted irrigation (fertilization, as well as two existing treatment processes (settling and biological oxidation. The objective of this system design is to minimize life cycle costs, including initial construction costs of those treatment options, while satisfying minimal dissolved oxygen requirements in the river, maximal nitrate-nitrogen concentration in groundwater, and a minimal nitrogen requirement for crop farming. Results show that the proposed technique could successfully find solutions without requiring a tedious setting process.

  16. Inclusion variations and calcium treatment optimization in pipeline steel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Hua; Wu, Hua-Jie; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-10-01

    SiCa line and SiCaBaFe alloy were injected into liquid pipeline steel at the end of LF refining as calcium treatment, and samples were taken from the ladles, mould, and slabs. Analysis of Ca content and inclusions shows that Ca content in steel decreases obviously in the following process after calcium treatment; the compositions, morphology, and sizes of inclusions also vary much in the production; primary inclusions in the ladles prior to calcium treatment are mainly Al2O3 inclusions, but they turn to fine irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 compound inclusions after the treatment, then become fine globular CaO-Al2O3 inclusions in the mould, and finally change to a few larger irregular CaS-CaO-Al2O3 complex inclusions in the slabs. Thermodynamic study reveals that inclusion variations are related with the preferential reactions among Ca, Al2O3, and S and the precipitation of S in CaO-Al2O3 inclusions with high sulfur capacity. New evaluation standards for calcium treatment in high-grade pipeline steel were put forward according to the inclusion variations and requirements of pipeline steel on inclusion controlling, and the calcium process was studied and optimized.

  17. [Optimization of acupuncture treatment programs for facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, He-Ping; Lin, Tian-dong; Cai, Min; Huang, Xian-xun; Wang, Bang-bo; Gao, Wei-keng

    2010-02-01

    To optimize the acupuncture treatment programs for facial paralysis. Sixty-three patients of facial paralysis were randomly divided and treated according to the table of L9 (3)4 in orthogonal test. They were treated with different combined programs of 4 factors and 3 levels, including factor A (acupuncture op portunity), B (acupoints prescription), C (quantity of stimulus) and D (time of electroacupuncture). The change of facial nerve function score was observed to choose the best acupuncture treatment program for facial paralysis from factor A (acupuncture opportunity), B (acupoints prescription), C (quantity of stimulus), D (time of electroacupuncture) and their 3 levels in each factor. B (acupoints prescription) and D (time of electroacupuncture) were significant factors (P facial paralysis.

  18. Pharmacokinetic characteristics of antimicrobials and optimal treatment of urosepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenlehner, Florian M E; Weidner, Wolfgang; Naber, Kurt G

    2007-01-01

    Urosepsis accounts for approximately 25% of all sepsis cases and may develop from a community-acquired or nosocomial urinary tract infection (UTI). Nevertheless, the underlying UTI is almost exclusively a complicated one with involvement of the parenchymatous urogenital organs (e.g. kidneys, prostate) and mostly associated with any kind of obstructive uropathy. If urosepsis originates from a nosocomial infection, a broad spectrum of Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens have to be expected, which are often multiresistant. In urosepsis, as in other types of sepsis, the severity of sepsis depends mostly upon the host response. The treatment of urosepsis follows the generally accepted rules of the 'Surviving Sepsis' campaign guidelines. Early normalisation of blood pressure and early adequate empirical antibacterial therapy with optimised dosing are equally important to meet the requirements of early goal-directed therapy. In most cases of urosepsis, early control of the infectious focus is possible and as important. Optimal supportive measures need to follow the early phase of resuscitation. To lower mortality from urosepsis, an optimal interdisciplinary approach between intensive care, anti-infective therapy and urology is essential, assisted by easy access to the necessary laboratory and imaging diagnostic procedures. Although most antibacterials achieve high urinary concentrations, there are several unique features of complicated UTI, and thus urosepsis, that influence the activity of antibacterial substances: (i) renal pharmacokinetics differ in unilateral and bilateral renal impairment and in unilateral and bilateral renal obstruction; (ii) variations in pH may influence the activity of certain antibacterials; and (iii) biofilm infection is frequently found under these conditions, which may increase the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the antibacterials at the site of infection by several hundred folds. Assessment of antibacterial pharmacodynamic

  19. Treatment optimization in low- and middle-income countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper D

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The unprecedented, successful collaborative international effort to provide universal access to HIV care, including effective antiretroviral therapy (ART, has reached a critical time point. The global economic downturn, changing donor priorities and competing priorities in the health sector threaten the capacity of various agencies to maintain support for the continued scale-up of access toward the UN General Assembly-agreed target of 15 million people with HIV/AIDS receiving ART by 2015. This aspiration has recently received added impetus as we have come to understand that treatment acts as prevention by reducing the infectiousness of treated individuals. It is now necessary to review the elements of the success to date, in order to be able to do more with less. These elements include efforts to optimize delivery of HIV care, including ART, in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC; the emergence of new agents and drug classes which have simplified HIV treatment and made broader successful management more achievable; and changes to commencement protocols. Recent studies have indicated that earlier commencement of HIV therapy is beneficial, leading to changes in the recommended ART initiation threshold in LMIC to <350 CD4 T cells/µL. Studies currently underway are investigating approaches to second-line ART in LMIC. The results from these studies will better inform the rollout of effective second-line therapy. In addition, the financial cost of ART makes optimization of dosing an important consideration in LMIC, in order to maximize effectiveness while limiting costs. ART monitoring is also an important priority in LMIC. Efforts to develop simple and reliable technologies that can provide rapid results in the field are underway. The final priority is operational optimization, to ensure service delivery through initiatives such as exploiting economies of scale and the training and retention of health professionals. Although the challenges in

  20. Valorization of lignin and cellulose in acid-steam-exploded corn stover by a moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment based on an integrated biorefinery concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Yue; Yue, Wen; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yun-Yan; Yuan, Tong-Qi; Sun, Run-Cang

    2016-01-01

    Due to the unsustainable consumption of fossil resources, great efforts have been made to convert lignocellulose into bioethanol and commodity organic compounds through biological methods. The conversion of cellulose is impeded by the compactness of plant cell wall matrix and crystalline structure of the native cellulose. Therefore, appropriate pretreatment and even post-treatment are indispensable to overcome this problem. Additionally, an adequate utilization of coproduct lignin will be important for improving the economic viability of modern biorefinery industries. The effectiveness of moderate alkaline ethanol post-treatment on the bioconversion efficiency of cellulose in the acid-steam-exploded corn stover was investigated in this study. Results showed that an increase of the alcoholic sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentration from 0.05 to 4% led to a decrease in the lignin content in the post-treated samples from 32.8 to 10.7%, while the cellulose digestibility consequently increased. The cellulose conversion of the 4% alcoholic NaOH integrally treated corn stover reached up to 99.3% after 72 h, which was significantly higher than that of the acid steam exploded corn stover without post-treatment (57.3%). In addition to the decrease in lignin content, an expansion of cellulose I lattice induced by the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment played a significant role in promoting the enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover. More importantly, the lignin fraction (AL) released during the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treatment and the lignin-rich residue (EHR) remained after the enzymatic hydrolysis of the 4% alcoholic NaOH post-treated acid-steam-exploded corn stover were employed to synthesize lignin-phenol-formaldehyde (LPF) resins. The plywoods prepared with the resins exhibit satisfactory performances. An alkaline ethanol system with an appropriate NaOH concentration could improve the removal of lignin and modification of the crystalline structure of cellulose in acid

  1. Growth hormone for optimization of refractory heart failure treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bocchi Edimar Alcides

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that growth hormone may benefit selected patients with congestive heart failure. A 63-year-old man with refractory congestive heart failure waiting for heart transplantation, depending on intravenous drugs (dobutamine and presenting with progressive worsening of the clinical status and cachexia, despite standard treatment, received growth hormone replacement (8 units per day for optimization of congestive heart failure management. Increase in both serum growth hormone levels (from 0.3 to 0.8 mg/l and serum IGF-1 levels (from 130 to 300ng/ml was noted, in association with clinical status improvement, better optimization of heart failure treatment and discontinuation of dobutamine infusion. Left ventricular ejection fraction (by MUGA increased from 13 % to 18 % and to 28 % later, in association with reduction of pulmonary pressures and increase in exercise capacity (rise in peak VO2 to 13.4 and to 16.2ml/kg/min later. The patient was "de-listed" for heart transplantation. Growth hormone may benefit selected patients with refractory heart failure.

  2. Combining clinical variables to optimize prediction of antidepressant treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iniesta, Raquel; Malki, Karim; Maier, Wolfgang; Rietschel, Marcella; Mors, Ole; Hauser, Joanna; Henigsberg, Neven; Dernovsek, Mojca Zvezdana; Souery, Daniel; Stahl, Daniel; Dobson, Richard; Aitchison, Katherine J; Farmer, Anne; Lewis, Cathryn M; McGuffin, Peter; Uher, Rudolf

    2016-07-01

    The outcome of treatment with antidepressants varies markedly across people with the same diagnosis. A clinically significant prediction of outcomes could spare the frustration of trial and error approach and improve the outcomes of major depressive disorder through individualized treatment selection. It is likely that a combination of multiple predictors is needed to achieve such prediction. We used elastic net regularized regression to optimize prediction of symptom improvement and remission during treatment with escitalopram or nortriptyline and to identify contributing predictors from a range of demographic and clinical variables in 793 adults with major depressive disorder. A combination of demographic and clinical variables, with strong contributions from symptoms of depressed mood, reduced interest, decreased activity, indecisiveness, pessimism and anxiety significantly predicted treatment outcomes, explaining 5-10% of variance in symptom improvement with escitalopram. Similar combinations of variables predicted remission with area under the curve 0.72, explaining approximately 15% of variance (pseudo R(2)) in who achieves remission, with strong contributions from body mass index, appetite, interest-activity symptom dimension and anxious-somatizing depression subtype. Escitalopram-specific outcome prediction was more accurate than generic outcome prediction, and reached effect sizes that were near or above a previously established benchmark for clinical significance. Outcome prediction on the nortriptyline arm did not significantly differ from chance. These results suggest that easily obtained demographic and clinical variables can predict therapeutic response to escitalopram with clinically meaningful accuracy, suggesting a potential for individualized prescription of this antidepressant drug.

  3. Optimal Pharmacologic Treatment Strategies in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayotri Goswami

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity has increased to pandemic levels worldwide and is related to increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Metabolic comorbidities are commonly associated with obesity and include metabolic syndrome, pre-diabetes, and type 2 diabetes. Even if the prevalence of obesity remains stable until 2030, the anticipated numbers of people with diabetes will more than double as a consequence of population aging and urbanization. Weight reduction is integral in the prevention of diabetes among obese adults with pre-diabetes. Lifestyle intervention and weight reduction are also key in the management of type 2 diabetes. Weight loss is challenging for most obese patients, but for those with diabetes, it can pose an even greater challenge due to the weight gain associated with many treatment regimens. This article will review optimal treatment strategies for patients with comorbid obesity and type 2 diabetes. The role of anti-obesity agents in diabetes will also be reviewed. This literature review will provide readers with current strategies for the pharmacologic treatment of obesity and diabetes with a focus on the weight outcomes related to diabetes treatments.

  4. Impedance cardiography – optimization and efficacy evaluation of antihypertensive treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Panasiuk-Kamińska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background . Hypertension is a civilization disease which currently affects about 10.5 m people in Poland. The number of patients with diagnosed, untreated hypertension amounts to 18%, and as many as 45% of patients are treated ineffectively whereas only 26% are treated effectively. Impedance cardiography (IC is an important tool both in diagnostics and the treatment of hypertensive patients, particularly in the case of antihypertensive treatment resistance. This method allows for the individualized treatment of each patient on the basis of hemodynamic parameters, monitoring of hypertensive patients in the outpatient care setting, and the assessment of cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives . The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of hypotensive medications in patients with hypertension using impedance cardiography. Material and methods. The study involved 60 hypertensive patients, treated with antihypertensives, who failed to achieve the required blood pressure values. The modification of hypertension therapy was based on EBM (evidence-based medicine and on hemodynamic parameters obtained using impedance cardiography. Results . It was found that high blood pressure therapy based on impedance cardiography parameters has a significant influence on blood pressure reduction compared to EM B-based therapy: below 140/90: 66.8 vs. 55.1% and below 130/80: 23.5 vs. 18.9%. Conclusions . On the basis of this study it was confirmed that impedance cardiography allows for a significant reduction of hypertension and the selection of the most effective therapeutic strategy, providing for the optimization and efficacy of hypertension treatment.

  5. Noninfectious uveitis: strategies to optimize treatment compliance and adherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolz-Marco R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Rosa Dolz-Marco,1 Roberto Gallego-Pinazo,1 Manuel Díaz-Llopis,2 Emmett T Cunningham Jr,3–6 J Fernando Arévalo7,8 1Unit of Macula, Department of Ophthalmology, University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Spain; 3Department of Ophthalmology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, 4Department of Ophthalmology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, 5The Francis I Proctor Foundation, University of California San Francisco Medical Center, 6West Coast Retina Medical Group, San Francisco, CA, USA; 7Vitreoretina Division, King Khaled Eye Specialist Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 8Retina Division, Wilmer Eye Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Noninfectious uveitis includes a heterogenous group of sight-threatening ocular and systemic disorders. Significant progress has been made in the treatment of noninfectious uveitis in recent years, particularly with regard to the effective use of corticosteroids and non-corticosteroid immunosuppressive drugs, including biologic agents. All of these therapeutic approaches are limited, however, by any given patient’s ability to comply with and adhere to their prescribed treatment. In fact, compliance and adherence are among the most important patient-related determinants of treatment success. We discuss strategies to optimize compliance and adherence. Keywords: noninfectious uveitis, intraocular inflammation, immunosuppressive treatment, adherence, compliance, therapeutic failure

  6. The significance of early changes in serum alkaline-phosphatase levels following endocrine treatment in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Pareek

    2000-01-01

    Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients with advanced carcinoma of the prostate have flare in SAP le-vels soon after initiating the treatment. We confirm that the flare activity in SAP levels is a negative prognostic indicator and it is possible to identify early treatment fail-ures by frequent measurements of SAP levels during first 6 weeks of commencing the therapy. The significance of SAP fare and androgen resistance is discussed.

  7. Effects of alkaline or liquid-ammonia treatment on crystalline cellulose: changes in crystalline structure and effects on enzymatic digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmel Michael E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In converting biomass to bioethanol, pretreatment is a key step intended to render cellulose more amenable and accessible to cellulase enzymes and thus increase glucose yields. In this study, four cellulose samples with different degrees of polymerization and crystallinity indexes were subjected to aqueous sodium hydroxide and anhydrous liquid ammonia treatments. The effects of the treatments on cellulose crystalline structure were studied, in addition to the effects on the digestibility of the celluloses by a cellulase complex. Results From X-ray diffractograms and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, it was revealed that treatment with liquid ammonia produced the cellulose IIII allomorph; however, crystallinity depended on treatment conditions. Treatment at a low temperature (25°C resulted in a less crystalline product, whereas treatment at elevated temperatures (130°C or 140°C gave a more crystalline product. Treatment of cellulose I with aqueous sodium hydroxide (16.5 percent by weight resulted in formation of cellulose II, but also produced a much less crystalline cellulose. The relative digestibilities of the different cellulose allomorphs were tested by exposing the treated and untreated cellulose samples to a commercial enzyme mixture (Genencor-Danisco; GC 220. The digestibility results showed that the starting cellulose I samples were the least digestible (except for corn stover cellulose, which had a high amorphous content. Treatment with sodium hydroxide produced the most digestible cellulose, followed by treatment with liquid ammonia at a low temperature. Factor analysis indicated that initial rates of digestion (up to 24 hours were most strongly correlated with amorphous content. Correlation of allomorph type with digestibility was weak, but was strongest with cellulose conversion at later times. The cellulose IIII samples produced at higher temperatures had comparable crystallinities to the initial cellulose I

  8. Optimization of conventional water treatment plant using dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Khezri Seyed; Bahareh, Ghafari; Elahe, Dadvar; Pegah, Dadras

    2015-12-01

    In this research, the mathematical models, indicating the capability of various units, such as rapid mixing, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation, and the rapid sand filtration are used. Moreover, cost functions were used for the formulation of conventional water and wastewater treatment plant by applying Clark's formula (Clark, 1982). Also, by applying dynamic programming algorithm, it is easy to design a conventional treatment system with minimal cost. The application of the model for a case reduced the annual cost. This reduction was approximately in the range of 4.5-9.5% considering variable limitations. Sensitivity analysis and prediction of system's feedbacks were performed for different alterations in proportion from parameters optimized amounts. The results indicated (1) that the objective function is more sensitive to design flow rate (Q), (2) the variations in the alum dosage (A), and (3) the sand filter head loss (H). Increasing the inflow by 20%, the total annual cost would increase to about 12.6%, while 20% reduction in inflow leads to 15.2% decrease in the total annual cost. Similarly, 20% increase in alum dosage causes 7.1% increase in the total annual cost, while 20% decrease results in 7.9% decrease in the total annual cost. Furthermore, the pressure decrease causes 2.95 and 3.39% increase and decrease in total annual cost of treatment plants.

  9. Optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment: Small scale implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyoucef, Fatima; Makan, Abdelhadi; El Ghmari, Abderrahman; Ouatmane, Aziz

    2016-04-01

    This paper introduces an optimized evaporation technique for leachate treatment. For this purpose and in order to study the feasibility and measure the effectiveness of the forced evaporation, three cuboidal steel tubs were designed and implemented. The first control-tub was installed at the ground level to monitor natural evaporation. Similarly, the second and the third tub, models under investigation, were installed respectively at the ground level (equipped-tub 1) and out of the ground level (equipped-tub 2), and provided with special equipment to accelerate the evaporation process. The obtained results showed that the evaporation rate at the equipped-tubs was much accelerated with respect to the control-tub. It was accelerated five times in the winter period, where the evaporation rate was increased from a value of 0.37 mm/day to reach a value of 1.50 mm/day. In the summer period, the evaporation rate was accelerated more than three times and it increased from a value of 3.06 mm/day to reach a value of 10.25 mm/day. Overall, the optimized evaporation technique can be applied effectively either under electric or solar energy supply, and will accelerate the evaporation rate from three to five times whatever the season temperature. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effect of fertilizer treatments on an alkaline soil and on early performance of two bottomland oak species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Jr. Ponder; Matthew John Kramer; Freida Eivazi

    2008-01-01

    Many acres of once productive Missouri farmland along the Missouri River are being planted to bottomland hardwoods. Once trees become established on many of these sites, however, most show symptoms of chlorotis due to high pH levels (>7.5) in soil. Six treatments containing combinations of iron (Fe), sulfur (S), and nitrogen (N) were tested for their effectiveness...

  11. Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater and optimization of treatment conditions with response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Güray; Perendeci, Altunay; Tanyolaç, Abdurrahman

    2008-08-30

    Electrochemical treatment of deproteinated whey wastewater produced during cheese manufacture was studied as an alternative treatment method for the first time in literature. Through the preliminary batch runs, appropriate electrode material was determined as iron due to high removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD), and turbidity. The electrochemical treatment conditions were optimized through response surface methodology (RSM), where applied voltage was kept in the range, electrolyte concentration was minimized, waste concentration and COD removal percent were maximized at 25 degrees C. Optimum conditions at 25 degrees C were estimated through RSM as 11.29 V applied voltage, 100% waste concentration (containing 40 g/L lactose) and 19.87 g/L electrolyte concentration to achieve 29.27% COD removal. However, highest COD removal through the set of runs was found as 53.32% within 8h. These results reveal the applicability of electrochemical treatment to the deproteinated whey wastewater as an alternative advanced wastewater treatment method.

  12. Biogenic nano-magnetite and nano-zero valent iron treatment of alkaline Cr(VI) leachate and chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Mathew P; Coker, Victoria S; Parry, Stephen A; Pattrick, Richard A D; Thomas, Russell A P; Kalin, Robert; Lloyd, Jonathan R

    2015-03-01

    Highly reactive nano-scale biogenic magnetite (BnM), synthesized by the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens, was tested for the potential to remediate alkaline Cr(VI) contaminated waters associated with chromite ore processing residue (COPR). The performance of this biomaterial, targeting aqueous Cr(VI) removal, was compared to a synthetic alternative, nano-scale zero valent iron (nZVI). Samples of highly contaminated alkaline groundwater and COPR solid waste were obtained from a contaminated site in Glasgow, UK. During batch reactivity tests, Cr(VI) removal from groundwater was inhibited by ∼25% (BnM) and ∼50% (nZVI) when compared to the treatment of less chemically complex model pH 12 Cr(VI) solutions. In both the model Cr(VI) solutions and contaminated groundwater experiments the surface of the nanoparticles became passivated, preventing complete coupling of their available electrons to Cr(VI) reduction. To investigate this process, the surfaces of the reacted samples were analyzed by TEM-EDX, XAS and XPS, confirming Cr(VI) reduction to the less soluble Cr(III) on the nanoparticle surface. In groundwater reacted samples the presence of Ca, Si and S was also noted on the surface of the nanoparticles, and is likely responsible for earlier onset of passivation. Treatment of the solid COPR material in contact with water, by addition of increasing weight % of the nanoparticles, resulted in a decrease in aqueous Cr(VI) concentrations to below detection limits, via the addition of ⩾5% w/w BnM or ⩾1% w/w nZVI. XANES analysis of the Cr K edge, showed that the % Cr(VI) in the COPR dropped from 26% to a minimum of 4-7% by the addition of 5% w/w BnM or 2% w/w nZVI, with higher additions unable to reduce the remaining Cr(VI). The treated materials exhibited minimal re-mobilization of soluble Cr(VI) by re-equilibration with atmospheric oxygen, with the bulk of the Cr remaining in the solid fraction. Both nanoparticles exhibited a considerable capacity

  13. Optimization of electrocoagulation process for the treatment of landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, N.; Raman, A. A.; Ramesh, S.

    2017-06-01

    The main problem of landfill leachate is its diverse composition comprising of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) which must be removed before being discharge into the environment. In this study, the treatment of leachate using electrocoagulation (EC) was investigated. Iron was used as both the anode and cathode. Response surface methodology was used for experimental design and to study the effects of operational parameters. Central Composite Design was used to study the effects of initial pH, inter-electrode distance, and electrolyte concentration on color, and COD removals. The process could remove up to 84 % color and 49.5 % COD. The experimental data was fitted onto second order polynomial equations. All three factors were found to be significantly affect the color removal. On the other hand, electrolyte concentration was the most significant parameter affecting the COD removal. Numerical optimization was conducted to obtain the optimum process performance. Further work will be conducted towards integrating EC with other wastewater treatment processes such as electro-Fenton.

  14. Optimization of epilepsy treatment with vagus nerve stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthman, Basim; Bewernitz, Michael; Liu, Chang-Chia; Ghacibeh, Georges

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorders that affects close to 50 million people worldwide. Antiepilepsy drugs (AEDs), the main stay of epilepsy treatment, control seizures in two thirds of patients only. Other therapies include the ketogenic diet, ablative surgery, hormonal treatments and neurostimulation. While other approaches to stimulation of the brain are currently in the experimental phase vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) has been approved by the FDA since July 1997 for the adjunctive treatment of intractable partial onset epilepsy with and without secondary generalization in patients twelve years of age or older. The safety and efficacy of VNS have been proven and duplicated in two subsequent double-blinded controlled studies after two pilot studies demonstrated the feasibility of VNS in man. Long term observational studies confirmed the safety of VNS and that its effectiveness is sustained over time. While AEDs influence seizure thresholds via blockade or modulation of ionic channels, inhibit excitatory neurotransmitters or enhance inhibitory neurotransmitters the exact mechanism of action of VNS is not known. Neuroimaging studies revealed that VNS increases blood flow in certain regions of the brain such as the thalamus. Chemical lesions in the rat brains showed that norepinephrine is an important link in the anticonvulsant effect of VNS. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained from patients before and after treatment with VNS showed modest decreases in excitatory neurotransmitters. Although Hammond et al. reported no effect of VNS on scalp EEG by visual analysis and Salinsky et al. found no effect of VNS on scalp EEG by spectral analysis, Kuba et al. suggested that VNS reduces interictal epileptiform activity. Further, nonlinear dynamical analysis of the electroencephalogram in the rat and man have reportedly shown predictable changes (decrease in the short term Lyapunov exponent STLmax and T-index) more than an hour prior to the

  15. Anodes for alkaline electrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev

    2011-02-01

    A method of making an anode for alkaline electrolysis cells includes adsorption of precursor material on a carbonaceous material, conversion of the precursor material to hydroxide form and conversion of precursor material from hydroxide form to oxy-hydroxide form within the alkaline electrolysis cell.

  16. 基于多元非线性回归优化制备碱钢渣胶凝材料%Optimized Preparation of Alkaline Steel Slag Cement Materials Based on Multivariate Nonlinear Regression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张庆丰; 张浩; 陆彪

    2016-01-01

    以钢渣作为研究对象,采用水玻璃、氢氧化钠与氢氧化钙三元复合活化剂,制备碱钢渣胶凝材料。基于均匀设计和多元非线性回归法研究了各因素对碱钢渣胶凝材料力学性能的影响。结果表明,各因素对性能影响的主次顺序为:3 d时钢渣用量>氢氧化钠用量>水玻璃用量>氢氧化钙用量,7 d时钢渣用量>水玻璃用量>氢氧化钠用量>氢氧化钙用量,28 d时钢渣用量>水玻璃用量>氢氧化钙用量>氢氧化钠用量;28 d碱钢渣胶凝材料的优化制备方案为:钢渣用量为225 g,水玻璃用量为22.5 g,氢氧化钠用量为9.0 g,氢氧化钙用量为13.2 g;优化制备模型选择正确,其相对误差仅为2.19%。%Alkaline steel slag cement materials were prepared with steel slag as the research object, sodium silicate, sodium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide as the ternary compound activator. The effect of every factor on mechanical property of alkaline steel slag cement materials was studied by orthogonal design and multivariate nonlinear regression. The results show that primary and secondary sequence of factors is steel slag dosage>sodium hydroxide dosage>sodium silicate dosage>calcium hydroxide dosage in 3 d, steel slag dosage>sodium silicate dosage>sodium hydroxide dosage>calcium hydroxide dosage in 7 d, steel slag dosage>sodium silicate dosage>calcium hydroxide dosage>sodium hydroxide dosage in 28 d. The optimization program of alkaline steel slag cement materials in 28 d is steel slag dosage 225 g, sodium silicate dosage 22.5 g, sodium hydroxide dosage 9.0 g and calcium hydroxide dosage 13.2 g. Optimized preparation model is correct, its relative error is only 2.19%.

  17. How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how...... to plan and analyze studies to optimize this timing. Methods: General considerations about studying the optimal timing are given and four fundamental steps are illustrated using data from a published study. Results: The optimal timing should be examined by optimizing the schedule with respect...... to predicting the overall individual time course we can observe in the case of dense measurements. The optimal timing needs not to and should not be studied by optimizing the association with the prognosis of the patient. Conclusions: The optimal timing should be examined in specific ‘schedule optimizing...

  18. Alkaline battery operational methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholklapper, Tal; Gallaway, Joshua; Steingart, Daniel; Ingale, Nilesh; Nyce, Michael

    2016-08-16

    Methods of using specific operational charge and discharge parameters to extend the life of alkaline batteries are disclosed. The methods can be used with any commercial primary or secondary alkaline battery, as well as with newer alkaline battery designs, including batteries with flowing electrolyte. The methods include cycling batteries within a narrow operating voltage window, with minimum and maximum cut-off voltages that are set based on battery characteristics and environmental conditions. The narrow voltage window decreases available capacity but allows the batteries to be cycled for hundreds or thousands of times.

  19. Impedance cardiography – optimization and efficacy evaluation of antihypertensive treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panasiuk-Kamińska, Katarzyna; Szeliga-Król, Jolanta; Zubilewicz, Renata; Jaroszyński, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    ...% are treated effectively. Impedance cardiography (IC) is an important tool both in diagnostics and the treatment of hypertensive patients, particularly in the case of antihypertensive treatment resistance...

  20. 重组毕赤酵母发酵生产扩展青霉碱性脂肪酶的优化%Optimization of fermentation condition for Penicillium expansum alkaline lipase production using recombinant Pichia pastoris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙肖明; 吴涵; 卜秀娟; 韩颖; 张浩东; 孟宪梅

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the recombinant Pichia pastoris engineering bacteria was used to produce alkaline lipase (the engineering bacteria was constructed by our lab previously), and expression condition was improved. At first single factor experiments were performed to select factors significant influence at expression, four factors was selected: inducing time, initialize pH, methanol concentration and inoculate. Four-liner regression with orthogonal design methods were constructed based on the single factor experiments, date was tested with SPSS 18 software. The results indicated that the optimization fermentation condition was that inducing 96 h, pH6.0, 0.5% methanol, inoculation 150 mL, the alkaline lipase activity was 242.7 U/mL.%通过毕赤酵母工程茵表达碱性脂肪酶,对表达条件进行了优化。先进行单因素实验,筛选出对碱性脂肪酶表达影响较大的4个因素:诱导时间、初始pH、甲醇添加量和接种量;在单因素实验的基础上设计四元线性回归实验,利用SPSS18数据处理软件进行数据优化,结果表明,诱导时间为96h、初始pH为6.0、甲醇添加量为0.5%、接种量为150mL时有最佳的表达效果,碱性脂肪酶活力为242.7U/mL。

  1. Optimizing patient treatment decisions in an era of rapid technological advances: the case of hepatitis C treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shan; Brandeau, Margaret L; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D

    2017-03-01

    How long should a patient with a treatable chronic disease wait for more effective treatments before accepting the best available treatment? We develop a framework to guide optimal treatment decisions for a deteriorating chronic disease when treatment technologies are improving over time. We formulate an optimal stopping problem using a discrete-time, finite-horizon Markov decision process. The goal is to maximize a patient's quality-adjusted life expectancy. We derive structural properties of the model and analytically solve a three-period treatment decision problem. We illustrate the model with the example of treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). Chronic HCV affects 3-4 million Americans and has been historically difficult to treat, but increasingly effective treatments have been commercialized in the past few years. We show that the optimal treatment decision is more likely to be to accept currently available treatment-despite expectations for future treatment improvement-for patients who have high-risk history, who are older, or who have more comorbidities. Insights from this study can guide HCV treatment decisions for individual patients. More broadly, our model can guide treatment decisions for curable chronic diseases by finding the optimal treatment policy for individual patients in a heterogeneous population.

  2. 碱厂碱渣浸出毒性分析与处理%Leaching Toxicity Experiment and Treatment of Alkaline Slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴伟; 刘宪斌; 刘占广; 李国锋

    2011-01-01

    Constituents in solid wastes can enter and contaminate the groundwater and surface water by the eluviation, lixiviation, scour with rainwater, groundwater and surface water. Then they may transfer into soil or creatures and contaminate the food chains, posing serious threats to human's health. This study was a leaching toxicity experiment on alkaline slag from a Chemical Plant (Alkaline Factory) in Bohai coastal area . It analyzed results of the leaching toxicity experiment of alkaline slag under the direction of Identification standards for hazardous wastes - Identification for extraction toxicity, (GB 5085.3-2007). Compared with the limits of heavy metal ions, flu-orin ion and cyanogen ion, each concentration of heavy metal ions except cadmium, fluorin ion and cyanogen ion was within the normal range. Causticity of alkaline slag was high enough to do harm to workers in the factory and residents around the factory as well as the machinery for transporting the alkaline slag. The study was significantly important to the monitoring and assessing the alkaline slag, and it can be accordance as the direction in supervising the alkaline slag together with its overall utilization. It was reported that scholars and technicians around the world had done many research on the leaching toxicity of some solid waste, but alkaline slag caused little attention. In many countries the administration and supervision of solid waste and relevant laws were not in sound operation , so there can be lots of research to do in the field of the disposition of solid waste, especially in the alkaline slag. The suggestion about the disposal of alkaline slag in accordance with its characteristics and jeopardize was proposed in this study through the current hot points of the research home and abroad and the fact of Alkaline Factory. The prospect of the trends of disposal of alkaline slag was pointed out also.%固体废物中的有害成分可随雨水、地表水和地下水的淋溶、浸泡、

  3. Uranium in alkaline rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M.; Wollenberg, H.; Strisower, B.; Bowman, H.; Flexser, S.; Carmichael, I.

    1978-04-01

    Geologic and geochemical criteria were developed for the occurrence of economic uranium deposits in alkaline igneous rocks. A literature search, a limited chemical analytical program, and visits to three prominent alkaline-rock localities (Ilimaussaq, Greenland; Pocos de Caldas, Brazil; and Powderhorn, Colorado) were made to establish criteria to determine if a site had some uranium resource potential. From the literature, four alkaline-intrusive occurrences of differing character were identified as type-localities for uranium mineralization, and the important aspects of these localities were described. These characteristics were used to categorize and evaluate U.S. occurrences. The literature search disclosed 69 U.S. sites, encompassing nepheline syenite, alkaline granite, and carbonatite. It was possible to compare two-thirds of these sites to the type localities. A ranking system identified ten of the sites as most likely to have uranium resource potential.

  4. 碱性清洗剂保湿处理对手术器械防锈效果观察%Observation on antirust effect of alkaline detergent moisturizing treatment for surgi-cal instruments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏淑娇; 陈彩央; 张晔; 舒君美; 徐永仙; 钱旭聪

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究碱性清洗剂保湿处理对使用后手术器械防锈效果。方法通过肉眼裸视检测方法,观察一种碱性清洗剂用于夜间手术后器械保湿处理的防锈效果。结果普通手术组手术后器械经碱性清洗剂作保湿处理的观察组,有极个别器械出现变色但未出现锈斑,合格率为99.04%。感染性手术组使用后手术器械先经含氯消毒液浸泡后,再用碱性清洗剂作保湿处理的观察组,有极少数器械出现变色,合格率为98.52%;对照组使用后器械只用水浸泡保湿处理的出现多件3处及以上的锈斑,合格率为76.17%。结论使用后手术器械不论是否经含氯消毒液浸泡,使用碱性清洗剂作保湿处理均可有效保湿并可防止器械锈蚀。%Objective To study the antirust effect of alkaline detergent moisturizing treatment for surgical instruments. Methods Eyesight detection method,the antirust effect of a kind of alkaline cleaner used for night postoperative instru-ments moisturizing treatment was used to observed. Results The equipment after normal operation by using alkaline clean-ing agent for moisturizing treatment as observation group,only very few instruments appeared color change,but not rust spots,the qualified rate was 99. 04%. The equipment after infectious operation by using chlorine disinfectant soaking and then alkaline cleaning agent for moisturizing treatment as observation group,also only a handful of devices appeared color change,the pass rate was 98. 52%. The instruments only by using water soaking for moisturizing treatment as control group,many devices appeared three and more rusty spots,the pass rate was only 76. 17%. Conclusion For instrument after operation with or without chlorine disinfectant soaking,using alkaline detergent for moisturizing treatment can moistur-ize and prevent the equipment corrosion.

  5. Optimalization Of Port-Wine Stain Treatment With Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaye, C. T.; van Gemert, M. J.; Henning, J. P. H.

    1985-03-01

    To optimalize laser-parameters for therapy of port-wine stains temperature calculations have been performed on a skin model. The optimal values of these numerically evaluated variables are: wavelength λ= 415,577 or 540 nm., pulse-time t1 a few milliseconds and beam radius wi> 0.1 mm. Based on these theoretical results some experiments have been carried out which confirm the calculations. Thus laser-therapy for port-wine stains can be ameliorated.

  6. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: emerging targeted therapies to optimize treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milic S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sandra Milic,1 Ivana Mikolasevic,1,2 Irena Krznaric-Zrnic,1 Marija Stanic,3 Goran Poropat,1 Davor Stimac,1 Vera Vlahovic-Palcevski,4 Lidija Orlic2 1Department of Gastroenterology, UHC Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; 2Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Kidney Transplantation, UHC Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; 3Department of Hematology, UHC Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia; 4Department for Clinical Pharmacology, University of Rijeka Medical School, UHC Rijeka, Rijeka, Croatia Abstract: Diet and lifestyle changes have led to worldwide increases in the prevalences of obesity and metabolic syndrome, resulting in substantially greater incidence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. NAFLD is considered a hepatic manifestation of metabolic syndrome and is related to diabetes, insulin resistance, central obesity, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH is an entity that describes liver inflammation due to NAFLD. Growing evidence suggests that NAFLD is a multisystem disease with a clinical burden that is not only confined to liver-related morbidity and mortality, but that also affects several extra-hepatic organs and regulatory pathways. Thus, NAFLD is considered an important public health issue, but there is currently no effective therapy for all NAFLD patients in the general population. Studies seeking optimal therapy for NAFLD and NASH have not yet led to development of a universal protocol for treating this growing problem. Several pharmacological agents have been studied in an effort to improve insulin resistance and the proinflammatory mediators that may be responsible for NASH progression. Cardiovascular risk factors are highly prevalent among NASH patients, and the backbone of treatment regimens for these patients still comprises general lifestyle interventions, including dietary changes and increased physical activity. Vitamin E and thiazolidinedione derivatives are currently the most evidence-based therapeutic options, but only

  7. [Optimization of alkaline hydrolysis based on the side chain of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolic acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, M M; Wang, M; Liu, J Y; Zhang, Z L

    2017-08-18

    To optimize and establish the best hydrolysis method of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate through the optimization of simple compound of diethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate. To increase the low yield of hydrolysis reaction of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate due to the by-products and difficult purification, we studied the effect of NaOH and KOH, two kinds of alkalis, three concentrations between 0.175-1 mol/L and five types of reaction time involved in 20, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min on the common side chain diethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate. A high performance liquid chromatography was established for measuring the target product and the by-products in reaction liquid in different reaction conditions. Finally, on the basis of the best hydrolysis method of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate, we completed the optimization of the hydrolysis reaction conditions of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate. We developed the best reaction condition for the hydrolysis of diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate, which could be carried out easily and efficiently. The results indicated that treated with the optimized condition of 0.3 mol/L KOH in 60 min at the room temperature, diethyl ester 4-amino-N(5)-formyl-N(8), N(10)-dideazatetrahydrofolate was converted into its diacid derivative in 95.6 % yield, which turned to be a better reaction condition compared with the previous reaction condition. The structures of those compounds were identified to be correct by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance(1H NMR), 13C nuclear magnetic resonance(13C NMR) and electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). The purity of the diacid derivative of the compound was determined to be 96% by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The new hydrolysis reaction condition could not only avoid the formation of

  8. Processing Methods of Alkaline Hydrolysate from Rice Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga D. Arefieva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper devoted to finding processing methods of alkaline hydrolysate produced from rice husk pre-extraction, and discusses alkaline hydrolysate processing schemed and disengagement of some products: amorphous silica of various quality, alkaline lignin, and water and alkaline extraction polysaccharides. Silica samples were characterized: crude (air-dried, burnt (no preliminary water treatment, washed in distilled water, and washed in distilled water and burnt. Waste water parameters upon the extraction of solids from alkaline hydrolysate dropped a few dozens or thousand times depending on the applied processing method. Color decreased a few thousand times, turbidity was virtually eliminated, chemical oxygen demanded about 20–136 times; polyphenols content might decrease 50% or be virtually eliminated. The most prospective scheme obtained the two following solid products from rice husk alkaline hydrolysate: amorphous silica and alkaline extraction polysaccharide. Chemical oxygen demand of the remaining waste water decreased about 140 times compared to the silica-free solution.

  9. Determination of an optimal control strategy for drug administration in tumor treatment using multi-objective optimization differential evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobato, Fran Sérgio; Machado, Vinicius Silvério; Steffen, Valder

    2016-07-01

    The mathematical modeling of physical and biologic systems represents an interesting alternative to study the behavior of these phenomena. In this context, the development of mathematical models to simulate the dynamic behavior of tumors is configured as an important theme in the current days. Among the advantages resulting from using these models is their application to optimization and inverse problem approaches. Traditionally, the formulated Optimal Control Problem (OCP) has the objective of minimizing the size of tumor cells by the end of the treatment. In this case an important aspect is not considered, namely, the optimal concentrations of drugs may affect the patients' health significantly. In this sense, the present work has the objective of obtaining an optimal protocol for drug administration to patients with cancer, through the minimization of both the cancerous cells concentration and the prescribed drug concentration. The resolution of this multi-objective problem is obtained through the Multi-objective Optimization Differential Evolution (MODE) algorithm. The Pareto's Curve obtained supplies a set of optimal protocols from which an optimal strategy for drug administration can be chosen, according to a given criterion.

  10. Using qualitative evidence to optimize child PTSD treatment guidelines.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesel, F. van; Alisic, E.; Boeije, H.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of patients’ perspectives in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is increasingly emphasized in recent years. However, qualitative evidence regarding these perspectives, is not systematically included in treatment guidelines. The possibilities of adding systematically

  11. ANOXIA, Treatment by Oxygen Deprivation, Optimizing Treatment Time of Museum Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gunn, M; Naffah, C; Ziaeepour, H; Gunn, Michele; Merizzi, Fabrice; Naffah, Christitiane; Ziaeepour, Houri

    2006-01-01

    ANOXIA, treatment by oxygen deprivation is largely used for decontamination and disinfestation of cellulose and protein-based organic materials. More specifically this method is applied to more than one hundred thousand of objects destinated for a new museum in Paris, "Musee du Quai Branly". We describe the anoxia installation in this museum and report the result of a study regarding the efficiency of this method and the optimum treatment time, crucial for treating a large collection. We show that the standard 21 days of exposure is not always the optimal choice. Temperature plays a crucial role for hastening the death of insects found within objects. At a temperature of 25C, it is entirely possible to reduce exposure times to 10 or 15 days for the insect species commonly found in museums. The oxygen drop times is between 1 and 2 days for most objects, depending on type and porosity of materials. This corresponds to a treatment time between 15 and 16 days. The effect of humidity is less clear. It can increase...

