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Sample records for optik lapisan tipis

  1. Pengaruh Tekanan Parsial Oksigen Terhadap Koefisien Absorpsi Lapisan Tipis Indium Tin Oxide (ITO

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    Muslimin Muslimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFProses  absorpsi  foton  dengan  energi  tertentu  akan  mengeksitasi  elektron  darikeadaan energi yang lebih rendah ke keadaan energi yang lebih tinggi. Untuk menentukankoefisien  ini  secara  eksperimen  terutama  karena  adanya  pengaruh  interferensi  optis  daripola-pola  transmitansi  dan  reflektansi.  Tujuan  penelitian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukanbesarnya absorpsi lapisan tipis In2O3: SnO2dengan berbagai kadar oksigen yang diberikanpada saat deposisi. Proses pelapisan dilakukan 90% berat In2O3 dan 10% berat SnO2padasubstrat kaca dengan cara sputtering. Pada saat sputtering dilakukan penambahan oksigentertentu  yaitu  2,50%,  3,70%,  5,10%,  6,15%  dan  8,90%  yang  dilakukan  deposisi  padatemperature 1750C. Hasil analisis teramati adanya pergeseran interferensi dan transmitansike arah panjang gelombang yang lebih pendek sebanding dengan kenaikan kadar oksigen.Pada  kadar  oksigen  2,50%  dan  3,70%  koefisien  absorbsi  makin  naik,  tetapi  pada  kadaroksigen  5,10%,  6,15%  dan   8,90%  koefisien  absorpsi  mulai  menurun.  Perlakuan  kadaroksigen  pada  saat  deposisi  lapisan  tipis  ITO  dapat  mempengaruhi  koefisien  absorpsilapisan tipis yang terbentuk.Kata kunci : Kadar oksigen, koefisien absorpsi

  2. Determination Of Refractive Index And Reflectivity Of Thin Layer With Optical Absorption Method; PENENTUAN INDEKS BIAS DAN REFLEKTIVITAS LAPISAN TIPIS DENGAN METODA SERAPAN OPTIK

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    Hariyanto, Sigit; Budianto, Anwar; Subarkah,; Atmono, Trimarji [Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Center, National Nuclear Energy Agency, Yogyakarta (Indonesia)

    1996-04-15

    . The refractive index and reflectivity of ASi:H and Si Ox thin layer have been observed by optical absorption methods. Measurement has been done after the preparation of optical system which consists of a halogen lamp light source, monochromator, sample and light detector. The Monochromator output showed that measured halogen lamp spectrum light is between 470 nm -750 nm. The maximum voltage of halogen lamp is 220 Volt, the output light increases in intensity while the wave length increases. The inclination of intensity decrease at the wave length of 725 nm. The result of the calculation of refractive index varies in accordance with the wave length. The average refractive index of ASi:H is nf a = 1.753. The total reflectivity of air-thin layer-substrate is Rt a = 0.315. The refractive index of Si Ox sample is nf b2.182 and the total reflectivity is Rt b=O,514.

  3. KAJIAN SIFAT OPTIK FILM TIPIS BST DIDADAH NIOBIUM DAN TANTALUM

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    Farida Huriawati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this research thin films of Barium Strontium Titanate (BST has been synthesis with different compositions Ba0,5Sr0,5TiO3 and Ba0,25Sr0,75TiO3 which doped by Nb2O5 (Niobium and Ta2O5 (Tantalum on Si (100 type-p substrate. Thin films were produced by chemical solution deposition technique (CSD and spin coating technique with annealing temperature at 850oC, 900oC dan 950oC. Rotation velocity at 3000 rpm and time of rotation is 30 seconds. Characterization of Films is optic Characterization (absorbance ana reflectance. From the Characterizations were obtained BNST thin film with 5% doping and anneling temperature at 8500C as photodiode light sensor which applied in electronic circuit.

  4. STRUKTUR MORFOLOGI, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN RESISTANSI LAPISAN TIO2-CU SEBAGAI LAPISAN AKTIF PADA SEL SURYA FOTOELEKTROKIMIA

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    Rita Prasetyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan efisiensi sel surya titania terus dikembangkan. Salah satunya adalah memodifikasi titania yang berfungsi sebagai lapisan aktif. Lapisan titania dapat disisipi dengan logam Cu. Penyisipan logam Cu pada TiO2 dilakukan melalui pembuatan nanokomposit TiO2-Cu dengan metode sol-gel. Lapisan TiO2-Cu yang terbentuk dikarakterisasi dengan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy untuk mengetahui struktur morfologi permukaan, EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy untuk mengetahui komposisi bahan. Sedangkan resistansi lapisan diukur menggunakan Jembatan Wheatstone. Berdasarkan hasil SEM dapat ditunjukkan bahwa struktur morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2-Cu tidak berbeda secara signifikan dengan lapisan TiO2, yaitu cukup homogen dan memiliki ukuran butir (grain yang hampir sama. Tetapi dari hasil EDX diperoleh bahwa lapisan TiO2-Cu yaitu lapisan TiO2 yang disisipi logam tembaga mengandung  unsur Ti sebanyak 59,8%, unsur O sebanyak 40,02% dan unsur Cu sebanyak 0,19%. Sedangkan lapisan TiO2 saja mengandung unsur Ti sebanyak 54,25% dan unsur O sebanyak 45,75%. Penyisipan logam tembaga pada lapisan titania dapat menurunkan resistansi listrik lapisan. Nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2 adalah 7,714 kilo ohm. Sedangkan nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2-Cu adalah 6,624 kilo ohm.

  5. Studi Disorder Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H Hasil Deposisi Metode Dc Sputtering

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    Rosari Saleh

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorder Study of Amorphous Silicon Carbon (a-SiC:H Films Deposited by DC Sputtering Method. Disorder amorphous network of amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films has been investigated for films prepared by dc sputtering method. The films were deposited using silicon target in argon and methane gas mixtures. The optical absorption coefficients have been performed by UV-VIS (ultra violet-visible reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. Disorder parameter has been obtained from the optical absorption coefficient α (E using Tauc plot. Increasing methane flow rate has an effect on increasing Tauc gap and decreasing disorder parameter. The amorphous network of the films tends to be more disorder with increasing methane flow rate. The relation of disorder amorphous network with structural and compositional properties will be discussed.

  6. Studi Perancangan Jaringan Komunikasi Serat Optik Dwdm L Band dengan Penguat Optikal Edfa

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    Sri Danaryani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi telekomunikasi juga disertai dengan teknik transmisi yang dapat membawa bandwidth yang besar, seperti SONET / SDH yang memiliki bit rate hingga 40 Gb / s. Serat optik adalah media yang paling tepat digunakan untuk transmisi, yang untuk komunikasi jarak jauh jenis single mode step index adalah yang paling sesuai. Maju multiplexing WDM (Wavelength Division Multiplexing memungkinkan SONET, ATM dan saluran lainnya dapat menyebarkan dalam serat optik tunggal. Bandwidth tumbuh membuat WDM berkembang menjadi DWDM .. Berbagai masukan membuat perangkat yang dipilih untuk menjadi beragam, yang pada gilirannya dapat masuk ke dalam DWDM dengan kapasitas 10 Gbps. Kapasitas DWDM harus dipilih, misalnya dengan menggunakan 4 nilai panjang gelombang sesuai dengan grid ITU-T 1568.77nm, 1569.59nm, 1571,23 nm n 1.572,05 nm. Hasilnya dapat meminimalkan efek dari FWM mana harmonik yang dihasilkan tidak termasuk dalam panjang gelombang fundamental. Penggunaan EDFA dalam transmisi serat optik di DWDM shut sedang mempertimbangkan OSNR. Perhitungan OSNR tergantung pada jumlah panjang gelombang, bit rate, dispersi serat dan jumlah amplifier yang digunakan. Secara umum, semakin amplifier digunakan OSNR akan lebih kecil. bandwidth yang besar juga menurun OSNR. Jadi OSNR lebih kecil menunjukkan suara lebih dominan dibandingkan dengan sinyal.

  7. ANALISIS STRUKTUR MIKRO LAPISAN BOND COAT NIAL THERMAL BARRIER COATING (TBC PADA PADUAN LOGAM BERBASIS CO

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    Toto Sudiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Kehandalan dan umur pakai sistem Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC ditentukan oleh kestabilan lapisan bond coat dan thermal grown oxide (TGO. Sehingga sangatlah penting untuk memahami mekanisme pembentukan dan degradasi lapisan ini. Pada makalah ini akan dibahas analisis struktur mikro lapisan bond coat NiAl yang dideposisikan pada substrat CoCrNi dengan menggunakan gabungan metoda electroplating dan pack-cementation. Pada makalah ini juga dibahas mekanisme pembentukan void disepanjang interface bond coat¬-substrat setelah tes oksidasi.

  8. Fabrikasi Sistem Alat Ukur Temperatur Lapisan Buah Mangga dengan Menggunakan Sensor Waterproof LM35

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    Muhammad Sarif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dibuat sistem alat ukur untuk memonitoring secara real time pada temperatur lapisan buah mangga dan temperatur lingkungan lemari pendingin. Ada tiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimonitoring dengan menggunakan sensor waterproof LM35. ketiga lapisan buah mangga yang dimaksud adalah lapisan 1 lapisan dekat dengan biji buah, lapisan 2 merupakan lapisan daging buah, dan lapisan 3 adalah lapisan di sekitar kulit buah mangga. Sinyal tegangan keluaran probe sensor LM35 dikondisikan dengan penguat tak mebalik yang mengaplikasikan IC OP07. Keluaran dari penguat tak membalik yang berupa data analog selanjutnya diolah menjadi data digital dengan modul mikrokontroler ATMega8535. Data digital hasil pengolahan mikrokontroler ATMega8535 di tampilkan ke unit penampil berupa liquid crystal display (LCD 20x4 karakter. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari kalibrasi probe sensor LM35 menunjukkan performa yang sangat baik terlihat dari hasil karakterisasi yang memiliki linieritas tinggi. Persamaan karakteristik yang diperoleh dari masing masing probe sensor LM35 adalah probe sensor 1 dengan V = (9,663T – 6,054 milivolt, probe sensor 2 dengan V = (9,656 T – 2,517 milivolt, probe sensor 3 dengan V = (9,771T – 9,826 milivolt, dan probe sensor 4 dengan V = (9,782T – 8,092 milivolt.

  9. SIMULASI PERHITUNGAN REFLEKSI CAHAYA OLEH PERMUKAAN SEL SURYA SILIKON : STUDI PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAPISAN ANTI REFLEKSI ZINC OKSIDA (ZnO

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    Andi Suhandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan simulasi perhitungan untuk mendapatkan gambaran pengaruh penambahan lapisan anti refleksi ZnO terhadap persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon. Proses perhitungan dilakukan dengan bantuan software Sigma Plot. Perhitungan menggunakan konsep-konsep dasar fisika terkait optika, diantaranya konsep refleksi dan transmisi gelombang cahaya ketika melewati bidang batas dua medium yang berbeda kerapatan optiknya, konsep polarisasi cahaya, dan konsep anti refleksi. Hasil simulasi perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya bergantung pada panjang gelombang cahaya datang (. Persen refleksi turun dari dari 38% ketika permukaan sel surya Silikon tidak dilapisi lapisan antirefleksi ZnO menjadi sekitar 15 % setelah permukaan sel surya silikon dilapisi lapisan ZnO dengan ketebalan sekitar 110 nm. Hasil lainnya menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon yang telah dilapisi lapisan anti refleksi ZnO nilainya bervariasi bergantung pada ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi yang digunakan. Dalam rentang data simulasi, ketika tebal lapisan anti refleksi ZnO ditingkatkan, persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya turun, namun ketika ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi ditingkatkan lagi, ternyata persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya naik kembali. Keadaan ini menunjukkan adanya nilai ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi optimum yang menghasilkan persen refleksi cahaya oleh sel surya bernilai minimum. Penurunan persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya akan meningkatkan persen transmisi cahaya menuju lapisan aktif sel surya, yang pada akhirnya akan meningkatkan efisiensi konversi sel surya Silikon.

  10. Penentuan Konstanta Optis di Daerah Absorpsi Fundamental Menggunakan Formulasi Forouhi dan Bloomer untuk Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H

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    Dewi Marianty

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available An expression of the imaginary and real parts of the complex refractive index derived by Forouhi and Bloomer have been applied to obtain wider energy range of optical constants for amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films deposited by dc sputtering method using silicon and graphite targets. Excellent agreement was obtained between the formula and experimentally measured values of both n(E and k(E. The optical constants obey Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation and show a maximum at high-energy range. The dependence of five parameters to carbon concentration and the variation of optical constants with composition for both targets will be discussed.

  11. SINTESIS DAN MODIFIKASI LAPIS TIPIS KITOSAN-TRIPOLIFOSFAT

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    M Alauhdin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dalam bidang medis, kitosan telah banyak digunakan yakni pada sistem penghantaran dan pelepasan obat. Pelepasan obat dengan kitosan memiliki keterbatasan karena kitosan cepat sekali menyerap air dan memiliki derajat swelling yang tinggi sehingga menyebabkan pelepasan obat terjadi dengan cepat. Diharapkan dengan memodifikasi struktur kitosan secara kimia dapat meningkatan kelarutannya dalam pelarut-pelarut organik. Telah dilakukan sintesis dan modifikasi lapis tipis kitosan. Modifikasi dilakukan melalui pembentukan ikatan silang kitosan dengan tripolifosfat (TPP pada kondisi asam untuk menghasilkan kitosan-TPP. Ikatan silang yang terbentuk diamati dengan FTIR. Sementara itu, pengaruh hasil pengikatan silang diamati dengan membandingkan rasio swelling kitosan-TPP pada kondisi pH yang berbeda-beda. Rasio swelling lapis tipis cenderung konstan setelah terjadi pengikatan silang kitosan dengan tripolifosfat. Reaksi tripolifosfat dengan kitosan melalui pembentukan ikatan silang menjadikan lapis tipis semakin rapat sehingga molekul air sulit untuk berdifusi masuk ke dalam struktur kitosan-tripolifosfat. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa pengikatan silang mampu mengurangi kelarutan dan meningkatkan sifat mekanik kitosan. Rasio swelling lapis tipis berkurang dengan adanya pengikatan silang. Hal ini mengindikasikan bahwa pengikatan silang oleh TPP dapat mengurangi hidrofilitas lapis tipis karena gugus amino yang reaktif telah bereaksi dengan ion tripolifosfat. In the medical field, chitosan has been widely used in the delivery systems and drug release. Drug release with chitosan has limitations because chitosan absorbs water very quickly and have a high degree of swelling that causes the release of the drug occurs rapidly. It is expected that by modifying the chemical structure of chitosan could improve its solubility in organic solvents. The synthesis and modification of chitosan thin film have been done. It was performed through the formation of crosslinked

  12. Analisis Proses Bisnis dan Penerapan Manajemen Strategis pada PT Optik XYZ

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    Hendra Alianto

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available That optic business is increasingly mushrooming followed by a decrease in market share, forces Optik XYZ to have competent management strategies to achieve a strong position in competing in similar industry. Therefore a study was conducted to provide a structured and systematic analysis of management strategies required by Optik XYZ. Stages of study were initiated by data collection from interviews, literature studies and field studies, followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis and implementation of management strategies. The study generated a formulation of management strategy proper for Optik XYZ. Management strategies formulated in this study can help carrying out the company's activities in decision making, so that the business processes run optimally. 

  13. The effectiveness of tipi in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis: a preliminary report

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    Marcos Bosi Ferraz

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a common painful inflammatory condition occurring mainly in the later half of life. Hipe and knee are the joints mostly affected. Petiveria alliacea (tipi popularly known as an anti-rheumatic medicine, has been used by OA patients to relief pain. This one-week cross-over double-blind trial has preliminary evaluated the analgesic effect of tipi tea in 14 patients with hip and knee OA. Imperata exaltata (sape was used as the Placebo tea. The pain assessments that were made at baseline and before the start of the second treatment period by treatment groups were comparable. While taking tipi or placebo tea patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain on motion and pain at night. The comparison between the improvements reported while on tipi and placebo tea, however, did not disclose any statistically significant difference. At the conclusion of the study 7 patients preferred tipi tea and 6 preferred placebo tea (NS. Two patients reported insomnia, one durign placebo treatment and the other during tipi treatment. In this preliminary report both teas succeeded in the aim of relieving pain.

  14. The effectiveness of tipi in the treatment of hip and knee osteoarthritis--a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, M B; Pereira, R B; Coelho Andrade, L E; Atra, E

    1991-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common painful inflammatory condition occurring mainly in the later half of life. Hip and knee are the joints mostly affected. Petiveria alliacea (tipi) popularly known as an anti-rheumatic medicine, has been used by OA patients to relief pain. This one-week cross-over double-blind trial has preliminary evaluated the analgesic effect of tipi tea in 14 patients with hip and knee OA. Imperata exaltata (sape) was used as the Placebo tea. The pain assessments that were made at baseline and before the start of the second treatment period by treatment groups were comparable. While taking tipi or placebo tea patients experienced a statistically significant improvement in pain on motion and pain at night. The comparison between the improvements reported while on tipi and placebo tea, however, did not disclose any statistically significant difference. At the conclusion of the study 7 patients preferred tipi tea and 6 preferred placebo tea (NS). Two patients reported insomnia, one during placebo treatment and the other during tipi treatment.

  15. Aplikace marketingového mixu na příkladu firmy Optik Otava

    OpenAIRE

    Otavová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The final aim of my study is to create marketing mix for selling luxury eyeglasses. This study is worked out in conditions of the company named Optik Otava which does not use professional marketing strategic planning. First of all the optical profession is presented and the optical market is analyzed. In the second part, there is prepared a theoretical base for marketing mix creation. Marketing mix is just one part of marketing strategic planning, therefore I also have to speak of particular ...

  16. Pengaruh NiCrAlY, Ni/Cr2O3/CrxCy Sebagai Variasi Bond Coat Dengan Penambahan Lapisan Al2O3 dan YSZ Pada Inconel 625 Terhadap Struktur Mikro Lapisan Menggunakan Metode Flame Spraying

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    Aprian Immanuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC berfungsi untuk mengurangi temperatur substrat serta meningkatkan daya tahannya terhadap korosi dan oksidasi. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan flame spraying dari variasi bond coat (Ni-Cr-Al-Y, (Ni/CrO3/CrXCY dan tanpa bond coat serta melapisi kembali lapisan bond coat dengan Al2O3 dan ZrO2 – 8%Y2O3 sebagai Thermal Barrier Coating untuk diteliti pengaruhnya terhadap struktur mikro lapisan yang terbentuk. Hasil flame spray diamati dengan SEM pada variasi bond coat NiCrAlY ditemukan beberapa serbuk dari material top coat dengan beberapa kondisi yaitu meleleh (melted, meleleh sebagian (semi melted, dan tidak meleleh (unmelted. Ditemukan poros yang merata hampir di seluruh permukaan sampel dan munculnya pengintian retak. Perbedaan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan ada pada persebaran setiap unsur di setiap spesimen, dan lapisan oksida yang terbentuk pada seluruh variasi bond coat

  17. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

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    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    methane through the form of methanol metabolite. ABSTRAKPenanganan sampah kota di Indonesia pada umumnya dilakukan pada tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah (TPA, yang sebagian besar dilakukan dengan cara pengurugan (landfilling yang cenderung bersifat anaerob (tidak ada oksigen. Cara pengurugan ini biasanya dioperasikan lapis perlapis sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses anaerob. Pada kondisi ini dipastikan biogas, yaitu gas metana (CH4 dan CO2, akan muncul. Metana adalah gas rumah kaca dengan potensi pemanasan global lebih besar dari CO2, dan dapat mengabsorpsi radiasi infra merah 23 kali lebih efisien dari CO2 pada periode lebih dari 100 tahun. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam adalah dengan mengoksidasinya dengan memanfaatkan material penutup landfill (biocover sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana. Aplikasi kompos sebagai material penutup landfill merupakan pendekatan dengan biaya rendah untuk mereduksi emisi gas dari landfill sehingga cocok untuk negara berkembang. Biocover yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kompos landfill mining, yaitu kompos yang terdegradasi secara alami di landfill. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan biocover kompos landfill mining dalam mengoksidasi metana pada ketebalan lapisan tertentu dengan kondisi aliran kontinyu. Tiga buah reaktor kolom yang digunakan terbuat dari flexy glass berukuran tinggi 70 cm dan diameter 15 cm. Gas metana dialirkan dari bawah reaktor secara kontinyu dengan laju alir 5 ml/menit. Kolom diisi dengan biocover kompos landfill mining dengan ketebalan lapisan 5, 25, 35 dan 60 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal lapisan biocover, semakin tinggi efisiensi oksidasi metana. Efisiensi oksidasi yang diperoleh pada setiap ketebalan lapisan 15, 25, 35 dan 60 cm adalah masing-masing 56,43%, 63,69%, 74,58% dan 80,03%, dengan laju oksidasi 0,287 mol m-2 d-1 dan fraksi oksidasi 97%. Hasil oksidasi yang diperoleh tersebut

  18. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

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    Sujarwata -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source (S dan drain (D sebagai panjang saluran (channel dan diakhiri dengan deposisi elektrode gate (G. Karakterisai OFET berbasis film tipis dilakukan dengan El-Kahfi 100, untuk menentukan karakteristik keluaran V-I. Hasil karakterisasi OFET dengan panjang channel (L 100 μm dan lebar (W 1 mm, mempunyai daerah aktif, yaitu: 2,80 V sampai dengan 3,42. Mobilitas pembawa muatan OFET untuk daerah saturasi, µ = 0,00182278 cm2 /Vs dan untuk daerah linier, µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this research is to produce and characterize the OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor based on thin film with bottom-contact structure. The OFET production consists of the substract wash by using ethanol in the ultrasonic cleaner, then electrode deposition of source and drain on the SiO2 substract by using vacuum evaporation in the room temperature and lithography technique.  Then, the deposition of thin film of CuPc between source (S and drain (D was done as the channel length and ended with electrode gate (G deposition. The OFET characterization  with channel length (L  100 μm and wide (W 1 mm  obtained the active area of 2,80 - 3,42 v. While the mobility of OFET charge carrier  obtained µ =  0,00182278 cm2 /Vs for the saturation area and µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs for linier area.

  19. Central effects of isolated fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia B; Noronha, Emmanuelle C; de Melo, Carla Thiciane V; Bezerra, José N S; Neto, Manoel A; Lino, Cleide S; Vasconcelos, Silvânia M M; Viana, Glauce S B; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa F

    2008-11-20

    Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) a shrub from Phytolaccaceae family is popularly used in folk medicine for treating a wide variety of disorders in South and Central America. To investigate the neuropharmacological properties on experimental animals. The acetate (FA), hexanic (FH), hydroalcoholic (FHA) and precipitated hydroalcoholic (FHAppt) fractions from the root of tipi were studied to investigate its pharmacological properties in the classical behavioral models (open-field, elevated plus maze-EPM, rotarod, barbiturate-induced sleeping time, forced swimming and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions tests) using mice. These fractions were administered intraperitoneally and orally to female mice at single doses of 100 and 200mg/kg. All these fractions decreased the locomotor activity, rearing and grooming in the open-field test, suggesting a possible central depressant action. No significant effect was evident on motor coordination of the animals in the rotarod test. On EPM, all the fractions of tipi presented a significant reduction on the time of permanence in the open arms, indicating an absence of anxiolytic-like effect. In addition, the fractions increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test and potentiated pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, confirmed a probable sedative and central depressant effect. Furthermore, the fractions increased the latency to the first convulsion and the lethal time of the PTZ-induced convulsions test in the animals, confirmed its popular use as anticonvulsant. Our results suggest that the fractions of P. alliacea L. contains biologically active substance(s) that might be acting in the CNS and have significant depressant and anticonvulsant potentials, supporting folk medicine use of this plant.

  20. I tipi italiani conesso, lunghesso, sovresso, sottesso e la grammaticalizzazione di ipse

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    Rosanna Sornicola

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available I tipi morfologici caratteristici dell’italiano antico, conesso, lunghesso, sottesso, sovresso, pongono alcuni interessanti problemi di analisi strutturale e di formazione diacronica. Sono possibili due rappresentazioni alternative di struttura in costituenti, una in cui il dimostrativo esso forma sintagma con la preposizione, l’altra in cui forma sintagma con il nome. Le due rappresentazioni potrebbero esplicitare fasi diverse del processo di grammaticalizzazione del dimostrativo nelle costruzioni in esame. Tale processo tuttavia non si lascia facilmente descrivere in maniera unitaria. Decisivo sembra, in ogni caso, l’esame della complessa evoluzione del dimostrativo latino  IPSE.

  1. PENGEMBANGAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES DAN PEMAHAMAN SISWA KELAS X MELALUI KIT OPTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Widayanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Keterampilan proses sains sangat diperlukan sebagai dasar agar siswa mampu memecahkan masalah. Ketrampilan proses sains dapat dilatihkan melalui kegiatan laboratorium. Dengan memanfaatkan kit optik peneliti bertujuan meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains dan pemahaman materi fisika bagi siswa SMA. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas X-C SMA 3 Sragen tahun ajaran 2006/2007. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan kit optik dalam pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan proses sains siswa. Skor rata-rata pemahaman siswa pada siklus I sebesar 73,27 dengan ketuntasan belajar secara  klasikal  sebesar  80,49%,  sedangkan  siklus II  skor  rata-rata  adalah  84,20  dengan  ketuntasan klasikal  sebesar  100%. Sedangkan prosentase rata-rata keterampilan proses sains siswa pada siklus I sebesar 77,37% dan siklus II sebesar 87,36%.The science process skills play an important role as basic for students in solving their problems and can be developed through laboratory activities. By using optical kit, we aim increasing science process skill and understanding physics matter for students. The research subject is X-C Class Senior High School 3 Sragen academic year 2006/2007. The research result show that the use of optical  kit  in  the  learning  can increase  understanding  and  science  process  skill  of students.  The  average  score  of  students understanding at cycle I equals to 73,27 with mastery of learning as much as 80,49%, while that of the cycle II equals to 84,20% with the classically mastery of learning 100%. In addition, the average percentages of students science process skill at cycle I and II are 77,37% and 87,36% respectively© 2009 Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNNES SemarangKeywords: mastery of learning; optical kit; learning process

  2. Development of the evaluation instrument use CIPP on the implementation of project assessment topic optik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaroh, Jati Aurum; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to develop an evaluation instrument models CIPP valid and reliable as well as determine the feasibility and practicality of an evaluation instrument models CIPP. An evaluation instrument models CIPP to evaluate the implementation of the project assessment topic optik to measure problem-solving skills of junior high school class VIII in the Yogyakarta region. This research is a model of development that uses 4-D. Subject of product trials are students in class VIII SMP N 1 Galur and SMP N 1 Sleman. Data collection techniques in this research using non-test techniques include interviews, questionnaires and observations. Validity in this research was analyzed using V'Aikens. Reliability analyzed using ICC. This research uses 7 raters are derived from two lecturers expert (expert judgment), two practitioners (science teacher) and three colleagues. The results of this research is the evaluation's instrument model of CIPP is used to evaluate the implementation of the implementation of the project assessment instruments. The validity result of evaluation instrument have V'Aikens values between 0.86 to 1, which means a valid and 0.836 reliability values into categories so well that it has been worth used as an evaluation instrument.

  3. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39-0.72), very good 4-week test-retest reliability ( n = 81, r s > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory ( r s > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited.

  4. Short Scales for the Assessment of Personality Traits: Development and Validation of the Portuguese Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Andreia; Limpo, Teresa; Lima, César F.; Castro, São Luís

    2018-01-01

    The importance of quickly assessing personality traits in many studies prompted the development of brief scales such as the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), a measure of five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness). In the current study, we present the Portuguese version of TIPI and examine its psychometric properties, based on a sample of 333 Portuguese adults aged 18 to 65 years. The results revealed reliability coefficients similar to the original version (α = 0.39–0.72), very good 4-week test–retest reliability (n = 81, rs > 0.71), expected factorial structure, high convergent validity with the Big-Five Inventory (rs > 0.60), and correlations with self-esteem, affect, and aggressiveness similar to those found with standard measures of personality traits. Overall, our findings suggest that the Portuguese TIPI is a reliable and valid alternative to longer measures: it offers a promising tool for research contexts in which the available time for personality assessment is highly limited. PMID:29674989

  5. IMLEMENTASI SIMULASI PhET DAN KIT SEDERHANA UNTUK MENGAJARKAN KETERAMPILAN PSIKOMOTOR SISWA PADA POKOK BAHASAN ALAT OPTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prihatiningtyas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menuntaskan hasil belajar psikomotor fisika siswa dengan penerapan simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana pada siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keterlaksanaan pembelajaran berjalan dengan baik sesuai dengan RPP, hasil psikomotor kelas eksperimen 1 dengan menggunakan simulasi PhET dan kelas eksperimen 2 dengan menggunakan KIT sederhana dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar siswa, serta respon siswa terhadap pembelajaran positif. Berdasarkan hasil temuan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa implementasi simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana untuk mengajarkan keterampilan psikomotor siswa pada pokok bahasan alat optik dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar psimotor siswa. This study aims to resolve learning outcomes physics psychomotor of students with the application of PhET simulations and simple KIT on students. The results showed that implementation of learning  going well according to the lesson plan, student who are in the experimental class 1 using PhET simulation and the experimental class 2 using a simple KIT could complete the learning outcomes, and student respond to learning was positive. According to the finding above it could be conclude that the implementation PhET simulation and simple KIT to teach psychomotor skills of students on the subject of optical can to complete psychomotor learning outcomes of students.

  6. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Aydın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM, X-ışını kırınımı (XRD ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak değiştiğini açığa çıkardı. Uv-Vis. analiz sonuçları, filmlerin hem optik bant aralığı değerlerinde hem de geçirgenliklerinde katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak önemli farklılıkların oluştuğunu ortaya koydu.

  7. ONNO Tipi Bir Schiff Bazı ve İndirgenmiş Türevinin Çeşitli Metallerle Yaptığı Komplekslerin Floresans Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Fatih Küçükmüzevir

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada ONNO tipi simetrik bir Schiff bazı N-N'-bis(salisiliden-1,3-propandiamin (LH2 ve onun indirgenmiş türevi (LH2H sentezlenmiş ve etanol:su karışımında çeşitli metal iyonlarına karşı florimetrik duyarlık özellikleri araştırılmıştır.  Schiff bazı Al3+ iyonuna düşük floresans seçiciliği gösterirken Zn2+ iyonlarına farklı uyarma ve emisyon dalga boylarında yüksek seçicilik göstermiştir. Buna karşılık, Schiff bazının indirgenmiş hali Ni2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Pb2+, Co2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe3+, Cr3+, Zn2+ ve Al3+ gibi çalıştığımız metal iyonlarına hiçbir floresans duyarlılığı göstermemiştir. Sentezlenmiş Schiff bazının farklı numunelerde Zn2+ iyonunun belirlenmesi ve kantitatif analizinde kemosensör olarak kullanılabileceği düşünülmektedir.

  8. Cost-optimized climate stabilisation (OPTIKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian; Bauer, Nico; Baumstark, Lavinia; Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyses the implications of suggestions for the design of post-2012 climate policy regimes on the basis of model simulations. The focus of the analysis, the determination of regional mitigation costs and the technological development in the energy sector, also considers the feedbacks of investment and trade decisions of the regions that are linked by different global markets for emission permits, goods and resources. The analysed policy regimes are primarily differentiated by their allocation of emission rights. Moreover, they represent alternative designs of an international cap and trade system that is geared to meet the 2 C climate target. The present study analyses ambitious climate protection scenarios that require drastic reduction policies (reductions of 60%-80% globally until 2050). Immediate and multilateral action is needed in such scenarios. Given the rather small variance of mitigation costs in major regions like UCA, Europe, MEA and China, a policy regime should be chosen that provides high incentives to join an international agreement for the remaining regions. From this perspective either the C and C scenario (incentive for Russia) is preferable or the multi-stage approach (incentive for Africa and India). (orig.)

  9. STUDY JARINGAN FIBER-OPTIK dan SONET

    OpenAIRE

    Syarif, Syafruddin; Katu, Umar; Suyuti, Saidah

    2006-01-01

    Optical Fiber communication system is a communication system using fiber optic as a transmission media. This communication system is able to transmit information in high capacity and high fidelity. Fiber optic consist of cylinder glass, the inside part of the cylinder is called core surrounded a cladding. The outside part of this cylinder made by elastic plastic called coating. ?? Based on the bias index and the waves mode in light propagation, optic fiber can be elassified into...

  10. Öğretmenlerde A Tipi Kişilik, Stres Kaynakları, Öz Yeterlik ve İş Doyumu Type A Personality, Stress Resources, Self Efficacy And Job Satisfaction Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet YAZICI

    2013-09-01

    şkilidir. Farklı değişkenlere bağlı olarak öğretmenlerin iş doyumu üzerinde de araştırmalar yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, öğretmenlerdeki iş doyumunun kişilik özellikleri, stres kaynakları ve öz-yeterlik inançları ile ilişkilerini incelemektir. Araştırma kapsamında yaş, cinsiyet, medeni durum, çalışılan kurum türü ve idarecilik deneyimi gibi değişkenlerle iş doyumu arasındaki ilişkiler de ele alınmaktadır. Araştırma, 2012-2013 eğitim-öğretim yılında, Trabzon ilindeki özel ve resmi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan 689 öğretmen (Kadın= 346, Erkek= 343 üzerinde yapılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak, Kişisel Bilgi Formu, İş Doyumu Ölçeği, Stres Kaynakları Ölçeği, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Genel Öz-yeterlik Algısı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre; A tipi kişilik özellikleri, stres kaynakları ve öz yeterlik inançları öğretmenlerin iş doyumlarını anlamlı düzeyde açıklamaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra yaş ve çalışılan kurum türü değişkenleri de iş doyumunu anlamlı düzeyde yordamaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, literatür bulguları doğrultusunda tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  11. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat GÜLER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle incelenmiştir. Veriler, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi ile toplanmıştır. Genel örneklemde ve A Tiplerinde GBY test performansı ve süresi ile A Tipi kişilik arasında anlamlı bir ilişki gözlenmezken, B Tiplerinde test süresinin ve yaşın GBY test performansının yordayıcısı olduğuna ilişkin bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Objectively and impartially application of cognitive ability measurements that used in personnel selection of organizations, is a vital issue for providing needed appropriate human resources. But, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of cognitive abilities. In the current study the relationship between general cognitive ability (GCA and Type A personality (TAP was investigated with the data collected from 271 university students. The assessment instruments used were: Type-A Behavior Scale and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test. The findings revealed that, while there was no relationship between GCA, testing time and TAP in the general sample and Type A group, testing time and age were predictors of the GCA test performance in the Type B group

  12. Düşük Yağ Oranlı Kahramanmaraş Tipi Dondurma Üretiminde Farklı Emülgatörlerin Kullanımının Dondurmaların Özellikleri Üzerine Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Güven

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, yağ ikame maddesi olarak Simplesse’in kullanıldığı düşük yağlı Kahramanmaraş tipi dondurmaların kimyasal, fiziksel ve duyusal özellikleri üzerine farklı emülgatörlerin etkisi belirlenmiştir. Bu amaçla %2 yağlı sütlere, %5 yağ ikame maddesi, %22 şeker ve %1 stabilizatör kombinasyonu (%0.5 Salep+%0.3 Karaya Gum+%0.2 Jelatin ilavesiyle hazırlanan dondurma mikslerine %0.2, %0.4 ve %0.6 oranlarında iki farklı emülgatör (Palsgaard ve Polisorbat 80 ilave edilmiştir. Farklı oranlarda emülgatör kullanımının dondurmaların kimyasal, fiziksel ve duyusal özelliklerini önemli düzeyde etkilediği belirlenmiştir (P<0.05. Polisorbat 80 (PS 80 içeren dondurmaların düşük hacim artışı oranlarına sahip olduğu buna karşın erime özelliklerinin iyileştiği belirlenmiştir. Palsgaard içeren düşük yağlı dondurmaların duyusal özelliklerinin kontrolle benzer olduğu belirlenmiştir.

  13. Rancang Bangun Sistem Pengontrol Frekuensi Getaran Menggunakan Serat Optik

    OpenAIRE

    -, Firmansyah; -, Harmadi

    2015-01-01

    A vibration frequency control system using optical fiber has been designed. Optical fiber sensor system is used to measure vibration frequency by utilizing the output voltage change in the resulting by photodetector. The output voltage occurs due to change distance of optical fiber with membrane magnet speaker as a source of vibration. The design of the control system consists of a source of light from the laser, optical fiber FD 620-10, photodetector OPT 101, UNO Arduino microcontroller to p...

  14. Rancang Buat Sensor Kekeruhan Air Berbasis Serat Optik Plastik

    OpenAIRE

    Irwan, Indawani

    2017-01-01

    It has been the research concerning about turbidity sensor based on plastic optical fiber is used to measure degree of turbidity water. Turbidity sensor based on plastic optical fiber have two types, there are optical fiber sensor with cladding and without cladding. This sensor was made with different types of lenghts and configuration. Turbidity sensor was made, dippeded into a turbidity water samples. The results showed us that output voltage is not comprabel with turbidity sample concentra...

  15. Wolfram Sendromlu Hastalarda Optik Koherans Tomografi Bulguları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Ekinci Köktekir

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To report the optical coherence tomography (OCT findings in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Materials and Methods: Four patients who fulfilled the criteria for Wolfram syndrome were recruited to the study. In all patients, OCT was performed with Stratus OCT (OCT-3, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc. Germany. The fast retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL and fast macular thickness protocols were used to measure the RNFL and macular thickness, respectively. The fast optic disc protocol was used to determine the cup-to-disc ratios of the optic disc. All patients were examined with VEP (Retimax, CSO Strumenti Oftalmici, Florence, Italy. Results: In eight eyes of four patients (3 male and 1 female with a mean age of 18.5±2.08 years (range 16-21 years, RNFL, macular thickness, and cup-to-disc ratios were determined. The mean RNFL was 42.2±5.6 µm (range 34.1-49.5 µm, while the mean macular thickness and cup-to-disc ratios were 145±15 µm (range 125-160 µm and 0.79±0.07 (range 0.7-0.92, respectively. There was a moderate negative correlation between VEP latencies and macular and RNFL thicknesses (Spearman correlation coefficient was -0.23 and -0.34, respectively. Conclusions: RNFL loss and secondary optical atrophy are severe complications that may affect the visual acuity in patients with Wolfram syndrome. Retinal changes in these patients may be quantified and can be observed using OCT. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 212-5

  16. Parlare di olio. Terminologia della degustazione e tipi di testi

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Gilardoni

    2013-01-01

    In questo contributo analizziamo la terminologia italiana del settore olivicolo con attenzione ai termini impiegati nella descrizione delle proprietà degustative dell’olio di oliva. Sulla base di un corpus costituito da una documentazione di carattere lessicografico e testuale in lingua italiana presentiamo un’analisi concettuale e terminologica del dominio dell’analisi sensoriale dell’olio. Una parte del lavoro è poi dedicata ad esaminare le modalità espressive e le variazioni terminologiche...

  17. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  18. Biologie se uniekheid as substraat vir die tipies menslike funksionering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological similarities between humans and apes are great but they should not obscure the differences. Some differences are of such great consequence that man should be considered truly unique kind of organism with a marvellous plasticity of mind. All of the uniquely human traits are adaptations to the environments in which man evolved; these Include profound modifications of anatomy, physiology and behaviour. The morphological differences between man and his nearest relatives are very conspicuous. The form of the skeleton is adapted to fully erect posture and bipedal locomotion. The pelvis is broadened to provide adequate attachment for the powerful striding muscles. The transformation of the tail vertebrae is unique among the vertebrates. The joint for the neck is in the middel of the base of the skull. The hands are prehensile, with a large and strongly opposable thumb. The brain is uniquely large in proportion to the body and has a particularly large and complex cerebrum; the cerebral cortex contains the cent res for memory and complex computation. The enlarged brain requires prolonged infant dependency and high quality nutrition. Differences between humans and animals are grea tes t in the realm of behaviour: Ability to make tools (associated with bipedalism; ability to anticipate the future; development of symbolic communication (associated with expansion of cortex. Direct evidence of man's language capabilities comes form the anatomy of the modern human vocal tract. Man is the only species that succeeded in creating a truly productive language, and it is the scaffolding of human culture and civilization.

  19. Pengaruh Temperatur, Massa Zink, Substrat Dan Waktu Tahan Terhadap Struktur Dan Morfologi Zno Hasil Sintesis Dengan Metode Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisela Distyawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Material Zink Oksida (ZnO telah berhasil disintesis menggunakan metode Chemical Vapour Transport dengan bahan dasar prekursor berupa serbuk Zn yang dipanaskan hingga mencapai temperatur uap dalam furnace horisontal. Adapun variasi yang diberikan dalam penelitian adalah berupa temperatur pemanasan (850, 900, dan 950oC, massa prekursor Zn (0,15, 0,25, dan 0,35g, lama waktu sputtering substrat (90 dan 180 detik, dan waktu tahan khusus untuk mengetahui initial growth ZnO (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, dan 60 menit. Pembentukan Zink Oksida (ZnO dikonfirmasi melalui data X-RD, dimana telah terbentuk material ZnO dengan struktur hexagonal wurtzite. Berdarsarkan data XRD juga diketahui ukuran kristal pada sampel sputtering 90 detik mengalami penurunan bersamaan penambahan massa Zn. Dari hasil pengamatan SEM didapatkan bahwa morfologi permukaan lapisan tipis ZnO terdiri dari berbagai macam bentuk berupa nanoparticle, nanowires, nanorods, dan nanotetrapod. Lapisan Zno paling tebal sebesar ±350 nm pada sampel 950oC-0,15g sputter 90 detik. Semakin tinggi temperatur operasi berdampak peningkatan ukuran partikel. Pengujian FTIR turut menguatkan terbentuknya lapisan tipis di permukaan substrat Alumina. Hal ini didasarkan terjadinya penyerapan vibrasi yang membentuk lekukan pada kisaran area 509 cm-1 dari masing-masing sampel.

  20. Pemanfaatan Polimer Hybrid Tmspma Dan Phosphor Organik Sebagai Bahan Luminesensi Untuk Solid State Lighting Planar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitrilawati Fitrilawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lampu Solid State Lighting (SSL planar, diharapkan dapat menghasilkan distribusi cahaya yang lebih baik, dibandingkan dengan lampu fluoresensi biasa. Berbeda dengan lampu SSL biasa, pada SSL panel lebar (planar digunakan pendekatan kopling cahaya (Light Wave Coupling-L WC sehingga memerlukan sistem light guiding, yaitu cahaya pengeksitasi dikopling ke dalam substrat sebagai media pandu gelombang. Untuk aplikasi lampu SSL planar dengan pendekatan LWC diperlukan lapisan pengkonversi warna emisi yang berukuran lebar dengan karakteristik yang sesuai dengan perangkat preparasi dan media pandu gelombang. Media pandu gelombang yang akan digunakan adalah Light Guide Plate (LGP, dari PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate. Pada penelitian ini dikembangkan bahan luminesensi berbasis polimer hybrid trimethoxysilylpropyl methacrylate (TMSPMA, yang dimodifikasi dengan teknik kopolimerisasi dan phosphor organik. Khusus pada bahan prekursor poli(TMSPMA dilakukan uji kelarutan yang menunjukkan bahan prekursor polimer hybrid poli(TMSPMA beserta kromofor organiknya dapat larut dengan baik pada pelarut polar. Dari hasil tersebut dipilih pelarut yang tepat sehingga pembuatan lapisan tipis dari bahan luminesensi organik dapat dilakukan secara sederhana dengan teknik screen printing. Lapisan tipis yang dihasilkan dengan teknik tersebut dapat mengemisikan cahaya ke seluruh permukaan secara merata sehingga memiliki potensi untuk pengembangan model lampu SSL planar. 

  1. Eşiktekiler (Batılılaşmanın İki Ucunda İki Çocuk Tipi: Ömer ve Şermin Ones At The Threshold (Two Children Types at The End of Both Sides Of Westernization: Ömer And Şermin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia KOÇAKOĞLU

    2013-03-01

    mer’inÇocukluğu (Omar’s Chilhood of Muallim Naci and Şermin of TevfikFikret. With this method, childhood of Muallim Naci which might becaused him to be mixed up in an affair and childhood of Fikret whichmight give birth to Haluk can be observed. Batıcılık, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda başlayıp Cumhuriyet Türkiye’sinde oldukça farklı boyutlara varan ve Batı Avrupa’nın sosyal ve bilimsel algısını, ulaşılması gereken bir hedef olarak gören yaklaşımdır. Bu görüş ilk olarak Osmanlı’da bazen ılımlı bir biçimde ortaya çıkmış, bazen çok köktenci-geleneksel kültür öğelerimizi eleştiren boyutlar kazanmıştır.Bu bağlamda öncelikle sosyal ve siyasal düzenin içinde, yaşanılan sorunların giderilmesine çalışılmış, ardından küçük çapta reform hareketleri ve modernite projesiyle ilişki kurmanın zorunlu olduğunu öneren yönetim dışındaki grupların çalışmaları eklenmiş, en nihayetinde de imparatorluğun dağılarak, ulus-devlete dönüşmesi gerçekleşmiştir.Bu evreleri yaşamış olan Osmanlı’da bu süreç -Tanzimat dönemi başta olmak üzere- oldukça netameli geçmiştir. Özellikle sosyal hayat, sanat ve edebiyat bağlamında ele alınmaya çalışılan Batı, öncelikle bu dönemde kendine sızacak bir aralık bulmuştur. Bunu izleyen Servet-i Fünun ise Batılılaşmanın daha kökten yaşanmaya başladığı bir devir olmuş, sanat ve edebiyatta özellikle Fransız edebiyatı örnek alınmıştır.Bu açıdan bakıldığında Tanzimat, Servet-i Fünun’a göre daha Doğulu kalmış, ortaya kafası karışmış ikinci dönem Tanzimat aydını ile Batılı olmaya çalışan aydın tipi çıkmıştır. Bu iki sınıf kendi algıladıkları Batıyı yaşamış ve yaşatmaya gayret etmiş, bu doğrultuda da bir gelecek nesil hayali kurmuşlardır.Şu halde daha Doğulu bir görünüm arz ederek Tanzimat’ın ikinci dönem sanatçılarından olan Muallim Naci ile Batılı Tevfik Fikret’in çocuk algısına bakmak

  2. Model Dispersi Air Tanah Bebas Pada Lapisan Pasir Di Pulau Karang

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Sultan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to: (1) analyze the characteristics of unconfined aquifer in sand layers in a coral island; (2) determine to what extent porosity, permeability, tides and rainfall intensity influence unconfined aquifer, and (3) develop a dispersion model of unconfined aquifer in sand layers in a coral island. The research used direct survey in the field, laboratory analysis and secondary data analysis. The results reveal that Satando island is a coral island of 40,837.48 metres2, comp...

  3. Pengaruh Kuat Arus Listrik Dan Waktu Proses Anodizing Dekoratif Pada Aluminium Terhadap Kecerahan Dan Ketebalan Lapisan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Gst. Ngr. Nitya Santhiarsa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available To increase assess aluminium of decorative aspect hence finishing processes must be used, like coloringprocess. Hence layer anodizing developed now where you can make aluminum metal look more interesting so thefinish can increase the economic value. Anodizing is the process formation of oxide layer on the metal with themetal, especially aluminum reacting with oxygen (O2 from the electrolyte sulphate acid (H2SO4.This research uses2024-T3 aluminum metal as a parent to be coated, with the electric current treatment 1 Ampere, 2 Ampere, Ampere,and 3, and changes in immersion variations time 10 minutes, 20 minutes, and 30 minutes. Tests performed includetesting the brightness (light illumination and layer thickness measurement.The result of research show that bestvalue for the examination of brightness obtained at electrics current 1 ampere and time anodizing 10 minute equal to11519.53 lumens/m2 and thickness obtained at electrics current 3 ampere and anodizing time 30 minute equal to 5?m, value lowest for the examination of brightness obtained at electrics current 1 ampere and time anodizing 10minute equal to 10180.05 lumens/m2 and thickness obtained at electrics current 3 ampere and anodizing time 30minute equal to 2?m

  4. Pengaruh Kuat Arus Listrik Dan Waktu Proses Anodizing Dekoratif Pada Aluminium Terhadap Kecerahan Dan Ketebalan Lapisan

    OpenAIRE

    I Gst. Ngr. Nitya Santhiarsa

    2012-01-01

    To increase assess aluminium of decorative aspect hence finishing processes must be used, like coloringprocess. Hence layer anodizing developed now where you can make aluminum metal look more interesting so thefinish can increase the economic value. Anodizing is the process formation of oxide layer on the metal with themetal, especially aluminum reacting with oxygen (O2) from the electrolyte sulphate acid (H2SO4).This research uses2024-T3 aluminum metal as a parent to be coated, with the elec...

  5. Identifikasi Lapisan Geologi Bawah Permukaan Berdasarkan Data Geomagnetik di Sungai Logawa Banyumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Identification of geological resources can be done either using surface mapping and cross sectional stratigraphy measurement or geophysical approximation beneath the earth surface. Geomagnetic exploration related to the existing of gold mineral begins with the total magnetic field intensity measurements at 173 locations was scattered in 109.196970 - 109.207580E and 7.448830 - 7.454110S. Interpretation from processing of data obtained four anomalous object, which is defined as fine-medium sandstone (χ= 0.0015 cgs units, coarse sandstone and compact (χ= 0.0035 cgs units, igneous basalt-andesite old Slamet (χ= 0.0085 cgs units, and the complex bedrock (χ= 0.0145 cgs units. The presence of gold mineralization in the rock throughout geomagnetic surveys used to identification of subsurface geological which is interpreted from the processing data that indicated the presence of gold in association with sedimentary (sandstone is often referred to as sediment-hosted.

  6. Efek Tegangan Geser Dasar yang Terjadi pada Lapisan Pelindung Terhadap Karakteristik Kemiringan Dasar Saluran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahyono Ikhsan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Armouring is one of the development processes of armour layer on the base of a river, started from the movement of the transported base sediment of eroded surface reaching to stabile base layer condition or equilibrium, where there is no more transported base sediment. Armour layer is a type of gravel with almost uniform composition of granule gradation in surface base position which hampers the sediment moving above it. This research was carried out at the Hydraulic Laboratory of PS-IT UGM, using the main infrastructure of sediment recirculacy flume on the wall made from plexiglass in 10.00 m length, 0.60 m width, and 0.45 m height. The base slopes were 1%, 1.4%, 1.8%, 2.2%, and 2.6%. The flow debit was constant at 25 l/s, 30 l/s, 40 l/s and 45 l/s capacities. The material consisted of sand and gravel which was evenly mixed within 5 different variations of grainsize. At each running, there were two phases of eroded surface and equilibrium. The instruments used during the running were digital current meter, point gauge, sediment traps. Within the eroded surface process, the armour layer structure looked standing out in the base surface due to the granule critical shear stress of armour that was larger than the base shear stress, thus the armour layer was the structure of sediment granule with larger critical shear stress than bed shear stress.

  7. Design, Aufbau, Test und Integration der Empfänger-Optik des Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory

    OpenAIRE

    Brasse, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Als Interstellares Medium (ISM) werden die Gas- und Staubwolken bezeichnet, die sich innerhalb einer Galaxie zwischen den Sternen befinden. Im ISM findet die Sternentstehung und -entwicklung in einer Galaxie statt. Es trägt damit zur Evolution einer Galaxie bei. Das “Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory“ (STO) ist ein ballongestütztes Observatorium gewesen, dessen Aufgabe in der großflächigen Kartierung von ionisiertem Kohlenstoff, C+, und ionisiertem Stickstoff, N+, im ISM der Milchstraße ...

  8. kernenergie.de changes face; kernenergie.de in neuer Optik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Maja [Informationskreis KernEnergie, Berlin (Germany). Bereich Oeffentlichkeitsarbeit

    2009-08-15

    The portals of the Deutsches Atomforum e.V. (DAtF) and of the Informationskreis KernEnergie (IK) changed face effective June 24, 2009. On-line appearance was in need of modernization after the last relaunches and the additional new industry dialog portal, ''Zeit fuer Energieverantwortung.'' The starting page of the industry portal, which receives a high level of attention as indicated by 130,000 monthly hits, was streamlined in its structure. The design was modernized and made clearer. Depending on the depth of information wanted, users are guided by the new structure to the required level of detailed technical information. Up to 200,000 monthly hits are confirming the popularity and importance of this information portal. The main pages can be found under these Web addresses: www.kernenergie.de, www.kernfragen.de, www.kernenergie.de/energieverantwortung. (orig.)

  9. Pemodelan Tapis Fabry-perot pada Serat Optik dengan Menggunakan Fiber Bragg Grating

    OpenAIRE

    Pramuliawati, Septi; ', Saktioto; ', Defrianto

    2015-01-01

    Fabry-perot filter was successfully developed by a uniform Fiber Bragg Grating in fiber optic. A characterization of Bragg Grating was analyzed by using computational model with second-order of Transfer Matrix Method based on Coupled Mode Theory. The reflectivity, length of grating, and bandwidth were parametrics to determine the performance of single Bragg Grating. The transmission spectrum showed the longer grating is designed, the larger the reflectivity was produced, so that the transmiss...

  10. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    The former Unilever skyscraper in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was retrofitted completely. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early 1960ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''.

  11. ANALISIS KUANTITATIF ISOFLAVON TEMPE SECARA CEPAT DAN SEDERHANA MENGGUNAKAN METODE KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS- DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Setiawati

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Rapid and simple quantitative analysis isoflavones tempe using densitometric TLC has been done. The mobile phase of the system was chloroform: methanol: ethylacetate (45: 5: 0.75. Thin layer chromatography was performed on aluminium TLC plates.Ascending distance of 1 μL sample was performanced 10 cm. Then the plate was scanned at 261 nm. A linear relationship obtained at 0.08 - 2 μg/spot with r= 0.9986. The LOD and LOQ of isoflavone were 0.014 μg/spot and 0.048 μg/spot. Genistein contained in tempe was 0.151± 0.005 % b/b. Keywords: tempe, isoflavon, TLC

  12. Tipy pro hledání sýčka

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šálek, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2018), s. 19 ISSN 1801-7525 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Athene Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://www.birdlife.cz/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/Pta%C4%8D%C3%AD-sv%C4%9Bt-Pt%C3%A1k-roku-2018. pdf

  13. Study of antinociceptive effect of isolated fractions from Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia Bezerra; Oliveira, Maria Mirele da Silva; Nogueira, Carlos Renato Alves; Noronha, Emmanuelle Coelho; Carneiro, Lyvia Maria Vasconcelos; Bezerra, José Noberto Sousa; Neto, Manoel Andrade; Vasconcelos, Silvania Maria Mendes; Fonteles, Marta Maria França; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Clea Florenço

    2005-01-01

    The acetate (FA), hexanic (FH), hydroalcoholic (FHA) and precipitated hydroalcoholic (FHAppt) fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. were evaluated for antinociceptive effect using the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid, hot-plate, formalin tests. The open field and rota rod tests were used to evaluate psychomotor function and myorelaxant activity. The fractions were administered intraperitoneally in mice at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Inhibitions of abdominal constrictions were observed with all doses of the fractions, as compared to control. FH and FHAppt, at both doses, reduced the nociception produced by formalin in the 1st (0-5 min) and 2nd (20-25 min) phases, however FHA (100, 200 mg/kg) and FA 200 mg/kg presented significant inhibition on the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively, of this test. A reduction of the locomotor activity was observed in the open field test with all the fractions. These fractions failed to affect the motor coordination in the rota rod test. Results showed that the different fractions of Petiveria alliacea L. have different antinociceptive potentials as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice, supporting folk medicine use of this plant.

  14. Fasies dan lingkungan pengendapan Formasi Bobong berumur Jura sebagai pembawa lapisan batubara di Taliabu, Kepulauan Sanana-Sula, Maluku Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusnama Kusnama

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol3no3.20085The Bobong Formation is a coarse clastic sedimentary rock succession. In the lower part, it consists of breccia and conglomerate facies, then followed by quartz sandstone with intercalations of claystone facies. Upwards, the rock succession is gradually changed to become alternating shale, claystone and mudstone. In the upper section the rock unit is well exposed in the western and northern parts of the Taliabu Island. The formation is Jurassic in age and it was deposited within a fluvial-transition to shallow marine environ- ment. The coal bed found within quartz sandstone and shale and claystone-mudstone facies ocupies the upper part succession of the Bobong Formation. The coal in the Taliabu Island has two seams having a thickness of 30 - 40 cm and 100 - 120 cm, respectively. The geochemical analysis result indicates that the calorific value ranges from 6,186 to 7,350 cal/g, the sulphur content is from 3% to 4.65% , fixed carbon ranges from 45.69 to 53,96%, and ash content from 7.86 - 16.37%. On the basis of those parameter, the coal within the Bobong Formation is categorized as subbituminous to high volatile bituminous rank.    