  12. Anammox moving bed biofilm reactor pilot at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plants in Brooklyn, New York: start-up, biofilm population diversity and performance optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrdad, M; Park, H; Ramalingam, K; Fillos, J; Beckmann, K; Deur, A; Chandran, K

    2014-01-01

    New York City Environmental Protection in conjunction with City College of New York assessed the application of the anammox process in the reject water treatment using a moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) located at the 26th Ward wastewater treatment plant, in Brooklyn, NY. The single-stage nitritation/anammox MBBR was seeded with activated sludge and consequently was enriched with its own 'homegrown' anammox bacteria (AMX). Objectives of this study included collection of additional process kinetic and operating data and assessment of the effect of nitrogen loading rates on process performance. The initial target total inorganic nitrogen removal of 70% was limited by the low alkalinity concentration available in the influent reject water. Higher removals were achieved after supplementing the alkalinity by adding sodium hydroxide. Throughout startup and process optimization, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analyses were used for monitoring the relevant species enriched in the biofilm and in the suspension. Maximum nitrogen removal rate was achieved by stimulating the growth of a thick biofilm on the carriers, and controlling the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the bulk flow and the nitrogen loading rates per surface area; all three appear to have contributed in suppressing nitrite-oxidizing bacteria activity while enriching AMX density within the biofilm.

  13. [Optimization of complex treatment of patients with severe oral leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinovich, O F; Rabinovich, I M; Abramova, E S

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to prove the rationale for antiviral therapy combined with surgical procedures for treatment of severe oral leukoplakia. Complex clinical and laboratory evaluation and treatment was performed in 56 patients divided in 2 groups. Control group was presented by 13 patients receiving dental treatment, local and systemic keratoplastic formulations. Main group involved 43 patients in which conventional treatment protocol was completed by antiviral therapy and surgical procedures. Leukoplakia diagnosis was based on clinical findings, histological and immunohistochemical studies as well as optic coherent tomography data. The obtained results evidently prove the necessity for including antiviral therapy and surgical procedures in treatment scheme of severe oral leukoplakia.

  14. Parameter Identification of Anaerobic Wastewater Treatment Bioprocesses Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Sendrescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the offline parameters identification for a class of wastewater treatment bioprocesses using particle swarm optimization (PSO techniques. Particle swarm optimization is a relatively new heuristic method that has produced promising results for solving complex optimization problems. In this paper one uses some variants of the PSO algorithm for parameter estimation of an anaerobic wastewater treatment process that is a complex biotechnological system. The identification scheme is based on a multimodal numerical optimization problem with high dimension. The performances of the method are analyzed by numerical simulations.

  15. Efecto del secado térmico y el tratamiento alcalino en las características microbiológicas y químicas de biosólidos de plantas de tratamiento de aguas residuales domésticas Effect of thermal drying and alkaline treatment on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from domestic wastewater treatment plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Silva-Leal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effect of thermal drying (60 to 75 ºC and times from 0 to 12.58 h and alkaline treatment (Ca(OH2 and CaO at doses from 8 to 10%. on the microbiological and chemical characteristics of biosolids from the Cañaveralejo WWTP. The results showed that in thermal drying all temperatures studied were sufficient to achieve the sanitation of biosolids. In the alkaline treatment the two types of lime showed the total elimination of fecal coliforms, E. coli and helminth eggs, however, the process of alkalization of biosolids had significant influences on organic carbon and calcium.

  16. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S;

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...

  17. Characterization of degradation products from alkaline wet oxidation of wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klinke, H.B.; Ahring, B.K.; Schmidt, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Alkaline wet oxidation pre-treatment (water, sodium carbonate, oxygen, high temperature and pressure) of wheat straw was performed as a 2(4-1) fractional factorial design with the process parameters: temperature, reaction time, sodium carbonate and oxygen. Alkaline wet oxidation was an efficient...... pre-treatment of wheat straw that resulted in solid fractions with high cellulose recovery (96%) and high enzymatic convertibility to glucose (67%). Carbonate and temperature were the most important factors for fractionation of wheat straw by wet oxidation. Optimal conditions were 10 min at 195...... the solid fraction (62%) did not provide a corresponding increase in the phenol monomer content but was correlated to high carboxylic acid concentrations. The degradation products in the hemicellulose fractions co-varied with the pre-treatment conditions in the principal component analysis according...

  18. Treatment of pilonidal sinuses in Denmark is not optimal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Rasmus; Petersen, Linda Wiuff; Bertelsen, Claus Anders

    2010-01-01

    The standard treatments of chronic pilonidal sinuses (PS) were previously wide excision with primary midline closure or open treatment by non-specialist surgeons resulting in high rates of unhealed wounds and recurrences. An evidence-based shift from the now obsolete midline procedures towards off...

  19. Doubly Robust Estimation of Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrett, Jessica K; Henderson, Robin; Rosthøj, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    We compare methods for estimating optimal dynamic decision rules from observational data, with particular focus on estimating the regret functions defined by Murphy (in J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, Stat. Methodol. 65:331-355, 2003). We formulate a doubly robust version of the regret-regression appro......We compare methods for estimating optimal dynamic decision rules from observational data, with particular focus on estimating the regret functions defined by Murphy (in J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, Stat. Methodol. 65:331-355, 2003). We formulate a doubly robust version of the regret....... 189-326, 2004). Simulation studies suggest that while the regret-regression approach is most efficient when there is no model misspecification, in the presence of misspecification the efficient g-estimation procedure is more robust. The g-estimation method can be difficult to apply in complex...

  20. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K. S.; Lesner, T. H.; Østerdal, L. P.

    2016-01-01

    of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Methods: Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment......, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced...... to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Results: Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs...

  1. Alkaline earth metal thioindates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov-Ehmin, B.N.; Ivlieva, V.I.; Filatenko, L.A.; Zajtsev, B.E.; Kaziev, G.Z.; Sarabiya, M.G.

    1984-08-01

    Alkaline earth metal thioindates of MIn/sub 2/S/sub 4/ composition were synthesized by interaction of alkaline earth metal oxoindates with hydrogen sulfide during heating. Investigation into the compounds by X-ray analysis showed that calcium compound crystallizes in cubic crystal system and strontium and barium compounds in rhombic crystal system. Lattice parameters and the number of formula units were determined. Thioindates of M/sub 3/In/sub 2/S/sub 6/ composition were synthesized, their individuality was shown.

  2. Optimized Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) Treatment for Composite Honeycomb Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panossian, H.

    2008-01-01

    Non-Obstructive Particle Damping (NOPD) technology is a passive vibration damping approach whereby metallic or non-metallic particles in spherical or irregular shapes, of heavy or light consistency, and even liquid particles are placed inside cavities or attached to structures by an appropriate means at strategic locations, to absorb vibration energy. The objective of the work described herein is the development of a design optimization procedure and discussion of test results for such a NOPD treatment on honeycomb (HC) composite structures, based on finite element modeling (FEM) analyses, optimization and tests. Modeling and predictions were performed and tests were carried out to correlate the test data with the FEM. The optimization procedure consisted of defining a global objective function, using finite difference methods, to determine the optimal values of the design variables through quadratic linear programming. The optimization process was carried out by targeting the highest dynamic displacements of several vibration modes of the structure and finding an optimal treatment configuration that will minimize them. An optimal design was thus derived and laboratory tests were conducted to evaluate its performance under different vibration environments. Three honeycomb composite beams, with Nomex core and aluminum face sheets, empty (untreated), uniformly treated with NOPD, and optimally treated with NOPD, according to the analytically predicted optimal design configuration, were tested in the laboratory. It is shown that the beam with optimal treatment has the lowest response amplitude. Described below are results of modal vibration tests and FEM analyses from predictions of the modal characteristics of honeycomb beams under zero, 50% uniform treatment and an optimal NOPD treatment design configuration and verification with test data.

  3. Gout: optimizing treatment to achieve a disease cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, José Antonio; Quilis, Neus; Andrés, Mariano; Sivera, Francisca; Pascual, Eliseo

    2016-01-01

    Gout is one of the most common inflammatory arthritides. The disease is due to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals. These deposits are reversible with proper treatment, suggesting that gout is a curable disease. The main aim in gout is to lower serum uric acid levels to a pre-established target; there are different urate-lowering drugs (xanthine oxidase inhibitors, uricosurics and uricases) through which this can be achieved. Proper treatment of gout also involves correct management of acute flares and their prevention. To ensure treatment adherence it is necessary to explain to the patient what the objectives are. PMID:26977282

  4. Superstructure development and optimization under uncertainty for design and retrofit of municipal wastewater treatment plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Quaglia, Alberto; Gernaey, Krist

    2014-01-01

    n this contribution, an optimization - based approach is presented for optimal process selec tion and design for domestic wastewater treatment plant s (WWTP s ). In particular, we address the issue of uncertainties by formulating the WWTP design problem as a Stochastic Mixed Integer (Non) Linear...

  5. HIV treatment optimism and its predictors among young adults in southern Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeatman, Sara; Dovel, Kathryn; Conroy, Amy; Namadingo, Hazel

    2013-08-01

    This study measures HIV treatment optimism and its predictors in a representative sample of young adults in southern Malawi. In 2010, 1275 women and 470 men between the ages of 16 and 26 were asked about their exposure to people on antiretroviral therapy (ART), sexual risk behavior, HIV status, and beliefs about ART. We used confirmatory factor analysis to develop a 4-item scale of the belief that HIV is a less serious health threat due to ART (reduced-severity optimism) and used a single measure to capture belief in the reduced infectivity of HIV due to ART (reduced-susceptibility optimism). Overall, respondents reported low levels of HIV treatment optimism. Being female and using ART were the largest predictors of both types of treatment optimism. We found a nonlinear relationship between exposure to people on ART and reduced-severity optimism. People who knew someone on ART but did not discuss it with them had lower levels of reduced-severity optimism than people who did not know anyone on ART and people who regularly discussed treatment with someone on ART. In multivariate regression models, HIV treatment optimism was positively associated with all measures of sexual risk behavior among men, but negatively associated with unprotected sex with a nonprimary partner among women. Our findings suggest that the spread of ART in Malawi has not led to widespread HIV treatment optimism. This may reflect the relatively recent spread of ART, the generalized nature of the HIV epidemic, or the fact that access to ART is complicated by structural limitations that delay treatment and limited availability of second-line medicines.

  6. Optimizing the treatment of mood disorders in the perinatal period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meltzer-Brody, Samantha; Jones, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The perinatal period is a time of high risk for women with unipolar and bipolar mood disorders. We discuss treatment considerations for perinatal mood disorders, including unipolar and bipolar depression as well as postpartum psychosis. We further explore the unique issues faced by women and their families across the full trajectory of the perinatal period from preconception planning through pregnancy and following childbirth. Treatment of perinatal mood disorders requires a collaborative care approach between obstetrics practitioners and mental health providers, to ensure that a thoughtful risk : benefit analysis is conducted. It is vital to consider the risks of the underlying illness versus risks of medication exposure during pregnancy or lactation. When considering medication treatment, attention must be paid to prior medication trials that were most efficacious and best tolerated. Lastly, it is important to assess the impact of individual psychosocial stressors and lifestyle factors on treatment response. PMID:26246794

  7. Optimizing Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luirink, Ilse K; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert

    2015-09-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the most prominent cause of death and morbidity in the world, and one of the major risk factors for developing CVD is hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. Currently, several treatment options are available for children with FH. Lifestyle adjustments are the first step in treatment. If this is not sufficient, statins are the preferred initial pharmacological therapy and they have been proven effective and safe. However, treatment goals are often not achieved and, hence, there is a need for novel treatment options. Currently, several options are being studied in adults and first results are promising. However, studies in children are still to be awaited.

  8. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-01-01

    , ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced...... to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. RESULTS: Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs......BACKGROUND: Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice...

  9. 生物检材DNA碱性裂解提取法的优化与改良%Optimization and Improvement of the Alkaline Lysis Method for the extraction of DNA from Forensic Biological Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李爱强; 赵兴春; 张艳霞; 赵丽; 王华; 王项华; 宋金平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To establish a simple, fast and reliable method for extracting DNA from forensically relevant specimens through optimization and improvement of the alkaline lysis protocol. Methods With the anticoagulated blood as test samples, the optimal conditions of the extraction reagents were determined according to the influence on the results of DNA typing of different conditions, including different reagent concentration, pH value and storage time, and different incubation temperature and time. Meanwhile, the optimal preservation conditions of the extracts were also determined by comparing DNA typing results of the extracts stored at different temperature. In addition, compared with the chelex 100 protocol, the sensitivity, adaptability and applicability of the modified alkaline lysis method were evaluated by using different quantity of blood, different types of forensically relevant specimens, different DNA typing kits. Results The improved alkaline lysis protocol summarized as follows; NaOH (0. 25mol/L) was used to incubate the forensic biological samples at 991 for 8 min, then added the neutralizing liquid, TrisHCl (0.05mol/L, pH=6.5). After vortex and centrifuge, the supernatant was used for amplification. The genomic DNA extracted with this method could be stored at - 20t for long-term preservation. This method could extract DNA from all kinds of forensic biological samples, and for hair and seminal stains, it was better than the chelex 100 method. The extracts with this method were applicable to a variety of DNA amplification kit, and the sensitivity was similar to that of the Chelex 100 method. Conclusion The improved alkaline lysis protocol is a simple, fast and reliable method for the extraction of DNA from forensic biological samples, and can be used to forensic practice and the DNA database construction.%目的 通过对DNA碱性裂解提取法进行优化和改进,建立一种操作更简便、检验快速、结果更可靠的生物

  10. Optimizing Treatment of Familial Hypercholesterolemia in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Luirink, Ilse K.; Hutten, Barbara A; Wiegman, Albert

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is still the most prominent cause of death and morbidity in the world, and one of the major risk factors for developing CVD is hypercholesterolemia. Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by markedly elevated plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and premature coronary heart disease. Currently, several treatment options are available for children with FH. Lifestyle adjustments are the first step in treatment. If th...

  11. [Advances of alkaline amylase production and applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haiquan; Liu, Long; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2012-04-01

    Alkaline amylase is one of alkaline enzymes with optimum pH in the alkaline range, and it could keep stability and efficiently hydrolyze starch under alkaline conditions. Alkaline amylase finds wide applications in textile, detergent, pharmaceutical, food and other fields. Alkaline amylases could be produced by alkaliphilic microorganisms. In this work, the advances of alkaline amylase production and applications were reviewed.

  12. Optimal price subsidies for appropriate malaria testing and treatment behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Kristian Schultz; Lesner, Tine Hjernø; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    2016-11-04

    Malaria continues to be a serious public health problem particularly in Africa. Many people infected with malaria do not access effective treatment due to high price. At the same time many individuals receiving malaria drugs do not suffer from malaria because of the common practice of presumptive diagnosis. A global subsidy on artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) has recently been suggested to increase access to the most effective malaria treatment. Following the recommendation by World Health Organization that parasitological testing should be performed before treatment and ACT prescribed to confirmed cases only, it is investigated in this paper if a subsidy on malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) should be incorporated. A model is developed consisting of a representative individual with fever suspected to be malaria, seeking care at a specialized drug shop where RDTs, ACT medicines, and cheap, less effective anti-malarials are sold. Assuming that the individual has certain beliefs of the accuracy of the RDT and the probability that the fever is malaria, the model predicts the diagnosis-treatment behaviour of the individual. Subsidies on RDTs and ACT are introduced to incentivize appropriate behaviour: choose an RDT before treatment and purchase ACT only if the test is positive. Solving the model numerically suggests that a combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT is cost minimizing and improves diagnosis-treatment behaviour of individuals. For certain beliefs, such as low trust in RDT accuracy and strong belief that a fever is malaria, subsidization is not sufficient to incentivize appropriate behaviour. A combined subsidy on both RDT and ACT rather than a single subsidy is likely required to improve diagnosis-treatment behaviour among individuals seeking care for malaria in the private sector.

  13. Optimization of activator solution and heat treatment of ground lignite type fly ash geopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Z.; Szabó, R.; Rácz, Á.; Lakatos, J.; Debreczeni, Á.; Mucsi, G.

    2017-02-01

    Geopolymers are inorganic polymers which can be produced by the reaction between silico aluminate oxides and alkali silicates in alkaline medium. Materialscontaining silica and alumina compounds are suitable for geopolymer production. These can beprimary materials or industrial wastes, i. e. fly ash, metallurgical slag and red mud. In this paper, the results of the systematic experimental series are presented which were carried out in order to optimize the geopolymer preparation process. Fly ash was ground for different residence time (0, 5, 10, 30, 60 min) in order to investigate the optimal specific surface area. NaOH activator solution concentration also varied (6, 8, 10, 12, 14 M). Furthermore, sodium silicate was added to NaOH as a network builder solution. In this last serie different heat curing temperatures (30, 60, 90°C) were also applied. After seven days of ageing the physical properties of the geopolymer(compressive strength and specimen density)were measured. Chemical leaching tests on the rawmaterial and the geopolymers were carried out to determine the elements which can be mobilized by different leaching solutions. It was found that the above mentioned parameters (fly ash fineness, molar concentration and composition of activator solution, heat curing) has great effect on the physical and chemical properties of geopolymer specimens. Optimal conditions were as follows: specific surface area of the fly ash above 2000 cm2/g, 10 M NaOH, 30°C heat curing temperature which resulted in 21 MPa compressive strength geopolymer.

  14. Optimizing settling conditions for treatment of liquid hog manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trias, M; Mortula, M M; Hu, Z; Gagnon, G A

    2004-08-01

    Sedimentation is a widely used separation method for treating agricultural waste. There are several chemical and biological characteristics, which can affect the settling behavior and liquid waste. The optimization of cation balances and potential for nitrification are among these processes. In addition to sedimentation, it can also affect the dewaterability of the samples. Liquid hog manure was used during the laboratory based experiments to investigate the effects of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions and nitrification inhibition on the overall settling and dewatering characteristics. The results indicated that settling and dewatering characteristics improved during the course of the experiments. However, the improvement in settling and dewatering characteristics was inconsistent and not statistically significant. Cation addition in aerated reactor increased the highest settling velocity (94%). The improvement in dewaterability, as quantified by capillary suction time, was also not consistent. The greatest filterability observed in the supernatant was a capillary suction time of 40 s for a M:D ratio of 2:1. Initial NH 4 + concentration was more important than the nitrification inhibitor, as the presence of nitrification inhibitor increased the nitrification rate by over 300% because of the high initial NH 4 + concentration and low volatile suspended solid. The results from these experiments provide the basis for further field evaluation of cation optimization.

  15. [Optimization of parodontitis treatment of patients with tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrova, E A; Lepilin, A V; Kazimirova, N E; Shul'diakov, A A

    2010-01-01

    For the purpose to determine the clinic-pathogenetic efficacy of Cycloferon liniment in the combined therapy of parodontitis of patients with focal tuberculosis medical examination and treatment of 40 patients is carried out. It is established, that use of liniment Cycloferon in the combined treatment of patients with focal tuberculosis allows to accelerate process of normalization of lipid peroxidation parameters and antioxidant potential of blood, to decrease infection load (Herpes symplex virus I, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus) in parodontal recess and evidence of local inflammation with reduction of activity of the tumours necrosis factor and interleukin 1beta, that provides acceleration of recuperation processes, lowering the frequency of parodontitis relapses.

  16. Optimizing prophylactic treatment of migraine: Subtypes and patient matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Dib

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Michel DibFédération du système nerveux central, Hôpital de la Salpêtrière, Assistance Publique- Hôpitaux de Paris, FranceAbstract: Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of migraine have resulted in important breakthroughs in treatment. For example, understanding of the role of serotonin in the cerebrovascular circulation has led to the development of triptans for the acute relief of migraine headaches, and the identification of cortical spreading depression as an early central event associated wih migraine has brought renewed interest in antiepileptic drugs for migraine prophylaxis. However, migraine still remains inadequately treated. Indeed, it is apparent that migraine is not a single disease but rather a syndrome that can manifest itself in a variety of pathological conditions. The consequences of this may be that treatment needs to be matched to particular patients. Clinical research needs to be devoted to identifying which sort of patients benefit best from which treatments, particularly in the field of prophylaxis. We propose four patterns of precipitating factors (adrenergic, serotoninergic, menstrual, and muscular which may be used to structure migraine prophylaxis. Finally, little is known about long-term outcome in treated migraine. It is possible that appropriate early prophylaxis may modify the long-term course of the disease and avoid late complications.Keywords: migraine, diagnosis, treatment, prophylaxis, subtypes

  17. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heysell, S.K.; Mtabho, C.; Mpagama, S.; Mwaigwisya, S.; Pholwat, S.; Ndusilo, N.; Gratz, J.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Kibiki, G.S.; Houpt, E.R.

    2011-01-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoni

  18. Clinical pharmacology in leishmaniasis: treatment optimization of a neglected disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorlo, T.P.C.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents various novel applications of clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in the treatment of leishmaniasis, by which diverse clinically relevant issues, mainly related to the efficacy and safety of miltefosine, could be elucidated. Throughout this thesis, the added value of

  19. A Multi-Criteria Framework with Voxel-Dependent Parameters for Radiotherapy Treatment Plan Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Zarepisheh, Masoud; Li, Nan; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2012-01-01

    In a treatment plan optimization problem for radiotherapy, a clinically acceptable plan is usually generated by an optimization process with weighting factors or reference doses adjusted for organs. Recent discoveries indicate that adjusting parameters associated with each voxel may lead to better plan quality. However, it is still unclear regarding the mathematical reasons behind it. To answer questions related to this problem, we establish in this work a new mathematical framework equipped with two theorems. The new framework clarifies the different consequences of adjusting organ-dependent and voxel-dependent parameters for the treatment plan optimization of radiation therapy, as well as the different effects of adjusting weighting factors versus reference doses in the optimization process. The main discoveries are threefold: 1) While in the organ-based model the selection of the objective function has an impact on the quality of the optimized plans, this is no longer an issue for the voxel-based model sin...

  20. Adsorption characteristics of ammonium exchange by zeolite and the optimal application in the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Cui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Zhang, Jing; Wen, Donghui; Tang, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    Natural zeolite is a favorable NH(4)(+)-ion exchanger in the tertiary wastewater treatment. In this study, a natural Chinese zeolite was anatomized using the mercury injection method, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron micrographs. The kinetic process of ammonium adsorption onto the zeolite was best described by the pseudo second order model; the adsorption equilibrium data fitted better to the Freundlich isotherm; and the exchange between ammonium and alkali/alkaline earth cations was in the order of Na(+) > Ca(2+) > K(+) > Mg(2+). Finally, the zeolite powder was applied for the tertiary treatment of coking wastewater, which still contained high concentration of ammonium after the secondary treatment by a sequencing batch reactor. The Box-Behnken design was used to design the experimental protocol, and the response surface methodology (RSM) was used for the optimization of adsorption factors. The RSM analysis showed the optimal adsorption factors as particle size, 0.03 mm; initial dosage of zeolite powder, 50.0 g/L; and contact time, 24 h. The highest ammonium removal rate was 75.0% predicted by the RMS. Considering settleability of the zeolite powder, the particle size of 0.25 mm was recommended in practice with a little loss of the ammonium removal: 70.9% as the RMS predicted.

  1. A moment-based approach for DVH-guided radiotherapy treatment plan optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarepisheh, M.; Shakourifar, M.; Trigila, G.; Ghomi, P. S.; Couzens, S.; Abebe, A.; Noreña, L.; Shang, W.; Jiang, Steve B.; Zinchenko, Y.

    2013-03-01

    The dose-volume histogram (DVH) is a clinically relevant criterion to evaluate the quality of a treatment plan. It is hence desirable to incorporate DVH constraints into treatment plan optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy. Yet, the direct inclusion of the DVH constraints into a treatment plan optimization model typically leads to great computational difficulties due to the non-convex nature of these constraints. To overcome this critical limitation, we propose a new convex-moment-based optimization approach. Our main idea is to replace the non-convex DVH constraints by a set of convex moment constraints. In turn, the proposed approach is able to generate a Pareto-optimal plan whose DVHs are close to, or if possible even outperform, the desired DVHs. In particular, our experiment on a prostate cancer patient case demonstrates the effectiveness of this approach by employing two and three moment formulations to approximate the desired DVHs.

  2. An epidemic model for cholera with optimal control treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lemos-Paiao, Ana P.; Silva, Cristiana J.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mathematical model for cholera with treatment through quarantine. The model is shown to be both epidemiologically and mathematically well posed. In particular, we prove that all solutions of the model are positive and bounded; and that every solution with initial conditions in a certain meaningful set remains in that set for all time. The existence of unique disease-free and endemic equilibrium points is proved and the basic reproduction number is computed. Then, we study the loc...

  3. Three-Dimensional Dose Optimization for Noncoplanar Treatment Planning with Conformal Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying-Chang L.

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in imaging techniques, especially three dimensional reconstruction of CT images, have made precision tumor localization feasible. These imaging techniques along with developments in computer controlled radiation treatment machines have provided an important thrust in developing better techniques for cancer treatment. This often requires a complex noncoplanar beam arrangements and elaborate treatment planning, which, unfortunately, are time consuming, costly and dependent on operator expertise and experience. A reliable operator-independent dose optimization tool is therefore desirable, especially for 3D treatment planning. In this dissertation, several approaches (linear programming, quadratic programming, and direct search methods) of computer optimization using various criteria including least sire fitting on the 90% isodose to target periphery, dose uniformity, and integral dose are presented. All of these methods are subject to restrictions on the upper limit of the dose to critical organs. In the quadratic programming approach, Kuhn-Tucker theory was employed to convert the quadratic problem into one which permits application of the very powerful, revised simplex method. Several examples are used to analyze the effectiveness of these dose optimization approaches. The studies show that the quadratic programming approach with the criteria of least square fitting and critical organ constraints is superior in efficiency for dose optimization in 3D treatment planning, particularly for cases with a large number of beams. Use of least square fitting allows one to deduce optimized plans for irregularly shaped targets by employing a multi-isocentric technique. Our studies also illustrate the advantages of using irregular conformal fields, optimized beam energy, and noncoplanar beam arrangements in contrast to the conventional treatment which uses a symmetrical rectangular collimator, fixed beam energy, and coplanar beam arrangements. Optimized plans can

  4. Treatment of B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphomas with combined immunochemotherapy: ability to treatment optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Smirnova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of two consecutive multicenter clinical trials enrolled 241 patient with childhood mature B-cells non-Hodgkin lymphomas/leukemia are presented. Patients received treatment according B-NHL 2004mab protocol (n = 83 and B-NHL 2010M (n = 158 with combined immunochemotherapy (ICT in Russian and Belarus pediatric clinics from 2004 to 2015 years. Primary patients with different mature B-NHL (Burkitt lymphoma/leukemia, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL and PMBCL aged from 2 to 18 years are included in the studies.Protocol B-NHL 2004mab for treatment of children and adolescents with B-NHL/B-AL, stage III and IV, includes a combination of chemotherapy (PCT and rituximab – an antibody against the B-cells receptor CD20. PCT courses similar to those in the B-NHL BFM90 protocol (group III with the exception of methotrexate dose in induction courses, reduced to 1 g/m2 /24 h in order to reduce toxicity. Rituximab (Mabthera, 375 mg/m2 /h used for the first time in the treatment of children and adolescents with B-NHL. Of the 83 patients included, clinical remission was achieved in 77 (92.8 %. With a median follow time of 51.6 months, remission continued in 23 (85.2 % patients with B-AL, in 32 (88.9 % patients with LB and 19 (95.0 % patients – with DLBCL. With median follow time of 65.2 months, event-free and overall survival was 84 ± 6 and 82 ± 8 %, respectively.Based on previous experience in order to further optimize B-NHL treatment, new protocol B-NHL 2010M with effect-adapted therapy and improvement of stratification risk group criteria was proposed. Overall survival in patients of 1st and 2nd risk groups with full implementation of diagnosis and treatment is approaching 100 %. In interim analysis of 3rd risk group patients, pOS was 88 ± 3 %. The incidence of induction death (infections, metabolic complications remains within 2.7 % (n = 4; refractory cases (n = 2; 1.3 % and relapses (n = 4; 2

  5. How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene Bjerregaard

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how...

  6. How to study optimal timing of PET/CT for monitoring of cancer treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vach, Werner; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming; Fischer, Barbara Malene Bjerregaard;

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The use of PET/CT for monitoring treatment response in cancer patients after chemo- or radiotherapy is a very promising approach to optimize cancer treatment. However, the timing of the PET/CT-based evaluation of reduction in viable tumor tissue is a crucial question. We investigated how...

  7. Fluorescence Guided PDT for Optimization of Skin Cancer Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Cristina Blanco

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The photodynamic therapy (PDT is an alternative technique that can be indicated for superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC, Bowen’s disease and actinic keratosis with high efficiency. The objective of this study is to present the importance of fluorescence imaging for PDT guidance and monitoring in real time. Confirming that the lesion is well prepared and the photosensitizer shows a homogenous distribution, the outcome after few PDT sessions will be positive and the recurrence should be lower. Our proposition in this study is use the widefield fluorescence imaging to evaluate the PDT protocol in situ and in real time for each lesion. This evaluation procedure is performed in two steps: first with the monitoring of the production of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX induced by methyl aminolevulinate (MAL, an derivative of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA and second with the detection of PpIX photobleaching after illumination. The fluorescence images provide information correlated with distinct clinical features and with the treatment outcome. Eight BCC lesions are presented and discussed in this study. Different fluorescence patterns of PpIX production and photobleaching could be correlated with the treatment response. The presented results show the potential of using widefield fluorescence imaging as a guidance tool to customized PDT.

  8. Alkaline broadening in Stars

    CERN Document Server

    De Kertanguy, A

    2015-01-01

    Giving new insight for line broadening theory for atoms with more structure than hydrogen in most stars. Using symbolic software to build precise wave functions corrected for ds;dp quantum defects. The profiles obtained with that approach, have peculiar trends, narrower than hydrogen, all quantum defects used are taken from atomic database topbase. Illustration of stronger effects of ions and electrons on the alkaline profiles, than neutral-neutral collision mechanism. Keywords : Stars: fundamental parameters - Atomic processes - Line: profiles.

  9. Effects of disintegration-promoting agent, lubricants and moisture treatment on optimized fast disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Late, Sameer G; Yu, Yi-Ying; Banga, Ajay K

    2009-01-05

    Effects of calcium silicate (disintegration-promoting agent) and various lubricants on an optimized beta-cyclodextrin-based fast-disintegrating tablet formulation were investigated. Effects of moisture treatment were also evaluated at 75, 85 and 95% relative humidities. A two factor, three levels (3(2)) full factorial design was used to optimize concentrations of calcium silicate and lubricant. Magnesium stearate, being commonly used lubricant, was used to optimize lubricant concentration in optimization study. Other lubricants were evaluated at an obtained optimum concentration. Desiccator with saturated salt solutions was used to analyze effects of moisture treatments. Results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that concentration of calcium silicate had no effect; however concentration of lubricant was found to be important for tablet disintegration and hardness. An optimized value of 1.5% of magnesium stearate gave disintegration time of 23.4 s and hardness of 1.42 kg. At an optimized concentration, glycerol dibehenate and L-leucine significantly affected disintegration time, while talc and stearic acid had no significant effect. Tablet hardness was significantly affected with L-leucine, while other lubricants had no significant effect. Hardness was not affected at 75% moisture treatment. Moisture treatment at 85 and 95% increased hardness of the tablets; however at the same time it negatively affected the disintegration time.

  10. Dosimetric Comparison of Two Craniospinal Radiotherapy Techniques for Treatment Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Baghani

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Orthogonal radial fields are those in which the central axes are perpendicular to each other. An example of these orthogonal fields is the set of craniospinal orthogonal fields that are used for radiotherapy of medulloblastoma. Craniospinal radial fields consist of two parallel-opposed fields for brain exposure and one or two posterior spinal fields for spinal cord exposure. The main problem in using these combinative fields is the overlap of radial fields, where they adjoin. Therefore, adjusting radial fields in craniospinal radiotherapy is of remarkable significance and can outstandingly affect the reduction of the side effects due to radiotherapy. In doing so, two different setups were used for craniospinal radiotherapy, and by using dosimetry in each adjustment in the junction region between brain and upper spine fields and in organs at risk, the results of the two adjustments were compared. Materials and Methods: Each one of these two setups was separately performed on a Rando phantom. In the first setup, the arrangement of radial fields was performed without the rotation of the treatment bed and the collimators of the brain fields. In the second setup, the arrangement of radial fields was performed using the rotation of the treatment bed and the collimators of brain fields. For dosimetry, GR-200 TLDs were used. For radiotherapy, a varian linac (2100 C/D Model was used. Results: The results of dosimetry in the brain CTV, junction of brain and upper spine fields, thyroid and heart in the first setup were equal to 105, 168, 46 and 44 cGy, respectively, and in second setup, 106, 140, 48 and 44 cGy, respectively. Absorbed dose to the testes in both setups was negligible.  Discussion and Conclusion: The results of dosimetry in both setups showed that angling the bed and the collimators for the brain fields prevents the overlap of radial fields and reduces the side effects due to radiotherapy.

  11. Optimization of Soybean Press Cake Treatments and Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru Tucu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results given by a systemic study of methods used in soybeans press cake treatment and processing. The influence of raw materials on soybean pressing system and the parameters of extrusion process are analyzed. Principally, the experiments confirm the influences of heat process parameters in case of soybean press cakes production using classic solutions and microwave energy. These experiments start up by manufacturing soybean press cake in industrial conditions at “S.C. International romoster srl” –Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. For ensuring the best conditions, the experimental stand included an extruder, a system for toasting the soybeans press cake, a system for parameters’ control and the system for ensuring the processing of water. The following possibilities were analyzed: (1 Soybeans press cake obtained by the classical method without toasting at pressure of extrusion p1 = 75 kgf cm-2 and flow Q1 = 800 kg h-1; (2 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p2 = 85 kgf cm-2 and flow Q2 = 600 kg h-1; (3 Soybeans press cake obtained at pressure of extrusion head p3 = 95 kgf cm-2 and fl ow Q3 = 300 kg h-1; Using this application we tested a new method for treatment and studied the special systems which can be applied in industrial practice at “S.C. International romoster srl” – Dudestii Vechi, Timis County. During the testings and researches the variation of electrical permeability was observed. Differences between theoretical equation and practical results in calculus and energy measurement in the workspace were noticed.

  12. Can Optimism, Pessimism, Hope, Treatment Credibility and Treatment Expectancy Be Distinguished in Patients Undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haanstra, Tsjitske M; Tilbury, Claire; Kamper, Steven J; Tordoir, Rutger L; Vliet Vlieland, Thea P M; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Cuijpers, Pim; de Vet, Henrica C W; Dekker, Joost; Knol, Dirk L; Ostelo, Raymond W

    2015-01-01

    The constructs optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are associated with outcomes of medical treatment. While these constructs are grounded in different theoretical models, they nonetheless show some conceptual overlap. The purpose of this study was to examine whether currently available measurement instruments for these constructs capture the conceptual differences between these constructs within a treatment setting. Patients undergoing Total Hip and Total Knee Arthroplasty (THA and TKA) (Total N = 361; 182 THA; 179 TKA), completed the Life Orientation Test-Revised for optimism and pessimism, the Hope Scale, the Credibility Expectancy Questionnaire for treatment credibility and treatment expectancy. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine whether the instruments measure distinct constructs. Four theory-driven models with one, two, four and five latent factors were evaluated using multiple fit indices and Δχ2 tests, followed by some posthoc models. The results of the theory driven confirmatory factor analysis showed that a five factor model in which all constructs loaded on separate factors yielded the most optimal and satisfactory fit. Posthoc, a bifactor model in which (besides the 5 separate factors) a general factor is hypothesized accounting for the commonality of the items showed a significantly better fit than the five factor model. All specific factors, except for the hope factor, showed to explain a substantial amount of variance beyond the general factor. Based on our primary analyses we conclude that optimism, pessimism, hope, treatment credibility and treatment expectancy are distinguishable in THA and TKA patients. Postdoc, we determined that all constructs, except hope, showed substantial specific variance, while also sharing some general variance.

  13. IMRT treatment planning for prostate cancer using prioritized prescription optimization and mean-tail-dose functions

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Treatment planning for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is challenging due to both the size of the computational problems (thousands of variables and constraints) and the multi-objective, imprecise nature of the goals. We apply hierarchical programming to IMRT treatment planning. In this formulation, treatment planning goals/objectives are ordered in an absolute hierarchy, and the problem is solved from the top-down such that more important goals are optimized in turn. After each ...

  14. Treatment of petroleum contaminated soils by hot alkaline water combined with mechanical dewatering process%热碱水洗-机械脱水工艺处理石油污染土壤

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭蔚; 邢帅; 贡皓霜; 刘丽艳

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of petroleum contaminated soils by hot alkaline water combined with mechanical dewatering process is conducted in an oil field in China.The effect of NaOH concentration,alkaline water-oily sludge ratio and temperature on the oil-removal effect is studied.The factors affecting the filtration and dewatering performance of the petroleum contaminated soils treated by hot alkaline water,such as the types and contents flocculating agents,are also investigated.The results show that residual oil is firstly decreased and then increased with increasing the concentration of NaOH and alkaline water-oily sludge ratio.But,the increase in temperature leds to th drastical decrease in residual oil.The proper parameters for hot alkaline water treatment are 0.2% of NaOH,4:1 of alkaline water-oily sludge ratio and 80℃ of temperature.In the experiments of dewatering,the flocculation capability of AlCl3,Fe2 (SO4) 3 and PAC are strongly influenced by pH.The Ca2+ ions effectively incresase the flocculation of tiny particles by forming Ca(OH) + and Ca(OH) 2,thus greatly improving the filtration and dewatering performance.When the concentration of CaCl2 is 0.8%,the best filtration and dewatering performance can be achieved based on the filtration rate,moisture content and residual oil ratio in the petroleum contaminated soils.%采用热碱水洗-机械脱水工艺对国内某油田区的石油污染土壤进行处理.考察了热碱水洗条件(包括NaOH质量分数、液固比、洗涤温度)对含油土壤脱油效果的影响,及絮凝剂种类、质量分数对热碱水洗法处理后的含油污泥过滤脱水性能的影响.结果表明,残余油质量分数随NaOH质量分数及液固比的升高呈现先下降后上升的趋势,而随温度的升高呈现持续下降的趋势.在探究含油污泥脱水性能实验中发现铝盐及铁盐类絮凝剂对于高碱性污泥的适应性较差,而钙盐可以很好地破坏油水细砂混合层,有效地改善含油

  15. An integrated prediction and optimization model of biogas production system at a wastewater treatment facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbaş, Halil; Bilgen, Bilge; Turhan, Aykut Melih

    2015-11-01

    This study proposes an integrated prediction and optimization model by using multi-layer perceptron neural network and particle swarm optimization techniques. Three different objective functions are formulated. The first one is the maximization of methane percentage with single output. The second one is the maximization of biogas production with single output. The last one is the maximization of biogas quality and biogas production with two outputs. Methane percentage, carbon dioxide percentage, and other contents' percentage are used as the biogas quality criteria. Based on the formulated models and data from a wastewater treatment facility, optimal values of input variables and their corresponding maximum output values are found out for each model. It is expected that the application of the integrated prediction and optimization models increases the biogas production and biogas quality, and contributes to the quantity of electricity production at the wastewater treatment facility.

  16. Optimization of Treatment Policy for Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. N. Akalayev

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the efficiency of combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, succinate-containing solutions, and anti-edematous agents in patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The results of treatment were analyzed in 32 patients admitted in 2009—2011 for severe acute carbon monoxide poisoning and a Glasgow coma score of 6—8. The patients were divided into 2 groups: 1 patients whose combination therapy involved hyperbaric oxygenation, Succinasol infusions, and L-lysine-aescinate injections; 2 those who received traditional therapy. All the patients underwent complex clinical, laboratory, and neurophysiologic examinations. Results. Just 24 hours after the combination use of Succinasol and L-lysine-aescinate, Group I patients were observed to have substantially reduced lactate, the content of the latter approached the normal value following 48 hours, which was much below the values in the control group. The similar pattern was observed when endogenous intoxication parameters were examined. During the performed therapy, the level of consciousness and that of intellect according to the MMSE and FAB scales were restored more rapidly in the study group patients than in Group 2. Conclusion. The combination use of hyperbaric oxygenation, the succinate-containing solution Succinasol, and the anti-edematous agent L-lysine-aescinate considerably enhances the efficiency of intensive therapy for acute carbon monoxide poisoning. Key words: carbon monoxide, toxic hypoxic encephalopathy, combination therapy, hyperbaric oxygenation, succinic acid, L-lysine-aescinate.