  15. PENGARUH PENGGUNAAN LAPISAN EDIBEL (EDIBLE COATING, KALSIUM KLORIDA, DAN KEMASAN PLASTIK TERHADAP MUTU NANAS (Ananas comosus Merr. TEROLAH MINIMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indera Sakti Nasution

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The problem that often occurs before consuming fresh pineapple is it takes a long time to peel the pineapple. Minimal processing of pineapple is one of the solutions for practical use by consumers who would like to consume it fresh. However, minimally processed pineapple will be easily damaged and has short shelf life. The aims of this study are to determine the quality of minimally processed pineapple coated with edible coating, effect of calcium chloride dipping, as well as plastic packaging at low temperatures storage. Combination of Cassava starch and glycerol used as edible coating for pineapple dipped in CaCl2for 1 minute and 2 minutes, respectively. Products were packaged using polyethylene, polypropylene, and without packaging. It is obtained that dipping the product in CaCl2 for 2 minutes and packaging it using polypropylene (plastic can prolong the shelf life of minimally processed pineapple stored at 5°C up to 8 days.

  16. Distribusi lapisan batuan sedimen yang diduga mengandung gas biogenik dengan metode tahanan jenis di Pantai Saronggi, Sumenep, Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i2.97A research on sediments estimated to contain biogenic gas at Saronggi coast Sumenep in Madura, East Java, has been done by using the resistivity method and produced 2-D (two dimensional cross-sectional along four paths. The results of previous measurements indicate that biogenic gas is present within layers of black shale. It is known that the resistivity values of the black shale bearing biogenic gas is between 0.9-1.3 Ohm m. These resistivity values are used as references to determine the black shale layer bearing gas in four resistivity profiles. The depth of the black shale layers are varies: in profile 1 the depth is between 26.3 and 44.6 m, in profile 2 is between 30 and 45 m, in profile 3 is between 44.6 and 64.8 m, and in profile 4 is between 8,75 and 44,6 m.

  17. Pengaruh Dispersi Terhadap Kecepatan Data Komunikasi Optik Menggunakan Pengkodean Return To Zero (RZ Dan Non Return To Zero (NRZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggun Fitrian Isnawati

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Fiber optic has characteristics for optical transmission system. One of optical characteristics is pulse broadening, known as dispersion. The dispersion is a condition where pulse in output side is larger than pulse in input side. It means that pulse broadening had happened. In the communication system, it’s known as inter symbol interference (ISI. Effect of Inter symbol interference increasing the error bit or BER value. In optical communication system, dispersion is most influence to the data rate that fiber can support. Besides, bandwidth, information capacity, transmission distance, wavelength and fiber type can also influenced by the dispersion.

  18. Christoph Scheiner and the optics of the eye. (German Title: Christoph Scheiner und die Optik des Auges)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, Franz

    Some of Scheiner's discoveries and experiments are taken from the books «Oculus», (Innsbruck 1619) and «Rosa Ursina sive Sol» (Rome 1626-1630): determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the visual nerve, increase in the curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, anatomy of the eye, light reaction of the pupil, contraction of the pupil during accommodation, Scheiner's test (double images caused by ametropia), stenopeic effect, crossing rays in the eye, aperture, description of the cataract treatment, refractive indices of various parts of the eye, eye model, visual pivot angle of the eye, proof of crossing rays on the retina, comparison of the camera obscura and the optics of the eye.

  19. PENGGUNAAN TEKNIK KEAMANAN PADA JARINGAN SERAT OPTIK DENGAN METODE ANTI-JAMMING DAN STEGANOGRAFI MENGGUNAKAN MODUL OPTISYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Rosmiati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Serat optic merupakan media transmisi yang dapat menghantarkan informasi dalam bentuk cahaya. digunakannya cahaya sebagai media penghantaran informasi membuat media ini dapat menghantarkan informasi dengan kapasitas besar dalam waktu yang sangat singkat. Sehingga saat ini serat optic banyak digunakan dalam Telekomunikasi. jaringan serat optic ini harus disertai dengan teknik keamanan yang handal dalam proses transmisi informasinya, karena jika terjadi  penyerangan  dalam jaringan yang serat optic maka data yang akan diterima oleh receiver akan jauh berbeda dengan data yang dikirim transmitter. Sehingga hal ini sangat fatal jika informasi yang dikirimkan memiliki tingkat kerahasiaan yang sangat  tinggi seperti informasi keamanan Negara. Adapun metode yang dapat digunakan dalam pengamanan jaringan serat optic adalah metode steganography dan metode anti-jamming. Dari percobaan yang telah dilakukan terlihat bahwa teknik steganography memiliki tingkat kehandalan yang lebih baik jika dibandingkan dengan metode anti-jamming dengan  nilai BER untuk metode steganography adalah 1.91219e-077.

  20. Karakteristik Membran Asimetris Polietersufone (PES dengan Pelarut Dimetil Formamide dan N-Metil-2-Pyrolidone - (Characteristic of Poliethersulfone (PES Asymmetric Membrane with Dimethyl Formamide and N-Methyl Pyrolidone as Solvent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane that is generally used for separation process could be made using phase inversion technique. This research aims to create polyethersulfone (PES asymmetric membranes via phase inversion technique using solvent and Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP as variable. SEM analysis indicated that membranes had asymmetric structure that consits of two layers which denser skin layer on the top surface and the porous support on the bottom. PES/DMF membrane showed larger pore structure than PES/NMP. The permeability coefficients of both membranes were in the ultrafiltration range. The coefficient permeability (Lp of PES/DMF membrane was 35.769 L/m2.hour, much greater compared to PES/NMP membrane which was 15.364 L/m2.hour.bar. Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO of PES/DMF membrane was 177 Kda, meanwhile PES/NMP was 186 Kda. Performances of the membranes were evaluated  using dextrane as feed solution. PES/DMF membrane resulted in an higher flux and lower rejection than PES/NMP.Keywords: asymmetric membrane, membrane performance, Molecular Weight Cut-Off (MWCO, morphology, permeability ABSTRAKMembran yang umumnya digunakan untuk proses pemisahan dapat dibuat menggunakan teknik inversi fasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik membran asimetris polietersulfone (PES yang dibuat menggunakan teknik inversi fasa dengan variabel jenis pelarut dan Trans Membrane Pressure (TMP. Hasil analisis Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM terhadap morfologi membran membuktikan bahwa membran yang dihasilkan merupakan membran asimetris yang terdiri dari dua lapisan yaitu bagian atas merupakan lapisan tipis dan lapisan bawah adalah lapisan berpori. Membran PES/DMF memiliki struktur pori yang lebih besar dibandingkan membran PES/NMP. Koefisien permeabilitas kedua membran yang dihasilkan berada dalam jangkauan ultrafiltrasi. Koefisien permeabilitas (Lp membran PES/DMF sebesar 35,769 L/m2.jam, nilai ini jauh lebih besar dibandingkan PES/NMP yaitu 15,364 L/m2.jam

  1. IDENTIFIKASI DAN PENETAPAN KADAR SENYAWA KUMARIN DALAM EKSTRAK METANOL Artemisia Annua L. SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS - DENSITOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmayati Alegantina

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Artemisia annua L. contain the active compounds include: terpenoids, flavonoids, kumarin, artemisinin acid, artennuin B, phenols, saponins, and fat. Kumarin and its derivatives have biological activity that can stimulate skin pigment, blood anticoagulation and can inhibit the effects of carcinogens. With this biological activity of kumarin, the research is done to ensure there is kumarin by identification and measure kumarin level which is contained in the Artemisia annua L. herb. The analysis methods include the extraction and fractionation. Identification and determination of level with Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC using a Densitometer CS-9301 PC. From the result of TLC identification of kumarin standard known that Artemisia annua L extract contain kumarin compound which marked by a blue spot flouresense on standards and methanol extract of artemisia annua L. seeing under UV light at a wavelength of 366 nm with Rf value of standard and sample is 0.31, the measurement of kumarin spot with Densitometer known that kumarin concentration in the extract of Artemisia annua L. is 10.5 ul/ ml with 105% RecoveryKeywords: Artemisia annua L, kumarin, TLC-Densitometry

  2. Analisis Hasil Sintesis Serbuk TiO2 / ZnO sebagai Lapisan Elektroda untuk Aplikasi Dye-sensitized Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilis Retnaningsih

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan sintesis antara serbuk partikel nano TiO2 dan serbuk partikel nano ZnO menjadi pasta yang akan diaplikasikan sebagai elektroda pada dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC. Elektroda pada DSSC ini bekerja berdasarkan adsorbsi foton oleh pewarna, elektron yang tereksitasi ditransfer ke TiO2/ZnO yang mempunyai perbandingan berbeda. Dimensi material partikel nano TiO2/ZnO sebagai elektroda sangat penting untuk menghasilkan efisiensi yang lebih tinggi pada DSSC. Sifat ini sangat dipengaruh oleh metoda pabrikasi elektroda TiO2/ZnO dan parameternya. Pada penelitian ini digunakan metoda doctor blade untuk pabrikasi DSSC dan larutan dyes (Z907 sebagai zat pewarna. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh pencampuran serbuk TiO2 dan serbuk ZnO sebagai elektroda. Teknik pembuatan pasta TiO2/ZnO sebagai elektroda sangat penting untuk menghasilkan efisiensi tinggi pada DSSC. Teknik ini sangat terkait dengan material TiO2/ZnO, metoda pabrikasi, dan parameter pengukurannya. Dalam penelitian ini dibahas hasil karakterisasi XRD pada kedua serbuk TiO2 dan ZnO, hasil SEM pada pencampuran kedua material, hasil pengujian IPCE serta hasil pengukuran effisiensi pada pengujian I - V.

  3. Mikrostruktur dan Karakterisasi Sifat Mekanik Lapisan Cr3C2-NiAl-Al2O3 Hasil Deposisi Dengan Menggunakan High Velocity Oxygen Fuel Thermal Spray Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Riyanto

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface coating processing of industrial component with thermal spray coatings have been applied in many industrial fields. Ceramic matrix composite coating which consists of Cr3C2-Al2O3-NiAl had been carried out to obtain layers of material that has superior mechanical properties to enhance component performance. Deposition of CMC with High Velocity Oxygen Fuel (HVOF thermal spray coating has been employed. This study aims to determine the effect of powder particle size on the microstructure, surface roughness and hardness of the layer, by varying the NiAl powder particle size. Test results show NiAl powder particle size has an influence on the mechanical properties of CMC coating. Hardness of coating increases and surface roughness values of coating decrease with smaller NiAl particle size.  

  4. THIN FILM-BASED SENSOR FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS, NH3, AND CO DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  5. Optics of the CuGaSe{sub 2} solar cell for highly efficient tandem concepts; Optik der CuGaSe{sub 2}-Solarzelle fuer hocheffiziente Tandemkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Martina

    2010-01-25

    A principle aim of solar cell research lies in optimizing the exploitation of the incident solar light. Yet, for single junction solar cells there exists an efficiency limit as described by Shockley and Queisser. The only concept realized so far to overcome this threshold is - apart from concentration - the multijunction solar cell. However, any kind of multijunction design poses new challenges: The upper wide-gap solar cell (top cell) needs to show efficient light absorption in the short-wavelength region. At the same time sufficient transmission for long-wavelength light is required which then needs to be absorbed effectively by the low-gap bottom cell. In tandem solar cells a proper light management in top and bottom solar cell is of great importance. This work focuses on chalcopyrite-based tandem solar cells. For the wide-bandgap IR-transparent ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell an optical model has been established. Starting from modeling each of the individual layers building the stack the optical behavior of the complete thin film system of the top cell could be described. Carefully selected layer combinations and comparison of experimental and calculated data allowed for the attribution of transmission losses to the distinct material properties. Defects in the absorber are of crucial importance but also free carrier absorption in the window and in the transparent back contact contribute significantly to optical losses. The quantification of the losses was achieved by calculating the effects of reduced top cell transmission on the photo current of a simplified bottom cell. An extension of the optical model allowed to calculate the effective absorption in the individual layers and to determine reflection losses at the interfaces. From these results an optimized top cell stack was derived which is characterized by A) simulation of the monolithic integration, B) reduced layer thicknesses wherever possible from the electrical point of view, C) addition of an antireflection coating and D) optimization of layer thicknesses with respect to antireflection behavior for the long-wavelength light. The optimized stack promises an increase in sub-gap transparency of the top cell from 60 to 80 % considering realistic material properties. Monolithically connecting a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} based bottom cell for simulating the chalcopyrite tandem, the fundamental requirement of current match for top and bottom cell was investigated. Suitable CuGaSe{sub 2}/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} tandem combinations are identified and potential efficiencies calculated. They predict a maximum achievable tandem efficiency of 26 % in the case of realistic materials. Furthermore first experimental realizations of the optimized top cell stack were carried out. Their optical properties coincide with the model. Also measured and modeled photo current densities in a mechanically connected Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} bottom cell shaded by various CuGaSe{sub 2} top cell stacks are in agreement within an error range of 5 %. A highest efficiency of 6.3 % was measured for the shaded bottom cell. However, for fundamental improvement of the chalcopyrite tandem performance novel concepts are required. Prospects of integrating nanoparticles as mediators of plasmonic absorption enhancement are given. Theoretical and experimental background is provided to integrate plasmonic effects in the thin film multilayer modeling. Conclusions about the most suitable size and the best position of the nanoparticles within the stack of the ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell could be derived: for a 200 nm thick absorber the integration of silver nanoparticles with radii over 50 nm deposited at the interface SnO{sub 2}:F - glass promises an absorption enhancement of 28 %.

  6. ANALISIS KESULITAN PEMAHAMAN KONSEP ALAT OPTIK PADA SISWA KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMP NEGERI 3 METRO TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to know form of difficulties were experienced by students looked form cognitive domain and questionsettlement stage. The subject of this research was student of grade VIIIc of junior high school 3 Metro academic year 2012/2013 the total of 33 students. Data capture technique used essay test. Data analysis was done by qualitative by identification, tabulation, describtion, and interpretationsteep. Base on analysis can be knowed that the most dominant difficulties were looked from question settlement stage that was operated stage the rules or the laws as much as 73%. Students difficulties were looked from coqtinive domain in ability stage such as knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. Difficulties in cognitive domain the most dominant wasexperienced by students are in analysis ability stage as much as 91%. To overcome the difficulties, the teacher is adviced in order that learning the most important to physic concept are felt difficult, that are aplication stage and analysis. 

  7. Digital udvikling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebbesen, Toke Riis

    2015-01-01

    En blog om design, materialitet og bøger i krydsfeltet mellem digitale udfordringer og en kulturel optik.......En blog om design, materialitet og bøger i krydsfeltet mellem digitale udfordringer og en kulturel optik....

  8. Le pinete demaniali costiere di Ravenna e Ferrara: analisi dei tipi forestali e strutturali per la scelta del trattamento selvicolturale nel processo di pianificazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-owned pine forests on the coast of Ravenna and Ferrara: analysis of forest and structure types for choice of silvicultural system in the planning process. Results of the analysis on typology and structure of state forests dominated by maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. are reported. These formations grow on a narrow coastal belt between Cervia (Ravenna and Volano (Ferrara, in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy. The aim of the study is to support the proper silvicultural system in order to satisfy multiple use of pine forests using the analysis of forest types and model types of structure. Main ecological and structural features of principal pine forest types and experimental criteria on silvicultural systems are explained.

  9. Il lavoro “a chiamata” e le piattaforme online della collaborative economy: nozioni e tipi legali in cerca di tutele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aloisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, after giving an overview of recent labour trends in the digital economy, describes alternative working arrangements such as “crowdworking” and “work on-demand via platform”. The regulatory framework and the legal consequences of such innovative and non-standard forms of work are analysed in detail with emphasis on the improper classification of workers in the gig-economy. In the second section, the essay focuses on the recent Communication of the European Commission on Collaborative Economy that is aimed at establishing under which conditions an online platform should be considered a provider of the “underlying services”. This focus is followed by an analysis of antitrust as well as labour law implications of Spanish, Italian and British rulings.The contribution explores the proposals on how to craft an intermediate category between employees and independent contractors. Workers in the on-demand economy have brought lawsuits alleging that the online platforms are misclassifying them as independent contractors, but the question remains still unsolved. Proponents recently advocated that a third category would be a good fit for digital platform work. Conversely, as far as Italy is concerned, the quasi-subordinate category created an opportunity for uncertainty and arbitrage resulting in the erosion of protection. The article describes the notion of the so called “collaborazioni organizzate dal committente” (contractors whose performance is organised by the principal as a tool to expand crowdworkers’ rights.Finally, the most recent Italian labour market reform could eventually provide a solution for the current disputes on how work in the gig-economy could be regulated. In fact, the scheme of “collaborazioni organizzate dal committente” could represent a useful template, since it broadens the scope of the protections granted to standard employees.

  10. Preparation of SnSe thin films by encapsulated selenization; Saput tipis SnSe disediakan dengan kaedah penselenidan tertudung-tebat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabar, D Hutagalung [Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan (Indonesia). Dept. of Physics; Sakrani, Samsudi; Wahab, Yussof [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor Bahru (Malaysia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    Tin selenide thin films were prepared by encapsulated selenization. A stacked layer of evaporated Sn and Se films were annealed in a carbon block at temperatures 100 - 500 degree Celsius for 3 hours. X-ray analysis and SEM (Scanning electron) micrograph results showed that SnSe was initially formed at 150 degree Celsius with crystal size 30.0 nm and reached optimum formation at 200 daximum of 57.4 % yield of 5-decene. Other factors such as reaction temperatures, types of solvent and wt% of rhenium loadings influence the activity of the catalytic system.

  11. ANALISA FLAVONOID DARI EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% KULIT BUAH OKRA MERAH (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS DAN SPEKTROFOTOMETRI UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Lisnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Has done research on flavonoids Analysis of Ethanol Extract 96% Fruit Leather Red Okra In Thin Layer Chromatography and Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the fruit skin red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench by using the method of thin layer chromatography (TLC under UV light and spectrophotometry UV-Vis. Reference standards used in this study is the Standard Solution Routine Quercetin. The results of the research that has been done by the method of thin layer chromatography obtained Rf values of 0.81 and produces the color orange. And the results of research conducted by spectrophotometry UV-Vis method obtained 333,117 mg.L-1 or 421,629 mg.kg-1 or 0,84339 %. The conclusion from this study is that the 96% ethanol extract of the fruit leather red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench positive (+ contains flavonoids with levels of 0,84339 %.

  12. The tropospheric aerosol at mid-latitudes - microphysics, optics, and climate forcing illustrated by the LACE 98 field study; Das troposphaerische Aerosol in mittleren Breiten - Mikrophysik, Optik und Klimaantrieb am Beispiel der Feldstudie LACE 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, M.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the column closure of optical aerosol parameters as part of the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (LACE 98). The optical aerosol parameters were calculated from microphysical aerosol parameters which were measured height resolved from tropopause to boundary layer and compared with the direct measurement of the respective property (closure). The closure allows the validation of the measured aerosol properties and the inversion of aerosol properties which are not measurable directly. The radiative forcings of the measured aerosol columns are estimated. The measured, quality assured microphysical aerosol properties are parameterized and tabulated as input data for models. The successful closure of the aerosol column's optical depth validates the measured particle size distributions, whereas the successful closure of the backscatter coefficient validates the assumptions made on the aerosol chemical composition and serves to deduce its state of mixture, the latter point exemplified using a 7 day old forest fire aerosol. The local, instantaneous radiative forcing of the measured continental particle columns are estimated to lie between -33 W/m{sup 2} for continental and -6 W/m{sup 2} for marine air masses for a solar zenith angle of 56 . (orig.) [German] Als Teil des Lindenberger Aerosol Charakterisierungsexperimentes (LACE 98) behandelt diese Arbeit die Saeulenschliessung optischer Aerosolparameter. Diese wurden aus den von Tropopause bis Grenzschicht hoehenaufgeloest gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften berechnet, um sie mit den am gleichen Ort direkt gemessenen optischen Aerosolparametern zu vergleichen (Schliessung). Es wird gezeigt, dass die Schliessung die Qualitaetssicherung der gemessenen Aerosoleigenschaften und die Invertierung direkt nicht messbarer Aerosoleigenschaften ermoeglicht. Die Strahlungsantriebe der vermessenen Aerosolsaeulen werden abgeschaetzt. Die qualitaetsgesicherten gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften werden als Eingabedaten fuer Modelle parameterisiert und tabelliert. Die erfolgreiche Schliessung der optischen Dicke der Aerosolsaeule validiert die gemessenen Partikelgroessenverteilungen, die erfolgreiche Schliessung der Rueckstreukoeffizienten validiert die Annahmen zur chemischen Aerosolzusammensetzung und dient zur Invertierung seines Mischungszustands, letzteres vorgefuehrt an einem 7 Tage gealterten Waldbrandaerosol. Die lokalen, instantanen Strahlungsantriebe der gemessenen kontinentalen Partikelsaeulen liegen zwischen -33 W/m{sup 2} fuer kontinentale und -6 W/m{sup 2} fuer marine Luftmassen bei einem solaren Zenithwinkel von 56 . (orig.)

  13. Keçi Sütünden Set-Tipi Yoğurt Üretiminde Ultrafiltrasyon (UF Tekniğinden Yararlanma Olanakları Üzerine Bir Araştırma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Atamer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada ultrafiltrasyon (UF yöntemi ile keçi sütlerinin kurumadde içerikleri yaklaşık % 17 ve % 19'a yükseltilerek deneme örnekleri üretilmiş ve keçi sütü yoğurtlarının bazı kalite kriterleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca karşılaştırma yapabilmek amacıyla daha önce gerçek­leştirilen bir araştırmada (Karademir, 2000 saptanan ulltrafiltre keçi sütü yoğurtlarının pıhtı stabilitesine ilişkin verileri (konsistens ve viskozite değerleri çalışma kapsamına alınmıştır. Yoğurt örneklerinin fiziksel, kimyasal ve duyusal değerlendirmeleri yapılmış ve bu niteliklerin 14 günlük depolama süresindeki değişimleri incelenmiştir. Sonuçta, A ve B örneklerinin özellikle konsistens ve viskozite değerleri arasında fark­lılık saptanmıştır (B örneği, A örneğine göre daha sıkı/kıvamlı yapıdadır. Ancak, panelistlerce, B örneğinin aşırı kıvamlı ve kremamsı bir yapıya sahip olduğu belirtilmiştir. Bu verilere dayanarak ultrafiltrasyon tekniği ile keçi sütünden yoğurt üretiminde optimum kurumadde oranının yaklaşık % 17 olduğunu ileri sürebiliriz.

  14. N2O2 Tipi Schiff Bazı Ligandı ile Sentezlenen Cu(II Kompleksinin X-Işını Yapısı ve Termal Özelliği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karahan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cu(II kompleksinin X-ışınları moleküler yapısı 293 K'de tayin edildi. Cu (II kompleksi monoklinik yapıda ve uzay grubu P21/n a= 12.4007(14, b= 8.4476(9, c= 20.0286(12 Ã…, β= 97.291(7°. Termal davranışları diferansiyel termal analiz ve termogravimetrik analiz ile incelendi. Ayrıca Schiff bazı ligandının karakterizasyonunda elementel analiz, IR, UV-vis spektroskopisi, termal analiz, 1H-NMR ve 13C-NMR yöntemlerinden faydalanıldı. Anahtar kelimeler: Schiff bazı, Tek Kristal, X-ışınları analizi, Termal analiz The X-Ray Molecular Structure and Thermal Behaviour of Cu (II Complex, Synthesis With N2O2 Type Schiff Base Ligand Abstract: The X-ray molecular structure of Cu (II complex at 293 K has been determined. The Cu (II complex, has been prepared and structurally and thermal characterized. The complex crystallizes in monoclinic space group P21/n with a= 12.407(14, b= 8.4476(9, c= 20.0286(12 Ã…, β= 97.291(7°. The thermal behavior of the compound was investigated by differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetry. Additionally, Schiff base ligand also characterized by elemental analysis, IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, thermal analysis, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR. Key words: Schiff base, Single crystal, X-ray analysis, Thermal analysis

  15. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  16. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 77, May - June 1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-09-01

    CTC) ATPLB Acta physica polonica . Series A CFJOBOQu Fruehjahrsschule Optik: Beitraege zur Optik und Quantenelektronik CICHRIRS International...PMAMA Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika (CTC) PRTEA Pribory i tekhnika eksperirnenta (CTC) PSSAB Physica status solidi (A). Applied Research (GDR) PSSBB... Physica status solidi (B). Basic Research (GDR) PZTFD Zhurnal tekhnicheskoy fiziki. Pis’ma (CTC) RAELA Radiotekhnika i elektronika (journal, Moskva

  17. STUDI BANDING PELAPISAN MATERIAL SKD11 DENGAN METODE PHYSICAL VAPOUR DEPOSITION DAN THERMAL DIFUSION PADA KOMPONEN INSERT DIES MESIN STAMPING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robertus Suryo Bisono

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pelapisan menggunakan Titanium Alumunium Nitrid (TIAlN dengan metode PVD Coating (Physical Vapour Diposition dan TD (Thermal Difusion  untuk perlakuan permukaan baja perkakas SKD11 sebagai material Insert Die komponen mesin Stamping Press setelah perlakuan hardening. Perlakuan permukaan dimaksudkan untuk meningkatkan kualitas permukaan khususnya kekerasan dan perubahan struktur mikro yang terjadi. Untuk mengetahui tingkat keberhasilan dari perlakuan permukaan tersebut dilakukan dengan memvariasi waktu proses, masing masing 2 sample diproses pada 4 jam, 5 jam dan 6 jam dengan temperatur  proses masing-masing  400ᴼ C. Kemudian satu dari tiap variable sample tersebut di panaskan pada suhu 1000ᴼ C selama 1 jam, pendinginan dilalukan dengan udara bebas tanpa proses quenching Untuk mengetahui hasilnya dilakukan uji kekerasan mikro Vickers, pengamatan struktur mikro Scanning Eectron Microscope (SEM, dan pengujian komposisi dengan Energy Defersif Sepectroscopy (EDS untuk mengetahui tingkat penyerapan material terdifusi. Hasil menunjukan bahwa SKD11 yang dilapisi TiAlN dengan metode PVD selama 6 jam menghasilkan lapisan yang paling keras yaitu 1363 HV dengan ketebalan lapisan 5,3µm. Proses pemanasan 1000⁰C selama 1 jam pada sample mengakibatkan penurunan kekerasan sample dan lapisan permukaan sample menjadi lebih tebal hingga 50µm. Penambahan lapisan diakibatkan oleh terdifusinya atom atom yang menyusun lapisan TiAlN ke dalam substrat serta keluarnya atom atom penyusun lapisan hingga membentuk lapisan kompleks.

  18. PENGARUH KOMPOSOSI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAMSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK W-3 [The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Adnan2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v. The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

  19. Does thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal exist?

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, R.; Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R.

    2016-01-01

    The authors of a recent paper (Optik 125 (2014) 2022-2025) claim to have grown a so called thiosemicarbazide lead nitrate (TSLN) crystal by the slow evaporation method. In this comment we prove that TSLN is actually thiosemicarbazide.

  20. Bernhard Schmidt - realiteet müütide vastu / Ülo Tonts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tonts, Ülo, 1931-2016

    1996-01-01

    Raamatust Optical illusions. The life story of Bernhard Schmidt the great stellar optician of the twentieth century by Erik Schmidt. Estonian Academy Publishers 1995. B. Schmidt - eestlasest optik, kellest kirjutas J. Kross romaanis "Vastutuulelaev"

  1. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Uveitis dalam Upaya Mencegah Kebutaan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratna Sitompul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis adalah peradangan uvea yang dapat mengakibatkan kebutaan. Uveitis dapat disebabkan oleh peradangan di uvea saja, merupakan bagian dari penyakit sistemik (autoimun, infeksi, keganasan, perluasan peradangan di kornea dan sklera, trauma, namun sebagian tidak diketahui penyebabnya (idiopatik. Uveitis anterior adalah inflamasi di iris dan badan siliar dengan gejala nyeri, mata merah, fotofobia, dan penurunan tajam penglihatan. Uveitis intermediet merupakan peradangan di pars plana namun sering diikuti vitritis dan uveitis posterior. Gejala uveitis intermediet biasanya ringan, tidak disertai nyeri dan mata merah namun tajam penglihatan dapat menurun akibat edema makula dan agregasi sel di vitreus. Uveitis posterior adalah peradangan di koroid dan retina yang sering terjadi di negara berkembang karena tingginya penyakit infeksi (toksoplasmosis, tuberkulosis, HIV, sifilis. Pasien mengeluh penglihatan kabur namun tanpa disertai mata merah, nyeri, atau fotofobia. Komplikasi uveitis posterior adalah katarak, glaukoma, edema makula, keratopati, kekeruhan vitreus, ablasio retinae, dan atrofi nervus optik. Prognosis uveitis posterior lebih buruk dibandingkan uveitis anterior. Panuveitis adalah peradangan seluruh lapisan uvea. Diagnosis uveitis ditetapkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik dan mata, pemeriksaan laboratorium dan pencitraan. Terapi uveitis ditujukan untuk menekan inflamasi, perbaikan struktur dan fungsi penglihatan, menghilangkan nyeri serta fotofobia. Kortikosteroid dan imunosupresan merupakan obat pilihan untuk mengatasi inflamasi sedangkan NSAID untuk mengurangi nyeri dan sikloplegik untuk mencegah sinekia posterior. Antimikroba diberikan bila uveitis disebabkan oleh infeksi. Penyakit yang mendasari uveitis harus diatasi secara komprehensif untuk mencegah perburukan, komplikasi dan kebutaan. Kata kunci: uveitis anterior, uveitis intermediet, uveitis posterior, panuveitis, autoimun, infeksi, trauma, peradangan Diagnosis and

  2. Analisis Aspek Keamanan Dalam Menghadapi Rootkit Berbasis Mesin Virtual (VMBR)

    OpenAIRE

    Najoan, Xaverius

    2012-01-01

    Kemajuan teknologi virtualisasi hardware telah membuka halaman baru dalam pertempuran digital. Dengan teknologi mesin virtual, terbuka peluang untuk salah satu pihak menguasai lapisan terbawah suatu sistem, yaitu lapisan hardware. Akibatnya, jika pihak attacker menguasai level ini, maka makin sulit untuk pihak defender mendeteksi aplikasi malware dari attacker.Kombinasi antara mesin virtual dan malware tipe rootkit menghasilkan sebuah ancaman baru yang disebut dengan Virtual Machine Based Roo...

  3. M(4-PridinkarboksialdehidNi(CN4.nG Hofmann Tipi Konak-Konuk Bileşiklerinin Kırmızıaltı Spektroskopik Özelliklerinin İncelenmesi (M = Ni, Cd ve G = 1,4-Dioksan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki KARTAL

    2014-12-01

    M(4-PyridinecarboxaldehydeNi(CN4.nG Hofmann Type Clathrates (M = Ni, Cd and G = 1,4-Dioxane Abstract: In this study, clathrate of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde tetracyanonickel-dioxane, given by the formula M(4-PyridinecarboxaldehydeNi(CN4 nG (m = Ni, Cd and G = 1,4-dioxane, is obtained for the first time through chemical methods. The FT-IR spectroscopic data in the region of (3000–400 cm-1 was recorded and the IR vibrational modes frequencies were given and explained in detail. The spectral analyzes results of the newly synthesized clathrate of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde tetracyanonickel- dioxane suggests that these clathrates are new examples of the Hofmann-type dioxane clathrates. In our study, the Hofmann-type dioxane clathrates formed by bounding electrons of nitrogen-donor atom of pyridine ring and electrons of oxygen-donor atom of aldehyde group (-CH=O of 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde ligand molecule to transition metal atoms consist of the corrugated |M–Ni(CN4|ï‚¥ polymeric layers which are held in parallel through the chain of (–M–4PCA–M–. Key words: Infrared Spectroscopy, Hofmann Types Clathrates, Tetracyanonickelate, 4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde, 1,4-dioxane

  4. A New Approach to Solve Flowshop Scheduling Problems by Artificial Immune Systems = Akış Tipi Çizelgeleme Problemlerinin Yapay Bağışıklık Sistemleri ile Çözümünde Yeni Bir Yaklaşım

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alper DÖYEN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The n-job, m-machine flow shop scheduling problem is one of the most general job scheduling problems. This study deals with the criteria of makespan minimization for the flow shop scheduling problem. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS are new intelligent problem solving techniques that are being used in scheduling problems. AIS can be defined as computational systems inspired by theoretical immunology, observed immune functions, principles and mechanisms in order to solve problems. In this research, a computational method based on clonal selection principle and affinity maturation mechanisms of the immune response is used. The operation parameters of meta-heuristics have an important role on the quality of the solution. Thus, a generic systematic procedure which bases on a multi-step experimental design approach for determining the efficient system parameters for AIS is presented. Experimental results show that, the artificial immune system algorithm is more efficient than both the classical heuristic flow shop scheduling algorithms and simulated annealing.

  5. EFFISIENSI INHIBISI KOROSI BAJA LUNAK DALAM MEDIA ASAM DENGAN INHIBITOR EKSTRAK KULIT BUAH KAKAO (Theobroma cacao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Yetri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Efek inhibisi korosi dan sifat-sifat adsorpsi oleh ekstrak kulit buah kakao (Theobroma cacao  pada baja lunak (mild steel dalam larutan asam 1,5M HCl telah dipelajari menggunakan teknik konvensional metode berat hilang pada variasi waktu, konsentrasi dan suhu. Parameter-parameter termodinamika seperti energi aktivasi, entalpi, entropi dan perubahan energi bebas dihitung. Polarisasi elektrokimia telah dievaluasi untuk memastikan jenis inhibitor. Spektra infrared dan GCMS dilakukan untuk mengetahui senyawa ekstrak yang berperan  dalam proses inhibisi. Morfologi permukaan sampel diamati dengan menggunakan scanning electro microscopy dengan  energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX . Keseluruhan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak polar kulit buah coklat  dapat digunakan sebagai inhibitor korosi yang efektif pada baja karbon di lingkungan 1,5M HCl dengan pencapaian efisiensi  inhibisi   terkorosi sebesar 96.26% (weight loss dan 92.08% (Tafel pada konsentrasi ekstrak 2,5% selama768 jam. Mekanisme inhibisi adalah  adsorpsi chemiadsorpsi berdasar tingginya nilai entalpi dan energi bebas.Effisiensi Inhibisi diketahui meningkat dengan peningkatan konsentrasi dari ekstrak serta menurun dengan peningkatan suhu. Kurva polarisasi menunjukkan inhibitor ini berperilaku sebagai inhibitor campuran dengan dominan pada inhibisi katodik. Ekstrak diadsorpsi oleh permukaan mild steel  mengikuti model adsorpsi isotherm Langmuir. Kondisi permukaan mild steel menunjukan terjadinya adsorpsi di permukaan membentuk lapisan tipis di permukaan logam. Penambahan ekstrak kulit buah kakao ke dalam larutan HCl sangat efektif untuk mengurangi serangan korosi di permukaan mild steel.  Kata kunci: Korosi, Inhibitor, Theobroma cacao, Mild steel, Potensiodinamik Corrosion Inhibition Efficiency Mild Steel in Acid Media with Inhibitor Peels Extract of Cacao (Theobroma cacaoABSTRACT Inhibition and adsorption properties of Theobroma cacao peel polar extract

  6. AVTIZEM Z DODATNO MOTNJO V DUŠEVNEM RAZVOJU PRI MLADOSTNIKIH V ZUDV DR. MARIJANA BORŠTNERJA DORNAVA

    OpenAIRE

    Gomilšak, Marjeta

    2009-01-01

    Otroški avtizem danes strokovnjaki pojmujejo kot razvojno nevrološko motnjo, ki se kaže v verbalni in neverbalni komunikaciji, tipičnih vedenjskih motnjah ter nenormalni čustveni in socialni odzivnosti. Strokovnjaki lahko postavijo diagnozo glede na tipične psihične znake najkasneje v tretjem letu otrokove starosti. Tipičnih znakov pa je kar nekaj deset in se lahko med seboj različno kombinirajo. V času otrokovega razvoja nekateri izzvenijo, lahko se pojavijo novi ali drugačni. Na splošno še ...

  7. Karakteristik Life Time dan Efisiensi Modul Surya Berbasis Pewarna Menggunakan Interkoneksi Seri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iqbal Febriana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya berbasis pewarna atau yang dikenal dengan dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC merupakan sel surya generasi baru yang bekerja berdasarkan photoelectrochemical. Proses absorpsi cahaya dilakukan oleh molekul pewarna (dye dan proses pemisahan muatan oleh bahan semikonduktor anorganik (dalam penelitian ini digunakan TiO2. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan pabrikasi modul surya menggunakan lapisan partikel nano TiO2 (non-scattering dan menggunakan campuran lapisan partikel nano TiO2 dengan lapisan partikel sub-mikron TiO2 (scattering. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui waktu hidup (life time dan efisiensi modul surya dengan bahan yang berbeda. Pabrikasi modul surya ini menggunakan teknik screen printing. Karakteristik life time diperoleh dari hasil pengukuran I-V yang dilakukan secara manual menggunakan lampu LED 15 Watt dengan intensitas 40 mW/cm2 . Pengujian life time dilakukan selama 500 jam, dan hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa modul surya dengan lapisan scattering dapat mempengaruhi karakteristik life time namun efisiensi yang didapatkan kurang baik yaitu sebesar 0,31% sedangkan modul surya dengan lapisan non-scattering menunjukkan efisiensi yang baik yaitu sebesar 1,83% namun karakteristik life time yang kurang baik.

  8. Hipertensi Sekunder akibat Perubahan Histologi Ginjal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadetha Nadeak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ginjal merupakan organ yang berperan penting dalam mengatur tekanan darah. Hipertensi merupakan penyakit kardiovaskular degeneratif dengan insidens yang meningkat dari tahun ke tahun. Sel juksta glomerular di dalam ginjal berperan penting dalam terjadinya hipertensi karena dalam juksta glomerulus dihasilkan renin. Renin berfungsi mengubah angiotensinogen menjadi angiotensinogen I, dan oleh pengaruh enzim proteolitik konvertase diubah menjadi angiotensin II yang berfungsi sebagai vasokonstriktor. Selanjutnya korteks kelenjar adrenal untuk melepaskan aldosteron yang mempengaruhi tubulus kontortus distalis untuk mereabsorbsi NaCl dan air. Kelainan pada sel juksta glomerular dapat mengakibatkan hipersekresi renin, sehingga mempengaruhi tekanan darah sistemik. Kelainan pembuluh darah yang sering menimbulkan hipertensi adalah stenosis (penyempitan karena aterosklerosis, displasia (stenosis non aterosklerosis dinding arteri di lapisan intima, lapisan media dan adventisia juga turut berperan. Di dalam lapisan intima terjadi fibroplasia intima, yaitu penimbunan jaringan fibrous sehingga lumen arteri menyempit. Pada lapisan media terjadi fibroplasia media, yaitu penimbunan jaringan fibrous dan atrofi otot polos, sehingga lumen arteri menyempit. Pada lapisan adventisia, terjadi penggantian dengan jaringan kolagen yang meluas ke jaringan ikat sehingga menjadi kaku dan sempit. Kelainan pada parenkim ginjal dapat berupa proliferasi sel dan jaringan parut. Jaringan parut itu akan menarik jaringan sekitarnya termasuk jaringan vaskular arteri interlobaris yang akan mengganggu vaskularisasi ginjal. Semua kelainan ini akan menimbulkan hipoksia ginjal, sehingga merangsang pelepasan renin yang berkibat terjadinya hipertensi renoparenkim dan renovaskular.

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné) in animals

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Thereza C. M. de; Morato, Gina S.; Takahashi, Reinaldo N.

    1991-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), partic...

  10. Læring i videnssamfundet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier.......Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier....

  11. Fra selvdannelse til eksistensoplysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en perspektiv......Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en...

  12. WOLFRAM (DIDMOAD) SENDROMU BULUNAN BİR OLGUDAKİ ORAL BULGULAR (OLGU BİLDİRİMİ)

    OpenAIRE

    Hatipoğlu, Hasan; Hatipoğlu, Müjgan Güngör; Kansu, Özden

    2018-01-01

    Wolfram Sendromu, nadir görülen konjenital, birçok sistemi etkileyebilen sendromdur. Diabetes mellitus,diabetes insipidus, optik atrofi ve sağırlık ile karakterizedir. Hastalarda nörolojik rahatsızlıklar ile üriner sistemrahatsızlıkları ve psikolojik rahatsızlıklar da izlenir. Diabetes mellitus ve optik atrofi ilk ortaya çıkan bulgulardır.Bu olgu raporunda 20 yaşındaki Wolfram sendromlu erkek hastanın klinik ve radyografik ağız bulgularısunulmaktadır.

  13. Stres, A ve B Tipi Kişilik Yapısı ve Bunlar Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Bir Araştırma(Stress, Type A And Type B Personalıty Charasterıstıcs And A Research On The Relatıonshıp Between Stress And The Two Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk DURNA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People are exposed to the stress due to various reasons. We can classify these reasons into two groups: organizational reasons and extraorganizational reasons. Today many techniques which aim to cope with stress have been developed. Stress could be managed and controlled by physiological, psychological, behavioral, environmental techniques.Type A individuals are extremely competitive, highly work oriented, impatient and sensitive to time. Type B individuals are with less conflict with both other people and time and have a more balanced and relaxed life style.Our research attempts to explore relationship between the individual stress level and Type A and Type B personality. It has been found that, individuals who have a high stress level show mostly Type A personality characteristics.

  14. Om formidling af kunst, kunsthistorie og billeder i anledning af nye bøger 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hans Dam

    2009-01-01

    Artiklen diskuterer væsentlige danske kunsthistoriske udgivelser fra 2008 med særlig henblik på at problematisere den brede kunsthistoriske formidlingslitteratur i en mere snæver teoretisk optik. Denne har sjældent samme brede gennemslagskraft, selv om den kan bruges til at pege på fx kønsproblem...

  15. Sexl Physik 7 für die 7. und 8. Klasse der allgemein bildenden höheren Schulen (1. Teil)

    CERN Document Server

    Sexl, Roman U; Stadler, Helga; Jakesch, Peter; Sattlberger, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Die Schwerpunkte dieses Bandes sind die Erarbeitung der Themen Optik, Atombau und Elektrodynamik über einen historisch-philosophischen Zugang. Wie in jedem Band des Lehrgangs sind übersichtliche Zusammenfassungen, Test- und weiterführende Fragen sowie Rechenbeispiele enthalten.

  16. Digital literacy som læringsoptik i det senmoderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grevy, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    indledes med en redegørelse for de aktuelle potentialer for folkeskolen i dag. Herefter følger et generelt koncept for digital literacy. I det tredje afsnit opstilles på baggrund af projektets undersøgelser udfordringer for den nye optik, og i det sidste afsnit gives et udblik, hvor konceptets muligheder...

  17. Isolasi Dye Organik Alam dan Karakterisasinya Sebagai Sensitizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurussaniah Nurussaniah

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui cara mengisolasi dan karakteristik dye organik alam sebagai sensitizer. Penelitian ini dilakukan melalui beberapa tahap yaitu persiapan, isolasi dye organik alam, karakterisasi sifat optik, analisis dan menyimpulkan. Isolasi dye organic alam dilakukan untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Penelitian ini menggunakan bahan alam yaitu jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata. Karakterisasi optik dye organik alam dalam penelitian ini dilihat dari spektrum absorbansi yang diukur menggunakan Spektrophotometer Uv-Vis. Spektrum absorbansi dye diukur dalam kuvet optik, pada panjang gelombang 350-800 . Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa isolasi dye organik alam diperoleh melalui metode ekstraksi, yaitu suatu metode untuk memperoleh sari dari bahan-bahan alam. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan dengan melarutkan biji jagung (Zea mays dan daging buah labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dalam pelarut etanol dengan konsentrasi 1:5. Karaktistik optik jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata  menunjukkan panjang gelombang yaitu berada pada cahaya tampak dengan rentang panjang gelombang 350 – 500 nm.  Dengan demikian  dye  beta-karoten yang berasal dari jagung (Zea mays dan labu kuning (Cucurbita moschata dapat dimanfaatkan sebagai sensitizer dalam prototipe Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC.

  18. Identifikasi Struktur Bawah Permukaaan Pada Lapangan Panasbumi X Dengan Menggunakan Metode Audio Magnetotelurik Dan Magnetotelurik

    OpenAIRE

    Dewi, Cinantya Nirmala; Maryanto, Sukir; Gaffar, Eddy Z

    2014-01-01

    Penelitian geofisika dengan menggunakan metode audio magnetotelurik dan magnetotelurik telah dilaksanakan di lapangan panasbumi X. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi struktur bawah permukaan dan menentukan sistem panasbumi di daerah penelitian. Daerah penelitian terdiri dari 3 lintasan dengan jumlah titik pengukuran sebanyak 24 titik. Pengolahan data dilakukan hingga didapatkan peta kontur resistivitas. Hasil pengolahan data 2D menunjukkan bahwa nilai resistivitas lapisan bawah p...

  19. Pendugaan Kedalaman Paisan dan Resistivitas Batuan dengan Metode Geolistrik di Daerah Temon Kabupaten Kulonprogo Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hartono

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Intrusi air laut ke daratan (air tanah sering dijumpai di daerah-daerah pantai. Dengan terjadinya intrusi maka kualitas air tanah menjadi berubah dan mungkin tidak dapat lagi digunakan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan air rumah tanga. Penelitian ini dilakukan di daerah Temon Kabupaten Kulonprogo DIY, yang merupakan daerah pantai, dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui resistivitas (tahanan jenis dan kedalaman lapisan-lapisan batuannya. Metode yang digunakan adalah metode geolistrik Schlumberger dengan interprestasi datanya secara manual. Berdasarkan interprestasi data penelitian maka dapat diperkirakan bahwa lapisan batuan di daerah penelitian terdiri dari: (1 batuan lembab mengandung air tanah dangkal dengan kedalaman 1,5 meter dengan resistivitas 6,8 ohm/m; (2 lapisan batuan kedap air pada kedalaman 20 meter dengan resistivitas 22,0 ohm/m; (3 batuan/akifer mengandung air tanah dalam pada kedalaman 100 meter dengan resistivitas 6,8 ohm/m; dan (4 batuan/akifer mengandung air asin pada kedalaman 200 meter dengan resistivitas 2,5 ohm/m.

  20. Pemodelan Matematik Kinerja Pengering Surya Efek Rumah Kaca (ERK-Hibrid Menggunakan Rak Berputar secara Vertikal (Mathematical Modeling Performance of Greenhouse Effect (GHE-Hybrid Solar Dryer with a Vertical Rotating Rack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Triwahyudi

    2016-12-01

    ini menyajikan uji unjuk kerja dan pemodelan matematik pengering energi surya (ERK-Hibrid  menggunakan  rak berputar secara vertikal. Pengering terdiri dari bangunan rumah kaca berukuran (1100 × 860 × 1300 mm dengan delapan buah rak dan sistim pemanas tambahan yang terdiri dari kolektor plat datar (1,04 m2, tangki penyimpan air panas (197 liter dan penukar panas. Untuk mengetahuikinerja pengering energi surya, dilakukan lima kali percobaan variasi kecepatan putar rak (1, 4, 7, 10 rpm dan tanpa pemutaran rak. Bahan yang dipergunakan pada pengujian adalah kapulaga lokal (Amomum cardamomum Wild. Masing-masing percobaan seberat 9 sampai dengan 10 kg. Rata-rata suhu air tangki penyimpan panas bervariasi dari 50,0 sampai dengan 55,0 °C suhu ruang pengering antara 38,9 sampai dengan 45,9 °C, sedangkan kelembaban relatif (RH ruang pengering berkisar antara 32,1 sampai dengan 47,4 %. Perlakuan pemutaran rak berpengaruh terhadap keseragaman suhu bahan maupun kadar air pada masing rak pengering. Pada perlakuan pemutaran 1 rpm (percobaan II, didapatkan kondisi terbaik (suhu bahan maupun kadar air yang paling seragam. Dengan kecepatan putar rak yang semakin meningkat menyebabkan nilai ragam suhu bahan maupun kadar air semakin meningkat. Untuk melakukan simulasi unjuk kerja dilakukan pemodelan matematik berdasarkan pindah panas dan massa serta pendekatan pengeringan lapisan tipis. Persamaan diselesaikan secara numerik menggunakan finite difference Euler dengan bantuan bahasa pemrograman Visual Basic Aplication (VBA Excell. Validasi dilakukan dengan membandingkan antara perhitungan hasil pemodelan (data prediksi dengan data hasil pengukuran (data observasi. Kriteria kevalidan ditentukan dengan melihat nilai koefisien determinasi (R2, nilai RMSD maupun nilai MAPD. Pemodelan  matematik yang telah dibangun dapat menggambarkan dengan tepat perubahan suhu air tangki penyimpan panas, suhu ruang pengering, suhu bahan maupun penurunan kadar air. Kata kunci: Pengering surya efek rumah

  1. Once Upon a Toxic Sanctuary: Partnering to Restore and Reclaim a Dakota Sacred Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Gould

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine the role of partnerships as they relate to the destruction and reconstruction of Wakaŋ Tipi and Indian Mounds Park as a Dakota sacred feminine, origin, birth site through a theoretical lens of critical Indigenous pedagogy of place (Trinidad, 2016 and partnership studies (Eisler, 2005. We discuss the deep historical, social, psychological, and cultural relationship the Dakota have to this sacred site and the challenge of partnering with non-Dakota entities to restore Wakaŋ Tipi/Indian Mounds Park from a toxic waste dump to a spiritual sanctuary.

  2. Bibliography of Soviet Laser Developments, Number 72, July - August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    automating experiments at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics of the USSR Academy of Sciences. CVSLAZAt, 8th. Tezisy dokladov. Part 2. IOF. Tomsk, 1984, 341...8217 4 w ~ ~ 1016. Vlokh , O.G. (LvGU). Electrodynamics in nonlinear optics . Elektrodinamika v nelineynoy optike. LvGU. L’vov, 1983, 83 p...Fizicheskiy institut im Lebedeva AN SSSR Physics Institute imeni Lebedev, Academy of Sciences USSR, Moscow FIANKuy Kuybyshevskiy filial Fizicheskogo instituta

  3. Konsep Dan Kinerja Dari Sistem Hybrid OCDMA/WDM Untuk Local Area Network

    OpenAIRE

    Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin

    2011-01-01

    Peningkatan kapasitas, distribusi bandwidth dan daya merupakan beberapa isu penting untuk aplikasi local area network (LAN). Saat ini, teknologi fiber optik sudah dapat mendukung jaringan akses dengan kecepatan tinggi untuk layanan multimedia diantaranya teknologi OCDMA dan WDM. Penambahan kapasitas transmisi LAN bisa dilakukan dengan penggabungan sistem transmisi OCDMA dengan WDM. Untuk itu, paper ini mengusulkan konsep dan kinerja dari sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM. Sistem hybrid OCDMA/WDM ini be...

  4. Kolloide in externen elektrischen und magnetischen Feldern

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Jinyu

    2011-01-01

    Kolloide spielen eine wichtige Rolle in der Forschung. In vielen Anwendungsgebieten, beispielsweise Optik, Mikro- und Nanoelektronik, Mikrofluidik, Automobilindustrie, Mineralölindustrie, dienen sie sowohl als Testsubstanzen als auch "Werkzeug", um grundlegende Vorgänge zu erforschen. In der Grundlagenforschung dienen kolloidale Suspensionen als Modelle für atomare und molekulare Systeme. In der vorliegenden Arbeit habe ich Suspensionen aus festen Kolloiden (auch als Partikel bezeichnet) in e...

  5. ANALISIS ANOMALI GRAVITASI SEBAGAI ACUAN DALAM PENENTUAN STRUKTUR GEOLOGI BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAN POTENSI GEOTHERMAL (Studi Kasus Di Daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Hidayat, Abdul Basid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan metode gravitasi pada tanggal 26 - 27 April 2011 di daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pola anomali Bouguer dan struktur geologi bawah permukaan serta potensi panasbumi di daerah tersebut. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif pada kontur anomali Bouguer  lengkap didapatkan variasi nilai anomali Bouguer antara  47,3 - 67,4 mGal dengan nilai anomali tinggi terdapat pada arah tenggara penelitian dan nilai anomali sedang pada arah tenggara-selatan dan timur laut daerah penelitian. Hampir 75% daerah penelitian didominasi oleh nilai anomali Bouguer rendah. Hasil interpretasi kuantitatif pada model penampang 2D lintasan AB dan CD, didapatkan tujuh lapisan batuan di bawah permukaan yaitu lapisan lapuk, tufa pasiran, anglomerat, lempung pasir, breksi tufaan terlempungkan, lava, dan breksi Vulkanik. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif dan kuantitatif serta penelitian sebelumya dapat disimpulkan bahwa potensi geothermal di daerah penelitian sangat kecil.

  6. PEMANFAATAN TEKNIK GEOLISTRIK UNTUK MENDETEKSI PERSEBARAN AIRTANAH ASIN PADA AKUIFER BEBAS DI KOTA SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persebaran airtanah asin di Kota Surabaya, menganalisis faktor penyebabnya dan mencari kemungkinan ditemukannya airtanah tawar pada akuifer tertekan. Untuk rnencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan pendugaan geolistrik pada tujuh penampang dengan masingmasing penampang terdiri atas dua hingga tiga titik pendugaan. Untuk menganalisis hash pendugaan, data tahanan jenis hash pendugaan lapangan diinterpretasi dengan Program Schlumberger 0 Weil. Hasil interpretasi dapat ditentukan kedalaman dan ketebalan lapisan airtanah beserta sifat-sifatnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Kota Surabaya telah terdeteksi adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau, dengan jarak dari garis pantai dan ketebalan lapisan yang beniariasi. Faktor penyebab adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau tersebut adalah air fosil (connate water Hasil lain dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa hingga kedalaman 150 meter dari permukaan tanah, tidak ditemukan akuifer tertekan yang mengandung airtanah tawar.

  7. PENENTUAN TAHANAN JENIS BATUAN ANDESIT MENGGUNAKAN METODE GEOLISTRIK KONFIGURASI SCHLUMBERGER (STUDI KASUS DESA POLOSIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Munaji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menentukan nilai resistivitas dan kedalaman batuan andesit di Desa Polosiri. Prinsip kerja metode geolistrik adalah mempelajari aliran listrik di dalam bumi dan cara mendeteksi di permukaan bumi. Metode tahanan jenis didasari oleh hukum Ohm, untuk mengetahui jenis lapisan batuan didasarkan pada distribusi nilai resistivitas pada tiap lapisan. Variasi harga tahanan jenis akan didapatkan jika jarak masing-masing elektroda diubah, sesuai konfigurasi alat yang dipakai (konfigurasi Schlumberger. Data hasil pengukuran di lapangan berupa beda potensial dan arus yang dapat digunakan untuk menghitung resistivitas semu. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga lintasan. Data hasil pengukuran diolah menggunakan software IPI2Win. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa batuan andesit di Desa Polisiri memiliki resistivitas 212 Ωm – 300 Ωm dengan kedalaman 1.3 m - 1.86 m.

  8. Analisis SWOT Implementasi Tekonologi Finansial terhadap Kualitas Layanan Perbankan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Adhitya Wulanata Chrismastianto

    2017-04-01

    Menyikapi realisasi era digital saat ini, kualitas layanan perbankan di Indonesia diharapkan semakin meningkat secara signifikan, agar mampu menjangkau seluruh lapisan masyarakat, khususnya bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah 3T (Terdepan, Terluar, dan Terpencil. Namun, pada kenyataannya kualitas layanan perbankan di Indonesia saat ini masih minim dalam mengakses masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah 3T tersebut. Mencermati berbagai realita yang telah diuraikan di atas, maka melalui analisis SWOT implementasi kebijakan teknologi finansial ini, diharapkan kualitas layanan perbankan semakin dapat ditingkatkan dan dirasakan oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat Indonesia secara riil dan para pelaku perbankan dapat memahami pengelolaan fungsi manajemen perbankan dengan tepat didasarkan pada sikap takut akan Tuhan dan menghargai sesama, dalam konteks pengelolaan aset internal maupun eksternal yang mencakup aktivitas perbankan secara holistik. Dengan demikian, tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis secara lebih mendalam mengenai kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang, dan ancaman (SWOT implementasi teknologi finansial terhadap kualitas layanan perbankan Indonesia di era digital melalui studi literatur perbankan.

  9. Are reflective models appropriate for very short scales? Proofs of concept of formative models using the Ten-Item Personality Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myszkowski, Nils; Storme, Martin; Tavani, Jean-Louis

    2018-04-27

    Because of their length and objective of broad content coverage, very short scales can show limited internal consistency and structural validity. We argue that it is because their objectives may be better aligned with formative investigations than with reflective measurement methods that capitalize on content overlap. As proofs of concept of formative investigations of short scales, we investigate the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). In Study 1, we administered the TIPI and the Big Five Inventory (BFI) to 938 adults, and fitted a formative Multiple Indicator Multiple Causes model, which consisted of the TIPI items forming 5 latent variables, which in turn predicted the 5 BFI scores. These results were replicated in Study 2, on a sample of 759 adults, with, this time, the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) as the external criterion. The models fit the data adequately, and moderate to strong significant effects (.37<|β|<.69, all p<.001) of all 5 latent formative variables on their corresponding BFI and NEOPI-R scores were observed. This study presents a formative approach that we propose to be more consistent with the aims of scales with broad content and short length like the TIPI. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structures and morphotectonic evolution of the frontal fold–thrust ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    52

    MBT) at N. 57 ... The Indian lithospheric plate flexed and subsided presumably by in-. 81 ... Kimin Formation that are parts of hanging wall flat of the HFT, and (ii) MBT and Tipi Thrust: at ... least 6 km of crustal layer (Lang and Huntington 2014).