  17. 碱处理脱硅与提高Y型分子筛硅铝比——矛盾的对立与统一%Desilication by Alkaline Treatment and Increasing the Silica to Alumina Ratio of Zeolite Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申宝剑; 覃正兴; 高雄厚; 林枫; 周淑歌; 沈文; 王宝杰; 赵红娟; 刘宏海

    2012-01-01

    The framework silica to alumina ratio, the porosity, and the acidity properties of ultrastable Y zeolites prepared by 'steaming' and by the 'sequential alkaline treatment and steaming' of NaY zeolites are compared. The adaptability of the combined alkaline treatment method and steaming toward the type of starting NaY zeolites was studied. By comparison with single steaming treatment the combination of sequential alkaline treatment and steaming affords products with an obviously increased mesopore volume. The level of framework ultrasta-bilization and acidity of the final products were not affected. The mesopore volume of the ultrastable Y zeolite prepared by steaming dealu-mination only was no more than 0.14 cm3/g. The mesopore volume of the final product prepared by sequential desilication and dealumination was 0.22 cm3/g. The sequential desilication and dealumination method is suitable for the NaY zeolite with a high framework silica to alumina ratio. A small increase in the mesopore volume and severe micropore damage were evident when the NaY zeolite with a relatively low silica to alumina ratio (SiO2Al2O=3 4.8, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance) was used as the starting material for the combined desilication and dealumination treatment.%考察了“水热处理”以及“碱处理+水热处理”两种方法所制得的超稳Y分子筛的骨架硅铝比、孔结构特征以及酸量,并探讨了“碱处理+水热处理”方法对起始NaY分子筛的适应性.结果表明,在水热处理前,对NaY分子筛进行碱处理脱硅可在不改变最终样品的骨架超稳化水平和酸量的同时,样品的介孔体积显著增加.直接水热处理NaY分子筛所得样品介孔体积不超过0.14 cm3/g,而先碱处理后水热处理,所得样品介孔体积可达0.22 cm3/g.该法适用于制备骨架硅铝比高的NaY分子筛.起始原料的骨架硅铝比较低时,所得样品的介孔体积增幅小,而且微孔受损严重.

  18. Speedup of lexicographic optimization by superiorization and its applications to cancer radiotherapy treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacker, Esther; Gibali, Aviv; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Süss, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Multicriteria optimization problems occur in many real life applications, for example in cancer radiotherapy treatment and in particular in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this work we focus on optimization problems with multiple objectives that are ranked according to their importance. We solve these problems numerically by combining lexicographic optimization with our recently proposed level set scheme, which yields a sequence of auxiliary convex feasibility problems; solved here via projection methods. The projection enables us to combine the newly introduced superiorization methodology with multicriteria optimization methods to speed up computation while guaranteeing convergence of the optimization. We demonstrate our scheme with a simple 2D academic example (used in the literature) and also present results from calculations on four real head neck cases in IMRT (Radiation Oncology of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany) for two different choices of superiorization parameter sets suited to yield fast convergence for each case individually or robust behavior for all four cases.

  19. Plasma drug activity assay for treatment optimization in tuberculosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heysell, Scott K; Mtabho, Charles; Mpagama, Stellah; Mwaigwisya, Solomon; Pholwat, Suporn; Ndusilo, Norah; Gratz, Jean; Aarnoutse, Rob E; Kibiki, Gibson S; Houpt, Eric R

    2011-12-01

    Low antituberculosis (TB) drug levels are common, but their clinical significance remains unclear, and methods of measurement are resource intensive. Subjects initiating treatment for sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB were enrolled from Kibong'oto National TB Hospital, Tanzania, and levels of isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide were measured at the time of typical peak plasma concentration (C(2 h)). To evaluate the significance of the effect of observed drug levels on Mycobacterium tuberculosis growth, a plasma TB drug activity (TDA) assay was developed using the Bactec MGIT system. Time to detection of plasma-cocultured M. tuberculosis versus time to detection of control growth was defined as a TDA ratio. TDA assays were later performed using the subject's own M. tuberculosis isolate and C(2 h) plasma from the Tanzanian cohort and compared to drug levels and clinical outcomes. Sixteen subjects with a mean age of 37.8 years ± 10.7 were enrolled. Fourteen (88%) had C(2 h) rifampin levels and 11 (69%) had isoniazid levels below 90% of the lower limit of the expected range. Plasma spiked with various concentrations of antituberculosis medications found TDA assay results to be unaffected by ethambutol or pyrazinamide. Yet with a range of isoniazid and rifampin concentrations, TDA exhibited a statistically significant correlation with drug level and drug MIC, and a TDA of ~1.0 indicated the presence of multidrug-resistant TB. In Tanzania, low (≤ 2.0) TDA was significantly associated with both lower isoniazid and rifampin C(2 h) levels, and very low (≤ 1.5) TDA corresponded to a trend toward lack of cure. Study of TDA compared to additional clinical outcomes and as a therapeutic management tool is warranted.

  20. Pancreatic cancer: optimizing treatment options, new, and emerging targeted therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiorean, Elena Gabriela; Coveler, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US and is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the next decade. Despite 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX) and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel significantly improving outcomes for metastatic cancer, refractory disease still poses significant challenges. Difficulties with early detection and the inherent chemo- and radio-resistant nature of this malignancy led to attempts to define the sequential biology of pancreatic cancer in order to improve survival outcomes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by several germline or acquired genetic mutations, the most common being KRAS (90%), CDK2NA (90%), TP53 (75%-90%), DPC4/SMAD4 (50%). In addition, the tumor microenvironment, chemoresistant cancer stem cells, and the desmoplastic stroma have been the target of some promising clinical investigations. Among the core pathways reproducibly shown to lead the development and progression of this disease, DNA repair, apoptosis, G1/S cell cycle transition, KRAS, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, and other cell invasion pathways, have been the target of "precision therapeutics". No single molecularly targeted therapeutic though has been uniformly successful, probably due to the tumor heterogeneity, but biomarker research is evolving and it hopes to select more patients likely to benefit. Recent reports note activity with immunotherapies such as CD40 agonists, CCR2 inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and novel combinations against the immunosuppressive tumor milieu are ongoing. While many obstacles still exist, clearly we are making progress in deciphering the heterogeneity within pancreatic cancers. Integrating conventional and immunological targeting will be the key to effective treatment of this deadly disease.

  1. Pancreatic cancer: optimizing treatment options, new, and emerging targeted therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiorean EG

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Elena Gabriela Chiorean, Andrew L Coveler Department of Medicine, Division of Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the US and is expected to become the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the next decade. Despite 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin with irinotecan and oxaliplatin (FOLFIRINOX and gemcitabine/nab-paclitaxel significantly improving outcomes for metastatic cancer, refractory disease still poses significant challenges. Difficulties with early detection and the inherent chemo- and radio-resistant nature of this malignancy led to attempts to define the sequential biology of pancreatic cancer in order to improve survival outcomes. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is characterized by several germline or acquired genetic mutations, the most common being KRAS (90%, CDK2NA (90%, TP53 (75%–90%, DPC4/SMAD4 (50%. In addition, the tumor microenvironment, chemoresistant cancer stem cells, and the desmoplastic stroma have been the target of some promising clinical investigations. Among the core pathways reproducibly shown to lead the development and progression of this disease, DNA repair, apoptosis, G1/S cell cycle transition, KRAS, Wnt, Notch, Hedgehog, TGF-beta, and other cell invasion pathways, have been the target of “precision therapeutics”. No single molecularly targeted therapeutic though has been uniformly successful, probably due to the tumor heterogeneity, but biomarker research is evolving and it hopes to select more patients likely to benefit. Recent reports note activity with immunotherapies such as CD40 agonists, CCR2 inhibitors, cancer vaccines, and novel combinations against the immunosuppressive tumor milieu are ongoing. While many obstacles still exist, clearly we are making progress in deciphering the heterogeneity within pancreatic cancers. Integrating conventional and immunological targeting will be the key to effective treatment of

  2. Optimal strategy for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria: Treatment and culling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Mohammed Baba; Hasan, Yahya Abu; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2015-05-01

    Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria is a parasitic mosquito-borne disease caused by a eukaryotic protist of genus Plasmodium Knowlesi transmitted by mosquito, Anopheles leucosphyrus to human and macaques. We developed and analyzed a deterministic Mathematical model for the transmission of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria in human and macaques. The optimal control theory is applied to investigate optimal strategies for controlling the spread of Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria using treatment and culling as control strategies. The conditions for optimal control of the Plasmodium Knowlesi malaria are derived using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. Finally, numerical simulations suggested that the combination of the control strategies is the best way to control the disease in any community.

  3. Optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder with EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guofa Shou; Han Yuan; Urbano, Diamond; Yoon-Hee Cha; Lei Ding

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been increasingly used for its potential treatment effects across diverse mental disorders. However, the treatment effect is elusive and the rate of positive responders is not high, which make it in great demand of optimizing rTMS protocols to improve the treatment effects and the rate. In this regard, neural activity guided optimization has indicated great potential in several neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present our ongoing work on optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder, i.e., Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS), by investigating treatment-related EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity changes. Motivated by our previous pilot study of rTMS on MdDS, we firstly applied a bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS protocol to evaluate its efficacy and the treatment-related neural responses via an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework. Thereafter, guided by identified EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity patterns, we proposed three potential stimulation targets covering posterior nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and implemented a new rTMS protocol by stimulating the target with the great symptoms relief. The preliminary clinical response data has indicated that the new rTMS protocol significantly increase the rate of positive responders and the degrees of the improvement. The present study demonstrates that it is promising to integrate EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity into the optimization of rTMS protocols for different mental disorders.

  4. Growth hormone (GH) treatment increases serum insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3, bone isoenzyme alkaline phosphatase and forearm bone mineral content in young adults with GH deficiency of childhood onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, A; Pedersen, S A; Sørensen, S

    1994-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that growth hormone (GH)-deficient adults have a markedly decreased bone mineral content compared to healthy adults. However, there are conflicting results regarding the effects of GH treatment on bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Therefore, we evaluated...... the effect of GH treatment on a marker of bone formation (bone alkaline phosphatase), hepatic excretory function and distal forearm bone mineral content in GH-deficient adults. Growth hormone was administered subcutaneously in 21 adults (13 males and 8 females) with GH deficiency of childhood onset for 4...... months in a double-blind, placebo-controlled GH trial, while 13 of the patients then received further GH for an additional 14 months. Serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) increased significantly from 100 to 279 micrograms/l and IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) from 1930 to 3355 micrograms/l after 4...

  5. Topology Optimization for Minimizing the Resonant Response of Plates with Constrained Layer Damping Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanpeng Fang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A topology optimization method is proposed to minimize the resonant response of plates with constrained layer damping (CLD treatment under specified broadband harmonic excitations. The topology optimization problem is formulated and the square of displacement resonant response in frequency domain at the specified point is considered as the objective function. Two sensitivity analysis methods are investigated and discussed. The derivative of modal damp ratio is not considered in the conventional sensitivity analysis method. An improved sensitivity analysis method considering the derivative of modal damp ratio is developed to improve the computational accuracy of the sensitivity. The evolutionary structural optimization (ESO method is used to search the optimal layout of CLD material on plates. Numerical examples and experimental results show that the optimal layout of CLD treatment on the plate from the proposed topology optimization using the conventional sensitivity analysis or the improved sensitivity analysis can reduce the displacement resonant response. However, the optimization method using the improved sensitivity analysis can produce a higher modal damping ratio than that using the conventional sensitivity analysis and develop a smaller displacement resonant response.

  6. Opioids for cancer pain: the challenge of optimizing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Gérard E; VanItallie, Theodore B

    2010-10-01

    During 2007, 11.7 million US men and women of all ages suffered from some form of invasive cancer. During their illness, at least 70% (8.2 million) will experience pain sufficiently severe to require chronic opioid treatment. Cancer-induced pain is usually described under 3 headings: acute pain, chronic pain, and breakthrough pain. Among patients with chronic, persistent cancer pain controlled by around-the-clock analgesics, there is a high prevalence of breakthrough pain-often precipitated by some form of physical activity. Breakthrough pain seems best treated by a powerful, fast-acting opioid such as intravenous morphine or transmucosal fentanyl. At present, opioids are virtually the only analgesics capable of controlling moderate and severe cancer pain. In recent years, a veritable arsenal of opioids with a wide range of pharmacologic properties has become available for use in different pain situations. The World Health Organization has developed a 3-step "analgesic ladder" to guide management of cancer pain, based on the pain's severity, estimated by means of a 1 to 10 numeric rating scale. As the severity of the pain escalates, more potent (World Health Organization Step III) opioids are used. When faced with a difficult case of cancer pain, the physician must choose-from an array of options-the safest and most effective opioid analgesic and the most appropriate delivery system. Such decisions require an adequate understanding of the available opioids and experience with their use. The pharmacodynamic response to a given opioid depends on the nature of the receptor to which the opioid binds and its affinity for the receptor. Morphine activates the μ-opioid receptors, resulting in not only analgesia and sedation, but also euphoria, respiratory depression, constipation, and pruritus. The existence of a number of opioid receptor subtypes, each with its own repertoire of responses, has given rise to the hope (as yet unrealized) that an opioid can be found (or

  7. Vaccination and treatment as control interventions in an infectious disease model with their cost optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Anuj; Srivastava, Prashant K.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, an optimal control problem with vaccination and treatment as control policies is proposed and analysed for an SVIR model. We choose vaccination and treatment as control policies because both these interventions have their own practical advantage and ease in implementation. Also, they are widely applied to control or curtail a disease. The corresponding total cost incurred is considered as weighted combination of costs because of opportunity loss due to infected individuals and costs incurred in providing vaccination and treatment. The existence of optimal control paths for the problem is established and guaranteed. Further, these optimal paths are obtained analytically using Pontryagin's Maximum Principle. We analyse our results numerically to compare three important strategies of proposed controls, viz.: vaccination only; with both treatment and vaccination; and treatment only. We note that first strategy (vaccination only) is less effective as well as expensive. Though, for a highly effective vaccine, vaccination alone may also work well in comparison with treatment only strategy. Among all the strategies, we observe that implementation of both treatment and vaccination is most effective and less expensive. Moreover, in this case the infective population is found to be relatively very low. Thus, we conclude that the comprehensive effect of vaccination and treatment not only minimizes cost burden due to opportunity loss and applied control policies but also keeps a tab on infective population.

  8. Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Charles S.; Scheier, Michael F.; Segerstrom, Suzanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Optimism is an individual difference variable that reflects the extent to which people hold generalized favorable expectancies for their future. Higher levels of optimism have been related prospectively to better subjective well-being in times of adversity or difficulty (i.e., controlling for previous well-being). Consistent with such findings, optimism has been linked to higher levels of engagement coping and lower levels of avoidance, or disengagement, coping. There is evidence that optimism is associated with taking proactive steps to protect one's health, whereas pessimism is associated with health-damaging behaviors. Consistent with such findings, optimism is also related to indicators of better physical health. The energetic, task-focused approach that optimists take to goals also relates to benefits in the socioeconomic world. Some evidence suggests that optimism relates to more persistence in educational efforts and to higher later income. Optimists also appear to fare better than pessimists in relationships. Although there are instances in which optimism fails to convey an advantage, and instances in which it may convey a disadvantage, those instances are relatively rare. In sum, the behavioral patterns of optimists appear to provide models of living for others to learn from. PMID:20170998

  9. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke: mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihong Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal and clinical studies have confirmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  10. ALKALINE PEROXIDE MECHANICAL PULPING OF NOVEL BRAZILIAN EUCALYPTUS HYBRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho dos Santos Muguet,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Eucalyptus wood is among the most important biomass resource in the world. Wood mechanical defibration and fibrillation are energy-intensive processes utilized not only to produce pulp for papermaking, but also to produce reinforcement fibers for biocomposites, nanocellulose, or pretreat lignocellulosic material for biofuels production. The structural features of different Eucalyptus hybrids affecting the refining energy consumption and produced fiber furnish properties were evaluated. The defibration and fiber development were performed using an alkaline peroxide mechanical pulping (APMP process, which included chelation followed by an alkaline peroxide treatment prior to wood chip defibration. Despite the similar wood densities and chemical compositions of different Eucalyptus hybrids, there was a clear difference in the extent of defibration and fibrillation among the hybrids. The high energy consumption was related to a high amount of guaiacyl lignin. This observation is of major importance when considering the optimal wood hybrids for mechanical wood defibration and for understanding the fundamental phenomena taking place in chemi-mechanical defibration of wood.

  11. Optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Pearce, Charles

    2009-01-01

    Focuses on mathematical structure, and on real-world applications. This book includes developments in several optimization-related topics such as decision theory, linear programming, turnpike theory, duality theory, convex analysis, and queuing theory.

  12. Explicit optimization of plan quality measures in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Lovisa; Forsgren, Anders; Eriksson, Kjell; Hårdemark, Björn

    2017-06-01

    To formulate convex planning objectives of treatment plan multicriteria optimization with explicit relationships to the dose-volume histogram (DVH) statistics used in plan quality evaluation. Conventional planning objectives are designed to minimize the violation of DVH statistics thresholds using penalty functions. Although successful in guiding the DVH curve towards these thresholds, conventional planning objectives offer limited control of the individual points on the DVH curve (doses-at-volume) used to evaluate plan quality. In this study, we abandon the usual penalty-function framework and propose planning objectives that more closely relate to DVH statistics. The proposed planning objectives are based on mean-tail-dose, resulting in convex optimization. We also demonstrate how to adapt a standard optimization method to the proposed formulation in order to obtain a substantial reduction in computational cost. We investigated the potential of the proposed planning objectives as tools for optimizing DVH statistics through juxtaposition with the conventional planning objectives on two patient cases. Sets of treatment plans with differently balanced planning objectives were generated using either the proposed or the conventional approach. Dominance in the sense of better distributed doses-at-volume was observed in plans optimized within the proposed framework. The initial computational study indicates that the DVH statistics are better optimized and more efficiently balanced using the proposed planning objectives than using the conventional approach. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  13. Alkaline fuel cells applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordesch, Karl; Hacker, Viktor; Gsellmann, Josef; Cifrain, Martin; Faleschini, Gottfried; Enzinger, Peter; Fankhauser, Robert; Ortner, Markus; Muhr, Michael; Aronson, Robert R.

    On the world-wide automobile market technical developments are increasingly determined by the dramatic restriction on emissions as well as the regimentation of fuel consumption by legislation. Therefore there is an increasing chance of a completely new technology breakthrough if it offers new opportunities, meeting the requirements of resource preservation and emission restrictions. Fuel cell technology offers the possibility to excel in today's motive power techniques in terms of environmental compatibility, consumer's profit, costs of maintenance and efficiency. The key question is economy. This will be decided by the costs of fuel cell systems if they are to be used as power generators for future electric vehicles. The alkaline hydrogen-air fuel cell system with circulating KOH electrolyte and low-cost catalysed carbon electrodes could be a promising alternative. Based on the experiences of Kordesch [K. Kordesch, Brennstoffbatterien, Springer, Wien, 1984, ISBN 3-387-81819-7; K. Kordesch, City car with H 2-air fuel cell and lead-battery, SAE Paper No. 719015, 6th IECEC, 1971], who operated a city car hybrid vehicle on public roads for 3 years in the early 1970s, improved air electrodes plus new variations of the bipolar stack assembly developed in Graz are investigated. Primary fuel choice will be a major issue until such time as cost-effective, on-board hydrogen storage is developed. Ammonia is an interesting option. The whole system, ammonia dissociator plus alkaline fuel cell (AFC), is characterised by a simple design and high efficiency.

  14. Sufficient conditions for optimality for a mathematical model of drug treatment with pharmacodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Leszczyński

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an optimal control problem for a general mathematical model of drug treatment with a single agent. The control represents the concentration of the agent and its effect (pharmacodynamics is modelled by a Hill function (i.e., Michaelis-Menten type kinetics. The aim is to minimize a cost functional consisting of a weighted average related to the state of the system (both at the end and during a fixed therapy horizon and to the total amount of drugs given. The latter is an indirect measure for the side effects of treatment. It is shown that optimal controls are continuous functions of time that change between full or no dose segments with connecting pieces that take values in the interior of the control set. Sufficient conditions for the strong local optimality of an extremal controlled trajectory in terms of the existence of a solution to a piecewise defined Riccati differential equation are given.

  15. Reducing the public health risk of cryptosporidiosis by optimizing treatment processes at a military water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Steven H

    2011-01-01

    Safe drinking water supplies are critical to public health and mission success. One of the primary goals of water treatment is to effectively reduce the acute health risks posed by pathogenic microorganisms present in our raw, untreated water supplies. As a result of recent drinking water regulations, a military water system identified significant levels of Cryptosporidium in their raw water supply requiring additional or improved treatment to remove. Cryptosporidium, the pathogenic microorganism that causes Cryptosporidiosis, has been indicated in numerous waterborne outbreaks worldwide, including the United States. The US Army Public Health Command conducted a year-long study evaluating the ability of the water system to provide improved treatment by optimizing the existing treatment processes. Study results show that optimizing existing treatment processes and switching to an alternative coagulant chemical will achieve the Cryptosporidium removal required to comply with drinking water regulations, with subsequent reduction in the risk of Cryptosporidiosis. These improvements will also ensure effective treatment in all raw water quality conditions and reduce overall chemical costs without increasing operational and maintenance burdens. The optimization evaluation and techniques used for this water system can be applied to all military-owned water systems to help ensure the protection of public health and mission success.

  16. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...

  17. Developing optimal search strategies for detecting clinically sound treatment studies in EMBASE*

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Sharon S.-L.; Wilczynski, Nancy L; Haynes, R Brian

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The ability to accurately identify articles about therapy in large bibliographic databases such as EMBASE is important for researchers and clinicians. Our study aimed to develop optimal search strategies for detecting sound treatment studies in EMBASE in the year 2000.

  18. Fast thermal simulations and temperature optimization for hyperthermia treatment planning, including realistic 3D vessel networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, H P; van den Berg, C A T; Bel, A; Crezee, J

    2013-10-01

    Accurate thermal simulations in hyperthermia treatment planning require discrete modeling of large blood vessels. The very long computation time of the finite difference based DIscrete VAsculature model (DIVA) developed for this purpose is impractical for clinical applications. In this work, a fast steady-state thermal solver was developed for simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. Additionally, an efficient temperature-based optimization method including the thermal effect of discrete vasculature was developed. The steady-state energy balance for vasculature and tissue was described by a linear system, which was solved with an iterative method on the graphical processing unit. Temperature calculations during optimization were performed by superposition of several precomputed temperature distributions, calculated with the developed thermal solver. The thermal solver and optimization were applied to a human anatomy, with the prostate being the target region, heated with the eight waveguide 70 MHz AMC-8 system. Realistic 3D pelvic vasculature was obtained from angiography. Both the arterial and venous vessel networks consisted of 174 segments and 93 endpoints with a diameter of 1.2 mm. Calculation of the steady-state temperature distribution lasted about 3.3 h with the original DIVA model, while the newly developed method took only ≈ 1-1.5 min. Temperature-based optimization with and without taking the vasculature into account showed differences in optimized waveguide power of more than a factor 2 and optimized tumor T90 differed up to ≈ 0.5°C. This shows the necessity to take discrete vasculature into account during optimization. A very fast method was developed for thermal simulations with realistic 3D vessel networks. The short simulation time allows online calculations and makes temperature optimization with realistic vasculature feasible, which is an important step forward in hyperthermia treatment planning.

  19. Novel tools for stepping source brachytherapy treatment planning: Enhanced geometrical optimization and interactive inverse planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinkla, Anna M., E-mail: a.m.dinkla@amc.uva.nl; Laarse, Rob van der; Koedooder, Kees; Petra Kok, H.; Wieringen, Niek van; Pieters, Bradley R.; Bel, Arjan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Academic Medical Center Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam 1105 AZ (Netherlands)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: Dose optimization for stepping source brachytherapy can nowadays be performed using automated inverse algorithms. Although much quicker than graphical optimization, an experienced treatment planner is required for both methods. With automated inverse algorithms, the procedure to achieve the desired dose distribution is often based on trial-and-error. Methods: A new approach for stepping source prostate brachytherapy treatment planning was developed as a quick and user-friendly alternative. This approach consists of the combined use of two novel tools: Enhanced geometrical optimization (EGO) and interactive inverse planning (IIP). EGO is an extended version of the common geometrical optimization method and is applied to create a dose distribution as homogeneous as possible. With the second tool, IIP, this dose distribution is tailored to a specific patient anatomy by interactively changing the highest and lowest dose on the contours. Results: The combined use of EGO–IIP was evaluated on 24 prostate cancer patients, by having an inexperienced user create treatment plans, compliant to clinical dose objectives. This user was able to create dose plans of 24 patients in an average time of 4.4 min/patient. An experienced treatment planner without extensive training in EGO–IIP also created 24 plans. The resulting dose-volume histogram parameters were comparable to the clinical plans and showed high conformance to clinical standards. Conclusions: Even for an inexperienced user, treatment planning with EGO–IIP for stepping source prostate brachytherapy is feasible as an alternative to current optimization algorithms, offering speed, simplicity for the user, and local control of the dose levels.

  20. An alkaline element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.

    1983-04-28

    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  1. Risk preferences: consequences for test and treatment thresholds and optimal cutoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felder, Stefan; Mayrhofer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Risk attitudes include risk aversion as well as higher-order risk preferences such as prudence and temperance. This article analyzes the effects of such preferences on medical test and treatment decisions, represented either by test and treatment thresholds or-when the test result is not given-by optimal cutoff values for diagnostic tests. For a risk-averse decision maker, effective treatment is a risk-reducing strategy since it prevents the low health outcome of forgoing treatment in the sick state. Compared with risk neutrality, risk aversion thus lowers both the test and the treatment threshold and decreases the optimal test cutoff value. Risk vulnerability, which combines risk aversion, prudence, and temperance, is relevant if there is a comorbidity risk: thresholds and optimal cutoff values decrease even more. Since common utility functions imply risk vulnerability, our findings suggest that diagnostics in low prevalence settings (e.g., screening) may be considered more beneficial when risk preferences are taken into account.

  2. Optimal Subdivision for Treatment and Management of Catastrophic Landslides in a Watershed Using Topographic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chao-Yuan; Fu, Kuei-Lin; Lin, Cheng-Yu

    2016-11-01

    Recent extreme rainfall events led to many landslides due to climate changes in Taiwan. How to effectively promote post-disaster treatment and/or management works in a watershed/drainage basin is a crucial issue. Regarding the processes of watershed treatment and/or management works, disaster hotspot scanning and treatment priority setup should be carried out in advance. A scanning method using landslide ratio to determine the appropriate outlet of an interested watershed, and an optimal subdivision system with better homogeneity and accuracy in landslide ratio estimation were developed to help efficient executions of treatment and/or management works. Topography is a key factor affecting watershed landslide ratio. Considering the complexity and uncertainty of the natural phenomenon, multivariate analysis was applied to understand the relationship between topographic factors and landslide ratio in the interested watershed. The concept of species-area curve, which is usually adopted at on-site vegetation investigation to determinate the suitable quadrate size, was used to derive the optimal threshold in subdivisions. Results show that three main component axes including factors of scale, network and shape extracted from Digital Terrain Model coupled with areas of landslide can effectively explain the characteristics of landslide ratio in the interested watershed, and a relation curve obtained from the accuracy of landslide ratio classification and number of subdivisions could be established to derive optimal subdivision of the watershed. The subdivision method promoted in this study could be further used for priority rank and benefit assessment of landslide treatment in a watershed.

  3. Optimization-based methodology for wastewater treatment plant synthesis – a full scale retrofitting case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozkurt, Hande; Gernaey, Krist; Sin, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    technologies. The superstructure optimization problem is formulated as a Mixed Integer (non)Linear Programming problem and solved for different scenarios - represented by different objective functions and constraint definitions. A full-scale domestic wastewater treatment plant (265,000 PE) is used as a case...... framework to manage the multi-criteria WWTP design/retrofit problem for domestic wastewater treatment. The design space (i.e. alternative treatment technologies) is represented in a superstructure, which is coupled with a database containing data for both performance and economics of the novel alternative...

  4. Heat treatment process optimization for face gearsbased on deformation and residual stress control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-zhong; LAN Zhou‡; HOU Liang-wei; ZHAO Hong-pu; ZHONG Yang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, based on the principle of heat transfer and thermal elastic-plastic theory, the heat treatment process optimization scheme for face gearsis proposed according to the structural characteristics oftheface gear and material properties of 12Cr2Ni4 steel.To simulate the effect of carburizing and quenching process on tooth deformation and residual stress distribution,aheat treatment analysis model of face gearsis established, and the microstructure, stress and deformation of face gear teeth changing with time are analyzed. The simulation results show that face gear tooth hardness increases, tooth surface residual compressive stress increases and tooth deformation decreases after heat treatment process optimization.It is beneficialto improvingthe fatigue strength and performance of face gears.

  5. Patient specific optimization-based treatment planning for catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia and thermal ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Punit; Chen, Xin; Wootton, Jeffery; Pouliot, Jean; Hsu, I.-Chow; Diederich, Chris J.

    2009-02-01

    A 3D optimization-based thermal treatment planning platform has been developed for the application of catheter-based ultrasound hyperthermia in conjunction with high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy for treating advanced pelvic tumors. Optimal selection of applied power levels to each independently controlled transducer segment can be used to conform and maximize therapeutic heating and thermal dose coverage to the target region, providing significant advantages over current hyperthermia technology and improving treatment response. Critical anatomic structures, clinical target outlines, and implant/applicator geometries were acquired from sequential multi-slice 2D images obtained from HDR treatment planning and used to reconstruct patient specific 3D biothermal models. A constrained optimization algorithm was devised and integrated within a finite element thermal solver to determine a priori the optimal applied power levels and the resulting 3D temperature distributions such that therapeutic heating is maximized within the target, while placing constraints on maximum tissue temperature and thermal exposure of surrounding non-targeted tissue. This optimizationbased treatment planning and modeling system was applied on representative cases of clinical implants for HDR treatment of cervix and prostate to evaluate the utility of this planning approach. The planning provided significant improvement in achievable temperature distributions for all cases, with substantial increase in T90 and thermal dose (CEM43T90) coverage to the hyperthermia target volume while decreasing maximum treatment temperature and reducing thermal dose exposure to surrounding non-targeted tissues and thermally sensitive rectum and bladder. This optimization based treatment planning platform with catheter-based ultrasound applicators is a useful tool that has potential to significantly improve the delivery of hyperthermia in conjunction with HDR brachytherapy. The planning platform has been extended

  6. Multi-point optimization of recirculation flow type casing treatment in centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Min Thaw; Sakaguchi, Daisaku

    2016-06-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for a turbocharger in diesel engines. A recirculation flow type casing treatment is effective for flow range enhancement of centrifugal compressors. Two ring grooves on a suction pipe and a shroud casing wall are connected by means of an annular passage and stable recirculation flow is formed at small flow rates from the downstream groove toward the upstream groove through the annular bypass. The shape of baseline recirculation flow type casing is modified and optimized by using a multi-point optimization code with a metamodel assisted evolutionary algorithm embedding a commercial CFD code CFX from ANSYS. The numerical optimization results give the optimized design of casing with improving adiabatic efficiency in wide operating flow rate range. Sensitivity analysis of design parameters as a function of efficiency has been performed. It is found that the optimized casing design provides optimized recirculation flow rate, in which an increment of entropy rise is minimized at grooves and passages of the rotating impeller.

  7. Functional Recovery in Major Depressive Disorder: Focus on Early Optimized Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habert, Jeffrey; Katzman, Martin A; Oluboka, Oloruntoba J; McIntyre, Roger S; McIntosh, Diane; MacQueen, Glenda M; Khullar, Atul; Milev, Roumen V; Kjernisted, Kevin D; Chokka, Pratap R; Kennedy, Sidney H

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the case that a more rapid, individualized approach to treating major depressive disorder (MDD) may increase the likelihood of achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery for individual patients and that studies show it is possible to make earlier decisions about appropriateness of treatment in order to rapidly optimize that treatment. A PubMed search was conducted using terms including major depressive disorder, early improvement, predictor, duration of untreated illness, and function. English-language articles published before September 2015 were included. Additional studies were found within identified research articles and reviews. Thirty antidepressant studies reporting predictor criteria and outcome measures are included in this review. Studies were reviewed to extract definitions of predictors, outcome measures, and results of the predictor analysis. Results were summarized separately for studies reporting effects of early improvement, baseline characteristics, and duration of untreated depression. Shorter duration of the current depressive episode and duration of untreated depression are associated with better symptomatic and functional outcomes in MDD. Early improvement of depressive symptoms predicts positive symptomatic outcomes (response and remission), and early functional improvement predicts an increased likelihood of functional remission. The approach to treatment of depression that exhibits the greatest potential for achieving full symptomatic and functional recovery is early optimized treatment: early diagnosis followed by rapid individualized treatment. Monitoring symptoms and function early in treatment is crucial to ensuring that patients do not remain on ineffective or poorly tolerated treatment, which may delay recovery and heighten the risk of residual functional deficits.

  8. Determining a sustainable and economically optimal wastewater treatment and discharge strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Paul E; Sivapalan, Mayuran; Humphries, Robert

    2013-01-15

    Options for treatment and discharge of wastewater in regional Western Australia (WA) are examined from the perspective of overall sustainability and social net benefit. Current practice in the state has typically involved a basic standard of treatment deemed to be protective of human health, followed by discharge to surface water bodies. Community and regulatory pressure to move to higher standards of treatment is based on the presumption that a higher standard of treatment is more protective of the environment and society, and thus is more sustainable. This analysis tests that hypothesis for Western Australian conditions. The merits of various wastewater treatment and discharge strategies are examined by quantifying financial costs (capital and operations), and by monetising the wider environmental and social costs and benefits of each option over an expanded planning horizon (30 years). Six technical treatment-disposal options were assessed at a test site, all of which met the fundamental criterion of protecting human health. From a financial perspective, the current business-as-usual option is preferred - it is the least cost solution. However, valuing externalities such as water, greenhouse gases, ecological impacts and community amenity, the status quo is revealed as sub-optimal. Advanced secondary treatment with stream disposal improves water quality and provides overall net benefit to society. All of the other options were net present value (NPV) negative. Sensitivity analysis shows that the favoured option outperforms all of the others under a wide range of financial and externality values and assumptions. Expanding the findings across the state reveals that moving from the identified socially optimal level of treatment to higher (tertiary) levels of treatment would result in a net loss to society equivalent to several hundred million dollars. In other words, everyone benefits from improving treatment to the optimum point. But society, the environment, and

  9. A comparison of inverse optimization algorithms for HDR/PDR prostate brachytherapy treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinkla, Anna M; van der Laarse, Rob; Kaljouw, Emmie; Pieters, Bradley R; Koedooder, Kees; van Wieringen, Niek; Bel, Arjan

    2015-01-01

    Graphical optimization (GrO) is a common method for high-dose-rate/pulsed-dose-rate (PDR) prostate brachytherapy treatment planning. New methods performing inverse optimization of the dose distribution have been developed over the past years. The purpose is to compare GrO and two established inverse methods, inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) and hybrid inverse treatment planning and optimization (HIPO), and one new method, enhanced geometric optimization-interactive inverse planning (EGO-IIP), in terms of speed and dose-volume histogram (DVH) parameters. For 26 prostate cancer patients treated with a PDR brachytherapy boost, an experienced treatment planner optimized the dose distributions using four different methods: GrO, IPSA, HIPO, and EGO-IIP. Relevant DVH parameters (prostate-V100%, D90%, V150%; urethra-D(0.1cm3) and D(1.0cm3); rectum-D(0.1cm3) and D(2.0cm3); bladder-D(2.0cm3)) were evaluated and their compliance to the constraints. Treatment planning time was also recorded. All inverse methods resulted in shorter planning time (mean, 4-6.7 min), as compared with GrO (mean, 7.6 min). In terms of DVH parameters, none of the inverse methods outperformed the others. However, all inverse methods improved on compliance to the planning constraints as compared with GrO. On average, EGO-IIP and GrO resulted in highest D90%, and the IPSA plans resulted in lowest bladder D2.0cm3 and urethra D(1.0cm3). Inverse planning methods decrease planning time as compared with GrO for PDR/high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy. DVH parameters are comparable for all methods. Copyright © 2015 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. An exact approach to direct aperture optimization in IMRT treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men Chunhua [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Romeijn, H Edwin [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Taskin, Z Caner [Department of Industrial and Systems Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6595 (United States); Dempsey, James F [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32610-0385 (United States)

    2007-12-21

    We consider the problem of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment planning using direct aperture optimization. While this problem has been relatively well studied in recent years, most approaches employ a heuristic approach to the generation of apertures. In contrast, we use an exact approach that explicitly formulates the fluence map optimization (FMO) problem as a convex optimization problem in terms of all multileaf collimator (MLC) deliverable apertures and their associated intensities. However, the number of deliverable apertures, and therefore the number of decision variables and constraints in the new problem formulation, is typically enormous. To overcome this, we use an iterative approach that employs a subproblem whose optimal solution either provides a suitable aperture to add to a given pool of allowable apertures or concludes that the current solution is optimal. We are able to handle standard consecutiveness, interdigitation and connectedness constraints that may be imposed by the particular MLC system used, as well as jaws-only delivery. Our approach has the additional advantage that it can explicitly account for transmission of dose through the part of an aperture that is blocked by the MLC system, yielding a more precise assessment of the treatment plan than what is possible using a traditional beamlet-based FMO problem. Finally, we develop and test two stopping rules that can be used to identify treatment plans of high clinical quality that are deliverable very efficiently. Tests on clinical head-and-neck cancer cases showed the efficacy of our approach, yielding treatment plans comparable in quality to plans obtained by the traditional method with a reduction of more than 75% in the number of apertures and a reduction of more than 50% in beam-on time, with only a modest increase in computational effort. The results also show that delivery efficiency is very insensitive to the addition of traditional MLC constraints; however, jaws

  11. Treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery technqiues for intensity modulated proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengbusch, Evan R.

    Physical properties of proton interactions in matter give them a theoretical advantage over photons in radiation therapy for cancer treatment, but they are seldom used relative to photons. The primary barriers to wider acceptance of proton therapy are the technical feasibility, size, and price of proton therapy systems. Several aspects of the proton therapy landscape are investigated, and new techniques for treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery are presented. The results of these investigations suggest a means by which proton therapy can be delivered more efficiently, effectively, and to a much larger proportion of eligible patients. An analysis of the existing proton therapy market was performed. Personal interviews with over 30 radiation oncology leaders were conducted with regard to the current and future use of proton therapy. In addition, global proton therapy market projections are presented. The results of these investigations serve as motivation and guidance for the subsequent development of treatment system designs and treatment planning, optimization, and beam delivery methods. A major factor impacting the size and cost of proton treatment systems is the maximum energy of the accelerator. Historically, 250 MeV has been the accepted value, but there is minimal quantitative evidence in the literature that supports this standard. A retrospective study of 100 patients is presented that quantifies the maximum proton kinetic energy requirements for cancer treatment, and the impact of those results with regard to treatment system size, cost, and neutron production is discussed. This study is subsequently expanded to include 100 cranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) patients, and the results are discussed in the context of a proposed dedicated proton SRS treatment system. Finally, novel proton therapy optimization and delivery techniques are presented. Algorithms are developed that optimize treatment plans over beam angle, spot size, spot spacing

  12. A treatment planning code for inverse planning and 3D optimization in hadrontherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourhaleb, F; Marchetto, F; Attili, A; Pittà, G; Cirio, R; Donetti, M; Giordanengo, S; Givehchi, N; Iliescu, S; Krengli, M; La Rosa, A; Massai, D; Pecka, A; Pardo, J; Peroni, C

    2008-09-01

    The therapeutic use of protons and ions, especially carbon ions, is a new technique and a challenge to conform the dose to the target due to the energy deposition characteristics of hadron beams. An appropriate treatment planning system (TPS) is strictly necessary to take full advantage. We developed a TPS software, ANCOD++, for the evaluation of the optimal conformal dose. ANCOD++ is an analytical code using the voxel-scan technique as an active method to deliver the dose to the patient, and provides treatment plans with both proton and carbon ion beams. The iterative algorithm, coded in C++ and running on Unix/Linux platform, allows the determination of the best fluences of the individual beams to obtain an optimal physical dose distribution, delivering a maximum dose to the target volume and a minimum dose to critical structures. The TPS is supported by Monte Carlo simulations with the package GEANT3 to provide the necessary physical lookup tables and verify the optimized treatment plans. Dose verifications done by means of full Monte Carlo simulations show an overall good agreement with the treatment planning calculations. We stress the fact that the purpose of this work is the verification of the physical dose and a next work will be dedicated to the radiobiological evaluation of the equivalent biological dose.

  13. Phosphatidylinositol anchor of HeLa cell alkaline phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jemmerson, R.; Low, M.G.