  11. An entropy theorem for computing the capacity of weakly (d, k)-constrained sequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.J.E.M.; Schouhamer Immink, K.A.

    2000-01-01

    We find an analytic expression for the maximum of the normalized entropy -SieTpiln pi/SieTipi where the set T is the disjoint union of sets Sn of positive integers that are assigned probabilities Pn, SnPn =1. This result is applied to the computation of the capacity of weakly (d,k)-constrained

  12. There is no need for the terms polysemy and homonymy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, by changing the definitions of polysemy and homonymy to phenomena where an expression has two or more meanings, thereby focusing on the ... Hierdie artikel bied 'n radikaal ander benadering tot polisemie en homonimie vergeleke met die benaderings oor hierdie onderwerp wat tipies in taalkundige en ...

  13. Same-sex marriage in South Africa: The road ahead | Robinson ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    n hierdie bydrae word die problematiek oor "huwelike" tussen persone van dieselfde geslag aan die orde gestel. 'n Oorsig word gebied oor die verskillende fasette van die debat en die argumente wat tipies daarin aangevoer word. Op grond van 'n teoretiese verantwoording oor die aard van die huwelik word standpunt oor ...

  14. Moneneheo and Naheverien: Cheyenne and Mennonite Sewing Circles, Convergences and Conflicts, 1890-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Kimberly D.

    2011-01-01

    Swiss emigres and Mennonite missionaries Marie and Rodolphe Petter were welcomed into Cheyenne Chief Red Moon's band in Oklahoma. Away from the interference of other whites, they decided to live like their new neighbors and pitched a tipi before building a more substantial structure. There they continued their studies of the Cheyenne language and…

  15. Building ASIPS the Mescal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Gries, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A number of system designers use ASIP's rather than ASIC's to implement their system solutions. This book gives a comprehensive methodology for the design of these application-specific instruction processors (ASIPs). It includes demonstrations of applications of the methodologies using the Tipi research framework.

  16. The essayistic style of Walter Benjamin

    OpenAIRE

    Ceserani, Remo

    2015-01-01

    Članek obravnava tipični esejistični stil Walterja Benjamina. Za vse žanre njegovega pisanja je značilna alegoričnost in surrealističnost s skritimi ter zasebnimi (in esejističnimi) pomeni, a tudi s preroško halucinatorično napetostjo.

  17. Emozioni diverse per giudizi morali diversi?

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Margoni

    2013-01-01

    Emozioni differenti amplificherebbero diversi tipi di giudizio morale. Ad affermare che la ricerca sulle emozioni supporterebbe una conclusione di questo tipo, sono gli psicologi Horberg, Oveis e Keltner, che sviluppano la loro argomentazione in una pubblicazione su Emotion Review titolata "Emotions as Moral Amplifiers: An Appraisal Tendency Approach to the Influences of Distinct Emotions upon Moral Judgment".

  18. 77 FR 13624 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate Cultural Items: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Law...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Service is not responsible for the determinations in this notice. History and Description of the Cultural...; Items 7 and 12: eagle bone whistle; Item 15: dance club; Item 16: dance staff; Items 23-25: replica... feather headdress; Item 65: medicine bundle; and Item 69: leather tipi bag and contents. Item 16 (dance...

  19. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: An Examination of the Behaviors of Leaders in Student Services Administrative Officers Positions within Southern California Based Institutions of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jalin A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the Big Five Personality Traits and the leaders self-efficacy as measured by the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) as developed by Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann, 2003 and the Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure as developed by Chan and Drasgow (2001) for Student…

  20. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  1. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  2. Karakteristik Pasta TiO2 Suhu Rendah untuk Aplikasi Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariya Al Qibtiya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Pada tulisan ini, diuraikan karakteristik pasta TiO2 suhu rendah untuk aplikasi sel surya berbasis dye-sensitized yang dipreparasi dengan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor. Penambahan TiO2 reflektor sebagai light scattering layer pada pasta dilakukan untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap karakteristik listrik sel surya yang dihasilkan. Preparasi pasta dilakukan menggunakan bahan komersial yaitu pasta T-Nanooxide D-L (Solaronix dan serbuk pasta WER2-O (Dyesiol sebagai bahan reflector. Bahan tersebut dianalisis struktur kristalnya. Hasil karakterisasi X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukan bahwa bahan TiO2 serbuk yang digunakan adalah nanokristal dengan struktur kristal anatase. Pasta ini dideposisi di atas permukaan plastik dan kaca konduktif (ITO-PET dan FTO dengan metode doctor blade printing. Proses sintering lapisan TiO2 dilakukan pada suhu rendah yaitu 120 ˚C selama 4 jam. Morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2 dianalisa menggunakan Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Lapisan TiO2 yang terbentuk diaplikasikan pada DSSC sebagai fotoelektroda. Pewarnaan dengan larutan N-719 (Ruthenium Complex, lapisan elektroda kerja platina dan larutan elektrolit iodine. Karakteristik kurva I-V dengan ukuran sel daerah aktif 1 cm2 diukur menggunakan Sun Simulator AM1,5 dengan sumber cahaya Xenon dan intensitas 50 mW/cm2. Hasil pengukuran menunjukkan penambahan serbuk TiO2 reflektor dapat meningkatkan unjuk kerja sel surya fleksibel yang dihasilkan. Efisiensi terbaik DSSC yang dihasilkan adalah 0,166% untuk substrat plastik dan 0,167% untuk substrat kaca.

  3. Analisis Kinerja Local Area Network Menggunakan Router.

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Yosua

    2012-01-01

    Perangkat internetworking menawarkan komunikasi di antara segmen Local Area Network (LAN). Ada empat tipe utama perangkat internetworking ini: repeater, bridge, router, dan gateway. Perangkat ini dibedakan atas dasar system lapisan Open System Interconnection (OSI) yang digunakan, berfungsi sebagai media komunikasi dari LAN ke LAN. Pada Tugas Akhir ini penulis tertarik untuk membahas analisis kinerja Local Area Network (LAN) menggunakan Router yang menggunakan sistem antrian M/M/1 dimana j...

  4. Peningkatan Sifat Mekanik Kawat Anyam (Wire Mesh) Baja Melalui Proses Pelapisan Nikel

    OpenAIRE

    Widagdo, Baskara Surya; Sulistyo, Sulistyo

    2017-01-01

    Teknologi pelapisan logam telah berkembang dengan pesat. Metode yang dikembangkan bervariasi. Salah satu tujuan teknologi pelapisan logam adalah untuk meningkatkan kualitas logam baik dari sifat ketahanan korosi maupun peningkatan ketahanan sifat mekanik seperti tahan aus maupun kekuatan tarik logam tersebut. Paper ini membahas tentang teknologi pelapisan logam berbentuk kawt anyam (wire mesh) menggunakan lapisan nikel. Kawat anyam dibersihkan dengan larutan HCl dan dicuci dengan air sabun ke...

  5. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman dan Jenis Minuman Beralkohol Bir dan Tuak terhadap Kekerasan Email Gigi Manusia (In Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie

    2014-01-01

    Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...

  6. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman Dan Jenis Minuman Beralkohol Bir Dan Tuak Terhadap Kekerasan Email Gigi Manusia (in Vitro)

    OpenAIRE

    Magista, Malida; Nuryanti, Archadian; Wahyudi, Ivan Arie

    2014-01-01

    Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro). Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi m...

  7. Tingkat Kesadaran dan Kepedulian Konsumen terhadap Environmental Values yang Menentukan Efektivitas Green Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Saragih, Rintan

    2016-01-01

    Kesadaran dunia terhadap lingkungan mulai bergema dan menjadi pusat perhatian seiring adanya Perubahan iklim akibat pemanasan global yang membuat cuaca tidak menentu dan banyaknya bencana alam. Salah satu biang utama masalah lingkungan adalah household product yang menyebabkan penumpukan sampah, pembuangan limbah kimia, pemborosan energi listrik dan gas buangan alat elektronik seperti AC dan kulkas turut andil dalam menipiskan lapisan ozon. “Green Marketing” kemudian menjadi alternatif strate...

  8. ANALISIS VEGETASI DAN VISUALISASI STRUKTUR VEGETASI HUTAN KOTA BARUGA, KOTA KENDARI Vegetation Analysis and Visualization of vegetation Structure Baruga Urban Forest, Kendari City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi, struktur dan tingkat keragaman vegetasi di Hutan Kota Baruga, Kota Kendari. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode sensus. Data dianalisis untuk memperoleh Indeks Nilai Penting (INP dan Index Keanekaragaman Shannon-Wiener (H'. Software Sexi-FS digunakan untuk mendapatkan visualisasi distribusi vegetasi dan stratifikasi lapisan tajuk yang menyerupai kondisi lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi vegetasi disusun oleh 76 spesies yang terkelompok dalam 29 famili dengan jumlah total 8.296 individu untuk semua spesies. Alstonia macrophylla, Gironniera subaequalis dan Nephelium lappaceum adalah spesies yang mendominasi komunitas vegetasi. Distribusi vegetasi menunjukkan pola distribusi mengelompok, dengan stratifikasi terdiri 4 lapisan tajuk, yang menunjukkan bahwa lokasi-studi disusun oleh lapisan tajuk yang relatif lengkap. Indeks keragaman tergolong tinggi, dengan nilai lebih dari 3 pada tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, tiang dan pancang, kecuali pada tingkat semai dengan H'= 2,89. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketahanan ekosistem hutan cukup baik. Kata Kunci : Komposisi vegetasi, Keanekaragaman, Struktur vegetasi, Hutan Kota.

  9. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  10. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (Guiné) in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, T C; Morato, G S; Takahashi, R N

    1991-01-01

    Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae) is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", "pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacological properties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS), particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid--acetylcholine--and hypertonic saline--induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests. P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its popular use as an analgesic.

  11. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-09-30

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  12. A review on meta-heuristic approaches to solving flexible job shop scheduling problem

    OpenAIRE

    Kaya, Serkan; Fığlalı, Nilgün

    2016-01-01

    Gerçek yaşam uygulamaları arasında yer alan esnek atölye tipi çizelgeleme (EATÇ) problemleri, klasik atölye tipi çizelgeleme (ATÇ) probleminin genişletilmiş halidir. ATÇ problemlerinde paralel makineler yoktur. Atölyede işlerin paralel makinelerde işlenmesi söz konusu olduğunda EATÇ problemi ortaya çıkar. EATÇ problemlerinde işlerin rotaları birbirinden farklıdır ve her iş en az bir operasyondan oluşmaktadır. Bu operasyonlar, birbirine paralel makine setlerinden herhangi birinde işlem görürle...

  13. Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits as Predictors of Occupational Therapy students' Practice Education Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Etherington, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence and personality traits are predictive of specific aspects of their fieldwork performance. A total of 114 second and third year undergraduate occupational therapy students (86.6% response rate) completed the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genos EI) and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). Fieldwork performance scores were obtained from the Student Practice Evaluation Form Revised (SPEF-R). Linear regressions were completed with the SPEF-R domains being the dependent variables and the Genos EI and TIPI factors being the independent variables. Regression analysis results revealed that the Genos EI subscales of Emotional Management of Others (EMO), Emotional Awareness of Others (EAO), Emotional Expression (EEX) and Emotional Reasoning (ERE) were significant predictors of various domains of students' fieldwork performance. EAO and ERE were significant predictors of students' Communication Skills accounting for 4.6% of its variance. EMO, EAO, EEX and ERE were significant predictors of students' Documentation Skills explaining 6.8% of its variance. EMO was a significant predictor of students' Professional Behaviour accounting for 3.2% of its variance. No TIPI factors were found to be significant predictors of the SPEF-R domains. Occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of components of their fieldwork performance while students' personality traits were not. The convenience sampling approach used, small sample size recruited and potential issue of social desirability of the self-reported Genos EI and TIPI data are acknowledged as study limitations. It is recommended that other studies be completed to investigate if any other relevant constructs or factors are predictive of occupational therapy students' fieldwork performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. La sfida: dire “qualcosa di antropologico” sulla scuola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Piasere

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Come tutte le istituzioni, la scuola si presta a entrare in molti tipi di discorsi e a suscitarne altrettanti; come tutte le invenzioni culturali complesse, può essere oggetto di valutazioni, emozioni, convinzioni, aspettative contrastanti; come ogni costruzione a vocazione universalistica con la tentazione intrinseca all’espansione planetaria (per ora: ma si pensino alle scuole con alunni intergalattici che compaiono in Star Trek…

  15. Recensione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluso Pasquale

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Edito per i tipi della Wolters Kluwer – Cedam, il manuale Principi di Criminologia di Balloni, Bisi e Sette si segnala per la vastità degli argomenti trattati e per l’originalità dell’approccio metodologico scelto. L’opera si compone di due tomi e si avvale anche di contributi di altri studiosi per la trattazione di alcune specifiche tematiche.

  16. Sociosemiotica e generi comunicativi: una proposta per analizzare la comunicazione nel web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Cavalli

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Il web può essere definito come uno spazio antropologico, uno spazio di significati caratterizzato dalla rivoluzione dei concetti spazio/temporali. Per analizzare la comunicazione web con un modello che possa essere valido anche per altri tipi di comunicazione viene proposto l'approccio sociosemiotico. In quest'ambito viene sviluppato il concetto di genere comunicativo, che vuole essere la chiave per analizzare la comunicazione e trarre indicazioni sulle carateristiche sociali della comunità di riferimento.

  17. Čizmar

    OpenAIRE

    Rajčić, Vlatka; Čizmar, Dean

    2008-01-01

    U proteklih nekoliko godina, stvaraju se novi materijali na osnovi drva i polimera – drvoplastika (Wood Plastic Composites - WPC). Drvoplastika se definira kao kompozitni materijal koji sadrži drvo (u bilo kojem obliku) i termoplastične polimere ili termostabilne polimere. U radu se prikazuje povijesni pregled uporabe drvoplastike, struktura i način proizvodnje, tipični elementi od kompozitnih materijala, fizikalna i mehanička svojstva, te prednosti i mane ovog materijala.

  18. Fisica. I progressi nello studio delle particelle piu' abbondanti ma piu mistriose

    CERN Multimedia

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    2003-01-01

    "Caccia ai neutrino conferme all'inutizione di Pontecorvo: hanno una masa (sia pure minima) e i loro 3 tipi si mutano l'uno nell'altro fisica i progressi nello studio delle particelle piu' abbondanti ma piu' misteriose". [The hunt for the neutrinos. Pontecorvo's theory has been confirmed: the neutrino has a mass (though minimal). It switches from one of the 3 types into the others].

  19. Automated web page testing with Laravel

    OpenAIRE

    Volk, Matic

    2015-01-01

    Porast števila spletnih aplikacij je vplival na uporabo naprednih metod za njihov razvoj. V ospredju so agilne metode, ki vpeljujejo razvijanje, vključno s testiranjem. Testno voden način razvoja spletnih strani zajema pisanje testov, preden se začne implementacija posamezne funkcionalnosti spletne strani. V diplomski nalogi so opisani tipi testov, ki so prikazani tudi na primeru razvoja spletne strani. Testiranje poteka po komponentah glede na vlogo, ki je komponenti namenjena. Predstavljeni...

  20. ANALIZA IN DOBRE PRAKSE PRISTAJALNIH STRANI

    OpenAIRE

    Grušovnik, Matej

    2016-01-01

    V diplomskem delu je opisan nastanek, razvoj in razlog za obstoj pristajalnih strani ter ločeni so glavni tipi le-teh. Predstavljene in preverjene so dobre prakse pri zasnovanju vsebine in oblikovanju pristajalnih strani. Barvni kontrast, velikosti elementov in tipografija so le nekateri izmed dejavnikov, ki določajo uspešnost pristajalne strani. Besedilo identificira in predstavi ključne elemente, ki jih mora vsebovati dobra pristajalna stran. Predstavljena in uporabljena je tehnika AB testi...

  1. PERFORMA DOMBA YANG DIBERI COMPLETE FEED KULIT BUAH KAKAO TERFERMENTASI

    OpenAIRE

    Kamalidin (Kamalidin); Ali Agus; I Gede Suparta Budisatria

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa domba yang diberi complete feed kulit buah kakao (KBK) terfermentasi. Domba ekor tipis umur 1-1,5 tahun sebanyak 15 ekor digunakan dalam penelitian ini dengan pemberian pakan dan air minum secara ad libitum. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah K yang merupakan pakan kontrol terdiri dari hijauan (sumber serat) + konsentrat, NF merupakan complete feed dari kulit buah kakao (sumber serat) + konsentrat tanpa fermentasi dan F merupakan complete feed d...

  2. The Gorge of the Missouri: An Archeological Survey of Lewis and Clark Lake, Nebraska and South Dakota. Volume 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-01

    cattle, horses, swine, and poultry contributing to the mixed farming economy. Severe droughts from 1890 to 1895 destroyed most of these gains in...parts) of American or European manufacture, butchered bone, tipi remains, and the like. Such finds, even if discovered, would be difficult to link...to what was being processed. It is likely that this was a butchering site and, as such, it does not have a high probability of being dated or of

  3. Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Raleaooa, PV

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 1286 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Raleaooa_20160_2018.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Optik - International... journal for Light and Electron Optics Analysis of the structure, particle morphology and photoluminescent properties of ZnS:Mn2+ nanoparticulate phosphors Raleaooa PV Roodt A Mhlongo GH Motaung DE Ntwaeaborwa OM ABSTRACT: The structure...

  4. Studerendes orientering i fleksible professionsuddannelsers læringsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    Implementeringen af fleksible videregående uddannelser i lærer- og radiografuddannelsen på University College North danner baggrund for denne undersøgelse af, hvorledes studerende orienterer sig i fleksible miljøer. Det afsløres, hvorledes de studerendes mentale, fysiske og virtuelle orientering i...... ved orienteringsprocesser med at finde vej, altså ’wayfinding’. ’Wayfinding’ giver, som metaforisk grundlag, basis for en begrebsliggørelse af lærerprocesser ud fra en fænomenologisk-økologisk optik, som er karakteriseret ved dimensionerne spatialitet, mobilitet, interaktionalitet, struktualitet...

  5. Numeriske tåger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    med dette talpar omtyder vi alt, hvad der lader sig omtyde, til tabeller i en ustoppelig bevægelse, som efterlader det omtydede til glemsel og nostalgi. Afhængig af hvordan vi anskuer disse tabeller, i det rene Aristoteliske perspektiv eller i Heideggers mere spekulative optik, er det enten causa...... finalis eller causa efficiens, som tabellerne fremstiller for os, men hvad blev der af causa materialis og causa formalis undervejs? Og at producere betyder netop at stille frem, at fremstille - dette vægter ifølge sagens natur det 'stillads' - den teknik eller teknologi - gennem hvilket noget stilles...

  6. Transverse mode selection in a monolithic microchip laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available selection in a monolithic microchip laser Darryl Naidooa,b, Thomas Godinc, Michael Fromagerc, Emmanuel Cagniotc, Nicolas Passillyd, Andrew Forbesa,b and Kamel A?t-Ameurc1 a:CSIR National Laser Centre, P. O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa b.... Lett. 77 (2000) 34-36. [14] W. Zhao, J. Tan and L. Qui, ?Improvement of confocal microscope performance by shaped annular beam and heterodyne confocal techniques,? Optik 116 (2005) 111-117. [15] T. Shiina, K. Yoshida, M. Ito and Y. Okamura, ?Long...

  7. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM. Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF. ABSTRACT In this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  8. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  9. GIDA ALERJİSİNİN MİGREN VE GERİLİM BAŞ AĞRISINDAKİ ROLÜ: GÜNCEL BİR BAKIŞ VE GÖZDEN GEÇİRME /THE ROLE OF FOOD ALLERGY IN MIGRAINE AND TENSION TYPE HEADACHE AT A GLANCE: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    OpenAIRE

    Durmaz, Fatma Nazlı

    2016-01-01

    Özet: Gıdalara karşı gelişen immunoglobulin G (IgG) tipi antikorların kronik inflamasyona yol açarak irritabl barsak sendromu, obezite gibi bir çok hastalığın patojenezinde rol oynadığı bir süredir bilinmektedir. Migren ve gerilim tipi baş ağrısı benzer şekilde IgG tipi geç başlangıçlı kronik inflamatuar yanıtın ağrı ve diğer semptomların oluşumunda rol aldığının saptandığı, ancak bunun nedeninin tam olarak anlaşılamadığı, çok sık saptanan hastalıklardır. Yakın zamanda spesifik gıdaların uzun...

  10. PEMODELAN PENYEBARAN BATUAN POTENSIAL PEMBENTUK ASAM PADA KAWASAN PENAMBANGAN BATUBARA TAMBANG TERBUKA DI MUARA LAWA, KABUPATEN KUTAI BARAT, KALIMANTAN TIMUR (Modeling Distribution of Rock Potential Acid Forming in Open Pit Coal Mining Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalaho Dina Devy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Dampak penambangan batubara tambang terbuka adalah munculnya Air Asam Tambang (AAT di sekitar lingkungan penambangan yang mempengaruhi kualitas air tambang, biota air, kualitas air dan tanah. Oleh karena itu, informasi awal untuk mengantisipasi dampak tersebut, yaitu identifikasi batuan yang berpotensi asam dan memodelkan penyebarannya. Kajian geologi dan mineralogi batuan berperan dalam mengetahui penyebaran batuan Potential Acid Forming (PAF dan Non Acid Forming (NAF. Kawasan tambang yang digunakan sebagai model penelitian berada di Kecamatan Muara Lawa, Kabupaten Kutai Barat, Kalimantan Timur. Hasil dari penelitian mengindikasikan, bahwa dominasi PAF berada di lapisan batu lempung kemudian diikuti batu lanau dan batu pasir dengan penyebaran mengikuti struktur sinklin yang terbatas di lapisan bawah (floor dan lapisan antara (inter burden pada batubara. Sementara itu, batuan NAF menyebar menempati daerah selain batuan PAF. ABSTRACT The impact of open pit coal mining is the emergence of Acid Mine Water (AMD around the mining environment that affect the quality of the mine water, aquatic biota, water and soil quality. Therefore, early information to anticipate these impacts is the identification potential acid rock and distribution model as a guide for the mining plan. Geological and geochemical study of rocks is important in knowing the distribution of rock Potential Acid Formning (PAF and Non Acid Forming (NAF. Mining area which is used as a research model was in Muara Lawa, West Kutai regency, East Kalimantan province. The results of the study indicate, that the dominance of PAF are in layers followed by siltstone, claystone and sandstone with the distribution of rock following the syncline structure in the bottom (floor layer and in the inter-burden layer on coal. Meanwhile, rock NAF spread in areas other than rock PAF.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN MODEL PREDIKSI MADDEN-JULIAN OSCILLATION (MJO BERBASIS HASIL ANALISIS DATA WIND PROFILER RADAR (WPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naziah Madani

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang penelitian ini adalah pentingnya kajian mengenai MJO sebagai salah satu osilasi dominan di kawasan ekuator. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat model prediksi MJO berdasarkan analisis data WPR. Pada penelitian ini kejadian MJO diidentifikasi dari data kecepatan angin zonal pada lapisan 850 mb di kawasan Pontianak, Manado, dan Biak. Sebelum data angin zonal ini dimanfaatkan untuk melihat perilaku MJO, maka data angin tersebut  terlebih dahulu dibandingkan dengan data indeks MJO yaitu RMM1 dan RMM2. RMM1 dan RMM2 merupakan sepasang indeks untuk memonitor kejadian MJO secara realtime. Hasil analisis Power Spectral Density (PSD data kecepatan angin zonal lapisan 850 mb menunjukkan adanya sinyal MJO kuat yang dicirikan dengan adanya osilasi sekitar 45 harian. Hasil korelasi dan regresi juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat keterkaitan yang signifikan antara kedua data tersebut. Hal tersebut mengindikasikan bahwa data kecepatan angin zonal lapisan 850 mb dapat digunakan untuk analisis MJO. Pada penelitian ini, prediksi MJO didasarkan pada data kecepatan angin zonal menggunakan metode ARIMA Box-Jenkins. Melalui metode ini, model yang mendekati data deret waktu kecepatan angin zonal pada lapisan 850 mb di Pontianak adalah ARIMA(2,0,0, model prediksi untuk Manado adalah ARIMA(2,1,2, sedangkan untuk Biak adalah ARIMA(0,1,3. Model-model tersebut bermanfaat untuk melihat perilaku sinyal MJO pada data angin zonal berkaitan dengan pola curah hujan di wilayah kajian.   Background of this research is to study the importance of MJO as one of the predominant peak oscillation in the equator area. This study aims to make prediction models of MJO based on the analysis of zonal wind speed data observed by WPR that compared by the MJO index data, namely RMM1 and RMM2. The results of PSD show strong MJO signal of 45 day periods oscillations. The result of corrrelation and regression analyses also show significant relationship between both data. Therefore

  12. ANALISIS PENINGKATAN MUTU PELAYANAN SMU ISLAM YMI DENGAN METODE QUALITY FUNCTION DEPLOYMENT (QFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafidh Munawir

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Arti penting dari pendidikan telah disadari oleh kalangan masyarakat dari berbagai lapisan, oleh karena itu mutu pelayanan dan kualitas sekolah merupakan masalah yang harus diperhatikan. SMU Islam YMI harus menciptakan, mengembangkan dan meningkatkan kualitas pelayanannya, dalam bentuk atribut atau karakteristik yang sesuai dengan keinginan atau kebutuhan siswa. Sehingga mampu bersaing dengan SMU-SMU lain. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui mutu pelayanan dan prioritas upaya peningkatan kinerja di SMU Islam YMI sesuai dengan keinginan siswa berdasarkan metode Quality Function Deployment (QFD. Dalam penelitian ini disusun atribut-atribut yang menjadi prioritas untuk diperhatikan dan dikembangkan, dan juga evaluasi pembanding dari mutu pelayanan SMU Islam YMI dengan SMUN 1 Kedungwuni.

  13. Aplikasi Diagnosis Kelainan Refraksi Mata Dan Tips Perawatan Mata Dengan Metode Forward Chaining Berbasis Web

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayyidah Fathimah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis merupakan penentuan jenis-jenis penyakit berdasarkan penelitian sesuai dengan gejala-gejala yang dialami. Gejala gangguan penglihatan yang sering dialami adalah rabun. Rabun dapat berupa rabun melihat benda jauh, rabun melihat benda pada jarak dekat dan lain-lain. Semua jenis rabun mata pada intinya merupakan gangguan memfokuskan bayangan benda yang dilihat atau kelainan refraksi (Ametropia. Untuk mengetahui kelainan refraksi pada mata di Rosya Optikal masih menggunakan cara manual yaitu dengan pasien datang ke Rosya Optikal melakukan pendaftaran, pemeriksaan mata, refraksionis optisien mendiagnosis dan memberikan hasil diagnosisnya, memberikan tips perawatan mata beserta resep pembuatan kacamata diberikan kepada pasien. Cara ini merupakan hal yang biasa dilakukan, namun tidak semua orang mempunyai waktu dan kesempatan untuk melakukan pemeriksaan mata dikarenakan kesibukan pekerjaan yang harus dilakukan. Melihat alasan diatas, maka diperlukan pembuatan alat bantu untuk diagnosis kelainan refraksi pada mata dan memberikan tips perawatan mata. Pembuatan Aplikasi Diagnosis Kelainan Refraksi Pada Mata dan Tips Perawatan Mata dengan Metode Forward Chaining yaitu metode pencarian atau teknik pelacakan ke depan yang dimulai dengan informasi yang ada dan penggabungan rule untuk menghasilkan suatu kesimpulan atau tujuan. Pengujian aplikasi menggunakan black box testing yang dilakukan hanya mengamati hasil eksekusi melalui data uji dan memeriksa fungsional dari perangkat lunak.Dengan adanya alat bantu ini, pengguna dapat mengetahui kelainan mata yang dialami, mendapatkan tips perawatan mata sehingga dapat merawat dan mencegah penyakit mata yang berkelanjutan dan solusi jenis kacamata jika diperlukan.

  14. Pengaruh komposisi komposit al2o3/ysz dan variasi feed rate terhadap ketahanan termal dan kekuatan lekat pada Ysz-al2o3/ysz double layer tbc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parindra Kusriantoko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available TBC (Thermal Barrier Coating dengan YSZ-Al2O3/YSZ top coat (TCdan MCrAlY sebagai bond coat (BC yang selanjutnya disebut sebagai YSZ-Al2O3/YSZ double layer TBC dibuat dengan menggunakan metode flame spray.Hasil pelapisan sebelum dan sesudah diuji termal dikarakterisasi menggunakan SEM, EDX dan XRD.Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa semakin tinggi powder feed rate akan berpengaruh pada morfologi permukaan lapisan. Feed rate makin rendah menyebabkan struktur yang cenderung kasar dan tidak padat dan cenderung berporos. Lapisan komposit Al2O3/YSZ juga sangat berpengaruh pada pertumbuhan TGO (Thermally Grown Oxide setelah dilakukan uji termal, dimana komposisi paling bagus dengan pertumbuhan TGO paling rendah adalah 15%Al2O3/8YSZ. Hasil pengujian TGA menunjukkan semua sampel mulai teroksidasi pada temperatur 1000-1030oC dan didapatkan sampel paling stabil adalah 15% Al2O3/8YSZ 14 dan 20 gr/min. Dari pengujian XRD sampel yang memiliki fasa yang paling stabil adalah 15%Al2O3/8YSZ dengan fasa t-ZrO2 dan m-ZrO2. Dari pengujian Thermal Torch dan Pull Off komposisi 15%Al2O3/8YSZjuga memiliki ketahanan terhadap pengerusakan yang paling baik dan kelekatan yang baik sebesar 10 MPa.

  15. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  16. Pendugaan Sebaran Air Tanah Menggunakan Metode Geolistrik Resistivitas Konfigurasi Wenner dan Schlumberger di Kampus 2 Universitas Cokroaminoto Palopo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahma Hi. Manrulu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Air sangat penting dalam kehidupan karena mahluk hidup tidak dapat hidup tanpa adanya air. Identifikasi untuk mengetahui keberadaan lapisan pembawa air pada kedalaman tertentu, dapat menggunakan metode geofisika yaitu metode geolistrik tahanan jenis konfigurasi Wenner dan Schlumberger. Prinsip metode resisitivitas adalah dengan mengalirkan arus listrik ke dalam bumi melalui kontak dua elektroda arus, kemudian di ukur distribusi potensial yang dihasilkan. Deposit glasial pasir dan kerikil, kipas aluvial dataran banjir dan deposit delta pasir semuanya merupakan sumber-sumber air yang sangat baik. Pada konfigurasi Wenner air tanah berada di permukaan sampai kedalaman 12 m, dengan jarak elektroda 17 – 31 m dan nilai Resistivitas 30 – 100 Ωm. kemudian kembali terlihat di jarak elektroda 39 – 72 m, dengan kedalaman dari permukaan sampai 12,3 m, sedangkan pada titik berbeda menggunakan konfigurasi Wenner terlihat air tanah dalam lapisan alluvial berada sekitar kedalaman 1,053 – 11,82 m. dengan nilai resistivitas 10 – 30 Ωm. hal tersebut di atas didasarkan karena sekitar lokasi penelitian terdapat beberapa batuan yang memiliki porositas dan permeabilitas yang bagus seperti pasir dan kerikil. serta dekatnya sumber air.

  17. QuickASP: PEMBANGKIT KODE PROGRAM ASP UNTUK APLIKASI BASIS DATA BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kuswardayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam pembuatan sistem aplikasi basis data berbasis web, perancangan antarmuka pengguna (presentation layer dan lapisan bisnis (bussiness layer merupakan tahap yang dilalui setelah pemahaman terhadap kebutuhan pengguna sistem. Adanya pola atau keteraturan dalam implementasi tahap ini menyebabkan pengembangan sistem akan lebih efisien jika menggunakan suatu aplikasi yang dapat menghasilkan kerangka dasar aplikasi web dengan cepat untuk kedua lapisan tersebut dan bahkan beserta kode programnya. Pada penelitian ini telah diimplementasikan suatu perangkat lunak yang selanjutnya disebut QuickASP. QuickASP membangkitkan kode ASP untuk membangun  homepage otomatis. Untuk membangkitkan kode ASP, QuickASP membutuhkan komponen berupa basis data dan file Cascading Style Sheets (CSS. Proses awal yang dilakukan QuickASP dalam membangkitkan kode program ASP adalah membaca informasi basis data berupa tabel-tabel, nama field dan tipe data. Setelah itu QuickASP akan membangkitkan file-file ASP beserta file-file pendukungnya berdasarkan hasil pengaturan tampilan halaman web yang dilakukan oleh pengguna.Uji coba QuickASP dilakukan pada tiga jenis basis data yaitu Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, dan Oracle. Dari hasil uji coba tersebut, QuickASP terbukti dapat membangkitkan homepage otomatis beserta fungsi–fungsi yang disediakan untuk modifikasi record dan fungsi navigasi.Kata kunci: QuickASP, file cascading style sheets, kode program ASP.

  18. Differences in Neuroticism Between Patients with Glaucoma Who Have Discontinued Visits to Ophthalmologists and Those Who Make Regular Visits: Implications for Adherence to Topical Glaucoma Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Tadashi; Kodaka, Fumitoshi; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    Neuroticism is a personality trait often described in individuals with glaucoma (GLC), but is not necessarily representative of the total population of patients. There is a population of patients with GLC who are invisible to clinical ophthalmologists; in other words, those who once have been diagnosed with GLC, but spontaneously stop visiting an ophthalmologist. Little is known about their neuroticism personality trait. In the present study, the authors compared the level of neuroticism between patients no longer visiting an ophthalmologist and those who continue visit them regularly. Patients were assigned to two groups according to the duration of their last visit to an ophthalmologist: the Discontinued group included those patients who had not visited an ophthalmologist for the last 6 months, and the Regular Visitor group included those patients who continued to make regular visits to an ophthalmologist. The Japanese version of Ten Items Personality Inventory (TIPI-J), a questionnaire specifically used to assess the Big Five personality traits (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness), was completed by patients through a dedicated website. Three-hundred and seventy-three patients with GLC were recruited. The neuroticism score from the TIPI-J in the Discontinued group was significantly lower than that in the Regular Visitor group (7.63 ± 2.23 vs. 8.23 ± 2.21, respectively; P = 0.01). No significant difference was found in the other TIPI-J sub-item scores between the Discontinued and the Regular Visitor groups. In this study, the authors showed that neuroticism trait in patients with GLC who have discontinued visiting their ophthalmologists was lower than that in patients who regularly visited them, on the basis of the Big Five personality traits as measured by the TIPT-J. Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd.

  19. Differential diagnosis between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with an associated invasive carcinoma and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma on ultrasonography: the utility of echo intensity and contrast enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Masato [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Teishinkai Hospital, Sapporo (Japan); Hirokawa, Naoki; Usami, Yoko; Someya, Masanori; Sakata, Kohichi [Dept. of Radiology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)

    2017-07-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of echo intensity and contrast enhancement in the differential diagnosis between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm with an associated invasive carcinoma (IPMN-IC) and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) on ultrasonography. This study included eight and 37 patients who had pathologically confirmed IPMN-IC and PDAC, respectively, and were enrolled for a comparative analysis of the sonographic features of the tumors. In the quantitative echo intensity evaluation, the two groups were compared with respect to the difference between the tumor intensity and the pancreatic intensity (TI-PI) and between the tumor intensity and the vascular intensity (TI-VI). In the quantitative contrast enhancement evaluation, the increase in echo intensity (ΔTI) and increase in echo intensity per unit of time (slope) were compared between the groups. The echo intensity and contrast enhancement were also compared between the two groups in patients with T3-T4 disease. In addition, the correlations of the histological type, tumor size, stromal type, and T factor with echogenicity and contrast enhancement were analyzed. IPMN-IC had significantly greater echo intensity and contrast enhancement than PDAC (TI-PI, P=0.004; TI-VI, P=0.001; ΔTI, P=0.012; slope, P=0.002). In T3-T4 disease, IPMN-IC also showed greater echo intensity and faster enhancement than PDAC. Echo intensity and contrast enhancement were correlated with histological type (TI-PI, P=0.003; TI-VI, P<0.001; ΔTI, P=0.007; slope, P<0.001). IPMN-IC and PDAC can be differentiated by the quantitative evaluation of echo intensity and contrast enhancement.

  20. Caratteristiche dei sistemi differenziali e propagazione ondosa lezioni raccolte dal Dott. G. Lampariello

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    1988-01-01

    L'edizione originale di questo libro (qui riprodatta anastaticamente) fu pubblicata nel 1931 per i tipi di Zanichelli nella serie delle Attualità scientifiche (n.41). Del suo contenuto valga come descrizione e giudizio di sintesi quanto ne scrisse a suo tempo H. Bateman nel Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: " Theses lectures give a clear account of the branch of partial differential equations in which attention is focused on the problem of Cauchy and its exceptional cases. The theory is well illustrated by examples from hydrodynamics, optics, and the recent theory of the Broglie waves".

  1. Fattori di crescita e recettori tirosin chinasici nelle neoplasie e displasie degli animali domestici

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatello, Luisa Vera

    2016-01-01

    La perdita della comunicazione cellulare può portare ad una crescita deregolata e dunque alla trasformazione neoplastica. Gli scopi dello studio di dottorato sono stati di individuare il rapporto funzionale di alcuni fattori di crescita (FC) e dei loro recettori (RTC) in tipi di neoplasie e displasie degli animali domestici, quali: 1. Amplificazione del proto-oncogene ERBB2 e sovra-espressione del RTC erb-b2. in tumori mammari della gatta. 2. Espressione di erb-b2, di recettori ormonal...

  2. REŠEVANJE DELOVNIH SPOROV S SODIŠČU PRIDRUŽENO MEDIACIJO

    OpenAIRE

    Goričan Podbrežnik, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Za človeško družbo je značilno, da se v njej pojavljajo spori.Enega izmed načinov reševanja sporov predstavlja mediacija kot glavni in tipični predstavnik alternativnega reševanja sporov. S sprejetjem Zakona o mediaciji v civilnih in gospodarskih zadevah se je Slovenija pridružila državam, ki imajo zakonsko urejeno mediacijo. Na podlagi Zakona o alternativnem reševanju sodnih sporov pa je mediacija postala tudi del rednega poslovanja slovenskih sodišč. Sodišču pridružena mediacija je edini po...

  3. LIK DEKADENTA V HUYSMANSOVEM ROMANU PROTI TOKU

    OpenAIRE

    Hrastnik, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Diplomsko delo obravnava prvi dekadentni roman, tj. roman Proti toku (1884) francoskega pisatelja Jorisa Karla Huysmansa. Njegov protagonist Des Esseintes je na podlagi primerov iz romana označen kot tipičen dekadentni lik, s pomočjo sekundarne literature pa je obravnavan tudi kot dandy, flaneur, ekscentrik, estet, mizantrop in nadčlovek. Prikazano je nenavadno dekadentovo mišljenje, obnašanje in zunanji videz, pri čemer so nakazane podobnosti z nekaterimi pisatelji, dostojanstveniki in intel...

  4. Frère Zacharie de Vitré Récollet, Les Essais de méditations poétiques sur la passion, mort et résurrection de Notre-Seigneur Jésus-Christ

    OpenAIRE

    Mastroianni, Michele

    2017-01-01

    Interessante esempio di poesia devozionale e meditativa sulla passione, morte e resurrezione di Cristo, gli Essais des méditations poétiques di Frère Zacharie de Vitré Récollet, predicatore e teologo francescano, protetto di Camille de Neufville, arcivescovo di Lione, escono per la prima volta a Parigi nel 1659 per i tipi di François Muguet e, in seconda edizione a Lione, nel 1660, per l’editore Alexandre Fumeux. La raccolta, di 429 poemi (348 sonetti e 81 epigrammi), riunisce testi poetici p...

  5. The essayistic style of Walter Benjamin:

    OpenAIRE

    Ceserani, Remo

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the peculiar essayistic style of Walter Benjamin. All of the various genres of his writing have an allegorical and surrealistic quality, with hidden and private (and essayistic) meanings, but also with a prophetic, hallucinatory tension. Članek obravnava tipični esejistični stil Walterja Benjamina. Za vse žanre njegovega pisanja je značilna alegoričnost in surrealističnost s skritimi ter zasebnimi (in esejističnimi) pomeni, a tudi s preroško halucinatorično napetostjo....

  6. La Storia della letteratura italiana come romanzo

    OpenAIRE

    Ceserani, Remo

    2011-01-01

    La Storia della letteratura italiana di Francesco De Sanctis viene letta in questa relazione come un romanzo, forse il romanzo di maggior successo dell’Ottocento italiano, dopo I promessi sposi di Alessandro Manzoni. Nell’interpretazione di Ceserani la struttura del libro è basata su tre tipi molto popolari di narrazione praticati in quel secolo: 1) il romanzo storico, in cui realtà e invenzione sono mescolate e scene di movimento di grandi masse si alternano con scene in cui singoli grandi e...

  7. Prespektif Pemikiran Ki Hadjar Dewantara Dalam Pendidikan Karakter Dan Kaitannya Dengan Pendidikan Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauziah Mashari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini membahas pendidikan karakter dalam perspektif Ki Hadjar Dewantara yang merupakan Bapak Pendidikan Nasional, dan kaitannya dengan pendidikan Islam. Di dalam pembangunan karakter yang dipentingkan adalah keikhlasan, kejujuran, jiwa kemanusiaan yang tinggi, sesuainya kata dengan perbuatan, prestasi kerja, kedisiplinan, jiwa dedikasi dan selalu berorientasi kepada hari depan dan pembaharuan. Pembinaan karakter akhlaq-ul kari>mah harus ditanamkan kepada seluruh lapisan dan tingkatan masyarakat, mulai dari tingkat atas sampai ke lapisan bawah. Lapisan atas itu kemudian memberikan teladan yang baik pada masyarakat dan rakyatnya. Tetapi manakala para pemimpin memberikan contoh yang buruk, maka akan berlaku pepatah yang menyatakan, “kalau guru kencing berdiri, murid akan kencing berlari; andai kata guru kencing berdiri, niscaya murid akan kencing menari-nari.” Berdasarkan latar belakang masalah tersebut diatas, tulisan ini bermaksud mencari jawaban dari pertanyaan-pertanyaan mendasar berikut: (1 bagaimana pengertian pendidikan karakter Ki Hadjar Dewantara? (2 bagaimana pengertian pendidikan agama? (3 bagaimana kaitan pendidikan karakter Ki Hadjar Dewantara dengan pendidikan Islam? Uraian dari jawaban yang dimaksud akan menunjukkan secara gamblang bahwa gagasan Ki Hadjar Dewantara tentang pendidikan karakter seiring dan sejalan dengan pendidikan Islam. || This article discusses character education in the perspective of Ki Hadjar Dewantara who is Father of National Education, and its relation to Islamic education. What is necessary for constructing the character is sincerity, honesty, spirit of humanity, suitability of words and deeds, work performance, discipline, dedication and spirit. Character building of akhlāq-ul karīmah must be imparted to all layers and levels of society, from top to bottom layer. Then, the top layer gives good examples to the society and its people. When the leaders have bad examples, so there is a strong and

  8. Kemampuan Isolataktinomisetes Menghasilkan Enzim yang Dapatmerusak Kulit Telur Nematoda Puru-Akar Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Rahayu TP

    2009-07-01

    aktivitas kitino-proteolitik (TL10 merupakan isolat yang sangat efektif dalam merusak kulit telur.Terdapat tiga tipe kerusakan pada telur nematoda. Sediaan enzim kasar menyebabkan kerusakan atau terkoyaknya lapisan vitelin dan lapisan kitin pada telur muda. Pada telur yang sudah tua, sedíaan enzim kasar menyebabkan pecahnya lapisan kulit telur yang menyebabkan penetasan yang prematur

  9. Desain Dan Pengujian Kolektor Surya CPC Berselubung Kaca Sebagai Media Evaporasi Sistem ORC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Yuliaji

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Bagian dari kegiatan penelitian pembangkit Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC dengan sumber kalor dari radiasi matahariadalah kolektor surya. Tujuan penulisan ini adalah menjelaskan disain kolektor surya dengan menggabungkan dua tipe,yaitu reflektor plat datar dengan concentrated parabolic collector (CPC.Bagian terpenting dari kolektor surya adalahselubung kaca pada receiver yang bertujuan sebagai media evaporasi pada system Organic Rankine Cycle(ORC.Geometri kolektor termal solar memiliki dimensi dengan panjang 1 m, tinggi 0,9 m, lebar alas 0,028 m, lebartutup 1,16 m. Concentrator merupakan bagian penangkap radiasi matahari dengan model semi silinder tipe CPCdengan bahan AISI 1015 yang dilapisi alumunium foil. Receiver menggunakan pipa tembaga 12,7mm, tebal 20mm,panjang total 3,46 m. Pipa tembaga dibungkus oleh pipa kaca diameter 51,4 mm, tebal 20mm. Dinding reflectormenggunakan AISI 201. Isolator terdiri dua lapisan, lapisan dalam menggunakan bahan polistirena foam tebal 20mmdan lapisan luar menggunakan Harmaflek tebal 20mm. Temperatur tertinggi pipa reciever sebelum dialiri fluida 104,4oCpada intensitas cahaya matahari 57,8 flux.Kata kunci: Kolektor surya, reflektor plat datar, concentrated parabolic collector (CPC, Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC Abstract: A Part of the research activity for development of Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC plant with a heat source from solarradiation aresolar collector. The purpose in this paper is to describe design of solar collector with combining two type ofreflector, flat type reflector and concentrated parabolic collector (CPC. Most important part of the solar collector is theglass layer on the receiver which intended as media evaporation in the ORC system. The geometries of solar collectorhave dimensions of length 1 m, height 0.9 m, width of pedestal 0,028 m, width 1.16 m for cap. Then, concentrator is thepart solar radiation catcher using semi-cylinder models type CPC with material AISI 1015 was coated by

  10. ADHD SOM SOCIALT OG KULTURELT FÆNOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Nichlas Permin

    Der har i Danmark de seneste årtier været en eksplosiv vækst i antallet af mennesker, der stilles en ADHD-diagnose. Der eksisterer et væld af forskellige bud på forklaringer på dette fænomen. Lige fra epidemiologiske og medicinske tolkninger, der peger på, at mennesker generelt er blevet mere syge...... at forbinde psykiske lidelser, herunder i væsentlig grad ADHD, som en risikofaktor for kriminalitet, antisocial adfærd, misbrug og en række andre sociale problemer. Med interesse i dette komplekse fænomen belyses empirisk den sociale og kulturelle forudsætning for ADHD-diagnosen i Kriminalforsorgens...... institutioner i en kulturanalytisk og socialkonstruktivistisk optik. Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan ADHD og kriminalitet diskursivt kobles sammen af voksne kriminelle med en ADHD-diagnose og frontmedarbejdere i Kriminalforsorgen....

  11. Faglige fællesskaber og MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2016-01-01

    Fag og faglige fællesskaber må etableres på ny, når traditionelle faglokaler skiftes ud med uddannelsesformater som MOOCs. Dette kapitel sætter fokus på de potentialer og udfordringer, der opstår for både undervisere og studerende, når læringsressourcer og faglige opgaver gøres tilgængelige i et...... uddannelsesformat uden mulighed for umiddelbar personlig kontakt. I kapitlet præsenteres kort forskellige uddannelsesformaters muligheder, og der etableres med begreberne “teknisk og didaktisk understøttelse af læring” en optik på de refleksioner og tiltag, undervisere og producenter af MOOCs kan gøre, ligesom...

  12. ANALISIS KUALITAS JARINGAN GPON PADA LAYANAN IPTV PT. TELKOM DI DAERAH DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngakan Oka Pramundia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GPON adalah sebuah teknologi berbasis fiber optik. PT.TELKOM menerapkan teknologi GPON sebagai jaringan access network untuk layanan IPTV Usee TV. Penelitian ini membahas kualitas jaringan GPON pada layanan IPTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali mengacu pada topologi dan standarisasi kualitas jaringan. Kualitas jaringan dikategorikan baik untuk 3 parameter yaitu Rx Power(Prx, Attenuatiion, dan Attainable Rate. Untuk Rx Power (Prx nilai berkisar antara -18 dBm sampai dengan -24 dBm. Pada Attenuation klasifikasi kualitas jaringannya termasuk pada kategori Excellent. Sedangkan untuk Attainable Rate-nya nilai downstream berkisar antara 2 Gbps sampai dengan 2.4 Gbps. Dengan nilai downstream tersebut dapat memenuhi kebutuhan layanan Usee TV. Hal ini menyatakan bahwa GPON PT.TELKOM sudah mampu melayani layanan IPTV UseeTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali dengan baik

  13. Analisis Redaman Pada Jaringan FTTH (Fiber To The Home Dengan Teknologi GPON (Gigabit Passive Optical Network Di PT MNC Kabel Mediacom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minal Abral

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available iber optic merupakan teknologi yang menyediakan kapasitas bandwith besar dengan kecepatan tinggi, tidak dipengaruhi interferensi gelombang elektromagnetik, Sejalan dengan berkembang secara pesatnya penggunaan serat optik sebagai medium penghantar, ada kemungkinan terjadinya hilang informasi akibat kerugian dari pemanjangan kabel fiber optic ataupun penyambungan kabel fiber optic, kerugian tersebut yaitu redaman. Dalam penerapan metode link power budget, perhitungan redaman dilakukan dengan data yang diperoleh berdasarkan standarisasi dan pengukuran menggunakan perangkat optical power meter. Hasil analisa perhitungan, sistem mampu dalam keadaan normal menggunakan layanan gigabit passive optical network dapat diterima oleh perangkat akhir jaringan fiber to the home pada pelanggan perusahaan PT MNC Kabel Mediacom yang berada di Kelurahan Jati RW 02 Pulo Gadung Jakarta Timur.

  14. Forestillinger om kvinden i sygeplejefaget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Kapitlet analyserer forestillingen om at kvindelighed og sygeplejefaget hører sammen. Den teoretiske optik er Judith Butlers opgør med forestillingen om, at kønnet har en biologisk komponent og en social/kulturel komponent. Kapitlet er en analyse af forskellige tekster skrevet af tre forskellige...... forbinder kvinden til sygeplejefaget. Denne forbindelselinje er dog på mange måder paradoksal, hvilket fremkommer ved at læse teksterne i lyset af Butlers kritik af skellet mellem sex og gender. For på den ene side beskrives det kvidnelige om særlig værdifuldt i forhold til sygeplejefaget, og på den anden...

  15. PENGARUH VARIASI TEMPERATUR TUANG TERHADAP KETANGGUHAN IMPAK DAN STRUKTUR MIKRO PADA PENGECORAN ALUMINIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Tofa Wijaya

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menyelidiki pengaruh temperatur tuang terhadap ketangguhan impak dan struktur mikro hasil pengecoran paduan aluminium dengan menggunakan cetakan pasir. Bahan penelitian ini adalah paduan alumunium dari scrap aluminium, kemudian dilebur dan dituang ke dalam cetakan dengan variasi temperatur tuang dari 660 °C, 700 °C dan 740 °C. Pengujian impak dilakukan untuk mengetahui ketangguhan impak pada hasil coran dengan menggunakan alat uji impak Charpy (ASTM E 23-02a. Foto struktur mikro dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroskop optik Nikon seri 661103. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa variasi temperatur tuang pada saat pengecoran berpengaruh terhadap nilai ketangguhan impak dan struktur mikro hasil coran. Dari tiga variasi temperatur tuang yang dilakukan, semakin tinggi temperatur tuang maka nilai ketangguhan impaknya juga semakin meningkat. Struktur mikro yang terbentuk dari  logam paduan aluminium coran secara umum memiliki bentuk struktur mikro berupa struktur dendrite.

  16. Teori-praksis i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Keiding, Tina

    2008-01-01

    differensteoretisk optik, som nok virker kompleks, emn som også tilbyder en betydelige kompleksitetsfølsomhed. Den kompleksitetsfølsomhed som Luhmann tilbyder, peger for det første på, at der må forventes forskelle mellem såvel intention og interaktion, som mellem forskellige interaktionssystemer. Og at denne...... interaktionelt, bidrager til uddannelsen at i hvert tilfælde at overveje om brudte forventninger skal justeres på niveauet for forventninger/intentioner, eller om ændringerne skal søges tilvejebragt i interaktionen. Artiklen bygger på et oplæg holdt på Fagligt Selskab for Undervisende Sygeplejerskers møde...

  17. SIMULASI POLA MEDAN ELEKTROMAGNET PADA PANDU GELOMBANG PERSEGI DENGAN DUA PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan visualisasi pola medan elektromagnetik 4 moda terendah pada pandu gelombang persegi untuk moda berorde tinggi, yaitu moda TE00, TE01, TE10 dan TE11. Konstanta propagasi sebagai salah satu parameter yang digunakan untuk mengkarakter moda gelombang optik diformulasikan secara semi analitik. Hal ini dikarenakan formulasi konstanta propagasi efektif moda gelombang tidak dapat diturunkan secara eksak. Beberapa bagian dipecahkan menggunakan penyelesaian analitik, sedangkan beberapa bagian diselesaikan melalui analisa numerik secara komputasional dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Matlab. Analisis karakter pola medan dilakukan dengan menggunakan prinsip Variasional fungsi trial polinom Hypergeometri, sedangkan profil indeks bias berbentuk secant hyperbolik. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan berbagai orde moda menunjukkan kesesuaian terhadap metode indeks efektif dan mampu mendeskripsikan pola medan.

  18. Farklı Oranlarda Tiyoüre Katkısının Nanoyapılı Kadmiyum Oksit (CdO Filmlerin Fiziksel Özellikleri Üzerine Etkisinin İncelenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit AYDIN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı nanoyapılı CdO filmlerin fiziksel özelliklerine tiyoüre konsantrasyonunun etkisini incelemektir. Bunun için farklı tiyoüre konsantrasyonlarındaki (%0, 0.5, 1 ve 2 dört seri CdO film soda lime cam altlık üzerine SILAR tekniği kullanılarak büyütüldü. Bu filmlerin morfolojileri, kristal yapıları ve optik özellikleri sırasıyla MM, XRD ve UV-visible spektroskopi teknikleri ile karakterize edilmiştir. MM görüntüleri tiyoüre konsantrasyonunun nanoyapılı CdO filmlerin yüzey morfolojilerini etkilediğini göstermektedir. CdO filmlerinin düzlemlerinin tercihli yöneliminin tiyoüre konsantrasyon değerine kuvvetle bağlı olduğunu XRD analizinden elde edilen sonuçlar ortaya koymaktadır. UV-vis analizinden, tiyoüre miktarı arttıkça CdO filmlerinin optik enerji bant aralığının (Eg önce azaldığı ve daha sonra tekrar artan konsantrasyonla arttığı belirlenmiş ve bu enerji değerlerinin (2.25 - 2.13 eV aralığında olduğu bulunmuştur.

  19. BLOKIR MALWARE BERBAHAYA MELEWATI PROXY MENGGUNAKAN ROUTER PFSENSE DAN PAKET HAVP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Irawan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dilansir dari halaman Support Apple, malware adalah perangkat lunak berbahaya, yang berisi virus, worm, trojan horse, dan program lainnya yang dapat membahayakan Mac atau privasi Anda. Malware dapat diinstal saat Anda mengunduh item dari email, pesan, dan situs web. Sumber: https://support.apple.com/kb/PH25640?locale=id_ID&viewlocale=id_ID. Program ini dapat mengubah, merusak, mencari celah, dan mencuri data pribadi seseorang yang tentu sangat merugikan. Malware dapat menghasilkan saat mengunduh data melalui email, pesan, dan situs web. Salah satu perangkat yang paling banyak digunakaan saat ini adalah smartphone sebagai perangkat untuk mengakses situs web. Meskipun semua komputer sudah terinstal antivirus, harus ditambahkan lapisan perlindungan lain ke jaringan komputer, dalam hal ini HAVP bekerja dengan sangat baik.