    1987-09-08

    Alkaline phosphatase from cancer cells, HeLa TCRC-1, was biosynthetically labeled with either /sup 3/H-fatty acids or (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and fluorography of immunoprecipitated material. Phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) released a substantial proportion of the /sup 3/H-fatty acid label from immunoaffinity-purified alkaline phosphatase but had no effect on the radioactivity of (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled material. PI-PLC also liberated catalytically active alkaline phosphatase from viable cells, and this could be selectively blocked by monoclonal antibodies to alkaline phosphatase. However, the alkaline phosphatase released from /sup 3/H-fatty acid labeled cells by PI-PLC was not radioactive. By contrast, treatment with bromelain removed both the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from purified alkaline phosphatase. Subtilisin was also able to remove the (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine label from the purified alkaline phosphatase. The /sup 3/H radioactivity in alkaline phosphatase purified from (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine-labeled cells comigrated with authentic (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine by anion-exchange chromatography after acid hydrolysis. The data suggest that the /sup 3/H-fatty acid and (/sup 3/H)ethanolamine are covalently attached to the carboxyl-terminal segment since bromelain and subtilisin both release alkaline phosphatase from the membrane by cleavage at that end of the polypeptide chain. The data are consistent with findings for other proteins recently shown to be anchored in the membrane through a glycosylphosphatidylinositol structure and indicate that a similar structure contributes to the membrane anchoring of alkaline phosphatase.

  14. Dynamic analysis and optimal control for a model of hepatitis C with treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suxia; Xu, Xiaxia

    2017-05-01

    A model for hepatitis C is formulated to study the effects of treatment and public concern on HCV transmission dynamics. The stability of equilibria and persistence of the model are analyzed, and an optimal control measure is performed to prevent the spread of HCV with minimal infected individuals and cost. The dynamical analysis reveals that the disease-free equilibrium of the model is asymptotically stable if the basic reproductive number R0 is less than unity. On the other hand, if R0 > 1 , the disease is uniformly persistent. Numerical simulations are conducted to investigate the influence of different vital parameters on R0. For the corresponding optimality system, the optimal solution is discussed by Pontryagin Maximum Principle, and the comparisons of model-predicted consequences with control or not are presented.

  15. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafiza Abdul Razak

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  16. Optimization of NaOH Molarity, LUSI Mud/Alkaline Activator, and Na2SiO3/NaOH Ratio to Produce Lightweight Aggregate-Based Geopolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razak, Rafiza Abdul; Abdullah, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri; Hussin, Kamarudin; Ismail, Khairul Nizar; Hardjito, Djwantoro; Yahya, Zarina

    2015-05-21

    This paper presents the mechanical function and characterization of an artificial lightweight geopolymer aggregate (ALGA) using LUSI (Sidoarjo mud) and alkaline activator as source materials. LUSI stands for LU-Lumpur and SI-Sidoarjo, meaning mud from Sidoarjo which erupted near the Banjarpanji-1 exploration well in Sidoarjo, East Java, Indonesia on 27 May 2006. The effect of NaOH molarity, LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio, and Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio to the ALGA are investigated at a sintering temperature of 950 °C. The results show that the optimum NaOH molarity found in this study is 12 M due to the highest strength (lowest AIV value) of 15.79% with lower water absorption and specific gravity. The optimum LUSI mud/Alkaline activator (LM/AA) ratio of 1.7 and the Na2SiO3/NaOH ratio of 0.4 gives the highest strength with AIV value of 15.42% with specific gravity of 1.10 g/cm3 and water absorption of 4.7%. The major synthesized crystalline phases were identified as sodalite, quartz and albite. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) image showed more complete geopolymer matrix which contributes to highest strength of ALGA produced.

  17. MO-B-BRB-01: Optimize Treatment Planning Process in Clinical Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, W. [New York Presbyterian Hospital (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  18. MO-B-BRB-03: Systems Engineering Tools for Treatment Planning Process Optimization in Radiation Medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapur, A. [Long Island Jewish Medical Center (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The radiotherapy treatment planning process has evolved over the years with innovations in treatment planning, treatment delivery and imaging systems. Treatment modality and simulation technologies are also rapidly improving and affecting the planning process. For example, Image-guided-radiation-therapy has been widely adopted for patient setup, leading to margin reduction and isocenter repositioning after simulation. Stereotactic Body radiation therapy (SBRT) and Radiosurgery (SRS) have gradually become the standard of care for many treatment sites, which demand a higher throughput for the treatment plans even if the number of treatments per day remains the same. Finally, simulation, planning and treatment are traditionally sequential events. However, with emerging adaptive radiotherapy, they are becoming more tightly intertwined, leading to iterative processes. Enhanced efficiency of planning is therefore becoming more critical and poses serious challenge to the treatment planning process; Lean Six Sigma approaches are being utilized increasingly to balance the competing needs for speed and quality. In this symposium we will discuss the treatment planning process and illustrate effective techniques for managing workflow. Topics will include: Planning techniques: (a) beam placement, (b) dose optimization, (c) plan evaluation (d) export to RVS. Planning workflow: (a) import images, (b) Image fusion, (c) contouring, (d) plan approval (e) plan check (f) chart check, (g) sequential and iterative process Influence of upstream and downstream operations: (a) simulation, (b) immobilization, (c) motion management, (d) QA, (e) IGRT, (f) Treatment delivery, (g) SBRT/SRS (h) adaptive planning Reduction of delay between planning steps with Lean systems due to (a) communication, (b) limited resource, (b) contour, (c) plan approval, (d) treatment. Optimizing planning processes: (a) contour validation (b) consistent planning protocol, (c) protocol/template sharing, (d) semi

  19. Optimizing treatment parameters for the vascular malformations using 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Wei; Lin, He; Xie, Shusen

    2010-02-01

    Near infrared Nd:YAG pulsed laser treatment had been proved to be an efficient method to treat large-sized vascular malformations like leg telangiectasia for deep penetrating depth into skin and uniform light distribution in vessel. However, optimal clinical outcome was achieved by various laser irradiation parameters and the key factor governing the treatment efficacy was still unclear. A mathematical model in combination with Monte Carlo algorithm and finite difference method was developed to estimate the light distribution, temperature profile and thermal damage in epidermis, dermis and vessel during and after 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Simulation results showed that epidermal protection could be achieved during 1064 nm Nd:YAG pulsed laser irradiation in conjunction with cryogen spray cooling. However, optimal vessel closure and blood coagulation depend on a compromise between laser spot size and pulse duration.

  20. Drug regimens identified and optimized by output-driven platform markedly reduce tuberculosis treatment time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bai-Yu; Clemens, Daniel L.; Silva, Aleidy; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Masleša-Galić, Saša; Nava, Susana; Ding, Xianting; Ho, Chih-Ming; Horwitz, Marcus A.

    2017-01-01

    The current drug regimens for treating tuberculosis are lengthy and onerous, and hence complicated by poor adherence leading to drug resistance and disease relapse. Previously, using an output-driven optimization platform and an in vitro macrophage model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, we identified several experimental drug regimens among billions of possible drug-dose combinations that outperform the current standard regimen. Here we use this platform to optimize the in vivo drug doses of two of these regimens in a mouse model of pulmonary tuberculosis. The experimental regimens kill M. tuberculosis much more rapidly than the standard regimen and reduce treatment time to relapse-free cure by 75%. Thus, these regimens have the potential to provide a markedly shorter course of treatment for tuberculosis in humans. As these regimens omit isoniazid, rifampicin, fluoroquinolones and injectable aminoglycosides, they would be suitable for treating many cases of multidrug and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. PMID:28117835

  1. Optimization of prostate cancer treatment plans using the adjoint transport method and discrete ordinates codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, S.; Henderson, D.L. [Dept. of Medical Physics, Madison, WI (United States); Thomadsen, B.R. [Dept. of Medical Physics and Dept. of Human Oncology, Madison (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Interstitial brachytherapy is a type of radiation in which radioactive sources are implanted directly into cancerous tissue. Determination of dose delivered to tissue by photons emitted from implanted seeds is an important step in the treatment plan process. In this paper we will investigate the use of the discrete ordinates method and the adjoint method to calculate absorbed dose in the regions of interest. MIP (mixed-integer programming) is used to determine the optimal seed distribution that conforms the prescribed dose to the tumor and delivers minimal dose to the sensitive structures. The patient treatment procedure consists of three steps: (1) image acquisition with the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) and assessing the region of interest, (2) adjoint flux computation with discrete ordinate code for inverse dose calculation, and (3) optimization with the MIP branch-and-bound method.

  2. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral,Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  3. An optimized treatment for algorithmic differentiation of an important glaciological fixed-point problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Daniel N.; Krishna Narayanan, Sri Hari; Hascoet, Laurent; Utke, Jean

    2016-05-01

    We apply an optimized method to the adjoint generation of a time-evolving land ice model through algorithmic differentiation (AD). The optimization involves a special treatment of the fixed-point iteration required to solve the nonlinear stress balance, which differs from a straightforward application of AD software, and leads to smaller memory requirements and in some cases shorter computation times of the adjoint. The optimization is done via implementation of the algorithm of Christianson (1994) for reverse accumulation of fixed-point problems, with the AD tool OpenAD. For test problems, the optimized adjoint is shown to have far lower memory requirements, potentially enabling larger problem sizes on memory-limited machines. In the case of the land ice model, implementation of the algorithm allows further optimization by having the adjoint model solve a sequence of linear systems with identical (as opposed to varying) matrices, greatly improving performance. The methods introduced here will be of value to other efforts applying AD tools to ice models, particularly ones which solve a hybrid shallow ice/shallow shelf approximation to the Stokes equations.

  4. Optimized Protocol of Methanol Treatment for Immunofluorescent Staining in Fixed Brain Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Feng; Cohen, Noam A.; Cohen, Akiva S.

    2017-01-01

    We optimized methanol treatment in paraformaldehyde-fixed slices for immunofluorescent staining of ependymal basal bodies in brain ventricles. As 100% methanol induced severe deformations to the slices (including rolling and folding over), we tried to decrease methanol concentration. We found that 33.3% to 75% methanol could result in ideal immunostaining of basal bodies without inducing obvious deformations. Instead of treating slices at −20°C (without proper cryoprotection measurements) as suggested in previous studies, we carried out methanol treatment at room temperature. Our modified protocol can not only raise immunostaining efficiency in tissue slices, it may also prevent potential freezing damages to the samples. PMID:26509907

  5. The optimization of treatment and management of schizophrenia in Europe (OPTiMiSE) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leucht, Stefan; Winter-van Rossum, Inge; Heres, Stephan;

    2015-01-01

    gap leaves important questions unanswered. For example, when a first antipsychotic failed, is switching to another drug effective? And when should we use clozapine? The aim of this article is to review the efficacy of switching antipsychotics in case of nonresponse. We also present the European...... Commission sponsored "Optimization of Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Europe" (OPTiMiSE) trial which aims to provide a treatment algorithm for patients with a first episode of schizophrenia. METHODS: We searched Pubmed (October 29, 2014) for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that examined...

  6. Optimizing drugs to reach treatment targets for children and adolescents living with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Penazzato

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As the global community makes progress towards the 90-90-90 targets by 2020, a key challenge is ensuring that antiretroviral drugs for children and adolescents are suitable to the context of resource-limited settings. Drug optimization aims to support the expanded use of more simplified, less toxic drug regimens with high barriers to drug resistance that require minimal clinical monitoring while maintaining therapeutic efficacy. This manuscript summarizes the progress made and outlines further critical steps required to ensure that the right drugs are available to start children and adolescents on treatment and to keep them virologically suppressed. Discussion: Building upon previous work in drug optimization, several important steps were taken in 2014 to ensure alignment between WHO dosing recommendations and the requirements of regulatory bodies, to accelerate drug development, to reduce intellectual property barriers to generic production of combined formulations and rationalize drug selection in countries. The priority for the future is to improve access to antiretroviral therapy (ART at the two ends of the paediatric age spectrum – infants and adolescents – where the treatment gap is greatest, and optimize drug sequencing with better use of available medicines for second- and third-line ART. Future efforts in this area will require continuous collaboration and coordination, and the promotion of innovative approaches to accelerate access to new drugs and formulations. Conclusions: While significant progress has been made, additional efforts are needed to ensure that treatment targets are reached by 2020.

  7. Dependence of patients' life quality on severity of oral pathology: optimization of treatment approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova S.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goals include: 1 assessment the quality of life of those patients who have defects of tooth rows not replaced by orthopedic appliances on the basis of the complex analysis; 2 choice of more reasonable method of treatment. The use of dental questionnaires such as Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14 while treating oral pathology allows both optimizing an approach to choosing an appropriate treatment method and making more successful prognosis as to the efficiency of treatment being performed. The quality of life of those patients who have tooth rows defects not replaced by orthopedic appliances depends on sex, age, family status, employment and extent of tooth rows defects. Patients with tooth rows defects not replaced by orthopedic appliances accompanied by diseases of peri-odontium are characterized by worse quality of life. This fact must be taken into consideration while planning patients' treatment

  8. Investigations into the Optimization of Multi-Source Strength Brachytherapy Treatment Procedures

    CERN Document Server

    Henderson, D L; Yoo, S

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of multi-strength and multi-specie radioactive sources in permanent prostate implant brachytherapy. In order to fulfill the requirement for an optimal dose distribution, the prescribed dose should be delivered to the target in a nearly uniform dose distribution while simultaneously sparing sensitive structures. The treatment plan should use a small number of needles and sources while satisfying the treatment requirements. The hypothesis for the use of multi-strength and/or multi-specie sources is that a better treatment plan using fewer sources and needles could be obtained than by treatment plans using single-strength sources could reduce the overall number of sources used for treatment. We employ a recently developed greedy algorithm based on the adjoint concept as the optimization search engine. The algorithm utilizes and ''adjoint ratio'', which provides a means of ranking source positions, as the pseudo-objective function. It ha s been shown that the gre...

  9. Anaerobic fermentation mixture from waste activated sludge under alkaline condition improving treatment effect of wastewater with low C/N%剩余污泥厌氧发酵混合物提高低C/N污水处理效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晔; 王淑莹; 袁悦; 何岳兰; 彭永臻

    2016-01-01

    ) reaching 3428.5 mg/L corresponded to short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) accumulation of 1521.4 mg COD/L. Meanwhile, a small amount of nitrogen (C/N=18.9) and phosphorus (C/P=57.0) was released during alkaline fermentation. 2) The NO3--N removal efficiency was 69.3% when the initial NO3--N concentration was 15.0±0.5 mg/L and the maximum pure phosphorus release amount was 18.5 mg/Lin blank test. Compared with the blank test, the highest NO3--N removal efficiency (100%) occurred with the optimal additive volume of more than 30 mL in biological denitrification process. The maximum pure phosphorus release amount (22.8 mg/L) occurred with the optimal additive volume of 20 mL, 4.3 mg/L higher than that of blank test. However, excessive fermentation mixture could significantly reduce the nitrification rate. The highest NH4+-N removal rate was 0.293 mg/(L·min) with the optimal additive volume of 30 mL in biological nitrification process. When the additive volume was more than 30 mL (50, 100 and 200 mL), the NH4+-N removal rates were 0.244, 0.109 and 0.004 mg/(L·min), respectively. Therefore, the strategy using anaerobic fermentation mixture from WAS under alkaline condition as external carbon source is feasible. It can solve the problems of carbon source lack and WAS disposal, and also simplify the process of traditional WAS anaerobic fermentation liquid utilization. This strategy is suitable for the treatment of rural domestic wastewater with low C/N ratio.%为了避免剩余污泥厌氧发酵液利用时泥液难分离的问题,探讨了直接将发酵混合物用作外加碳源处理低碳氮比(C/N)污水的可行性。为此,首先对比了酸性(pH值=4.0±0.2)、中性(不控pH值)、碱性(pH值=10.0±0.2)条件下长期运行的剩余污泥厌氧发酵混合物的特性;其次,分别考察了碱性厌氧发酵混合物的不同投加量(0、10、20、30、50、100、200 mL),在反硝化及释磷过程中的利用。结果表明:碱性条件

  10. Optimization of antitumor treatment conditions for transcutaneous CO2 application: An in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, Takeshi; Kawamoto, Teruya; Onishi, Yasuo; Harada, Risa; Minoda, Masaya; Toda, Mitsunori; Hara, Hitomi; Fukase, Naomasa; Kurosaka, Masahiro; Kuroda, Ryosuke; Akisue, Toshihiro; Sakai, Yoshitada

    2017-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) therapy can be applied to treat a variety of disorders. We previously found that transcutaneous application of CO2 with a hydrogel decreased the tumor volume of several types of tumors and induced apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway. However, only one condition of treatment intensity has been tested. For widespread application in clinical antitumor therapy, the conditions must be optimized. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the duration, frequency, and treatment interval of transcutaneous CO2 application and antitumor effects in murine xenograft models. Murine xenograft models of three types of human tumors (breast cancer, osteosarcoma, and malignant fibrous histiocytoma/undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma) were used to assess the antitumor effects of transcutaneous CO2 application of varying durations, frequencies, and treatment intervals. In all human tumor xenografts, apoptosis was significantly induced by CO2 treatment for ≥10 min, and a significant decrease in tumor volume was observed with CO2 treatments of >5 min. The effect on tumor volume was not dependent on the frequency of CO2 application, i.e., twice or five times per week. However, treatment using 3- and 4-day intervals was more effective at decreasing tumor volume than treatment using 2- and 5-day intervals. The optimal conditions of transcutaneous CO2 application to obtain the best antitumor effect in various tumors were as follows: greater than 10 min per application, twice per week, with 3- and 4-day intervals, and application to the site of the tumor. The results suggest that this novel transcutaneous CO2 application might be useful to treat primary tumors, while mitigating some side effects, and therefore could be safe for clinical trials.

  11. Endotoxin detoxification by alkaline phosphatase in cholestatic livers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelstra, K; Bakker, WW; Hardonk, MJ; Meijer, DKF; Wisse, E; Knook, DL; Balabaud, C

    1997-01-01

    Increased expression of alkaline phosphatase (AP) in the liver is a hallmark of cholestasis but the pathophysiological role of this is not clear. We argue that deprotonation of carboxyl groups at the active site of the enzyme may be a prerequisite for optimal AP activity. Such a creation of negative

  12. Block Copolymers for Alkaline Fuel Cell Membrane Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-30

    constitute the ionic conducting channel while the hydrophobic perfluorinated backbone forms the mechanical component of the membrane material. Although...membrane in many aspects and design optimized anion exchange membranes with better alkaline stability, mechanical integrity and ionic conductivity. A...high ionic conductivity through formation of phase separated ionic domains. Using anionic polymerization, a polyethylene based block copolymer was

  13. Characterization of Alkaline Treatment and Fiber Content on the Physical, Thermal, and Mechanical Properties of Ground Coffee Waste/Oxobiodegradable HDPE Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Yee Tan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of alkali treatment on ground coffee waste/oxobiodegradable HDPE (GCW/oxo-HDPE composites was evaluated using 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% volume fraction of GCW. The composites were characterized using structural (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal (thermogravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, mechanical (tensile and impact test properties, and water absorption. FTIR spectrum indicated the eradication of lipids, hemicellulose, lignin, and impurities after the treatments lead to an improvement of the filler/matrix interface adhesion. This is confirmed by SEM results. Degree of crystallinity index was increased by 5% after the treatment. Thermal stability for both untreated and treated GCW composites was alike. Optimum tensile result was achieved when using 10% volume fraction with enhancement of 25% for tensile strength and 24% for tensile modulus compared to untreated composite. Specific tensile strength and modulus had improved as the composite has lower density. The highest impact properties were achieved when using 15% volume fraction that lead to an improvement of 6%. Treated GCW composites show better water resistance with 57% improvement compared to the untreated ones. This lightweight and ecofriendly biocomposite has the potential in packaging, internal automotive parts, lightweight furniture, and other composite engineering applications.

  14. Radiobiological effect based treatment plan optimization with the linear quadratic model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schell, Stefan; Wilkens, Jan J.; Oelfke, Uwe [German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Medical Physics in Radiation Oncology

    2010-07-01

    As an approach towards more biology-oriented treatment planning for external beam radiation therapy, we present the incorporation of local radiation damage models into three dimensional treatment planning. This allows effect based instead of dose based plan optimization which could potentially better match the biologically relevant tradeoff between target and normal tissues. In particular, our approach facilitates an effective comparison of different fractionation schemes. It is based on the linear quadratic model to describe the biological radiation effect. Effect based optimization was integrated into our inverse treatment planning software KonRad, and we demonstrate the resulting differences between conventional and biological treatment planning. Radiation damage can be analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively in dependence of the fractionation scheme and tissue specific parameters in a three dimensional voxel based system. As an example the potential advantages as well as the associated risks of hypofractionation for prostate cancer are analyzed and visualized with the help of effective dose volume histograms. Our results suggest a very conservative view regarding alternative fractionation schemes since uncertainties in biological parameters are still too big to make reliable clinical predictions. (orig.)

  15. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A, followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1 with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved.

  16. Metabolomic approach to optimizing and evaluating antibiotic treatment in the axenic culture of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pei-pei; Jia, Shi-ru; Sun, Ying; Tan, Zhi-lei; Zhong, Cheng; Dai, Yu-jie; Tan, Ning; Shen, Shi-gang

    2014-09-01

    The application of antibiotic treatment with assistance of metabolomic approach in axenic isolation of cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme was investigated. Seven antibiotics were tested at 1-100 mg L(-1), and order of tolerance of N. flagelliforme cells was obtained as kanamycin > ampicillin, tetracycline > chloromycetin, gentamicin > spectinomycin > streptomycin. Four antibiotics were selected based on differences in antibiotic sensitivity of N. flagelliforme and associated bacteria, and their effects on N. flagelliforme cells including the changes of metabolic activity with antibiotics and the metabolic recovery after removal were assessed by a metabolomic approach based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with multivariate analysis. The results showed that antibiotic treatment had affected cell metabolism as antibiotics treated cells were metabolically distinct from control cells, but the metabolic activity would be recovered via eliminating antibiotics and the sequence of metabolic recovery time needed was spectinomycin, gentamicin > ampicillin > kanamycin. The procedures of antibiotic treatment have been accordingly optimized as a consecutive treatment starting with spectinomycin, then gentamicin, ampicillin and lastly kanamycin, and proved to be highly effective in eliminating the bacteria as examined by agar plating method and light microscope examination. Our work presented a strategy to obtain axenic culture of N. flagelliforme and provided a method for evaluating and optimizing cyanobacteria purification process through diagnosing target species cellular state.

  17. Optimization of a general-purpose, actively scanned proton beamline for ocular treatments: Geant4 simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piersimoni, Pierluigi; Rimoldi, Adele; Riccardi, Cristina; Pirola, Michele; Molinelli, Silvia; Ciocca, Mario

    2015-03-08

    The Italian National Center for Hadrontherapy (CNAO, Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica), a synchrotron-based hospital facility, started the treatment of patients within selected clinical trials in late 2011 and 2012 with actively scanned proton and carbon ion beams, respectively. The activation of a new clinical protocol for the irradiation of uveal melanoma using the existing general-purpose proton beamline is foreseen for late 2014. Beam characteristics and patient treatment setup need to be tuned to meet the specific requirements for such a type of treatment technique. The aim of this study is to optimize the CNAO transport beamline by adding passive components and minimizing air gap to achieve the optimal conditions for ocular tumor irradiation. The CNAO setup with the active and passive components along the transport beamline, as well as a human eye-modeled detector also including a realistic target volume, were simulated using the Monte Carlo Geant4 toolkit. The strong reduction of the air gap between the nozzle and patient skin, as well as the insertion of a range shifter plus a patient-specific brass collimator at a short distance from the eye, were found to be effective tools to be implemented. In perspective, this simulation toolkit could also be used as a benchmark for future developments and testing purposes on commercial treatment planning systems.

  18. Strategies to optimize treatment adherence in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bishay LC

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lara C Bishay, Gregory S Sawicki Division of Respiratory Diseases, Boston Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA, USA Abstract: While development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF has led to a significant improvement in survival age, routine daily treatment for CF is complex, burdensome, and time intensive. Adolescence is a period of decline in pulmonary function in CF, and is also a time when adherence to prescribed treatment plans for CF tends to decrease. Challenges to adherence in adolescents with CF include decreased parental involvement, time management and significant treatment burden, and adolescent perceptions of the necessity and value of the treatments prescribed. Studies of interventions to improve adherence are limited and focus on education, without significant evidence of success. Smaller studies on behavioral techniques do not focus on adolescents. Other challenges for improving adherence in adolescents with CF include infection control practices limiting in-person interactions. This review focuses on the existing evidence base on adherence intervention in adolescents with CF. Future directions for efforts to optimize treatment adherence in adolescents with CF include reducing treatment burden, developing patient-driven technology to improve tracking, communication, and online support, and rethinking the CF health services model to include assessment of individualized adherence barriers. Keywords: compliance, adolescence, medication, self management, intervention

  19. Optimal management of pulmonary arterial hypertension: prognostic indicators to determine treatment course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldi, Fabiana; Fuso, Leonello; Arrighi, Eugenio; Valente, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive pulmonary vascular disease with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis that can result in right-sided heart failure and death. A number of studies indicate that an early therapeutic intervention yields better results on disease progression as compared to delayed treatment. In this review, we will analyze treatment strategies that may be used for monitoring disease progression and for guiding treatment decisions. Several factors (ie, symptoms, functional class, exercise capacity as assessed by a walking test and cardiopulmonary stress testing, hemodynamic parameters, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma levels of biochemical markers) have been prognostic of survival. These indicators may be used both at the time of diagnosis and during treatment follow-up. No resolutive therapy is currently available for PAH; however, in the last decade, the advent of specific pharmacological treatments has given new hope to patients suffering from this debilitating disease with a poor prognosis. Combination drug therapies offer increased benefits over monotherapy, and current guidelines recommend a sequential “add on” design approach for patients in functional class II–IV. The goal-oriented “treat to target” therapy sets the timing for treatment escalation in case of inadequate response to currently known prognostic indicators. To date, further longitudinal studies should be urgently conducted to identify new goals that may improve therapeutic strategies in order to optimize personalized treatment in PAH patients. PMID:25328398

  20. Strategies to optimize treatment adherence in adolescent patients with cystic fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishay, Lara C; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2016-01-01

    While development of new treatments for cystic fibrosis (CF) has led to a significant improvement in survival age, routine daily treatment for CF is complex, burdensome, and time intensive. Adolescence is a period of decline in pulmonary function in CF, and is also a time when adherence to prescribed treatment plans for CF tends to decrease. Challenges to adherence in adolescents with CF include decreased parental involvement, time management and significant treatment burden, and adolescent perceptions of the necessity and value of the treatments prescribed. Studies of interventions to improve adherence are limited and focus on education, without significant evidence of success. Smaller studies on behavioral techniques do not focus on adolescents. Other challenges for improving adherence in adolescents with CF include infection control practices limiting in-person interactions. This review focuses on the existing evidence base on adherence intervention in adolescents with CF. Future directions for efforts to optimize treatment adherence in adolescents with CF include reducing treatment burden, developing patient-driven technology to improve tracking, communication, and online support, and rethinking the CF health services model to include assessment of individualized adherence barriers. PMID:27799838

  1. Comparisons of treatment optimization directly incorporating random patient setup uncertainty with a margin-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, John J; Anscher, Mitchell S; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to incorporate the dosimetric effect of random patient positioning uncertainties directly into a commercial treatment planning system's IMRT plan optimization algorithm through probabilistic treatment planning (PTP) and compare coverage of this method with margin-based planning. In this work, PTP eliminates explicit margins and optimizes directly on the estimated integral treatment dose to determine optimal patient dose in the presence of setup uncertainties. Twenty-eight prostate patient plans adhering to the RTOG-0126 criteria are optimized using both margin-based and PTP methods. Only random errors are considered. For margin-based plans, the planning target volume is created by expanding the clinical target volume (CTV) by 2.1 mm to accommodate the simulated 3 mm random setup uncertainty. Random setup uncertainties are incorporated into IMRT dose evaluation by convolving each beam's incident fluence with a sigma = 3 mm Gaussian prior to dose calculation. PTP optimization uses the convolved fluence to estimate dose to ensure CTV coverage during plan optimization. PTP-based plans are compared to margin-based plans with equal CTV coverage in the presence of setup errors based on dose-volume metrics. The sensitivity of the optimized plans to patient-specific setup uncertainty variations is assessed by evaluating dose metrics for dose distributions corresponding to halving and doubling of the random setup uncertainty used in the optimization. Margin-based and PTP-based plans show similar target coverage. A physician review shows that PTP is preferred for 21 patients, margin-based plans are preferred in 2 patients, no preference is expressed for 1 patient, and both autogenerated plans are rejected for 4 patients. For the PTP-based plans, the average CTV receiving the prescription dose decreases by 0.5%, while the mean dose to the CTV increases by 0.7%. The CTV tumor control probability (TCP) is the same for both methods with the exception

  2. 2nd Generation alkaline electrolysis. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yde, L. [Aarhus Univ. Business and Social Science - Centre for Energy Technologies (CET), Aarhus (Denmark); Kjartansdottir, C.K. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Allebrod, F. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Energy Conversion, DTU Risoe Campus, Roskilde (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-03-15

    conditions and the degradation mechanism was examined. One of the strong visions for the 2{sup nd} generation electrolyser concept has been to develop a modular system with several standardized components. The following modules have been designed: 1) Electrolyser module; 2) Deoxer Module; 3) Dryer Module; 4) Water Treatment Module; 5) Power supply and Control unit; 6) Rack mount. The developed 2{sup nd} generation rack-mounted alkaline electrolyser system has been installed and demonstrated for 18 month in a college (H2College) with 66 apartments. A number of measurements were performed on the system installed in H2College. No measurements on the overall system efficiency were conducted. However measurement on the stack showed a stack efficiency of 86.5% at a current density of 177mA/cm{sup 2} and a temperature of 74.4 deg. C at the hydrogen outlet. The system is estimated to have run roughly 2000h during the demonstration period. The demonstration of the 2{sup nd} generation alkaline electrolyser is considered a success for several reasons. While not all technical goals were reached, the research and development in the project have resulted in some very good solutions for most of the challenges in high pressure alkaline electrolysis. The concept of a rack mounted electrolyser was proven viable, and all critical aspects of the modularisation have been covered. (LN)

  3. Pareto Optimization Identifies Diverse Set of Phosphorylation Signatures Predicting Response to Treatment with Dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klammer, Martin; Dybowski, J Nikolaj; Hoffmann, Daniel; Schaab, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Multivariate biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of targeted therapy in individual patients are highly desired. Previous biomarker discovery studies have largely focused on the identification of single biomarker signatures, aimed at maximizing prediction accuracy. Here, we present a different approach that identifies multiple biomarkers by simultaneously optimizing their predictive power, number of features, and proximity to the drug target in a protein-protein interaction network. To this end, we incorporated NSGA-II, a fast and elitist multi-objective optimization algorithm that is based on the principle of Pareto optimality, into the biomarker discovery workflow. The method was applied to quantitative phosphoproteome data of 19 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines from a previous biomarker study. The algorithm successfully identified a total of 77 candidate biomarker signatures predicting response to treatment with dasatinib. Through filtering and similarity clustering, this set was trimmed to four final biomarker signatures, which then were validated on an independent set of breast cancer cell lines. All four candidates reached the same good prediction accuracy (83%) as the originally published biomarker. Although the newly discovered signatures were diverse in their composition and in their size, the central protein of the originally published signature - integrin β4 (ITGB4) - was also present in all four Pareto signatures, confirming its pivotal role in predicting dasatinib response in NSCLC cell lines. In summary, the method presented here allows for a robust and simultaneous identification of multiple multivariate biomarkers that are optimized for prediction performance, size, and relevance.

  4. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arulmathi, P; Elangovan, G; Begum, A Farjana

    2015-01-01

    Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD). The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5%) and color (95.1%) of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm(2), electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl) concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  5. Cancer treatment as a game: integrating evolutionary game theory into the optimal control of chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Paul A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Brown, Joel S.

    2012-12-01

    Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer commonly fails due to evolution of drug resistance in tumor cells. Here, we view cancer treatment as a game in which the oncologists choose a therapy and tumors ‘choose’ an adaptive strategy. We propose the oncologist can gain an upper hand in the game by choosing treatment strategies that anticipate the adaptations of the tumor. In particular, we examine the potential benefit of exploiting evolutionary tradeoffs in tumor adaptations to therapy. We analyze a math model where cancer cells face tradeoffs in allocation of resistance to two drugs. The tumor ‘chooses’ its strategy by natural selection and the oncologist chooses her strategy by solving a control problem. We find that when tumor cells perform best by investing resources to maximize response to one drug the optimal therapy is a time-invariant delivery of both drugs simultaneously. However, if cancer cells perform better using a generalist strategy allowing resistance to both drugs simultaneously, then the optimal protocol is a time varying solution in which the two drug concentrations negatively covary. However, drug interactions can significantly alter these results. We conclude that knowledge of both evolutionary tradeoffs and drug interactions is crucial in planning optimal chemotherapy schedules for individual patients.

  6. Fabrication and Optimal Design of Biodegradable Polymeric Stents for Aneurysms Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xue; Wu, Xia; Kelly, Michael; Chen, Xiongbiao

    2017-02-28

    An aneurysm is a balloon-like bulge in the wall of blood vessels, occurring in major arteries of the heart and brain. Biodegradable polymeric stent-assisted coiling is expected to be the ideal treatment of wide-neck complex aneurysms. This paper presents the development of methods to fabricate and optimally design biodegradable polymeric stents for aneurysms treatment. Firstly, a dispensing-based rapid prototyping (DBRP) system was developed to fabricate coil and zigzag structures of biodegradable polymeric stents. Then, compression testing was carried out to characterize the radial deformation of the stents fabricated with the coil or zigzag structure. The results illustrated the stent with a zigzag structure has a stronger radial stiffness than the one with a coil structure. On this basis, the stent with a zigzag structure was chosen for the development of a finite element model for simulating the real compression tests. The result showed the finite element model of biodegradable polymeric stents is acceptable within a range of radial deformation around 20%. Furthermore, the optimization of the zigzag structure was performed with ANSYS DesignXplorer, and the results indicated that the total deformation could be decreased by 35.7% by optimizing the structure parameters, which would represent a significant advance of the radial stiffness of biodegradable polymeric stents.

  7. Optimization of the preparation conditions of ceramic products using drinking water treatment sludges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, R M Ramirez; Ayala, F Espesel; Garcia, L Chavez; Moreno, A Duran; Schouwenaars, R

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this work is to optimize, via Response Surface Methodology, the values of the main process parameters for the production of ceramic products using sludges obtained from drinking water treatment in order to valorise them. In the first experimental stage, sludges were collected from a drinking water treatment plant for characterization. In the second stage, trials were carried out to elaborate thin cross-section specimens and fired bricks following an orthogonal central composite design of experiments with three factors (sludge composition, grain size and firing temperature) and five levels. The optimization parameters (Y(1)=shrinking by firing (%), Y(2)=water absorption (%), Y(3)=density (g/cm(3)) and Y(4)=compressive strength (kg/cm(2))) were determined according to standardized analytical methods. Two distinct physicochemical processes were active during firing at different conditions in the experimental design, preventing the determination of a full response surface, which would allow direct optimization of production parameters. Nevertheless, the temperature range for the production of classical red brick was closely delimitated by the results; above this temperature, a lightweight ceramic with surprisingly high strength was produced, opening possibilities for the valorisation of a product with considerably higher added value than what was originally envisioned.

  8. Cancer treatment as a game: integrating evolutionary game theory into the optimal control of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Paul A; Gatenby, Robert A; Brown, Joel S

    2012-12-01

    Chemotherapy for metastatic cancer commonly fails due to evolution of drug resistance in tumor cells. Here, we view cancer treatment as a game in which the oncologists choose a therapy and tumors 'choose' an adaptive strategy. We propose the oncologist can gain an upper hand in the game by choosing treatment strategies that anticipate the adaptations of the tumor. In particular, we examine the potential benefit of exploiting evolutionary tradeoffs in tumor adaptations to therapy. We analyze a math model where cancer cells face tradeoffs in allocation of resistance to two drugs. The tumor 'chooses' its strategy by natural selection and the oncologist chooses her strategy by solving a control problem. We find that when tumor cells perform best by investing resources to maximize response to one drug the optimal therapy is a time-invariant delivery of both drugs simultaneously. However, if cancer cells perform better using a generalist strategy allowing resistance to both drugs simultaneously, then the optimal protocol is a time varying solution in which the two drug concentrations negatively covary. However, drug interactions can significantly alter these results. We conclude that knowledge of both evolutionary tradeoffs and drug interactions is crucial in planning optimal chemotherapy schedules for individual patients.

  9. Tumor growth rate determines the timing of optimal chronomodulated treatment schedules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Bernard

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In host and cancer tissues, drug metabolism and susceptibility to drugs vary in a circadian (24 h manner. In particular, the efficacy of a cell cycle specific (CCS cytotoxic agent is affected by the daily modulation of cell cycle activity in the target tissues. Anti-cancer chronotherapy, in which treatments are administered at a particular time each day, aims at exploiting these biological rhythms to reduce toxicity and improve efficacy of the treatment. The circadian status, which is the timing of physiological and behavioral activity relative to daily environmental cues, largely determines the best timing of treatments. However, the influence of variations in tumor kinetics has not been considered in determining appropriate treatment schedules. We used a simple model for cell populations under chronomodulated treatment to identify which biological parameters are important for the successful design of a chronotherapy strategy. We show that the duration of the phase of the cell cycle targeted by the treatment and the cell proliferation rate are crucial in determining the best times to administer CCS drugs. Thus, optimal treatment times depend not only on the circadian status of the patient but also on the cell cycle kinetics of the tumor. Then, we developed a theoretical analysis of treatment outcome (TATO to relate the circadian status and cell cycle kinetic parameters to the treatment outcomes. We show that the best and the worst CCS drug administration schedules are those with 24 h intervals, implying that 24 h chronomodulated treatments can be ineffective or even harmful if administered at wrong circadian times. We show that for certain tumors, administration times at intervals different from 24 h may reduce these risks without compromising overall efficacy.

  10. Microbial alkaline pectinases and their industrial applications: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoondal, G S; Tiwari, R P; Tewari, R; Dahiya, N; Beg, Q K

    2002-08-01

    The biotechnological potential of pectinolytic enzymes from microorganisms has drawn a great deal of attention from various researchers worldwide as likely biological catalysts in a variety of industrial processes. Alkaline pectinases are among the most important industrial enzymes and are of great significance in the current biotechnological arena with wide-ranging applications in textile processing, degumming of plant bast fibers, treatment of pectic wastewaters, paper making, and coffee and tea fermentations. The present review features the potential applications and uses of microbial alkaline pectinases, the nature of pectin, and the vast range of pectinolytic enzymes that function to mineralize pectic substances present in the environment. It also emphasizes the environmentally friendly applications of microbial alkaline pectinases thereby revealing their underestimated potential. The review intends to explore the potential of these enzymes and to encourage new alkaline pectinase-based industrial technology.

  11. Fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge: Application of factorial design optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel O. Cristóvão

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of hydraulic retention time (HRT and initial organic matter concentration for dissolved organic carbon (DOC abatement of wastewater from a fish canning industry of northern Portugal by activated sludge was investigated using response surface methodology (RSM. The two parameters were chosen since it was found that the treatment efficiency is mainly influenced by them. The experimental data on DOC removal were fitted into a quadratic polynomial model using factorial design and RSM. The optimum process conditions were determined by analyzing the response surface of a three-dimensional plot and by solving the regression model equation. The obtained results showed a HRT of 6.4 h and an initial DOC of 406.2 mg/L as the best treatment conditions. Under these conditions, the maximum predicted DOC removal was 88.0%, confirming the feasibility and the reliability of fish canning wastewater treatment by activated sludge for organic content removal.

  12. Optimizing the heat treatment of Ni-based superalloy turbine discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrer, D. U.; Shankar, R.; White, C.

    2003-03-01

    The heat-treatment processes for nickel-based superalloys continue to change due to the development of new alloys, new requirements, and subsequent new manufacturing facilities. Nickel-based superalloys are continuing to evolve to meet emerging applications, while new alloys are also being introduced for advanced applications. These new materials are also being optimized for numerous mechanical and physical properties, making the selection of heat-treatment parameters increasingly challenging. New processing facilities and methods are also being implemented to allow tailoring of heat-treating parameters to meet these new challenges. For example, the Ladish SuperCooler technology allows engineering and control of all aspects of the heat-treatment process for nickel-based components, resulting in never-before possible disc properties.

  13. Optimization of chitosan treatments for managing microflora in lettuce seeds without affecting germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goñi, M G; Moreira, M R; Viacava, G E; Roura, S I

    2013-01-30

    Many studies have focused on seed decontamination but no one has been capable of eliminating all pathogenic bacteria. Two objectives were followed. First, to assess the in vitro antimicrobial activity of chitosan against: (a) Escherichia coli O157:H7, (b) native microflora of lettuce and (c) native microflora of lettuce seeds. Second, to evaluate the efficiency of chitosan on reducing microflora on lettuce seeds. The overall goal was to find a combination of contact time and chitosan concentration that reduces the microflora of lettuce seeds, without affecting germination. After treatment lettuce seeds presented no detectable microbial counts (seeds) for all populations. Moreover, chitosan eliminated E. coli. Regardless of the reduction in the microbial load, a 90% reduction on germination makes imbibition with chitosan, uneconomical. Subsequent treatments identified the optimal treatment as 10 min contact with a 10 g/L chitosan solution, which maintained the highest germination percentage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Q- and A-learning Methods for Estimating Optimal Dynamic Treatment Regimes

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Phillip J; Laber, Eric B; Davidian, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In clinical practice, physicians make a series of treatment decisions over the course of a patient's disease based on his/her baseline and evolving characteristics. A dynamic treatment regime is a set of sequential decision rules that operationalizes this process. Each rule corresponds to a key decision point and dictates the next treatment action among the options available as a function of accrued information on the patient. Using data from a clinical trial or observational study, a key goal is estimating the optimal regime, that, if followed by the patient population, would yield the most favorable outcome on average. Q-learning and advantage (A-)learning are two main approaches for this purpose. We provide a detailed account of Q- and A-learning and study systematically the performance of these methods. The methods are illustrated using data from a study of depression.

  15. Acid transformation of bauxite residue: Conversion of its alkaline characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Meng; Xue, Shengguo; Hartley, William; Chen, Chengrong; Wu, Chuan; Li, Xiaofei; Li, Yiwei

    2017-02-15

    Bauxite residue (BR) is a highly alkaline solid hazardous waste produced from bauxite processing for alumina production. Alkaline transformation appears to reduce the environmental risk of bauxite residue disposal areas (BRDAs) whilst potentially providing opportunities for the sustainable reuse and on-going management of BR. Mineral acids, a novel citric acid and a hybrid combination of acid-gypsum treatments were investigated for their potential to reduce residue pH and total alkalinity and transform the alkaline mineral phase. XRD results revealed that with the exception of andradite, the primary alkaline solid phases of cancrinite, grossular and calcite were transformed into discriminative products based on the transformation used. Supernatants separated from BR and transformed bauxite residue (TBR) displayed distinct changes in soluble Na, Ca and Al, and a reduction in pH and total alkalinity. SEM images suggest that mineral acid transformations promote macro-aggregate formation, and the positive promotion of citric acid, confirming the removal or reduction in soluble and exchangeable Na. NEXAFS analysis of Na K-edge revealed that the chemical speciation of Na in TBRs was consistent with BR. Three acid treatments and gypsum combination had no effect on Na speciation, which affects the distribution of Na revealed by sodium STXM imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Design of pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor for the generation of hydrogen from alkaline sulfide wastewater of sewage treatment plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, R; Kanmani, S

    2013-01-01

    Experiments were conducted for photocatalytic generation of renewable fuel hydrogen from sulphide wastewater from the sewage treatment plant. In this study, pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was designed for treating 1 m3 of sulphide wastewater and also for the simultaneous generation of hydrogen. Bench-scale studies were conducted both in the batch recycle and continuous modes under solar irradiation at similar experimental conditions. The maximum of 89.7% conversion was achieved in the continuous mode. The length of the pilot-scale solar photocatalytic reactor was arrived using the design parameters such as volumetric flow rate (Q) (11 x 10(-2) m3/s), inlet concentration of sulphide ion (C(in)) (28 mol/m3), conversion (89.7%) and average mass flow destruction rate (3.488 x 10(-6) mol/m2 s). The treatment cost of the process was estimated to be 6 US$/m3. This process would be suitable for India like sub-tropical country where sunlight is abundantly available throughout the year.

  17. Ultra-fast treatment plan optimization for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)

    CERN Document Server

    Men, Chunhua; Jia, Xun; Jiang, Steve B

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a novel aperture-based algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatment plan optimization with high quality and high efficiency. Methods: The VMAT optimization problem is formulated as a large-scale convex programming problem solved by a column generation approach. We consider a cost function consisting two terms, the first which enforces a desired dose distribution while the second guarantees a smooth dose rate variation between successive gantry angles. At each iteration of the column generation method, a subproblem is first solved to generate one more deliverable MLC aperture which potentially decreases the cost function most effectively. A subsequent master problem is then solved to determine the dose rate at all currently generated apertures by minimizing the cost function. The iteration of such an algorithm yields a set of deliverable apertures, as well as dose rates, at all gantry angles. Results: The algorithm was preliminarily tested on five prostate and five head-a...

  18. Optimized treatment parameters to account for interfractional variability in scanned ion beam therapy of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brevet, Romain

    2015-02-04

    Scanned ion beam therapy of lung tumors is severely limited in its clinical applicability by intrafractional organ motion, interference effects between beam and tumor motion (interplay) as well as interfractional anatomic changes. To compensate for dose deterioration by intrafractional motion, motion mitigation techniques, such as gating have been developed. The latter confines the irradiation to a predetermined breathing state, usually the stable end-exhale phase. However, optimization of the treatment parameters is needed to further improve target dose coverage and normal tissue sparing. The aim of the study presented in this dissertation was to determine treatment planning parameters that permit to recover good target coverage and homogeneity during a full course of lung tumor treatments. For 9 lung tumor patients from MD Anderson Cancer Center (MDACC), a total of 70 weekly time-resolved computed tomography (4DCT) datasets were available, which depict the evolution of the patient anatomy over the several fractions of the treatment. Using the GSI in-house treatment planning system (TPS) TRiP4D, 4D simulations were performed on each weekly 4DCT for each patient using gating and optimization of a single treatment plan based on a planning CT acquired prior to treatment. It was found that using a large beam spot size, a short gating window (GW), additional margins and multiple fields permitted to obtain the best results, yielding an average target coverage (V95) of 96.5%. Two motion mitigation techniques, one approximating the rescanning process (multiple irradiations of the target with a fraction of the planned dose) and one combining the latter and gating, were then compared to gating. Both did neither show an improvement in target dose coverage nor in normal tissue sparing. Finally, the total dose delivered to each patient in a simulation of a fractioned treatment was calculated and clinical requirements in terms of target coverage and normal tissue sparing were

  19. "One-size-fits-all"? Optimizing treatment duration for bacterial infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Geli

    Full Text Available Historically, antibiotic treatment guidelines have aimed to maximize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity, but have not considered the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Optimizing the duration and dosing of treatment to minimize the duration of symptomatic infection and selection pressure for resistance simultaneously has the potential to extend the useful therapeutic life of these valuable life-saving drugs without compromising the interests of individual patients.Here, using mathematical models, we explore the theoretical basis for shorter durations of treatment courses, including a range of ecological dynamics of bacteria that cause infections or colonize hosts as commensals. We find that immunity is an important mediating factor in determining the need for long duration of treatment. When immunity to infection is expected, shorter durations that reduce the selection for resistance without interfering with successful clinical outcome are likely to be supported. Adjusting drug treatment strategies to account for the impact of the differences in the ecological niche occupied by commensal flora relative to invasive bacteria could be effective in delaying the spread of bacterial resistance.

  20. “One-Size-Fits-All”? Optimizing Treatment Duration for Bacterial Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, Patricia; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Dunne, Michael; Smith, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, antibiotic treatment guidelines have aimed to maximize treatment efficacy and minimize toxicity, but have not considered the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Optimizing the duration and dosing of treatment to minimize the duration of symptomatic infection and selection pressure for resistance simultaneously has the potential to extend the useful therapeutic life of these valuable life-saving drugs without compromising the interests of individual patients. Here, using mathematical models, we explore the theoretical basis for shorter durations of treatment courses, including a range of ecological dynamics of bacteria that cause infections or colonize hosts as commensals. We find that immunity is an important mediating factor in determining the need for long duration of treatment. When immunity to infection is expected, shorter durations that reduce the selection for resistance without interfering with successful clinical outcome are likely to be supported. Adjusting drug treatment strategies to account for the impact of the differences in the ecological niche occupied by commensal flora relative to invasive bacteria could be effective in delaying the spread of bacterial resistance. PMID:22253798

  1. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Martin

    2016-07-01

    Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024 we simulated: (1 surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1 and carbon storage (Mg ha-1; (2 fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1, and flame length (m, with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3 optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD. Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. Keywords: Eucalypt plantations; Fire hazard; FlamMap; fuel treatment optimisation; Landscape Treatment Designer; wildfire risk management.

  2. Model-Based Individualized Treatment of Chemotherapeutics: Bayesian Population Modeling and Dose Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devaraj Jayachandran

    Full Text Available 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP is one of the key drugs in the treatment of many pediatric cancers, auto immune diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MP is a prodrug, converted to an active metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN through enzymatic reaction involving thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT. Pharmacogenomic variation observed in the TPMT enzyme produces a significant variation in drug response among the patient population. Despite 6-MP's widespread use and observed variation in treatment response, efforts at quantitative optimization of dose regimens for individual patients are limited. In addition, research efforts devoted on pharmacogenomics to predict clinical responses are proving far from ideal. In this work, we present a Bayesian population modeling approach to develop a pharmacological model for 6-MP metabolism in humans. In the face of scarcity of data in clinical settings, a global sensitivity analysis based model reduction approach is used to minimize the parameter space. For accurate estimation of sensitive parameters, robust optimal experimental design based on D-optimality criteria was exploited. With the patient-specific model, a model predictive control algorithm is used to optimize the dose scheduling with the objective of maintaining the 6-TGN concentration within its therapeutic window. More importantly, for the first time, we show how the incorporation of information from different levels of biological chain-of response (i.e. gene expression-enzyme phenotype-drug phenotype plays a critical role in determining the uncertainty in predicting therapeutic target. The model and the control approach can be utilized in the clinical setting to individualize 6-MP dosing based on the patient's ability to metabolize the drug instead of the traditional standard-dose-for-all approach.

  3. Model-Based Individualized Treatment of Chemotherapeutics: Bayesian Population Modeling and Dose Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayachandran, Devaraj; Laínez-Aguirre, José; Rundell, Ann; Vik, Terry; Hannemann, Robert; Reklaitis, Gintaras; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami

    2015-01-01

    6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) is one of the key drugs in the treatment of many pediatric cancers, auto immune diseases and inflammatory bowel disease. 6-MP is a prodrug, converted to an active metabolite 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) through enzymatic reaction involving thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT). Pharmacogenomic variation observed in the TPMT enzyme produces a significant variation in drug response among the patient population. Despite 6-MP's widespread use and observed variation in treatment response, efforts at quantitative optimization of dose regimens for individual patients are limited. In addition, research efforts devoted on pharmacogenomics to predict clinical responses are proving far from ideal. In this work, we present a Bayesian population modeling approach to develop a pharmacological model for 6-MP metabolism in humans. In the face of scarcity of data in clinical settings, a global sensitivity analysis based model reduction approach is used to minimize the parameter space. For accurate estimation of sensitive parameters, robust optimal experimental design based on D-optimality criteria was exploited. With the patient-specific model, a model predictive control algorithm is used to optimize the dose scheduling with the objective of maintaining the 6-TGN concentration within its therapeutic window. More importantly, for the first time, we show how the incorporation of information from different levels of biological chain-of response (i.e. gene expression-enzyme phenotype-drug phenotype) plays a critical role in determining the uncertainty in predicting therapeutic target. The model and the control approach can be utilized in the clinical setting to individualize 6-MP dosing based on the patient's ability to metabolize the drug instead of the traditional standard-dose-for-all approach.

  4. Comment on genetic and global algorithms for optimization of three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy treatment planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaarkamp, Jaap [Joint Department of Physics, Royal Marsden NHS Trust, Sutton, Surrey (United Kingdom). E-mail: jaap@icr.ac.uk

    2001-06-01

    Full text: I would like to make four comments on three papers by two authors (Wu and Zhu 2000, 2001, Wu et al 2000) on one topic: optimization of 3D conformal radiotherapy treatment planning. In the papers, genetic and global algorithms are proposed for this optimization, and the authors claim to be able to generate better treatment plans than those produced manually and used for patient treatment (Wu and Zhu 2000). However, the data in the papers do not warrant such a conclusion and the work contains such serious methodological flaws that only the opposite can have been true. First, in the papers a few treatment plans for patients with different brain tumours are discussed. Dose volume histograms (DVHs) are presented for the target, sometimes the planning target volume, sometimes the clinical target volume, and the organs at risk (OARs): left and right eye, and thyroid or spinal cord. However, other OARs limit dose more in clinical treatment planning, and it is those OARs to which the planner must direct all effort when optimizing the treatment plan. One such important OAR when treating children is the temporal lobes because the dose to the temporal lobes has been associated with a reduction in IQ points (Fuss et al 2000). Also particularly important when treating children are the hypothalamus and pituitary, because they influence growth and the further hormonal development (Schmiegelow et al 1999, 2000). Furthermore, rather than the eyes themselves, the optic chiasm usually gets more serious attention (Fuss et al 1999) and is considered so important that it is often blocked from the treatment fields during the final fractions, thus compromising dose homogeneity in the target. Finally, irradiating the auditory apparatus can lead to a loss of hearing (Lin et al 2000), and, in particular when one side receives a high dose, every effort is made to at least spare the other side. Hence, it is not surprising to find a treatment plan that is superior in some of the

  5. Optimization of Heart Block in the Left-sided Whole Breast Radiation Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Jeff Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Blocks have been used to protect heart from potential radiation damage in left-sided breast treatments. Since cardiac motion pattern may not be fully captured on conventional 3DCT or 4DCT simulation scans, this study was intended to investigate the optimization of the heart block design taking the cardiac motion into consideration.Materials and Methods: Whole breast treatment plans using two opposed tangential fields were designed based on 4DCT simulation images for 10 left-sided breast cancer patients. Using an OBI system equipped to a Varian Linac, beam-eye viewed fluoroscopy images were acquired for each of the treatment beams after patient treatment setup, and the MLC heart blocks were overlaid onto the fluoroscopy images with an in-house software package. A non-rigid image registration and tracking algorithm was utilized to track the cardiac motion on the fluoroscopy images with minimal manual delineation for initialization, and the tracked cardiac motion information was used to optimize the heart block design to minimize the radiation damage to heart while avoiding the over-shielding that may lead to underdosing certain breast tissues. Results: Twenty-three sets of fluoroscopy images were acquired on 23 different days of treatment for the 10 patients. As expected, heart moved under the influences of both respiratory and cardiac motion. It was observed that for 16 out of the 23 treatments heart moved beyond the planed heart block into treatment fields and MLC had to be adjusted to fully block heart. The adjustment was made for all but one patient. The number of the adjusted MLC leaves ranged from 1 to 16 (mean = 10, and the MLC leaf position adjustment ranged from 2 mm to 10 mm (mean = 6 mm. The added heart block areas ranged from 3 mm2 to 1230 mm2 (mean = 331 mm2. Conclusion: In left-sided whole breast radiation treatments, simulation CT (and 4DCT based heart block design may not provide adequate heart protection for all the

  6. Expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization: Implementation for offline head and neck cancer adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Di; Liang Jian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: To construct expected treatment dose for adaptive inverse planning optimization, and evaluate it on head and neck (h and n) cancer adaptive treatment modification. Methods: Adaptive inverse planning engine was developed and integrated in our in-house adaptive treatment control system. The adaptive inverse planning engine includes an expected treatment dose constructed using the daily cone beam (CB) CT images in its objective and constrains. Feasibility of the adaptive inverse planning optimization was evaluated retrospectively using daily CBCT images obtained from the image guided IMRT treatment of 19 h and n cancer patients. Adaptive treatment modification strategies with respect to the time and the number of adaptive inverse planning optimization during the treatment course were evaluated using the cumulative treatment dose in organs of interest constructed using all daily CBCT images. Results: Expected treatment dose was constructed to include both the delivered dose, to date, and the estimated dose for the remaining treatment during the adaptive treatment course. It was used in treatment evaluation, as well as in constructing the objective and constraints for adaptive inverse planning optimization. The optimization engine is feasible to perform planning optimization based on preassigned treatment modification schedule. Compared to the conventional IMRT, the adaptive treatment for h and n cancer illustrated clear dose-volume improvement for all critical normal organs. The dose-volume reductions of right and left parotid glands, spine cord, brain stem and mandible were (17 {+-} 6)%, (14 {+-} 6)%, (11 {+-} 6)%, (12 {+-} 8)%, and (5 {+-} 3)% respectively with the single adaptive modification performed after the second treatment week; (24 {+-} 6)%, (22 {+-} 8)%, (21 {+-} 5)%, (19 {+-} 8)%, and (10 {+-} 6)% with three weekly modifications; and (28 {+-} 5)%, (25 {+-} 9)%, (26 {+-} 5)%, (24 {+-} 8)%, and (15 {+-} 9)% with five weekly modifications. Conclusions

  7. Optimization of metal working fluids treatment using calcium chloride by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HA. Jamali

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extensive use of metal working fluids degrades their chemical composition. They should be treated using a safe method. Chemical coagulation-flocculation process is one the treatment methods. Objective: The aim of this study was to optimize the coagulation-flocculation process using calcium chloride in metal working fluids treatment. Methods: This laboratory based study was performed in School of Health affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2014. Using calcium chloride and a six-compartment jar, the efficiency of coagulation-flocculation process was assessed for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and turbidity and amount of released oil. Central composite design (CCD and response surface methodology (RSM were applied to optimize the treatment operation parameters (pH and dosage of coagulant. Quadratic models were developed for calculation of the three responses (COD, turbidity, and released oil. Findings: The optimum condition for coagulation-flocculation process was seen after treatment with 4.2 g/L calcium chloride at pH 3.71 in which COD and turbidity removal efficiency were 93% and 96.9%, respectively and the amount of released oil was 31.8 ml. The level of desirability was 91.2%. The values of laboratory study were in good agreement with the values predicted by the model. Conclusion: Metal working fluids treatment with calcium chloride was efficient in the removal of pollution parameters. Dosage of calcium chloride was similar to the conventional coagulants such as Alum, but its efficiency was higher.

  8. Identifying the microbial communities and operational conditions for optimized wastewater treatment in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shun'ichi; Suzuki, Shino; Norden-Krichmar, Trina M; Wu, Angela; Yamanaka, Yuko; Nealson, Kenneth H; Bretschger, Orianna

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that exploit microorganisms as "biocatalysts" to recover energy from organic matter in the form of electricity. MFCs have been explored as possible energy neutral wastewater treatment systems; however, fundamental knowledge is still required about how MFC-associated microbial communities are affected by different operational conditions and can be optimized for accelerated wastewater treatment rates. In this study, we explored how electricity-generating microbial biofilms were established at MFC anodes and responded to three different operational conditions during wastewater treatment: 1) MFC operation using a 750 Ω external resistor (0.3 mA current production); 2) set-potential (SP) operation with the anode electrode potentiostatically controlled to +100 mV vs SHE (4.0 mA current production); and 3) open circuit (OC) operation (zero current generation). For all reactors, primary clarifier effluent collected from a municipal wastewater plant was used as the sole carbon and microbial source. Batch operation demonstrated nearly complete organic matter consumption after a residence time of 8-12 days for the MFC condition, 4-6 days for the SP condition, and 15-20 days for the OC condition. These results indicate that higher current generation accelerates organic matter degradation during MFC wastewater treatment. The microbial community analysis was conducted for the three reactors using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Although the inoculated wastewater was dominated by members of Epsilonproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes species, the electricity-generating biofilms in MFC and SP reactors were dominated by Deltaproteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Within Deltaproteobacteria, phylotypes classified to family Desulfobulbaceae and Geobacteraceae increased significantly under the SP condition with higher current generation; however those phylotypes were not found in the OC reactor. These analyses suggest that species

  9. Developing and optimizing bacteriophage treatment to control enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Abigail B; Perry, Jennifer J; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2016-11-07

    Bacteriophages are potentially useful in controlling foodborne pathogens on minimally processed products since phage application is a non-destructive treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a newly isolated environmental bacteriophage against enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli on fresh produce, and optimize the treatment with consideration for potential application. Seven anti E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 bacteriophages were isolated from various sources; the most promising was isolated from municipal wastewater. This isolate (designated as E. coli phage OSY-SP) was propagated with the host, in a growth medium, to a titer of 10(8) PFU/ml. Before inoculation into fresh produce, E. coli phage OSY-SP was incubated with the host bacterium, spent medium was filter-sterilized, and the resulting crude lysate was used as a source of phage inocula for preliminary experiments. For optimized testing, phage in the crude lysate was purified by ultra-centrifugation and resuspension in phosphate-buffered saline. Efficacy of phage treatments was determined as a function of fresh produce type (cut green pepper or spinach leaves), treatment time (2 or 5min rinsing), and temperature of holding treated produce (4°C, 25°, or a combination of both temperatures). Cut green pepper was treated with UV light, to eliminate background microbiota, then spot-inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 EDL933 on cut edges, and the inoculum was allowed to dry. Because of its susceptibility to damage, baby spinach leaves were not subjected to a decontamination treatment. These leaves were inoculated with the green fluorescent protein-labeled E. coli O157:H7 B6-914 to facilitate inoculum enumeration in the presence of background microbiota. Phage suspension was applied to the inoculated fresh produce that was subsequently held for three days under variable storage conditions. The optimized phage treatment decreased the populations of pathogenic E. coli by 2.4-3.0logCFU/g on cut green

  10. Team management of the female athlete triad part 2: optimal treatment and prevention tactics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, E; Clark, N; Ireland, M L; Martire, J; Nattiv, A; Varechok, S

    1997-04-01

    Multidisciplinary management of the female athlete triad (disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis) is optimal, but what exactly does it entail? With the primary care physician as the point person, the healthcare team addresses the underlying causes of disordered eating through such measures as drawing up a contract for returning to play, resolving nutrition issues, exploring psychotherapy options, and, sometimes, prescribing antidepressants. Hormone replacement therapy and conservative or orthopedic intervention for stress fractures may also be required. Communication among the members of the treatment team is crucial, and athletic trainers especially can provide valuable input. Prevention strategies need to involve education of coaches, teachers, trainers, parents, and others who work closely with female athletes.

  11. Optimized Treatment of Fibromyalgia Using System Identification and Hybrid Model Predictive Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sunil; Nandola, Naresh N; Rivera, Daniel E; Younger, Jarred W

    2014-12-01

    The term adaptive intervention is used in behavioral health to describe individually-tailored strategies for preventing and treating chronic, relapsing disorders. This paper describes a system identification approach for developing dynamical models from clinical data, and subsequently, a hybrid model predictive control scheme for assigning dosages of naltrexone as treatment for fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition. A simulation study that includes conditions of significant plant-model mismatch demonstrates the benefits of hybrid predictive control as a decision framework for optimized adaptive interventions. This work provides insights on the design of novel personalized interventions for chronic pain and related conditions in behavioral health.

  12. Cherenkov imaging method for rapid optimization of clinical treatment geometry in total skin electron beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreozzi, Jacqueline M., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org; Glaser, Adam K. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Zhang, Rongxiao [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Gladstone, David J.; Williams, Benjamin B.; Jarvis, Lesley A., E-mail: Jacqueline.M.Andreozzi.th@dartmouth.edu, E-mail: Lesley.A.Jarvis@hitchcock.org [Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766 (United States); Pogue, Brian W. [Thayer School of Engineering and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: A method was developed utilizing Cherenkov imaging for rapid and thorough determination of the two gantry angles that produce the most uniform treatment plane during dual-field total skin electron beam therapy (TSET). Methods: Cherenkov imaging was implemented to gather 2D measurements of relative surface dose from 6 MeV electron beams on a white polyethylene sheet. An intensified charge-coupled device camera time-gated to the Linac was used for Cherenkov emission imaging at sixty-two different gantry angles (1° increments, from 239.5° to 300.5°). Following a modified Stanford TSET technique, which uses two fields per patient position for full body coverage, composite images were created as the sum of two beam images on the sheet; each angle pair was evaluated for minimum variation across the patient region of interest. Cherenkov versus dose correlation was verified with ionization chamber measurements. The process was repeated at source to surface distance (SSD) = 441, 370.5, and 300 cm to determine optimal angle spread for varying room geometries. In addition, three patients receiving TSET using a modified Stanford six-dual field technique with 6 MeV electron beams at SSD = 441 cm were imaged during treatment. Results: As in previous studies, Cherenkov intensity was shown to directly correlate with dose for homogenous flat phantoms (R{sup 2} = 0.93), making Cherenkov imaging an appropriate candidate to assess and optimize TSET setup geometry. This method provided dense 2D images allowing 1891 possible treatment geometries to be comprehensively analyzed from one data set of 62 single images. Gantry angles historically used for TSET at their institution were 255.5° and 284.5° at SSD = 441 cm; however, the angles optimized for maximum homogeneity were found to be 252.5° and 287.5° (+6° increase in angle spread). Ionization chamber measurements confirmed improvement in dose homogeneity across the treatment field from a range of 24.4% at the initial

  13. Impacts of Alkaline Thermal Treatment on Characteristics of Sludge from Sewage Treatment Plant%热碱处理对污水处理厂污泥特性的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世东; 陈霞; 刘操; 肖本益

    2015-01-01

    AIkaIine thermaI treatment is an important pretreatment method for sewage sIudge. In this paper, in order to optimize the aIkaIine thermaI treatment conditions for sIudge pretreatment, four pretreatment parameters ( sIudge concentration, pH, temperature and treatment time) were investigated through orthogonaI eXperiments to determine their effects on the sIudge disintegration, sIudge concentration and sIudge morphoIogy of sewage sIudge. The eXperimentaI resuIts showed that the significance of the four factors on sIudge characteristics was in the order of pH﹥temperature﹥treatment time﹥sIudge concentration. AdditionaIIy, the optimaI conditions of the four factors for the reIease of soIubIe chemicaI oXygen demand ( SCOD ) of unit sIudge and decrease of sIudge concentration were as foIIows36. 55 g.L-1 , pH 12. 45, 175℃ and 60 min. WhiIe the optimaI conditions for the decrease of particIe size and fractaI dimension were 36. 55 g.L-1 , pH 12. 5, 175℃ and 45 min.%热碱处理是一种重要的污泥预处理方法.选取污泥浓度﹑pH﹑温度和处理时间这4个因素,采用正交试验,研究了这些因素对污水处理厂污泥融胞﹑污泥浓度及污泥形态等污泥特性的影响,以对污泥热碱处理的条件进行优化.结果表明,这4个因素对污泥融胞﹑污泥浓度和污泥形态特征影响的显著性均为pH﹥温度﹥时间﹥污泥浓度.此外,这4个因素对释放单位污泥溶解性化学需氧量( SCOD)和减小污泥浓度的最佳组合条件为污泥浓度36.55 g.L-1﹑pH 12.45﹑温度175℃和处理时间60 min,而对减小污泥粒径和分形维数的最佳组合条件为污泥浓度36.55 g.L-1﹑pH 12.5﹑温度175℃和处理时间45 min.

  14. Optimal policies for activated sludge treatment systems with multi effluent stream generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouveia R.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Most industrial processes generate liquid waste, which requires treatment prior to disposal. These processes are divided into sectors that generate effluents with time dependent characteristics. Each sector sends the effluent to wastewater treatment plants through pumping-stations. In general, activated sludge is the most suitable treatment and consists of equalization, aeration and settling tanks. During the treatment, there is an increase in the mass of microorganisms, which needs to be removed. Sludge removal represents the major operating costs for wastewater treatment plants. The objective of this work is to propose an optimization model to minimize sludge generation using a superstructure in which the streams from pumping-stations can be sent to the equalization tank. In addition, the aeration tank is divided into cells that can be fed in series and parallel. The model relies on mass balances, kinetic equations, and the resulting Nonlinear Programming problem generates the best operational strategy for the system feed streams with a high substrate removal. Reductions of up to 30 % can be achieved with the proposed strategy maintened BOD efficiency removal upper than 98 %.

  15. ALKALINE PEROXIDE BLEACHING OF HOT WATER TREATED WHEAT STRAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Mustajoki

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibilities for chemical consumption reduction in P-P-Paa-P bleaching (P alkaline peroxide stage, Paa peracetic stage of hot water treated straw and the effect of the wheat straw variability on the process. Papermaking fibre production from wheat straw using such a process could be implemented on a small scale if chemical consumption was low enough to eliminate the need for chemical recovery. The pulp properties obtained with this process are equal to or even superior to the properties of wheat straw soda pulp. The possibility of enhancing the first peroxide stage with oxygen and pressure was studied. The possibility for substitution of sodium hydroxide partially with sodium carbonate was also investigated. The objective was to achieve International Standardization Organization (ISO brightness of 75%, with minimal sodium hydroxide consumption, whilst maintaining the pulp properties. The optimization of the peroxide bleaching is challenging if the final brightness target cannot be reduced. Results indicate that up to 25% of the sodium hydroxide could be substituted with sodium carbonate without losing brightness or affecting pulp properties. Another possibility is a mild alkali treatment between the hot water treatment and the bleaching sequence.

  16. Optimization of the geometry and composition of a neutron system for treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: In the field of the treatment by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT), an optimized neutron system was proposed. This study (simulation) was conducted to optimize the geometry and composition of neutron system and increase the epithermal neutron flux for the treatment of deep tumors is performed. Materials and Methods: A neutron system for BNCT was proposed. The system included 252Cf neutron source, neutron moderator/reflector arrangement, filter and concrete. To capture fast ...

  17. [Impact of optimization algorithms on the intensity map in IMRT treatment planning.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Mari; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Miyabe, Yuki; Yamamoto, Tokihiro; Teshima, Teruki; Narita, Yuichiro; Mizowaki, Takashi; Nagata, Yasushi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    In inverse planning of IMRT, optimum intensity maps are generated using an optimization algorithm. In this paper, impacts of two different optimization algorithms on the intensity map in IMRT treatment planning were evaluated. These were from the steepest descent (SD) and simulated annealing (SA) methods. The following five patterns were compared: [1] SD with calculation time of 5 min; [2] SD with the terminal criterion based on cost function; [3] SA with calculation time of 5 min; [4] SA with the terminal criterion; and [5] SA with the terminal criterion using a smoothing filter. Differences of D(95%) for the planning target volume, V(70Gy) for the rectum wall and the bladder wall were up to 0.5, 1.8 and 3.2 %, respectively in all patterns. The dosimetric impact was negligible. In contrast, generated intensity maps were sensitive to the algorithms. Intensity maps generated by SA tended to have much fluctuation due to numerical artifacts compared to those generated by SD. The difference in the profile was over 7 % between the algorithms. The smoothing filter decreased the fluctuation in intensity maps of SA. In conclusion, it is important to understand impacts of optimization algorithms on the intensity map and the dose distribution.

  18. Optimized Reduction of Unsteady Radial Forces in a Singlechannel Pump for Wastewater Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hyuk; Cho, Bo-Min; Choi, Young-Seok; Lee, Kyoung-Yong; Peck, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Seon-Chang

    2016-11-01

    A single-channel pump for wastewater treatment was optimized to reduce unsteady radial force sources caused by impeller-volute interactions. The steady and unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations using the shear-stress transport turbulence model were discretized by finite volume approximations and solved on tetrahedral grids to analyze the flow in the single-channel pump. The sweep area of radial force during one revolution and the distance of the sweep-area center of mass from the origin were selected as the objective functions; the two design variables were related to the internal flow cross-sectional area of the volute. These objective functions were integrated into one objective function by applying the weighting factor for optimization. Latin hypercube sampling was employed to generate twelve design points within the design space. A response-surface approximation model was constructed as a surrogate model for the objectives, based on the objective function values at the generated design points. The optimized results showed considerable reduction in the unsteady radial force sources in the optimum design, relative to those of the reference design.

  19. Heat Treatment Optimization Studies on PIT Nb$_3$Sn Strand for the NED Project

    CERN Document Server

    Boutboul, T; den Ouden, A; Pedrini, D; Seeber, B; Volpini, G

    2009-01-01

    For the Next European Dipole (NED) program, a Powder-In-Tube (PIT) strand was successfully developed by SMI. This high-performance Nb3Sn strand presents a non-copper critical current density of ~ 2500 A/mm2 at 12 T applied field and 4.2 K and a filament diameter around 50 µm. Extensive heat treatment optimization studies were performed in order to maximize both critical current and RRR, with a plateau temperature down to 625 oC and duration up to 400 hours. It appears that a critical current enhancement of ~ 10 % can be achieved for a reaction schedule of 320 hours at 625 oC with non-copper critical current density respectively exceeding 2700 and 1500 A/mm2 at 12 and 15 T (4.2 K). Thanks to this modified heat treatment, this strand completely fulfils the NED stringent specification.

  20. Particle sedimentation in curved tubes: A 3D simulation and optimization for treatment of vestibular vertigo

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Brian; Squires, Todd M.; Hain, Timothy C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2003-11-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a mechanical disorder of the vestibular system where micron-size crystals abnormally drift into the semicircular canals of the inner ear that sense angular motion of the head. Sedimentation of these crystals causes sensation of motion after true head motion has stopped: vertigo results. The usual clinical treatment is through a series of head maneuvers designed to move the particles into a less sensitive region of the canal system. We present a three-dimensional model to simulate treatment of BPPV by determining the complete hydrodynamic motion of the particles through the course of a therapeutic maneuver while using a realistic representation of the actual geometry. Analyses of clinical maneuvers show the parameter range for which they are effective, and indicate inefficiencies in current practice. In addition, an optimization process determines the most effective head maneuver, which significantly differs from those currently in practice.

  1. A discussion of the optimal treatment of intracranial aneurysm rupture in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C

    2014-08-25

    This study aimed to find an optimal treatment for intracranial aneurysm rupture in elderly patients. We adopted endovascular embolization and combined it with mini-invasive aspiration, vascular stenosis stenting, and rehabilitation training to treat 13 elderly patients with intracranial aneurysm rupture. When the 13 patients were discharged and evaluated by the Glasgow Outcome Score (GOS), 7 patients were grade 5, 4 patients were grade 4, and 2 patients were grade 2. We found that a combination of endovascular embolization with mini-invasive aspiration and vascular stenosis stenting allowed us to adapt this treatment to various types of aneurysms. Our approach is especially suitable for elderly patients, because it reduces the occurrence of complications, improves patient prognoses, shortens the duration of hospitalization, and improves the quality of life.

  2. Optimizing proton pump inhibitor therapy for treatment of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Jarett C; Hanna, Kirollos S

    2017-02-01

    The pharmacology, rationale, and dosing optimization strategies of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) are discussed. In combination with endoscopic therapy, PPIs are the treatment of choice for UGIB. While the advent of PPIs has improved patient outcomes, controversy still exists over optimal PPI therapy for UGIB. Pharmacologic treatment in combination with endoscopic therapy has demonstrated improved outcomes in patients with nonvariceal UGIB. PPIs are the treatment of choice for suppressing gastric acid and preventing rebleeding, though a mortality benefit from these agents has not been strongly established. Although the current guidelines recommend an i.v. bolus injection followed by continuous infusion of a high-dose PPI, intermittent PPI therapy has been found to be safe and effective while significantly reducing cost, even in patients with high-risk stigmata after endoscopy. Oral PPIs may be effective in patients who can tolerate oral therapy but require further evaluation in patients with higher-risk stigmata. Regardless of stigmata, after 72 hours of i.v. therapy, patients with UGIB may be safely transitioned to oral PPIs if hemodynamically stable and able to tolerate oral medication. As the risk of rebleeding significantly decreases after the first three days, continuation of high-dose therapy beyond 72 hours is not necessary in hemodynamically stable patients. Current guidelines recommend that PPIs be given as an i.v. bolus injection followed by a continuous infusion, but intermittent i.v. dosing and oral PPI therapy have been found to be effective in treating patients with UGIB and associated with reductions in cost. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy Research on Osteopathic Manipulation Optimizing Treatment Effects: the PROMOTE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensel, Kendi L; Buchanan, Steve; Brown, Sarah K; Rodriguez, Mayra; Cruser, des Anges

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) to reduce low back pain and improve functioning during the third trimester in pregnancy and to improve selected outcomes of labor and delivery. Pregnancy research on osteopathic manipulation optimizing treatment effects was a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of 400 women in their third trimester. Women were assigned randomly to usual care only (UCO), usual care plus OMT (OMT), or usual care plus placebo ultrasound treatment (PUT). The study included 7 treatments over 9 weeks. The OMT protocol included specific techniques that were administered by board-certified OMT specialists. Outcomes were assessed with the use of self-report measures for pain and back-related functioning and medical records for delivery outcomes. There were 136 women in the OMT group: 131 women in the PUT group and 133 women in the UCO group. Characteristics at baseline were similar across groups. Findings indicate significant treatment effects for pain and back-related functioning (P OMT group similar to that of the PUT group; however, both groups were significantly improved compared with the UCO group. For secondary outcome of meconium-stained amniotic fluid, there were no differences among the groups. OMT was effective for mitigating pain and functional deterioration compared with UCO; however, OMT did not differ significantly from PUT. This may be attributed to PUT being a more active treatment than intended. There was no higher likelihood of conversion to high-risk status based on treatment group. Therefore, OMT is a safe, effective adjunctive modality to improve pain and functioning during the third trimester. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. From current status to optimization of HCV treatment: Recommendations from an expert panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craxì, Antonio; Perno, Carlo Federico; Viganò, Mauro; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Petta, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem at a global level, causing an enormous burden of hepatic and extra-hepatic morbidity and mortality. Treatment of chronic HCV (CHC) has been revolutionized in the last few years by the introduction of highly effective and well tolerated direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) able to achieve >90% rates of sustained virological response (SVR) in many groups of patients, including those previously excluded from interferon-based regimens. For such reason interferon-free regimens are now the treatments of choice for all patients. Successful anti-HCV treatment can stop liver disease progression and can solve the HCV-related extra hepatic manifestations, eventually reducing both liver-related and overall mortality. Together with the rapidly accumulating data about the evolution of treatment landscape, different guidelines from national and international Liver Scientific Societies have been published until today. However, these recommendations may not be applied worldwide as, due to high treatment costs, most of them identify as priority groups only patients with advanced liver disease. Moreover some types of patients pose clinical management problems for which even the guidelines do not always provide useful answers. With the aim of treatment optimization by filling some of the gaps of the current guidelines and addressing the remaining unmet needs in practice, a group of Italian experts, experienced on treatment of HCV infection, met in Stresa in February 2016. The summary of all the considerations arising from this two-day meeting and the final statements are reported in this position paper.

  5. Alkaline Protease Production by a Strain of Marine Yeasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ping; CHI Zhenming; MA Chunling

    2006-01-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China.The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45 ℃.The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5 g soluble starch and 2.0 g NaNO3 in 100 mL seawater with initial pH6.0.The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5 ℃, aeration rate 8.0 L min -1 and agitation speed 150 r min-1.Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 Umg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30 h of fermentation.

  6. Alkaline protease production by a strain of marine yeasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wang; Zhenming, Chi; Chunling, Ma

    2006-07-01

    Yeast strain 10 with high yield of protease was isolated from sediments of saltern near Qingdao, China. The protease had the highest activity at pH 9.0 and 45°C. The optimal medium for the maximum alkaline protease production of strain 10 was 2.5g soluble starch and 2.0g NaNO3 in 100mL seawater with initial pH 6.0. The optimal cultivation conditions for the maximum protease production were temperature 24.5°C, aeration rate 8.0L min-1 and agitation speed 150r min-1 Under the optimal conditions, 623.1 U mg-1 protein of alkaline protease was reached in the culture within 30h of fermentation.

  7. Alkaline Comet Assay for Assessing DNA Damage in Individual Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Xinzhu; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James E

    2015-08-06

    Single-cell gel electrophoresis, commonly called a comet assay, is a simple and sensitive method for assessing DNA damage at the single-cell level. It is an important technique in genetic toxicological studies. The comet assay performed under alkaline conditions (pH >13) is considered the optimal version for identifying agents with genotoxic activity. The alkaline comet assay is capable of detecting DNA double-strand breaks, single-strand breaks, alkali-labile sites, DNA-DNA/DNA-protein cross-linking, and incomplete excision repair sites. The inclusion of digestion of lesion-specific DNA repair enzymes in the procedure allows the detection of various DNA base alterations, such as oxidative base damage. This unit describes alkaline comet assay procedures for assessing DNA strand breaks and oxidative base alterations. These methods can be applied in a variety of cells from in vitro and in vivo experiments, as well as human studies.

  8. ADVANCES IN THE MODEL OF CYLINDRICAL ALKALINE CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The advancement of a systematic investigation on the modeling of cylindrical alkaline cells is presented.Initial analysis utilizes thermodynamic and kinetic information to predict alkaline cell performance under low discharge rates.Subsequent modling has taken into consideration detailed information on the chemistry of electrode reactions,mass tranport of dissolved species,physical and chemical properties of the electrolyte and solid phases,and internal geonetry of cell systems.The model is capable of predicting alkaline cell performance under a variety of dicharge conditions.The model also provides information regarding internal cell changes during discharge.The model is the basis of a rational approach for the optimal design of cells.

  9. Simulation and optimization of a coking wastewater biological treatment process by activated sludge models (ASM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohui; Yang, Yang; Wu, Gaoming; Mao, Juan; Zhou, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Applications of activated sludge models (ASM) in simulating industrial biological wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are still difficult due to refractory and complex components in influents as well as diversity in activated sludges. In this study, an ASM3 modeling study was conducted to simulate and optimize a practical coking wastewater treatment plant (CWTP). First, respirometric characterizations of the coking wastewater and CWTP biomasses were conducted to determine the specific kinetic and stoichiometric model parameters for the consecutive aeration-anoxic-aeration (O-A/O) biological process. All ASM3 parameters have been further estimated and calibrated, through cross validation by the model dynamic simulation procedure. Consequently, an ASM3 model was successfully established to accurately simulate the CWTP performances in removing COD and NH4-N. An optimized CWTP operation condition could be proposed reducing the operation cost from 6.2 to 5.5 €/m(3) wastewater. This study is expected to provide a useful reference for mathematic simulations of practical industrial WWTPs.

  10. Optimization and kinetic studies on treatment of textile dye wastewater using Pleurotus floridanus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathian, S.; Radha, G.; Shanmugapriya, V.; Rajasimman, M.; Karthikeyan, C.