  20. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTER VISION SYSTEM SEDERHANA UNTUK MENENTUKAN KUALITAS TOMAT Development of a simple Computer Vision System to determine tomato quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiati Evi Masithoh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a simple computer vision system (CVS to non-destructively measure tomato quality based on its Red Gren Blue (RGB color parameter. Tomato quality parameters measured were Brix, citric acid, vitamin C, and total sugar. This system consisted of a box to place object, a webcam to capture images, a computer to process images, illumination system, and an image analysis software which was equipped with artificial neural networks technique for determining tomato quality. Network architecture was formed with 3 layers consisting of1 input layer with 3 input neurons, 1 hidden layer with 14 neurons using logsig activation function, and 5 output layers using purelin activation function by using backpropagation training algorithm. CVS developed was able to predict the quality parameters of a Brix value, vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar. To obtain the predicted values which were equal or close to the actual values, a calibration model was required. For Brix value, the actual value obtained from the equation y = 12,16x – 26,46, with x was Brix predicted. The actual values of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar were obtained from y = 1,09x - 3.13, y = 7,35x – 19,44,  and  y = 1.58x – 0,18,, with x was the value of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar, respectively. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan computer vision system (CVS sederhana untuk menentukan kualitas tomat secara non­destruktif berdasarkan parameter warna Red Green Blue (RGB. Parameter kualitas tomat yang diukur ada­ lah Brix, asam sitrat, vitamin C, dan gula total. Sistem ini terdiri peralatan utama yaitu kotak untuk meletakkan obyek, webcam untuk menangkap citra, komputer untuk mengolah data, sistem penerangan, dan perangkat lunak analisis citra yang dilengkapi dengan jaringan syaraf tiruan untuk menentukan kualitas tomat. Arsitektur jaringan dibentuk dengan3 lapisan yang terdiri dari 1 lapisan masukan dengan 3 sel

  1. Desain Protokol Jaringan untuk Komunikasi Multimedia melalui WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherman Suherman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini membahas protokol jaringan pada lapisan transport serta perubahan desain yang ada untuk meningkatkan kualitas transmisi multimedia melalui perangkat orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM. Kualitas transmisi video melalui udara sangat rentan terhadap error transmisi, yang menyebabkan terjadinya packet loss. Penggunaan protokol reliable seperti transmission control protocol (TCP mampu mengurangi loss, tetapi meningkatkan delay yang signifikan. Oleh karenanya dibutuhkan protokol yang dapat mengurangi loss tanpa menambah delay. Artikel ini mengajukan perubahan desain pada protokol jaringan unreliable UDP melalui mekanisme retransmisi dan cross-layer. Melalui simulasi, metode yang diajukan terbukti mampu mengurangi packet loss UDP sebesar rata-rata 6,5 %, menekan delay UDP hingga 18-37% serta meningkatkan kualitas video yang diterima berkisar 21,3-184,3%.

  2. Odontoblast layer structure alteration as a response to carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial disease affecting the hard tissue of the teeth as well as the pulp. The human dental pulp consists of odontoblast which are organized as a densely packed cell layer. Odontoblasts is located at the periphery of the pulp; therefore, they are the first cells encountered by cariogenic bacteria and their products that are represented in the carious lesion. Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cariogenic bacteria to odontoblasts of human teeth. Methods: Five intact third molars and 15 third molars with occlusal caries at various stages of decay were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. The tooth specimens were fixed, decalcified with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were cut and stained with haematoxylin eosin and Gram’s, in addition to nestin immunohistochemistry. The specimens were then examined under light microscopy. Results: In normal teeth, odontoblast layer were aligned along the pulp chamber showing normal morphology of the cells. Slight disorganization of odontoblast layer was seen in the cases of carious lesions confined to enamel. In the cases of carious lesions confined to dentin, odontoblast layer was not observed in the areas subjacent to the lesions, only single cells showing flattened cell morphology were found. Odontoblasts beneath the lesion suffered severe damage and diminished nestin immunoreaction were observed in all cases of carious lesions with pulp exposure. Conclusion: Cariogenic bacteria invasion may damage the odontoblasts by affecting the morphology and vitality of the cells. The severity of the damage of the odontoblasts may increase as the bacterial invasion progresses toward the pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, yang dapat memengaruhi jaringan keras gigi maupun pulpa. Pada pulpa gigi manusia terdapat sel odontoblas yang tersusun atas lapisan sel

  3. Pengaruh Massa Zn Dan Temperatur Hydrotermal Terhadap Struktur Dan Sifat Elektrik Material Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizki Ilhami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi yang sangat berkembang pada saat ini membutuhkan material yang tidak hanya kecil ataupun ringan, tetapi juga memiliki sifat thermal, elektrik, dan mekanik yang baik. Graphene adalah material yang dapat menjawab kebutuhan hal tersebut. Permasalahan yang kemudian muncul adalah proses sintesis massal yang masih menjadi kendala. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis material graphene dengan metode hydrothermal dan menggunakan serbuk Zn sebagai reduktor. Penelitian ini menganalisa pengaruh varaiasi penambahan massa sebesar 0,8 gram, 1,6 gram, dan 2,4 gram zinc serta variasi temperatur hydrthermal 160ᵒC, 180ᵒC, 200ᵒC. Proses karakterisasi material graphene dilakukan dengan pengujian Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infraredspectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC, dan Four Point Probe digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai konduktivitas elektrik material. Morfologi dari graphene yang dihasilkan berbentuk lembaran-lembaran transparan dan tipis yang saling menumpuk.Semakin banyak serbuk Zn yang diberikan menjadikan permukaan graphene semakin tipis. Nilai konduktivitas elektrik terbesar dihasilkan dari variasi panambahan serbuk zinc sebesar 2,4 gram dan temperatur hydrothermal sebesar 180ᵒC dengan nilai sebesar 0,012526 S/cm.

  4. Do nurses really care? Confirming the stereotype with a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geraint; Dean, Phil; Williams, Elisabeth

    In their definition of modern nursing, the Royal College of Nursing emphasizes the importance of caring. However, there is little other than anecdotal evidence that female qualified staff nurses are more caring and compassionate than average individuals. A study was carried out to test, under scientific conditions with a case control study, the hypothesis that staff nurses are no more caring than average female individuals. Using the ten-item personality inventory (TIPI) questionnaire, a statistical comparison was made between 174 volunteer female staff nurses and data for 760 adult female controls extracted from the TIPI instrument's original validation study. The questionnaire measures each of the five major facets of personality: openness, extroversion, conscientiousness, agreeableness and neuroticism. Agreeableness, which is a tendency to be compassionate, considerate and cooperative, was used as a proxy measure for 'caring'. Data were analysed using unpaired Student's t-tests. Female staff nurses recorded significantly higher scores than female controls concerning the personality traits extroversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness and emotional stability (Pnurses are significantly more caring, conscientious and resilient individuals. The personality traits found in female staff nurses complement their profession and to some extent justify the caring, compassionate nurse stereotype. Whether career nursing self-selects these qualities or to what extent nursing staff develop aspects of their personality as a product of experience is a subject for debate.

  5. Komunikasi Keluarga Dalam Pencegahan Perilaku Bullying Bagi Anak

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    Preciosa Alnashava Janitra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication process occurs in every aspect of life, including family. When people interact to each other, sometimes it may lead to bullying. Bullying is not a new phenomenon, especially in family. Bullying means verbal and physical threat, force and violence which conduct repeatedly, for instance by the older children to their younger sister or brother. This is the uniqueness of this research. Family communication becomes main foundation to prevent bullying. Researcher see this phenomenon as a unique problem to be studied. Based on that phenomenon, researcher interested to study “Family Communication in Preventing Bullying Behavior for Children”. Result shows that family communication in preventing children’s bullying behavior covers: (1 In order to prevent bullying, an effective family communication process has to be strived, including respect, empathy, audible (2 Causative factor of bullying is inappropriate parenting in context of family communication.   Proses komunikasi berlangsung dalam setiap aspek kehidupan, termasuk dalam lapisan masyarakat dan lapisan keluarga. Ketika manusia melakukan interaksi satu sama lainnya, kadang-kadang mengarah pada perilaku bullying. Bullying bukanlah fenomena yang baru lagi, khususnya dalam sebuah keluarga. Bullying artinya ancaman, pemaksaan, kekerasan fisik maupun verbal yang dilakukan berulang-ulang, misalnya kakak kepada adiknya. Disinilah letak keunikan penelitian ini. Komunikasi keluarga menjadi pondasi utama untuk mencegah terjadinya perilaku bullying bagi anak. Peneliti melihat fenomena ini merupakan masalah yang unik dan menarik untuk diteliti. Berdasarkan fenomena tersebut, peneliti tertarik untuk mengangkat “Komunikasi Keluarga dalam Pencegahan Perilaku Bullying bagi Anak”. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa komunikasi keluarga dalam pencegahan perilaku bullying bagi anak meliputi: (1 Untuk mencegah bullying harus diupayakan proses komunikasi keluarga yang efektif yaitu: respek

  6. Model Persamaan Faktor Koreksi pada Proses Sedimentasi dalam Keadaan Free Settling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roessiana D L

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentasi adalah proses pengendapan padatan yang terkandung dalam cairan oleh gaya gravitasi. Pada umumnya proses sedimentasi dilakukan setelah proses koagulasi dan flokulasi, tujuannya adalah untuk memperbesar partikel padatan agar menjadi lebih berat dan dapat tenggelam dalam waktu lebih singkat. Ukuran dan bentuk partikel mempengaruhi rasio permukaan terhadap volume partikel sedangkan konsentrasi partikel mempengaruhi pemilihan tipe bak sedimentasi. Semua factor ini mempengaruhi kecepatan mengendap partikel pada sedimentasi, karena itu membutuhkan kecepatan turunnya partikel untuk mendesain bak sedimentasi yang efektif dan efisien.Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk memperkirakan bentuk bentuk persamaan empiric yang merupakan faktor koreksi sebagai fungsi konsentrasi slurry mula-mula serta diameter partikel. Persamaan faktor koreksi dibuat berdasarkan data hasil perhitungan dari persamaan Stokes-Newton, Farag, Fergusson-Church serta persamaan Gibbs-Mathew-Link ternadap data percobaan. Percobaan yang dilakukan adalah mula-mula gaplek dihancurkan kemudian dicampur air lalu dimasukkan ke dalam tabung kaca setinggi 100 cm. Tinggi lapisan padatan yang turun ke bawah dicatat tingginya tiap 3 menit, pencatatan dihentikan setelah beda tinggi lapisan padatan yang diukur tiap 3 menit sudah mulai menurun. Percobaan dilakukan dengan menvariasikan konsentrasi tepung tapioka dalam umpan dari 0,5% sampai 5%, serta diameter partikel antara 0,057 mm sampai 0,1245 mm.Dari hasil penelitian dapat ditarik kesimpulan bahwa persamaan F yang paling cocok adalah bila dikalikan dengan Farag Law dengan persamaan F = 480.941. X 1(0,0751 .X 2(1,7777. . Jadi persamaan kecepatan sedimentasi yang paling baik adalah : gd p 2  s   f  f 2 V = . F 18  f b  

  7. PENGEMBANGAN PENCEGAHAN SERANGAN DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS PADA SUMBER DAYA JARINGAN DENGAN INTEGRASI NETWORK BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS DAN CLIENT PUZZLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Geges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Denial of Service (DoS merupakan permasalahan keamanan jaringan yang sampai saat ini terus berkembang secara dinamis. Semakin tinggi kemampuan komputasi suatu komputer penyerang, serangan DoS yang dapat dihasilkan juga semakin membahayakan. Serangan ini dapat mengakibatkan ketidakmampuan server untuk melayani service request yang sah. Karena itu serangan DoS sangat merugikan dan perlu diberikan pencegahan yang efektif. Ancaman berikutnya yang juga sangat membahayakan adalah Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, dimana serangan ini memanfaatkan sejumlah besar komputer untuk menjalankan serangan DoS kepada server, web service, atau sumber daya jaringan lain. Mengingat resiko besar yang diakibatkan serangan DDoS ini, banyak peneliti yang terdorong untuk merancang mekanisme penga-manan sumber daya jaringan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis mengkhususkan pokok permasalahan pada pengamanan web service. Penulis mengemuka-kan sebuah mekanisme untuk mengamankan web service dengan cara melakukan filtrasi dan validasi permintaan yang diterima untuk mengakses sumber daya jaringan. Filtrasi dan validasi ini dilakukan dengan gabungan metode Network Behavior Analysis (NBA dan Client Puzzle (CP. Metode NBA menjadi lapisan pertahanan pertama untuk mendeteksi apakah sedang terjadi serangan DDoS dengan mengukur tingkat kepadatan jaringan/Network density. Dari metode NBA, didapatkan IP Address yang perlu divalidasi dengan metode CP sebagai lapisan pertahanan kedua. Apabila suatu service request sudah berhasil melewati proses filtrasi dan validasi ini, maka service request ini baru akan dilayani. Dari hasil percobaan, terbukti metode ini dapat mendeteksi serangan DDoS sekaligus menjamin bahwa service request yang sah mendapat pelayanan yang seharusnya sehingga server dapat melayani service request dengan baik.

  8. ISLAM AND ARAT SABULUNGAN IN MENTAWAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskota Delfi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The remoteness of the Mentawai Islands has contributed to an almost autonomous development, unaided by mainland Sumatra. As a result of a well endowed environment and supported by staple local foods such as sago, taro and bananas, as well as an abundance of wildlife including wild boars, a finely tuned self-sufficiency was realised. In this space the management and distribution of food, including animal protein, is an important aspect of the culture of Arat Sabulungan. As the result of the compulsory state sanctioned religions program introduced in 1954, some Mentawaians have converted to Islam or Catholicism as their formal religious identity. However, a remarkable adaptation occured in which the layers of Mentawai identity were not lost in the adaption to the Islamic faith. Islam with its teachings, and other formal religions, are considered as  the sasareu (outsiders. The prohibition of consuming boar as part of islamic rules is a sasareu rules that contradict to Mentawaian Arat .[Kepulauan Mentawai yang terisolasi telah berkembang secara mandiri tanpa bantuan dari pulau induknya, Sumatra. Lingkungan yang subur dan mendukung ketersediaan sumber makanan pokok lokal seperti sagu, talas, dan pisang serta berlimpahnya satwa liar, termasuk babi hutan, telah mendorong terciptanya swasembada pangan. Manajemen dan distribusi makanan merupakan aspek penting dalam jalinan budaya dan sistem kepercayaan local, Arat Sabulungan. Sebagai hasil dari kebijakan pemerintah untuk menerapkan agama resmi bagi orang Mentawai pada tahun 1954, orang Mentawai kemudian masuk Islam atau Katolik. Namun demikian, adaptasi yang luar biasa juga terjadi, sehingga lapisan-lapisan identitas Mentawai tidak hilang dalam adaptasinya dengan keyakinan Islam. Islam dengan ajaran-ajarannya, juga agama-agama dunia lainnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing. Larangan mengkonsumsi daging babi sebagai bagian dari ajaran Islam, misalnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing yang bertentangan

  9. MODELING THE RADIATION SHIELDING OF BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BASED ON 2.4 MEV D-D NEUTRON GENERATOR FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mu’Alim

    2018-01-01

    PEMODELAN PERISAI RADIASI PADA FASILITAS BORON NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY BERBASIS GENERATOR NEUTRON D-D 2,4 MeV. Telah dimodelkan perisai radiasi pada fasilitas Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT berbasis reaksi D-D pada Neutron Generator 2,4 MeV dengan Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA yang telah didesain sebelumnya. Pemodelan ini dilakukan untuk memperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi untuk fasilitas BNCT berbasis generator neutron 2,4 MeV. Pemodelan dilakukan dengan cara memvariasikan bahan dan ketebalan perisasi radiasi. Bahan yang dipilih adalah beton barit, parafin, polietilen terborasi dan timbal. Perhitungan dilakukan menggunakan program MCNPX dengan tally F4 untuk menentukan laju dosis yang keluar dari perisai radiasi. Desain periasi radiasi dinyatakan optimal jika radiasi yang dihasilkan diluar perisai radiasi tidak melebihi Nilai Batas Dosis (NBD yang telah ditentukan oleh BAPETEN. Hasilnya, diperoleh suatu desain perisai radiasi menggunakan lapisan utama beton barit setebal 100 cm yang mengelilingi ruangan 100 cm x 100 cm x 166,4 cm dan polietilen terborasi 40 cm yang mengelilingi bahan beton barit. Kemudian ditambahkan beton barit 10 cm dan polietilen terborasi 10 cm untuk mengurangi radiasi primer yang lurus dari BSA setelah keluar dari lapisan utama. Laju dosis terbesar adalah 4,58 μSv·jam-1 pada sel 227 dan laju dosis rata-rata yang dihasilkan adalah sebesar 0,65 µSv·jam-1. Nilai laju dosis tersebut masih dibawah ambang batas NBD yang diperbolehkan oleh BAPETEN untuk pekerja radiasi. Kata kunci: Perisai radiasi, tally, laju dosis radiasi, BSA, BNCT

  10. Distribuzione e uso dell'habitat del Lupo (Canis lupus L., 1758 nell'alto Appennino reggiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Gilio

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Distribution and habitat use of the gray wolf (Canis lupus L., 1758 in the upper Apennine (Northern Italy
    In order to define wolf ranges and seasonal difference in habitat use, wolf signs were looked for along 25 transects (271.2 km from June 1997 to December 2000. The range occupied by wolf population greatly exceeded the boundaries of the study area. The analysis performed to assess wolf habitat selection recorded a significant difference between high prairies and clearing, positively selected, and mixed woods, beech woods and pastures negatively selected. The bivariated and multivariated analysis to study the relationship between wolf abundance and the indipendent variables show that wolf abundance is significantly and positively correlated to abundance of prey species. Riassunto Da giugno del 1997 a dicembre del 2000 è stata condotta una ricerca con lo scopo di acquisire informazioni riguardanti la distribuzione e l'utilizzo dell'habitat da parte della popolazione di lupo (Canis lupus L., 1758 gravitante sul territorio del Parco Regionale dell'Alto Appennino Reggiano. Per definire la distribuzione della specie nel territorio del Parco e nelle aree adiacenti, è stata individuata una rete di 25 transetti (271,2 km. Durante gli anni di studio la popolazione di lupo ha occupato aree abbondantemente eccedenti i confini dell'area protetta, soprattutto nel versante toscano. L'analisi della modalità di utilizzo dei diversi tipi di habitat ha rilevato l'esistenza di marcate variazioni nella selezione dell'habitat nei diversi anni e stagioni. L'analisi sulla frequentazione dei tipi di habitat in generale ha evidenziato un sovrautilizzo delle praterie sommitali e delle radure ed un sottoutilizzo dei boschi misti di latifoglie, delle faggete e dei prato-pascoli. I risultati delle analisi bivariate e multivariate tra l'indice di abbondanza del lupo e le altre

  11. THERMAL NEUTRON FLUX MAPPING ON A TARGET CAPSULE AT RABBIT FACILITY OF RSG-GAS REACTOR FOR USE IN k0-INAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutisna Sutisna

    2015-03-01

    di dalam kapsul dan kanal iradiasi yang berbeda untuk kuantifikasi unsur-unsur menggunakan k0-AANI. Pemetaan fluks neutron termal (фth pada dua jenis kapsul iradiasi telah dilakukan untuk kanal RS01 dan RS02 di reaktor RSG-GAS. Fluks neutron termal ditentukan dengan menggunakan paduan Al - 0,1 % Au melalui reaksi nuklir 197Au (n,g 198Au, sementara pemetaan fluks dilakukan menggunakan statistik R. Fluks neutron termal dihitung menggunakan perangkat lunak k0-IAEA yang disediakan oleh IAEA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bawa rata-rata fluk neutron termal adalah (5,6±0,3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (5,6±0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1, (5,2± 0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 dan (5,3 ± 0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 masing-masing untuk lapisan 1, 2, 3 dan 4 pada kapsul polietilena. Dalam kasus kapsul aluminium, fluk neutron termal adalah lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan fluk neutron termal pada kapsul polietilena, yaitu (3,0 ± 0,2 ×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (2,8 ± 0,1×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (3,2 ± 0,3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 masing-masing untuk lapisan 1, 2 dan 3. Untuk setiap lapisan dalam kapsul, distribusi fluks neutron termal adalah tidak seragam dan tidak ada degradasi fluk dalam arah aksial, baik untuk kapsul polietilena maupun untuk kapsul aluminium. Peta kontur fluk neutron termal untuk delapan lapisan pada kapsul polietilena dan enam lapisan pada kapsul aluminium untuk kanal iradiasi RS01 dan RS02, memiliki pola yang sama dengan keragaman yang relatif kecil untuk semua jenis kapsul iradiasi. Kata kunci: neutron thermal, fluks, kapsul, AAN

  12. The influence of the pedological factor on the relief dynamics within Sasaus River catchment (Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-GEORGIANA ALEXANDRU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza del fattore pedologico sulla dinamica del paesaggio nel bacino Săsăuș. Il paesaggio ha un'influenza indiretta sullo sviluppo del suolo, attraverso diversi fattori. Una caratteristica importante dei suoli è che essi sono soggetti ad una serie di stadi nella loro evoluzione, ottengono un profilo profondo, con una moltitudine di orizzonti ben differenziati. Questi tipi di suolo influenzano la dinamica del paesaggio del bacino idrografico, attraverso la loro tessitura e struttura, che sono più o meno soggetti a certi processi geomorfologici. In questo caso, causa dell'espansione dei depositi d'argilla, sabbia e ghiaia, i processi di erosione di superficie sono dominanti a causa della pioggia e della rete idrografica e a volte si incontrano frane di terreno.

  13. Sustainable development applied to the Italian territorial planning, sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources; Problematiche territoriali relative al suolo, al sottosuolo, alle acque e contributo allo sviluppo sostenibile nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basili, M; Colonna, N; Del Ciello, R; Grauso, S; Napoleoni, S; Zarlenga, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The paper carries out on analysis on the state of the art about sustainable development applied to the territorial planning. Tree types of approach to the sustainability are described: social, economic and environmental, using a large bibliography starting from the Bruntland report. The Italian situation is discussed. An operative proposal on the sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources: groundwater, soil and building materials are defined for the Italian context. [Italian] Nel lavoro vengono descritti i principi generali dello sviluppo sostenibile ed i tre tipi di approccio derivanti dall'analisi dell'imponente bibliografia degli ultimi quindici anni, a partire dal rapporto Bruntland che per primo ne ha preso in considerazione i concetti. Vengono proposte tre architetture logiche per procedure di gestione sostenibile delle risorse nel contesto istituzionale italiano.

  14. Funzioni del tempo presente nella strategia narrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Koman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available La scelta del tempo verbale adatto a una determinata situazione dipende dal rapporto tra il momento dell’avvenimento e quello dell’enunciazione. Se coincidono abbiamo a che fare con il tempo presente (Bertinetto. È necessario, però, ricordare che il presente è in grado di riferirsi agli eventi passati come accade spesso nei testi narrativi. Per capire lo scopo di questa scelta si sono analizzati diversi tipi di scrittura comprovanti che il presente nella narrativa può servire a sottolineare la posizione temporale del narratore (Il fu Mattia Pascal; a evidenziare un momento importante dal punto di vista dello svolgimento dell’azione (Se questo è un uomo; a costruire descrizioni (Vita oppure far entrare il lettore nel vivo del racconto (Gli Italiani in Polonia nei secoli, dando l’impressione che egli sia un testimone diretto degli eventi raccontati.

  15. pHis 317 Pro Mutasyonu Saptanmış Bir Mody Tip 2 Olgusu

    OpenAIRE

    BİNİCİ, Doğan Nasır; TİMUR, Özge; TURHAN, Aykut; ŞENYİĞİT2, Abdülhalim; FİLİZ, Murat; KİPER, Tuğba

    2017-01-01

    Genç yaşta ortaya çıkan erişkin tip diyabet [Maturity- onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)], otozomal dominant kalıtılan nadir bir diyabet türüdür. Tüm diyabet olgularının %1-2’sini oluşturur. MODY tip diyabet olgularının çoğunluğu yanlışlıkla tip 1 veya tip 2 diyabet tanısı almaktadır. Birçok tipi tanımlanmasına rağmen glukokinaz mutasyonu ile meydana gelen MODY tip 2 daha sık görülmektedir. Bu vaka sunumunda daha önce rastlanmamış bir mutasyon, pHis 317 Pro mutasyonu saptanmış MODY tip 2 olg...

  16. M(1,6-HEXANEDİTHİOLNi(CN4 BİLEŞİKLERİNİN KIRMIZIALTI SPEKTROSKOPİSİ İLE İNCELENMESİ (M=Ni, Cd, Co, Mn VE Zn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeki KARTAL

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, genel formülü M(1,6-HexanedithiolNi(CN4 (M = Ni, Cd, Co, Mn ve Zn olan Hofmann-tipi bileşikler kimyasal yollardan ilk kez elde edildi. Elde edilen bileşiklerin kırmızıaltı spektrumları, 4000 cm-1- 400 cm-1 bölgesinde kaydedildi. Spektrumların incelenmesi, bileşik yapılarının │M-Ni(CN4│∞ polimerik tabakalardan oluştuğunu ve ligand molekülünün, kare düzlemsel yapıdaki metal atomlarına kükürt atomlarından bağlandığını göstermektedir.

  17. Conservação in vitro de germoplasma de Petiveria alliacea L. utilizando cultura de tecidos e criopreservação

    OpenAIRE

    Jamine de Almeida Pettinelli

    2014-01-01

    A implementação de estratégias visando à conservação de espécies medicinais apresenta grande importância, tanto do ponto de vista ecológico quanto econômico. Petiveria alliacea L., espécie da família Phytolacaceae, conhecida como guiné, erva-de alho, erva-tipi ou amansa-senhor, pode ser encontrada desde a América Central até a América do Sul. Esta espécie possui ampla utilização medicinal, devido à presença, em sua composição, de vários polissulfetos, como o DTS (dibenziltrissulfeto), com pro...

  18. ARHITEKTURA LAN Z NAT, VAROVANIMI VLAN IN WIFI DOSTOPOM

    OpenAIRE

    Mlakar, Jure

    2012-01-01

    Omrežja so postala del našega vsakdana in so prisotna vsepovsod. Poznamo dve vrsti tipičnih omrežij: LAN (Angl. Local Area Network) in WAN (angl. Wide Area Network). LAN omrežja uporabljamo za povezavo računalnikov in drugih mrežnih naprav v omejenem geografskem področju, kot je npr. stanovanjska hiša, šola, laboratorij ali poslovna zgradba. WAN omrežja, se uporabljajo za pokritje večjih geografskih območij (vsako omrežje, ki poteka preko mestnih, regionalnih ali državnih mej). Ta om...

  19. REPRESENTASI STEREOTYPE PEREMPUAN DALAM IKLAN LAYANAN MASYARAKAT “SAHABAT PEDULI ANTI KEKERASAN DALAM RUMAH TANGGA”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deddi Duto Hartanto

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Ads in mass media very often publish images of women with their various feminine attractiveness; whether it be the soft hair, or black, shiny, and straight hair, the thin and tall body, small and pointy nose, thin lips, large chest, and silky white skin. Ads whether consciously or not, have shaped standardized perceptions where they are directed towards certain groups. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Dalam media massa terutama iklan sering memuat ilustrasi citra perempuan dengan berbagai daya tarik feminitasnya, apakah itu rambut halus, hitam, berkilau, dan lurus, bentuk badan langsing dan tinggi, hidung yang mancung-mungil, bibir tipis, payudara menonjol, dan berkulit kuning keputih-putihan. Iklan secara sadar atau tidak telah membentuk standar pikiran akan sesuatu menuju pada suatu kelompok tertentu. Kata kunci: perempuan dalam iklan, representasi stereotype perempuan

  20. Under the same Mantle: The Women of the “Other” through Images of Moriscas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Díez Jorge

    2017-12-01

    La rappresentazione dei vincitori e dei vinti a Granada, così come degli uomini e delle donne moriscos, sembra essere stata trattata con una certa cautela, soprattutto nei primi anni dopo la conquista della città nel 1492. Le immagini degli uomini moriscos sembrano presentare una maggiore diversità di tipi e alcuni abiti maschili riflettono un’assimilazione di modi cristiani; nelle raffigurazioni delle donne moriscas invece c’è uno sforzo di raggiungere una certa omogeneità sotto il mantello dell’almalafa. Va sottolineato però che questo è stato in realtà solo un tentativo di creare un’immagine, uno stereotipo, perché leggendo la documentazione del tempo questa omogeneità non è affatto chiara. Le immagini ci offrono un magnifico repertorio, rivelando condivise dimensioni simboliche e un’intera gamma di sfumature, che possono essere solo il risultato della complessità sociale esistente in quel periodo.

  1. Sustainable development applied to the Italian territorial planning, sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources; Problematiche territoriali relative al suolo, al sottosuolo, alle acque e contributo allo sviluppo sostenibile nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basili, M.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Grauso, S.; Napoleoni, S.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The paper carries out on analysis on the state of the art about sustainable development applied to the territorial planning. Tree types of approach to the sustainability are described: social, economic and environmental, using a large bibliography starting from the Bruntland report. The Italian situation is discussed. An operative proposal on the sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources: groundwater, soil and building materials are defined for the Italian context. [Italian] Nel lavoro vengono descritti i principi generali dello sviluppo sostenibile ed i tre tipi di approccio derivanti dall'analisi dell'imponente bibliografia degli ultimi quindici anni, a partire dal rapporto Bruntland che per primo ne ha preso in considerazione i concetti. Vengono proposte tre architetture logiche per procedure di gestione sostenibile delle risorse nel contesto istituzionale italiano.

  2. Informing future societies about nuclear waste repositories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.

    1994-01-01

    In 1990 a working group of the NKS (the Nordic nuclear safety program) was formed and give the task of established a basis for a common Nordic view of the need for information conservation for nuclear waste repositories. The Group investigated what tipy of information should be conserved; in what form the information should be kept; the quality of the information; and the problems of future retrieval of information, including retrieval after very long periods of time. Topics covered include the following: scientific aspects including social context of scientific solutions; information management; systems for conservation and retrieval of information including the problems of prediction; archives, markers, archives vs. markers, and continuing processes in society; Archive media including paper documents, microfilm, digital media, media lifetimes; and finally conclusions and recommendations

  3. Tarihsel süreç içinde peyzaj tasarım ve uygulama çalışmalarında yapı malzemelerinin kullanımının irdelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Shakouri, Nasim

    2010-01-01

    Peyzaj, sayısız materyallerden oluşan görsel bir bütünlük olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Bu materyaller zaman içindeki değişimlerle, peyzaj tipi ve karakterini belirlemektedir. Peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan materyaller, canlı ve cansız materyaller olarak ayrıca tanımlanmaktadır. Cansız materyaller kavramı içinde, peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan yapısal öğelerin oluşturmasında önemli rol oynayan yapı malzemeleri de yer almaktadır. Peyzaj mimarlığında kullanılan yapısal malzemelerin özellikl...

  4. Ethnoarchaeological Survey of Cave Dwelling in the Qoḥayto Plateau of Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robel Haile

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gli studi speleologici presentano un considerevole potenziale per la comprensione dei processi di sviluppo culturale sull'Altopiano del Qoḥayto , e per lo studio dei pattern di mobilità e dei sistemi residenziali dei gruppi pastorali. Questo contributo è basato su un survey archeologico e l'osservazione etnografica dell'organizzazione dello spazio domestico in grotte dell'Altopiano del Qoḥayto, ponendo in particolare evidenza: a l'opposizione tra lo spazio umano e quello destinato agli animali, e b le variazioni all'interno di questi due domini. I risultati mostrano l'esistenza di due tipi di organizzazione di questi spazi: l'una con la zona del goḥo-makādo separata da quella per gli animali, l'altra con la zona del balbala separata dalla seconda.

  5. I contratti a contenuto patrimoniale nel diritto canonico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Nicolini

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo è stato segnalato dal Prof. Vittorio Parlato, già ordinario di Diritto ecclesiastico nella Facoltà di Scienze politiche dell’Università degli Studi di Urbino “Carlo Bo”. SOMMARIO: 1. Il tema - 2. Il contratto di alienazione e la canonizzazione del diritto civile territoriale – 2.1. Gli atti di alienazione come atti di straordinaria amministrazione – 2.2. Tipi di rinvio al diritto civile territoriale, in specie italiano, e limiti - 2.3. I contratti in genere - 2.3.1. Criteri di collegamento con il diritto civile territoriale - 2.4. – I criteri di collegamento con il diritto civile territoriale nei contratti ‘in specie’ - 3. Le condizioni di validità e liceità della fattispecie alienatoria – 3.1. L’alienazione  canonicamente invalida - 3.2. L’applicazione del limite del diritto divino - 4. La prescrizione.

  6. Sebze Püresi ile Üretilen Yoğurtların Tekstürel ve Duyusal Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Özcan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada kontrol (K; balkabağı (YBK, havuç (YHA, bezelye (YBE ve yeşil kabak püreli (YYK yoğurt olmak üzere 5 farklı set tipi yoğurt üretilmiştir. Sebzeli yoğurtlarda bulunan diyet liflerinin bakteri gelişmesini teşvik eden potansiyel etkisi sonucu Streptococcus thermophilus ile Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus sayılarının arttığı saptanmıştır. Yoğurtların sebze püreleri ile zenginleştirilmesinin pH, titrasyon asitliği, serum ayrılması, duyusal özelikler ile sertlik, iç yapışkanlık, konsistens ve viskozite indeksi gibi tekstürel özellikler üzerinde etkili olduğu gözlenmiştir. Havuç püresi ile üretilen yoğurtlarda viskozite, konsistens ve sertliğin yüksek olduğu saptanırken, yeşil kabak ilaveli olanlar daha zayıf tekstürel özellikler göstermiştir. Sonuç olarak sebze püresi ilavesinin set tipi yoğurtlarda tekstürel özelliklerinin iyileştirilmesi konusunda önemli rol oynadığı ve fonksiyonel süt ürünlerinin geliştirilmesinde kullanılabileceği belirlenmiştir.

  7. DIDATTICA PROCESS DRAMA: PRINCIPI DI BASE, ESTETICA E COINVOLGIMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Piazzoli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo descrive un progetto di ricerca sull’estetica del process drama per l’insegnamento delle lingue straniere. La ricerca si basa sulla metodologia reflective practitioner, rivolta a tre casi di studio analizzati con metodi sia qualitativi che quantitativi. L’articolo costituisce un’introduzione alla ricerca, nonché alla didattica process drama, ai suoi principi di base, l’estetica e i vari tipi di coinvolgimento che può suscitare. In particolare, prende in considerazione il primo caso di studio del progetto, condotto presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, con sedici apprendenti di Italiano L2 e tre tirocinanti in qualità di osservatrici. I risultati preliminari dell’analisi puntano a un’aumentata motivazione comunicativa e consapevolezza interculturale degli apprendenti. I risultati puntano anche a una complessa relazione multilaterale fra vari tipi di coinvolgimento nel laboratorio process drama L2.     Process drama didactics: basic principles, esthetics and involvement   This paper outlines a doctoral research project on the aesthetics of process drama for intercultural language learning. The project was framed by a reflective practitioner paradigm, using multiple case studies with a mixed methods approach. This paper introduces process drama as an approach, discussing its principles, aesthetics and underpinning theory; it focuses on process drama for additional language learning and the kinds of engagement it can generate. It illustrates the first case study, conducted at the University of Milan with sixteen learners of L2 Italian and three observing teachers. Preliminary findings suggest that process drama was beneficial to support motivation to communicate and to foster intercultural awareness in the learners. Findings also suggest a complex, intertwined relationship between types of engagement in the L2 process drama classroom. 

  8. Pengembangan Teknik Jahit Celup (Tritik dengan Pola Geometris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bintan Titisari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Teknik jahit celup biasa dikenal dengan istilah tritik, yang berarti titik, merupakan teknik tekstil kelompok celup rintang. Tritik adalah cara menghias kain putih dengan menjahit jelujur lalu ditarik kemudian dicelup dan motif terbentuk setelah benang dilepaskan. Teknik tritik digunakan untuk membuat kain sasirangan, kain tradisional Kalimantan Selatan, Indonesia. Proses menjahit pada tritik dikerjakan secara tradisional tanpa ketentuan yang jelas, sehingga pengembangan desain motif belum maksimal. Melihat kondisi tersebut, penelitian  ini menggunakan pola geometris pada teknik tritik untuk melihat kemungkinan dihasilkan motif berbeda. Dengan  metode eksperimen kualitatif didapat ketentuan mengenai aturan jahitan yang diaplikasikan pada pembuatan pola geometris. Penggunaan pola geometris menghasilkan motif lebih teratur dengan tetap terkesan samar sebagai ciri khas tritik. Pewarnaan bertahap dan pengaturan jarak menghasilkan efek ilusi optik (kedalaman, arah, dan gerak. Motif tersebut diaplikasikan pada produk fashion dengan menonjolkan efek ilusi optik untuk menghasilkan siluet pada pakaian wanita.Kata kunci: geometri; jahit celup rintang; pola; sasirangan; tritik.Resist stitch-dyeing, also known locally as tritik (lit. dots, is resist dye textile weaving technique. Tritik is a method to embellish white cloth by tacking, which is then dyed and removed. The motif is formed after the thread is removed. Tritik methods and techniques are less popular compared to batik or dyed ikat. It is, however, used in making sasirangan cloth, a traditional cloth from South Kalimantan, Indonesia. The stitching has always been done traditionally due to the lack of clear convention on stitching as a resist-media. Thus, development of motif designs is not in full capacity. Taking into consideration the above, this study is carried out to create new geometric patterns using tritik techniques. Qualitative experiment methods are used to obtain ideal stitching

  9. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAB ALAT UKUR KADAR KROM DALAM AIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PRINSIP SPEKTROSKOPI SERAPAN ATOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Yunis Mahfudloh, Mohammad Tirono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Air adalah bahan yang berperan penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Air steril dengan kandungan mineral yang cukup dan tidak terpolusi dapat berperan sebagai cairan yang menata keseimbangan tubuh. Apabila air yang dikosumsi manusia telah tercemar oleh sampah dan limbah industri yang mengandung zat-zat kimia/logam berat yang bersifat racun akan berbahaya Seperti kromium/krom dengan kode kimiawi Cr. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat alat ukur kadar krom dalam air dengan metode absorpsi dengan instrumen fotometri. Alat ukur kadar krom dalam air menggunakan prinsip spektroskopi serapan atom terdiri dari 2 sistem, yaitu sistem optik dan sistem elektronik. Sistem optik terdiri dari lampu halogen, filter cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 520.4, kuvet dan sensor photodioda. Sedangkan sistem elektronik terdiri dari ADC 0804, MCU AT89S51 dan LCD.  Prinsip keja alat ini adalah cahaya polikromatis yang dipancarkan oleh lampu halogen akan melewati filter sehingga cahaya polikromatis akan bersifat monokromatis. Cahaya akan melewati air dengan kadar krom 0% untuk mereset reagen dan pelarut kemudian dideteksi oleh sensor sehingga menghasilkan data I0. Setelah dideteksi air  akan bergeser ke atas dan sensor bergeser kebelakang untuk mendeteksi sampel yang mempunyai kadar krom tertentu dan menghasilkan data I1. Di dalam sampel ini terjadi penyerapan intensitas cahaya oleh atom krom. Kemudian data I0 dan I1 akan diolah oleh MCU AT89S51 dan ditampilkan pada LCD. Sampel yang digunakan adalah larutan H2O dengan K2Cr2O7 sebanyak 10 sampel dengan variasi kadar 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, dan 5%. Larutan krom diperoleh dengan cara mengencerkan 10gr K2Cr2O7 dalam 100ml H2O sehingga didapatkan K2Cr2O7 10% sebagai larutan stok, selanjutnya untuk mendapatkan K2Cr2O7 dengan kadar tertentu, maka diambil dari larutan stok kemudian diencerkan sampai volume 25 ml sesuai dengan rumus M1 V1 =M 2 V2 Hasil pegujian pada sistem elektronik menunjukkan

  10. MODEL JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI PARAMETER KUALITAS TOMAT BERDASARKAN PARAMETER WARNA RGB (An artificial neural network model for predicting tomato quality parameters based on color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiati Evi Masithoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANN was used to predict the quality parameters of tomato, i.e. Brix, citric acid, total carotene, and vitamin C. ANN was developed from Red Green Blue (RGB image data of tomatoes measured using a developed computer vision system (CVS. Qualitative analysis of tomato compositions were obtained from laboratory experiments. ANN model was based on a feedforward backpropagation network with different training functions, namely gradient descent (traingd, gradient descent with the resilient backpropagation (trainrp, Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfrab and Shanno (BFGS quasi-Newton (trainbfg, as well as Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm.  The network structure using logsig and linear (purelin activation function at the hidden and output layer, respectively, and using  the trainlm as a training function resulted in the best performance. Correlation coefficient (r of training and validation process were 0.97 - 0.99 and 0.92 - 0.99, whereas the MAE values ​​ranged from 0.01 to 0.23 and 0.03 to 0.59, respectively. Keywords: Artificial neural network, trainlm, tomato, RGB   Jaringan syaraf tiruan (JST digunakan untuk memprediksi parameter kualitas tomat, yaitu Brix, asam sitrat, karoten total, dan vitamin C. JST dikembangkan dari data Red Green Blue (RGB  citra tomat yang diukur menggunakan computer vision system. Data kualitas tomat diperoleh dari analisis di laboratorium. Struktur model JST didasarkan pada jaringan feedforward backpropagation dengan berbagai fungsi pelatihan, yaitu gradient descent (traingd, gradient descent dengan resilient backpropagation (trainrp, Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfrab dan Shanno (BFGS quasi-Newton (trainbfg, serta Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm. Fungsi pelatihan yang terbaik adalah menggunakan trainlm, serta pada struktur jaringan digunakan fungsi aktivasi logsig pada lapisan tersembunyi dan linier (purelin pada lapisan keluaran. dengan 1000 epoch. Nilai koefisien korelasi (r pada tahap pelatihan dan validasi

  11. Profile in various organic soil depth shrimp pond, Tambak Inti Rakyat, Karawang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuni Puji Hastuti

    2015-04-01

    inlet dan outlet pada tiga kedalaman yang berbeda (0‒5 cm, 5‒10 cm, dan 10‒15 cm diambil setiap 30 hari sekali untuk diukur kandungan C, N, C/N rasio, dan total fosfatnya. Selama 120 hari masa pemeliharaan dapat diketahui bahwa pada semua sistem tambak yang digunakan (tradisional, semi intensif, dan intensif nilai konsentrasi C-organik dan N-organik rata-rata terletak pada lapisan paling bawah yaitu lapisan 10‒15 cm. Minimnya campur tangan manusia dari tanah sistem tambak maka semakin beragam jenis dan jumlah dari bahan organik yang terkandung di dalamnya.Kata kunci: bahan organik, tanah dasar, kedalaman, sistem budidaya, lama pemeliharaan

  12. BIOPHOTOVOLTAIC TIPE-N DAN TIPE-P DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN EKSTRAK KULIT JERUK DARI ACEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luthviyah Choirotul Muhimah

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sel surya berpewarna tersensitisasi atau dikenal dengan dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC dengan menggunakan semikonduktor tipe-n dan tipe-p serta ekstrak jeruk Mentui (khas Aceh sebagai biomolekul pewarna sensitisasi (dye telah difabrikasi dan dikarakterisasi. Sebagai pembanding, ekstrak jeruk nipis dan jeruk purut juga digunakan. Ekstrak jeruk mentui berdasarkan spektrum inframerah mengandung berbagai macam karotenoid dan flavonoid seperti beta karoten, hesperidin, lutein, naringin, quersetin, tangeretin, dan zeaxanthin. Karakteristik optik ekstrak jeruk Mentui juga menunjukkan nilai absorptivitas molar yang cukup tinggi sehingga dapat digunakan untuk pembuatan DSSC. Hasil pengujian arus-tegangan menunjukkan hasil bahwa penggunaan ekstrak jeruk Mentui pada semikonduktor tipe-n mampu menghasilkan efisiensi yang lebih besar daripada semikonduktor tipe-p. Adapun tegangan rangkaian terbuka (VOC dan faktor pengisian (fill factor, FF relatif sama untuk semua jenis ekstrak jeruk yaitu VOC ~ 0.340 V dan FF ~ 0.4. Rapat arus pada rangkaian singkat terbesar (Jsc = 1.21 mA·cm-2 dihasilkan DSSC dengan molekul pewarna ekstrak jeruk mentui.

  13. APLIKASI INFO HALAL MENGGUNAKAN BARCODE SCANNER UNTUK SMARTPHONE ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beki Subeki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – In the production and trade of food products in the era of globalization, people are consuming, especially Muslims need to be given the knowledge, information and access to adequate in order to obtain the correct information about the halal status of products bought. The use of barcode scanners halal product information using the mobile platform is effective and useful for the public to find out information on a product. Barcode scanners can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers or scanned from an image by special software. In Indonesia, most mobile phones have the scanning software for 2D codes, and similar devices available via smartphone.   Keywords : Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Halal Products, Smartphone     Abstrak - Dalam kegiatan produksi dan perdagangan produk pangan di era globalisasi ini, masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi, khususnya umat islam perlu diberikan pengetahuan tentang kehalalan produk, informasi dan akses yang memadai agar memperoleh informasi yang benar tentang status kehalalan produk yang dibelinya. Penggunaan barcode scanner informasi produk halal dengan menggunakan mobile platform dinilai cukup efektif dan berguna bagi masyarakat luas untuk mengetahui informasi sebuah produk. Barcode scanner dapat dibaca oleh pemindai optik yang disebut pembaca kode batang atau dipindai dari sebuah gambar oleh perangkat lunak khusus. Di Indonesia, kebanyakan telepon genggam memiliki perangkat lunak pemindai untuk kode 2D, dan perangkat sejenis tersedia melalui smartphone.   Kata Kunci: Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Produk Halal, Smartphone

  14. Introducing a Global Optical Model Approach for Analysing 16O+16O Elastic Scattering at 5-10MeV/nucleon Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Küçükoğlu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In this paper, the experimental data on elastic scattering of the 16O+16O reaction for the energy range 5-10 MeV/nucleon have been analyzed within the optical model (OM formalism by using the phenomenological potential forms in Fresco code. When developing the shape of the nuclear potential for the calculations, we have used the Woods-Saxon (WS or Woods-Saxon squared (WS2 potentials for the imaginary part together with a WS2 type real part. Although most of the previous OM analyses using phenomenological potentials have provided reasonably good fits with the experimental measurements, none of them could completely relate the behavior of the imaginary potential to the energy of the projectile yet. However, we have managed to introduce two analyses that can keep the real potential parameters almost constant and suggest a linear expression for the depth of the imaginary part of the nuclear potential depending on the incidence energy. Thus, 16O+16O system within this wide energy range has been described globally by the optical potentials having a deep, attractive real potential part and a weaker, energy dependent absorptive imaginary potential part. It has been also shown that, our calculations with these potential forms can reproduce the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions successfully and the maxima and minima are predicted correctly for most of the energies. Key words: 16O+16O reaction, optical model, elastic scattering, cross-section, phenomenological potentials. 5-10MeV/nükleon Bölgesinde 16O+16O Esnek Saçılmasının Analizi için Global bir Optik Model Yaklaşımının Tanıtılması Özet: Bu çalışmada 5-10 MeV/nükleon enerji aralığında 16O+16O reaksiyonunun deneysel esnek saçılma verileri, optik model (OM formalizmi altında, Fresco kodunda fenomenolojik potansiyel formları kullanılarak analiz edilmektedir. Hesaplamalar için nükleer potansiyelin şekli oluşturulurken gerçel kısım için Woods

  15. Kinerja Sistem Komunikasi FSO (Free Space Optics Menggunakan Cell-site Diversity di Daerah Tropis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octiana Widyarena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan masyarakat akan adanya layanan komunikasi multimedia seperti video conference, high speed internet, video streaming, dan lain sebagainya, saat ini terus meningkat. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut, perlu adanya suatu sistem komunikasi nirkabel dengan kecepatan tinggi. Salah satunya yaitu dengan menggunakan FSO (Free Space Optics. FSO merupakan sistem komunikasi yang memungkinkan memiliki koneksi layaknya serat optik, namun media transmisi yang digunakan yaitu melalui atmosfer. Penggunaan FSO di daerah tropis memiliki kendala yang cukup serius yaitu tingginya intensitas curah hujan yang dapat mempengaruhi kinerja dari FSO. Semakin tinggi intensitas curah hujan, maka nilai redaman hujan juga semakin besar. Untuk mengatasi dampak redaman hujan tersebut, maka digunakan teknik cell-site diversity dengan selection combining. Penerapan teknik cell-site diversity pada sistem komunikasi FSO menggunakan variasi panjang lintasan 0,5 km, 1 km, 1,5 km, dan 2 km serta variasi sudut antar link sebesar 45°, 90°, 135°, dan 180°. Hasil dari penerapan teknik cell-site diversity menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan kualitas sinyal FSO, dalam hal ini yaitu nilai SNR. Peningkatan nilai SNR terbesar didapatkan pada panjang lintasan 2 km dengan sudut antar link 180° serta pada link availability 99,9 %. Untuk konfigurasi cell-site diversity terbaik didapatkan pada sudut antar link sebesar 90° dan 180°.

  16. Literacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bremholm, Jesper

    I løbet at de seneste 10 år har literacy-begrebet for alvor vundet indpas som et etableret begreb i den nordiske forsknings- og uddannelsesverden, ikke mindst inden for læse-/skriveområdet. Der er dog langt fra konsensus om den præcise betydning af begrebet, og af samme grund hersker der en udbredt...... forvirring om hvorledes det skal forstås. Man kan på den baggrund stille spørgsmålet om hvorvidt literacy overhovedet er et brugbart og produktivt begreb i en nordisk kontekst. Når man i PISA-undersøgelserne giver læseområdet den pleonastiske betegnelse reading literacy, kunne det give anledning til...... at tvivle på at det er tilfældet. Med afsæt i forskellige begrebs- og forskningsmæssige perspektiver diskuteres i oplægget literacy-begrebets berettigelse, og i forlængelse heraf præsenteres et bud på en trifokal optik som teoretisk blik på literacy i undervisningskontekster. Eksempler fra forskellige...

  17. YAPAY DENİZ SUYUNDA FARKLI HIZLARDA Cu-%10 Ni ALAŞIMININ EROZYON-KOROZYON DAVRANIŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GAVGALI

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada yapay deniz suyunda Cu-10 % Ni bakır-nikel alaşımının erozyon-korozyon davranışı incelenmiştir. Erozyon-korozyon testleri farklı hızlarda dönen silindirik elektrot kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Denemelerde serbest korozyon potansiyeli, anodik polarizasyon, elektrokimyasal impedans analizi, ağırlık kaybı testleri ve optik mikroskop incelemesi yapılmıştır. Dönme hızı ve zamanın artması ile yapay deniz suyundaki Cu-10 % Ni alaşımının korozyon hızı artmıştır. Koruyucu yüzey filmindeki hasarın, dönme hızı 1600 d/d olduğunda 3. saatten itibaren, 2000 d/d olduğunda ise 1. saatten itibaren başladığı ve giderek arttığı belirlenmiştir.

  18. The Development of a Physics Knowledge Enrichment Book “Optical Instrument Equipped with Augmented Reality” to Improve Students’ Learning Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astra, I. M.; Saputra, F.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to develop a physics knowledge enrichment book which is provided with augmented reality focusing on the proper optical instruments as the subject to improve students’ learning outcomes. This physics knowledge enrichment book entitled “Alat Optikyang dilengkapi dengan Augmented Reality” discusses some optical instruments seeing from its history, physics concepts, and types. This study used method Research and Development which is developed as Model Pengembangan Instruksional. In the previous study has been done feasibility test to the material and media experts with the percentage by each experts are 88,50% and 88,90%. In this study, we did the trial run of product use was carried out to a physics teacher and 25 students of SMAN 33 Jakarta. This trial run got the average percentage of 88.10% from the physics teacher while the result of the students was 82.80% and the gain normalized test result of 0.71 which meant the students’ learning outcomes had increased in cognitive domain with high interpretation. Based on the result of this study, the physics knowledge enrichment book entitled “Alat Optik yang dilengkapi dengan Augmented Reality” is a proper book in order to improve students’ learning outcomes in cognitive domain with high interpretation.

  19. KESULITAN PEMECAHAN MASALAH FISIKA PADA SISWA SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rismatul Azizah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mengidentifikasi kesulitan pemecahan masalah fisika pada siswa SMA. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode survey dengan menyebarkan angket. Responden terdiri dari 120 siswa yang berasal dari 3 sekolah yaitu, SMA Negeri 1 Bangil, SMA Negeri 8 Malang, dan SMA YADIKA Bangil. Dilakukan pula wawancara pada beberapa guru dan siswa. Berdasarkan hasil penyebaran angket, diperoleh 26% siswa mengalami kesulitan pada materi Suhu dan Kalor, 25% Optik, 21% Fluida Statik, 17% Elastisitas dan Hukum Hooke, dan 11% Kinematika. Kesulitan tersebut salah satunya disebabkan pembelajaran bagi siswa yang kurang maksimal dalam bentuk hands on activity. Sebanyak 88% siswa mengatakan bahwa pembelajaran fisika yang sering dialami adalah dengan metode ceramah. Siswa mengalami kesulitan belajar fisika dalam menyelesaikan permasalahan pada soal sebesar 32%, kesulitan memahami konsep dan rumus 26%, kesulitan menggunakan persamaan atau rumus dalam soal 18%, kesulitan menganalisis grafik dan gambar 17%, dan kesulitan menyimpulkan materi yang telah dipelajari 7%. Kesulitan tersebut terlihat ketika siswa memecahkan permasalahan pada soal kinematika serta suhu dan kalor. Diperoleh dari hasil angket, bahwa 76% siswa mengalami kesulitan dalam memecahkan permasalahan pada soal dengan alasan lupa atau tidak paham, sebesar 19% siswa kurang memahami solusi pemecahan masalah pada soal, dan hanya sebesar 5% siswa mampu memecahkan permasalahan pada soal.

  20. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  1. Gerthsen Physik

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Auf mehr als 1000 Seiten findet man von der Kinematik des Massenpunktes über die Quantenchromodynamik, die Fullerene, die Halbleiterlaser, die Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter bis hin zum Chaos im Kochtopf praktisch alles, was Physik heute ausmacht. ... In diesem sehr weit gespannten Bogen nimmt der Gerthsen den Platz eines echten, ja eigentlich des einzigen Kompendiums der Physik ein. Kein Physiker kommt heute noch ohne dieses Werk aus. (Physikalische Blätter) Für die Studierenden der Physik im Haupt- und Nebenfach ist der Gerthsen ein unverzichtbarer und kompetenter Begleiter durch das gesamte Studium, das jetzt in der Neuauflage noch preisgünstiger zu erwerben ist. Nahezu alle Studierenden beginnen mit dem Klassiker Gerthsen. Sämtliche Gebiete der Physik werden ausführlich und gut verständlich dargestellt. Das Buch stellt alle klassischen Themen vor - Mechanik, Wärmelehre, Elektrodynamik, Optik. Darauf aufbauende Themen der klassischen Physik wie die Nichtlineare Dynamik und die Relativitätstheorie sin...

  2. Fremmed, farlig og fræk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sune Qvotrup

    fiksering, ved at påberåbe sig normalitet eller ved at ironisere over stereotyper. Modstanden mod othering i forskningsrelationen kan tolkes som en påberåbelse af at være et 'almindeligt menneske'. Men modstanden, mod at blive fastlåst i den position man selv iscenesætter peger også på en kompetence til...... rolleskift. De unge forsøger selv at bestemme, hvornår de vil fremstille sig selv på en stereotyp måde, og hvornår de vil være fri for at blive betragtet gennem stereotypiens patologiserende optik. Analysen af fortællingerne om hverdagsliv og othering viser, at enisk/racial andenhed kommer til at få en...... praksis uden for disse kontekster, må man principielt være forsigtig med at udtale sig. Men det kunne se ud til, at denne er temmelig differentieret. Nogle af de unge mænd er dominerende, måske ligefrem voldelige, mens andre ikke er det. En del af de unge positionerer sig homofobisk, idet de tager stærk...

  3. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physical Processes in Laser-Materials Interaction, which was the 9th course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    It is a pleasure to write a few words as an introduction to the proceedings of the 1980 NATO ASI on "Physical Processes in Laser­ Naterial Interaction." This ASI is the ninth course of a series devoted to lasers and their applications, held under the responsibility of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society, and for this reason known as the "Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics." Since 1971 the School has been operating with the joint direc­ tion of myself as representative of the academic research, and Dr. D. Roess (formerly with Siemens AEG, Munich, and now with Sick, Optik und Electronik, GmbH, Munich) for the industrial applications. Indeed the aim of the School is to alternate fundamental and applied frontier topics in the area of quantum electronics and modern optics, in order to introduce young research people from universities and industrial R&D laboratories to the new aspects of research opened by the laser.