    2013-03-01

    Treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried using Pleurotus floridanus in a batch reactor. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters like pH, temperature, agitation speed and dye wastewater concentration for the decolorization of textile dye wastewater. The optimum conditions for the maximum decolorization was: pH 6.6, temperature 28.8 °C, agitation speed 183 rpm and dye wastewater concentration 1:2. From the results it was found that, the linear effect of agitation speed and initial textile dye wastewater concentration were more significant than other factors for the textile dye wastewater treatment. At these optimized conditions, the maximum decolorization and COD reduction was found to be 71.2 and 80.5 %, respectively. Kinetics of textile dye degradation process was studied by various models like first order, diffusional and Singh model. From the results it was found that the degradation follows first order model with R 2 value of 0.9550.

  11. Performance of SBR for the treatment of textile dye wastewater: Optimization and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sathian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, sequential batch reactor (SBR was employed for the treatment of textile dye wastewater. The performance of four white rot fungi (WRF viz. Coriolus versicolor, Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was evaluated in pure and mixed combinations in terms of decolorization. From the results it was found that the combination of Pleurotus floridanus, Ganoderma lucidum and Trametes pubescens was best and they were used in the SBR. The process parameters like air flow rate, sludge retention time (SRT and cycle period were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM. At these optimized conditions, treatment of textile dye wastewater was carried out at various initial dye wastewater concentration and hydraulic retention time. The performance of SBR was analyzed in terms of decolorization, COD reduction and sludge volume index (SVI. From the results it was found that a maximum decolorization and COD reduction of 71.3% and 79.4%, respectively, was achieved in the SBR at an organic loading rate of 0.165 KgCOD/m3 d. The sludge volume index (SVI was found to be low in the range of 90–103 mL/g. The kinetic study was carried out using a first order based model and the degradation follows the first order system.

  12. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Yarmand, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as "apertures". Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan since the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used simultaneously, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined m...

  13. Optimal Control Problem of Treatment for Obesity in a Closed Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Aldila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variety of intervention programs for controlling the obesity epidemic has been done worldwide. However, it is still not yet available a scientific tool to measure the effectiveness of those programs. This is due to the difficulty in parameterizing the human interaction and transition process of obesity. A dynamical model for simulating the interaction between healthy people, overweight people, and obese people in a randomly mixed population is discussed in here. Two scenarios of intervention programs were implemented in the model, dietary program for overweight people with healthy life campaign and treatment program for obese people. Assuming all control rates are constant, disease free equilibrium point, endemic equilibrium point, and basic reproductive ratio (ℛ0 as the epidemic indicator were shown analytically. We find that the disease free equilibrium point is locally asymptotical stable if and only if ℛ0<1. From sensitivity analysis of ℛ0, we obtain that larger rate of dietary program and treatment program will reduce ℛ0 significantly. With control rates are continuous in time, an optimal control approach was applied into the model to find the best way to minimize the number of overweight and obese people. Some numerical analysis and simulations for optimal control of the intervention were shown to support the analytical results.

  14. Online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring for water and wastewater treatment plants processes and operations optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, Céline; Scott, Amanda; Biller, Dondra

    2017-08-01

    Organic measurements, such as biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were developed decades ago in order to measure organics in water. Today, these time-consuming measurements are still used as parameters to check the water treatment quality; however, the time required to generate a result, ranging from hours to days, does not allow COD or BOD to be useful process control parameters - see (1) Standard Method 5210 B; 5-day BOD Test, 1997, and (2) ASTM D1252; COD Test, 2012. Online organic carbon monitoring allows for effective process control because results are generated every few minutes. Though it does not replace BOD or COD measurements still required for compliance reporting, it allows for smart, data-driven and rapid decision-making to improve process control and optimization or meet compliances. Thanks to the smart interpretation of generated data and the capability to now take real-time actions, municipal drinking water and wastewater treatment facility operators can positively impact their OPEX (operational expenditure) efficiencies and their capabilities to meet regulatory requirements. This paper describes how three municipal wastewater and drinking water plants gained process insights, and determined optimization opportunities thanks to the implementation of online total organic carbon (TOC) monitoring.

  15. Agent-based model of laser hair removal: A treatment optimization and patient education tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eapen Bell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracking of various parameters associated with laser hair removal is tedious and time consuming. The currently available mathematical models are not simple enough for physicians to be used as a treatment optimization and patient education tool. Aim: The aim of the study was to develop a mathematical model for laser hair removal using agent-based modeling and to make a user-friendly simulation environment. Methods: The model was created using NetLogo. The hairs were modeled as agents oscillating between anagen and telogen. The variables were assigned based on published data whenever possible and the various paths the agent could take were coded as conditional statements. The improvement was assessed using an arbitrary index which takes into account the mean diameter and pigmentation along with the number and length of hairs visible above the surface. Few of the commonly encountered scenarios were simulated using the model. Results: The model is made freely available online (http://www.gulfdoctor.net/model/lhr.htm. Limited number of simulations performed indicated that an eight-week gap between laser sessions may be more effective than a four-week gap. Conclusions: The simulation provides a reliable tool for treatment optimization and patient education as obtaining relevant clinical data is slow and labor-intensive. Its visual interface and online availability makes it useful for everyday use.

  16. Optimization of the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimahmoodi, Mahmood; Mulligan, Catherine N

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to optimize the anaerobic treatment of a waste stream from an enhanced oil recovery (EOR) process. The treatment of a simulated waste water containing about 150 mg chemical oxygen demand (COD)/L of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and the saturation level of CO2 was evaluated. A two-step anaerobic system was undertaken in the mesophilic temperature range (30-40°C). The method of evolutionary operation EVOP factorial design was used to optimize pH, temperature and organic loading rate with the target parameters of CO2 reduction and CH4 production in the first reactor and TPH removal in the second reactor. The results showed 98% methanogenic removal of CO2 and CH4 yield of 0.38 L/gCOD in the first reactor and 83% TPH removal in the second reactor. In addition to enhancing CO2 and TPH removal and CH4 production, application of this method showed the degree of importance of the operational variables and their interactive effects for the two reactors in series. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal Control of Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment Programme Delivery for Prevention amongst a Population of Injecting Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Natasha K.; Pitcher, Ashley B.; Vickerman, Peter; Vassall, Anna; Hickman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs). HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given the...

  18. Optimal Control of Hepatitis C Antiviral Treatment Programme Delivery for Prevention amongst a Population of Injecting Drug Users

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, NK; Pitcher, AB; Vickerman, P.; Vassall, A; Hickman, M

    2011-01-01

    : In most developed countries, HCV is primarily transmitted by injecting drug users (IDUs). HCV antiviral treatment is effective, and deemed cost-effective for those with no re-infection risk. However, few active IDUs are currently treated. Previous modelling studies have shown antiviral treatment for active IDUs could reduce HCV prevalence, and there is emerging interest in developing targeted IDU treatment programmes. However, the optimal timing and scale-up of treatment is unknown, given t...

  19. Nanoethosomal transdermal delivery of vardenafil for treatment of erectile dysfunction: optimization, characterization, and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahmy UA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Usama A Fahmy Department of Pharmaceutics & Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Abstract: Vesicular drug delivery systems have recently gained attention as a way of improving dosing accuracy for drugs with poor transdermal permeation. The current study focuses on utilization of the natural biocompatible vesicles to formulate vardenafil nanoethosomes (VRD-NE, for the enhancement of their transdermal permeation and bioavailability. Fifteen formulations were prepared by thin-layer evaporation technique according to Box–Behnken design to optimize formulation variables. The effects of lipid composition, sonication time, and ethanol concentration on particle size and encapsulation efficiency were studied. The diffusion of vardenafil (VRD from the prepared nanoethosomes specified by the design was carried out using automated Franz diffusion cell apparatus. The optimized formula was investigated for in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters compared with oral VRD suspension. Confocal laser scanning microscopy images were used to confirm enhanced diffusion release of VRD in rat skin. The results showed that the optimized formula produced nanoethosomes with an average size of 128 nm and an entrapment efficiency of 76.23%. VRD-NE provided a significant improvement in permeation with an enhancement ratio of 3.05-fold for a film made with optimally formulated VRD-NE compared with a film made with VRD powder. The transdermal bioavailability of VRD from the nanoethosome film was approximately twofold higher than the oral bioavailability from an aqueous suspension. VRD-NE thus provide a promising transdermal drug delivery system. As a result, management of impotence for a longer duration could be achieved with a reduced dosage rate that improves patient tolerability and compliance for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.Keywords: Box–Behnken design, impotence, vesicles, nanoparticles

  20. Pareto Optimization Identifies Diverse Set of Phosphorylation Signatures Predicting Response to Treatment with Dasatinib.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Klammer

    Full Text Available Multivariate biomarkers that can predict the effectiveness of targeted therapy in individual patients are highly desired. Previous biomarker discovery studies have largely focused on the identification of single biomarker signatures, aimed at maximizing prediction accuracy. Here, we present a different approach that identifies multiple biomarkers by simultaneously optimizing their predictive power, number of features, and proximity to the drug target in a protein-protein interaction network. To this end, we incorporated NSGA-II, a fast and elitist multi-objective optimization algorithm that is based on the principle of Pareto optimality, into the biomarker discovery workflow. The method was applied to quantitative phosphoproteome data of 19 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC cell lines from a previous biomarker study. The algorithm successfully identified a total of 77 candidate biomarker signatures predicting response to treatment with dasatinib. Through filtering and similarity clustering, this set was trimmed to four final biomarker signatures, which then were validated on an independent set of breast cancer cell lines. All four candidates reached the same good prediction accuracy (83% as the originally published biomarker. Although the newly discovered signatures were diverse in their composition and in their size, the central protein of the originally published signature - integrin β4 (ITGB4 - was also present in all four Pareto signatures, confirming its pivotal role in predicting dasatinib response in NSCLC cell lines. In summary, the method presented here allows for a robust and simultaneous identification of multiple multivariate biomarkers that are optimized for prediction performance, size, and relevance.

  1. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, May

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. Material and methods This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. Results The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. Conclusions The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected. PMID:27504129

  2. Treatment optimization with concurrent SBRT and intracavitary brachytherapy for locally advanced cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Bin; Lang, Jinyi; Wang, Pei; Ma, C-M

    2016-01-01

    This work is aimed at investigating treatment planning strategies to optimally combine stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) with intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) for the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer. Forty patients (stage IIB - IIIB) previously treated with combined SBRT and ICBT were randomly selected for this retrospective study. All patients were CT- and MR-scanned with a ring applicator in situ. HR-CTV and OARs were contoured according to fused CT and MR images. Several ICBT plans were generated for each patient based on different dose prescription points, and then a matching SBRT plan was generated for each ICBT plan. The dose distribution of each composite plan was analyzed with a focus on the doses received by 90% and 100% of the target volume (D90 and D100), the target volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (V100%), and the doses received by 2 cc and 40% of the OARs (D2cc and D40). As the distance, d, between the prescription point and the tandem varied within 1.0 and 1.9 cm, the D90, D100 and V100% for the target, as well as D2cc and D40 for the bladder and rectum approached their optimal values for d value between 1.0 and 1.4 cm. When designing a combined ICBT+SBRT plan, one should measure the size of the cervix and set the prescription isodose line 1.0 to 1.4 cm away from the tandem for the ICBT plan first and then optimize the SBRT plan based on the ICBT dose distribution to achieve the best target coverage and critical structures sparing. PACS number: 87.53.jw; 87.55.D. © 2016 The Authors.

  3. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Whitaker, May

    2016-06-01

    Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected.

  4. Decrease in dynamic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginate from Laminaria digitata during alkaline extraction

    OpenAIRE

    Vauchel, Peggy; Arhaliass, Abdellah; Legrand, Jack; Kaas, Raymond; Baron, Regis

    2008-01-01

    Alginates are natural polysaccharides that are extracted from brown seaweeds and widely used for their rheological properties. The central step in the extraction protocol used in the alginate industry is the alkaline extraction, which requires several hours. In this study, a significant decrease in alginate dynamic viscosity was observed after 2 h of alkaline treatment. Intrinsic viscosity and average molecular weight of alginates from alkaline extractions 1-4 h in duration were determined, i...

  5. Investigations into the Optimization of Multi-Source Strength Brachytherapy Treatment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. L. Henderson; S. Yoo; B.R. Thomadsen

    2002-09-30

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of multi-strength and multi-specie radioactive sources in permanent prostate implant brachytherapy. In order to fulfill the requirement for an optimal dose distribution, the prescribed dose should be delivered to the target in a nearly uniform dose distribution while simultaneously sparing sensitive structures. The treatment plan should use a small number of needles and sources while satisfying the treatment requirements. The hypothesis for the use of multi-strength and/or multi-specie sources is that a better treatment plan using fewer sources and needles could be obtained than by treatment plans using single-strength sources could reduce the overall number of sources used for treatment. We employ a recently developed greedy algorithm based on the adjoint concept as the optimization search engine. The algorithm utilizes and ''adjoint ratio'', which provides a means of ranking source positions, as the pseudo-objective function. It ha s been shown that the greedy algorithm can solve the optimization problem efficiently and arrives at a clinically acceptable solution in less than 10 seconds. Our study was inclusive, that is there was no combination of sources that clearly stood out from the others and could therefore be considered the preferred set of sources for treatment planning. Source strengths of 0.2 mCi (low), 0.4 mCi (medium), and 0.6 mCi (high) of {sup 125}I in four different combinations were used for the multi-strength source study. The combination of high- and medium-strength sources achieved a more uniform target dose distribution due to few source implants whereas the combination of low-and medium-strength sources achieved better sparing of sensitive tissues including that of the single-strength 0.4 mCi base case. {sup 125}I at 0.4 mCi and {sup 192}Ir at 0.12 mCi and 0.25 mCi source strengths were used for the multi-specie source study. This study also proved inconclusive , Treatment

  6. Optimization of Conversion Treatment on Austenitic Stainless Steel Using Experimental Designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. El Hajjaji

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Conversion coating is commonly used as treatment to improve the adherence of ceramics films. The conversion coating properties depend on the structure of alloy as well as on the treatment parameters. These conversion coatings must be characterized by strong interfacial adhesion, high roughness, and high real surface area, which were measured by an electrochemical method. The influence of all the elaboration factors (temperature, time, and bath composition: sulphuric acid, thiosulphate as accelerator, propargyl alcohol as inhibitor, and surface state and also the interactions between these factors were evaluated, using statistical experimental design. The specific surface area and optical factor (α correspond to the quantitative responses. The evaluation showed, by using a designed experimental procedure, that the most important factor was “surface state.” Sanded surface allows the formation of conversion coating with high real surface area. A further aim was to optimise two parameters: treatment time and temperature using Doehlert shell design and simplex method. The growth of the conversion coating is also influenced by treatment time and temperature. With such optimized conditions, the real surface area of conversion coating obtained was about 235 m2/m2.

  7. Orthogonal experiment on reclaimed water treatment and economic optimization model in green building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何强; 张成; 柴宏祥; 樊明玉

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of superior drainage in green building treated by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland was launched. The results show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (Nv),temperature (t) and addition dosage (ρ) is BOD5=2.05Nv-0.41t-0.82ρ+38.9. The orthogonal experiment results of constructed wetland post-treatment show that the regression equation relating to effluent BOD5,cubage load (NA),and temperature (t) is BOD5=1 190NA-0.32t+12.2. Based on the two orthogonal regression equations,combined of green building municipal gray reclaimed water quantity requirements in different seasons,a technology investment on economic optimization model of combinational technique was established. The results offer technological support for reclaimed water treatment,which regards superior drainage as the source and is purified by combinational technique of coagulation sedimentation and constructed wetland. According to the model,the reasonable scale of reclaimed water treatment systems can be determined,the treatment efficacy can be well predicted,and both the design and operating can be effectively guided.

  8. Optimal Control of a Spatio-Temporal Model for Malaria: Synergy Treatment and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malicki Zorom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a metapopulation model for malaria with two control variables, treatment and prevention, distributed between different patches (localities. Malaria spreads between these localities through human travel. We used the theory of optimal control and applied a mathematical model for three connected patches. From previous studies with the same data, two patches were identified as reservoirs of malaria infection, namely, the patches that sustain malaria epidemic in the other patches. We argue that to reduce the number of infections and semi-immunes (i.e., asymptomatic carriers of parasites in overall population, two considerations are needed, (a For the reservoir patches, we need to apply both treatment and prevention to reduce the number of infections and to reduce the number of semi-immunes; neither the treatment nor prevention were specified at the beginning of the control application, except prevention that seems to be effective at the end. (b For unreservoir patches, we should apply the treatment to reduce the number of infections, and the same strategy should be applied to semi-immune as in (a.

  9. Optimizing treatment of the partially platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Nicoletta

    2013-12-01

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of gynecological cancer deaths worldwide. Despite primary treatment with platinum-containing regimens, the majority of women will experience recurrent disease and subsequent death. Recurrent ovarian cancer remains a challenge for successful management, and the choice of second-line chemotherapy is complex due to the range of different factors that need to be considered. One of the main considerations is the platinum-free interval and, specifically, the optimal treatment for patients who are partially platinum-sensitive (platinum-free interval: 6-12 months). Data from the large, multicenter, randomized OVA-301 study have shown that combined trabectedin-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) significantly prolonged median overall survival compared with PLD alone (p = 0.0027) in 214 patients with partially platinum-sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer. Furthermore, in OVA-301 patients with partially platinum-sensitive disease who received platinum therapy immediately after disease progression (n = 94), final median overall survival was improved by 9 months (p = 0.0153) in trabectedin-PLD patients compared with PLD alone. In addition to demonstrating a survival advantage, trabectedin-PLD may also allow the treatment of patients having not yet recovered from previous platinum toxicity. In summary, the data suggest the use of combined trabectedin-PLD as a second-line treatment option in patients with partially platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer, followed by a third-line platinum-containing regimen.

  10. Organ sample generator for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie Xiaobo; Liang Jian; Yan Di [Department of Radiation Oncology, Beaumont Health System, Royal Oak, Michigan 48073 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: To create an organ sample generator (OSG) for expected treatment dose construction and adaptive inverse planning optimization. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from a distribution obeying the patient specific organ variation probability density function (PDF) during the course of adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: Principle component analysis (PCA) and a time-varying least-squares regression (LSR) method were used on patient specific geometric variations of organs of interest manifested on multiple daily volumetric images obtained during the treatment course. The construction of the OSG includes the determination of eigenvectors of the organ variation using PCA, and the determination of the corresponding coefficients using time-varying LSR. The coefficients can be either random variables or random functions of the elapsed treatment days depending on the characteristics of organ variation as a stationary or a nonstationary random process. The LSR method with time-varying weighting parameters was applied to the precollected daily volumetric images to determine the function form of the coefficients. Eleven h and n cancer patients with 30 daily cone beam CT images each were included in the evaluation of the OSG. The evaluation was performed using a total of 18 organs of interest, including 15 organs at risk and 3 targets. Results: Geometric variations of organs of interest during h and n cancer radiotherapy can be represented using the first 3 {approx} 4 eigenvectors. These eigenvectors were variable during treatment, and need to be updated using new daily images obtained during the treatment course. The OSG generates random samples of organs of interest from the estimated organ variation PDF of the individual. The accuracy of the estimated PDF can be improved recursively using extra daily image feedback during the treatment course. The average deviations in the estimation of the mean and standard deviation of the organ variation PDF for h

  11. Characterization of Human Bone Alkaline Phosphatase in Pichia Pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Christine C.; Ciszak, Eva; Karr, Laurel J.

    1999-01-01

    A soluble form of human bone alkaline phosphatase has been expressed in a recombinant strain of the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. We constructed a plasmid containing cDNA encoding for human bone alkaline phosphatase, with the hydrophobic carboxyl terminal portion deleted. Alkaline phosphatase was secreted into the medium to a level of 32mg/L when cultured in shake flasks, and enzyme activity was 12U/mg, as measured by a spectrophotometric assay. By conversion to a fermentation system, a yield of 880mg/L has been achieved with an enzyme activity of 968U/mg. By gel electrophoresis analysis, it appears that greater than 50% of the total protein in the fermentation media is alkaline phosphatase. Although purification procedures are not yet completely optimized, they are expected to include filtration, ion exchange and affinity chromatography. Our presentation will focus on the purification and crystallization results up to the time of the conference. Structural data should provide additional information on the role of alkaline phosphatase in normal bone mineralization and in certain bone mineralization anomalies.

  12. Resource Communication. Temporal optimization of fuel treatment design in blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus) plantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, A.; Botequim, B.; Oliveira, T.M.; Ager, A.; Pirotti, F.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of the study: This study was conducted to support fire and forest management planning in eucalypt plantations based on economic, ecological and fire prevention criteria, with a focus on strategic prioritisation of fuel treatments over time. The central objective was to strategically locate fuel treatments to minimise losses from wildfire while meeting budget constraints and demands for wood supply for the pulp industry and conserving carbon. Area of study: The study area was located in Serra do Socorro (Torres Vedras, Portugal, covering ~1449 ha) of predominantly Eucalyptus globulus Labill forests managedcultivated for pulpwood by The Navigator Company. Material and methods: At each of four temporal stages (2015-2018-2021-2024) we simulated: (1) surface and canopy fuels, timber volume (m3 ha-1) and carbon storage (Mg ha-1); (2) fire behaviour characteristics, i.e. rate of spread (m min-1), and flame length (m), with FlamMap fire modelling software; (3) optimal treatment locations as determined by the Landscape Treatment Designer (LTD). Main results: The higher pressure of fire behaviour in the earlier stages of the study period triggered most of the spatial fuel treatments within eucalypt plantations in a juvenile stage. At later stages fuel treatments also included shrublands areas. The results were consistent with observations and simulation results that show high fire hazard in juvenile eucalypt stands. Research highlights: Forest management planning in commercial eucalypt plantations can potentially accomplish multiple objectives such as augmenting profits and sustaining ecological assets while reducing wildfire risk at landscape scale. However, limitations of simulation models including FlamMap and LTD are important to recognise in studies of long term wildfire management strategies. (Author)

  13. Optimizing the treatment of landfill leachate by conventional Fenton and photo-Fenton processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermosilla, Daphne, E-mail: dhermosilla@quim.ucm.es [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Cortijo, Manuel [U.D. Operaciones Basicas, Departamento de Ingenieria Forestal, E.T.S.I. Montes, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda. Ramiro de Maeztu s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Huang, Chin Pao [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, 352C DuPont Hall, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States)

    2009-05-15

    Landfill, a matured and economically appealing technology, is the ultimate approach for the management of municipal solid wastes. However, the inevitable generation of leachate from landfill requires further treatment. Among the various leachate treatment technologies available, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are among powerful methods to deal with the refractory organic constituents, and the Fenton reagent has evolved as one promising AOPs for the treatment of leachates. Particularly, the combination of UV-radiation with Fenton's reagent has been reported to be a method that allows both the photo-regeneration of Fe{sup 2+} and photo-decarboxylation of ferric carboxylates. In this study, Fenton and photo-Fenton processes were fine tuned for the treatment of leachates from the Colmenar Viejo (Madrid, Spain) Landfill. Results showed that it is possible to define a set of conditions under which the same COD and TOC removals (approx 70%) could be achieved with both the conventional and photo-Fenton processes. But Fenton process generated an important quantity of iron sludge, which will require further disposal, when performed under optimal COD removal conditions. Furthermore conventional Fenton process was able to achieve slightly over an 80% COD removal from a 'young' leachate, while for 'old' and 'mixed' leachates was close to a 70%. The main advantage showed by the photo-assisted Fenton treatment of landfill leachate was that it consumed 32 times less iron and produced 25 times less sludge volume yielding the same COD removal results than a conventional Fenton treatment.

  14. The Adjoint Method for The Optimization of Brachytherapy and Radiotherapy Patient Treatment Planning Procedures Using Monte Carlo Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.L. Henderson; S. Yoo; M. Kowalok; T.R. Mackie; B.R. Thomadsen

    2001-10-30

    The goal of this project is to investigate the use of the adjoint method, commonly used in the reactor physics community, for the optimization of radiation therapy patient treatment plans. Two different types of radiation therapy are being examined, interstitial brachytherapy and radiotherapy. In brachytherapy radioactive sources are surgically implanted within the diseased organ such as the prostate to treat the cancerous tissue. With radiotherapy, the x-ray source is usually located at a distance of about 1-metere from the patient and focused on the treatment area. For brachytherapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal placement of the radioactive sources, which delivers the prescribed dose to the disease tissue while simultaneously sparing (reducing) the dose to sensitive tissue and organs. For external beam radiation therapy the optimization phase of the treatment plan consists of determining the optimal direction and intensity of beam, which provides complete coverage of the tumor region with the prescribed dose while simultaneously avoiding sensitive tissue areas. For both therapy methods, the optimal treatment plan is one in which the diseased tissue has been treated with the prescribed dose and dose to the sensitive tissue and organs has been kept to a minimum.

  15. Where does treatment optimism fit in? Examining factors associated with consistent condom use among people receiving antiretroviral treatment in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Homaira; Bastos, Francisco I; Malta, Monica; Bertoni, Neilane; Winch, Peter J; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2014-10-01

    In the era of highly active antiretrovirals, people living with HIV (PLWH) have resumed sexual activity in the context of longer and healthier lives, and thus the chances of transmitting the HIV virus, as well as the potential to be re-infected also increase. HIV treatment optimism has been found to be associated with sexual risk behaviors among PLWH in different settings. A cross sectional survey was conducted to examine the relationship between treatment optimism, safer sex burnout and consistent condom use as well as variables associated with treatment optimism in a sample of PLWH on antiretrovirals (ARVs) in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (n = 604). Seventy-two percent of participants always used a condom in the last 6 months. Homosexual, bisexual, transexual persons were less likely to use condoms consistently than heterosexuals (AOR .58 CI .42-.78). Those who were treatment optimistic (AOR .46 CI .25-.88) were more likely not use a condom consistently in the past 6 months, as were participants who reported safer sex burnout (AOR .58 CI .36-.90). Sexual orientation, safer sex burnout, and lower education levels were significantly associated with higher treatment optimism in multivariate analysis. Study findings highlight the need to address psychosocial factors such as treatment optimism and safer sex burnout associated with lower consistent condom use among PLWH in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

  16. Optimization of low energy sonication treatment for granular activated carbon colonizing biomass assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccani, G; Bernasconi, M; Antonelli, M

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at optimizing a low energy sonication (LES) treatment for granular activated carbon (GAC)-colonizing biomass detachment and determination, evaluating detachment efficiency and the effects of ultrasound exposure on bacterial cell viability. GAC samples were collected from two filters fed with groundwater. Conventional heterotrophic plate count (HPC) and fluorescence microscopy with a double staining method were used to evaluate cell viability, comparing two LES procedures, without and with periodical bulk substitution. A 20 min LES treatment, with bulk substitution after cycles of 5 min as maximum treatment time, allowed to recover 87%/100% of attached biomass, protecting detached bacteria from ultrasound damaging effects. Observed viable cell inactivation rate was 6.5/7.9% cell/min, with membrane-compromised cell damage appearing to be even higher (11.5%/13.1% cell/min). Assessing bacterial detachment and damaging ultrasound effects, fluorescence microscopy turned out to be more sensitive compared to conventional HPC. The optimized method revealed a GAC-colonizing biomass of 9.9 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 1 and 8.8 x 10(7) cell/gGAC for plant 2, 2 log lower than reported in literature. The difference between the two GAC-colonizing biomasses is higher in terms of viable cells (46.3% of total cells in plant 1 GAC-colonizing biomass compared to the 33.3% in plant 2). Studying influent water contamination through multivariate statistical analyses, apossible combined toxic and genotoxic effect of chromium VI and trichloroethylene was suggested as a reason for the lower viable cell fraction observed in plant 2 GAC-colonizing population.

  17. Optimization of Residual Stress of High Temperature Treatment Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Susmikanti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a nuclear industry area, high temperature treatment of materials is a factor which requires special attention. Assessment needs to be conducted on the properties of the materials used, including the strength of the materials. The measurement of material properties under thermal processes may reflect residual stresses. The use of Genetic Algorithm (GA to determine the optimal residual stress is one way to determine the strength of a material. In residual stress modeling with several parameters, it is sometimes difficult to solve for the optimal value through analytical or numerical calculations. Here, GA is an efficient algorithm which can generate the optimal values, both minima and maxima. The purposes of this research are to obtain the optimization of variable in residual stress models using GA and to predict the center of residual stress distribution, using fuzzy neural network (FNN while the artificial neural network (ANN used for modeling. In this work a single-material 316/316L stainless steel bar is modeled. The minimal residual stresses of the material at high temperatures were obtained with GA and analytical calculations. At a temperature of 6500C, the GA optimal residual stress estimation converged at –711.3689 MPa at adistance of 0.002934 mm from center point, whereas the analytical calculation result at that temperature and position is -975.556 MPa . At a temperature of 8500C, the GA result was -969.868 MPa at 0.002757 mm from the center point, while with analytical result was -1061.13 MPa. The difference in residual stress between GA and analytical results at a temperatureof6500C is about 27 %, while at 8500C it is 8.67 %. The distribution of residual stress showed a grouping concentrated around a coordinate of (-76; 76 MPa. The residuals stress model is a degree-two polynomial with coefficients of 50.33, -76.54, and -55.2, respectively, with a standard deviation of 7.874.

  18. 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Lars; Kjartansdóttir, Cecilia Kristin; Allebrod, Frank;

    This report provides the results of the 2nd Generation Alkaline Electrolysis project which was initiated in 2008. The project has been conducted from 2009-2012 by a consortium comprising Århus University Business and Social Science – Centre for Energy Technologies (CET (former HIRC)), Technical...

  19. An integrated knowledge-based and optimization tool for the sustainable selection of wastewater treatment process concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castillo, A.; Cheali, Peam; Gómez, V.

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand on wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) has involved an interest in improving the alternative treatment selection process. In this study, an integrated framework including an intelligent knowledge-based system and superstructure-based optimization has been developed and appli...

  20. Alkaline resistant ceramics; Alkalimotstaandskraftiga keramer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westberg, Stig-Bjoern [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden)

    2001-02-01

    Despite durability in several environments, ceramics and refractories can not endure alkaline environments at high temperature. An example of such an environment is when burning biofuel in modern heat and power plants in which the demand for increasing efficiency results in higher combustion temperatures and content of alkaline substances in the flue gas. Some experiences of these environments has been gained from such vastly different equipment as regenerator chambers in the glass industry and MHD-generators. The grains of a ceramic material are usually bonded together by a glassy phase which despite it frequently being a minor constituent render the materials properties and limits its use at elevated temperature. The damage is usually caused by alkaline containing low-melting phases and the decrease of the viscosity of the bonding glass phase which is caused by the alkaline. The surfaces which are exposed to the flue gas in a modern power plant are not only exposed to the high temperature but also a corroding and eroding, particle containing, gas flow of high velocity. The use of conventional refractory products is limited to 1300-1350 deg C. Higher strength and fracture toughness as well as durability against gases, slag and melts at temperatures exceeding 1700 deg C are expected of the materials of the future. Continuous transport of corrosive compounds to the surface and corrosion products from the surface as well as a suitable environment for the corrosion to occur in are prerequisites for extensive corrosion to come about. The highest corrosion rate is therefore found in a temperature interval between the dew point and the melting point of the alkaline-constituent containing compound. It is therefore important that the corrosion resistance is sufficient in the environment in which alkaline containing melts or slag may appear. In environments such as these, even under normal circumstances durable ceramics, such as alumina and silicon carbide, are attacked

  1. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S; Watts, Gerald F; Chapman, M John; Ginsberg, Henry N; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L; Defesche, Joep C; Descamps, Olivier S; Hegele, Robert A; Hovingh, G Kees; Humphries, Steve E; Kovanen, Petri T; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G; Raal, Frederick J; Ray, Kausik K; Santos, Raul D; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-09-21

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8-10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and

  2. Familial hypercholesterolaemia in children and adolescents: gaining decades of life by optimizing detection and treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegman, Albert; Gidding, Samuel S.; Watts, Gerald F.; Chapman, M. John; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Cuchel, Marina; Ose, Leiv; Averna, Maurizio; Boileau, Catherine; Borén, Jan; Bruckert, Eric; Catapano, Alberico L.; Defesche, Joep C.; Descamps, Olivier S.; Hegele, Robert A.; Hovingh, G. Kees; Humphries, Steve E.; Kovanen, Petri T.; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Masana, Luis; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Pajukanta, Päivi; Parhofer, Klaus G.; Raal, Frederick J.; Ray, Kausik K.; Santos, Raul D.; Stalenhoef, Anton F.H.; Steinhagen- Thiessen, Elisabeth; Stroes, Erik S.; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Wiklund, Olov

    2015-01-01

    Familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common genetic cause of premature coronary heart disease (CHD). Globally, one baby is born with FH every minute. If diagnosed and treated early in childhood, individuals with FH can have normal life expectancy. This consensus paper aims to improve awareness of the need for early detection and management of FH children. Familial hypercholesterolaemia is diagnosed either on phenotypic criteria, i.e. an elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level plus a family history of elevated LDL-C, premature coronary artery disease and/or genetic diagnosis, or positive genetic testing. Childhood is the optimal period for discrimination between FH and non-FH using LDL-C screening. An LDL-C ≥5 mmol/L (190 mg/dL), or an LDL-C ≥4 mmol/L (160 mg/dL) with family history of premature CHD and/or high baseline cholesterol in one parent, make the phenotypic diagnosis. If a parent has a genetic defect, the LDL-C cut-off for the child is ≥3.5 mmol/L (130 mg/dL). We recommend cascade screening of families using a combined phenotypic and genotypic strategy. In children, testing is recommended from age 5 years, or earlier if homozygous FH is suspected. A healthy lifestyle and statin treatment (from age 8 to 10 years) are the cornerstones of management of heterozygous FH. Target LDL-C is 10 years, or ideally 50% reduction from baseline if 8–10 years, especially with very high LDL-C, elevated lipoprotein(a), a family history of premature CHD or other cardiovascular risk factors, balanced against the long-term risk of treatment side effects. Identifying FH early and optimally lowering LDL-C over the lifespan reduces cumulative LDL-C burden and offers health and socioeconomic benefits. To drive policy change for timely detection and management, we call for further studies in the young. Increased awareness, early identification, and optimal treatment from childhood are critical to adding decades of healthy life for children and

  3. Optimizing the productivity of acid-fracture treatments in horizontal wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, E.

    1995-12-31

    Existing prediction methods are inadequate for unstable radial displacement, with prediction errors of up to 500%. This work provides a new theoretical basis for understanding unstable displacements in both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids, based on a detailed analysis of the fingering morphology and a new derivation using fractional flow theory for radial flow. Design guidelines are given to assist in optimizing the design of fingered acid-fracture treatments for horizontal wells in carbonate formations. Unstable radial displacement creates power-law (fractal) displacement patterns, for a wide range of mobility ratios, and the displacement efficiency can be expressed as a function of the mobility ratio M. The finger wavelength is a function of the Peclet number and the fracture aperture, and the detailed morphology can be understood in terms of the fluid theology. The size of the fingering zone can be predicted from the mobility ratio and Peclet number. A productivity index factor PIF can be used to compare different treatment scenarios, and thus optimise the productivity of acid-fracture treatments.

  4. Hydraulic design to optimize the treatment capacity of Multi-Stage Filtration units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushila, C. N.; Ochieng, G. M.; Otieno, F. A. O.; Shitote, S. M.; Sitters, C. W.

    2016-04-01

    Multi-Stage Filtration (MSF) can provide a robust treatment alternative for surface water sources of variable water quality in rural communities at low operation and maintenance costs. MSF is a combination of Slow Sand Filters (SSFs) and Pre-treatment systems. The general objective of this research was to optimize the treatment capacity of MSF. A pilot plant study was undertaken to meet this objective. The pilot plant was monitored for a continuous 98 days from commissioning till the end of the project. Three main stages of MSF namely: The Dynamic Gravel Filter (DGF), Horizontal-flow Roughing Filter (HRF) and SSF were identified, designed and built. The response of the respective MSF units in removal of selected parameters guiding drinking water quality such as microbiological (Faecal and Total coliform), Suspended Solids, Turbidity, PH, Temperature, Iron and Manganese was investigated. The benchmark was the Kenya Bureau (KEBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) Standards for drinking water quality. With respect to microbiological raw water quality improvement, MSF units achieved on average 98% Faecal and 96% Total coliform removal. Results obtained indicate that implementation of MSF in rural communities has the potential to increase access to portable water to the rural populace with a probable consequent decrease in waterborne diseases. With a reduced down time due to illness, more time would be spent in undertaking other economic activities.

  5. [Optimization of liquid ammonia treatment for enzymatic hydrolysis of Saccharum arundinaceum to fermentable sugars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianjun; Peng, Hehuan; Zhao, Xiangjun; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Feng; Shao, Qianjun

    2013-03-01

    China has abundant available marginal land that can be used for cultivation of lignocellulosic energy plants. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. is a potential energy crop with both high biomass yield and low soil fertility requirements. It can be planted widely as cellulosic ethanol feedstock in southern China. In the present work Saccharum arundinaceum was pretreated by liquid ammonia treatment (LAT) to overcome biomass recalcitrance, followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The monosaccharide contents (glucose, xylose, and arabinose) of the enzymatic hydrolysate were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Experimental results show that the optimal LAT pretreatment conditions were 130 0C, 2:1 (W/W) ammonia to biomass ratio, 80% moisture content (dry weight basis) and 5 min residence time. Approximately 69.34% glucan and 82.60% xylan were converted after 72 h enzymatic hydrolysis at 1% glucan loading using 15 FPU/(g of glucan) of cellulase. The yields of glucose and xylose were 573% and 1 056% higher than those of the untreated biomass, and the LAT-pretreated substrates obtained an 8-fold higher of total monosaccharide yield than untreated substrates. LAT pretreatment was an effective to increase the enzymatic digestibility of Saccharum arundinaceum compared to acid impregnated steam explosion and similar to that of acid treatment and ammonia fiber expansion treatment.

  6. Maximizing dosimetric benefits of IMRT in the treatment of localized prostate cancer through multicriteria optimization planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wala, Jeremiah; Craft, David [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Paly, Jon [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Zietman, Anthony [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason, E-mail: jefstathiou@partners.org [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-10-01

    We examine the quality of plans created using multicriteria optimization (MCO) treatment planning in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in treatment of localized prostate cancer. Nine random cases of patients receiving IMRT to the prostate were selected. Each case was associated with a clinically approved plan created using Corvus. The cases were replanned using MCO-based planning in RayStation. Dose-volume histogram data from both planning systems were presented to 2 radiation oncologists in a blinded evaluation, and were compared at a number of dose-volume points. Both physicians rated all 9 MCO plans as superior to the clinically approved plans (p<10{sup −5}). Target coverage was equivalent (p = 0.81). Maximum doses to the prostate and bladder and the V50 and V70 to the anterior rectum were reduced in all MCO plans (p<0.05). Treatment planning time with MCO took approximately 60 minutes per case. MCO-based planning for prostate IMRT is efficient and produces high-quality plans with good target homogeneity and sparing of the anterior rectum, bladder, and femoral heads, without sacrificing target coverage.

  7. [Alkaline phosphatase in Amoeba proteus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopina, V A

    2005-01-01

    In free-living Amoeba proteus (strain B), 3 phosphatase were found after disc-electrophoresis of 10 microg of protein in PAGE and using 1-naphthyl phosphate as a substrate a pH 9.0. These phosphatases differed in their electrophoretic mobilities - "slow" (1-3 bands), "middle" (one band) and "fast" (one band). In addition to 1-naphthyl phosphate, "slow" phosphatases were able to hydrolyse 2-naphthyl phosphate and p-nitrophenyl phosphate. They were slightly activated by Mg2+, completely inhibited by 3 chelators (EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline), L-cysteine, sodium dodecyl sulfate and Fe2+, Zn2+ and Mn2+ (50 mM), considerably inactivated by orthovanadate, molybdate, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 1, p-nitrophenyl phosphate, Na2HPO4, DL-dithiothreitol and urea and partly inhibited by H2O2, DL-phenylalanine, 2-mercaptoethanol, phosphatase inhibitor cocktail 2 and Ca2+. Imidazole, L-(+)-tartrate, okadaic acid, NaF and sulfhydryl reagents -p-(hydroxy-mercuri)benzoate and N-ethylmaleimide - had no influence on the activity of "slow" phosphatases. "Middle" and "fast" phosphatases, in contrast to "slow" ones, were not inactivated by 3 chelators. The "middle" phosphatase differed from the "fast" one by smaller resistance to urea, Ca2+, Mn2+, phosphates and H2O2 and greater resistance to dithiothreitol and L-(+)-tartrate. In addition, the "fast" phosphatase was inhibited by L-cysteine but the "middle" one was activated by it. Of 5 tested ions (Mg2+, Cu2+, Mn2+, Ca2+ and Zn2+), only Zn2+ reactivated "slow" phosphatases after their inactivation by EDTA treatment. The reactivation of apoenzyme was only partial (about 35 %). Thus, among phosphatases found in amoebae at pH 9.0, only "slow" ones are Zn-metalloenzymes and may be considered as alkaline phosphatases (EC 3.1.3.1). It still remains uncertain, to which particular phosphatase class "middle" and "fast" phosphatases (pH 9.0) may belong.

  8. Heat Treatment Optimization of Rutherford Cable for a 15 T Nb3Sn Dipole Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barzi, Emanuela [barzi@fnal.gov

    2016-12-22

    FNAL has been developing a 15 T Nb3Sn dipole demonstrator for a future Very High Energy pp Collider based on an optimized 60-mm aperture 4-layer “cos-theta” coil. To increase magnet efficiency, the coil was graded by using two cables with same 15 mm width and different thicknesses made of two different Restacked Rod Process (RRP®) wires. Due to the non-uniform field distribution in dipole coils the maximum field in the inner coil will reach 15-16 T, whereas the maximum field in the outer coil is 12-13 T. In preparation for the 15 T dipole coil reaction, heat treatment studies were performed on strands extracted from these cables with the goal of achieving the best coil performance in the corresponding magnetic fields. In particular, the effect of maximum temperature and time on the cable critical current was studied to take into account actual variations of these parameters during coil reaction. In parallel and in collaboration with OST, development was performed on optimizing Nb3Sn RRP® wire design and layout. Index Terms— Accelerator magnet, critical current density, Nb3Sn strand, Rutherford cable.

  9. Optimization of double chamber microbial fuel cell for domestic wastewater treatment and electricity production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amr El-Hag Ali; Ola M Gomaa; Reham Fathey; Hussein Abd El Kareem; Mohamed Abou Zaid

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells ( MFCs) represent a new approach for treating waste water along with electricity production. The present study addressed electricity production from domestic wastewater using a mediator-less double chamber MFC. The electricity production was monitored under different operational conditions for both summer and winter samples. Optimization of the anodic and cathodic chambers resulted in a maximal current of 0. 784 and 0. 645 mA with the maximal power intensity of 209 and 117 mW/m2 in power duration of 24 h for the summer and winter samples, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the bacterial biofilm formation on the anode was denser for the summer sample than that when the winter sample was used, so was the total bacterial count. Therefore, samples taken during summer were considered better in electricity production and waste water treatment than those taken during winter basically because of the high microbial load during the hot season. In parallel, there was a decrease in both biological oxygen demand ( BOD5 ) and chemical oxygen demand ( COD) values which reached 71. 8% and 72. 85%, respectively at the end of the operation process for the summer sample, while there was no evident decrease for the winter sample. Optimizing the operating conditions not only increased the potential of using domestic waste water in microbial fuel cells to produce electricity, but also improved the quality of the domestic waste water.

  10. Optimization of Multicomponent Behavioral and Biobehavioral Interventions for the Prevention and Treatment of HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Linda M; Kugler, Kari C; Gwadz, Marya Viorst

    2016-01-01

    To move society toward an AIDS-free generation, behavioral interventions for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS must be not only effective, but also cost-effective, efficient, and readily scalable. The purpose of this article is to introduce to the HIV/AIDS research community the multiphase optimization strategy (MOST), a new methodological framework inspired by engineering principles and designed to develop behavioral interventions that have these important characteristics. Many behavioral interventions comprise multiple components. In MOST, randomized experimentation is conducted to assess the individual performance of each intervention component, and whether its presence/absence/setting has an impact on the performance of other components. This information is used to engineer an intervention that meets a specific optimization criterion, defined a priori in terms of effectiveness, cost, cost-effectiveness, and/or scalability. MOST will enable intervention science to develop a coherent knowledge base about what works and does not work. Ultimately this will improve behavioral interventions systematically and incrementally.

  11. Explicit and convex optimization of plan quality measures in intensity-modulated radiation therapy treatment planning

    CERN Document Server

    Engberg, Lovisa; Forsgren, Anders; Hårdemark, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Given the widespread agreement that doses-at-volume play important roles in quality assessment of radiation therapy treatment plans, planning objectives that correlate well with explicit dose-at-volume optimization are likely to correlate well with plan quality. In this study, planning objectives are formulated to explicitly either minimize or maximize convex approximations of dose-at-volume, namely, mean-tail-doses. This is in contrast to the conventionally used planning objectives, which are used to maximize clinical goal fulfilment by relating to deviations from dose-at-volume thresholds. Advantages of the proposed planning objectives are investigated through juxtaposition with conventional objectives in a computational study of two patient cases, each with three doses-at-volume to be minimized subject to PTV coverage. With proposed planning objectives, this is translated into minimizing three mean-tail-doses. Comparison with conventional objectives is carried out in the dose-at-volume domain and in the no...

  12. [Triazole antifungal agents: practice guidelines of therapeutic drug monitoring and perspectives in treatment optimization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scodavolpe, Simon; Quaranta, Sylvie; Lacarelle, Bruno; Solas, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Antifungal triazole agents (fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole) are widely used for the management of invasive fungal infections (IFI). These drugs are indicated both for the prophylaxis and treatment of IFI, particularly in candidiasis and aspergillosis, major cause of mortality in immunocompromised patients. Due to a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability leading to sub-therapeutic or toxic concentrations and to concentration-efficacy and/or -toxicity relationships, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of antifungal triazole is fully justified. This review provides an overview of literature based data that confirm the usefulness of such TDM and its level of evidence as well as the practical guidelines for its implementation. In addition, we discuss the interest of new tools to improve the clinical management of IFI, such as genotyping tests optimizing initial voriconazole dosing regimen or the development of a new solid oral tablet of posaconazole improving its bioavailability and limiting absorption disorders.

  13. Palliative treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: what is the optimal approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickler, John H; Hurwitz, Herbert I

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually and remains a significant public health concern. Because of therapeutic advancements over the past two decades, patients with metastatic CRC are living longer with an improved quality of life. This review will highlight recent trial evidence that improves outcomes for patients with metastatic disease. Topics will include the optimal use of first-line combination chemotherapy, bevacizumab in patients with advanced age or comorbidities, maintenance chemotherapy, first-line use of anti-EGFR therapies, first-line cetuximab versus bevacizumab, anti-angiogenic therapies past progression, and management of treatment-refractory disease. Clinical trial evidence will be presented, along with guidance on how to integrate recent evidence into clinical practice. Finally, this review will examine innovative drug development strategies, and will discuss potentially actionable targets identified by molecular testing.

  14. Optimization Model for Land Treatment Planning, Design and Operation. Part 3. Model Description and User’s Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    land treatment equations is necessary to develop the user -supplied PARAM and INPUT files and to interpret the model results. A schematic of the system...land treatment equations and is supplied and named by the user . A total of 160 parameter values must be specified. The file must consist of 26 lines...7 AD-A134 461 OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR LAND TREATMENT PLANNING DESIN 1/AND OPERATION PART 3..U) COLD REGIONS RESEARCH ANDENGINEERING LAB HANOVER NH J A

  15. LABORATORY OPTIMIZATION TESTS OF TECHNETIUM DECONTAMINATION OF HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT LOW ACTIVITY WASTE OFF-GAS CONDENSATE SIMULANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; McCabe, D.

    2014-09-29

    compatible with longterm tank storage and immobilization methods. For this new application, testing is needed to demonstrate acceptable treatment sorbents and precipitating agents and measure decontamination factors for additional radionuclides in this unique waste stream. The origin of this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream will be the liquids from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover. The soluble components are expected to be mostly sodium and ammonium salts of nitrate, chloride, and fluoride. This stream has not been generated yet and will not be available until the WTP begins operation, but a simulant has been produced based on models, calculations, and comparison with pilot-scale tests. One of the radionuclides that is volatile and expected to be in greatest abundance in this LAW Off-Gas Condensate stream is Technetium-99 ({sup 99}Tc). Technetium will not be removed from the aqueous waste in the Hanford WTP, and will primarily end up immobilized in the LAW glass by repeated recycle of the off-gas condensate into the LAW melter. Other radionuclides that are low but are also expected to be in measurable concentration in the LAW Off-Gas Condensate are {sup 129}I, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Pu, and {sup 241}Am. These are present due to their partial volatility and some entrainment in the off-gas system. This report discusses results of optimized {sup 99}Tc decontamination testing of the simulant. Testing examined use of inorganic reducing agents for {sup 99}Tc. Testing focused on minimizing the quantity of sorbents/reactants added, and minimizing mixing time to reach the decontamination targets in this simulant formulation. Stannous chloride and ferrous sulfate were tested as reducing agents to determine the minimum needed to convert soluble pertechnetate

  16. Which strategies reduce breast cancer mortality most? Collaborative modeling of optimal screening, treatment, and obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblatt, Jeanne; van Ravesteyn, Nicolien; Schechter, Clyde; Chang, Yaojen; Huang, An-Tsun; Near, Aimee M; de Koning, Harry; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2013-07-15

    US breast cancer mortality is declining, but thousands of women still die each year. Two established simulation models examine 6 strategies that include increased screening and/or treatment or elimination of obesity versus continuation of current patterns. The models use common national data on incidence and obesity prevalence, competing causes of death, mammography characteristics, treatment effects, and survival/cure. Parameters are modified based on obesity (defined as BMI  ≥  30 kg/m(2) ). Outcomes are presented for the year 2025 among women aged 25+ and include numbers of cases, deaths, mammograms and false-positives; age-adjusted incidence and mortality; breast cancer mortality reduction and deaths averted; and probability of dying of breast cancer. If current patterns continue, the models project that there would be about 50,100-57,400 (range across models) annual breast cancer deaths in 2025. If 90% of women were screened annually from ages 40 to 54 and biennially from ages 55 to 99 (or death), then 5100-6100 fewer deaths would occur versus current patterns, but incidence, mammograms, and false-positives would increase. If all women received the indicated systemic treatment (with no screening change), then 11,400-14,500 more deaths would be averted versus current patterns, but increased toxicity could occur. If 100% received screening plus indicated therapy, there would be 18,100-20,400 fewer deaths. Eliminating obesity yields 3300-5700 fewer breast cancer deaths versus continuation of current obesity levels. Maximal reductions in breast cancer deaths could be achieved through optimizing treatment use, followed by increasing screening use and obesity prevention. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  17. Optimal treatment of social phobia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott KM

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available John Canton, Kate M Scott, Paul GlueDepartment of Psychological Medicine, Dunedin School of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: This article proposes a number of recommendations for the treatment of generalized social phobia, based on a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. An optimal treatment regimen would include a combination of medication and psychotherapy, along with an assertive clinical management program. For medications, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and dual serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors are first-line choices based on their efficacy and tolerability profiles. The nonselective monoamine oxidase inhibitor, phenelzine, may be more potent than these two drug classes, but because of its food and drug interaction liabilities, its use should be restricted to patients not responding to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors. There are other medication classes with demonstrated efficacy in social phobia (benzodiazepines, antipsychotics, alpha-2-delta ligands, but due to limited published clinical trial data and the potential for dependence and withdrawal issues with benzodiazepines, it is unclear how best to incorporate these drugs into treatment regimens. There are very few clinical trials on the use of combined medications. Cognitive behavior therapy appears to be more effective than other evidence-based psychological techniques, and its effects appear to be more enduring than those of pharmacotherapy. There is some evidence, albeit limited to certain drug classes, that the combination of medication and cognitive behavior therapy may be more effective than either strategy used alone. Generalized social phobia is a chronic disorder, and many patients will require long-term support and treatment.Keywords: social phobia, social anxiety disorder, psychotherapy, cognitive behavior therapy, antidepressant

  18. GIS based location optimization for mobile produced water treatment facilities in shale gas operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitwadkar, Amol Hanmant

    Over 60% of the nation's total energy is supplied by oil and natural gas together and this demand for energy will continue to grow in the future (Radler et al. 2012). The growing demand is pushing the exploration and exploitation of onshore oil and natural gas reservoirs. Hydraulic fracturing has proven to not only create jobs and achieve economic growth, but also has proven to exert a lot of stress on natural resources---such as water. As water is one of the most important factors in the world of hydraulic fracturing, proper fluids management during the development of a field of operation is perhaps the key element to address a lot of these issues. Almost 30% of the water used during hydraulic fracturing comes out of the well in the form of flowback water during the first month after the well is fractured (Bai et. al. 2012). Handling this large amount of water coming out of the newly fractured wells is one of the major issues as the volume of the water after this period drops off and remains constant for a long time (Bai et. al. 2012) and permanent facilities can be constructed to take care of the water over a longer period. This paper illustrates development of a GIS based tool for optimizing the location of a mobile produced water treatment facility while development is still occurring. A methodology was developed based on a multi criteria decision analysis (MCDA) to optimize the location of the mobile treatment facilities. The criteria for MCDA include well density, ease of access (from roads considering truck hauls) and piping minimization if piping is used and water volume produced. The area of study is 72 square miles east of Greeley, CO in the Wattenberg Field in northeastern Colorado that will be developed for oil and gas production starting in the year 2014. A quarterly analysis is done so that we can observe the effect of future development plans and current circumstances on the location as we move from quarter to quarter. This will help the operators to

  19. Efeito do tratamento alcalino de fibras de juta no comportamento mecânico de compósitos de matriz epóxi The influence of alkaline treatment on jute fiber- reinforced epoxy resin composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo N. Pires

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliada a influência do tratamento químico de fibras vegetais nas propriedades mecânicas e dinâmico-mecânicas de resina epóxi reforçada com tecidos de fibras de juta. As fibras foram modificadas a partir de solução de hidróxido de sódio, e caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, espectrometria no infravermelho com transformada de Fourier (FTIR e resistência à tração. As análises de FTIR e MEV evidenciaram, respectivamente, que o tratamento alcalino promoveu a remoção parcial da hemicelulose e modificou a morfologia das fibras de juta. Amostras dos compósitos com fibras tratadas e não tratadas foram confeccionadas a partir da laminação manual seguida da moldagem por compressão. Compósitos com fibras tratadas apresentaram propriedades mecânicas e módulo de armazenamento maiores do que as da resina epóxi sem reforço e compósitos com fibras sem tratamento. As micrografias de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV revelaram que compósitos com fibras tratadas possuem menor quantidade de vazios e menor quantidade de pull-out, sugerindo maior ades��o com a matriz polimérica do que os compósitos com fibras sem tratamento.This study was aimed at evaluating the efficiency of chemical treatment on the dynamic mechanical and mechanical properties of composite materials with jute fibers and epoxy matrix resin. The surfaces of the jute fibers were modified by contact with sodium hydroxide solutions, and characterized through scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and tensile strength testing. The FTIR and SEM analysis evidenced that the alkaline treatment promoted removal of the hemicellulose and modification in the morphology of the jute fibers, respectively. Polymeric composites with untreated and treated jute fiber were prepared through hand lay-up process followed by compression molding. The treated jute fiber composites displayed

  20. Optimization of the route of platinum drugs administration to optimize the concomitant treatment with radiotherapy for glioblastoma implanted in the Fischer rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Charest, Gabriel; Sanche, Léon; Fortin, David; Mathieu, David; Paquette, Benoit

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of glioblastoma with platinum compounds modestly improves progression-free survival and may cause toxic effects which prevent use at higher dose that would otherwise improve the antineoplastic effect. To reduce toxicity, we propose to encapsulate the platinum drug in a liposome. We have also tested three methods of drug administration (intra-venous, intra-arterial and intra-arterial combined with blood brain barrier disruption) to determine which one optimizes the tumor cell uptake,...

  1. Economic comparison of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in dairy herds using optimized culling decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessels, J A; Cha, E; Johnson, S K; Welcome, F L; Kristensen, A R; Gröhn, Y T

    2016-05-01

    This study used an existing dynamic optimization model to compare costs of common treatment protocols and J5 vaccination for clinical mastitis in US dairy herds. Clinical mastitis is an infection of the mammary gland causing major economic losses in dairy herds due to reduced milk production, reduced conception, and increased risk of mortality and culling for infected cows. Treatment protocols were developed to reflect common practices in dairy herds. These included targeted therapy following pathogen identification, and therapy without pathogen identification using a broad-spectrum antimicrobial or treating with the cheapest treatment option. The cost-benefit of J5 vaccination was also estimated. Effects of treatment were accounted for as changes in treatment costs, milk loss due to mastitis, milk discarded due to treatment, and mortality. Following ineffective treatments, secondary decisions included extending the current treatment, alternative treatment, discontinuing treatment, and pathogen identification followed by recommended treatment. Average net returns for treatment protocols and vaccination were generated using an existing dynamic programming model. This model incorporates cow and pathogen characteristics to optimize management decisions to treat, inseminate, or cull cows. Of the treatment protocols where 100% of cows received recommended treatment, pathogen-specific identification followed by recommended therapy yielded the highest average net returns per cow per year. Out of all treatment scenarios, the highest net returns were achieved with selecting the cheapest treatment option and discontinuing treatment, or alternate treatment with a similar spectrum therapy; however, this may not account for the full consequences of giving nonrecommended therapies to cows with clinical mastitis. Vaccination increased average net returns in all scenarios. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Systematic review of the association between dietary acid load, alkaline water and cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Tanis R; Huang, Tian

    2016-06-13

    To evaluate the evidence for a causal relationship between dietary acid/alkaline and alkaline water for the aetiology and treatment of cancer. A systematic review was conducted on published and grey literature separately for randomised intervention and observational studies with either varying acid-base dietary intakes and/or alkaline water with any cancer outcome or for cancer treatment. Incidence of cancer and outcomes of cancer treatment. 8278 citations were identified, and 252 abstracts were reviewed; 1 study met the inclusion criteria and was included in this systematic review. No randomised trials were located. No studies were located that examined dietary acid or alkaline or alkaline water for cancer treatment. The included study was a cohort study with a low risk of bias. This study revealed no association between the diet acid load with bladder cancer (OR=1.15: 95% CI 0.86 to 1.55, p=0.36). No association was found even among long-term smokers (OR=1.72: 95% CI 0.96 to 3.10, p=0.08). Despite the promotion of the alkaline diet and alkaline water by the media and salespeople, there is almost no actual research to either support or disprove these ideas. This systematic review of the literature revealed a lack of evidence for or against diet acid load and/or alkaline water for the initiation or treatment of cancer. Promotion of alkaline diet and alkaline water to the public for cancer prevention or treatment is not justified. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Treatment planning considerations in contrast-enhanced radiotherapy: energy and beam aperture optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnica-Garza, H M, E-mail: hgarnica@cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politecnico Nacional Unidad Monterrey, Via del Conocimiento 201 Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca NL CP 66600 (Mexico)

    2011-01-21

    It has been shown that the use of kilovoltage x-rays in conjunction with a contrast agent incorporated into the tumor can lead to acceptable treatment plans with regard to the absorbed dose distribution produced in the target as well as in the tissue and organs at risk surrounding it. In this work, several key aspects related to the technology and irradiation techniques necessary to clinically implement this treatment modality are addressed by means of Monte Carlo simulation. The Zubal phantom was used to model a prostate radiotherapy treatment, a challenging site due to the depth of the prostate and the presence of bony structures that must be traversed by the x-ray beam on its way to the target. It is assumed that the concentration levels of the enhancing agent present in the tumor are at or below 10 mg per 1 g of tissue. The Monte Carlo code PENELOPE was used to model a commercial x-ray tube having a tungsten target. X-ray energy spectra for several combinations of peak electron energy and added filtration were obtained. For each energy spectrum, a treatment plan was calculated, with the PENELOPE Monte Carlo code, by modeling the irradiation of the patient as 72 independent conformal beams distributed at intervals of 5{sup 0} around the phantom in order to model a full x-ray source rotation. The Cimmino optimization algorithm was then used to find the optimum beam weight and energy for different treatment strategies. It is shown that for a target dose prescription of 72 Gy covering the whole tumor, the maximum rectal wall and bladder doses are kept below 52 Gy for the largest concentration of contrast agent of 10 mg per 1 g of tissue. It is also shown that concentrations of as little as 5 mg per 1 g of tissue also render dose distributions with excellent sparing of the organs at risk. A treatment strategy to address the presence of non-uniform distributions of the contrast agent in the target is also modeled and discussed.

  4. Optimal Tests of Treatment Effects for the Overall Population and Two Subpopulations in Randomized Trials, using Sparse Linear Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblum, Michael; Liu, Han; Yen, En-Hsu

    2014-01-01

    We propose new, optimal methods for analyzing randomized trials, when it is suspected that treatment effects may differ in two predefined subpopulations. Such subpopulations could be defined by a biomarker or risk factor measured at baseline. The goal is to simultaneously learn which subpopulations benefit from an experimental treatment, while providing strong control of the familywise Type I error rate. We formalize this as a multiple testing problem and show it is computationally infeasible to solve using existing techniques. Our solution involves a novel approach, in which we first transform the original multiple testing problem into a large, sparse linear program. We then solve this problem using advanced optimization techniques. This general method can solve a variety of multiple testing problems and decision theory problems related to optimal trial design, for which no solution was previously available. In particular, we construct new multiple testing procedures that satisfy minimax and Bayes optimality criteria. For a given optimality criterion, our new approach yields the optimal tradeoff between power to detect an effect in the overall population versus power to detect effects in subpopulations. We demonstrate our approach in examples motivated by two randomized trials of new treatments for HIV.

  5. Percutaneous vertebroplasty: optimizing the procedure after treatment of 250 vertebral levels under fluoroscopic guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedicelli, A; Rollo, M; Piano, M; Grattacaso, G; Colosimo, C; Bonomo, L

    2009-10-01

    Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) is a minimally invasive treatment for symptomatic vertebral compression fractures (VCFs). The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness, complications and progress of results of PVP optimized in terms of technique, costs, time and strategic protocol after 3 years of procedures performed under fluoroscopic guidance alone. We treated 250 VCFs in 120 consecutive patients after assessing clinical and radiological indications. The effectiveness of the procedure was determined by statistical analysis of numerical scores for pain, mobility and drug consumption before and after treatment. No major complications and only three minor complications occurred. Clinically relevant improved mobility and reduction of pain and analgesics were observed, with overall significant results (p<0.0001) in all patients at 24 h after PVP and in 83 available patients at 6 months. A total of five asymptomatic refractures of cemented vertebrae and 14 new symptomatic vertebral fractures at different levels were observed between 1 and 10 months after the procedure. PVP is a safe, rapid, effective and costeffective therapy for VCFs, requiring only brief hospital admission and with long-lasting clinical results, when performed under good-quality radiological guidance, when correct indications are respected and when it is associated with rehabilitation therapy in the follow-up. It is a valid alternative to conservative therapy, which is burdened by high healthcare costs and often requires long-term immobilisation of frail and elderly patients at risk of clinical complications.

  6. Optimized treatment conditions for textile wastewater reuse using photocatalytic processes under UV and visible light sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, Maria Clara V M; Castro, Luiz Augusto S; Marcelino, Rafaela B P; Leão, Mônica M D; Amorim, Camila C

    2017-03-01

    In this study, photo-Fenton systems using visible light sources with iron and ferrioxalate were tested for the DOC degradation and decolorization of textile wastewater. Textile wastewaters originated after the dyeing stage of dark-colored tissue in the textile industry, and the optimization of treatment processes was studied to produce water suitable for reuse. Dissolved organic carbon, absorbance, turbidity, anionic concentrations, carboxylic acids, and preliminary cost analysis were performed for the proposed treatments. Conventional photo-Fenton process achieved near 99 % DOC degradation rates and complete absorbance removal, and no carboxylic acids were found as products of degradation. Ferrioxalate photo-Fenton system achieved 82 % of DOC degradation and showed complete absorbance removal, and oxalic acid has been detected through HPLC analysis in the treated sample. In contrast, photo-peroxidation with UV light was proved effective only for absorbance removal, with DOC degradation efficiency near 50 %. Treated wastewater was compared with reclaimed water and had a similar quality, indicating that these processes can be effectively applied for textile wastewater reuse. The results of the preliminary cost analysis indicated costs of 0.91 to 1.07 US$ m(-3) for the conventional and ferrioxalate photo-Fenton systems, respectively. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  7. Heat Transfer Simulation for Optimization and Treatment Planning of Magnetic Hyperthermia Using Magnetic Particle Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Banura, Natsuo; Nishimoto, Kohei; Murase, Kenya

    2016-01-01

    This study was undertaken to develop a system for heat transfer simulation for optimization and treatment planning of magnetic hyperthermia treatment (MHT) using magnetic particle imaging (MPI). First, we performed phantom experiments to obtain the regression equation between the MPI pixel value and the specific absorption rate (SAR) of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), from which the MPI pixel value was converted to the SAR value in the simulation. Second, we generated the geometries for use in the simulation by processing X-ray computed tomography (CT) and MPI images of tumor-bearing mice injected intratumorally with MNPs (Resovist). The geometries and MPI images were then imported into software based on a finite element method (COMSOL Multiphysics) to compute the time-dependent temperature distribution for 20 min after the start of MHT. There was an excellent correlation between the MPI pixel value and the SAR value (r = 0.956). There was good agreement between the time course of the temperature rise in the t...

  8. Optimization of continuous hydrothermal treatment for improving the dehulling of black gram (Vigna mungo L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerish Joyner, J; Yadav, B K

    2015-12-01

    Black gram kernels with three initial moisture contents (10, 14 & 18 % w.b.) were steam treated in a continuous steaming unit at three inlet steam pressures (2, 3 & 4 kg/cm(2)) for three grain residence times (2, 4 & 6 min) in order to determine best treatment condition for maximizing the dhal yield while limiting the colour change in acceptable range. The dhal yield, dehulling loss and the colour difference (Delta E*) of the dehulled dhal were found to vary respectively, from 56.4 to 78.8 %, 30.8 to 8.6 % and 2.1 to 9.5 with increased severity of treatment. Optimization was done in order to obtain higher dhal yield while limiting the colour difference (Delta E*) within acceptable range i.e. 2.0 to 3.5 using response surface methodology. The best condition was obtained with the samples having 13.1 % initial moisture treated with 4 kg/cm(2) for about 6 min to achieve a dhal yield of 71.2 % and dehulling loss of 15.5 %.

  9. Treatment of biodiesel wastewater by adsorption with commercial chitosan flakes: parameter optimization and process kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitakpoolsil, Wipawan; Hunsom, Mali

    2014-01-15

    The possibility of using commercial chitosan flakes as an adsorbent for the removal of pollutants from biodiesel wastewater was evaluated. The effect of varying the adsorption time (0.5-5 h), initial wastewater pH (2-8), adsorbent dose (0.5-5.5 g/L) and mixing rate (120-350 rpm) on the efficiency of pollutant removal was explored by univariate analysis. Under the derived optimal conditions, greater than 59.3%, 87.9% and 66.2% of the biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil & grease, respectively, was removed by a single adsorption. Nevertheless, the remaining BOD, COD and oil & grease were still higher than the acceptable Thai government limits for discharge into the environment. When the treatment was repeated, a greater than 93.6%, 97.6% and 95.8% removal of the BOD, COD and oil & grease, respectively, was obtained. The reusability of commercial chitosan following NaOH washing (0.05-0.2 M) was not suitable, with less than 40% efficiency after just one recycling and declining rapidly thereafter. The adsorption kinetics of all pollutant types by the commercial chitosan flakes was controlled by a mixed process of diffusion and adsorption of the pollutants during the early treatment period (0-1.5 h) and then solely controlled by adsorption after 2 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Process optimization via response surface methodology in the treatment of metal working industry wastewater with electrocoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guvenc, Senem Yazici; Okut, Yusuf; Ozak, Mert; Haktanir, Birsu; Bilgili, Mehmet Sinan

    2017-02-01

    In this study, process parameters in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal from metal working industry (MWI) wastewater were optimized by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum, iron and steel electrodes. The effects of process variables on COD and turbidity were investigated by developing a mathematical model using central composite design method, which is one of the response surface methodologies. Variance analysis was conducted to identify the interaction between process variables and model responses and the optimum conditions for the COD and turbidity removal. Second-order regression models were developed via the Statgraphics Centurion XVI.I software program to predict COD and turbidity removal efficiencies. Under the optimum conditions, removal efficiencies obtained from aluminum electrodes were found to be 76.72% for COD and 99.97% for turbidity, while the removal efficiencies obtained from iron electrodes were found to be 76.55% for COD and 99.9% for turbidity and the removal efficiencies obtained from steel electrodes were found to be 65.75% for COD and 99.25% for turbidity. Operational costs at optimum conditions were found to be 4.83, 1.91 and 2.91 €/m(3) for aluminum, iron and steel electrodes, respectively. Iron electrode was found to be more suitable for MWI wastewater treatment in terms of operational cost and treatment efficiency.

  11. Optimizing electrocoagulation process for the treatment of biodiesel wastewater using response surface methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Orathai Chavalparit; Maneerat Ongwandee

    2009-01-01

    The production of biodiesel through a transesterification method produces a large amount of wastewater that contains high levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and oil and grease (O&G).Currently,flotation is the conventional primary treatment for O&G removal prior to biological treatments.In this study,electrocoagulation (EC) was adopted to treat the biodiesel wastewater.The effects of initial pH,applied voltage,and reaction time on the EC process for the removal of COD,O&G,and suspended solids (SS) were investigated using one factor at a time experiments.Furthermore,the Box-Behnken design,an experimental design for response surface methodology (RSM),was used to create a set of 15 experimental runs needed for optimization of the operating conditions.Quadratic regression models with estimated coefficients were developed to describe the pollutant removals.The experimental results show that EC was effective at reducing COD,O&G,and SS by 55.43%,98.42%,and 96.59%,respectively,at the optimum conditions of pH 6.06,applied voltage 18.2 V,and reaction time 23.5 min.The experimental observations were in reasonable agreement with the modeled values.

  12. Development of alkaline fuel cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hibbs, Michael R.; Jenkins, Janelle E.; Alam, Todd Michael; Janarthanan, Rajeswari; Horan, James L.; Caire, Benjamin R.; Ziegler, Zachary C.; Herring, Andrew M.; Yang, Yuan; Zuo, Xiaobing; Robson, Michael H.; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Patterson, Wendy; Atanassov, Plamen Borissov

    2013-09-01

    This project focuses on the development and demonstration of anion exchange membrane (AEM) fuel cells for portable power applications. Novel polymeric anion exchange membranes and ionomers with high chemical stabilities were prepared characterized by researchers at Sandia National Laboratories. Durable, non-precious metal catalysts were prepared by Dr. Plamen Atanassovs research group at the University of New Mexico by utilizing an aerosol-based process to prepare templated nano-structures. Dr. Andy Herrings group at the Colorado School of Mines combined all of these materials to fabricate and test membrane electrode assemblies for single cell testing in a methanol-fueled alkaline system. The highest power density achieved in this study was 54 mW/cm2 which was 90% of the project target and the highest reported power density for a direct methanol alkaline fuel cell.

  13. Post-treatment of molasses wastewater by electrocoagulation and process optimization through response surface analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsioptsias, C; Petridis, D; Athanasakis, N; Lemonidis, I; Deligiannis, A; Samaras, P

    2015-12-01

    Molasses wastewater is a high strength effluent of food industry such as distilleries, sugar and yeast production plants etc. It is characterized by a dark brown color and exhibits a high content in substances of recalcitrant nature such as melanoidins. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was studied as a post treatment step for biologically treated molasses wastewater with high nitrogen content obtained from a baker's yeast industry. Iron and copper electrodes were used in various forms; the influence and interaction of current density, molasses wastewater dilution, and reaction time, on COD, color, ammonium and nitrate removal rates and operating cost were studied and optimized through Box Behnken's response surface analysis. Reaction time varied from 0.5 to 4 h, current density varied from 5 to 40 mA/cm(2) and dilution from 0 to 90% (v/v expressed as water concentration). pH, conductivity and temperature measurements were also carried out during each experiment. From preliminary experiments, it was concluded that the application of aeration and sample dilution, considerably influenced the kinetics of the process. The obtained results showed that COD removal varied between 10 and 54%, corresponding to an operation cost ranging from 0.2 to 33 euro/kg COD removed. Significant removal rates were obtained for nitrogen as nitrate and ammonium (i.e. 70% ammonium removal). A linear relation of COD and ammonium to the design parameters was observed, while operation cost and nitrate removal responded in a curvilinear function. A low ratio of electrode surface to treated volume was used, associated to a low investment cost; in addition, iron wastes could be utilized as low cost electrodes i.e. iron fillings from lathes, aiming to a low operation cost due to electrodes replacement. In general, electrocoagulation proved to be an effective and low cost process for biologically treated molasses-wastewater treatment for additional removal of COD and nitrogen content and

  14. Understanding of alkaline pretreatment parameters for corn stover enzymatic saccharification

    OpenAIRE

    Chen Ye; Stevens Mark A; Zhu Yongming; Holmes Jason; Xu Hui

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous research on alkaline pretreatment has mainly focused on optimization of the process parameters to improve substrate digestibility. To achieve satisfactory sugar yield, extremely high chemical loading and enzyme dosages were typically used. Relatively little attention has been paid to reduction of chemical consumption and process waste management, which has proven to be an indispensable component of the bio-refineries. To indicate alkali strength, both alkali conce...

  15. On the selection of optimization parameters for an inverse treatment planning replacement of a forward planning technique for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Dimitre H; Moftah, Belal A; Charrois, Colette; Parker, William; Souhami, Luis; Podgorsak, Ervin B

    2002-01-01

    The influence of organ volume sampling, lateral scatter inclusion, and the selection of objectives and constraints on the inverse treatment planning process with a commercial treatment planning system is investigated and suitable parameters are identified for an inverse treatment planning replacement of a clinical forward planning technique for prostate cancer. For the beam geometries of the forward technique, a variable set of parameters is used for the calculation of dose from pencil beams. An optimal set is identified after the evaluation of optimized plans that correspond to different sets of pencil-beam parameters. This set along with a single, optimized set of objectives and constraints is used to perform inverse planning on ten randomly selected patients. The acceptability of the resulting plans is verified by comparisons to the clinical ones calculated with the forward techniques. For the particular commercial treatment planning system, the default values of the pencil beam parameters are found adequate for inverse treatment planning. For all ten patients, the optimized, single set of objectives and constraints results in plans with target coverage comparable to that of the forward plans. Furthermore inverse treatment planning reduces the overall mean rectal and bladder doses by 4.8% and 5.8% of the prescription dose respectively. The study indicates that (i) inverse treatment planning results depend implicitly on the sampling of the dose distribution, (ii) inverse treatment planning results depend on the method used by the dose calculation model to account for scatter, and (iii) for certain sites, a single set of optimization parameters can be used for all patient plans.

  16. Prevalence of optimal treatment regimens in patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension based on office blood pressure in a community-based practice network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Zhao, Yumin; Li, Jiexiang; Brzezinski, W Adam; Todoran, Thomas M; Brook, Robert D; Calhoun, David A

    2013-10-01

    Hypertensive patients with clinical blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥3 antihypertensive medications (ie, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension [aTRH]) comprise ≈28% to 30% of all uncontrolled patients in the United States. However, the proportion receiving these medications in optimal doses is unknown; aTRH is used because treatment adherence and measurement artifacts were not available in electronic record data from our >200 community-based clinics Outpatient Quality Improvement Network. This study sought to define the proportion of uncontrolled hypertensives with aTRH on optimal regimens and clinical factors associated with optimal therapy. During 2007-2010, 468 877 hypertensive patients met inclusion criteria. BP hypertension doses). Among 468 877 hypertensives, 147 635 (31.5%) were uncontrolled; among uncontrolled hypertensives, 44 684 were prescribed ≥3 BP medications (30.3%), of whom 22 189 (15.0%) were prescribed optimal therapy. Clinical factors independently associated with optimal BP therapy included black race (odds ratio, 1.40 [95% confidence interval, 1.32-1.49]), chronic kidney disease (1.31 [1.25-1.38]), diabetes mellitus (1.30 [1.24-1.37]), and coronary heart disease risk equivalent status (1.29 [1.14-1.46]). Clinicians more often prescribe optimal therapy for aTRH when cardiovascular risk is greater and treatment goals lower. Approximately 1 in 7 of all uncontrolled hypertensives and 1 in 2 with uncontrolled aTRH are prescribed ≥3 BP medications in optimal regimens. Prescribing more optimal pharmacotherapy for uncontrolled hypertensives including aTRH, confirmed with out-of-office BP, could improve hypertension control.

  17. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based optimization of levofloxacin administration in the treatment of MDR-TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Samiksha; Van't Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya, Natasha; Akkerman, Onno W; de Lange, Wiel C M; van Soolingen, Dick; Kosterink, Jos G W; van der Werf, Tjip S; Wilffert, Bob; Touw, Daniel J; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C

    2016-10-01

    The emergence of MDR-TB and XDR-TB has complicated TB treatment success. Among many factors that contribute to the development of resistance, low drug exposure is not the least important. This review summarizes the available information on pharmacokinetic properties of levofloxacin in relation to microbial susceptibilities, in order to optimize the dose and make general treatment recommendations. A total of 37 studies on adult (32 studies) and paediatric (5 studies) MDR-TB patients were included. Among the 32 adult studies, 19 were on susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by MIC, 1 was on susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by MBC, 1 was on susceptibility of M. tuberculosis isolates to levofloxacin by mutant prevention concentration and 4 were on pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin, and 7 others were included. Likewise, out of five studies on children, two dealt with levofloxacin pharmacokinetic parameters, one reviewed CSF concentrations and two dealt with background information. In adult MDR-TB patients, standard dosing of once-daily 1000 mg levofloxacin in TB treatment did not consistently attain the target concentration (i.e. fAUC/MIC >100 and fAUC/MBC >100) in 80% of the patients with MIC and MBC of 1 mg/L, leaving them at risk of developing drug resistance. However, with an MIC of 0.5 mg/L, 100% of the patients achieved the target concentration. Similarly, paediatric patients failed consistently in achieving given pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets due to age-related differences, demanding a shift towards once daily dosing of 15-20 mg/kg. Therefore, we recommend therapeutic drug monitoring for patients with strains having MICs of ≥0.5 mg/L and suggest revising the cut-off value from 2 to 1 mg/L.

  18. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell therapy in ischemic stroke:mechanisms of action and treatment optimization strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guihong Li; Fengbo Yu; Ting Lei; Haijun Gao; Peiwen Li; Yuxue Sun; Haiyan Huang; Qingchun Mu

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have conifrmed the therapeutic effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells on cerebral ischemia, but their mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. Here, we summarize the transplantation approaches, directional migration, differentiation, replacement, neural circuit reconstruction, angiogenesis, neurotrophic factor secretion, apoptosis, immunomodulation, multiple mechanisms of action, and optimization strategies for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells in the treatment of ischemic stroke. We also explore the safety of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conclude that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell transplantation is an important direction for future treatment of cerebral ischemia. Determining the optimal timing and dose for the transplantation are important directions for future research.

  19. 糯米蛋白提取工艺优化及其水解物性质的测定%Optimization of alkaline protease extraction of sticky rice protein from sticky rice and properties mensuration of hydrolysates of sticky rice protein

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王国泽; 袁怀波; 徐建文

    2012-01-01

    以糯米为原料,采用碱性蛋白酶水解法提取了糯米蛋白。就影响糯米蛋白提取率的5个因素:料液比(g/mL)、加酶量(E/S)、pH、温度和提取时间进行单因素实验和正交实验。研究确立了提取糯米蛋白的最佳工艺条件为料液比1:12,加酶量2%,pH9,温度45℃,提取时间3h。在此条件下,糯米蛋白的提取率可达8.529%。实验表明,糯米蛋白水解物是一类天然的抗氧化氨基酸及其聚合物。%In order to obtain the extraction of sticky rice protein, sticky rice was used as raw materials by alkaline protease .The influence factors, amount of solid to liquid ratio, enzyme dosage, pH, temperature and time of the alkaline protease,which could affect the efficiency of extracting sticky rice protein,were investigated by singlefactor experiment and orthogonal test.The research results showed that the optimal technical parameters could be obtained as following : solid to liquid ratio 1: ]2, enzyme dosage 2%, pH = 9, temperature 45 ℃ and time 3 h.The max extraction rate of sticky rice protein reached to 8.529%.Antioxidant tests of protein hydrolysates by papain showed that hydrolyzate from sticky rice protein serves as amino acids or their polymer.

  20. Treatment outcome of thymic epithelial tumor: prognostic factors and optimal postoperative radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Dong Ryul; Ahn, Yong Chan; Kim, Kwan Min; Kim, Jhin Gook; Shim, Young Mog; Han, Jung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    This study was conducted to analyze treatment outcome and prognostic significance of World Health Organization (WHO)-defined thymic epithelial tumor (TET) subtype and to assess optimal radiation target volume in patients receiving surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy with TET. The record of 160 patients with TET, who received surgical resection at the Samsung medical Center, from December 1994 to June 2004, were reviewed. 99 patients were treated with postoperative radiation therapy (PORT). PORT was recommended when patients had more than one findings among suspicious incomplete resection or positive resection margin or Masaoka stage II {approx} IV or WHO tumor type B2 {approx} C. PORT performed to primary tumor bed only with a mean dose of 54 Gy. The prognostic factor and pattern of failure were analyzed retrospectively. The overall survival rate at 5 years was 87.3%. Age (more than 60 years 77.8%, less than 60 years 91.1%; {rho} = 0.03), Masaoka stage (I 92.2%, II 95.4%, III 82.1%, IV 67.5%; {rho} = 0.001), WHO tumor type (A-B1 96.0%, B2-C 82.3%; {rho} = 0.001), Extent of resection (R0 resection 92.3%, R1 or 2 resection 72.6%; {rho} = 0.001) were the prognostic factors according to univariate analysis. But WHO tumor type was the only significant prognostic factor according to multivariate analysis. Recurrence was observed in 5 patients of 71 Masoka stage I-III patients who received grossly complete tumor removal (R0, R1 resection ) and PORT to primary tumor bed. Mediastinal recurrence was observed in only one patients. There were no recurrence within irradiation field. WHO tumor type was the important prognostic factor to predict survival of patients with TET. This study suggest that PORT to only primary tumor bed was optimal. To avoid pleura-or pericardium-based recurrence, further study of effective chemotherapy should be investigated.