  4. Single cells for forensic DNA analysis--from evidence material to test tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brück, Simon; Evers, Heidrun; Heidorn, Frank; Müller, Ute; Kilper, Roland; Verhoff, Marcel A

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop a method that, while providing morphological quality control, allows single cells to be obtained from the surfaces of various evidence materials and be made available for DNA analysis in cases where only small amounts of cell material are present or where only mixed traces are found. With the SteREO Lumar.V12 stereomicroscope and UV unit from Zeiss, it was possible to detect and assess single epithelial cells on the surfaces of various objects (e.g., glass, plastic, metal). A digitally operated micromanipulator developed by aura optik was used to lift a single cell from the surface of evidence material and to transfer it to a conventional PCR tube or to an AmpliGrid(®) from Advalytix. The actual lifting of the cells was performed with microglobes that acted as carriers. The microglobes were held with microtweezers and were transferred to the DNA analysis receptacles along with the adhering cells. In a next step, the PCR can be carried out in this receptacle without removing the microglobe. Our method allows a single cell to be isolated directly from evidence material and be made available for forensic DNA analysis. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  6. Perancangan Sistem Pemantauan Gas dan Peringatan pada Ruangan melalui Jaringan Nirkabel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunawan Kunto Bhasworo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Udara adalah suatu campuran gas yang terdapat pada  lapisan yang mengelilingi bumi. Gas CO merupakan salah satu gas yang mengandung  zat yang tidak baik yang tidak dapat ditangkap oleh panca indera, gas tersebut bersifat membunuh makhluk hidup termasuk manusia. Hidrogen sulfida  (H2S adalah gas yang tidak berwarna, beracun, mudah terbakar dan berbau seperti telur busuk. . Konsentrasi H2S dalam jumlah yang rendah, dapat membahayakan keselamatan manusia. Dalam konsentrasi 100 PPM dapat menyebabkan kematian dalam waktu 2-5 menit. Tidak kalah berbahayanya adalah hydrocarbon gas exploison atau ledakan yang diakibatkan kebocoran LPG (metana pada ruang tertutup. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk merancang dan mengimplementasikan sebuah sistem pemantau gas dan peringatan pada ruangan melalui jaringan nirkabel. Dengan menggabungkan PC (Personal Computer, Arduino, Arduino Wifi shield, Router, LCD (Liquid Crystal Display, Buzzer serta sensor gas TGS 2620 dan 2602 serta 2442 yang merupakan sensor-sensor dengan sensitivitas yang tinggi terhadap gas LPG (metana dan H2S serta CO dengan konsumsi daya rendah. Di peroleh sistem pemantau gas dan peringatan pada ruangan melalui jaringan nirkabel yang dapat mendeteksi dan memberikan peringatan apabila ada gas-gas berbahaya CO, H2S dan LPG (metana

  7. ANALISIS SIFAT TARIK DAN IMPAK KOMPOSIT SERAT RAMI DENGAN PERLAKUAN ALKALI DALAM WAKTU 2,4,6 DAN 8 JAM BERMATRIK POLIESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pramuko Ilmu Purboputro

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ikatan interfacal bonding pada komposit serat alam sangat tergantung dari kekasaran permukaan serat. Permukaan serat dapat ditingkatkan daya ikatan permukaannya dengan cara mencelupkan pada larutan alkali. Pencelupan ini akan mengurangi lapisan lignin yang mengurangi kekuatan ikat pada permukaan serat. Pada penelitian ini proses yang digunakan adalah perlakuan alkali terhadap permukaan serat dengan  cara merendam serat rami selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam. Larutah alkali yang digunakan adalah larutan NaOH dengan konsentrasi 10% pada pelarut air. Serat rami   Boehmeria nivea (L Goud direndam pada larutan NaOH selama 2,4,6, dan 8 jam perendaman, untuk menghilangkan zat ligninnya agar kekuatan ikatan permukaan bisa diperbaiki.  Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian tarik dan pengujian impak. Hasil yang didapat adalah kekuatan tarik terbesar didapat pada perendaman 8 jam yaitu sebesar 41,9 MPa. Modulus young terbesar didapat pada perendaman 2 jam, yaitu 2743,15 Mpa, dan kekuatan impak terbesar adalah 0,0725 Joule/mm2 terjadi pada perendaman 4 jam   Kata kunci : komposit serat, kekuatan tarik, kekuatan impak, perendaman alkali

  8. Implementasi Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis untuk Peramalan Pemakaian Air di Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Tirta Moedal Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfatun Hani'ah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peramalan pemakaian air pada bulan januari 2015 sampai April 2015 dapat dilakukan menggunakan perhitungan matematika dengan bantuan ilmu komputer. Metode yang digunakan adalah Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS dengan bantuan software MATLAB. Untuk pengujian program, dilakukan percobaan dengan memasukkan variabel klas = 2, maksimum epoh = 100, error = 10-6, rentang nilai learning rate = 0.6 sampai 0.9, dan rentang nilai momentum = 0.6 sampai 0.9. Simpulan yang diperoleh adalah bahwa implementasi metode Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System dalam peramalan pemakaian air yang pertama adalah membuat rancangan flowchart, melakukan clustering data menggunakan fuzzy C-Mean, menentukan neuron tiap-tiap lapisan, mencari nilai parameter dengan menggunakan LSE rekursif, lalu penentuan perhitungan error menggunakan sum square error (SSE dan membuat sistem peramalan pemakaian air dengan software MATLAB. Setelah dilakukan percobaan hasil yang menunjukkan SSE paling kecil adalah nilai learning rate 0.9 dan momentum 0.6 dengan SSE 0.0080107. Hasil peramalan pemakaian air pada bulan Januari adalah 3.836.138m3, bulan Februari adalah 3.595.188m3, bulan Maret adalah 3.596.416 m3, dan bulan April adalah 3.776.833 m3. 

  9. PERAN KELUARGA DAN GURU DALAM MEMBANGUN KARAKTER DAN KONSEP DIRI SISWA BROKEN HOME DI USIA SEKOLAH DASAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Irsalina Savitri

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe in depth observations on the role of the family and teachers in building the character of students broken home at primary school age. This study used a qualitative approach - a case study. Technique data collecting by interview and observation (at school and home visit in depth. Subjects of the study included two students broken home. This study menunjukkan that parents (mother and another family (grandparents, aunts, uncles that play a role in the child's everyday life. The results of this study are expected to package and represent the role of parents and teachers in building the character of students broken home. So as to cover all levels of students victims of a broken home. Penelitian ini bertujuan mendeskripsikan hasil pengamatan secara mendalam tentang peran keluarga dan guru dalam membangun karakter kepada siswa broken home di usia sekolah dasar. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif - studi kasus. Teknik pengumpulan data dengan cara wawancara, dan observasi (di sekolah dan home visit secara mendalam. Subjek dari penelitian mencakup 2 siswa broken home. Penelitian ini menujnjukkan bahwa orangtua (ibu dan keluarga lain (kakek, nenek, bibi, paman yang berperan dalam keseharian anak. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan mampu mengemas dan mewakili peran orangtua dan guru dalam membangun karakter siswa broken home. Sehingga mampu mengcover semua lapisan siswa korban keluarga broken home.

  10. DISAIN SIMULATOR AUTOMOTIVE AIR CONDITIONING UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KOMPETENSI MAHASISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamin Sumardi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi automotive air conditioning dan aplikasinya sangat cepat, salah satunya dengan menerapkan green technology. Penerapan green technology pada teknologi air conditioning, karena masih menggunakan refrigeran yang mengandung unsur kimia yang merusak lapisan ozon dan pemanasan global. Alih teknologi bidang air conditioning yang ramah lingkungan, belum dibarengi dengan ketersediaan tenaga kerja pada tingkat SMK dan perguruan tinggi yang memadai, baik kuantitas maupun kompetensinya. Pada level SMK dan perguruan tinggi, kompetensi akademik dan vokasional bidang automotive air conditioning harus terus ditingkatkan dan diperbaharui sesuai dengan perkembangan teknologinya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menghasilkan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran tata udara pada otomotif berwawasan teknologi ramah lingkungan. Penelitian menggunakan metode research and development dengan langkah-langkah: studi pendahuluan, perencanaan, pengembangan melalui uji coba simulator, validasi, dan produk akhir. Simulator dibuat sesuai dengan kondisi di dunia kerja agar tidak terjadi miskonsepsi dan mala-praktek automotive air conditioning. Simulator ini dibuat secara kompak dan mobile atau dapat dipindah dan dibawa. Model pembelajaran disesuaikan dengan kebutuhan kompetensi yang dipersyaratkan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan bantuan simulator automotive air conditioner dan model pembelajaran yang tepat mahasiswa mampu menyerap konsep dan praktek lebih cepat 85%. Hasil belajar pada ranah afektif, kognitif, psikomotor dan kompetensi meningkat secara signifikan.

  11. GAMBARAN CEMARAN JAMUR PADA KOSMETIK BEDAK BAYI DAN BAYANGAN MATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Raini

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kosmetik merupakan komoditi yang digunakan oleh hampir seluruh lapisan masyarakat di Indonesia. Salah satu penyebab kerusakan kosmetik adalah pencemaran mikroba baik jamur maupun bakteri. Pencemaran dapat berasal dari air, bahan baku yang digunakan, serta ruangan tempat pembuatan. Di pasaran kemungkinan terkait terhadap kondisi tempat penyimpanan dan kemasan yang tidak memadai dari kosmetik itu sendiri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jumlah dan jenis jamur yang sering terdapat di udara yang dapat mencemari kosmetik bedak bayi dan bayangan mata.Hasil penghitungan jumlah jamur pada bedak bayi yang diambil dari pabrik didapat 2 sampel (20% tidak memenuhi syarat jumlah jamur dan keduanya adalah Penicillium sp. sedangkan pada bedak bayi yang diambil dari pasar didapat 3 (30% sampel tidak memenuhi syarat jumlah jamur, 1 sampel (10% mengandung Aspergillus sp., 2 sampel (20%mengandung jenis jamur di luar 6 jamur yang diuji. Hasil penghitungan jumlah jamur pada bayangan mata yang diambil dari pabrik didapat 5 sampel (26,3% tidak memenuhi syarat jumlah jamur, 4 sampel (21,1% mengandung jenis jamur Penicillium sp. dan 1 sampel (5,26% mengandung Aspergillus sp.. Hasil penghitungan jumlah jamur pada bayangan mata yang didapat dari pasar didapat 1 sampel (5,26% mengandung jamur di luar 6 jamur yang diidentifikasi. 

  12. IDENTIFIKASI LIMBAH MERKURI DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK: STUDI KASUS DESA JENDI KECAMATAN SELOGIRI, WONOGIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hendrawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Penggunaan merkuri yang tidak dikelola dengan baik pada pertambangan emas liar di Kecamatan Selogiri, Wonogiri berpotensi menimbulkan pencemaran di wilayah tersebut. Akumulasi pembuangan limbah merkuri dapat membahayakan lingkungan sekitar pertambangan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui penyebaran limbah merkuri di Desa Jendi Kecamatan Selogiri Kabupaten Wonogiri menggunakan metode geolistrik konfigurasi schlumberger. Pengolahan data menggunakan software Res3Dinv, RockWork, dan CorelDraw. Interpretasi difokuskan pada kedalaman, jumlah lapisan, serta resistivitas material bawah permukaan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya indikasi endapan merkuri pada kedalaman 7,45 meter pada lokasi 1 dan 6,74 meter pada lokasi 2.The use of mercury were not managed properly on illegal gold mining in the district Selogiri, Wonogiri potential to cause pollution in the region. Accumulation of waste disposal of mercury can harm the environment around the mine. The aim of this study was to determine the spread of mercury waste in the village Jendi Selogiri District of Wonogiri, using geoelectric method Schlumberger configuration. Data processing using software Res3Dinv, rockwork, and CorelDraw. Interpretation focused on depth, number of layers, and the resistivity of the subsurface material. Results showed indications of deposition of mercury at a depth of 7.45 meters at the first location and 6.74 meters at the second location.

  13. Gambaran Histopatologik Lesi Karies pada Email dengan Aplikasi Fluor In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agoeng Tjahjani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tahap dini karies telah lama dikenal dengan istilah bercak putih. Untuk mengetahui terjadinya lesi karies di bawah permukaan email in vivo, maka dilakukan penelitian secara in vitro dengan merendam gigi Premolar dengan dan tanpa aplikasi fluor dalam perbenihan kuman Streptococcus mutans FA-1 (ATCC 16495. Enam puluh empat gigi Preolar tanpa karies dibagi dalam 2 kelompok. Pada kelompok perlakuan, gigi diaplikasi dengan fluor sedang pada kelompok kontrol gigi tanpa aplikasi fluor. Semua gigi dimasukkan dalam perbenihan tioglikolat air yang ke dalamnya telah ditanam Streptococcus mutans FA-4 (ATCC 16495 selama 4 dan 8 minggu. Pembentukan bercah putih diamati dengan mikroskop 'zoom-stereo'. Sedang besarnya porusitas di bawah permukaan email diaamti dengan mikroskop polarisasi. Pada akhir minggu ke-4 dan ke-8 pada kedua kelompok ditemukan peningkatan jumlah gigi dengan pembentukan bercak putih dan peningkatan nilai rata-rata kedalaman lapisan badan lesi. Uji statistik dengan chi-square test menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna pada p<0.05. Berdasarkan penelitian tersebut di atas disimpulkan bahwa (1 aplikasi NaF hanya menghambat sebagian pembentukan lesi karies dan (2 sistem perbenihan kuman yang digunakan tidak dapat mencerminkan keadaan mulut yang sebenarnya.

  14. ANALISIS PERFORMA SISTEM PENDINGIN RAMAH LINGKUNGAN UNTUK KABIN MOBIL CITY CAR MENGGUNAKAN MODUL TERMO ELECTRIC COOLER TERHADAP KONSUMSI BAHAN BAKAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Yusuf

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramah lingkungan menjadi isu yang gencar dalam penelitian. Cloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC yang digunakan dalam AC konvensional akan menguap ke udara bebas  berdampak kerusakan lapisan ozon. Ditinjau secara micro dalam penggunaan sitem pendingin dapat diterapkan pada pendingin kabin mobil. System pendingin mobil konfensional menimbulkan 2 kerugian yaitu lebih boros bahan bakar karena couple pulley compressor AC membebani putaran mesin dan penggunaan CFC yang tidak ramah lingkungan.   System pendingin ramah lingkunagan dan mampu menghemat bahan bakar mesin tersebut dapat kita temukan pada modul thermoelectric.  terobosan baru sistem pendingin tersebut menggunakan modul pendingin Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC yang memanfaatkan sisi dingin pada Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC dengan memanfaatkan seaback effect .  Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC ketika dialiri tegangan DC (arus searah pada kedua jalur kabel penghubungnya maka salah satu sisi akan menjadi panas, sementara sisi satunya akan menjadi dingin. Salahsatu cara yang dapat ditempuh untuk memaksimalkan proses pendinginan, maka sisi panas Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC harus diturunkan temperaturenya serendah mungkin mungkin dengan menggunakan alat penukar kalor heat sink serta dibantu kipas(fan. semakin lama proses pendinginan, maka semakin optimal suhu ruangan yang didinginkan. Dari data Hasil pengujian dapat diketahui perangkat pendingin tersebut mampu bekerja dengan rate penurunan temperature memadai. Selanjutnya dapat dapat diaplikasikan sebagai alat pendingin ruangan yang efektif, efisien dan ramah lingkungan.    Kata kunci:  Kabin mobil, Air Conditioner (AC konvensional, Cloro Fluoro Carbon (CFC, Thermo Electric Cooler (TEC, komponen sistem pendingin.

  15. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Variasi Perubahan Refrigeran-22 Dengan Musicool-22 Pada Sistem Pengkondisian Udara Dengan Pre-cooling

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    Arnovia Christine Sabatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioning system merupakan mesin sistem refrigerasi kompresi uap sederhana. Kemudian dimodifikasi menjadi dua indoor unit dan satu outdoor unit. Dimana outdoor unit memiliki dua jenis kondenser yaitu, water cooled condenser dan air cooled condenser. Pembuangan kalor pada bagian water cooled condenser dimanfaatkan untuk memanaskan air yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari kedepannya. Penggunaan refrigeran CFC atau HCFC mengakibatkan beberapa dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan penggunaan mesin refrigerasi ini, diantaranya dapat merusak lapisan ozone, pemanasan global dan tidak hemat energi listrik. Penelitian pada ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan membandingkan performansi suatu sistem refrigerasi sederhana yang mampu menghemat konsumsi energi dan ramah lingkungan. Metoda penelitian ini dilakukan pertama menggunakan R-22 sebagai refrigeran primernya dan selanjutnya dilakukan proses retrofitting (penggantian refrigeran dengan menggunakan MC-22. Selanjutnya analisis dilakukan berdasarkan data dari setiap titik-titik pengukuran dengan begitu akan diperoleh suatu sistem refrigerasi dengan performansi yang paling baik dengan konsumsi energi listrik yang sedikit, serta sistem refrigerasi yang ramah lingkungan. Sistem tersebut aladah yang menggunakan MC-22 baik menggunakan atau tanpa pre-cooling dengan nilai COPelektrik 3,786; dan 3,933, COPthermal 4,501; dan 4,670, dan nilai penghematan energi listrik sekitar 20% lebih hemat dibanding sistem yang menggunakan R-22.

  16. PENGANTAR

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    Redaksi Jurnal Filsafat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kebudayaan itu bersifat cair dan dapat berubah. Sejarah mencatat, telah terjadi imperialisme budaya (cultural imperialism. Hegemoni budaya Barat telah “menyerbu” ke segala lapisan dunia, termasuk Indonesia. Imperialisme budaya ini dalam kurun waktu tertentu telah membuat manusia Indonesia melupakan keunggulan budaya Indonesia yang beranekaragam dan sarat dengan nilai-nilai spiritualitas. Manusia Indonesia mengalami krisis percaya diri. Dinamika manusia Indonesia telah melupakan historisitas dan karakateristik kultural Indonesia. Akibatnya, bukan kemajuan yang diperoleh, tetapi justru “tergagap-gagap” dengan budaya Barat. Terkait dengan hal di atas, Jurnal Filsafat Volume 19, nomor 1, April 2009 ini menyajikan artikel-artikel tentang dua corak budaya yang diilhami oleh nilai berbeda. Pertama, corak budaya Barat baik dalam ranah keilmuan, teknologi, dan ekspresi budaya. Representasi corak pertama ini ditampilkan dalam artikel pemikiran ekonomi Adam Smith, pengaruh kemajuan teknologi komunikasi televisi, dan artikel tentang satu bentuk ekspresi budaya Barat yakni simbol-simbol satanisme yang digandrungi generasi muda. Kedua, corak budaya khas Indonesia, yakni kearifan lokal Indonesia. Corak budaya ini direpresentasikan dalam artikel Kawruh Bimosuci yang sarat dengan nilai-nilai spiritual, dan refleksi kritis atas gagasan Prof. Mubyarto tentang Filsafat Ilmu Ekonomi Pancasila. Tim penyunting berharap, dengan menampilkan artikelartikel tersebut di atas, Jurnal Filsafat ini dapat memperkaya khasanah pemikiran para pembaca dan menjadi inspirasi dalam berkehidupan, serta dapat menjadi bahan pemikiran dalam menata ulang kebudayaan Indonesia.

  17. PROFIL PERUBAHAN KONSEPTUAL SISWA PADA MATERI KEPENDUDUKAN DAN PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

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    Lusiana Dwi Hastuti Muchyar

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRAK           Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil konsepsi awal dan profil konsepsi akhir siswa serta untuk melihat proses dan pola perubahan konseptual siswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena banyak siswa yang memiliki konsepsi yang tidak sesuai dengan konsepsi ilmiah mengenai masalah lingkungan seperti pemanasan global, deplesi lapisan ozon, hujan asam dan polusi radioaktif yang diakibatkan oleh pencemaran lingkungan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VII yang diajar oleh guru berpengalaman dan guru praktikan di salah satu SMP di Kota Bandung. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk melihat profil konsepsi awal, profil konsepsi akhir, serta pola perubahan konseptual siswa adalah tes tertulis berupa soal pilihan ganda disertai dengan penjelasan yang diberikan pada awal pembelajaran serta akhir pembelajaran. Jawaban dari tes tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perubahan konseptual pada siswa, baik yang diajar oleh guru berpengalaman, maupun yang diajar oleh guru praktikan. Proses perubahan konseptual ini terjadi pada beberapa konsep seperti konsep efek rumah kaca, daya dukung lingkungan, gas CFC, serta pemanasan global. Selain itu, hasil analisis juga menunjukkan adanya pola perubahan konseptual pada siswa yaitu berubah positif, berubah negatif, bertahan positif, dan bertahan negatif. Kata kunci: perubahan konseptual, pola perubahan konseptual, profil konsepsi awal, profil konsepsi akhir

  18. ANALISA PERUBAHAN IONOSFER AKIBAT GEMPA MENTAWAI TAHUN 2010 (Studi Kasus : Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra Barat

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    Leni Septiningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gempa merupakan fenomena alam akibat aktifitas tektonik yang sering terjadi di Indonesia. Sepanjang pulau Sumatra merupakan pertumbukan antara lempeng Indo-Australia dan lempeng Eurasia menjadikan Sumatra sebagai daerah paling aktif dengan aktifitas tektoniknya. Pada tahun 2010 tercatat tiga gempa besar yang terjadi, yaitu gempa berkekuatan 6,8 SR pada 5 Maret, disusul 6,5 SR pada 5 Mei dan terakhir 7,8 SR pada 25 Oktober 2010. Post-earthquake anomali merupakan fluktuasi TEC yang terjadi sesaat setelah terjadinya gempa, fenomena ini terjadi 3 menit hingga 1 jam setelah gempa terjadi. Post-earthquake anomali dapat digunakan sebagai early warning sebelum tsunami datang. Pengamatan TEC (Total Electron Content dilakukan dengan menggunakan GPS. Satelit GPS akan secara kontinyu memancarkan sinyal gelombang double frequency pada L band. Pada saat terjadi gempa, sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh satelit GPS akan mengalami delay ketika melewati lapisan ionosfer kira-kira 300 km dari permukaan bumi. Variasi ionosfer diamati pada saat terjadi time-delay ini, sehingga didapat nilai TEC dimana I TECU sama dengan 1016 elektron/m2. Nilai tersebut yang akan menggambarkan besaran gangguan akibat adanya gempa. Pada gempa Mentawai 2010 dengan menggunakan stasiun pengamat GPS pada ketiga kejadian gempa tidak menunjukkan adanya gangguan pada ionosfer, hanya terjadi fluktuasi pada beberapa stasiun pengamat.

  19. Pengaruh ENSO (El Niño and Southern Oscillation terhadap transpor massa air laut di Selat Malaka

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    Muhammad

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak. Penelitian ini mengkaji pengaruh ENSO (El Niño and Southern Oscillation di Selat Malaka dengan memakai indek osilasi selatan Samudera Pasifik dalam menentukan kondisi Normal, El Niño dan La Nina sebagai analisis transpor massa air laut, elevasi muka laut dan densitas laut. Metode penelitian menggunakan persamaan Navier-Stokes dengan gaya pembangkit pasang surut, angin dari National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP Tahun 1980-2007, Salinitas (Levitus dan Boyer, 1994a dan Temperatur (Levitus dan Boyer, 1994b. Persamaan gerak air laut tersebut dimodelkan dengan model Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM. Hasil-hasil menunjukkan bahwa transpor di bagian barat laut Selat Malaka pergerakannya melemah dan transpor di bagian tenggara pergerakannya menguat dibandingkan pada kondisi tahun Normal dan La Nina. Sedangkan elevasi muka air di Selat Malaka pada kondisi tahun El Niño lebih rendah dibandingkan pada kondisi Normal dan La Nina. Selanjutnya densitas permukaan laut di Selat Malaka pada kondisi tahun Normal, El Niño dan La Nina berkisar 18,5 s/d 20,5 kg/m3. Densitas laut lapisan 30-50 m di Selat Malaka pada kondisi tahun Normal, El Niño dan La Nina berkisar 19 s/d 21 kg/m3. Densitas permukaan laut dan densitas laut kedalaman 30-50 m di bagian tenggara Selat Malaka pada kondisi El Niño lebih besar dibandingkan pada tahun Normal maupun tahun La Nina.

  20. Pengaruh Temperatur Kalsinasi pada Kaca FTO yang di-coating ZnO terhadap Efisiensi DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell yang Menggunakan Dye dari Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

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    Akbar Nur Prasetya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor ZnO yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5000C, 5500C, dan 6000C, dengan waktu tahan 30 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan ZnO pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel ZnO berupa hexagonal. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal ZnO adalah Wurthzite. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5000C ke 5500C, namun menurun pada 6000C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 550oC yaitu sebesar 0,591 mA/cm2 dan 1140 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,150%. Karena sampel 550oC memiliki luas permukaan aktif paling besar 146,185 m2/gr.

  1. UJI KUALITATIF DAN KUANTITATIF EKSTRAK Sargassum sp. DAN Gracilaria sp. SEBAGAI INHIBITOR BIO-KOROSI PADA BAJA KARBON

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    Isriyanti Affifah

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Korosi atau perkaratan logam merupakan proses oksidasi suatu logam dengan udara atau elektrolit. Udara atau elektrolit tersebut akan mengalami reduksi, sehingga proses korosi merupakan proses elektrokimia. Pada penelitian sebelumnya diketahui bahwa korosi yang disebabkan mikroorganisme pengoksidasi besi (Thiobacillus ferooxidans memiliki peranan yang cukup signifikan terhadap kerugian ekonomi bagi industri. Lapisan biofilm yang dihasilkan mikroorganisme pada permukaan logam dapat mengubah karakteristik elektrokimia permukaan logam tersebut dan dapat menginduksi terjadinya korosi. Untuk mengatasi masalah tersebut, pada penelitian ini dilakukan ekstraksi Sargassum sp. dan Gracilaria sp. yang diduga efektif menginhibisi pertumbuhan mikroba pengoksidasi besi (Thibacillus ferooxidans yang biasanya terdapat di bangunan bawah laut. Hasil ekstraksi Sargassum sp. dan Gracilaria sp. menggunakan pelarut metanol-kloroform (1:1 memberikan yield terhadap berat basah sebesar 44,5% dan 36,5%. Ekstrak tersebut diuji bioaktivitasnya terhadap pertumbuhan T. ferooxidans secara kualitatif (kasat mata dan kuantitatif (metode weight-loss. Melalui kurva pertumbuhan diketahui bahwa T. ferooxidans mampu tumbuh sampai hari ke-7 dan mengalami fasa stasioner pada hari ke-8. Analisis metode weight-loss dilakukan menggunakan coupon dengan luas permukaan 3,6 cm2. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak Gracilaria sp mampu menginhibisi 29,3% lebih efektif daripada biocide komersial.

  2. JURNALISME LINGKUNGAN YANG SADAR LINGKUNGAN

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    Arief Fajar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the principle, environmental journalism has same format to another journalism. However, the difference is a central issue in the news, coverage of environmental journalism focused on text production from the reality of environment such as the environmental damage caused of human error (pollution, flooding, landslides, and deforestation, local wisdom, conservation, waste, nature resource. According to categorization from Flournoy, environmental news consist of (Flournoy, 1989; Peristiwa yang ditampilkan dalam teks berita yang terkait dengan Bencana Alam, Perubahan Iklim, Global Warming, Penipisan Lapisan Ozon, dan lain-lainya seperti pengembangan teknologi serta kebijakan pemerintah terkait lingkungan. Most people know about environmental degradation such as deforestation, pollution industrial waste and the greenhouse effect through newspapers and television. But most environmentalists are not satisfied with the environmental news in newspapers and on television. They cite three mistakes that often appear in the news environment, such as: lack of information relevant to the background news, headlines are often misleading and lack of desire to think of risk coverage. (Abrar, 1993:59-60. The main discussion in this paper, invites critical discussion about the concept of environmental journalism.

  3. KAJIAN ANALISIS PERBANDINGAN JUMLAH PEMANFAATAN AIR TANAH

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    Acep Hidayat

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan pertumbuhan kota meningkat sehingga fenomena yang berkaitan dengan sumber daya air semakin meningkat. Pertumbuhan penduduk setiap tahun bertambah menyertai pertumbuhan kota, menjadikan pemanfaatan air tanah semakin meningkat. Fenomena yang terjadi adalah bahwa ketersediaan lahan untuk prosesnya terjadinya resapan air ke dalam tanah semakin berkurang, dimana luasan lahan yang ada sangat tidak mencukupi resapan air ke dalam tanah. Di samping itu, resapan air ke dalam tanah dipengaruhi tingkat permeabilitas dari jenis tanah pada lingkungan daerah sekitar resapan. Akibat dari jumlah resapan air ke dalam tanah yang tidak seimbang dengan jumlah pemakaian air tanah yang digunakan mengakibatkan terjadinya penurunan muka air tanah dengan disertai penurunan lapisan tanah. Bila hal ini terjadi secara terus menerus menjadikan elevasi permukaan tanah akan lebih rendah dari permukaan laut. Untuk mengantisipasi hal tersebut terjadi, maka penelitian ini melakukan kajian tingkat permeabilitas daya resap air untuk macam jenis tanah dengan melakukan tes-tes tanah, sehingga dapat diketahui titik imbang antara jumlah air tanah yang dapat diambil dengan air yang dapat meresap ke dalam tanah. Berdasarkan perhitungan curah hujan didapat bahwa besar curah hujan dalam satu tahun sebesar 54.56 m3/detik dan yang meresap hanya 5.37 m3/detik atau 9.84 %. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa jenis tanah di sekitar wilayah penelitian berjenis lanau dan clay, sehingga mempunyai angka pori yang kecil. Dengan kondisi tersebut maka wilayah tersebut dapat diprogramkan dengan membuat folder-folder tampungan, sumur-sumur resapan, lubang-lubang biopori dan lainya.

  4. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

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    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  5. Masjid sebagai Agen Baznas: Analisa Potensi SDM Ta’mir Masjid di Kabupaten Jepara

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    M. Husni Arafat

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Ajaran Islam yang mewajibkan umatnya untuk mengeluarkan zakat memberikan potensi yang sangat besar bahkan mampu menjadikan umat Islam sebagai umat yang sangat mulia dan sejahtera, namun kenyataannya peranan dan fungsi zakat belum mampu menghantarkan umat islam menjadi umat yang sejahtera. Potensi zakat nasional sebanyak 217 trilyun dan hingga saat ini belum mampu tercapai. Salah satu faktor karena keterbatasan lembaga penyalur zakat sehingga  penyaluran zakat belum begitu mudah diakses oleh para muzakki. Disatu sisi, keberadaan masjid yang tersebar diseluruh lingkungan masyarakat mampu menjawab atas belum tercapainya jumlah potensi penerimaan zakat dengan menjadikan masjid sebagai agen badan zakat nasional. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui potensi sumber daya manusia (SDM dan kesanggupan sebagai agen penerimaan zakat oleh ta’mir masjid di Kabupaten Jepara. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan survei, kuesioner dan interview mendalam(indepth interview. Hasil penelitian ini takmir masjid mayoritas bersedia menjadi agen Baznas dalam menerima zakat maal namun memerlukan pembekalan pengetahuan, pemahaman dan standarisasi pengelolaan zakat, baik secara manual maupun secara on-line real time. Selain itu, sosialisasi kepada seluruh lapisan masyarakat terutama mereka yang sudah berkewajiban mengeluarkan zakat maal untuk disalurkan kepada organisasi pengelola zakat terdekat (masjid.

  6. PERLUNYA MENANAMKAN BUDAYA ANTIKORUPSI DALAM DIRI ANAK SEJAK USIA DINI

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    Indang Sulastri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in Indonesia is very difficult to eradicate because it is entrenched, both in the legislative, executive, and judicial systems. Therefore, installing anti-corruption culture to children from their early age is necessary, because children are our young successors and leaders. If anti-corruption behaviour has been entrenched within all law enforcement agencies and society, it is hoped that the habit of committing bribery would disappear. The saying “to clean the floor with a dirty broom” to illustrate corruption eradication efforts in Indonesia would then vanish. Korupsi di Indonesia begitu sulit diberantas karena sudah sangat membudaya, baik di kalangan lembaga legislatif, eksekutif, maupun yudikatif. Oleh sebab itu, menanamkan budaya antikorupsi dalam diri anak sejak usia dini menjadi hal yang sangat diperlukan, karena anak akan menjadi penerus estafet kepemimpinan. Apabila budaya antikorupsi tersebut sudah terpatri di dalam diri seluruh aparat penegak hukum dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat, maka budaya suap-menyuap yang merupakan salah satu bentuk dari tindak pidana korupsi dengan sendirinya akan menjadi tergeser bahkan sirna, sehingga tidak akan ada lagi istilah “membersihkan lantai dengan sapu yang kotor” dalam upaya pemberantasan tindak pidana korupsi di Indonesia.

  7. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF FLOW OVER TWO-DIMENSIONAL MOUNTAIN RIDGE USING SIMPLE ISENTROPIC MODEL

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    Siswanto Siswanto

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Model sederhana isentropis telah diaplikasikan untuk mengidentifikasi perilaku aliran masa udara melewati topografi sebuah gunung. Dalam model isentropis, temperature potensial θ digunakan sebagai koordinat vertikal dalam rezim aliran adiabatis. Medan angin dalam arah vertikal dihilangkan dalam koordinat isentropis sehingga mereduksi sistim tiga dimensi menjadi sistim dua dimensi lapisan θ. Skema komputasi beda hingga tengah telah digunakan untuk memformulasikan model adveksi. Paper ini membahas aplikasi sederhana dari model isentropis untuk mempelajari gelombang gravitasi dan fenomena angin gunung  dengan desain komputasi periodik dan kondisi batas lateral serta simulasi dengan topografi yang berbeda.   The aim of this work is to study turbulent flow over two-dimensional hill using a simple isentropic model. The isentropic model is represented by applying the potential temperature θ, as the vertical coordinate and is conversed in adiabatic flow regimes. This implies a vanishing vertical wind in isentropic coordinates which reduces the three dimensional system to a stack of two dimensional θ–layers. The equations for each isentropic layer are formally identical with the shallow water equation. A computational scheme of centered finite differences is used to formulate an advective model. This work reviews a simple isentropic model application to investigate gravity wave and mountain wave phenomena regard to different experimental design of computation and topographic height.

  8. Pembongkaran Eksistensi Tokoh Utama dalam Peeling Karya Peter Carey

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    Eva Leiliyanti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tulisan ini bertujuan untuk membongkar pengonstruksian eksistensi tokoh utama perempuan yang dilakukan oleh narator yang sekaligus bertindak sebagai tokoh utama laki-laki dan sebaliknya. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode dekonstruksi Jacques Derrida, dengan cara menelusuri permainan sistem penandaan (signifying practices. Penelitian ini menemukan paradoks yang bersirkulasi dan berantai dalam signifying practices menunjukkan ketidakstabilan (kontradiksi makna yang mengindikasikan tidak hanya proses konstruksi monologis perempuan, hasrat erotis homoseksual terepresi tokoh utama laki-laki ataupun demitologisasi peran perempuan, tetapi juga cerita pendek bergenre dystopia ini (Peeling memperlihatkan kekaburan demarkasi makna yang disebabkan asimetris jaringan penanda/petanda dalam lapisan misteri eksistensi kedua tokoh utama tersebut. Kata-Kata Kunci: eksistensi, dekonstruksi, signifying practices, kekaburan demarkasi. Abstract: This paper aims to deconstruct the existence of a main female character conducted by the male narrator agent and vice versa. This research employed Derrida’s deconstruction method by way of tracing the signifying practices in Peeling. It is found that the paradox circulates and intertwines in the signifying practices demonstrating the instability (contradiction of meanings that indicates not only the monologic construction of woman, repressed homo-erotic desire of the main male character, demythologisation of women’s roles, but also that this dystopian short story shows the obscure demarcation of meaning due to the asymmetrical web of signifier/signified in the mystery of existence of both main characters. Key Words: existence, deconstruction, signifying practices, obscure demarcation

  9. Segmentasi Pembuluh Darah Retina Pada Citra Fundus Menggunakan Gradient Based Adaptive Thresholding Dan Region Growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deni Sutaji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakSegmentasi pembuluh darah pada citra fundus retina menjadi hal yang substansial dalam dunia kedokteran, karena dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi penyakit, seperti: diabetic retinopathy, hypertension, dan cardiovascular. Dokter membutuhkan waktu sekitar dua jam untuk mendeteksi pembuluh darah retina, sehingga diperlukan metode yang dapat membantu screening agar lebih cepat.Penelitian sebelumnya mampu melakukan segmentasi pembuluh darah yang sensitif terhadap variasi ukuran lebar pembuluh darah namun masih terjadi over-segmentasi pada area patologi. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan metode segmentasi pembuluh darah pada citra fundus retina yang dapat mengurangi over-segmentasi pada area patologi menggunakan Gradient Based Adaptive Thresholding dan Region Growing.Metode yang diusulkan terdiri dari 3 tahap, yaitu segmentasi pembuluh darah utama, deteksi area patologi dan segmentasi pembuluh darah tipis. Tahap segmentasi pembuluh darah utama menggunakan high-pass filtering dan tophat reconstruction pada kanal hijau citra yang sudah diperbaiki kontrasnya sehingga lebih jelas perbedaan antara pembuluh darah dan background. Tahap deteksi area patologi menggunakan metode Gradient Based Adaptive Thresholding. Tahap segmentasi pembuluh darah tipis menggunakan Region Growing berdasarkan informasi label pembuluh darah utama dan label area patologi. Hasil segmentasi pembuluh darah utama dan pembuluh darah tipis kemudian digabungkan sehingga menjadi keluaran sistem berupa citra biner pembuluh darah. Berdasarkan hasil uji coba, metode ini mampu melakukan segmentasi pembuluh darah retina dengan baik pada citra fundus DRIVE, yaitu dengan akurasi rata-rata 95.25% dan nilai Area Under Curve (AUC pada kurva Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC sebesar 74.28%.                           Kata Kunci: citra fundus retina, gradient based adaptive thresholding, patologi, pembuluh darah retina, region growing

  10. Balzac peint les français: social satire and construction of ideal types in Les français peints par eux-mêmes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa Moccia

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Tra il 1840 e il 1842, negli stessi anni in cui prendeva forma quella che sarà di lì a poco la Comédie Humaine, furono dati alle stampe nove volumi dell’opera Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, pubblicata da Léon Curmer. L’opera vide la collaborazione di disegnatori e scrittori fra i quali Honoré de Balzac che contribuì al progetto scrivendo due voci l’épicier e la femme comme il faut. Les Français peints par eux-mêmes, definito nel sottotitolo Encyclopédie morale du XIXe siècle, è uno dei maggiori esempi di «letteratura panoramica», come ebbe a definirla Walter Benjamin (Benjamin 1979, e vi si mescolano caricatura e determinismo fisiologico impiegati per ritrarre, e non semplicemente descrivere, i tipi umani e sociali che popolano Parigi e la Provincia. L’introduzione di Léon Curmer e Jules Janin colloca il progetto globale dell’opera sotto l’etichetta di «tableau», già utilizzata da Louis-Sébastien Mercier (Mercier 1782, della società contemporanea messa al servizio della storia dei costumi. Da un lato, il dispositivo umoristico dell’opera scatena dall’idea di classificare gli uomini, svuotati della loro soggettività e degradati a tipi sociali, al pari delle specie animali e vegetali, ricalcando e “scoronando”, dunque, l’intento normalizzante dell’Enciclopedia dei lumi. Per questo motivo, la mise en page (ogni voce dell’opera è strutturata in type, tête de page, cul de lampe, contribuisce a creare un transtesto (Genette 1997, che stringe l’occhio al lettore del tempo, nutrito dalle opere di Buffon e Cuvier.  Dall’altro, però, l’intento dichiaratamente “serio” dell’opera che deve occuparsi di spiegare, con intento pedagogico e attraverso l’escamotage dell’autoritratto, i francesi ai Francesi, suggerisce una seconda ipotesi: la società tutta è risibile perché ridicola è la borghesia del regno di Luigi Filippo. Il contributo si propone di indagare il tipo di satira che

  11. “Native Skywatchers - Earth Sky Mirroring, Kapemni Pairs - Ojibwe and D(L)akota Sacred Star Sites “

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette S.; Gawboy, Carl; Rock, Jim; Wilson, William; Tibbetts, Jeff; O'Rourke, Charleen

    2015-08-01

    Late in February, deep in the heart of the northern hemisphere winter, Ojibwe people know to look to the east a few hours after sunset and offer tobacco to Mizhi Bizhiw -Curly Tail, the Great Spirit Cat in the night sky. There are many beautiful and layered teachings about Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail relating to the coming of spring, respect for the water, sugar bush camp, but most important; knowing the stars meant survival.Painted high on the granite rock cliffs above the glacial waters in red ochre is the Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail constellation. Along with the Ojibwe lion are two neighboring seasonal constellations: Mooz (Pegasus) and Biboonkionini -Wintermaker (Orion+). On Lake Hegman in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area located near Ely, Minnesota, a sacred reflection, an earth-sky mirroring is illustrated. It is here that tangible and intangible star knowledge meet.In D(L)akota star knowledge one of the most important teachings is kapemni. Wrapped up in this one word are layers of meaning that can be thought of as ‘As it is above; it is below.’ Imagine two tipis stacked vertically. The top triangle is inverted so that the pair meets at the apex. It is understood that the top realm represents the sky above, the stars or the spirit world. The bottom tipi represents the Earth, the material or the physical world.On Summer Solstice each year the Sun can be found in the Mato Tipila - Bear’s Lodge D(L)akota constellation (Gemini). The day when this astronomical alignment happens is known as the ‘Wacipi - Sundance Ceremony in the Stars’. At this time traditionally D(L)akota people would meet at Mato Tipila Paha - Grey Horn Butte (Devil’s Tower) in northeast Wyoming and participate in the earthly Wacipi - Sun Dance ceremony. This is a beautiful example of a kapemni pair or an earth-sky mirroring.Presented here are just two examples of sacred star sites found in our region: Minnesota, North & South Dakota, US. These are examples of cultural heritage that is

  12. Alloying of titanium by oxygen during chamber electroslag remelting/Legiranje titanijuma kiseonikom u peći za elektropretapanje pod troskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy D. Ryabtsev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of alloying titanium by oxygen in the process of chamber electroslag remelting. As an oxygen-containing ligature, we used the electrodes-satellite from the reaction mass residues mixture from the retort lid for magnesium thermal reduction of a titanium sponge, a specially prepared gaseous argon oxygen mixture containing 30% oxygen applied directly to the melting space, microsize (10-15 mm powder particles of titanium oxide and titanium oxide nanopowder with a particle size of 21 ± 5 nm. The structure and the properties of titanium alloyed by oxygen from the oxygen-containing ligature, gas phase and titanium oxide powder during chamber electroslag remelting of the titanium sponge are investigated. It was found that at the oxygen content of 0.053%mas. to 0.22%mas. in the metal formed a homogeneous single-phase structure typical for commercial titanium formed by polyhedral grains of the α-phase. The increase of the oxygen concentration in titanium for more than 0.22%mas. leads to the formation of the microstructure with a typical needle structure, which allows it to be classified as the α ׳-phase. / U radu su prikazani rezultati legiranja titanijuma kiseonikom u procesu elektropretapanja pod troskom u peći. Za vezivo, koje sadrzi kiseonik, korišćene su satelit elektrode iz reakcije masenih ostataka mešavine iz poklopca retorte za termalnu redukciju magnezijumtitanijumskog sunđera, specijalno pripremljena mešavina gasa argona i kiseonika sa 30% kiseonika primenjena direktno na mesto topljenja, čestice praha titanijum-oksida mikroveličine 10-15mm i nanoprah titanijum-oksida veličine čestica od 21± 5 nm. Ispitane su struktura i karakteristike titanijuma legiranog kiseonikom iz veziva , gasne faze i praha titanijum-oksida tokom elektropretapanja titanijumovog sunđera pod troskom u peći. Utvrđeno je da se pri sadržaju kiseonika od 0.053%mas.do 0.22%mas. u metalu formira homogena jednofazna struktura tipi

  13. Incidenza di meningiti nell'ASL di Brescia nei primi mesi del 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Magoni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nell’ASLdi Brescia durante i mesi di gennaiomaggio 2003 si è verificato un consistente aumento di casi di meningite che ha allarmato oltre agli operatori sanitari anche l’opinione pubblica locale.

    Metodi: i dati riguardanti i casi di meningite verificatisi dal gennaio 1999 al maggio 2003 sono stati raccolti dal Servizio Igiene Pubblica dell’ASLdi Brescia.

    Tenuto conto della omogeneità dei dati nel quadriennio 1999- 2002 e della stagionalità che le meningiti possono avere, sono stati calcolati i tassi di incidenza per i primi cinque mesi dell’anno per tutte le meningiti in generale e per agente eziologico, durante il quadriennio 1999-2002. Tali tassi sono stati confrontati con i tassi corrispondenti nei primi mesi del 2003.

    Risultati: nel primi 5 mesi del 2003 si sono registrati in tutto 48 casi, di cui 9 da meningocco, 13 da pneumococco, 14 virali, 3 da altri agenti batterici e 8 senza agente microbico identificato. Nei 4 anni precedenti erano stati notificati 66 casi di meningite nei primi 5 mesi dell’anno, con una media annua di 16.5. Il tasso di incidenza di meningite in gennaio-maggio è stato quindi il triplo nel 2003 (rischio relativo = 2.9 rispetto ai 4 anni precedenti (p=0.0001. L’eccesso di incidenza si è riscontrato per tutti i tipi di meningite considerati in base all’agente eziologico.

    L’analisi per diverse età ha mostrato un aumento di incidenza sia nei bambini che nei giovani adulti e negli anziani. Non si è riscontrata alcuna differenza statisticamente significativa tra l’incidenza nel comune di Brescia (area urbana rispetto all’intera ASL nel periodo in studio.

    Conclusioni: l’aumento di incidenza per meningiti
    osservato nel 2003 non sembra spiegabile in termini di variabilità casuale del fenomeno da un anno all’altro e riguarda tutti i tipi di meningite e tutte le categorie d

  14. Farklı Miktarlarda Üzüm Çekirdeği Tozu İlave Edilmiş Kaplama Harçlarının Reolojik Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge Süfer

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, üzüm çekirdeği tozu ilavesi yapılmış kaplama harçlarının reolojik özellikleri incelenmiştir. Kaplama harçları; su, buğday unu, mısır unu, tuz, kabartma tozu ve hidroksipropilmetilselülozdan (HPMC oluşan karışıma farklı oranlarda üzüm çekirdeği tozu ilavesi yapılarak üretilmiştir. Örneklerin görünür viskoziteleri sabit sıcaklıkta (15 °C eşmerkezli silindirik tip viskozimetre ile belirlenmiştir. Kaplama harçlarının kıvam katsayıları ve akış davranış indeksleri Üssel Model ile hesaplanmıştır. Bütün örnekler Newton tipi olmayan pseudoplastik tipi akış davranışı sergilemiş ve görünür viskozite değerleri artan kayma hızı ile azalmıştır. Örneklerin görünür viskozite değerleri, artan üzüm çekirdeği konsantrasyonu ile birlikte azalmıştır. Kaplama harçlarının akış davranış indeksi ve kıvam katsayısı değerleri sırasıyla 0.516-0.596 ve 8.994-14.722 Pa.s aralığında bulunmuştur.

  15. Determination of parent and hydroxy PAHs in personal PM{sub 2.5} and urine samples collected during Native American fish smoking activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motorykin, Oleksii [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart [Department of Science and Engineering, Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Pendleton, OR 97801 (United States); Harding, Anna [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Stone, David [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Kile, Molly [School of Biological and Population Health Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Sudakin, Daniel [Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Massey Simonich, Staci L., E-mail: staci.simonich@orst.edu [Department of Chemistry, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Environmental and Molecular Toxicology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM{sub 2.5}) using GC–MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker's Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker's Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM{sub 2.5} samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34 OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC–MS. The personal PM{sub 2.5} samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC–MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM{sub 2.5} samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM{sub 2.5}, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m{sup 3} for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m{sup 3} for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 h of fish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. - Highlights: • An analytical method was developed for the measurement of 19 PAHs and 34 OH-PAHs.

  16. PENILAIAN PEMAHAMAN REPRESENTASI GRAFIK MATERI OPTIKA GEOMETRI MENGGUNAKAN TES DIAGNOSTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan dan menerapkan tes diagnostik pilihan ganda tiga tingkat untuk mengukur pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa terkait esensi inkuiri sains dan materi optika geometri. Penelitian menggunakan metode campuran melibatkan 83 mahasiswa calon guru fisika di satu LPTK Sumatera Utara. Instrumen tes diagnostik terlebih dahulu didesain kemudian disempurnakan selama proses, direvisi, dan digunakan untuk mendeteksi dan menilai pemahaman representasi grafik mahasiswa calon guru fisika. Instrumen tes telah dikembangkan untuk dapat mendiagnosis dan memperbaiki kesalahan-kesalahan yang dilakukan calon guru fisika terkait dengan keterampilan mengonstruk grafik, menemukan kesulitan-kesulitan dalam membaca dan menginterpretasi grafik. Analisis data dilakukan secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Hasil studi menunjukkan pembacaan grafik dan keterampilan menginterpretasi grafik calon guru fisika masih belum memadai dan juga kemahiran dalam menganalisis grafik bergantung pada jenis grafik dan level atau tipe pertanyaan yang dikembangkan. Kata Kunci: representasi grafik, optik geometri, diagnostik tes ASSESSING OF UNDERSTANDING GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION CONTENT GEOMETRICAL OPTIC USING DIAGNOSTIC TEST Abstract: The purpose of this study is to develop and apply three tier multiple choice diagnostic test to measure student’s understanding of graphical representation about essential features of inquiry and content geometrical optic. The study was conducted using mixed methods and carried out with 83 prephysics teachers at a University of Teachers Education in North Sumatera. The diagnostic instrument was designed and then progressively refined, revised, and implemented to detect and assess student’s understanding of graphical representation. Test instrument was developed to diagnose and correct the mistakes made by pre-service physics teachers about construction graphic skills, difficulties in the reading and interpretation

  17. EVALUASI PENGGUNAAN KAMERA NON METRIK PADA FOTOGRAMETRI JARAK DEKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Ricky Pratama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Citra yang ideal adalah citra yang merepresentasikan obyek secara sempurna tanpa terjadi degradasi kualitas. Namun tidak ada lensa yang dapat memnuhi  hal tersebut. Kemampuan lensa dikatakan maksimum apabila sebuah lensa mereproduksi citra dari sebuah obyek hingga mencapai titik di mana detail citra sudah tidak dapat lagi direproduksi dari obyek. MTF (modulation transfer function diukur sebagai patokan kemampuan lensa untuk membedakan antara daerah gelap dan terang pada obyek. Standar optik untuk pengukuran MTF menggunakan unit frekuensi spasial disebut ”line pair per millimeter” atau lp/mm. Dengan mengetahui nilai MTF, sebuah citra dengan degradasi kualitas dapat ditingkatkan kualitasnya. Kecerahan merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam hasil MTF. Peningkatan kontras dengan meningkatkan perbedaan kecerahan antara obyek dan latar belakang benda dapat memberikan perbedaan informasi yang didapat. Manipulasi kontras dilakukan sebagai peregangan kontras dengan meningkatkan perbedaan kecerahan yang seragam di seluruh dynamic range dari citra.   Dari informasi MTF suatu lensa dan perubahan nilai kontras dengan teknik contrast stretching akan menghasilkan sebuah citra dengan peningkatan kualitas sehingga interpretasi citra tersebut lebih fleksibel untuk menghasilkan informasi yang dibutuhkan.Sebuah citra digital harusnya memiliki tingkat kecerahan yang optimum yaitu mulai dari gelap  sampai terang. Hal tersebut ditandai dengan nilai digital number citra yang memiliki range 0 – 225. Dari hasil penelitian penggunaan kamera Canon Powershot A2200 menunjukkan perubahan digital number pada citra hasil perekaman yang sebelumnya memiliki rentang 10 - 255 untuk band merah dan biru menjadi  0 – 255 pada semua band dengan peningkatan nilai mean untuk tiap – tiap band : Red(115.2 menjadi 127.1, Green(111.4 menjadi 126.9 dan Blue(93.9 menjadi 129.5. Peningkatan nilai digital number tersebut menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan kecerahan dari citra

  18. Gesammelte Werke / Collected Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, Karl; Voigt, Hans-Heinrich

    Der bekannte Astronom Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) gilt als der Begründer der Astrophysik und als hervorragender Forscher mit einer erstaunlichen Bandbreite seiner Interessen. Arbeiten zur Himmelsmechanik, Elektrodynamik und Relativitätstheorie weisen ihn als vorzüglichen Mathematiker und Physiker auf der Höhe seiner Zeit aus. Untersuchungen zur Photographischen Photometrie, Optik und Spektroskopie zeigen den versierten Beobachter, der sein Meßinstrumentarium beherrscht, und schließlich arbeitete Schwarzschild als Astrophysiker an Sternatmosphären, Kometen, Struktur und Dynamik von Sternsystemen. Die in seinem kurzen Leben entstandene Fülle an wissenschaftlichen Arbeiten ist in drei Bänden der Gesamtausgabe gesammelt, ergänzt durch biographisches Material, Annotationen von Fachleuten und einen Essay des Nobelpreisträgers S. Chandrasekhar. The well-known astronomer Karl Schwarzschild (1873-1916) is regarded as the founder of astrophysics and as an exceptionally talented researcher whose interests spanned a remarkably broad spectrum. His work on celestial mechanics, electrodynamics, and relativity theory demonstrates his great abilities as a mathematician and physicist who significantly influenced the science of his times. His investigations of photographic photometry, optics, and spectroscopy display his strengths as an observer who knew his instruments. But above all Schwarzschild pursued questions of astrophysics, addressing in particular stellar atmospheres, comets, and the structure and dynamics of stellar systems. The host of scientific works that he authored in his short life is now collected in the form of this three-volume complete works; it is supplemented by biographical material, notes from some of todays experts, and an essay by the Nobel Laureate S. Chandrasekhar.

  19. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  20. Analisis Perbandingan KNN dengan SVM untuk Klasifikasi Penyakit Diabetes Retinopati berdasarkan Citra Eksudat dan Mikroaneurisma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCI AULIA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penelitian mengenai pengklasifikasian tingkat keparahan penyakit Diabetes Retinopati berbasis image processing masih hangat dibicarakan, citra yang biasa digunakan untuk mendeteksi jenis penyakit ini adalah citra optik disk, mikroaneurisma, eksudat, dan hemorrhages yang berasal dari citra fundus. Pada penelitian ini telah dilakukan perbandingan algoritma SVM dengan KNN untuk klasifikasi penyakit diabetes retinopati (mild, moderate, severe berdasarkan citra eksudat dan microaneurisma. Untuk proses ekstraksi ciri digunakan metode wavelet  pada masing-masing kedua metode tersebut. Pada penelitian ini digunakan 160 data uji, masing-masing 40 citra untuk kelas normal, kelas mild, kelas moderate, kelas saviere. Tingkat akurasi yang diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode KNN lebih tinggi dibandingkan SVM, yaitu 65 % dan 62%. Klasifikasi dengan algoritma KNN diperoleh hasil terbaik dengan parameter K=9 cityblock. Sedangkan klasifikasi dengan metode SVM diperoleh hasil terbaik dengan parameter One Agains All. Kata kunci: Diabetic Retinopathy, KNN , SVM, Wavelet.   ABSTRACT Research based on severity classification of the disease diabetic retinopathy by using image processing method is still hotly debated, the image is used to detect the type of this disease is an optical image of the disk, microaneurysm, exudates, and bleeding of the image of the fundus. This study was performed to compare SVM method with KNN method for classification of diabetic retinopathy disease (mild, moderate, severe based on exudate and microaneurysm image. For feature extraction uses wavelet method, and each of the two methods. This study made use of 160 test data, each of 40 images for normal class, mild class, moderate class, severe class. The accuracy obtained by KNN higher than SVM, with 65% and 62%. KNN classification method achieved the best results with the parameters K = 9, cityblock. While the classification with SVM method obtained the best results with

  1. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Tumor Ganas Laring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolly Irfandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Laring berperan dalam koordinasi fungsi saluran aerodigestif atas seperti bernafas, berbicara dan menelan.Laring terbagi tiga yaitu supraglotis, glotis dan subglotis. Laring merupakan daerah tersering kedua untuk kasuskarsinoma sel skuamosa kepala-leher, biasanya berhubungan dengan tembakau dan alkohol. Lebih dari 95% kasustumor ganas laring adalah karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pasien tumor ganas laring datang dengan berbagai keluhanseperti disfonia, obstruksi jalan napas, disfagia, odinofagi dan hemoptisis. Diagnosis tumor ganas laring ditegakkanberdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis menggunakan endoskopi kaku, serat optik dan biopsi. Penatalaksanaantumor ganas laring tergantung stadium dengan modalitas berupa operasi, kemoterapi, radiasi atau terapi kombinasi.Dilaporkan kasus laki-laki 53 tahun dengan karsinoma glotis stadium III (T3N0M0 squamous cell ca keratinized welldifferentiated. Penatalaksanaan pada pasien ini dengan melakukan laringektomi total.Kata kunci: Tumor ganas laring, karsinoma, laringektomi, tembakau Abstract Larynx plays a certain role in coordinating functions of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as respiration,speech, and swallowing. The larynx is divided into three region; supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic. Larynx is thesecond most common site for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck and usually related to tobacco andalcohol exposure. Primary malignant tumors of the larynx are squamous cell carcinomas can found more than 95% ofcases. Patients with laryngeal tumors usually present with complaints of hoarseness, respiratory obstruction,dysphagia, odynophagia and hemoptysis. Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is made by medical history, clinicalexamination using a rigid or fiberoptic endoscope and biopsy. Management of laryngeal tumour depends on stadiumwith various modality included surgery, chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy or combined therapy. Reported case of 53years old male with Glottic carcinoma of the larynx

  2. Ön Isıtma Sıcaklığının Ni3Al/NiAl/NiTi Bileşiklerinden Oluşan Fonksiyonel Derecelendirilmiş Malzemenin Yapısına Etkisinin İncelenmesi

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    Musa Kılıç

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Ni3Al/NiAl/NiTi bileşiklerinden oluşan fonksiyonel derecelenmiş malzeme(FDM kendi kendine ilerleyen yüksek sıcaklık sentezlemesi (KKIYSS tekniği ile üretilmiştir. Bu üç farklı bileşiği oluşturacak tozlar hassas bir şekilde tartıldıktan sonra mekanik olarak karıştırılmış ve 200 MPa basınçla preslenmiştir. Preslenen numuneler, 200, 300 ve 400 °C ön ısıtma sıcaklıklarında yüksek voltajlı tutuşturma yöntemi (YVTY ile argon gazı atmosferinde ateşlenerek üretimi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Üretilen bu fonksiyonel derecelenmiş malzemelerin mikroyapıları optik mikroskop, Taramalı Elektron Mikroskobu (SEM ve X-Işınları Kırınım Cihazı (XRD ile incelenmiş. Sonuç olarak, KKIYSS yöntemi ile her üç ön ısıtma sıcaklığında da fonksiyonel derecelenmiş malzeme başarıyla üretilmiş ve istenen metaller arası bileşikler elde edilmiş ancak arakesitlerde daha fazla ergime ve boşluk ile birlikte ana fazlar dışında fazların da oluştuğu görülmüştür.

  3. ANALISIS KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN BERDASARKAN KOMUNITAS MEIOBENTOS DAN KUALITAS SEDIMEN DI PANTAI DAN AREA PERTAMBAKAN, PESISIR SRIWULAN KABUPATEN DEMAK (The Quality Analysis of Aquatic Environment based on Meiobentos Community and Sediment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhandis Sidqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tujuan studi ini meliputi (1 menentukan kualitas lingkungan daerah pesisir dan tambak ikan, kualitas sedimen, dan komunitas meiobentos, (2 menemukan hubungan antara kualitas sedimen dan meiobentos, dan (3 menentukan tingkat produktivitas peikampungan tambak ikan berdasarkan jarak, tingkat polusi dan destruksi. Parameter kualitas air dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif, sedangkan parameter sedimen dianalisis menggunakan PCA (Principal Component Analisys untuk menentukan distribusi spasial pada setiap stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Komunitas meiobentos diperiksa dengan menggunakan CA (Factorial Correspondence Analysis untuk mendeteksi tingkat distribusi spasial yang juga berdasarkan stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan korelasi dan regresi untuk memahami pengaruh parameter bebas terhadap produktivitas tambak ikan. Kemudian tes statistik non parametric dari Kruskall Wallis digunakan untuk membedakan produktivitas pada 3 desa berdasarkan jarak terhadap sumber pencemaran dan tingkat destruksi tambak ikan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa nilai parameter kualitas air (muddy, TSS NH3, NO2, beyond threshold level, negative redox potential (Eh sediment value/reduction zone, and IMLP adalah moderat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi air di daerah penelitian tidak stabil. Penelitian juga menunjukkan nilai indeks diversitas yang rendah, dominasi organisme meiobentos tertentu, dan konformitas antar komunitas bentos. Hasil tes statistik Kruskall Wallis menunjukkan adanya signifikansi antara produktivitas tambak ikan dengan factor jarak dan tingkat destruksi diantara 3 desa dalam daerah penelitian yaitu Bedono, Sriwulan. Purwosari yaitu dengan nilai produktivitas 0.65,0.56, 0.41 ton/hektar/tahun.   ABSTRACT The objective of this study area to determine the environmental quality of coastal area and fish ponds which are on water quality, sediment quality, and Meiobentos

  4. SILICON COMPATIBLE ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONATORS: DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

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    Aliza Aini Md Ralib

    2014-12-01

    -unsur diskret kerana keupayaan untuk mengintegrasikan dengan litar yang disertakan itu. Integrasi ini membawa kepada peningkatan prestasi, fungsi yang lebih baik dengan pengurangan kos pada pengeluaran jumlah yang besar. Oleh itu, Karya ini mengkaji silikon resonator akustik yang serasi, yang bersepadu dengan muka litar untuk membolehkan integrasi yang lengkap. Resonator gelombang akustik yang digunakan adalah gelombang permukaan akustik ( SAW dan gelombang akustik pukal ( BAW resonator . Kriteria penting untuk menilai prestasi resonator seperti faktor kualiti, frekuensi resonans dan kehilangan sisipan juga digariskan dalam setiap kerja sebelumnya. Pemilihan bahan piezoelektrik yang sesuai adalah penting untuk memastikan pekali gandingan elektromekanik yang mencukupi dihasilkan untuk mengurangkan kehilangan sisipan. Lapisan tambahan pasif SiO2   yang bertindak sebagai bahan rendah sisipan dipercayai meningkatkan faktor kualiti dan kestabilan suhu reka bentuk. Teknik integrasi juga dipengaruhi oleh proses fabrikasi dan pembungkusan. Struktur tanpa pembungkusan menggunakan AlN sebagai lapisan pengasingan tambahan itu dicadangkan untuk melindungi peranti SAW dari persekitaran untuk kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Banyak lagi kemajuan perlu dilakukan dalam pengecilan silikon serasi resonator gelombang akustik untuk merealisasikan sistem cip transceiver tunggal.KEYWORDS: RF-MEMS; piezoelectric; resonator; surface acoustic wave (SAW;bulk acoustic wave (BAW; FBAR

  5. Kelimpahan dan Keanekaragaman Plankton di Perairan Selat Bali (Plankton Abundance and Diversity in the Bali Strait

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    Ruly Isfatul Khasanah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fitoplankton mempunyai peran sangat penting dalam suatu perairan, selain berada pada dasar rantai makanan sedangkan zooplankton merupakan herbivor pemangsanya. Penelitian mengenai kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton di perairan Selat Bali dilakukan pada musim peralihan II (Nopember 2012 dan musim barat (Pebruari 2013. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengamati perbedaan kelimpahan dan keanekaragaman plankton pada dua musim angin muson. Sampel air diambil dengan menggunakan water sampler sedangkan sampel plankton diambil secara horisontal dan vertikal  pada kedalaman 1 m dan 20 m dengan jaring plankton Kitahara bermata jaring 20 µm. Hasil pengukuran nutrien pada musim peralihan II memiliki kadar fosfat, nitrat, bahan organik, silikat dan klorofil-a lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada musim barat. Informasi tersebut memperkuat indikasi adanya perpindahan massa air dari lapisan yang lebih dalam ke lapisan yang lebih dangkal. Nutrien fosfat dan nitrat diperlukan untuk mempertahankan fungsi membran sel dan silikia dibutuhkan untuk pembentukan dinding sel terutama pada diatom. Hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa kelas diatom (Bacillariophyceae mencapai 95,9 % dari total jenis dan kelimpahan fitoplankton seluruh stasiun penelitian, sisanya berasal dari genus Dinophyceae. Kelimpahan fitoplankton tertinggi terjadi pada musim peralihan II dengan Rhizosolenia stolterfothii sebesar 51.405 sel.L-1 (80,1%, sedangkan pada musim barat copepoda ditemukan melimpah sebesar 8.178 ind.L-1 (88,3 %. Hasil ini mengindikasikan bahwa dengan kelimpahan plankton yang ditemukan perairan Selat Bali dinilai cukup potensial untuk mendukung kehidupan biota laut pelagis. Kata kunci: plankton, selat Bali, rhizosolenia stolterfothii, muson   Abstract Phytoplankton has important role as primary producer in the sea and act as base of food chain while zooplankton act as herbivore prey on them. Research on abundance and diversity of plankton at Bali Strait was performed during

  6. Aria `96; ARIA `96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risica, S; Di Ciaccio, P [eds.; Istituto Superiore di Sanita` , Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The Congress is devoted to the study of the indoor air quality in different types of indoor environments: work and life environments, transportation and leisure environments. In the various sessions, the different aspects of indoor pollution (health effects, detection and measurement of pollutants, legislation, experimental techniques, etc.) were presented and discussed. The high number of invited and submitted papers gives an idea of the numerous research activities performed in Italy in this field and proves the interest in this kind of interdisciplinary seminars, where physicists, chemists, physicians, engineers, architects and many other professional meet in a single scientific effort to improve the quality of life. [Italiano] Il Convegno e` dedicato allo studio della qualita` dell`aria nei diversi tipi di ambienti interni: gli ambienti di vitae di lavoro, i mezzi di trasporto, i luoghi del tempo libero. Le diverse sessioni affrontano, in modo interdisciplinare, i vari aspetti dell`inquinamento cioe` gli effetti suulla salute, la determinazione e la misura degli inquinanti, la normativa, le attivita` internazionali nel settore, ecc. L`elevato numero di relazioni ad invito e comunicazioni raccolte testimonia non solo i numerosi progetti di ricercasviluppati in Italia su queste tematiche, ma anche l`interesse per questo tipo di incontri che vedono confrontarsi fisici, chimici, ingegneri, architetti e numerose altre figure professionali in un unico sforzo scientifico per il miglioramento della qualita` della vita.

  7. Le reazioni redox: un pasticcio concettuale?

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    Elena Ghibaudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le reazioni di ossidoriduzione costituiscono un argomento centrale di qualsiasi corso di base di chimica, sia a livello scolastico che universitario. Il loro apprendimento comporta il superamento di svariati ostacoli concettuali, la cui difficoltà può risultare amplificata da prassi didattiche inadeguate. Gli errori più ricorrenti nel presentare l’argomento sono di due tipi: i fare implicitamente riferimento a modelli esplicativi distinti (es. il numero di ossidazione e il trasferimento elettronico, senza esplicitarli e senza evidenziarne la differente natura e il campo di validità; ii confondere il livello della spiegazione formale con quello della realtà fisica. I fenomeni redox sono normalmente interpretati sulla base di tre distinti modelli empirici, che fanno riferimento al trasferimento di atomi di ossigeno, di atomi di idrogeno, di elettroni; e di un quarto modello, formale, fondato sul cambiamento del numero di ossidazione. La confusione tra questi modelli può generare considerevoli problemi di apprendimento. Il presente lavoro riporta un’analisi critica delle implicazioni concettuali della didattica dei processi redox. L’analisi è articolata in tre sezioni: i disamina della evoluzione storica del concetto di ossidoriduzione; ii analisi dei modelli redox e del loro campo di validità; iii discussione di alcuni aspetti epistemologici inerenti i processi redox che sono rilevanti per la didattica della chimica.

  8. Analysis of xanthines in beverages using a fully automated SPE-SPC-DAD hyphenated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedovici, A. [Bucarest Univ., Bucarest (Romania). Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; David, F.; David, V.; Sandra, P. [Research Institute of Chromatography, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2000-08-01

    Analysis of some xanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) in beverages has been achieved by a fully automated on-line Solid Phase Extraction - Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - Diode Array Detection (Spe - Sofc - Dad). Three adsorbents have been tested for the Spe procedure: octadecyl modified silicagel (ODS) and two types of styrene-divinylbenzen copolymer based materials, from which Porapack proved to be the most suitable adsorbent. Optimisation and correlation of both Spe and Sofc operational parameters are also discussed. By this technique, caffeine was determined in ice tea and Coca-Cola in a concentration of 0.15 ppm, theobromine - 1.5 ppb, and theophylline - 0.15 ppb. [Italian] Si e' realizzata l'analis di alcune xantine (caffeina, teofillina e teobromina) mediante un sistema, in linea, completamente automatizzato basato su Estrazione in Fase Solida - Cromatografia in Fase Supercritica - Rivelazione con Diode Array (Spe - Sfc - Dad). Per la procedura Spe sono stati valutati tre substrati: silice ottadecilica (ODS) e due tipi di materiali polimerici a base stirene-divinilbenzene, di cui, quello denominato PRP-1, e' risultato essere il piu' efficiente. Sono discusse sia l'ottimizzazione che la correlazione dei parametri operazionali per la Spe e la Sfc. Con questa tecnica sono state determinate, in te' ghiacciato e Coca-Cola, la caffeina, la teobromina e la teofillina alle concentrazini di 0.15, 1.5 e 0.15 ppm.

  9. Tehnološko projektovanje pretovarno-skladišnih procesa / Technological design of loading/unloading and warehousing processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Momčilo Miljuš

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Tehnološko projektovanje logističkih sistema karakteriše veoma visok stepen kompleksnosti, a od njegovog kvaliteta u znatnoj meri zavisi i efikasnost i ekonomičnost realizacije logističkih procesa u praksi. Pretovarno-skladišne procese (PSP u okviru odgovarajućih logističkih podsistema, a posebno u okviru realizacije tokova materijala, karakteriše niz specifičnosti koje u znatnoj meri usložavaju tipične PSP. Da bi se ostvarili preduslovi za adekvatno realizovanje PSP, u ovom radu je dat pregled metodologije tehnološkog projektovanja ovih sistema. / Design of technological processes is one of the most complex tasks in the field of design in general. This type of design is also involved in logistic system design as these systems are typically very complex so that quality of design solution has a great influence on efficiency and economical level of logistic processes efficiency in practice. Loading/unloading and warehousing processes (LUWP within some logistics systems, especially in material flows require specific efforts which complicate typical LUWP. Aiming to consider adequate realization of LUWP, this paper shows the methodology of design of these systems.

  10. [CONTATTI SONORI] Ballos sardos in pratza. La nuova stagione delle danze nell’isola

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    Fabio Calzia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tutte le musiche sono in perenne trasformazione. Il mondo delle danze tradizionali in Sardegna ha conosciuto una brusca accelerazione negli ultimi anni. Dal ruolo centrale di strumenti come i vari tipi di fisarmoniche e le launeddas si è giunti oggi alla nascita di nuovi ensemble specializzati nell’esecuzione dei balli per la piazza. Come controparte è avvenuta una sempre maggiore adesione alle danze tradizionali da parte di molti giovani inurbati nelle grandi città dell’isola. La situazione contemporanea è quindi in pieno fermento. In che modo si sono trasformate le musiche, quali linguaggi sono entrati in contatto con lo stile esecutivo, fortemente legato sino ad allora ad un sistema di censura rigoroso legato tanto alla piazza quanto al fenomeno dei gruppi folk? Come si stanno trasformando le danze delle singole comunità ora che sono oggetto di apprendimento da parte di tanti giovani che vivono a centinaia di chilometri dal luogo ove sono nate? La proposta propone uno sguardo analitico sull’introduzione di innovazioni nella musica e nella danza ed il loro passaggio da un suonatore all’altro e da un gruppo all’altro il tutto condito da una accesa competitività propria della cultura musicale isolana.

  11. ÜNİVERSİTELER ARASI SPOR MÜSABAKALARINA KATILAN MUAY THAİ SPORCULARININ ŞİDDET EĞİLİMLERİNİN DEĞERLENDİRİLMESİ - ASSESSMENT OF VIOLENCE TENDENCY OF MUAY THAI ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN INTERCOLLEGIATE SPORT COMPETITIONS

    OpenAIRE

    ERASLAN, Meriç; KARAFİL, Ahmet Yavuz; AKGÜL, Mehmet Haşim; KORKMAZ, Sezgin

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışmanın amacı üniversiteler arası spormüsabakalarına katılan muay thai sporcularının şiddet eğilimlerinin değerlendirilmesineyöneliktir.  Araştırmada üniversitelerarası spor müsabakalarına katılan muay thai sporcularının şiddet eğilimlerinindeğerlendirilmesi için şiddet eğilimi ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Şiddet eğilimiölçeği 20 sorudan oluşan likert tipi bir ölçektir. Bu ölçek Öğrencilerin ŞiddetEğilimlerini belirlemek amacıyla Göka, Bayat ve Türkçapar tarafından 1995yılında Milli Eğitim Ba...

  12. How much OOO in your MOOC?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Kuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Il formato MOOC (Massive Open Online Course continua a creare numerose riflessioni, soprattutto in merito alla sua capacità di raggiungere tanti utenti contemporaneamente e all’uso innovativo delle nuove tecnologie. Questo articolo esamina il rapporto di simultanea attrazione e repulsione che la comunità educativa attualmente rivela verso i MOOC, un’ambivalenza che sembra sorgere a causa della qualità di apertura (openness. Le recenti implementazioni di MOOC divergono dalla radice connettivista. Un modo per comprendere le loro differenze può essere tramite l’osservazione di come vengano applicati i sette tipi di apertura. L’openness è ritenuta la dimensione più significativa perché è quella che definisce meglio la qualità dei MOOC, anche se, al contempo, è quella che crea le maggiori sfide.Questo articolo esplora le tendenze attuali nelle offerte di MOOC, mettendo in discussione il valore pedagogico delle nuove implementazioni, ma anche apprezzando la loro rapida crescita e il loro potenziale impatto. L’articolo suggerisce che il formato MOOC debba essere adottato con un cosciente e deliberato intento di utilizzare l’apertura che offre, e non semplicemente perché aiuta a raggiungere un numero decisamente più ampio di studenti.

  13. HAVA ŞARJLI KÜÇÜK GÜÇLÜ BİR STİRLİNG MOTORUNUN DENEYSEL OLARAK İNCELENMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can ÇINAR

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, imal edilen hava şarjlı, küçük güçlü ? tipi bir Stirling motoru deneysel olarak incelenmiştir. Motor 800, 900 ve 1000 °C olmak üzere 3 farklı sıcak kaynak sıcaklığında, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3 ve 3.5 bar şarj basınçlarda test edilmiştir. Deneylerde motor gücünün, motor devri, şarj basıncı ve sıcak kaynak sıcaklığı ile değişimi iki farklı ısı transferi yüzey alanı için incelenmiştir. Maksimum çıkış gücü 1000 °C sıcak kaynak sıcaklığında, 3 bar şarj basıncında 441 dev./dak ve 58 W olarak elde edilmiştir. Yüksüz motor devri 846 1/min olarak ölçülmüştür.

  14. CONTENUTO DI URANIO E TORIO NELLE METEORITI

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    M. SANTANGELO

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available Molti ricercatori in questi ultimi anni si sono interessati al problema
    della composizione delle meteoriti; dai risultati sperimentali si
    è cercato trarre elementi circa la genesi di questi materiali, questione
    ancora aperta, ed avere informazioni sui processi chimici e termodinamici
    cui le meteoriti furono soggette prima della loro caduta sulla
    terra.
    Uno degli aspetti del problema è quello dell'abbondanza percentuale
    degli elementi chimici e della loro composizione isotopica nella
    materia meteorica dei diversi tipi : ciò perché esso è connesso con
    quello piii generale dell'origine e distribuzione degli elementi nel cosmo
    e nella terra, nonché con quello dell'età delle meteoriti (l .
    In un recente lavoro Urey e collaboratori (-, esaminando un gran
    numero di analisi chimiche effettuate su questi materiali, sono pervenuti
    alla formulazione di alcuni criteri di classificazione in base alla
    percentuale dei componenti più abbondanti ed alla presenza o meno
    di disomogeneità strutturali nella massa fondamentale. Fra gli elementi
    meno abbondanti presentano particolare interesse quelli delle due famiglie
    radioattive naturali Torio e Uranio; le loro concentrazioni sono
    state determinate per alcune meteoriti siliciche (stonv ineteorites e
    per qualcuna ferrica (iron meteorites

  15. Prezzi rigidi, prezzi flessibili e inflazione. (Rigid prices, flexible prices and inflation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. SYLOS LABINI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sebbene il concetto di un livello generale dei prezzi è di qualche utilità limitata a studi puramente statistici e descrittivi , è pericoloso e ingannevole nel campo delle analisi teoriche che mirano a spiegare variazioni di prezzo . Qualsiasi analisi fruttuosa deve distinguere tra i vari tipi di mercati e merci in quanto, nel breve e lungo termine, i meccanismi di formazione dei prezzi e variazione dipendono dagli stessi. In questo lavoro , l'autore dedica particolare attenzione alla dicotomia tra materie prime e merci . Un'altra dicotomia è introdotta con riferimento al mercato del lavoro . La base logica per la doppia dicotomia è data dal grado di flessibilità , rispetto alla domanda , di prezzi e redditi .Although the concept of a general price level is of some limited use in purely statistical and descriptive studies, it is dangerous and deceptive in the field of theoretical analyses which aim at explaining price variations. Any fruitful analysis must distinguish between various types of markets and goods since, in the short and long run, the mechanisms of price formation and variation are dependent on such. In this work, the author devotes special attention to the dichotomy of raw materials and manufactures, a regards goods. Another dichotomy is introduced with reference to the labour market. The logical basis for the double dichotomy is given by the degree of flexibility, in relation to demand, of prices and earnings.JEL: E31

  16. Türkiye'nin 7 akarsu havzasında horozbina, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso,1801, balığına ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye‟nin 7 akarsu havzasından toplanmış olan Horozbina Balığı (Salaria fluviatilis‟na ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Marmara, Küçük Menderes, Batı Karadeniz, Antalya, Doğu Akdeniz, Seyhan ve Ceyhan havzalarına ait akarsulardan toplanmış olan 652 birey incelenmiştir. Tüm bireyler dikkate alındığında türün Türkiye içsularındaki total boy dağılımı 2.0-12.9 cm, total ağırlık dağılımı 0.10-33.82 g, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi parametreleri a= 0.0135, b= 3.004, r2= 0.986 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, büyüme tipi havzaların 5‟inde izometrik, 1 havzada pozitif allometrik ve 1 havzada da negatif allometrik olarak belirlenmiştir

  17. Fuel cells. Pt. 1; Celle a combustibile. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanari, S; Macchi, E [Milan Politecnico (Italy). Dip. di Energetica

    1999-01-01

    Direct conversion of chemical energy into electricity (without intermediate heat generation) is a long-established method to improve the efficiency of power generation, as well as to reduce polluting emissions from thermal plants. The origins of fuel cells, as well as their operating principles, are dealt with. Then, various types of cells are taken into consideration, on the basis of both their characteristics and the operating principles of electrolytes. Finally, structure and operation of Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC), Alkaline Fuel Cells (AFC) and Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells (PAFC) are described. [Italiano] La conversione diretta dell`energia chimica del combustibile in energia elettrica, senza passare attraverso la produzione di calore, rappresenta una via ormai ampiamente collaudata per migliorare l`efficienza della produzione di energia elettrica e per contenere le emissioni generate dagli impianti termoelettrici. L`articolo, dopo una breve presentazione della storia dello sviluppo nel tempo delle celle a combustibile, espone i principi di funzionamento delle stesse. Si esaminano quindi i vari tipi di cella a partire dalle caratteristiche e dalle modalita` di funzionamento degli elettroliti che ne definiscono la classificazione. Successivamente vengono illustrate le caratteristiche costruttive e funzionali delle celle ad elettrolita polimerico (PEMFC), delle celle alcaline (AFC) e delle celle ad acido fosforico (PAFC).

  18. Atık Mermer Tozunun Parke Taşlarında Kullanılması

    OpenAIRE

    FİLİZ, Mümin; ÖZEL, Cengiz; SOYKAN, Oktar; EKİZ, Yunus

    2010-01-01

    Bu çalışmada iki farklı çimento tipi (CEM II/B-M (P-LL) 32.5 N ve CEM I 42.5 R) ve iki farklı su/çimento oranında (0.50 ve 0.55) hazırlanmış olan karışımlara mermer tozunun hacim oranınca agrega ile yer değiştirmesinin, mekanik ve fiziksel özelliklere etkisi araştırılmıştır. Elde edilen verilere göre mermer tozu atığının parke taşı imalatında kullanılabilirliği TS 2524 EN 1338 standardına göre değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlara göre mermer tozu kullanımı ile betonların mekanik ve f...

  19. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  20. Il progetto Siria: una proposta di archiviazione, ricerca e presentazione dati per Gortina e Mitropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Baldini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Il Progetto SIRIA, sviluppato nell’ambito di un progetto strategico del Dipartimento di Archeologia dell'Università di Bologna, è un sistema centralizzato per la gestione, la ricerca e la presentazione della documentazione archeologica. Il sistema è in grado di gestire, all'interno di un database relazionale, le classi di informazioni principali generate dalla ricerca archeologica: dati alfanumerici-tabulari, dati spaziali, immagini e in generale tutti i tipi di file che necessitano di essere archiviati. L'architettura del database, organizzata in un modo flessibile, consente agli utenti di utilizzare, in una struttura comune, gruppi specifici di informazioni (plug-in. L'obiettivo è andare incontro alle istanze dei singoli studiosi permettendo loro di organizzare liberamente i propri dati; inoltre, consentire l’integrazione dei dati e un allargamento della scala di riferimento dei singoli progetti. Il Progetto SIRIA aderisce alla filosofia e agli scopi del movimento open source: il codice è rilasciato sotto la licenza libera software GPLv3.

  1. Menemen Ekolojik Koşullarında Lavanta (Lavandula spp.) Tür ve Çeşitlerinin Morfolojik, Verim ve Kalite Özelliklerinin Belirlenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    Karık, Ünal; Çiçek, Fatih; Çınar, Orçun

    2017-01-01

    Bu çalışma Menemen ekolojik koşullarında lavanta (Lavandula spp.) tür ve çeşitlerininmorfolojik, verim ve kalite özelliklerini belirlemek amacı ile 2015-2016yılları arasında yürütülmüştür. Çalışmada 2 farklı türe ait 8 farklı ticarilavanta çeşidi kullanılmıştır. 2 yıl sonucunda elde edilen veriler ışığında türve çeşitler arasında önemli farklılıklar bulunduğu tespit edilmiştir. Lavandintipi çeşitler, verim özellikleri açısından lavander tipi çeşitlerin önünegeçerken,  uçucu yağ oranı ve uçucu...

  2. Tekstilde Yeni Bir Konsept Olan Dendrimerlerin Tarihçesi, Sınıflandırılması, Molekül Yapısı ve Özellikleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman NAMIRTI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Son 20 yıldır polimer kimyası tarafından çok sayıda lineer olmayan yapılar ortaya çıkartılmış ve polimer sentezi sırasında çok sayıda yan dalların eklenmesi, çok sayıda uç gruplara sahip makromoleküllerin eldesine yol açmıştır. Bu polimerlerin iki tipi, düzgün yapıda dallanmış "dendrimer"ler ile dallanmanın rastgele oluştuğu "hiperdallanmış moleküller"dir. Bu makalede özel yapıları nedeniyle tekstilde de çeşitli uygulama alanları bulan dendrimerlerin tarihçesi, sınıflandırılması, molekül yapısı ve özellikleri hakkında bilgi verilmektedir.

  3. The Challenge of Fostering Healthy Organizations: An Empirical Study on the Role of Workplace Relational Civility in Acceptance of Change and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bucci, Ornella; Guazzini, Andrea; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The world of work in the twenty-first century is characterized by globalization, instability, and unavoidable change. Organizations need to develop a positive relational environment in the workplace thereby enabling workers to enhance their personal resources in order to face with on-going changes in the sphere of work for promoting their well-being. Against this background, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between workplace relational civility and both acceptance of change and well-being (hedonic well-being as well as eudaimonic well-being) beyond the effect of personality traits. The following instruments were administered to 261 Italian workers: the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), the Acceptance of Change Scale (ACS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM). The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that workplace relational civility explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond personality traits in relation to acceptance of change, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. These results underscore the positive relationship between workplace relational civility and acceptance of change, hedonic well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, offering new research and intervention opportunities to meet the challenge of fostering healthy organizations. PMID:27917131

  4. The challenge of fostering healthy organizations: An empirical study on the role of workplace relational civility in acceptance of change and well-being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Di Fabio

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The world of work in the 21st century is characterized by globalization, instability, and unavoidable change. Organizations need to develop a positive relational environment in the workplace thereby enabling workers to enhance their personal resources in order to face with ongoing changes in the sphere of work for promoting their well-being. Against this background, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between workplace relational civility and both acceptance of change and well-being (hedonic well-being as well as eudaimonic well-being beyond the effect of personality traits. The following instruments were administered to 261 Italian workers: the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI, the Acceptance of Change Scale (ACS, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS, and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM. The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that workplace relational civility explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond personality traits in relation to acceptance of change, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. These results underscore the positive relationship between workplace relational civility and acceptance of change, hedonic well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, offering new research and intervention opportunities to meet the challenge of fostering healthy organizations.

  5. MANYETiK DENETiMLi BOBiN iLE ELEKTRONiK BALAST GÜÇ DENETiMi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim BÖREKCİ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Elektronik balastlar manyetik balastlara kıyasla, daha yüksek etkinlik faktörüne, daha iyi ısık kalitesine, daha uzun lamba ömrüne ve daha küçük hacme sahiptir. Bu çalısmada, lamba gücü, balast empedansını ve rezonans frekansını degistiren manyetik kontrollü bobin tarafından yapılmaktadır ve bu yöntem kendinden tetiklemeli akim beslemeli push pull tipi elektronik balastlarda gerçeklestirilmistir. Burada sunulan güç kontrolü yönteminde, sıfır voltaj anahtarlaması gerçeklestirilmistir. Elde edilen sonuçları karsılastırmak için, sunulan yöntemin aynı zamanda simulasyonuda yapılmıstır. Deneysel ve simulayon sonuçları uyum göstermektedir.

  6. AFM tip-sample convolution effects for cylinder protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Fei-Hu; Gan, Yang

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding about the AFM tip geometry dependent artifacts and tip-sample convolution effect is essential for reliable AFM topographic characterization and dimensional metrology. Using rigid sapphire cylinder protrusions (diameter: 2.25 μm, height: 575 nm) as the model system, a systematic and quantitative study about the imaging artifacts of four types of tips-two different pyramidal tips, one tetrahedral tip and one super sharp whisker tip-is carried out through comparing tip geometry dependent variations in AFM topography of cylinders and constructing the rigid tip-cylinder convolution models. We found that the imaging artifacts and the tip-sample convolution effect are critically related to the actual inclination of the working cantilever, the tip geometry, and the obstructive contacts between the working tip's planes/edges and the cylinder. Artifact-free images can only be obtained provided that all planes and edges of the working tip are steeper than the cylinder sidewalls. The findings reported here will contribute to reliable AFM characterization of surface features of micron or hundreds of nanometers in height that are frequently met in semiconductor, biology and materials fields.

  7. The abominable tale of progress. The monsters of Juan Rodolfo Wilcock, between comedy and horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Trifiro'

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo intende esplorare le strategie di demistificazione grottesca impiegate da Juan Rodolfo Wilcock per ritrarre l’impasse culturale della società italiana degli anni Sessanta, catapultata nella vacua frenesia di un improvviso benessere. Attraverso il suo «ridente sguardo cadaverico», come lo definisce Pasolini, la seduzione effimera del miracolo economico e, soprattutto, le sue disfunzioni, assumono le sembianze di una funerea profezia sociale, alimentata dal potere corrosivo e destabilizzante della satira. In particolare, sarà indagata la categoria dei mostri, cui l’autore italo-argentino fa sistematicamente ricorso allestendo, sia nei racconti che a teatro, una galleria di tipi umani e sub-umani esilarante e, al contempo, tragica. In questo sottobosco urbano, popolato da strambi personaggi e creature zoomorfe, i clamori luccicanti e le malie del progresso si degradano in formule stereotipe e oscene fiabe, trasmesse dagli schermi televisivi ad una massa senza miti, certificando la diagnosi lancinante di un disagio profondo.

  8. Sintesis Bahan Dasar Tibial Tray Berbasis HDPE Yang Diperkuat Dengan Iradiasi Gamma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistioso Giat S.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Tibial tray yang sudah komersil dibuat dari Polimer Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (UHMWPE tetapi harganya sangat mahal. Oleh karena itu pada penelitian ini digunakan polimer High Density Polyethylene (HDPE untuk pembuatan tibial tray karena harganya yang lebih murah dan memiliki kemiripan sifat dengan UHMWPE. HDPE dibuat dengan dua metode, yaitu metode hot press dan pemanasan tanpa tekanan (PTT. UHMWPE dengan metode hot press digunakan sebagai pembanding. Metode hot press dilakukan pada suhu 180 °C dan diberi tekanan sebesar 200 kg/cm2. Sedangkan metode pemanasan tanpa tekanan (PTT dilakukan di dalam oven pada suhu 180°C. Film tipis UHMWPE dan sampel HDPE yang dihasilkan dari kedua metode tersebut, kemudian diiradiasi sinar gamma dengan variasi dosis 0, 100, 200, 300 dan 500 kGy. Karakterisasi mencakup analisis morfologi dengan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, uji kekerasan, kekuatan tarik, dan derajat kristalinitas. Semakin tinggi dosis radiasi, maka kekerasan dan derajat kristalinitas semakin meningkat, tetapi kekuatan tarik semakin menurun. Dosis radiasi untuk sampel HDPE yang optimum , adalah 100 kGy untuk HDPE yang dibuat dengan metoda hot press, pada kondisi ini HDPE mempunyai kekuatan mekanik mendekati nilai kekuatan mekanik UHMWPE, sedangkan HDPE yang dibuat dengan metode PTT kekuatan mekaniknya masih dibawah kekuatan mekanik HDPE yang dibuat dengan metoda hot press 

  9. Onde elettromagnetiche

    CERN Document Server

    Toraldo di Francia, Giuliano

    1988-01-01

    Prefazione: "L'opera "Onde Elettromagnetiche" di Giuliano Toraldo di Francia vide la luce per i tipi della Casa Editrice Zanichelli nel lontano 1953. Tradotta ben presto in inglese e in giapponese, ha incontrato il favore di varie generazioni di studenti universitari e un apprezzamento dei docenti che non sembra ancora estinto. Ma è evidente che in trentacinque anni tante cose, troppe cose sono avvenute in quel campo di studio, per poter pensare che oggi il vecchio libro non presenti cospicue lacune. Ed è proprio a colmare tali lacune che ci siamo dedicati nell'elaborare il presente volume, pur conservando quasi tutto il materiale che aveva dato buona prova nel suo progenitore. La mole è inevitabilmente raddoppiata; eppure siamo ben lungi dall'avere esaurito un dominio così vasto, né ci eravamo proposti di farlo. Quello che presentiamo è il frutto di una scelta ragionata. Abbiamo ritenuto opportuno ampliare la parte sulle onde piane (con l'introduzione dei parametri di Stokes, e dei concetti di velocit�...

  10. Da obiettivi monetari a obiettivi di cambio. (From monetary to exchange rate targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. ARTIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo documento è stato presentato in occasione del quarto Seminario Internazionale sui diritti economici e monetaria dell'Unione Europea, tenutosi a Copenaghen nel marzo del 1981. L'autore prende le questioni teoriche nell'ambito dell'analisi sia statica che dinamica. Egli sostiene, sulla base del criterio di minimizzare la varianza dei prezzi intorno loro valore nominale, che un obiettivo di cambio supera un obiettivo monetario nella maggior parte dei tipi immaginabili di disturbi in un'analisi statica.This paper was presented at the Fourth International Seminar on European Economic and Monetary Union, held in Copenhagen in March of 1981. The author takes up the theoretical issues in the framework of both static and dynamic analysis. He argues, on the basis of the criterion of minimising the variance of prices around their target value, that an exchange-rate target outperforms a monetary target under most conceivable types of disturbances in a static analysis. JEL: E24, F36

  11. Tatil Kararı Verme Tarzına Dayalı Bir Tipoloji

    OpenAIRE

    DECROP, Alain; ZIDDA, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalışmada, geleneksel sosyodemografik ve psikografik ölçütlerden ziyade, karar verme tarzı değişkenlerine dayalı, yeni bir turist tipolojisi sunulmaktadır. Çalışmada altı turist tipi tanımlanmaktadır: alışılmış turist, akılcı turist, hedonik turist, fırsatçı turist, kısıtlı turist ve uyumlu turist. Bu tipoloji, Belçikalı turistlerle yürütülen niteliksel bir çalışmanın sonuçlarının yorumlanması neticesinde ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmada, tipolojinin niceliksel olarak da geçerli kılınmasını sağ...

  12. Stilometrie en karakterisering in The Big Bang Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryka van Zyl

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dialoog is ’n belangrike aspek van televisuele karakterkonstruering. Skrywers maak talige keuses namens die karakters en hierdie keuses kan daartoe aanleiding gee dat kykers ’n karakter met ’n spesifieke stereotipe subkultuur of sosiale groep vereenselwig. Hierdie studie ondersoek die talige konstruering van die karakter Sheldon Cooper in die CBS-sitkom The Big Bang Theory. ’n Trosanaliseboom van die spraak van elk van die vyf hoofkarakters in die eerste sewe seisoene (gegenereer deur die R-skrip Stylo 0.6.0 dui daarop dat die karakter Sheldon Cooper van die ander hoofkarakters (Leonard, Penny, Howard en Rajesh verskil ten opsigte van taalstyl. Hierdie verskille word verder ondersoek deur gebruik te maak van die korpusanalise program (WordSmith 6.0. om sleutelwoorde en leksikale bondels te identifiseer en om die gebruik van aktiewe en passiewe werkwoordkonstruksies te vergelyk. Sheldon se keuse van wetenskaplike of meer formele woorde en sy relatiewe voorkeur vir die passiefkonstruksie tipeer sy taalstyl as verduidelikend eerder as tipies van omgangstaal.

  13. Progresso tecnico, forme di mercato e disoccupazione. ( Technical progress, market forms and unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ASIMAKOPULOS A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lo scopo del presente lavoro è triplice . Il primo obiettivo è quello di sottolineare l'importanza delle intuizioni da trovare nel lavoro di Sylos Labini . Il secondo scopo è quello di espandere su di essa distinguendo tra i diversi tipi di progresso tecnico . Infine , il terzo obiettivo è quello di commentare il confronto di Labini di Ricardo e Keynes sulla possibilità di disoccupazione tecnologica . Per quanto riguarda la sua descrizione del progresso tecnologico come " risparmio di lavoro " , l'autore mostra che una descrizione più completa sarebbe più utile per i suoi scopiThe purpose of the present paper is threefold. The first purpose is to emphasise the importance of the insights to be found in Sylos Labini’s work. The second purpose is to expand upon it by distinguishing  between the different types of technical progress. Finally, the third purpose is to comment on Labini’s comparison of Ricardo and Keynes on the possibility of technological unemployment. Regarding his description of technological progress as “labour saving”, the author shows that a more comprehensive description would be more useful for his purposes.JEL: E24, J64, O33

  14. The Big Five personality dimensions and mental health: The mediating role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Yaghoubirad, Mahsa

    2016-12-01

    The role of personality constructs on mental health has attracted research attention in the last few decades. The Big Five personality traits have been introduced as parsimonious dimensions of non-pathological traits. The five-factor model of personality includes neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the Big Five dimensions and mental health considering the mediating role of alexithymia as an important emotional-processing construct. A total of 257 participants were recruited from non-clinical settings in the general population. All participants completed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine the hypothesized mediated model. Findings indicated that the Big Five personality dimensions could significantly predict scores of alexithymia. Moreover, alexithymia could predict mental health scores as measured by indices of depression, anxiety, social functioning, and somatic symptoms. The fit indices (GFI=0.94; CFI=0.91; TLI=0.90; RMSEA=0.071; CMIN/df=2.29) indicated that the model fits the data. Therefore, the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and mental health is mediated by alexithymia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Aspettative. Corsi dei cambi a termine e riflessi sulla politica monetaria. (Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FERRO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo fornisce un'analisi preliminare sui rapporti che si possono stabilire tra i tassi di cambio a termine e i tassi di cambio secondo le aspettative di diverse ipotesi . Gli autori evidenziano le implicazioni di politica monetaria che i vari tipi di aspettative comportano. Per verificare in particolare il ruolo delle aspettative nella determinazione dei tassi di cambio, si procederà attraverso un paio di semplici test empirici che si riferiscono al prezzo a termine del marco tedesco contro la sterlina sul mercato di Francoforte nei primi quattro mesi del 1976.The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976. JEL: E52, E42, F31

  16. Aspettative. Corsi dei cambi a termine e riflessi sulla politica monetaria. (Expectations, foreign exchange forwards and reflections on monetary policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FERRO

    1977-06-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo fornisce un'analisi preliminare sui rapporti che si possono stabilire tra i tassi di cambio a termine e i tassi di cambio secondo le aspettative di diverse ipotesi . Gli autori evidenziano le implicazioni di politica monetaria che i vari tipi di aspettative comportano. Per verificare in particolare il ruolo delle aspettative nella determinazione dei tassi di cambio, si procederà attraverso un paio di semplici test empirici che si riferiscono al prezzo a termine del marco tedesco contro la sterlina sul mercato di Francoforte nei primi quattro mesi del 1976. The paper provides preliminary analysis on the relationships that can be established between the rates of the forward exchange rate and the spot exchange rates at the various expectations hypothesis. The authors go on to highlight the implications of monetary policy that the various kinds of expectations entail. To test specifically the role of expectations in the determination of exchange rates at the end we will proceed through a couple of simple empirical tests that refer to the spot and forward prices of the Deutsche Mark against the pound on the Frankfurt market in the first four months of 1976. JEL: E52, E42, F31

  17. Sıçanlarda yara iyileşmesi üzerine lineer polarize polikromatik ışığın (bioptron) etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Birtane, Murat; Gurbuz, Hakan; Kokino, Siranus; Yildiz, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    Amaç: Bu çalışmada lineer polarize polikromatik ışığın sıçanlarda yara iyileşmesini hızlandırıcı etkisi araştırıldı. Çalışma planı: Bu çalışmada yaş ortalaması 6 ay, ortalama ağırlığı 220 gram olan Sprague-Dawley tipi 10 adet sıçan kullanıldı. İki sıçan anestezi komplikasyonları sonucu öldükleri için değerlendirmeye alınmadı. Genel anestezi altında sıçanların sırtlarında orta hatta, biri proksimalde, diğeri 10 cm distalde ve çapları 1.5 cm olan iki adet yara açıldı. Proksimalde yer alan y...

  18. Fughe ‘dal’ tempo, fughe ‘nel’ tempo: Borges, McTaggart, Nabokov

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    Francesco Baucia

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Questo intervento presenta due diversi tipi di rapporto tra i concetti di ‘fuga’ e di ‘temporalità’, che sono esemplificati da due frasi tratte da una coppia di opere di V. Nabokov. Il primo tipo di rapporto esaminato può essere chiamato ‘fuga dal tempo’: si tratta di una relazione tra questi concetti che rivela una posizione filosofica scettica nei confronti dell’esistenza reale del tempo, posizione che è condivisa da scrittori come J.L. Borges e da filosofi come J.T. McTaggart. Il secondo tipo di rapporto può essere invece denominato ‘fuga nel tempo’: secondo Nabokov, la temporalità è la dimensione più decisiva per l’arte e la letteratura, e dunque non è possibile realizzare una ‘vera’ fuga dal tempo. Il vero obiettivo dell’artista deve essere pertanto quello di realizzare una fuga nell’elemento puro (medium della temporalità, ossia nella sua ‘tessitura’, piuttosto che nei suoi contenuti (nel suo ‘testo’.

  19. KEANEKARAGAMAN DAN MIGRASI VERTIKAL COPEPODA DI TELUK SUMBERKIMA BALI

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    Media Fitri Isma Nugraha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian keanekaragaman spesies copepoda yang hidup di sekitar keramba jaring apung (KJA di Teluk Sumberkima, Bali Utara dilaksanakan pada bulan Februari 2007 dengan posisi sampling 50L 0237293 UTM 9101738. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui keanekaragaman dan distribusi vertikal populasi zooplankton khususnya copepoda di sekitar KJA Teluk Sumberkima pada beberapa tingkat kedalaman. Sampling copepoda dilakukan dengan memompa air laut sejumlah volume tertentu pada tingkat kedalaman masing-masing 0 m, 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, dan 15 m. Air laut tersebut kemudian disaring pada 200 µm secara terpisah. Sampel copepoda diawetkan dengan formalin 4% untuk analisis mikroskopik di laboratorium. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan secara keseluruhan terdapat 3 ordo yang terdiri atas 22 spesies copepoda. Ordo yang mendominasi adalah Calanoida yang ditemukan pada setiap kedalaman, dilanjutkan oleh ordo Cyclopoida yang ditemukan pada kedalaman 0 m, 3 m, 6 m, 12 m, dan 15 m dan ordo Harpacticoida yang ditemukan di semua lapisan kedalaman. Spesies yang mendominasi di setiap kedalaman adalah Calanus sinicus dan Calanus minor. The aim of this experiment was to study biodiversity and vertical distribution of copepods around floating cage culture in Sumberkima Bay, North Bali, in sea water depth levels of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 meters at sampling site of 50L 0237293 UTM 9101738. The observation was done in February 2007. Samples were obtained by pumping and then filtering the seawater through 200 µm membrane filter. Samples were preserved in 4% formaldehyde for microscopic observation. Results showed that there were three orders from 22 copepod species dominated by the order of Calanoida found in any depth level followed by the order of Cyclopoida found at 0, 3, 6, 12, and 15 meters depth. Even though the order of Harpacticoida copepods was found in each observed depth level but this order was in little quantity. Dominant species at each depth level was Calanus

  20. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Panjang Pipa Kapiler dan Variasi Beban Pendinginan pada Sistem Refrigerasi Cascade

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    Aprilia Choirul Lathifah Fuad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan penelitian terhadap sampel biomedis membutuhkan cold storage yang mampu menyimpan sampel hingga temperatur -80oC. Sedangkan jika dilihat dari sistem refrijerasi yang ada seperti halnya kulkas dengan sistem refrijerasi siklus tunggal hanya mampu mencapai temperatur -40oC dengan effisiensinya yang akan semakin memburuk karena tekanan evaporasi. Sehingga untuk dapat mencapai temperatur yang lebih rendah maka digunakan sistem refrijerasi cascade yang merupakan sistem refrijerasi dua tingkat yang dapat memberikan temperatur evaporator yang lebih rendah dan sistem juga beroperasi dengan rentang temperatur yang lebar. Penggunaan sistem refrigerasi ini harus memperhatikan dalam hal pemakaian zat yang mengalir dalam sistem refrijerasi yang disebut dengan refrigeran. Pemilihan refrigeran yang baik untuk sebuah alat pendingin akan semakin meningkatkan performa sistem refrijerasi itu sendiri dan dengan pemilihan refrijeran yang ramah lingkungan akan mempengaruhi dampak terhadap kerusakan lapisan ozon bumi dan GWP yang akan semakin berkurang. Eksperimen kali ini menggunakan refrijeran Musicool-22 di High Stage dan R-407f di Low Stage, dengan perbedaan panjang pipa kapiler pada High Stage yaitu sebesar 0,9m, 1,1m dan 1,3m dan beban pendinginan menggunakan electric heater di evaporator Low Stage sebesar 0, 60,120, 180 dan 220 Volt. Dari hasil eksperimen maka didapatkan temperatur evaporator terendah -41,64oC pada panjang pipa kapiler 1,3m dengan beban pendinginan sebesar 28,8 Watt dan temperatur kabin terendah  -33,38oC pada panjang pipa kapiler 1,3 m dengan beban pendinginan sebesar 0 Watt (tanpa beban. Maka kesimpulan dari eksperimen ini adalah panjang pipa kapiler 1,1m memiliki rata-rata COP terbesar yaitu 2,05 dan rata-rata daya keluaran kompresor sistem cascade terkecil yaitu 126,49 Watt.

  1. Analisis Kinerja Penerapan Container untuk Load Balancing Web Server

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    Muhammad Agung Nugroho

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Container merupakan teknologi virtualisasi terbaru. Container memudahkan system administrator dalam mengelola aplikasi pada server. Docker container dapat digunakan untuk membangun, mempersiapkan, dan menjalankan aplikasi. Dapat membuat aplikasi dari bahasa pemrograman yang berbeda pada lapisan apapun. Aplikasi dapat di bungkus dalam container, dan aplikasi dapat berjalan pada lingkungan apapun dimana saja.  Dalam perkembangannya container ini dapat digunakan untuk load balancing, dengan memanfaatkan HA Proxy. Load Balancing dapat digunakan untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan beban kinerja web server yang terlalu berat (overload terhadap permintaan. Load Balancing merupakan salah satu metode untuk meningkatkan skalabilitas web server sekaligus mengurangi beban kerja web server. Ujicoba dilakukan dengan memberikan beban request pada single container dan multi container, dan membandingkan kinerjanya. Analisis kinerja dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan parameter performance pada processor, memori dan proses layanan. Penerapan ujicoba dilakukan pada raspberry pi. Hasil yang diperoleh multi container dapat digunakan untuk mengembangkan metode load balancing, hasil ujicoba menunjukkan performance raspberry pi dapat optimum karena pembagian beban processor.

  2. GEO-ARKEOLOGI TERAS PURBA BENGAWAN SOLO DI SEKITAR KABUPATEN BOJONEGORO, JAWA TIMUR The Geo-archaeology of Ancient Terrace of Bengawan Solo in Bojonegoro Surrounding Regency, East Java

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    Johan Arif

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Pemetaan teras purba Bengawan Solo merupakan kajian geo-arkeologi tahap awal yang dilakukan di beberapa lokasi di wilayah kabupaten Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Permasalahannya adalah ditemukannya indikasi keberadaan peralatan batu paleolitik dan fosil-fosil vertebrata di beberapa teras purba di wilayah ini. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah mendapatkan gambaran sebaran teras purba Bengawan Solo berumur Kuarter serta memberikan usulan kepada para ahli arkeologi dalam merancang kegiatan pencarian sisa-sisa budaya manusia antara lain peralatan batu paleolitik maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan pada suatu teras purba. Metode yang dipakai di dalam penelitian ini adalah metode pemetaan geologi, deskripsi profil sedimen, pengambilan contoh-contoh sedimen (termasuk fosil hewan untuk keperluan analisa sedimentologi dan analisa kimia. Di daerah penelitian yang terletak di kabupaten Bojonegoro dijumpai tiga teras yaitu Teras Menden (berumur sub-Resen, Jipangulu (berumur Holosen Awal dan Ngandong (berumur Plestosen Atas. Teras Menden dijumpai di Payaman, Teras Jipangulu di Prangi dan Wotangare dan Teras Ngandong dijumpai di Prangi dan di desa Kedung. Berdasarkan bukti stratigrafinya ketiga teras tersebut disusun oleh lapisan pasir ukuran kasar hingga kerikilan di bagian bawah dan berubah menjadi pasir lempungan dan lempung pasiran di bagian atas. Fenomena ini menunjukkan bahwa ketiga teras tersebut dibentuk oleh sungai yang berkelok-kelok yaitu Bengawan Solo purba. Kedudukan masing-masing teras purba di daerah penelitian yang diukur dari Bengawan Solo adalah 2-3 m (Teras Menden, 5-7 m (Teras Jipangulu dan >8 m (Teras Ngandong. Berdasarkan hasil kajian teras purba ini diusulkan agar para ahli arkeologi lebih memfokuskan kepada perlapisan sedimen yang berukuran kasar dalam sistem endapan sungai purba berumur Kuarter untuk mencari sisa-sisa budaya manusia paleolitikum seperti peralatan batu maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan.   Kata

  3. PEMBANGUNAN PERMUKIMAN YANG BERKELANJUTAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI UDARA

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    Timoticin Kwanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of urban population will cause environment problems, such as clean water scarcity, bad condition of sanitation, garbage disposal, and air pollution. Main sources of air pollution in large cities are emissions of motor vehicles (CO which is 70% to 80% of the total air pollutant. Air pollution may create hazard for human health. Carbon monoxide (CO which changes into carbon dioxide (CO2 will cause global warming, and then climate change happened will cause flood and dry land, which then it effects on human health. In addition, the damage of Ozone layer caused by CFC chemical will cause more ultra violet going into the troposphere which causes skin cancer. To solve air pollution, first is to decrease energy consumption and search for a cleaner alternated energy. Second is to build sustainable buildings and settlements, and environment friendly public transportation system. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Peningkatan jumlah penduduk perkotaan yang relatif tinggi menimbulkan masalah bagi lingkungan hidup, misalnya masalah kurangnya air bersih, buruknya kondisi sanitasi, pembuangan sampah, dan polusi udara. Sumber terbesar polusi udara di kota besar adalah asap kendaraan bermotor (CO yaitu sebesar 70% - 80% dari total polutan udara. Pencemaran udara berdampak pada kesehatan manusia. Karbon monooksida (CO yang berubah menjadi karbon dioksida (CO2 akan berakibat pada pemanasan global, sehingga terjadi perubahan iklim yang menyebabkan banjir dan kekeringan, yang kemudian berpengaruh pada kesehatan manusia. Selain itu, rusaknya lapisan Ozon yang diakibatkan oleh senyawa kimia CFC, berakibat pada banyaknya sinar ultra violet memasuki troposfer yang dapat mengakibatkan kanker kulit. Untuk mengatasi masalah polusi udara ini, pertama adalah mengurangi konsumsi energi dan mencari energi alternatif yang lebih bersih. Kedua, mengurangi polusi udara dengan cara pembangunan ruang terbuka hijau, pembangunan bangunan dan permukiman yang

  4. Perbaikan Tanah Dasar Menggunakan Pre-Fabricated Vertical Drain Dengan Variasi Kedalaman Dan Perkuatan Lereng Dengan Turap Studi Kasus : Lapangan Penumpukan Peti Kemas, Pelabuhan Trisakti, Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan

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    Dofran Winner

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Metode perbaikan tanah dasar menggunakan preloading yang dikombinasikan dengan Pre-fabricated Vertical Drain (PVD dipilih untuk proyek pengembangan lapangan penumpukan peti kemas di Pelabuhan Trisakti, Banjarmasin, Kalimantan Selatan. Selama masa preloading, ternyata kelongsoran selebar 37 meter terjadi di area penumpukan. Diketahui bahwa kelongsoran terjadi saat preloading setinggi 4,0 meter. Agar lapangan penumpukan dapat beroperasi kembali, diperlukan perencanaan untuk perkuatan lereng dan untuk menghilangkan pemampatan tanah dasar di area lapangan penumpukan. Perbaikan tanah dasar menggunakan preloading yang dikombinasikan dengan Pre-fabricated Vertical Drain (PVD digunakan untuk Zona 3, 4, dan 5, dan perkuatan lereng dengan turap digunakan untuk Zona-1 dan Zona-2 yang merupakan bagian lereng dari lapangan penumpukan. Direncanakan PVD dipasang pada kedalaman yang berbeda: 1/3H, 2/3H, dan H (H adalah ketebalan lapisan tanah lunak untuk melihat kondisi yang menghasilkan biaya paling murah. Dari hasil perencanaan yang dilakukan, diketahui bahwa turap yang digunakan adalah Corrugated Concrete sheet pile type W-600 A1000. Turap dipasang sedalam 18 meter di Zona-1 dan sedalam 22 meter di Zona-2; selain itu, angker dipasang pada turap untuk meningkatkan kekakuan turap. Hasil perencanaan juga menunjukkan bahwa biaya yang paling ekonomis adalah PVD dipasang sampai 2/3H di Zona-3, dan tanpa PVD di Zona-4 dan Zona-5. Total biaya konstruksi adalah sebesar Rp 843.106.053,00 untuk Zona-1 dan Zona-2; Rp 9.446.530.597,00 untuk Zona-3; Rp 1.869.613.200,00 untuk Zona 4; dan Rp 3.577.392.000,00 untuk Zona 5.

  5. Effects of Mineral Oils on Host Selection Behavior of Diaphorina citri

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    Mofit Eko Poerwanto

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Response of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on citrus leaves treated with horticultural and agricultural mineral oil (HMO & AMO was evaluated under laboratory condition in choice and non-choice trials. Combination of HMO and AMO at concentration of 0 up to 2% was applied to citrus leaves. Mineral oil applications significantly reduced the proportion of D. citri stayed on citrus leaves for feeding with the proposed mechanisms: 1 oils covered leaves thus hampered it for releasing volatile compounds, 2 oil film preventing the direct contact of tarsus or palpus to leaf surfaces, and 3 the volatile compounds produced by mineral oils also blended with plant volatiles in the atmosphere and reduced the probability of olfactory receptors capturing the olfactory cues for locating the feeding site. Mineral oils also increased the mortality of D. citri due to the refusion for feeding on the treated citrus leaves. The effect of AMO was more prominent than HMO.   Tanggapan Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan dengan minyak mineral (HMO dan AMO dievaluasi dengan metode pilihan maupun tanpa pilihan di laboratorium. Kombinasi antara HMO dan AMO pada konsentrasi 0% sampai dengan 2% diaplikasikan pada daun jeruk. Minyak mineral secara nyata menurunkan proporsi D. citri hinggap untuk makan pada daun jeruk, yang mungkin disebabkan oleh mekanisme: 1 minyak melapisi daun sehingga tidak mampu melepaskan senyawa volatil, 2 lapisan minyak menghalangi kontak langsung antara tarsus atau palpus pada permukaan daun, dan 3 senyawa volatil dari minyak bercampur dengan volatil tanaman di udara sehingga menurunkan probabilitas reseptor olfaktori menangkap sinyal penanda lokasi inang. Minyak mineral juga meningkatkan mortalitas, akibat dari penolakan makan pada daun jeruk yang diperlakukan. Pengaruh AMO lebih besar dari pada HMO.