  1. Optimal control strategies for tuberculosis treatment: a case study in Angola

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Cristiana J

    2012-01-01

    We apply optimal control theory to a tuberculosis model given by a system of ordinary differential equations. Optimal control strategies are proposed to minimize the cost of interventions. Numerical simulations are given using data from Angola.

  2. Control of residual aluminum during coagulation in treatment of reservoir source water with high alkalinity%高碱度水库水混凝过程中残留铝控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷婷; 刘锐平; 易秀; 陈桂霞; 胡承志

    2013-01-01

    针对高碱度水库水源的某水厂残留铝超标问题,选取碱化度(B)与Alb含量不同的3种铝盐絮凝剂,研究不同投量与pH值下混凝效果与残留铝浓度水平.结果表明,碱化度和Alb含量显著影响混凝效果.DOC和浊度的去除率随着3种絮凝剂AlCl3(B=0)、PACl-1(B=1.2)、PACl-2(B=2.2)投量增大而升高.3种絮凝剂投量在1.5 ~2.0 mg/L(以铝计)范围内,总铝和溶解铝含量最低.对于该水厂自制的絮凝剂PACl-2,可通过降低絮凝剂碱化度,或将水的pH值降低至7 ~7.5之间,以此可以提高PACl-2混凝效果,而且可以降低出厂水残留铝浓度.考虑工程应用可行性,可优先考虑调整絮凝剂生产工艺.%To minimize the residual aluminum ( Al) levels in the effluent of a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) with reservoirs source water of high alkalinity, the coagulation performances and the residual Al concentrations using three flocculants, with different basicity ( B ) and Alb content, were investigated under varib-ale Al doses and pH. The results indicate that the basicity and Alb content significantly affect coagulation behaviors. The removal efficiency of DOC and turbidity increases with elevated doses of A1C13(B =0) , PAC1-1 (B -1.2), and PAC1-2 ( B = 2.2). The concentrations of total Al and dissolved Al are the lowest at Al doses of 1. 5 ~ 2. 0 mg/L for three flocculants. As for the PAC1-2, which is prepared by this DWTP, both strategies of decreasing the basicity of flocculant and adjusting the solution pH to 7 ~ 7. 5 are useful to enhance the coagulation performances and to decrease the residual Al levels. Moreover, the adjustment of flocculant preparation is preferred in the future application.

  3. Optimal Finite Cancer Treatment Duration by Using Mixed Vaccine Therapy and Chemotherapy: State Dependent Riccati Equation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ghaffari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to propose an optimal finite duration treatment method for cancer. A mathematical model is proposed to show the interactions between healthy and cancerous cells in the human body. To extend the existing models, the effect of vaccine therapy and chemotherapy are also added to the model. The equilibrium points and the related local stability are derived and discussed. It is shown that the dynamics of the cancer model must be changed and modified for finite treatment duration. Therefore, the vaccine therapy is used to change the parameters of the system and the chemotherapy is applied for pushing the system to the domain of attraction of the healthy state. For optimal chemotherapy, an optimal control is used based on state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE. It is shown that, in spite of eliminating the treatment, the system approaches the healthy state conditions. The results show that the development of optimal vaccine-chemotherapy protocols for removing tumor cells would be an appropriate strategy in cancer treatment. Also, the present study states that a proper treatment method not only reduces the population of the cancer cells but also changes the dynamics of the cancer.

  4. Cultivation of marine shrimp in biofloc technology (BFT) system under different water alkalinities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérri, V; Valter-Severino, D; Goulart-de-Oliveira, K; Manoel-do-Espírito-Santo, C; Nascimento-Vieira, F; Quadros-Seiffert, W

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of different levels of alkalinity for the superintensive cultivation of marine shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei in biofloc system. A total of 12 experimental circular units of 1000L were used supplied with 850L water from a nursery, populated at a density of 165 shrimps.m-3 and average weight of 5.6 g. The treatments, in triplicate, consisted in four levels of alkalinity in the water: 40, 80, 120 and 160 mg.L-1 of calcium carbonate. To correct the alkalinity was used calcium hydroxide (CaOH). It was observed a decrease in pH of the water in the treatments with lower alkalinity (pLitopenaeus vannamei in biofloc at density of 165 shrimps.m-3 can be performed in waters with alkalinity between 40 and 160 mg.L-1 of CaCO3, without compromising the zootechnical indexes of cultivation.

  5. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES--INTEGRATED LIFE-CYCLE OPTIMIZATION INITIATIVES FOR THE HANFORD RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT--WASTE TREATMENT PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auclair, K. D.

    2002-02-25

    This paper describes the ongoing integrated life-cycle optimization efforts to achieve both design flexibility and design stability for activities associated with the Waste Treatment Plant at Hanford. Design flexibility is required to support the Department of Energy Office of River Protection Balance of Mission objectives, and design stability to meet the Waste Treatment Plant construction and commissioning requirements in order to produce first glass in 2007. The Waste Treatment Plant is a large complex project that is driven by both technology and contractual requirements. It is also part of a larger overall mission, as a component of the River Protection Project, which is driven by programmatic requirements and regulatory, legal, and fiscal constraints. These issues are further complicated by the fact that both of the major contractors involved have a different contract type with DOE, and neither has a contract with the other. This combination of technical and programmatic drivers, constraints, and requirements will continue to provide challenges and opportunities for improvement and optimization. The Bechtel National, Inc. team is under contract to engineer, procure, construct, commission and test the Waste Treatment Plant on or ahead of schedule, at or under cost, and with a throughput capacity equal to or better than specified. The Department of Energy is tasked with the long term mission of waste retrieval, treatment, and disposal. While each mission is a compliment and inextricably linked to one another, they are also at opposite ends of the spectrum, in terms of expectations of one another. These mission requirements, that are seemingly in opposition to one another, pose the single largest challenge and opportunity for optimization: one of balance. While it is recognized that design maturation and optimization are the normal responsibility of any engineering firm responsible for any given project, the aspects of integrating requirements and the management

  6. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren-he Huang; Bao-ping Zhang; Yao-ji Tang

    2016-01-01

    Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A); 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B); glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE) (i.e. low-speed ester C), were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand) and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the folowing: (1) The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2) High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate) has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3) High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate) and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE) should be used below 15 ºC, 35 ºC and 50 ºC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4) There should be a suitable solid content (generaly 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin), alkali content (generaly 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin) and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generaly 50-300 mPa·s) in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finaly, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  7. Alkaline fuel cell with nitride membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shen-Huei; Pilaski, Moritz; Wartmann, Jens; Letzkus, Florian; Funke, Benedikt; Dura, Georg; Heinzel, Angelika

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this work is to fabricate patterned nitride membranes with Si-MEMS-technology as a platform to build up new membrane-electrode-assemblies (MEA) for alkaline fuel cell applications. Two 6-inch wafer processes based on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) were developed for the fabrication of separated nitride membranes with a nitride thickness up to 1 μm. The mechanical stability of the perforated nitride membrane has been adjusted in both processes either by embedding of subsequent ion implantation step or by optimizing the deposition process parameters. A nearly 100% yield of separated membranes of each deposition process was achieved with layer thickness from 150 nm to 1 μm and micro-channel pattern width of 1μm at a pitch of 3 μm. The process for membrane coating with electrolyte materials could be verified to build up MEA. Uniform membrane coating with channel filling was achieved after the optimization of speed controlled dip-coating method and the selection of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) as electrolyte solvent. Finally, silver as conductive material was defined for printing a conductive layer onto the MEA by Ink-Technology. With the established IR-thermography setup, characterizations of MEAs in terms of catalytic conversion were performed successfully. The results of this work show promise for build up a platform on wafer-level for high throughput experiments.

  8. Optimal treatment of Alzheimer’s disease psychosis: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppel J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeremy Koppel,1,2 Blaine S Greenwald2 1The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore–Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhasset, NY, USA; 2Zucker Hillside Hospital, Hofstra North Shore-Long Island Jewish School of Medicine, Glen Oaks, NY, USA Abstract: Psychotic symptoms emerging in the context of neurodegeneration as a consequence of Alzheimer’s disease was recognized and documented by Alois Alzheimer himself in his description of the first reported case of the disease. Over a quarter of a century ago, in the context of attempting to develop prognostic markers of disease progression, psychosis was identified as an independent predictor of a more-rapid cognitive decline. This finding has been subsequently well replicated, rendering psychotic symptoms an important area of exploration in clinical history taking – above and beyond treatment necessity – as their presence has prognostic significance. Further, there is now a rapidly accreting body of research that suggests that psychosis in Alzheimer’s disease (AD+P is a heritable disease subtype that enjoys neuropathological specificity and localization. There is now hope that the elucidation of the neurobiology of the syndrome will pave the way to translational research eventuating in new treatments. To date, however, the primary treatments employed in alleviating the suffering caused by AD+P are the atypical antipsychotics. These agents are approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of schizophrenia, but they have only marginal efficacy in treating AD+P and are associated with troubling levels of morbidity and mortality. For clinical approaches to AD+P to be optimized, this syndrome must be disentangled from other primary psychotic disorders, and recent scientific advances must be translated into disease-specific therapeutic interventions. Here we provide a review of atypical antipsychotic efficacy in AD+P, followed by an overview of critical

  9. Optimizing Fracture Treatments in a Mississippian "Chat" Reservoir, South-Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. David Newell; Saibal Bhattacharya; Alan Byrnes; W. Lynn Watney; Willard Guy

    2005-10-01

    This project is a collaboration of Woolsey Petroleum Corporation (a small independent operator) and the Kansas Geological Survey. The project will investigate geologic and engineering factors critical for designing hydraulic fracture treatments in Mississippian ''chat'' reservoirs. Mississippian reservoirs, including the chat, account for 159 million m3 (1 billion barrels) of the cumulative oil produced in Kansas. Mississippian reservoirs presently represent {approx}40% of the state's 5.6*106m3 (35 million barrels) annual production. Although geographically widespread, the ''chat'' is a heterogeneous reservoir composed of chert, cherty dolomite, and argillaceous limestone. Fractured chert with micro-moldic porosity is the best reservoir in this 18- to 30-m-thick (60- to 100-ft) unit. The chat will be cored in an infill well in the Medicine Lodge North field (417,638 m3 [2,626,858 bbls] oil; 217,811,000 m3 [7,692,010 mcf] gas cumulative production; discovered 1954). The core and modern wireline logs will provide geological and petrophysical data for designing a fracture treatment. Optimum hydraulic fracturing design is poorly defined in the chat, with poor correlation of treatment size to production increase. To establish new geologic and petrophysical guidelines for these treatments, data from core petrophysics, wireline logs, and oil-field maps will be input to a fracture-treatment simulation program. Parameters will be established for optimal size of the treatment and geologic characteristics of the predicted fracturing. The fracturing will be performed and subsequent wellsite tests will ascertain the results for comparison to predictions. A reservoir simulation program will then predict the rate and volumetric increase in production. Comparison of the predicted increase in production with that of reality, and the hypothetical fracturing behavior of the reservoir with that of its actual behavior, will serve as tests of

  10. Evaluation of the generalized gamma as a tool for treatment planning optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil I Petrou

    2014-12-01

    independent software. Furthermore, it was proved that after a small change in dose, the organ that is being affected most is the organ with the highest Generalized Gamma. Apart from that, the validity of the theoretical expressions that describe the change in response and the associated Generalized Gamma was verified but only for the case of small change in dose. Especially for the case of 50% TCP and NTCP, the theoretical values (ΔPapprox. and those calculated by the RayStation show close agreement, which proves the high importance of the D50 parameter in specifying clinical response levels. Finally, the presented findings show that the behavior of ΔPapprox. looks sensible because, for both of the models that were used (Poisson and Probit, it significantly approaches the real ΔP around the region of 37% and 50% response. The present study managed to evaluate the mathematical expression of Generalized Gamma for the case of non-uniform dose delivery and the accuracy of the RayStation to calculate its values for different organs. Conclusion: A very important finding of this work is the establishment of the usefulness and clinical relevance of Generalized Gamma. That is because it gives the planner the opportunity to precisely determine which organ will be affected most after a small increase in dose and as a result an optimal treatment plan regarding tumor control and normal tissue complications can be found.

  11. Optimal Combinations of Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for Prevention and Treatment of HIV-1 Clade C Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Kshitij; Bhattacharya, Tanmoy; Williamson, Carolyn; Robles, Alex; Bayne, Madeleine; Garrity, Jetta; Rist, Michael; Rademeyer, Cecilia; Yoon, Hyejin; Lapedes, Alan; Gao, Hongmei; Greene, Kelli; Louder, Mark K; Kong, Rui; Karim, Salim Abdool; Burton, Dennis R; Barouch, Dan H; Nussenzweig, Michel C; Mascola, John R; Morris, Lynn; Montefiori, David C; Korber, Bette; Seaman, Michael S

    2016-03-01

    The identification of a new generation of potent broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies (bnAbs) has generated substantial interest in their potential use for the prevention and/or treatment of HIV-1 infection. While combinations of bnAbs targeting distinct epitopes on the viral envelope (Env) will likely be required to overcome the extraordinary diversity of HIV-1, a key outstanding question is which bnAbs, and how many, will be needed to achieve optimal clinical benefit. We assessed the neutralizing activity of 15 bnAbs targeting four distinct epitopes of Env, including the CD4-binding site (CD4bs), the V1/V2-glycan region, the V3-glycan region, and the gp41 membrane proximal external region (MPER), against a panel of 200 acute/early clade C HIV-1 Env pseudoviruses. A mathematical model was developed that predicted neutralization by a subset of experimentally evaluated bnAb combinations with high accuracy. Using this model, we performed a comprehensive and systematic comparison of the predicted neutralizing activity of over 1,600 possible double, triple, and quadruple bnAb combinations. The most promising bnAb combinations were identified based not only on breadth and potency of neutralization, but also other relevant measures, such as the extent of complete neutralization and instantaneous inhibitory potential (IIP). By this set of criteria, triple and quadruple combinations of bnAbs were identified that were significantly more effective than the best double combinations, and further improved the probability of having multiple bnAbs simultaneously active against a given virus, a requirement that may be critical for countering escape in vivo. These results provide a rationale for advancing bnAb combinations with the best in vitro predictors of success into clinical trials for both the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection.

  12. Single versus multichannel applicator in high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy optimized by inverse treatment planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, Yasir A; Constantinescu, Camelia; Hassouna, Ashraf H; Eltaher, Maha M; Ghassal, Noor M; Awad, Nesreen A

    2015-01-01

    To retrospectively compare the potential dosimetric advantages of a multichannel vaginal applicator vs. a single channel one in intracavitary vaginal high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy after hysterectomy, and evaluate the dosimetric advantage of fractional re-planning. We randomly selected 12 patients with endometrial carcinoma, who received adjuvant vaginal cuff HDR brachytherapy using a multichannel applicator. For each brachytherapy fraction, two inverse treatment plans (for central channel and multichannel loadings) were performed and compared. The advantage of fractional re-planning was also investigated. Dose-volume-histogram (DVH) analysis showed limited, but statistically significant difference (p = 0.007) regarding clinical-target-volume dose coverage between single and multichannel approaches. For the organs-at-risk rectum and bladder, the use of multichannel applicator demonstrated a noticeable dose reduction, when compared to single channel, but statistically significant for rectum only (p = 0.0001). For D2cc of rectum, an average fractional dose of 6.1 ± 0.7 Gy resulted for single channel vs. 5.1 ± 0.6 Gy for multichannel. For D2cc of bladder, an average fractional dose of 5 ± 0.9 Gy occurred for single channel vs. 4.9 ± 0.8 Gy for multichannel. The dosimetric benefit of fractional re-planning was demonstrated: DVH analysis showed large, but not statistically significant differences between first fraction plan and fractional re-planning, due to large inter-fraction variations for rectum and bladder positioning and filling. Vaginal HDR brachytherapy using a multichannel vaginal applicator and inverse planning provides dosimetric advantages over single channel cylinder, by reducing the dose to organs at risk without compromising the target volume coverage, but at the expense of an increased vaginal mucosa dose. Due to large inter-fraction dose variations, we recommend individual fraction treatment plan optimization.

  13. Optimal treatment of chronic angina in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur H

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Harjinder Kaur,1 Kully Sandhu,2 Awais Jabbar,3 Azfar G Zaman3,4 1City Hospitals Sunderland, Sunderland, UK; 2University Hospital of North Staffordshire, Stoke-on-Trent, UK; 3Freeman Hospital, Newcastle-upon-Tyne, UK; 4Institute of Cellular Medicine, Newcastle University, Newcastle, UK Abstract: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM trebles the risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD; once CAD has developed, the risk of acute coronary syndromes (ACS and clinical risk associated with a coronary event, both double in diabetic patients. Patients with T2DM have more extensive CAD and present at a younger age; therefore, identification and management of chronic angina in these patients presents an opportunity to limit both cardiovascular symptoms and adverse outcomes. This article reviews the role of screening and treatment for chronic angina in patients with T2DM. There is a strong evidence base for modifying lifestyle as a way of reducing adverse cardiovascular outcomes in the diabetic population and this article reviews evidence of lifestyle modification as an important and necessary adjunct to pharmacologic intervention. Management of chronic stable angina is addressed by looking at treatments that reduce ischemic symptoms and those that reduce adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Trials specific to the diabetic population are limited, with information largely obtained from the diabetic subgroup analysis of large intervention trials. The growing diabetic population with increased propensity to cardiovascular disease mandates trials specifically in this patient population. Revascularization in patients with diabetes is associated with more complications than in the non-diabetic population. Recent trials specific to this population suggest surgical revascularization to be associated with better long-term outcomes and therefore, this article reviews the evidence for the optimal mode of revascularization in this population. Keywords: type 2 diabetes

  14. Mixed matrix membrane application for olive oil wastewater treatment: process optimization based on Taguchi design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirehpour, Alireza; Rahimpour, Ahmad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a concentrated effluent with a high organic load. It has high levels of organic chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds. This study presents a unique process to treat OMW. The process uses ultrafiltration (UF) membranes modified by a functionalized multi wall carbon nano-tube (F-MWCNT). The modified tube has an inner diameter of 15-30 nm and is added to the OMW treatment process to improve performance of the membrane. Tests were done to evaluate the following operating parameters of the UF system; pressure, pH and temperature; also evaluated parameters of permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenol rejection. The Taguchi robust design method was applied for an optimization evaluation of the experiments. Variance (ANOVA) analysis was used to determine the most significant parameters affecting permeate flux, flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Results demonstrated coagulation and pH as the most important factors affecting permeate flux of the UF. Moreover, pH and F-MWCNT UF had significant positive effects on flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection. Based on the optimum conditions determined by the Taguchi method, evaluations for permeate flux tests; flux decline, COD removal and total phenols rejection were about 21.2 (kg/m(2) h), 12.6%, 72.6% and 89.5%, respectively. These results were in good agreement with those predicted by the Taguchi method (i.e.; 22.8 (kg/m(2) h), 11.9%, 75.8 and 94.7%, respectively). Mechanical performance of the membrane and its application for high organic wastewater treatment were determined as strong.

  15. Optimization of a full-scale Unitank wastewater treatment plant for biological phosphorus removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Xing, Can; Wu, Zhichao; Tong, Fei; Wang, Junru

    2014-01-01

    The Unitank process combines the advantages of traditional continuous-flow activated sludge processes and sequencing batch reactors, and has been extensively employed in many wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. Biological phosphorus removal (BPR) of a full-scale Unitank WWTP was optimized by increasing anaerobic time from 80 to 120 min in an operation cycle of 360 min and reducing solid retention time (SRT) from 21.3 to 13.1 d. The BPR efficiency of the full-scale Unitank system increased from 63.8% (SRT of 21.3 d) to 83.2% for a SRT of 13.1 d. When the anaerobic time increased from 80 to 120 min, the net anaerobic phosphorus release amount increased from 0.25 to 1.06 mg L(-1), and sludge phosphorus content rose from 13.8 to 15.0 mgP x (gSS)(-1). During half an operation cycle, the average specific phosphorus release rate increased from 0.097mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 0-40 min to 0.825 mgP x (gVSS x h)(-1) in 40-60 min. Reducing SRT and increasing anaerobic time account for 84.6% and 15.4% in the total increment of phosphorus removal of 1.15 mgL(-1).

  16. Design and optimization of aspartate N-acetyltransferase inhibitors for the potential treatment of Canavan disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangavelu, Bharani; Mutthamsetty, Vinay; Wang, Qinzhe; Viola, Ronald E

    2017-02-01

    Canavan disease is a fatal neurological disorder caused by defects in the metabolism of N-acetyl-l-aspartate (NAA). Recent work has shown that the devastating symptoms of this disorder are correlated with the elevated levels of NAA observed in these patients, caused as a consequence of the inability of mutated forms of aspartoacylase to adequately catalyze its breakdown. The membrane-associated enzyme responsible for the synthesis of NAA, aspartate N-acetyltransferase (ANAT), has recently been purified and examined (Wang et al., Prot Expr Purif. 2016;119:11). With the availability, for the first time, of a stable and soluble form of ANAT we can now report the identification of initial inhibitors against this biosynthetic enzyme, obtained from the screening of several focused compound libraries. Two core structures of these moderate binding compounds have subsequently been optimized, with the most potent inhibitors in these series possessing sub-micromolar inhibition constants (Ki values) against ANAT. Slowing the production of NAA via the inhibition of ANAT will lower the elevated levels of this metabolite and can potentially serve as a treatment option to moderate the symptoms of Canavan disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Intermittent cryogen spray cooling for optimal heat extraction during dermatologic laser treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majaron, Boris; Svaasand, Lars O.; Aguilar, Guillermo; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2002-09-01

    Fast heat extraction is critically important to obtain the maximal benefit of cryogen spray cooling (CSC) during laser therapy of shallow skin lesions, such as port wine stain birthmarks. However, a film of liquid cryogen can build up on the skin surface, impairing heat transfer due to the relatively low thermal conductivity and higher temperature of the film as compared to the impinging spray droplets. In an attempt to optimize the cryogen mass flux, while minimally affecting other spray characteristics, we apply a series of 10 ms spurts with variable duty cycles. Heat extraction dynamics during such intermittent cryogen sprays were measured using a custom-made metal-disc detector. The highest cooling rates were observed at moderate duty cycle levels. This confirms the presence, and offers a practical way to eliminate the adverse effect of liquid cryogen build-up on the sprayed surface. On the other hand, lower duty cycles allow a substantial reduction in the average rate of heat extraction, enabling less aggressive and more efficient CSC for treatment of deeper targets, such as hair follicles.

  18. Nano-precipitation Strengthened G91 by Thermo-mechanical Treatment Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivas, J.; Celada-Casero, C.; San Martín, D.; Serrano, M.; Urones-Garrote, E.; Adeva, P.; Aranda, M. M.; Capdevila, C.

    2016-11-01

    The increase of thermal efficiency in power plants has been the main driving force to develop Ferritic/Martensitic steels for structural applications capable of operating at 923 K (650 °C) and higher. It has been clarified in previous works that nano-sized precipitates and its distribution are the key factors controlling the stability of the microstructure at high operating temperatures. Based on the science of precipitate strengthening, the aim of this work is to optimize the thermo-mechanical treatment in a commercial creep-resistant steel (G91) to achieve a microstructure where MX precipitates present a suitable size and distribution. The alternative processing route proposed here allows gaining an increase up to 40 pct in yield strength at 973 K (700 °C) compared to the commercial steel. The results of small punch test carried out at room temperature showed that the improvement in strength was obtained without loss of ductility. This fact was attributed to a finer and more homogeneous dispersion of MX precipitates in comparison to the commercial steel.

  19. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masatoshi Suzuki

    Full Text Available The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented.We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34, remitted depression (n = 25, acute depression (n = 21, and healthy controls (n = 64. Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI.ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F, hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D.The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  20. A study of remitted and treatment-resistant depression using MMPI and including pessimism and optimism scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Michio; Muneoka, Katsumasa; Sato, Koichi; Hashimoto, Kenji; Shirayama, Yukihiko

    2014-01-01

    The psychological aspects of treatment-resistant and remitted depression are not well documented. We administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) to patients with treatment-resistant depression (n = 34), remitted depression (n = 25), acute depression (n = 21), and healthy controls (n = 64). Pessimism and optimism were also evaluated by MMPI. ANOVA and post-hoc tests demonstrated that patients with treatment-resistant and acute depression showed similarly high scores for frequent scale (F), hypochondriasis, depression, conversion hysteria, psychopathic device, paranoia, psychasthenia and schizophrenia on the MMPI compared with normal controls. Patients with treatment-resistant depression, but not acute depression registered high on the scale for cannot say answer. Using Student's t-test, patients with remitted depression registered higher on depression and social introversion scales, compared with normal controls. For pessimism and optimism, patients with treatment-resistant depression demonstrated similar changes to acutely depressed patients. Remitted depression patients showed lower optimism than normal controls by Student's t-test, even though these patients were deemed recovered from depression using HAM-D. The patients with remitted depression and treatment-resistant depression showed subtle alterations on the MMPI, which may explain the hidden psychological features in these cohorts.

  1. Optimization of beam angles for intensity modulated radiation therapy treatment planning using genetic algorithm on a distributed computing platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareth, Daryl P; Brunner, Stephen; Jones, Matthew D; Malhotra, Harish K; Bakhtiari, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    Planning intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment involves selection of several angle parameters as well as specification of structures and constraints employed in the optimization process. Including these parameters in the combinatorial search space vastly increases the computational burden, and therefore the parameter selection is normally performed manually by a clinician, based on clinical experience. We have investigated the use of a genetic algorithm (GA) and distributed-computing platform to optimize the gantry angle parameters and provide insight into additional structures, which may be necessary, in the dose optimization process to produce optimal IMRT treatment plans. For an IMRT prostate patient, we produced the first generation of 40 samples, each of five gantry angles, by selecting from a uniform random distribution, subject to certain adjacency and opposition constraints. Dose optimization was performed by distributing the 40-plan workload over several machines running a commercial treatment planning system. A score was assigned to each resulting plan, based on how well it satisfied clinically-relevant constraints. The second generation of 40 samples was produced by combining the highest-scoring samples using techniques of crossover and mutation. The process was repeated until the sixth generation, and the results compared with a clinical (equally-spaced) gantry angle configuration. In the sixth generation, 34 of the 40 GA samples achieved better scores than the clinical plan, with the best plan showing an improvement of 84%. Moreover, the resulting configuration of beam angles tended to cluster toward the patient's sides, indicating where the inclusion of additional structures in the dose optimization process may avoid dose hot spots. Additional parameter selection in IMRT leads to a large-scale computational problem. We have demonstrated that the GA combined with a distributed-computing platform can be applied to optimize gantry angle

  2. Guaranteed epsilon-optimal treatment plans with the minimum number of beams for stereotactic body radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmand, Hamed; Winey, Brian; Craft, David

    2013-09-07

    Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is characterized by delivering a high amount of dose in a short period of time. In SBRT the dose is delivered using open fields (e.g., beam's-eye-view) known as 'apertures'. Mathematical methods can be used for optimizing treatment planning for delivery of sufficient dose to the cancerous cells while keeping the dose to surrounding organs at risk (OARs) minimal. Two important elements of a treatment plan are quality and delivery time. Quality of a plan is measured based on the target coverage and dose to OARs. Delivery time heavily depends on the number of beams used in the plan as the setup times for different beam directions constitute a large portion of the delivery time. Therefore the ideal plan, in which all potential beams can be used, will be associated with a long impractical delivery time. We use the dose to OARs in the ideal plan to find the plan with the minimum number of beams which is guaranteed to be epsilon-optimal (i.e., a predetermined maximum deviation from the ideal plan is guaranteed). Since the treatment plan optimization is inherently a multi-criteria-optimization problem, the planner can navigate the ideal dose distribution Pareto surface and select a plan of desired target coverage versus OARs sparing, and then use the proposed technique to reduce the number of beams while guaranteeing epsilon-optimality. We use mixed integer programming (MIP) for optimization. To reduce the computation time for the resultant MIP, we use two heuristics: a beam elimination scheme and a family of heuristic cuts, known as 'neighbor cuts', based on the concept of 'adjacent beams'. We show the effectiveness of the proposed technique on two clinical cases, a liver and a lung case. Based on our technique we propose an algorithm for fast generation of epsilon-optimal plans.

  3. Optimal dosage and duration of pivmecillinam treatment for uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariona Pinart

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of an optimal combination of dosage, frequency, and duration of PIV therapy for the treatment of uncomplicated lower UTI. Evidence is limited due to the high risk of bias, poor reporting, and heterogeneous study data.

  4. SU-E-T-175: Clinical Evaluations of Monte Carlo-Based Inverse Treatment Plan Optimization for Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chi, Y; Li, Y; Tian, Z; Gu, X; Jiang, S; Jia, X [UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Pencil-beam or superposition-convolution type dose calculation algorithms are routinely used in inverse plan optimization for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). However, due to their limited accuracy in some challenging cases, e.g. lung, the resulting dose may lose its optimality after being recomputed using an accurate algorithm, e.g. Monte Carlo (MC). It is the objective of this study to evaluate the feasibility and advantages of a new method to include MC in the treatment planning process. Methods: We developed a scheme to iteratively perform MC-based beamlet dose calculations and plan optimization. In the MC stage, a GPU-based dose engine was used and the particle number sampled from a beamlet was proportional to its optimized fluence from the previous step. We tested this scheme in four lung cancer IMRT cases. For each case, the original plan dose, plan dose re-computed by MC, and dose optimized by our scheme were obtained. Clinically relevant dosimetric quantities in these three plans were compared. Results: Although the original plan achieved a satisfactory PDV dose coverage, after re-computing doses using MC method, it was found that the PTV D95% were reduced by 4.60%–6.67%. After re-optimizing these cases with our scheme, the PTV coverage was improved to the same level as in the original plan, while the critical OAR coverages were maintained to clinically acceptable levels. Regarding the computation time, it took on average 144 sec per case using only one GPU card, including both MC-based beamlet dose calculation and treatment plan optimization. Conclusion: The achieved dosimetric gains and high computational efficiency indicate the feasibility and advantages of the proposed MC-based IMRT optimization method. Comprehensive validations in more patient cases are in progress.

  5. Comparison of liquid hot water and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed for improved enzymatic digestibility and biogas energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Danping; Ge, Xumeng; Zhang, Quanguo; Li, Yebo

    2016-09-01

    Liquid hot water (LHW) and alkaline pretreatments of giant reed biomass were compared in terms of digestibility, methane production, and cost-benefit efficiency for electricity generation via anaerobic digestion with a combined heat and power system. Compared to LHW pretreatment, alkaline pretreatment retained more of the dry matter in giant reed biomass solids due to less severe conditions. Under their optimal conditions, LHW pretreatment (190°C, 15min) and alkaline pretreatment (20g/L of NaOH, 24h) improved glucose yield from giant reed by more than 2-fold, while only the alkaline pretreatment significantly (pAlkaline pretreatment achieved 27% higher net electrical energy production than that of non-pretreatment (3859kJ/kg initial total solids), but alkaline liquor reuse is needed for improved net benefit.

  6. Analysis of differentially expressed genes and adaptive mechanisms of Prunus triloba Lindl. under alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Yongqing; Li, Qingtian

    2017-01-01

    Prunus triloba Lindl. is a naturally salt-alkaline-tolerant plant with several unique characteristics, and it can be used as the rootstock of Chinese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) in saline-alkaline soils. To comprehensively investigate the alkaline acclimation mechanisms in P. triloba, a series of analyses were conducted under alkaline stress, including analyses of the kinetics of molecular and physiological changes, and leaf microstructure. To understand the kinetics of molecular changes under short-term alkaline stress, we used Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform to identify alkaline stress-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P. triloba. Approximately 53.0 million high-quality clean reads were generated from 59.6 million raw reads, and a total of 124,786 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembly of P. triloba transcriptome data. After alkaline stress treatment, a total of 8948 unigenes were identified as DEGs. Based on these DEGs, a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted, suggesting that 28 genes may play an important role in the early alkaline stress response. In addition, analysis of DEGs with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that pathways were significant at different treatment time points. A significant positive correlation was found between the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results and the RNA-Seq data for seven alkaline-related genes, confirming the reliability of the RNA-Seq results. Based on physiological analysis of P. triloba in response to long-term alkaline stress, we found that the internal microstructures of the leaves of P. triloba changed to adapt to long-term alkaline stress. Various physiological indexes indicated that the degree of membrane injury increased with increasing duration of alkaline stress, affecting photosynthesis in P. triloba seedlings. This represents the first investigation into the physiology and transcriptome of P. triloba in response to alkaline stress. The results of

  7. Using pilot data to size a two-arm randomized trial to find a nearly optimal personalized treatment strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laber, Eric B; Zhao, Ying-Qi; Regh, Todd; Davidian, Marie; Tsiatis, Anastasios; Stanford, Joseph B; Zeng, Donglin; Song, Rui; Kosorok, Michael R

    2016-04-15

    A personalized treatment strategy formalizes evidence-based treatment selection by mapping patient information to a recommended treatment. Personalized treatment strategies can produce better patient outcomes while reducing cost and treatment burden. Thus, among clinical and intervention scientists, there is a growing interest in conducting randomized clinical trials when one of the primary aims is estimation of a personalized treatment strategy. However, at present, there are no appropriate sample size formulae to assist in the design of such a trial. Furthermore, because the sampling distribution of the estimated outcome under an estimated optimal treatment strategy can be highly sensitive to small perturbations in the underlying generative model, sample size calculations based on standard (uncorrected) asymptotic approximations or computer simulations may not be reliable. We offer a simple and robust method for powering a single stage, two-armed randomized clinical trial when the primary aim is estimating the optimal single stage personalized treatment strategy. The proposed method is based on inverting a plugin projection confidence interval and is thereby regular and robust to small perturbations of the underlying generative model. The proposed method requires elicitation of two clinically meaningful parameters from clinical scientists and uses data from a small pilot study to estimate nuisance parameters, which are not easily elicited. The method performs well in simulated experiments and is illustrated using data from a pilot study of time to conception and fertility awareness.

  8. Optimal injection volume of epinephrine for endoscopic treatment of peptic ulcer bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tai-Cherng Liou; Shee-Chan Lin; Horng-Yuan Wang; Wen-Hsiung Chang

    2006-01-01

    bleeding with a low rate of complications. The optimal injection volume of epinephrine for endoscopic treatment of an actively bleeding ulcer (spurting or oozing) is 30 mL.

  9. Subsides for optimization of transfer of radioactive liquid waste from {sup 99}MO production plant to the waste treatment facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rego, Maria Eugenia de Melo; Vicente, Roberto; Hiromoto, Goro, E-mail: maria.eugenia@ipen.br, E-mail: rvicente@ipen.br, E-mail: hiromoto@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The increasing need for radioisotopes lead Brazil to consider the domestic production of {sup 99}Mo from fission of low enriched uranium targets. In order to meet the present demand of {sup 99m}Tc generators the planned 'end of irradiation' activity of {sup 99}Mo is about 170 TBq per week. The radioactive waste from the production plant will be transferred to a waste treatment facility at the same site. The total activity of the actinides, fission and activation products present in the waste were predicted based on the fission yield and activation data for the irradiation conditions, such as composition and mass of uranium targets, irradiation time, neutron flux, production process and schedule, already established by the project management. The transfer of the waste from the production plant to the treatment facility will be done by means of special shielded packages. In the present study, the commercially available code Scale 6.0 was used to simulate the irradiation of the targets and the decay of radioactive products, assuming that an alkaline dissolution process would be performed on the targets before the removal and purification of {sup 99}Mo. The assessment of the shielding required for the packages containing liquid waste was done using MicroShield 9 code. The results presented here are part of a project that aims at contributing to the design of the waste management system for the {sup 99}Mo production facility. (author)

  10. Alkaline Water and Longevity: A Murine Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Massimiliano; Corain, Livio; Ferro, Silvia; Baratella, Davide; Bonaiuto, Emanuela; Terzo, Milo; Corraducci, Vittorino; Salmaso, Luigi; Vianello, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The biological effect of alkaline water consumption is object of controversy. The present paper presents a 3-year survival study on a population of 150 mice, and the data were analyzed with accelerated failure time (AFT) model. Starting from the second year of life, nonparametric survival plots suggest that mice watered with alkaline water showed a better survival than control mice. Interestingly, statistical analysis revealed that alkaline water provides higher longevity in terms of "deceleration aging factor" as it increases the survival functions when compared with control group; namely, animals belonging to the population treated with alkaline water resulted in a longer lifespan. Histological examination of mice kidneys, intestine, heart, liver, and brain revealed that no significant differences emerged among the three groups indicating that no specific pathology resulted correlated with the consumption of alkaline water. These results provide an informative and quantitative summary of survival data as a function of watering with alkaline water of long-lived mouse models.

  11. An integrative view of mechanisms underlying generalized spike-and-wave epileptic seizures and its implication on optimal therapeutic treatments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyuan Yan

    Full Text Available Many types of epileptic seizures are characterized by generalized spike-and-wave discharges. In the past, notable effort has been devoted to understanding seizure dynamics and various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the underlying mechanisms. In this paper, by taking an integrative view of the underlying mechanisms, we demonstrate that epileptic seizures can be generated by many different combinations of synaptic strengths and intrinsic membrane properties. This integrative view has important medical implications: the specific state of a patient characterized by a set of biophysical characteristics ultimately determines the optimal therapeutic treatment. Through the same view, we further demonstrate the potentiation effect of rational polypharmacy in the treatment of epilepsy and provide a new angle to resolve the debate on polypharmacy. Our results underscore the need for personalized medicine and demonstrate that computer modeling and simulation may play an important role in assisting the clinicians in selecting the optimal treatment on an individual basis.

  12. HIV treatment optimism and sexual risk behaviors among HIV positive African American men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, John L; Miner, Michael H; Brennan, David J; Rosser, B R Simon

    2012-04-01

    The association between HIV treatment optimism--beliefs about susceptibility to transmit HIV, motivation to use condoms, and severity of HIV--and sexual risk behavior was examined among HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 174 men recruited in four major metropolitan areas of the United States to participate in a weekend HIV risk reduction intervention. Baseline results revealed that beliefs in less susceptibility to transmit HIV and less motivation to use condoms were significantly associated with more unprotected anal intercourse among serodiscordant casual partners. Less motivation to use condoms also predicted more unprotected insertive and receptive anal sex and was more important than susceptibility beliefs in predicting these behaviors. Suggestions are offered of ways to better inform HIV-positive African American MSM about their misperceptions about HIV treatment and how their level of optimism about HIV treatment may diminish or encourage condom use.

  13. Combined alkaline and ultrasonic pretreatment of sludge before aerobic digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Yiying; LI Huan; MAHAR Rasool Bux; WANG Zhiyu; NIE Yongfeng

    2009-01-01

    Alkaline and ultrasonic sludge disintegration can both be used as pretreatments of waste activated sludge (WAS) for improving the subsequent anaerobic or aerobic digestion. The pretreatment has been carried out using different combination of these two methods in this study. The effect was evaluated based on the quantity of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in the pretreated sludge as well as the degradation of organic matter in the following aerobic digestion. For WAS samples with combined pretreatment, the released COD was in high level than those with ultrasonic or alkaline treatment. When combined with the same ultrasonic treatment, NaOH treatment resulted in more solubilization of WAS than Ca(OH)2. For combined NaOH and ultrasonic treatments with different sequences, the released COD were in the order: simultaneous treatment > ultrasonic treatment following NaOH treatment > NaOH treatment following ultrasonic treatment. For simultaneous treatment, low NaOH dosage (100 g/kg dry solid), short duration (30 min) of NaOH treatment, and low ultrasonic specific energy (7 500 kJ/kg dry solid) were beneficial for sludge disintegration. Using combined NaOH and ultrasonic pretreatment with the optimium parameters, the degradation efficiency of organic matter was increased from 38.0% to 50.7%, which is much higher than with ultrasonic (42.5%) or with NaOH pretreatment (43.5%) in the subsequent aerobic digestion at the same retention time.

  14. Multi-response optimization of Fenton process for applicability assessment in landfill leachate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Allahyar; Sabour, Mohammad Reza

    2014-12-01

    Fenton process, as a pretreatment method, was found to be effective in the primary treatment of mature/medium landfill leachate. However, the main problem of the process is the large amount of produced sludge that requires an accurate feasibility evaluation for operational applications. In this study, the response surface methodology was applied for the modeling and optimization of Fenton process in three target responses, (1) overall COD removal, (2) sludge to iron ratio (SIR) and (3) organics removal to sludge ratio (ORSR), where the latter two were new self-defined responses for prediction of sludge generation and applicability assessment of the process, respectively. The effective variables included the initial pH, [H2O2]/[Fe(2+)] ratio and Fe(2+) dosage. According to the statistical analysis, all the proposed models were adequate (with adjusted R(2) of 0.9116-0.9512) and had considerable predictive capability (with prediction R(2) up to 0.9092 and appropriate adequate precision). It was found that all the variables had significant effects on the responses, specifically by their observed role in dominant oxidation mech