  6. Ekmek Yapımda Likit Ferment Sisteminin Mekanizasyonu Üzerine Bir Araştırma

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    M. Kürşat Demir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmada Türk tipi ekmek üretiminde, modifiye likit ferment sistemini kullanarak, daha yüksek maya performansı ile daha ucuz, doğal ve daha kaliteli ekmek üretimi araştırılmış, bu amaçla geliştirilen metodun standardizasyonu ve mekanizasyonu üzerine çalışılmıştır. Denemelerde maya gıdası (DAHP+ MgSO4 yerine, doğal azot kaynağı olarak buğday ruşeymi, aktif soya unu ve yüksek randımanlı un (tip 850 kullanımları araştırılmıştır. Laboratuvar (1 lt. ve ticari ölçekte (1000 lt. fermentörlerde, % 1 maya inokülasyonu ile üretilen likit fermentlerden yapılan ekmekler, % 3 yaş maya ile direkt usulde üretilen ekmeklere göre eşdeğerde ekmek dış özellikleri ve daha üstün ekmek içi özellikleri sağlayarak, maya kullanımında tasarruf sağlanmıştır. Maya gıdası (DAHP + MgSO4 yerine, doğal azot kaynağı olarak ferment ununa % 5'lik buğday ruşeymi veya aktif soya unu ikamesi, özellikle laboratuvar tipi ekmeklerde, maya gıda katkısına eşdeğerde kalite göstermiştir. Performans olarak, buğday ruşeymi katkısı hacim ve simetri ile ekmek içi tekstürü ve parlaklığında, aktif soya unu ise ekmek hacmi ve verimi ile ekmek içi beyazlığında diğerlerine göre, ticari şartlarda daha iyi olmak üzere yüksek performans göstermiştir (p<0.05. Ticari şartlarda yapılan ekmekler, laboratuvar şartlarına göre, özellikle hacim bakımından performans kaybına uğramış, ancak maya gıdası ilavesi ile giderilebilmiştir.

  7. L’ELICITED ORAL IMITATION TEST COME STRUMENTO DI MISURAZIONE DELLE CONOSCENZE IMPLICITE E DELLE ABILITÁ DI PROCESSING

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    Ilaria Borro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio esamina la validità dell’Elicited Oral Imitation Test (EI nella misurazione delle conoscenze implicite e delle strategie di processing. Si basa sull’ipotesi elaborata da Erlam secondo il quale l’EI è ricostruttivo, cioè richiede agli apprendenti di processare l’input orale e non di ripeterlo meccanicamente. La struttura misurata nello studio è il participio passato: la scelta è motivata dal fatto che si tratta di una struttura problematica a diversi livelli di competenza e richiede la capacità di processare tratti morfologici e sintattici allo stesso tempo (Salvi, Vanelli, 2004.I partecipanti sono 26 studenti cinesi di livello A2 e B1 che, all'epoca, avevano frequentato per circa 400 ore un corso di lingua italiana all'Università degli Studi di Milano. Lo studio utilizza, oltre all’EI, altre due forme di valutazione: un Untimed Grammaticality Judgment Test (UGJT e un Metalinguistic Knowledge Test (MKT. Lo studio ha dimostrato che l'EI ha un debole correlazione con  l'UGJT e con l’MKT, a conferma del fatto che gli studenti hanno fatto affidamento su due tipi di competenze differenti che possono essere identificate con le conoscenze implicite e il processing nel caso dell'EI e con le conoscenze esplicite nel caso dell’UGJT e dell’MKT. I dati raccolti nello studio hanno anche evidenziato una correlazione tra UGJT e MKT a riprova che i due tipi di valutazione richiedono competenze basata su costrutti simili.  The elicited oral imitation test as a tool for measurement of knowledge and skills of implied processingThe study examined the validity of the Elicited Oral Imitation Test (EI in the measurement of implicit knowledge and processing strategies. It is based on the hypothesis developed by Erlam that EI is reconstructive, requiring learners to process oral input and not to repeat it mechanically. The structure measured in the study was the past participle: this choice was motivated by the fact that it is a

  8. TRADITION OF KARS MINSTREL ACCORDING TO THE TYPE OF FOLK POET IN DEDE KORKUT STORIES DEDE KORKUT HİKÂYELERİNDEKİ OZAN TİPİ BAĞLAMINDA KARS ÂŞIKLIK GELENEĞİ

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    Cengiz GÖKŞEN

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dede Korkut stories are one of the most important commonvalues of Turkish World. Although this work had been written thehundreds of years later that the Turks accepted Islam religion, it hasmany elements of Turkish culture that belongs to pre-islamic period. Thecustom of being a poet, which is a type of musician, is one of theTurkish culture of pre-islamic age. The poets were not only musicianswho had ability of music, but also they have the ability of a religiousperson, a doctor or a witch. After a while, by the effects of Islamicculture, these poets had left their places to the minstrels(=Aşık. Kars andits neighbourhood is one of the place that the custom of minstrel hasperformed mostly. There has been many common elements between thetype of poets in the Dede Korkut Stories and in the living tradition ofminstrel of Kars. In this study, the similarities between the Dede KorkutStories and Kars minstrel tadition, and the reason of these had been triedto be defineted. Dede Korkut Hikâyeleri Türk Dünyasının en önemli ortakdeğerlerinden biridir. Bu eser, Türklerin İslam dinini kabul etmesindenyüzlerce yıl sonra yazıya geçirilmiş olmasına rağmen, İslamiyet öncesiTürk kültür hayatına ait birçok unsur taşımaktadır. İslamiyet öncesiTürk kültürünün müzisyen sanatçı tipi olan ozan’lık geleneği bunlardanbiridir. Müzisyenlik yanında, din adamlığı, büyücülük, hekimlik gibi bilgive becerilere de sahip olan ozanlar İslamiyet’in de etkisiyle bir süre sonrayerlerini âşıklara bırakmışlardır Âşıklık geleneğinin ülkemizde en canlıyaşadığı yerlerden biri Kars ve çevresidir. Yaşayan Kars âşıklık geleneğiiçinde Dede Korkut Hikâyelerindeki ozan tipi ve ozanlık geleneğiyle ortakbirçok unsur bulunmaktadır. Bu çalışmada Dede Korkut Hikâyelerindekiozanlık geleneğiyle Kars âşıklık geleneğindeki benzerlikler ve bunlarınsebepleri tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır.

  9. The phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography results of Jatropha gossypiifolia seeds

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    Anis Nurwidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Schistosomiasis saat ini masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di daerah endemis di Sulawesi Tengah. Keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, perantara schistosomiasis tersebar luas di wilayah tersebut. Pemberantasan yang dilakukan selama ini dilakukan dengan penyemprotan moluskisida kimia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi golongan senyawa kimia di dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah.Metode: Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2009. Biji jarak merah dikumpulkan dari wilayah Tondo, Kota Palu. Ekstraksi biji jarak merah dilakukan dengan metode perkolasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Dilakukan skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung untuk mendeteksi golongan senyawa di dalam ekstrak biji jarak merah. Skrining dilanjutkan dengan uji kromatografilapis tipis untuk memastikan hasil skrining dari uji tabung.Hasil: Ekstrak yang dihasilkan dari 500 gram serbuk biji jarak merah kering dengan 2500 ml pelarut metanol adalah sebanyak 250 ml ekstrak kental berwarna coklat kemerahan. Skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung menunjukkan hasil positif alkaloid dengan terbentuknya endapan pada reaksi tes Meyer, tes Wagner, tes Dragendorff. Skrining ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah juga menunjukkan hasil positif saponin pada tes busa dan tes Lieberman-Burchard. Hasil positif pada tes Keller Killiani dan tes Kedde menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak biji jarak merah mengandung cardenoline dan bufadienol. Analisis kromatografilapis tipis menunjukkan ekstrak biji jarak merah positif terpen dengan terbentuknya spot pada plat silika gel dengan penyemprotan pereaksi terpen yaitu serium sulfat. Kesimpulan: Komponen kimia yang terkandung dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah terdiri dari alkaloid, saponin, cardenolin, bufadienol, dan terpen.(Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xxKata kunci:schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, komponen kimiaABSTRACTBackground:Schistosomiasis is still a health problem in Central Sulawesi. Snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis

  10. Določitev območij poselitve v Sloveniji po vodnogospodarskih vidikih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Gosar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveljavitev pravnega reda Evropske unije prinaša obsežno strokovno delo tudi v vodno gospodarstvo. Na vodilno, Okvirno direktivo o vodah (WFD se navezujejo številne druge. Izpolnjevanje določil Direktive o ravnanju z odpadnimi komunalnimi vodami (UWWTD in Direktive o celovitem preprečevanju in omejevanju onesnaževanja (IPPCD bo tudi v Sloveniji zahtevalo znatne investicije. Področje komunalnih voda na operativni ravni ureja občina, država pa mora izpolnjevati prevzete državne obveznosti do EU. Pravočasno doseganje ciljev zahteva koordinacijo aktivnosti, temelječo na strokovnih podlagah. V UWWTD je eden osnovnih parametrov aglomeracija kot zaokroženo območje tako zgoščene poselitve, da zanj veljajo posebna določila in dinamika iz direktive. Merilo zgoščenosti je število prebivalcev na hektar. Za Slovenijo so bili izdelani najprimernejša mreža eno-hektarskih kvadratnih celic in trije tipi celic poselitve. Območje posamezne aglomeracije sestavljajo celice dveh najgostejših tipov poselitve, ki se stikajo. Površina aglomeracij je mnogo manjša od površine naselij iz RPE, zato so skupne slovenske obveznosti iz direktiv manjše, kar pokaže tudi strokovna podlaga za nacionalni program zbiranja in čiščenja odpadnih komunalnih in padavinskih voda. Izdelane aglomeracije so osnovni element načrtovanja in ukrepanja tudi za druga vodnogospodarska načrtovanja (npr. proti poplavni ukrepi, lahko pa si bi jih uporabilo tudi za programe komunalnega opremljanja in druga razvojna načrtovanja v prostoru.

  11. European Marine Information System. Eumaris; European Marine Information System. Eumaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caiaffa, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1999-07-01

    The present paper summarises the activities developed by ETC/MCE, under European Environment Agency (EEA) contract, on the Geographic Information System. The aim of present paper is to introduce some general concepts about the Geographic Information Systems and to investigate the potential of G.I.S. as tool for the assessment of the European seas. Care has also been taken to explain the main technical and educational reasons that led to EUMARIS GIS birth, its evolution in the last year, till to its presentation at the Inter-Regional Forum of the European Conventions held in Venice. GIS is a technological tool phenomenon involving various aspects and different issues; many examples of thematic maps involving that different subjects are shown in the paper. [Italian] Il presente articolo riassume le attivita' svolte, nell'ambito del Geographic Information System, dall'ETC/MCE sotto contratto con l'Agenzia Europea per l'Ambiente (EEA) che ha sede a Copenhagen. Scopo del presente articolo e' quello di introdurre alcuni concetti generali sui Geographic Information System (GIS) e di dimostrare la possibilita' di utilizzare il GIS stesso come strumento per la valutazione dello stato dei mari dell'Europa. Si e' cercato di spiegare le principali ragioni tecniche che hanno portato alla nascita del progeto del GIS EUMARIS, alla sua realizzazione fino alla sua presentazione all'Inter-Regional Forum of European Conventions tenutosi a Venezia. Si e' cercato anche di mostrare come un GIS per sua natura e' uno strumento che coinvolge vari aspetti tecnologici e differenti tipi di dati; nell'articolo vengono mostrati diversi esempi di mappe tematiche che contengono tali differenti argomenti.

  12. Voedingpraktyke en behoeftes van hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe deur die oë van laerskoolonderwysers

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    Ronel Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel bespreek ons die persepsies van onderwysers (n = 45 wat betref die voedingpraktyke van ’n steekproef laerskoolleerders en hul gesinne in ’n hulpbron-arm gemeenskap. Ons fokus spesifiek op die behoeftes, praktyke en verwagtings ten opsigte van die gebruik van voedsel, wat die produksie, keuse en voorbereiding van voedsel impliseer. Ons studie vorm die eerste deel van ’n groter institusionele navorsingprojek. Vir die doel van ons studie het ons deelnemende refleksie en aksie-gebaseerde werkwinkels gehou om data te genereer en tydens die interpretasie van bevindinge op interpretivisme staatgemaak. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoeftes van hulpbron-arm en werklose gemeenskapslede wat dikwels genoodsaak is om teen verlaagde pryse voedsel te koop waarvan die kwaliteit nie optimaal is nie. ’n Verskraalde ontbyt, middagete of aandete waarvan die keuse algemeen beperk is tot swart tee, pap en een of twee snye ou brood, bevestig die manifestasies van armoede in hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe. Maaltye is dikwels beperk tot groot hoeveelhede koolhidrate, min groente, ingelegde vis, pap met inkomazi en marog. Hoenderpote en afval vul soms die spyskaart aan. Onderwysers beklemtoon die feit dat gemeenskapslede tipies op skenkings van werkgewers, kerke en kruidenierswinkels staatmaak om hul voedselbegroting aan te vul. Onderwysers fokus verder op die behoeftes aan opleiding vir gemeenskapslede. Na hulle mening moet gemeenskappe ingelig word oor voedselproduksie, groentetuine, die wyses waarop die kwaliteit van grond bepaal kan word, besproeiing en die toepassing van volhoubare wisselbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met uitvoerbare en leersame wenke vir die opleiding van landelike gemeenskappe. Op grond van dié navorsingsbevindinge word ’n intervensieprogram tans ontwikkel, met die doel om dit in die onderskeie deelnemende skole te implementeer ter bevordering van gesonde voedselverwante gedrag en welsyn.

  13. Protein Esaslı Yağ İkame Maddesi Kullanımının Yağsız Yoğurdun Kalitesi Üzerine Etkisi

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    Fatma Sezen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, protein esaslı yağ ikame maddesi olan Dairy-Lo™ 'nun %1 ve %2 gibi iki farklı oranı kullanılarak, rekonstitüe sütten üretilen, yağsız set tipi yoğurtların fiziksel, kimyasal, tekstürel ve duyusal özellikleri incelenmiştir. Yoğurt örneklerinde depolamanın 1., 7. ve 15. günlerinde titrasyon asitliği, pH, asetaldehit, laktik asit, serum ayrılması, viskozite, konsistens değerleri saptanmıştır. Ayrıca yoğurt örneklerinde duyusal değerlendirmeler de yapılmıştır.  Bu çalışma sonucu elde edilen bulgular, protein esaslı yağ ikame maddesi Dairy-Lo™ ilavesinin yağsız yoğurdun konsistens ve viskozitesini artırıp, serum ayrılmasını azalttığını göstermiştir. Dairy-Lo™ 'nun %2 oranında kullanımının yağsız set tip yoğurdun kalitesini iyileştirdiği belirlenmiştir.

  14. L’AZIONE DI CANCELLAZIONE - TUTELA DEI DIRITTI TAVOLARI

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    Zrinka Radić

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Il titolare di un diritto tavolare, leso dall’iscrizione a favore di altro soggetto, al fi ne di tutelare il proprio diritto è autorizzato a pretendere la cancellazione di qualsiasi iscrizione che lo offenda ed a ripristinare nel libro fondiario lo stato precedente. Se l’iscrizione di un diritto tavolare a favore di altro soggetto sia o no fondata, verrà stabilito dal tribunale in sede contenziosa. L’autore del lavoro si occupa della questione della legittimazione attiva e passiva e dei termini quali presupposti incontrovertibili volti alla presentazione della domanda di cancellazione. Si disaminano le questioni che sono problematiche in giurisprudenza ed in dottrina. Precisamente: la valutazione della legittimazione attiva, le questioni riguardanti dunque l’individuazione di coloro che in qualità di «lesi nel proprio diritto tavolare» possano intraprendere l’azione di cancellazione e la questione circa i tipi di iscrizione in occasione delle quali si possa giungere ad una tale lesione. Ancora, si valuta se l’attore debba in caso di azione di cancellazione provare il suo diritto sostanziale e quali eccezioni possa sollevare nell’azione. Al centro dell’attenzione v’è anche la questione della legittimazione passiva e dei termini quali presupposti incontrovertibili ai fi ni della presentazione della domanda di cancellazione; come pure l’interrogativo se l’azione di cancellazione sia giustifi cata soltanto nel caso di un’iniziale nullità del titolo o se sia suffi ciente anche una nullità successiva.

  15. Romulus’ adytum or asylum? A New Exegetical proposal for De lingua Latina 5, 8

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    Federica Lazzerini

    2017-05-01

    Molto si è discusso sui quattro livelli progressivi secondo i quali Varrone struttura l’etimologia in ling. 5, 8; a ogni livello è associato un diverso tipo di analisi e si applica a una diversa categoria di parole. Una formulazione criptica ed ellittica, in un passo che nel manoscritto del testo è quasi certamente corrotto, avvolgono il quarto livello in una nube di incertezza e ambiguità. Se alcuni filologi hanno difeso il mantenimento del tradito Quartus, ubi est aditus et initia regis (“Il quarto livello è dove è l’ingresso e le origini del re”, la maggior parte delle interpretazioni moderne opta piuttosto per l’emendazione di aditus in adytum (“santuario” e legge il passo come un riferimento a vari tipi di culti misterici, collocando il quarto livello etimologico in un quadro di esoterismo. Nel presente contributo, si avanza la proposta che nel passo in questione non vi sia alcuna allusione ai misteri, ma un riferimento all’episodio storico-leggendario della fondazione, da parte di Romolo, di un “santuario” sul Campidoglio, destinato all’accoglienza di supplici provenienti da ogni popolo ed estrazione sociale. Questa istituzione portò alla formazione del primo nucleo abitativo di Roma e anche, di conseguenza, del sostrato vernacolare alle origini della lingua latina; come tale, tale episodio converge con gli interessi e le idee di Varrone. L’ipotesi che il quartus gradus etymologiae alluda al santuario di Romolo può essere difesa o dando una nuova interpretazione al termine adytum, o proponendo un’emendazione testuale (aditus > asylum, che produca il testo Quartus, ubi est asylum et initia regis.

  16. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 1: A MONETARY PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development and management of new technologies is fundamental to the manufacturing sector as a core operational initiative. Managers of a new technology are increasingly pressurised to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with the life cycle of the technology (and product during decision-making – i.e. the overall sustainability of the technology. At present, there is no consensus on a methodology to incorporate externalities – for example, environmental and social impacts at macro-level, for which a company is (typically not held financially liable – into management practices. This paper introduces the Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure, whereby externalities (burdens and benefits are translated into financial terms to assess the overall sustainability performance of a developed technology in the process industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Sentrale operasionele initiatief van die vervaardigings-industrie is die ontwikkeling en bestuur van nuwe tegnologieë. Bestuurders van nuwe tegnologieë word toenemend onder druk geplaas om die ekonomiese-, omgewings-, en sosiale impakte, wat verwant is aan die lewenssiklus van ‘n tegnologie (of produk, in ag te neem tydens besluitneming ten opsigte van die globale volhoudbaarheid van die tegnologie. Op hierdie stadium is daar geen konsensus oor die metodologie wat gevolg moet word om eksterne faktore – bv. omgewings- en sosiale impakte op makrovlak, waarvoor ‘n maatskappy tipies nie aanspreeklik gehou word nie – te inkorporeer in die bestuurpraktyk. Hierdie artikel stel die Volhoudbaarheid Kosterekeningkunde (VKR prosedure voor, waarvolgens die oorgrote volhoudbare prestasie, in terme van eksterne voor- en nadele van ‘n ontwikkelde tegnologie, in die prosesindustrie ge-assesseer kan word in finansiële terme.

  17. Helix lucorum'un Tükürük Bezindeki Glikokonjugatların Lektin Histokimyası ile Belirlenmesi

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    Seçil ZORLU

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Helix lucorum'un tükürük bezinde büyüklük ve morfolojik özellikleri dikkate alınarak beş hücre tipi tespit edildi. Bu hücreler Tip 1, 2, 3, 4 ve 5 olarak isimlendirildi. Yapılan sayımlar sonucunda tükürük bezinde en fazla Tip 1, en az Tip 3 hücrelerinin bulunduğu belirlendi. Hücrelerin çaplarının ölçülmesi sonucu en büyük hücrenin Tip 1, en küçük hücrenin Tip 3 olduğu saptandı. Tip 1 ve 2 hücrelerinin uygulanan Dolichos biflorus (DBA, Ulex europaeus (UEA-1, Arachis hypogaea (PNA, Canavalia ensiformis (Con A, Bandeiraea simplicifolia (BSA I-B4, Triticum vulgare (WGA lektinlerinin hepsine karşı reaksiyon verdiği belirlendi. Bu iki hücre tipinin BSA I-B4 ile zayıf reaksiyon verdiği gözlenirken, PNA ve DBA ile kuvvetli reaksiyon verdiği saptandı. Tip 3, 4 ve 5 hücrelerinin ise uygulanan hiçbir lektine karşı reaksiyon göstermediği belirlendi.

  18. Ceramiche romane e tardoantiche delle campagne di ricognizione 2006-2008 del progetto R.I.M.E.M. / Roman and Late Antique pottery from the 2006-2008 field-walking campaigns of the R.I.M.E.M. project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Konestra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con il presente contributo si presentano le tipologie ceramiche romane e tardoantiche individuate durante le campagne di ricognizione 2006-2008 del progetto R.I.M.E.M. e provenienti da alcune UUTT ritenute significative. Una suddivisione per classi e tipi ha permesso di formulare datazioni più ristrette per le ceramiche fini (ceramica a vernice nera, sigillate, ceramica a pareti sottili e le lucerne, nonché più ampie e basate su confronti regionali o extraregionali per le classi delle ceramiche comuni e da fuoco. L’analisi del suddetto materiale ha permesso di individuare, per alcune produzioni, evidenti raffronti provenienti dalla zona umbro-tirrenica e medio adriatica, nonché regionale, e ampliare l’area di diffusione di alcune classi anche al comprensorio preso in esame dal progetto. The paper presents the typology of Roman and Late roman pottery collected during the 2006-2008 field-walking campaigns of the R.I.M.E.M. project, with particular regard to some of the most significant sites identified. A subdivision in classes and types allowed us to assign narrower dates to fine pottery (black-gloss, various sigillata, thin-walled ware and lamps, while broader dates were assigned, on the basis of regional and extra regional analogies, to the coarse wares. Analyses carried out on the material allowed us to identify, for some productions, comparisons with the Umbrian-Tyrrhenian and mid-Adriatic areas, with a strong presence of regional analogies as well, which enabled us to broaden the distribution of certain classes to the area examined by the project.

  19. La nozione di autorità. Suggestioni da Alexandre Kojève

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    Chiara Ariano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Muovendo da un’analisi fenomenologica, l’articolo intende porre una riflessione critica sull’elaborazione giusfilosofica della nozione d’autorità prendendo spunto dal volumetto La nozione d’Autorità di A. Kojève (di cui prima si conosceva l’esistenza solo grazie a una nota presente nell’Esquisse d’une phénoménologie du droit, recentemente rinvenuto. L’autore inizia col fare un’analisi concettuale delle teorie dell’autorità, distinguendo così quattro tipi “semplici” o “puri” (analoghi agli idealtipi weberiani: la teoria teologica o teocratica, secondo la quale l’Autorità primaria e assoluta appartiene a Dio, e tutte le altre ne derivano; la teoria platonica, secondo cui l’Autorità si fonda sulla Giustizia; quella aristotelica, secondo cui appartiene a chi ha il sapere e la capacità di prevedere; infine quella di Hegel che la riduce al rapporto tra Signore e servo (vincitore e vinto, basato sulla lotta, il rischio e il riconoscimento del vincitore come autorità. Di queste, solo l’ultima – scrive Kojève – “ha avuto un’elaborazione filosofica completa, che si sviluppa sia sul piano della descrizione fenomenologica sia su quello dell’analisi metafisica e ontologica, le altre non hanno oltrepassato il livello della fenomenologia”. La radicale finitudine dell’uomo, sulla quale Kojève in definitiva fonda la sua pretesa ateistica e cerca conseguentemente di svincolare dalla trascendenza ogni fondazione dell'autorità, non esclude, però, a parere di chi scrive, la traccia di un ‟antropologia in cui torna ad affacciarsi l’infinito”.  

  20. PERFORMA DOMBA YANG DIBERI COMPLETE FEED KULIT BUAH KAKAO TERFERMENTASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamalidin (Kamalidin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui performa domba yang diberi complete feed kulit buah kakao (KBK terfermentasi. Domba ekor tipis umur 1-1,5 tahun sebanyak 15 ekor digunakan dalam penelitian ini dengan pemberian pakan dan air minum secara ad libitum. Perlakuan yang dicobakan adalah K yang merupakan pakan kontrol terdiri dari hijauan (sumber serat + konsentrat, NF merupakan complete feed dari kulit buah kakao (sumber serat + konsentrat tanpa fermentasi dan F merupakan complete feed dari kulit buah kakao (sumber serat + konsentrat yang melalui proses fermentasi (CFF dengan perbandingan antara sumber serat dan konsentrat adalah 40% : 60%. Variabel yang diamati adalah konsumsi pakan, pertambahan bobot badan, konversi pakan, feed cost per gain dan income over feed cost. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa complete feed berpengaruh nyata terhadap konsumsi bahan kering (BK, bahan organik (BO, protein kasar (PK, serat kasar (SK, lemak kasar (LK dan total digestible nutrients (TDN, sedangkan pertambahan bobot badan harian dan konversi pakan tidak berbeda nyata terhadap formulasi complete feed. Rerata konsumsi BK, BO, PK, SK, LK, dan TDN berturut-turut adalah 87,72; 78,21; 10,12; 12,21; 1,77, dan 59,52 g/kg BW0,75. Rerata pertambahan bobot badan harian adalah 128,67 g/hari atau 0,88 g/kg BW0,75, sedangkan rerata konversi pakan adalah 6,27. Disimpulkan bahwa pemberian ransum complete feed menghasilkan konsumsi nutrien yang tinggi tetapi tidak memberikan efek pertambahan bobot badan harian dan nilai konversi pakan yang lebih tinggi. Pemanfaatan fermentasi KBK menggunakan biofit menghasilkan PBBH 128,57 g/ekor/hari atau 0,88% g/kg BB0,75 efektif untuk digunakan dalam ransum penggemukan ternak domba. (Kata kunci: Domba, Complete feed, Kinerja

  1. PENGARUH INTENSITAS CAHAYA DAN JARAK PADA SISTEM AUGMENTED REALITY OBJEK ANIMASI

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    Rudy Kustijono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh intensitas cahaya dan jarak pada sistem Augmented Reality objek animasi. Augmented Reality (AR merupakan upaya untuk menggabungkan dunia maya (virtual dan dunia nyata (real yang dibuat melalui komputer sehingga batas antara keduanya menjadi sangat tipis. Untuk mengembangkan AR banyak sekali library pendukung yang dapat digunakan. FlarToolKit adalah salah satunya. FlarToolKit merupakan library pendukung AR pada platform flash. Dalam penelitian ini dibuatlah sistem AR objek animasi. Sistem yang dibuat dalam objek adalah permainan pingpong. Pada permainan pingpong disini berbeda pada permainan pingpong lainnya dimana telah dikolaborasikan dengan AR untuk menggerakkan setiap langkah dari playernya. Gerak setiap langkah tersebut dibantu dengan alat dengan nama marker pada saat proses rendering yang dilakukan kamera. Marker yang telah diregistrasi dapat dikenali dengan kamera dan dapat berinteraksi dengan objek bola dan komputer. Interaksi antar obyek tersebut dapat dilihat dari gerak bola yang dapat dipukul dengan ojyek virtual yang ditampilkan melalui AR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembacaan marker oleh kamera sangat dipengaruhi oleh besarnya Intensitas cahaya. Untuk intensitas cahaya sedang (cahaya lampu dapat menampilkan obyek virtual. Sedangkan intensitas cahaya yang terlalu kecil (gelap dan intensitas cahaya yang terlalu besar (cahaya matahari, objek virtual tidak terlihat. Selain intensitas cahaya, jarak marker dengan kamera juga sangat berpengaruh dalam proses berjalannya sistem ini dimana marker yang telah dibaca oleh kamera ini nantinya akan di bandingkan dengan data marker yang menjadi acuannya. Bila terlalu dekat atau terlalu jauh maka kamera tidak dapat membaca marker dengan baik sehingga sistem tidak dapat mengenali marker tersebut. Jarak terdekat untuk marker terhadap kamera yang bisa menampilkan objek virtual adalah 10 cm. Sedangkan jarak terjauh yang tidak bisa menampilkan objek

  2. KERAGAAN WARNA IKAN CLOWN BIAK (Amphiprion percula POPULASI ALAM DAN BUDIDAYA BERDASARKAN ANALISIS GAMBAR DIGITAL

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    Ruby Vidia Kusumah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji keragaan warna ikan clown Biak (Amphiprion percula populasi alam dan budidaya berdasarkan analisis gambar digital sebagai dasar upaya pemuliaannya. Gambar digital diambil dari koleksi ikan clown Biak Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Laut Lampung, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali; serta pengumpul ikan hias di Denpasar, Bali menggunakan kamera digital Canon EOS 600D. Pola warna dikarakterisasi secara visual terhadap variasi strip hitam dan putih pada dasar badan oranye, jenis warna dianalisis menggunakan ImageJ 1.49s, persentase penutupan warna dilakukan dengan Adobe Photoshop CS5. Pola warna dikarakterisasi oleh strip hitam tebal, tipis, gelap, pudar, terputus, bergabung, serta strip putih normal, pelana, spot, melebar, dan terputus. Warna hitam alam dikarakterisasi oleh hue (H: 300-60º, saturation (S: 8%-56%, brightness (B: 3%-19%, sedangkan budidaya H: 300-23º, S: 9%-71%, B: 4%-20%. Warna oranye alam H: 19-33º, S: 88%-98%, B: 47%-85%, dan budidaya H: 14-29º, S: 86%-99%, B: 38%-82%. Warna putih alam H: 36-270º; S: 1%-13%, B: 66%-88%, dan budidaya H: 0-229º, S: 0%-14%, B: 55%-87%. Persentase penutupan warna badan didominasi warna oranye dengan rata-rata 45% untuk populasi alam dan 57% untuk populasi budidaya. Keragaan warna ikan clown Biak dapat diarahkan pada pembentukan strain misbar, picasso, spot (domino, dan onyx. Metode analisis gambar digital sangat potensial digunakan untuk analisis keragaan warna ikan hias.

  3. On the functions and grammatical status of the Latvian modal particle lai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Holvoet

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available PAR MODĀLĀS PARTIKULAS lai FUNKCIJĀM UN GRAMATISKO STATUSUKopsavilkumsLatviešu valodas gramatikās partikula lai parasti tiek minēta tikai kā analītisko imperatīva formu sastāvdaļa (lai nāk, lai neaizmirstam. Šai rakstā tiek aplūkoti trīs partikulas lai lietošanas tipi: (1 teikumos ar pamudinājuma vai vēlējuma nozīmi (Lai viņi nāk, (2 deontiskajos jautājumos (Ko lai es daru! Ko lai es būtu darījis!, un (3 teikumos ar vērtējuma (neaprobēšanas vai šaubu nozīmi (Viņš lai būtu palīdzējis slepkavām?. Autors cenšas parādīt, ka pirmā (dažreiz arī otrā tipa teikumos partikulai lai piemīt teikuma partikulas īpašības, kamēr otrā un trešā tipa teikumos iezīmējas tendence šai partikulai veidot ar verbu ciešāku sakopojumu, kas gan nelīdzinās analītisko verbu formu statusam, bet zināmā mērā atgādina savienojumus ar modālajiem verbiem. ‘Formveidojošas partikulas’ statusa, ko partikulai lai piedēvē gramatikās, šim vārdam nav nekur.

  4. Debito estero e fragilità finanziaria nell’ottica dei paesi emergenti ((Foreign debt and financial fragility in view of the emerging countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulla scia dell’impostazione minskiana della fragilità finanziaria e dei suoi successivi sviluppi offerti da Kregel, il lavoro affronta alcuni aspetti di base della dinamica e della gestione del debito estero nell’ottica dei paesi emergenti. Al fine di definire la fragilità esterna di un paese si riformulano le definizioni di Minsky di posizioni coperte, speculative e Ponzi. L’analisi di come, asimmetrie nella fragilità finanziaria esterna, possano influenzare la fragilità globale conduce a discutere i limiti dell’apertura finanziaria internazionale. Infine, la distinzione tra fragilità finanziaria interna ed esterna permette di analizzare come l’interazione dinamica tra le unità economiche, compreso il governo e le sue politiche, può influenzare la distribuzione e il livello di entrambi i tipi di fragilità.    In the wake of the minskian setting of financial fragility and its subsequent developments offered by Kregel, the paper addresses some basic aspects of the dynamics and management of external debt from the perspective of developing countries. In order to define the external fragility of a country reformulate the definition of Minsky of hedged positions, speculative, and Ponzi. The analysis of how, asymmetries in the external financial fragility, may affect the overall fragility leads to discuss the limits of the opening international financial. Finally, the distinction between internal and external financial fragility makes it possible to analyze how the dynamic interaction between economic units, including the government and its policies, can influence the distribution and the level of both types of fragility. JEL Codes: E44, F34, F4Keywords: Kregel, Minksy, fragilità finanziaria, debito estero , paesi emergenti

  5. Karakteristik dan Model Matematika Kurva Pengeringan Rumput Laut Eucheuma cottonii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diini Fithriani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Studi ini dimaksudkan untuk menginvestigasi karakteristik dan model matematika kurvapengeringan rumput laut  Eucheuma cottonii. Hasil penelitian ini diharapkan dapat digunakanuntuk perancangan alat pengering rumput laut yang efisien. Pengeringan E.cottonii dilakukandengan menggunakan alat pengering laboratorium terkendali yang dilengkapi dengan sistemakuisisi data dengan kecepatan udara 0,5 m/detik. Empat variasi RH yang dilakukan pada suhu50 °C adalah 30%, 40%, 50% dan 60% serta empat variasi suhu yang dilakukan pada RH 40%adalah 40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C dan 70 °C. Tiga model pengeringan yang diuji adalah model Newton, Henderson & Pabis dan Page. Simulasi model yang paling tepat ditentukan berdasarkan nilai R2 yang paling tinggi, serta nilai  sum square error  (SSE dan  root mean square error  RMSE yang paling rendah. Laju pengeringan lapis tipis rumput laut  E.cottonii umumnya berada pada periodelaju menurun. Hal ini sesuai dengan karakteristik pengeringan bahan-bahan biopolimer yang umumnya berlangsung dengan laju menurun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa penurunan RH cukup efektif dalam menurunkan kadar air dibandingkan peningkatan suhu. Pada RH rendah yaitu 30% suhu 50 °C, penurunan kadar air 50% dicapai dalam waktu 80-85 menit jauh lebih cepat dari RH 60% suhu 50 °C yaitu 165-170 menit. Pada suhu tertinggi yaitu 70 °C RH 40%penurunan kadar air 50% dicapai dalam waktu 90 menit selisih 15 menit lebih cepat dibandingkan suhu terendah yaitu 40 °C RH 40%. Kajian ini mendapati model pengeringan  E.Cotonii yang paling sesuai adalah model pengeringan Page dengan nilai R2, R2 terkoreksi, SSE and RMSE berturut - turut sebesar 0,98-0,99 ; 0,96-0,98 ; 0,0002-0,0126 dan 0,0002- 0,0206.

  6. Predictors of health-related quality of life in neurosurgical brain tumor patients: focus on patient-centered perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunevicius, Adomas; Tamasauskas, Sarunas; Deltuva, Vytenis; Tamasauskas, Arimantas; Radziunas, Andrius; Bunevicius, Robertas

    2014-02-01

    In brain tumor (BT) patients, the association between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psychological characteristics remains largely unknown. We evaluated the association of personality traits, clinical factors, psychological distress symptoms, and cognitive state with HRQoL in BT patients. On admission for BT surgery, 200 patients (69 % women; age 55.8 ± 14.5 years) were evaluated for HRQoL (SF-36 scale), Big-Five personality traits (Ten-Item Personality Inventory), psychological distress symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale or HADS), cognitive function (Mini-Mental State Examination or MMSE) and clinical characteristics, including functional status (Barthel index or BI). The most common BT diagnoses were meningioma (39 %) and high-grade glioma (18 %). Only factors significantly associated with SF-36 domains in univariable regression analyses were included in their respective multivariable models and predicted from 6 %-49 % of the total variance of SF-36 scores. Greater TIPI emotional stability score was independently associated with greater SF-36 emotional well-being (β = 0.23, p emotional well-being score (β = 0.13, p = 0.02). HADS-anxiety and HADS-depression scores were the strongest independent determinants of all, except physical functioning, SF-36 scores (β-values range from 0.14 to 0.56; p values ≤ 0.03). BI score was the strongest independent determinant of SF-36 physical functioning score (β = 0.36, p emotional well-being and social functioning SF-36 scores. Consciousness and emotional stability should be considered important personality-related determinants of HRQoL in BT patients. Psychological distress, functional disability, and cognitive impairment are also important predictors of HRQoL.

  7. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

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    P. Affanni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  8. DELIGNIFIKASI BAMBU PETUNG (DENDROCALAMUS ASPER DENGAN EKSTRAK ABU JERAMI PADI DAN KAYU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Sulistiawati

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Kebutuhan tekstil di Indonesia terus meningkat seiring dengan bertambahnya jumlah penduduk. Selama ini pemenuhan tekstil sebagian besar diimpor dari beberapa negara, antara lain: India, China, dan Jepang. Di sisi lain, Indonesia merupakan negara agraris, dengan limbah pertanian yang melimpah. Juga tanaman bambu tumbuh subur dan banyak terdapat di negeri ini. Keunggulan serat tekstil bambu adalah bersifat antiseptik, tahan terhadap mikroba. Penelitian ini merupakan salah satu langkah dalam pembuatan serat tekstil alami dari bambu petung (Dendrocalamus asper dan limbah pertanian yaitu abu jerami padi dan kayu, yaitu tahap delignifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini mencari waktu perendaman bambu dalam ekstrak abu yang memberikan hasil terbaik. Bambu dipotong dan dibelah tipis, berukuran panjang 15 cm, setebal 0,5 mm. Mula-mula sampel bambu ditimbang (antara 12 sampai 57 gram, lalu direndam dalam ekstrak abu (jerami padi dan kayu sebanyak 500 ml dalam sebuah botol berkapasitas 600 ml dan ditutup. Perendaman dilakukan pada suhu kamar. Waktu perendaman bervariasi dari 4 jam hingga 80 jam. Setelah perendaman selesai, hasil disaring. Sampel filtrat dititrasi untuk diketahui konsentrasi alkali aktifnya. Bambu yang telah direndam lalu dikeringkan menggunakan oven pada suhu 110ºC sampai berat tetap. Selisih berat antara bambu awal dan akhir (kering dihitung, dan dianggap sebagai lignin yang terdegradasi. Dari penelitian dapat disimpulkan bahwa perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dari pada ekstrak abu kayu, karena pengurangan berat padatan lebih besar. Hasil yang tertinggi pada perendaman menggunakan ekstrak abu jerami padi selama 76 jam, dengan selisih berat (basis kering mencapai 44,5%.

  9. Pengaruh Penambahan Jerami Nangka (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam Terhadap Karakteristik Fruit Leather Mangga (Mangifera indica L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Yusmita

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Penganekaragaman pangan merupakan program kebijakan pemerintah dengan tujuan untuk terus mengembangkan pangan agar dapat memantapkan kemandirian dan penyediaan pangan dengan jenis yang beragam dan kualitas yang makin meningkat, jumlah yang memadai dan tersebar merata sehingga dapat memenuhi kebutuhan pangan dan gizi. Untuk mendukung penganekaragaman pangan tersebut maka diperlukan upaya untuk melakukan pengolahan produk-produk hasil pertanian. Buah-buahan merupakan salah satu produk hasil pertanian yang umumnya dibuat menjadi produk olahan seperti jam, jelly, puree, sari buah, buah kaleng, manisan kering atau basah. Salah satu jenis produk buah-buahan yang kering selain manisan adalah fruit leather. Fruit leather adalah jenis makanan yang berasal dari daging buah yang telah dihancurkan dan dikeringkan. Produk ini berbentuk lembaran tipis seperti halnya kulit buah dengan tekstur yang plastis dan kenyal, rasanya manis tetapi masih memiliki ciri rasa khas buah yang digunakan. Fruit leather juga termasuk produk makanan yang tidak mengandung zat pewarna sehingga cocok untuk dijadikan cemilan dan mempunyai aneka ragam bentuk dan warna. Pengolahan buah-buahan menjadi fruit leather merupakan salah satu upaya divesifikasi pangan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan 5 perlakuan dan 3 kali ulangan. Data yang diperoleh dianalisa secara statistik dengan uji F, kemudian bila berpengaruh nyata dilanjutkan dengan uji DNMRT pada taraf nyata 5%. Penelitian ini telah dilakukan di Laboratorium Program Studi Teknologi Industri Pertanian Universitas Dharma Andalas dan Laboratorium Teknologi Hasil Pertanian Fakultas Teknologi Pertanian Universitas Andalas. Dari hasil penelitian didapatkan kesimpulan bahwa konsentrasi penambahan jerami nangka berpengaruh nyata terhadap kadar vitamin C dan kadar serat kasar. Sementara untuk pengujian kadar air, total asam dan kadar gula ternyata tidak dipengaruhi oleh konsentrasi penambahan

  10. Melamin Plaka İle Kaplanmış Yonga Levhalı (YL-Lam Kutu Mobilyalarda Köşe Birleştirmelerin Yük Taşıma Kapasitesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ALTINOK

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Kutu mobilya köşe birleştirmelerindeki mukavemet, bu tip ürünlerin kullanım sürelerini doğrudan etkilemektedir. Mukavemeti etkileyen etmenler ise üretim aşamasında seçilen levha, köşe birleştirme tipi ve tutkaldır. Bu çalışmada, karma birleştirme (kavela+yabancı çıtalı yöntemiyle birleştirilmiş melamin plaka ile kaplanmış yonga levha (YL-Lam örneklerde kullanılan farklı tutkalların kutu mobilya köşe birleştirmelerindeki diyagonal zorlamalar (diyagonal basınç ve çekme karşısındaki mukavemet performansları araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla, faklı tutkal türleri (PVAc, Polimerin, Silikon ile tutkallanmış karma köşe birleştirmeli YL- Lam örnekler hazırlanmıştır. Örneklere diyagonal basınç ve çekme deneyleri uygulanmıştır. Deneyler sonunda silikon tutkallı deney örneklerinde, diğer örneklerden daha yüksek basınç ve çekme direnci tespit edilmiştir. Anahtar kelimeler: Yapıştırıcı, Ahşap Birleştirme, Diyagonal Basma Direnci, Diyagonal Çekme Direnci

  11. Technological Advances Impacting Libraries and Libraries of the Future Kütüphaneleri Etkileyen Teknolojik Yenilikler ve Geleceğin Kütüphaneleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in libraries which began with the use of computers accelerate with the emergence of new technologies every day. Especially, the widespread use of microcomputers, developments in communication and optic disk technologies, and the use ofartifxcal intelligence and expert systems in libraries have impact upon the library profession. The assortment, quality and speed of library services have increased due to these developments. Along with the technological advances, the organizational structure of , and the management approcah to, libraries changes, too. These ongoing changes bring forth the question of what would happen to the libraries and librarianship of the future. Kütüphanelerde bilgisayarların kullanımı ile başlayan gelişmeler, her geçen gün yeni teknolojilerin ortaya çıkmasıyla giderek büyümektedir, özellikle mikrobilgisayarların geniş kullanım alanı bulması, iletişim teknolojisinin hızlı gelişimi, optik disk teknolojisindeki yenilikler, yapay zeka ve uzman sistemlerden kütüphanecilik alanında yararlanılabilmesi kütüphanecilik mesleğini etkilemektedir. Bu gelişmelere bağlı olarak verilen hizmetlerin çeşidi, niteliği ve hızı artmaktadır. Kütüphanelerin Örgüt yapılarında, yönetim anlayışlarında da değişimler söz konusudur. Bugün yaşanan bu değişimler geleceğin kütüphanelerinin ve kütüphaneciliğinin neolacağı sorularını gündeme getirmektedir.

  12. Distribution of trace gases and aerosols in the Siberian air shed during wildfires of summer 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Paris, Jean-Daiel; Nedelec, Philippe; Antokhin, Pavel N.; Arshinova, Victoriya; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belan, Sergey B.; Davydov, Denis K.; Ivlev, Georgii A.; Fofonov, Alexandre V.; Kozlov, Artem V.; Rasskazchikova, Tatyana M.; Savkin, Denis E.; Simonenkov, Denis V.; Sklyadneva, Tatyana K.; Tolmachev, Gennadii N.

    2017-04-01

    During the last two decades, three strong biomass burning events have been observed in Russia: two of them in 2002 and 2010 in the European part of Russia, and another one in 2012 in West and East Siberia. In this paper we present results of the extensive airborne study of the vertical distribution of trace gases and aerosols carried out during strong wildfire event happened in summer 2012 in Siberia. For this purpose, the Optik TU-134 aircraft laboratory was used as a research platform. A large-scale airborne campaign has been undertaken along the route Novosibirsk-Mirny-Yakutsk-Bratsk-Novosibirsk on 31st of July and 1st of August, 2012. Flight pattern consisted of a number of ascents and descents between close to the ground and 8 km altitude that enabled 20 vertical profiles to be obtained. Campaign was conducted under the weather conditions of low-gradient baric field that determined the low speed transport of air masses, as well as the accumulation of biomass burning emissions in the region under study. Highest concentrations of CO2, CH4 and CO over wildfire spots reached 432 ppm, 2367 ppb, and 4036 ppb, correspondingly. If we exclude from the analysis the data obtained when crossing smoke plumes, we can find a difference between background concentrations measured in the atmosphere over regions affected by biomass burning and clean areas. Enhancement of CO2 over the wildfire areas changed with altitude. On average, it was 10.5 ppm in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and 5-6 ppm in the free troposphere. Maximum CO2 enhancements reached 27 ppm and 24 ppm, correspondingly. The averaged CH4 enhancement varied from 75 ppb in the boundary layer to 30 ppb in the upper troposphere, and a little bit lower than 30 ppb in the middle troposphere. Maximum CH4 enhancements reached 202 ppb, 108 ppb, and 50-60 ppb, correspondingly. The averaged and maximum enhancements of CO differed by an order of magnitude. Thus, in the ABL the maximum difference in concentration between

  13. Electron acceleration in the bubble regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Oliver

    2014-02-03

    The bubble regime of laser-wakefield acceleration has been studied over the recent years as an important alternative to classical accelerators. Several models and theories have been published, in particular a theory which provides scaling laws for acceleration parameters such as energy gain and acceleration length. This thesis deals with numerical simulations within the bubble regime, their comparison to these scaling laws and data obtained from experiments, as well as some specific phenomenona. With a comparison of the scaling laws with numerical results a parameter scan was able to show a large parameter space in which simulation and theory agree. An investigation of the limits of this parameter space revealed boundaries to other regimes, especially at very high (a{sub 0} > 100) and very low laser amplitudes (a{sub 0} < 4). Comparing simulation data with data from experiments concerning laser pulse development and electron energies, it was found that experimental results can be adequately reproduced using the Virtual-Laser-Plasma-Laboratory code. In collaboration with the Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik at the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena synchrotron radiation emitted from the inside of the bubble was investigated. A simulation of the movement of the electrons inside the bubble together with time dependent histograms of the emitted radiation helped to prove that the majority of radiation created during a bubble acceleration originates from the inside of the bubble. This radiation can be used to diagnose the amplitude of oscillation of the trapped electrons. During a further study it was proven that the polarisation of synchrotron radiation from a bubble contains information about the exact oscillation direction. This oscillation was successfully controlled by using either a laser pulse with a tilted pulse front or an asymmetric laser pulse. First results of ongoing studies concerning injecting electrons into an existing bubble and a scheme called

  14. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  15. [Evaluation of the efficacy of diode laser endocyclophotocoagulation combined with cataract surgery in glaucoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzouhairi, S M

    2015-11-01

    Surgical techniques, which reduce the secretion of aqueous humor are underutilized in the surgical management of glaucoma; the diode laser coupled to an endoscope, endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP), is an emerging technology in the treatment of glaucoma. Indeed, thanks to its direct, focal and controllable approach to diode laser treatment of the ciliary processes, ECP renders this a safer technique compared to transscleral diode laser. We present preliminary results and an evaluation of the efficacy of ECP combined with cataract surgery performed at the Al Bassar clinic in Mohammedia, Morocco. We conducted a retrospective study on a series of 82 patients who underwent combined surgery: diode laser endocyclophotocoagulation and cataract for treatment of glaucoma during the period from December 2012 to July 2013. For this study, we recorded: age and gender of the patients, number and power of diode laser spots, pre- and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP), and the number of anti-glaucoma treatments prescribed pre- and postoperatively (3 months minimum). Technically, a 20-gauge endo-ocular probe is inserted through the corneal incision used for phacoemulsification. The probe is equipped with a light source, a camera and a pulsed 810 nm laser beam; it is connected to an Endo-optiks type generator, which allows for direct visualization of the ciliary processes and their precise treatment. The surgical procedure is both simple and quick. Postoperative follow-up is unchanged from the management of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification. The average age in our series was 69.5 years (range 33-81 years), mean follow-up was 5.7 months. The reduction in intraocular pressure was 28.5%. In 40% of patients, a significant reduction in medications was noted, and in 20%, a total suspension of anti-glaucoma medications. No serious complications were noted in our series. This technique can perfectly fit into the medical, natural and/or surgical armamentarium medical, physical

  16. Dampak Sosial Ekonomi dan Peran Pemerintah Daerah dalam Perkembangan Teknologi Pitalebar di Indonesia [Social Economy Impact and Local Government Initiative relating to Broadband Technology Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirianto Pradono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia memiliki aset yang berperan penting bagi pembangunan nasional termasuk sosial dan ekonomi antara lain sumber daya manusia dan industri dalam negeri. TIK khususnya internet pitalebar merupakan salah satu kunci dalam pembangunan sosial ekonomi di suatu negara. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana dampak pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia terhadap aspek sosial ekonomi masyarakat serta mengidentifikasi apakah langkah yang telah dilakukan pemerintah daerah dalam mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar telah dilakukan secara optimal. Data yang diperoleh melalui penelitian dianalisis menggunakan metode Matthew B Miles dan A Michael Huberman, (2007. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan internet pitalebar di Indonesia meningkat dengan signifikan dan memberikan dampak positif terhadap pertumbuhan sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan internet pitalebar tersebut belum dilakukan secara optimal terutama untuk tujuan yang bersifat produktif. Pemerintah daerah telah melakukan sejumlah langkah strategis untuk mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia seperti penggelaran ducting untuk kabel serat optik, pelatihan bidang TIK, penyediaan akses internet WiFi di fasilitas publik. Namun, langkah yang dilakukan pemerintah daerah perlu lebih diintensifkan guna memperluas penetrasi internet pitalebar untuk peningkatan dan pemerataan pertumbuhan sosial dan ekonomi masyarakat Indonesia.*****Indonesia has invaluable assets which are important to the national development. Those assets need to be managed properly in order to deliver significant contribution to the national development, especially in social and economy aspects. Nowadays, Information and Communication Technology (ICT, especially broadband internet, is one of some key points in social economy development in a country. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in this study to capture broadband internet utilization in Indonesia and identify

  17. P-12: Spora Başlama ve/veya Lisans Muayeneleri İçin Spor Hekimliği Polikliniğine Başvuran Çocuk ve Gençlerde Postür Bozukluklarının Sıklığının Araştırılması

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    Berrin Topçu Özcan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available GirişPostür, vücut bölümlerinin birbirleri ile ilişkili biçimdeki duruş şekli ve duruş vaziyetidir. Ayrıca, herhangi bir zamanda vücudun tüm noktalarının duruşlarının birleşenidir. AmaçHastanemiz spor hekimliği polikliniğine spor lisansı almak ve/veya yenilemek yada spora katılım öncesi sağlık kontrollerinden geçmek için başvuran çocuk ve gençlerde postür bozukluğu varlığıyla spor yapma ve yapılan spor yılı arasındaki ilişkiyi incelemek. Gereç ve yöntemÇalışmamıza 125’i erkek, 51’i kız ve yaşları 6-21 arasında (ort.:13,27 olmak üzere toplam 176 kişi katıldı. Katılımcıların 52’si spora yeni başlayacak olup, diğerleri çeşitli spor dallarını en az 1 yıldır yapmaktaydı. Vücut postürü fiziki muayene ile değerlendirildi. Boy, kilo ölçümleri Healthometer Professional marka cihazla yapıldı. VKİ(Vücut Kitle İndeksi hesaplandı. Spora başlama yaşı, spor tipi ve katılımcıların şikayetleri sorgulandı. Elde edilen veriler Minitab ikili lojistik regresyon analizi ve bazı sonuçlar da kikare testiyle değerlendirildi.Bulgular Spor geçmişi(yıl ile postür bozukluğu arasında anlamlı ilişki saptandı(p=0,019. Çocukların %3'ü daha önceden postür bozuklukluğu tanısı konduğu için tedavi edici olarak spora başlamıştı. Spora başlama yaşı ve sporun tipine göre postür bozukluğu bulunma olasılığı arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır. VKİ ile postür bozukluğu arasında da anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır. Bununla beraber 10 yaş üstünde VKİ anlamlı olarak daha yüksek bulunmuştur. 10 yaşın altında daha az spor yapıldığı saptanmıştır. Tartışma/sonuçSpor yapma yılı arttıkça postür bozukluğu görülme olasılığının artması beklenen bir sonuç değildi. Katılımcıların farklı alanlarda spor dallarıyla uğraşması ve ayrı ayrı değerlendirildiğinde vaka sayımızın az olması, yaş olarak

  18. Studi Geofisika Untuk Menentukan Batas Formasi Jampang dan Formasi Ciletuh di Kawasan Geopark Ciletuh

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    Cece Solihin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kawasan Ciletuh memiliki struktur geologi yang khas dan unik serta memiliki aneka ragam batuan yang tersebar. Pandangan umum dari ilmu kebumian kawasan ini sangat menarik untuk dipelajari karena geologi kawasan ini terbentuk tidak lepas dari aktivitas tektonik regional Jawa Barat. Studi geofisika sangat berguna dalam menganalisa struktur geologi bawah permukaan tanah di kawasan Ciletuh. Metode geofisika yang digunakan bertujuan untuk mengamati dan menganalisis struktur geologi batuan permukaan. Serta, tujuan utama dari penelitian ini untuk menentukan batas formasi Jampang dengan formasi Ciletuh. Penelitian ini digunakan pengambilan data dengan metode Geolistrik, Magnetik dan Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR di daerah Tamanjaya, kawasan Ciletuh dengan lintasan yang berbeda. Berdasarkan interpretasi geolistrik pada software Res2Dinv 2D diperoleh struktur bawah permukaan berupa lapisan batuan pasir. Pada hasil interpretasi metode GPR pola perambatan serta kecepatan rambat gelombang elektromagnetik untuk dua lintasan GPR memiliki perbedaan struktur batuan yaitu batuan pasir kasar, kerikil dan endapan. Sedangkan hasil interpretasi magnetik mengindikasi perbedaan struktur batuan dalam bawah permukaan berdasarkan anomali magnetik. Berdasarkan geologi regional formasi Jampang bawah didominasi oleh batuan pasir halus. Sedangkan formasi Ciletuh didominasi oleh batuan pasir kasar yang berumur lebih tua. Sehingga batas formasi Jampang dengan batas formasi Ciletuh dapat diperkirakan pada lintasan GPR dan Magnetik The Ciletuh region has a distinctive and unique geological structure and also has a various of rocks scattered. The general view of the geography of this region is very interesting to learn because the geology of this region formed can not be sparated from the regional tectonic activity of west java. Geophysical studies are very useful in analyzing the subsurface geological structures in the Ciletuh region. The geophysical methods used aims to observe

  19. ANALISIS PENGARUH VARIABILITAS TANAH PADA VARIABILITAS SPEKTRUM RESPON GEMPABUMI

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    I Nyoman Sukanta

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu komplek perkantoran yang terletak di Jalan Thamrin, Jakarta, dipilih sebagai lokasi penelitian. Hasil pemodelan data tanah, menghasilkan 3 lapisan tanah yang berbeda dengan kriteria jenis tanahnya cenderung lunak, dengan nilai N-SPT rata–rata = 11,23. Perhitungan percepatan puncak muka tanah (PGA dan nilai spektrum respon di permukaan tanah menggunakan metoda analisis linier equivalen dengan simulasi Monte Carlo. Program aplikasi SHAKE2000 merupakan alat bantu dalam simulasi, dengan memasukkan beberapa asumsi sebagai data masukan. Data masukan dinamik menggunakan sumber gempabumi Elcentro dan Mexico yang mempunyai kandungan frekuensi berbeda. Asumsi nilai percepatan puncak batuan dasar (PBA untuk kedua sumber gempabumi tersebut sebesar 0,18 g. Hasil analisis menunjukkan nilai spektrum respon dan percepatan puncak muka tanah sangat bervariasi. Gempabumi Elcentro menghasilkan nilai rata–rata PGA = 0,36 g dengan spektrum responnya = 1,0 g  pada Tc = 0,6 detik. Untuk gempabumi Mexico menghasilkan nilai rata–rata PGA = 0,30 g dengan spektrum responnya = 0,9 g pada Tc = 0,6 detik. Artinya, variabilitas jenis tanah sangat berpengaruh tehadap variabilitas spektrum respon di permukaan tanah.   One of the office complex located at Jalan Thamrin, Jakarta, was chosen as the location of the reseach. Results of data modeling soil, produces 3 different soil layers with soil type criteria tend to be soft, with a value of N-SPT  average = 11.23. Calculation of peak ground acceleration (PGA and the value of the response spectrum at ground surface using the method of equivalent linear analysis with Monte Carlo simulation. SHAKE2000 application software  is a tool in the simulation, by including some assumptions as input data. Dynamic input data using Elcentro and Mexican  earthquakes  which have different frequency contents. Assumed value of peak base acceleration (PBA for the two earthquakes was 0.18 g. The result of analysis was the value

  20. Pengaruh perlakuan serat tapis kelapa terhadap kekuatan lentur skin komposit sandwich

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    I Made Astika

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Penggunaan serat alam sebagai penguat komposit semakin berkembang. Indonesia sebagai negara beriklim tropis menghasilkan berbagai jenis serat alami seperti rami, abaca, agave, serat sabut kelapa dan serat tapis kelapa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menyelidiki pengaruh perlakuan alkali serat (NaOH 5% terhadap kekuatan lentur komposit sandwich serat tapis kelapa bermatrik polyester dengan core kayu albasia Bahan penelitian adalah serat tapis kelapa dengan panjang 15 mm, resin unsaturated polyester 157 BQTN, kayu albasia dan NaOH. Hardener yang digunakan adalah MEKPO dengan konsentrasi 1%. Serat tapis kelapa yang digunakan terdiri dari serat tanpa perlakuan dan dengan perlakuan alkali 2 jam. Komposit sandwich tersusun atas dua skin dengan core ditengahnya dan dibuat dengan metode cetak tekan hidrolis. Lamina komposit sebagai skin terbuat dari serat tapis kelapa-polyester dengan fraksi volume serat 30%. Spesimen dan prosedur pengujian lentur mengacu pada standar ASTM C 393. Penampang patahan dilakukan foto makro untuk mengidentifikasi pola kegagalannya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan serat yang mendapatkan perlakuan alkali 2 jam NaOH menghasilkan kekuatan lentur yang lebih tinggi. Hal ini disebabkan karena perlakuan alkali pada serat tapis kelapa dapat membersihkan lapisan lilin (lignin dan kotoran pada permukaan serat sehingga menghasilkan mechanical interlocking yang lebih baik antara serat dengan matrik poliester. Dengan ikatan yang lebih baik maka komposit tersebut akan mampu menahan beban lentur yang lebih tinggi. Kata kunci: komposit sandwich, serat tapis kelapa, perlakuan NaOH, kekuatan lentur Abstract The use of natural fibers as reinforcement composites is growing. Indonesia as a tropical country produces various types of natural fibers like coconut filter fiber. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of alkali treatment of the fiber (5% NaOH. The research material is coconut filter fiber, 157 BQTN unsaturated

  1. AKTIVITAS GEL MULUT BERBAHAN AKTIF EKSTRAK DAUN SIRIH HITAM KALIMANTAN SEBAGAI ANTIMIKROBA PENYEBAB RADANG GUSI (Gingivitis DAN GIGI BERLUBANG (Caries

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    Fajar Prasetya

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test the activity of active ingredient mouth gel preparation of kalimantan black piper betle leaf extract with the main base of Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose namely (HEC as a mucoadhesive polymer that is able to increase the attractive forces between the active material with a layer of mucus that will extend the contact time with the active ingredient tissue targets, moreover would be increase the effectiveness of antimicrobial activity causes inflammation of the gums (gingivitis and tooth decay (caries. Activities that have been implemented are mouth gel activity assays with Kalimantan black piper betle leaf extract as in- vitro using the agar diffusion method pitting. In testing with active oral gel preparation of black piper betle leaf extract with the main base of Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose namely (HEC as in vitro, it can be seen that the sample may provide the inhibitory effect of the fungus Candida albicans and the bacterium Streptococcus mutans in the presence of a clear zone indicated on the medium. Furthermore, at this stage of the dilution of the gel in twice causing decline in the effectiveness of the inhibition of both the fungus Candida albicans and the bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The results of in- vitro testing without dilution is 19.8 mm in bacteria Streptococcus mutans and 34.4 mm in the fungus Candida albicans. Keywords: antimicrobial, oral gel, black piper betle, gingivitis , cavities   ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji aktivitas sediaan gel mulut berbahan aktif ekstrak daun sirih hitam Kalimantan dengan basis utama yakni Hydroxy Ethyl Cellulose (HEC sebagai mucoadhesive polymer yang mampu meningkatkan gaya tarik menarik antara bahan aktif dengan lapisan mukus sehingga akan memperpanjang waktu kontak bahan aktif dengan jaringan target, selanjutnya akan meningkatkan efektivitas aktivitas antimikroba penyebab radang gusi (gingivitis dan gigi berlubang (caries. Kegiatan yang telah dilaksanakan adalah

  2. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

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    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-12-01

    15 buah gigi molar tiga yang mengalami karies dengan berbagai tingkat kedalaman karies dan 5 buah gigi molar tiga normal (tidak mengalami karies. Gigi-geligi tersebut dicabut untuk keperluan perawatan ortodontik atau alasan perawatan lainnya. Sebelum didekalsifikasi dengan menggunakan EDTA 10% (pH 7,4, seluruh sampel diamati dengan micro-computed tomography untuk mengetahui kondisi lesi secara tiga dimensi. Spesimen kemudian diproses secara immunohistokimia menggunakan anti-protein gene products (PGP 9,5 yang merupakan penanda spesifik untuk serabut saraf. Hasil: Pada pulpa gigi normal, serabut saraf yang menunjukkan ekspresi PGP 9,5 positif tampak terkonsentrasi di bawah lapisan odontoblast. Distribusi serabut saraf tampak meningkat pada perbatasan dentin-pulpa di bawah lesi karies. Kesimpulan: Densitas serabut saraf pada kamar pulpa meningkat dengan bertambahnya kedalaman karies. Aktivitas dan patogenisitas dari lesi serta kedalaman karies dapat berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran serabut saraf.

  3. KONDISI SIFAT FISIK DAN KIMIA TANAH PADA BEKAS TAMBANG NIKKEL SERTA PENGARUHNYA TERHADAP PERTUMBUHAN TRENGGULI DAN MAHONI

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    Merryana Kiding Allo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities through land clearing, dredging and backfilling will lead to changes in the ecosystem. Land conditions badly damaged among other unproductive, high erosion and loss of top soil layer of soil. The physical properties of the soil pH is acid soil, the texture increased dust causes soil compacted is difficult to be processed and chemical properties of the soil decreased to lower and lower, that it can not support the root system of plants and would affect the plant growth is not normally. The need for nutrients origin of organic fertilizers and inorganic fertilizers combined with the planting hole and alcosorb can spur the growth of trengguli and mahoni that is expected to speed up the recovery process mined lands of nickel. Planting  trengguli and mahogany produced by percentage grew to 95% by using a experiments using completely randomized design (CRD with a combination of the size of the hole, the dosage of fertilizer and alcosorb on trengguli and mahoni plants produce the best height and diameter growth on the kind trengguli obtained from treatment of the planting hole size 0.30 mx 0.40 mx 0.30 m ( A2 15 kg of organic fertilizer (B3 with alcosorb 3 gr and the best diameter growth in mahoni generated by the use of manure dosage of 7.5 kg and 7.5 gr NPK (B2. Kegiatan penambangan secara land clearing, pengerukan dan penimbunan  akan menyebabkan perubahan ekosistem. Kondisi lahan rusak berat antara lain tidak produktif, terjadi erosi berat dan hilangnya lapisan top soil tanah. Sifat fisik fisik pH tanah menjadi masam, tekstur debu meningkat menyebabkan pemadatan tanah sukar diolah dan sifat kimia tanah menurun menjadi makin rendah, sehingga tidak dapat mendukung sistem perakaran tanaman dan akan berdampak pertumbuhan tanaman tidak normal. Kebutuhan akan unsur hara asal pupuk organik maupun pupuk anorganik yang dikombinasikan dengan lubang tanam dan alcosorb dapat memacu pertumbuhan tanaman jenis trengguli dan mahoni yang

  4. Kajian kesesuaian lingkungan untuk pengembangan wisata di Pantai Ganting, Pulau Simeulue, Provinsi Aceh

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    Herdiana Mutmainah

    2016-04-01

    ditetapkan secara purposive random sampling. Kualitas air yang diukur meliputi; pH, suhu, salinitas, kekeruhan, oksigen terlarut, kecerahan, BOD5, bau, lapisan minyak dan sampah. Data tersebut kemudian dipetakan dan dianalisis menggunakan software Ocean Data View (ODV, kemudian dibandingkan dengan baku mutu air laut untuk wisata bahari serta karakteristik pantai untuk indeks kesesuaian kawasan wisata rekreasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas perairan Pantai Ganting sangat sesuai untuk kegiatan rekreasi dan berenang (indeks 77, kategori S1 dan sesuai untuk kegiatan wisata berperahu, banana boat dan jet ski (indeks 16, kategori S2. Kata kunci:kualitas perairan; wisata bahari; Pantai Ganting.

  5. FLEXURAL TESTING OF WOOD-CONCRETE COMPOSITE BEAM MADE FROM KAMPER AND BANGKIRAI WOOD

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    Fengky Satria Yoresta

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Certain wood has a tensile strength that almost equal with steel rebar in reinforced concrete beams. This research aims to understand the capacity and flexural behavior of concrete beams reinforced by wood (wood-concrete composite beam. Two different types of beams based on placement positions of wood layers are proposed in this study. Two kinds of wood used are consisted of Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, meanwhile the concrete mix ratio for all beams is 1 cement : 2 fine aggregates : 3 coarse aggregates. Bending test is conducted by using one-point loading method. The results show that composite beam using Bangkirai wood is stronger than beams using Kamper wood. More thicker wood layer in tensile area will increase the flexural strength of beams. Crack patterns identified could be classified into flexural cracks, shear cracks, and split on wood layer   Beberapa jenis kayu tertentu memiliki kekuatan tarik yang hampir sama dengan tulangan baja pada balok beton bertulang. Penelitian ini bertujuan memahami kapasitas dan perilaku lentur balok beton bertulang yang diperkuat menggunakan kayu (balok komposit beton-kayu. Dua tipe balok yang berbeda berdasarkan posisi penempatan kayu digunakan dalam penelitian ini. Dua jenis kayu yang digunakan adalah kayu Bangkirai (Shorea laevifolia and Kamper (Cinnamomum camphora, sementara itu rasio campuran beton untuk semua balok menggunakan perbandingan 1 semen : 2 agregat halus : 3 agregat kasar. Pengujian lentur dilakukan menggunakan metode one-point loading. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa balok komposit dengan kayu Bangkirai lebih kuat dibandingkan balok dengan kayu Kamper. Semakin tebal lapisan kayu yang berada di daerah tarik akan meningkatkan kekuatan lentur balok. Pola kerusakan yang teridentifikasi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi retak lentur, retak geser, dan pecah pada kayu REFERENCES Boen T. (2010. Retrofitting Simple Buildings Damaged by Earthquakes. World Seismic

  6. Efek Beauveria bassiana pada Anopheles maculatus Fase Aquatik di Laboratorium

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    Bina Ikawati

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBeauveria bassiana can be used both as for controlling agricultural insect and protecting health. Thisstudy aims to examine the effects of aquatic phase of B. bassiana on An. maculatus in the laboratory.Samples were eggs and larvae of An. maculatus reared from Banjarnegara colony. Eggs and instarlarvae II, III and IV and their control which consisted of 10 larvae/eggs were replicated six times andcontacted to B. bassiana spores for 15 minutes and then transferred to aquades to be maintained forobservation, in every 24 hours as long as 192 hours (8 days. Probit analysis found that applicationof B. bassiana caused damage of external coat of eggs and inhibited >60% of unhatched eggs. Lethaldosage was dosage spores of 1,713x107 (16 days, whereas the lethal dose required to make 50% ofunperached eggs is a dose of spore concentration of 1,361x107 (11.6 days. Higher concentrationswill be needed to know the faster effects B bassiana on An. maculatus larvae or eggs.Key words: Beauveria bassiana, Anopheles maculatus, aquatic phase, laboratory AbstrakBeauveria bassiana dapat digunakan baik sebagai pengendali serangga pertanian maupun kesehatan.Penelitian ini bertujuan mengkaji efek B. bassiana terhadap An. maculatus pada fase akuatik dilaboratorium. Sampel uji berupa telur dan larva An. maculatus dari koloni Banjarnegara. Telur danlarva instar II,III dan IV serta kontrol masing-masing sebanyak 10 ekor/butir dengan replikasi 6 kalidikontakkan dengan spora B. bassiana selama 15 menit dan selanjutnya dipindahkan ke aquadesuntuk dipelihara untuk dilakukan pengamatan, pengamatan dengan mikroskop compound terutamapada larva yang lemah/mati setiap 24 jam selama 192 jam (8 hari. Analisis probit membuktikanbahwa aplikasi B. bassiana pada telur menimbulkan efek kerusakan pada lapisan luar telur diketahuidari pengamatan dengan mikroskop serta mampu menghambat >60% telur tidak menetas. Simulasidengan análisis probit menunjukkan lethal dose yang dibutuhkan

  7. INTERPRETASI STRUKTUR BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAERAH MATA AIR PANAS KRAKAL KEBUMEN DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK

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    S Fauziyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energi geothermal merupakan salah satu kekayaan sumber daya alam yang sedang dikembangkan. Salah satu kawasan geothermal tersebut adalah kawasan wisata mata air panas Krakal, Kebumen. Sumber daya alam geothermal tersebut dikembangkan sebagai objek wisata. Dalam pengembangannya, belum ada informasi struktur bawah permukaan daerah wisata tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran struktur bawah permukaan daerah mata air panas Krakal. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode geolistrik konfigurasi schlumberger pada 5 lintasan dengan 3 titik sounding tiap lintasan. Pengolahan data menggunakan software Progress dan Surfer 10.  Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan struktur bawah permukaan tersusun oleh 3 lapisan batuan yaitu batu pasir dengan kisaran nilai resistivitas kurang dari 10 Ωm dan ketebalan hingga 20 meter, batu lempung berpasir  dengan rentang nilai resistivitas 10-50 Ωm dan ketebalan mencapai 20 meter, dan batu lempung gamping dengan kisaran resistivitas 50-65 Ωm dan ketebalan 20 meter. Anomali resistivitas rendah mengindikasikan adanya akuifer air panas dan air dingin yang muncul ke permukaan.  Geothermal energy is one of the wealth of natural resources that are being developed. One such area is the tourist area of geothermal hot springs Krakal, Kebumen. Natural geothermal resources were developed as a tourist attraction. In its development, no information on subsurface structure of the tourist area. This study aims to reveal the subsurface structure of the Hot Springs area Krakal. Data collection was performed by Schlumberger configuration geoelectric method in five 3-point sounding track with each track. Data processing using the software Surfer Progress and 10. The results of the processing of the data showed subsurface structure is composed of 3 layers of rock is sandstone with a range of resistivity values of less than 10 Ωm and a thickness of up to 20 meters, sandy clay stone with a range of values of

  8. Science of the Self as Depicted in the Story of the Snake-Catcher : Rumi's Mathnawī in Context

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    Amir H. Zekrgoo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : The self is always become a central concept in the mysticism tradition, nonetheless for Jalāl al-Dīn Rūmī  (d.1207. Through Mathnawī, Rūmī uses metaphors to presents man’s multi-layered self. He communicates through stories with great potential to be developed into various forms of visual and performing arts. Through his creative imagination, and using elements from Persian mystical literature Rūmī presents his messages in an attractive and tangible form. Adopting metaphors and symbols he pictures various faces of nafs (self relating each face to an individual animal. “The Snake Catcher’s tale” is an excellent artistic display of man’s battle with his animal self. It offers a complex religious subject in an easy-to-digest manner that can be visualized and set into play. Keyword : Rūmī, ‘Ilm al-Nafs (Science of the Self, Mathnawī, snake symbolism, artistic expression Abstrak : Persoalan diri menjadi isu yang sangat sentral dalam tradisi mistisisme, tidak terkecuali bagi Jalaluddin Rūmī (d.1207. Melalui Matsnawī, Rūmī  menggunakan metafora untuk menunjukkan lapisan diri manusia. Ia berkomunikasi melalui kisah-kisah dengan potensi besar untuk dikembangkan menjadi berbagai bentuk seni visual dan pertunjukan. Melalui imajinasi kreatifnya, dan menggunakan unsur-unsur dari literatur mistik Persia, Rūmī menyajikan pesan dalam bentuk yang menarik dan nyata yang dapat diamati dalam kehidupan sehari-hari, bahwa rangkaian simbol-simbol tersebut merepresentasikan diri manusia. Melalui metafora dan simbol, Ia menggambarkan berbagai wajah nafs (diri dan menghubungkan setiap wajah dengan hewan. “Kisah Penangkap Ular” adalah tampilan artistik yang sangat baik mengenai pertempuran manusia dengan diri hewaninya. Ia menawarkan subjek keagamaan yang kompleks yang mudah dicerna dengan cara yang dapat divisualisasikan dan dimainkan. Kata kunci : Rūmī, Ilmu Jiwa, Matsnawī, simbolisme ular, ekspresi artistik

  9. MODEL INKLUSI KEUANGAN PADA UMKM BERBASIS PEDESAAN

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    Setyani Irmawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional economy is supported by micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs. They have important role in promoting economic growth in Indonesia. In Indonesia, there are various types of SMEs that are spreadout throughout the region, one of which is batik SMEs. Klaten regency has the largest number of Batik SMEs in Central Java province. Commonly, the issue of SMEs in general is the problem of capital. To overcome this issue, there is a model named “Financial Inclusion” to encourage the financial system to be accessible by society. The purpose of this study is to identify the application of financial inclusion in rural-based batik SMEs in Klaten regency and analyze its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and obstacles in the implementation of financial inclusion in the SME. Data analysis technique used is descriptive analysis and SWOT analysis. The results revealed that the form of the model of financial inclusion for SMEs Batik in Klaten regency is financial institutions in terms of capital. This is in the form of low interest loans and KUR (Business Credit fo Society. Then, there is a provision of assistance from financial institutions. In terms of marketing, it is necessary for SMEs in having intensive assistance, participating in batik exhibition and advertisement. Having applied this model, it is expected that SMEs Batik Klaten will be well-improved. Perekonomian daerah pada umumnya ditopang oleh Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM. Perannya sangat vital dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi di Indonesia. Di Indonesia terdapat berbagai jenis UMKM yang tersebar diseluruh wilayah, salah satunya adalah UMKM batik. Kabupaten Klaten memiki jumlah UMKM batik terbanyak di provinsi Jawa Tengah. Persoalan UMKM pada umumnya adalah masalah permodalan. Untuk mengatasinya terdapat satu model bernama “Inklusi Keuangan” yang dapat mendorong sistem keuangan agar dapat diakses seluruh lapisan masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  10. Kajian Dampak Lingkungan Global dari Kegiatan Keramba Jaring Apung melalui Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

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    Tri Heru Prihadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan iklim global yang berlangsung saat ini memberikan pengaruh pada berbagai bidang, termasuk perikanan yang menyebabkan terjadinya degradasi lingkungan perairan. Hal ini berdampak pada muncul dan menyebarnya berbagai penyakit ikan, menurunnya laju pertumbuhan organisme perairan, bahkan hingga menimbulkan kematian massal ikan. Namun hal ini belum sepenuhnya dapat diatasi oleh para ilmuwan tanah air, bahkan bisa dikatakan baru sebagian kecil saja. Penerapan Best Management Practice (BMP dengan aplikasi Life Cycle Assessment (LCA akan sangat berarti dalam upaya penerapan perikanan budidaya berkelanjutan, dengan model pengelolaan kuantitatif. Dalam hal ini metode LCA secara kuantitatif merupakan pertama kalinya dilakukan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mengevaluasi kuantitas dan kategori dampak lingkungan akibat kegiatan budidaya keramba jaring apung (KJA melalui LCA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan budidaya di KJA menimbulkan dampak yang signifikan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Dari berbagai faktor yang berperan dalam kegiatan budidaya KJA, pakan ikan merupakan faktor yang paling dominan dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan global (di atas 70%, berupa pemanasan global, penurunan jumlah sumberdaya abiotik, eutrofikasi, penipisan lapisan ozon, toksisitas pada manusia, dan penurunan jumlah keanekaragaman hayati. Dari faktor pakan tersebut, unsur yang paling berpengaruh dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan adalah soybean Brazil dan winter wheat, sehingga perlu dicari alternatif bahan untuk mensubstitusi kedua unsur tersebut. Demikian juga faktor-faktor lainnya (seperti: polystyrene foams, drum plastik, bambu, jaring, besi, skala budidaya, dan lain-lain mempunyai peranan terhadap dampak yang ditimbulkan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Global climate change has been affecting many sectors, including fisheries causing aquatic environment degradation such as fish disease outbreaks, decreasing growth rate of fish

  11. PEMAHAMAN ISLAM MELALUI PENDEKATAN TASAWUF

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    zaki Hidayatulloh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin lama perhatian berbagai lapisan masyarakat terhadap tasawuf semakin berkembang. Tasawuf yang semula merupakan bentuk pemaknaan terhadap hadits Rosulullah SAW tentang “al-Ihsan”, dalam perkembangan selanjutnya mengalami perluasan penafsiran. Dalam era sekarang ini apa yang diperlukan oleh dunia Islam adalah format tasawuf yang konsisten dengan nilai-nilai Islam dan kompatibel terhadap kecenderungan perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat. Apa yang diajarkan oleh tasawuf tidak lain adalah bagaimana menyembah Tuhan dalam suatu kesadaran penuh bahwa kita berada di dekat-Nya, sehingga kita “melihat-Nya” atau bahwa ia senantiasa mengawasi kita dan kita senantiasa berdiri di hadapan-Nya. Namun fenomena keagamaan yang terdapat di masyarakat, tasawuf sering dipahami sebagai praktik zuhud, yaitu sikap hidup asketis Tasawuf adalah upaya melatih jiwa dengan berbagai kegiatan yang dapat membebaskan diri manusia dari pengaruh kehidupan duniawi, berpola hidup sederhana dan rela berkorban demi tujuan-tujuan yang lebih mulia disisi Allah, sehingga menjadikan selalu dekat dengan Allah dan jiwanya bersih bersih serta memancarkan akhlak mulia. Sikap demikian pada akhirnya membawa seorang berjiwa tangguh, memiliki daya tangkap yang kuat dan efektif terhadap berbagai godaan hidup yang menyesalkan. Tasawuf ini muncul karena adanya dekadensi moral yang bermula dari kotoran jiwa manusia yaitu jiwa yang jauh dari bimbingan Tuhan, yang disebabkan ia tidak pernah mencoba mendekatinya. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini tasawuflah yang memiliki potensi dan peranan penting. Dengan demikian pentingnya peranan tasawuf dalam kelangsungan hidup manusia. Maka tidak mengherankan apabila tasawuf akrab dengan masyarakat Islam, setelah masyarakat tersebut membina akidah dan ibadahnya, melalui ilmu tauhid dan fiqih. Dengan demikian terjadilah hubungan 3 serangkai yang amat harmonis yaitu akidah, syari’ah dan akhlak. Berkenaan dengan ini telah bermuncullah para peneliti yang

  12. REKONSTRUKSI BATIMETRI DAN IKLIM PURBA BERDASARKAN FORAMINIFERA DAERAH RALLA BARRU, SULAWESI SELATAN INDONESIA

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    Meutia Farida

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Daerah Ralla terletak di Kabupaten Barru Provinsi Sulawesi Selatan, tersusun atas batuan karbonat dan vulkanik. Salah satu komponen utama penyusun batuan ini adalah kandungan fosil foraminifera baik planktonik maupun bentonik yang jumlahnya melimpah. Penentuan umur dan lingkungan pengendapan purba (paleobathymetry, menggunakan foraminifera sebagai proksi iklim purba (paleoclimate yang baik. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan dengan metode Penampang Stratigrafi Terukur (Measuring Section pada singkapan napal dan batugamping dengan ketebalan mencapai 748,16 sentimeter yang terdiri dari 23 lapisan batuan. Hasil identifikasi dan determinasi fosil foraminifera menunjukkan bahwa pada sampel terdapat 46 spesies bentonik dan 28 spesies planktonik, dengan kisaran umur batuan adalah Eosen Bawah bagian atas (P9 – Eosen Tengah bagian tengah (P11, perubahan batimetri dengan siklus pengendapan inner neritic – upper bathyal - outer neritic. Jumlah spesies yang beragam dan sangat melimpah serta ukuran fosil yang besar menunjukkan nutrisi pada saat itu sangat berlimpah, dengan temperatur 0⁰– 27⁰C sebagai kondisi iklim hangat (warm water. Ralla area is located in Barru District, South Sulawesi Province which consisted of carbonate and volcanic rocks. One of the main components of these rocks is foraminifera fossils, include planktonic and bentonic which founded to be abundance. In determining the age and depositional environment (paleobathymetry, foraminifera fossils could be used as a good paleoclimate proxy. The research was conducted by Stratigraphy Measured (Measuring Section method in marl and limestone outcrop with a thickness of up to 748.16 centimeters which consists of 23 rock layers. Identification and determination of foraminifera fossils suggests that there are 46 bentonic and 28 planktonic species on samples, which are estimated the age of the rocks range from the end of lower Eocene (P9 till the middle of Middle Eocene (P11, bathymetry changes

  13. Perancangan dan Realisasi Web-Based Data Logging System menggunakan ATmega16 melalui Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP

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    RATNA SUSANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP merupakan protokol jaringan pada lapisan aplikasi TCP/IP yang menjadi dasar komunikasi pada World Wide Web (WWW. Penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan web-based data logging system yang bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan aturan HTTP, sehingga perangkat elektronik dapat berkomunikasi dengan website secara langsung. Sistem dirancang dengan dua sub sistem utama yaitu website data logger dan website. Data logger direalisasikan menggunakan ATMega16 yang diintegrasikan dengan sumber data analog dan digital, RTC serta modem GSM. Data logger berfungsi sebagai pengirim data, sedangkan website berfungsi sebagai pengatur, penerima, pengolah dan penyaji data. Sistem ini telah berhasil melakukan komunikasi antara data logger dengan website melalui HTTP, artinya protokol ini dapat diimplementasikan pada data logger yang menggunakan ATmega16. Perubahan data analog dan status logika 0 dan 1 dari data digital yang terjadi pada data logger dapat dilihat pada tampilan di website. Kata kunci:  basis data, data logger, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP, website, protokol jaringan. Abstract Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP is an application layer network protocols in TCP/IP is the basis of communication on the World Wide Web (WWW. This research was to design and realize a web-based data logging system that aims to introduce the rules of HTTP, so that electronic devices could communicate with the website directly. The system was designed with two main sub-system, namely data logger and website. The data logger was realized using ATmega16 are integrated with analog and digital data sources, RTC and a GSM modem. Data logger function as the sender of data, while the website functions as regulator, receiver, processing and presenter data. This system had been successfully perform communication between the data logger to a website via HTTP, meaning that this protocol could be implemented on a data logger that uses ATmega16

  14. Analysing English metaphors of the economic crisis

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    Filippo-Enrico Cardini

    2014-07-01

    quelle proposte in ricerche precedenti. In questo senso sono stati individuati complessivamente quaranta differenti generi di metafora. Parallelamente a questa classificazione teorica è stata anche condotta un’analisi quantitativa dei dati nell’intento di individuare i tipi di espressione metaforica usati più frequentemente. I risultati suggeriscono che la crisi economica finanziaria è prevalentemente pensata come qualcosa di negativo riguardante un essere umano, un oggetto e un movimento. In particolare, la metafora più ricorrente sembra essere quella in cui lo stato di crisi economica viene riportato come un oggetto danneggiato o distrutto. I risultati indicano anche che riviste economiche differenti possono variare sensibilmente nella quantità di linguaggio metaforico utilizzato. Parole chiave: metafora; crisi economica; semantica; pragmatica; stili giornalistici.

  15. Uji Mekanik Plastik Biodegradable dari Pati Sagu dan Grafting Poly(Nipam-Kitosan dengan Penambahan Minyak Kayu Manis (Cinnamomum burmannii Sebagai Antioksidan

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    Isna Safitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nonbiodegradable plastic is packaging that can be decomposed by microorganisms so that a viable alternative to replace conventional plastic packaging that cause problems for the environment. This study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the mechanical test and others consisting of three variables and each variable consists of three  level of concentration. The first variable was additional grafting of Poly (Nipam - chytosan consisting of 5%, 7% and 9%. The second variable was additional glycerols which were 15%, 30%, 45%. The third variable was concentrations of cinnamon oil which were 10%, 15% and 20%. This research produced a thin sheet of plastic, transparant, and elastic and it had a slightly yellowish translucent color. The tensile strength value was about 1.34-2.57MPa, 36.22-66.30% of elongation value, and 22.22% -58.82% of water absorption. Antioxidant test was performed by wrapping an apple with biodegradable plastics containing cinnamon oil. It could inhibit the growth of microorganisms. The apples changed significantly on day 8. In biodegradability test, this plastic was decomposed after buried for 56 days in the soil.ABSTRAKPlastik biodegradable adalah kemasan yang dapat diurai oleh mikroorganisme sehingga menjadi alternatif untuk menggantikan plastik kemasan konvensional yang menimbulkan permasalahan bagi lingkungan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh terhadap uji mekanisnya dan lain-lain yang terdiri atas tiga variabel dan masing-masing variabel terdiri dari tiga taraf kosentrasi. Variabel pertama adalah variasi penambahan grafting Poly(NIPAM-kitosan yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 5%, 7% dan 9%.  Variabel kedua adalah variasi penambahan gliserol yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 15%, 30%, 45% dan variabel ketiga adalah variasi penambahan minyak kayu manis yang terdiri dari kosentrasi 10%, 15% dan 20%. Penelitian ini menghasilkan plastik berupa lembaran tipis, transparan, dan elastis serta memiliki warna bening sedikit

  16. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

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    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  17. Dinamik üretim sistemleri için kanban sayısının belirlenmesi: Bütünleşik bir yöntem

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    Özlem Uzun Araz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tam zamanında üretim sistemleri (TZÜ, işletmelerin doğru zamanda, müşterinin istediği miktarda üretim yapmalarına olanak sağlayan, böylelikle stoklarını azaltmaya teşvik eden bir yönetim felsefesidir. TZÜ felsefesinin en önemli parçası, malzeme hareketlerini gerçekleştirmek için kullanılan kanban sistemleridir. Kanban sistemlerinde, iş istasyonlarında kullanılacak kanban sayılarının belirlenmesi en temel problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Kullanılacak kanban sayıları üretim sisteminin performansı üzerinde etkilidir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, Kanban sistemlerinde, kart sayılarının dinamik belirlenebilmesi için kullanılabilecek bir yöntem geliştirmektir. Önerilen yöntemin temelinde, üretim sisteminin anlık veri alınarak izlenmesi ve sistem durum değişkenlerinde meydana gelen farklılıkların dikkate alınarak Kanban sayılarının yeniden düzenlemesi yatmaktadır. Bu amaçla yapılan çalışmada benzetim, yapay sinir ağları ve Mamdani tipi bulanık çıkarsama sistemleri entegre edilerek bütünleşik bir dinamik kanban sayıları belirleme yöntemi geliştirilmiştir. Önerilen yöntem, benzetim ortamımda modellenen hipotetik bir üretim sistemine uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar, önerilen yöntemin verimliliğini ve etkinliğini göstermiştir.

  18. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (P. pipistrellus and soprano pipistrelle (P. pygmaeus. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (Pipistrellus pygmeaus, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (Pipistrellus pipistrellus e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (P. pipistrellus e pipistrello pigmeo (P. pygmaeus, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  19. Turbo-gas emissions and integrated pollution prevention and control (IPPC); Emissioni da turbogas e prevenzione e limitazione integrata dell'inquinamento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariani, M. [ISPESL/DIPIA, Roma (Italy); Sera, B. [Roccadarce (Italy)

    2005-10-15

    The present paper considers the gas-turbine pollution and joints out that the NO, is the most important pollutant among others pollutants as well as the carbon oxide and the volatile organic compounds because the NO{sub x}, has a high mass production rate (in the combustion chamber), elevated toxicity to the ecosystem and because of being in the atmosphere a precursor of secondary ultrafine particles PM{sub 2,5}. In with reference to the integrated pollution and control (IPPC) the job shows schemes of chain chemical reactions which are on the base of the formation of different types of NO{sub x}, thermal and organic, and it illustrates the influence of some operative parameters on the combustion's efficiency and then on the NO{sub x}, production rate. Also, the study gives the best absolvable techniques (BAT) to reduce the NO{sub x}, production rate and to demolish it before its introduction, as well as gas exhaust, in the atmosphere. At the end, the work shows that the gas-turbine are to consider thermal engines with a little environment impact index specially when they make use of the natural gas, as well as fuel. [Italian] Lo studio considera gli inquinanti emessi dalle turbine a gas ed evidenzia che l'ossido di azoto NO, e quell'inquinante che e degno di attenzione a causa del suo alto tasso di produzione in camera di combustione (notevolmente piu alto di quello dell'ossido di carbonio e dei composti organici volatili), della sua elevata tossicita nei confronti dell'ecosistema e per il fatto di essere in atmosfera un precursore del particolato secondario ultrafino PM{sub 2},{sub 5}. In riferimento. alla prevenzione e limitazione integrata dell'inquinamento lo studio espone gli schemi di reazioni chimiche che sono alla base della formazione dei vari tipi di NO{sub x}, quello termico e quello organico, che si generano in camera di combustione ed inoltre illustra l'influenza di alcuni parametri operativi sull'efficienza del

  20. Cathalitic burners for residential gas appliances; Bruciatori catalitici di gas naturale per apparecchi domestici

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Accornero, R.; Canci, F. [Italgas Spa, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    CO, NO{sub x} e di HC, entro i tipico campo di funzionamento dei bruciatori delle caldaie a gas per impianti di riscaldamento individuale. I positivi risultati ottenuti in laboratorio su un impianto pilota, sono stati in alcuni casi confermati da prove condotte su prototipi di caldaie progettate per la produzione in larga scala. Altri progetti di ricerca, supportati finanziariamente dall'Unione Europea ed a cui partecipano, oltre ai partners summenzionati, altri importanti centri di ricerca appartenenti ad aziende distributrici di gas, ad universita', a costruttori di bruciatori, sono attualmente in corso allo scopo di approfondire lo studio delle caratteristiche e del comportamento di tali tipi di bruciatore.

  1. La bellezza aurea. Risposta cerebrale alle sculture classiche e rinascimentali

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    Cinzia Di Dio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esiste una base biologica oggettiva nell’esperienza del bello nell’arte? Oppure, l’esperienza estetica è interamente soggettiva? Usando la tecnica della risonanza magnetica funzionale, abbiamo affrontato questa domanda presentando a degli osservatori naïve allo studio dell’arte immagini di capolavori di sculture Classiche e Rinascimentali. Utilizzando la proporzione come variabile indipendente, abbiamo creato due gruppi di stimoli: uno composto da immagini di sculture originali; l’altro, da una versione modificata delle stesse immagini. Gli stimoli sono stati presentati in tre condizioni: osservazione, giudizio estetico e giudizio di proporzione. Nella condizione di osservazione, i volontari dovevano osservare le immagini con lo stesso stato mentale che avrebbero avuto se fossero stati in un museo. Nelle altre due condizioni, i volontari dovevano dare un giudizio estetico e di proporzione delle stesse immagini. Sono stati eseguiti due tipi di analisi: uno, che ha contrastato le risposte cerebrali alle sculture canoniche e modificate; ed uno, che messo a contrasto le sculture “esteticamente piacevoli” e quelle “esteticamente non piacevoli”, secondo il giudizio espresso in modo esplicito da ciascun volontario. Il risultato più interessante ha evidenziato, durante l’osservazione delle sculture originali, rispetto a quelle modificate, l’attivazione dell’insula destra e di alcune aree corticali laterali e mediali (il giro occipitale laterale, il precuneo e aree prefrontali. L’attivazione dell’insula era particolarmente evidente durante la condizione di osservazione. Inoltre, si è osservato che, quando i volontari dovevano dare un giudizio estetico esplicito, le immagini giudicate esteticamente piacevoli attivavano selettivamente l’amigdala destra rispetto a quelle giudicate esteticamente non piacevoli. Dati i risultati, abbiamo concluso che, negli osservatori naïve, il senso del bello è mediato da due processi non

  2. ISOLASI ANTIOKSIDAN TUMBUHAN SARANG SEMUT (Myrmecodia pendens Merr & Perry ASAL PAPUA

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    Islamudin Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT   Research about active antioxidant compounds isolated from plants ant nests (Myrmecodia pendens Merr. & Perry from Papua by the method of column chromatography has been done. This study aimed to explore the isolation of the active class of compounds as antioxidants from ant nest plant. Isolates obtained using the method of column chromatography and antioxidant activity of the ant nest plants isolates tested used spraying method with free radical DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl after eluted on thin-layer chromatography. At separation by column chromatography, eluate collected in vials with a volume of 10 ml. Based on the results of fractionation, separation of the components obtained by 74 vials. Identification using TLC by determining the Rf value of each component. The same Rf value is considered as a single fraction. Based on the results obtained seven fractions TLC. Active isolates (F6 obtained by spraying. The results of fraction of spot with DPPH staining showed that the isolates was considered the most active isolates as seen from the formation of a yellow color that is lighter and more dominant than the other fractions, this indicates that the fraction (F6 binds more free radicals (DPPH.   Key words: antioxidant, isolates, Myrmecodia pendens Merr & Perry, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl.   ABSTRAK   Telah dilakukan penelitian isolasi senyawa aktif antioksidan dari tumbuhan sarang semut (Myrmecodia pendens Merr. & Perry asal Papua dengan metode kromatografi kolom. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mencari isolat golongan senyawa yang aktif sebagai antioksidan dari tumbuhan sarang semut. Isolat diperoleh dengan menggunakan metode kromatografi kolom dan aktivitas antioksidan isolate sarang semut diuji menggunakan metode penyemprotan dengan radikal bebas DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl setelah dielusi pada kromatografi lapis tipis. Pada pemisahan dengan kromatografi kolom, eluat ditampung dalam vial dengan volume 10 ml

  3. The Festuco-Brometea Grasslands on Sandstone and Marl-Clay-Sandstone Substrata in Tuscany (Northern-Central Italy

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    Foggi Bruno

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Travišča v katerih prevladujeta vrsti Bromus erectus in/ali Brachypodium rupestre pokrivajo velike površine na podlagi iz peščenjaka in laporasto-glinastega peščenjaka (apnenec je izključen na Apeninih in območju pred njimi med provincama Pistoia in Arezzo (Toskana, srednja Italija. Naša raziskava je bila osredotočena na 71 neobjavljenih in 45 objavljenih vegetacijskih popisov iz Toskane in sosednjih območij. Originalni popisi opisujejo asociacije Astragalo monspessulani-Brometum erecti, Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti in Ononido masquillerii-Brometum erecti. Popise smo obdelali z multivariatno analizo s katero smo zaznali 9 skupin. Konsistenstnost skupin smo preverili s povprečjem NMDS proti Ellenberg/Pignatti indikatorskim vrednostim in CCA proti horotipom in rastnim oblikam. Diagnostične vrste posameznih skupin smo določili z navezanostjo vrst, ki temelji na φ koeficientu asociacije. Z analizo smo podatkovni niz razdelili na dva klastra; prvi (A vključuje nekaj popisov termofilne cenoze z nižje nadmorske višine, ki jih opišemo kot prehod med submediteranskim aspektom razreda Festuco-Brometea in drugih mediteranskih zeliščnih in grmiščnih razredov; drugi klaster (B pa vključuje večino podatkovnega niza in ga lahko členimo na pionirske, mezokserofilne (skupini B1 in B2a in mezofilne združbe (skupina B2b. Popise klastrov B1 in B2a uvrščamo v asociacijo Coronillo minimae-Astragaletum monspessulanii in tri druge skupine: združba Plantago argentea-Carex caryophyllea, združba Tragopogon samaritani-Bromus erectus in Festuco trachyphyllae-Brometum erecti ass. nova. Mezofilna skupina (B2b vključuje popise asociacij Centaureo bracteatae-Brometum erecti in Ononido masquillerii- Brometum erecti, skupaj z delno spremenjeno združbo. Zaradi majhnih razlik v florističnem, ekološkem in horološkem pogledu med temi traviščnimi tipi predlagamo, da jih obravnavamo kot tri subasociacije Centaureo bracteatae

  4. Metil ve Etil Ester Kullanılan Bir Common-Rail Dizel Motorda Performans, Yanma ve Enjeksiyon Karakteristiklerinin Karşılaştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertan ALPTEKİN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Biyodizel, dünyada kullanımı yaygınlaşan yenilebilir ve alternatif bir dizel yakıtıdır. Biyodizel üretiminde kullanılan alkol büyük önem arz etmekte ve üretilen biyodizelin yakıt özelliklerini doğrudan etkilemektedir. Farklı yakıt özellikleri, dizel motorlarda farklı yakıt enjeksiyon ve yanma karakteristiklerine sebep olabilmektedir. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada, metanol ve etanol kullanılarak üretilen iki farklı ester yakıtı ve saf motorin, common-rail yakıt enjeksiyon sistemine sahip bir dizel motorda üç farklı motor yükü (50 Nm, 100 Nm ve 150 Nm ve 2000 dev/dk sabit motor devrinde deney yakıtı olarak kullanılmıştır. Bu yakıtların performans, yanma ve yakıt enjeksiyon analizi karşılaştırmalı olarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deney sonuçlarına göre, etil ve metil ester kullanımıyla özgül yakıt tüketimi (ÖYT motorine kıyasla artış göstermiştir. Etil ve metil ester yakıtlarının silindir içi basıncı ve ısı yayılımı değerleri tüm deney şartlarında motorine kıyasla daha yüksek olmuştur. Yakıt enjeksiyon karakteristikleri, yakıt tipi ve motor yüküne bağlı olarak farklılık göstermiştir.

  5. Halkın Genetiği Değiştirilmiş Ürünlere/Üretilme Süreçlerine Yönelik Algıları ve Etik İnançları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlen Özgen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, halkın genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlere ve üretilme süreçlerine yönelik fayda/risk algıları ile etik inançları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesidir. Araştırma materyalinin toplanmasında karşılıklı görüşme tekniği kullanılmıştır. Likert tipi cümlelere verilen yanıtlar puanlanmış, geçerlik ve güvenirlik analizi yapılmıştır. Yaş değişkenine bağlı farklılığın belirlenebilmesi için t-testi uygulanmıştır. Bireylerin genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlere/üretilme süreçlerine bağlı fayda/risk algıları ile etik inançları arasındaki ilişkinin incelenmesi amacı ile Pearson korelasyon analizi yapılmıştır. Bulgular; tüketicilerin genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlere ilişkin fayda algılarının, genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlere ve üretilme süreçlerine ilişkin risk algılarının, genetiği değiştirilmiş ürünlere ve üretilme süreçlerine ilişkin etik inançlarının yaşa bağlı olarak değiştiğini göstermektedir. Pearson korelasyon analizi sonucunda p<0.001 düzeyinde anlamlı ilişkiler saptanmıştır.

  6. Ekoleksikon Ke-Kaghati-An Bahasa Muna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalasari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explain about ekoleksikon ke-gahtia-an in Muna. The analysis results obtained Ekoleksikon flora based on the data obtained, such as the bhontu’waru'; bhale 'daunpalma’; kolope 'gadung'; nanasi ‘nanas hutan'. Ekoleksikon fauna of retrieved data, like bubu 'kutu'; dumbi 'kecoa'; waea 'kelelawar'; kaghule-ghule 'ulat'. Ekoleksikon nature, such as ghuse 'hujan'; kawea 'angin'; fiu 'berhembus bertiup’; kabhawo 'gunung'; wite 'bumi/tanah'; kalangkari 'jagung musim timur’. Ekoleksikon of trust retrieved data such as kotupa 'ketupat '; ahera 'akhirat'; dupa 'dupa'; dhoa 'doa'; mate 'mati/meninggal'. Lingual units of lexicon ke-kaghati-an Muna focused on forms and categories. The form of a lexicon based on the data obtained, acquired lexicon singular, complex forms (affixation and reduplication and plural. That includes the singular as tapu 'ikat'; bhera 'patah'; Tomba 'keranjang'; pani 'sayap'; alo 'malam'; bhala 'dosa'; simpi 'jepit'; and pughu 'pohon'. While including in the form of the complex is divided into affixation groups such as bhatende 'dianjung', kasaa ‘alat penyeimbang’, fohoro 'terbangkan'; fekalaa 'luruskan/jadikan lurus'; meala 'mengambil'; pokai 'saling kait'; setomba 'satu keranjang'; piki-owa-hi-ghoo 'segera ditambahkan talinya'; kalaghoo 'bawa pergi'; and didiwi 'sayati'. The word group as sala bhate 'salah bentuk’; kawea bunta 'angin di awan' including plural. The Reduplication words Group; such as ule--> kaule-ule 'berputar'; kangia--> ‘ka-kangi-kangia 'berputar terus menerus'. As for the category lexicon ke-kaghati-an the category of nouns, verbs, and adjectives. Categories of nouns such as kalolonda, punda. Categories of verbs like kumbu, pulo, timpu, lepesi. Adjectival category retrieved lexicon lexicon-like malu 'lembek'; ghosa 'keras’; todo 'kencang'; nifi 'tipis'. The phrase falia ke-kaghati-an acquired data such as O falia nelaa kaindereno, nomangkulepaane 'pemali rangka tengahnya diambil dari

  7. Zenginleştirilmiş Ekmeklerde İşleme ve Depolama Sırasında Bazı Vitamin ve Mineral Madde Miktarlarındaki Değişmeler

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    Mehmet Karagül

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada farklı konsantrasyonlarda tiyamin (7.5, 15.0 ve 22.5 mg/kg, riboflavin (7.5, 15.0 ve 22.5 mg/kg, demir (10, 20 ve 30 mg/100 g, magnezyum (50, 75 ve 100 mg/100 ve kalsiyum (200, 300 ve 400 mg/100 g katılanlardan yapılan hamurlarda ve ekmeklerde besin öğelerinin kalma oranı araştırılmıştır. Ekmek pişirmede uygulanan sıcaklık 250 oC ve süre 25 dakikadır. Un tipi ve katkı konsantrasyonu tiyamin, demir ve kalsiyumun ekmekte kalma oranı üzerinde etkili olmuş, riboflavin ve magnezyumu etkilememiştir. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; una kıyasla hamurda kalma oranı demir için %89.75-107.54, magnezyum için %97.69-106.00, kalsiyum için %99.59-123.67, tiyamin için %42.34-99.59 ve riboflavin için %86.49-97.46’dır. Una göre ekmekte (72 saat sonra kalma oranı ise demir için %76.21-81.97, magnezyum için %74.54-90.03, kalsiyum için %77.56-95.16, tiyamin için %27.82-58.75 ve riboflavin için %59.78-83.78’dir. Demir, kalsiyum ve magnezyumun katkı konsantrasyonu arttıkça ekmek hacmi azalmış, ekmek içi ve aroması bozulmuştur.

  8. Konjungtivitis Viral: Diagnosis dan Terapi di Pelayanan Kesehatan Primer

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    Ratna Sitompul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Konjungtiva adalah membran mukosa tipis transparan yang melapisi bagian anterior bola mata dan bagian dalam palpebral. Konjungtiva berfungsi sebagai salah satu komponen sistem perlindungan mata dari peradangan dan infeksi. Peradangan konjungtiva disebut konjungtivitis dan infeksi virus merupakan etiologi peradangan akut tersering pada konjungtiva. Virus yang menyebabkan konjungtivitis adalah adenovirus, herpes simpleks, herpes zoster, pox virus, myxovirus, paramyxovirus, dan arbovirus. Konjungtivitis sering terjadi bersama atau sesudah infeksi saluran napas dan umumnya terdapat riwayat kontak dengan pasien konjungtivitis viral. Gejala konjungtivitis viral berupa mata merah, sekret mata berair dan dapat disertai pembesaran kelenjar limfe. Gejala konjungtivitis viral biasanya ringan, dapat sembuh sendiri dan tidak disertai penurunan tajam penglihatan sehingga dapat ditatalaksana di pelayanan kesehatan primer. Meskipun demikian, terdapat kasus-kasus yang bersifat mengancam penglihatan sehingga perlu segera dirujuk ke rumah sakit atau dokter spesialis mata. Konjungtivitis viral sangat menular sehingga pasien perlu mendapat edukasi untuk mengurangi kontak langsung dan tidak langsung agar tidak menjadi sumber infeksi bagi lingkungannya. Konjungtivitis viral dapat sembuh sendiri, namun pemberian air mata buatan, antihistamin topikal, atau kompres dingin berguna untuk meredakan gejala. Terapi antiviral tidak diperlukan untuk konjungtivitis virus, kecuali untuk konjungtivitis herpetik. Kata kunci: epidemi, konjungtivitis, virus.     Viral Conjunctivitis: Diagnosis and Therapy in Primary Health Care   Abstract Conjunctivae is a transparent thin mucosal membrane covering the outer anterior eye and inner palpebrae. This structure is vital for eye defense from inflammation and infection. Inflammation occurring on the conjunctivae is called conjunctivitis and virus is one of the most common etiologic agent. Such viruses are adenovirus, herpes simplex virus

  9. How many people have been bitten by dogs? A cross-sectional survey of prevalence, incidence and factors associated with dog bites in a UK community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westgarth, Carri; Brooke, Megan; Christley, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Dog bite studies are typically based on hospital records and may be biased towards bites requiring significant medical treatment. This study investigated true dog bite prevalence and incidence at a community-level and victim-related risk factors, in order to inform policy and prevention. A cross-sectional study of a community of 1280 households in Cheshire, UK, surveyed 694 respondents in 385 households. Data included dog ownership and bite history, demographics, health and personality (Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) brief measure). Multivariable logistic regression modelled risk factors for having ever been bitten by a dog, accounting for clustering of individuals within households. A quarter of participants (24.78%, 95% CI 21.72 to 28.13) reported having ever been bitten by a dog during their lifetime, with only a third of bites described requiring further medical treatment and 0.6% hospital admission. Incidence of dog bites was 18.7 (11.0-31.8) per 1000 population per year. Males were 1.81 times more likely to have been bitten in their lifetime than females (95% CI 1.20 to 2.72, P=0.005). Current owners of multiple dogs were 3.3 times more likely (95% CI 1.13 to 9.69, P=0.03) to report having been bitten than people not currently owning a dog. Regarding all bites described, most commonly people were bitten by a dog that they had never met before the incident (54.7%). Individuals scoring higher in emotional stability had a lower risk of having ever been bitten (OR=0.77 for 1 point change in scale between 1 and 7, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.9, P=0.001). This study suggests that the real burden of dog bites is considerably larger than those estimated from hospital records. Further, many bites do not require medical treatment and hospital-based bite data are not representative of bites within the wider population. Victim personality requires further investigation and potential consideration in the design of bite prevention schemes. © Article author(s) (or

  10. Strade, ferrovie e grandi rischi

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    Scira Menoni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo il rapporto tra sistemi di accessibilità (ferroviaria e stradale e grandi rischi viene affrontato da due diverse prospettive. La prima vede tali sistemi come esposti e vulnerabili a diverse forme di pericolosità naturale; la seconda li considera invece quali potenziali fonti di pericolo, indagando in particolare il trasporto di sostanze pericolose. Per quanto riguarda la prima parte dell’articolo, ovvero l’analisi di vulnerabilità delle infrastrutture di trasporto a diversi agenti naturali, verranno esplicitati i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica, sistemica e organizzativa. A sostegno della modellazione proposta, si fa riferimento sia alla letteratura internazionale sia al metodo sviluppato presso il Politecnico di Milano, nei suoi ultimi sviluppi. Interessa infatti presentare un metodo relativamente semplice da utilizzare a scala vasta per poi scendere nel dettaglio necessario laddove le priorità individuata a grande scala ne indichino la necessità. Tra i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica si indicheranno gli elementi maggiormente critici per diversi tipi di sollecitazione (sismica, vulcanica, alluvionale, etc.; per quanto attiene ai fattori di vulnerabilità sistemica si considerano le interdipendenze tra reti e sistemi (inclusi gli altri servizi a rete; per quanto attiene alla vulnerabilità organizzativa si indicheranno le difficoltà nel produrre un sistema integrato di allertamento, che consenta ad esempio di chiudere tratti di strada quando questi vengano segnalati come imminentemente interessati da un dato evento estremo. Infine si indicheranno i danni che il sistema di accessibilità può subire e le ripercussioni di questi sul territorio di interesse. Nella seconda parte viene trattato un particolare tipo di trasporto, quello delle sostanze pericolose, differenziando opportunamente tra ferroviario e stradale. Il ribaltamento del punto di vista comporta la necessità di identificare in modo puntuale i fattori di

  11. Reflections on Lexicographical User Research

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    Sven Tarp

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Abstract: The last decades have seen a growing interest in theoretical and practical problems related to lexicographical user research. Starting with a discussion of the concept of lexicographically relevant user needs, this contribution analyses, utilising the lexicographical function theory, various types of needs to be taken into account when doing this kind of research. It then discusses the positive and negative aspects of the various methods applied, i.e. questionnaires, interviews, observation, protocols, experiments, tests, and log files. With reference to both lexicographical and sociological literature, it raises a number of problems com-mon to most of the lexicographical user research conducted until now and recommends the application of scientific methods in future research. Finally, it proposes a number of alternative methods in order to obtain more knowledge about the real user needs.

    Keywords: LEXICOGRAPHY, FUNCTION THEORY, DICTIONARY USAGE, USER NEEDS, USER TYPOLOGY, USER SITUATIONS, USER RESEARCH, RESEARCH METHODS, QUES-TIONNAIRES, INTERVIEWS, OBSERVATION, EXPERIMENTS, TESTS, LOG FILES

    Opsomming: Gedagtes oor leksikografiese gebruikersnavorsing. Die laaste dekades het 'n groeiende belangstelling in teoretiese en praktiese probleme betreffende leksikogra-fiese gebruikersnavorsing gesien. Deur met 'n bespreking van die konsep van leksikografies ter-saaklike gebruikersbehoeftes te begin, ontleed hierdie bydrae, met gebruikmaking van die leksiko-grafiese funksieteorie, verskillende soorte behoeftes wat in aanmerking geneem moet word wan-neer hierdie soort navorsing gedoen word. Dit bespreek dan die positiewe en negatiewe aspekte van die verskillende metodes wat benut word, d.w.s. vraelyste, onderhoude, waarneming, proto-kolle, eksperimente, toetse, en loglêers. Met verwysing na sowel leksikografiese as sosiologiese literatuur, bring dit 'n aantal probleme ter sprake tipies van die meeste leksikografiese gebruikers

  12. ÇOCUKLARDA ÖLÜM VE YAS ÜZERİNE BİR İNCELEME

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    Emre Ürer

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Yas, kişinin bir yakınının ya da sevdiği bir nesnenin kaybına karşı verdiği tepkilerin bütününü içeren düşünce, duygu ve davranış sürecidir. Çocuklarda yas reaksiyonlarının görülüş şekli yaştan ya da çocuğun bilişsel gelişim kapasitesinden bağımsız düşünülemez. Çocukta zamanla ölüm, kayıp kavramları oturmakta, soyut algı geliştikçe de erişkin tipi yas reaksiyonundan söz edilebilmektedir. Çocuklar ölüm ya da kayıp karşısında çok çeşitli tepkiler verir. Erişkinlerde olduğu gibi çocuklarda da yas sürecini komplike eden faktörler bulunmaktadır. Bu faktörler arasında kişi ya da nesnenin kaybediliş şeklinden, kayıp sonrasındaki psikososyal destek sistemlerinin yeterliliği gibi çok çeşitli nedenler sayılabilir. Hayatta kalan ebeveyn ya da bakım verenin yas sürecini sağlıklı geçirmesi çocuğun yas sürecini de doğrudan etkileyecektir. Yas süreci komplike olduğunda ya da aile içi destek sistemlerinde eksiklikler hissedildiğinde, bu konuda çocuk ruh sağlığı profesyonellerinden destek istenmelidir. Bu yazıda çocuklardaki yas kavramını ve ölüm ya da nesne kaybıyla karşılaşan çocuğa nasıl yaklaşılması gerektiği konusunda bilgiler vermeyi amaçladık.

  13. Detection of Vibrio harveyi using hemolysin primer in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon

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    Irma Suriyani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was aimed to analyze the sensitivity and ability of primer hemolysin in detecting pathogenetic Vibrio on tiger shrimp post-larvae (PL exposed under different exposure times in media inoculated with Vibrio harveyi. The PL of tiger shrimp were infected with 106 cfu/mL of V. harveyi by immersion method for three, six, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. The presence of hemolisin genes was detected by PCR techniques. The electrophoresis detected narrow hemolysin genes after PL were exposed for three and six hours. Clear visible bands of DNA Vibrio were observed for 12 hours of exposure. In contrast, no detected hemolysin gene of Vibrio was observed for PL exposed within 24, 48, and 72 hours. The rapid detection on Vibrio pathogenic for tiger shrimp PL should be conducted within three to 12 hours of exposure. No recommendation in utilizing this rapid detection for tiger shrimp PL exposed beyond 12 hours of V. harveyi. Keywords: specific primer, luminous Vibrio bacteria, pathogenic, PCR method, hemolysin gene  ABSTRAK Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kemampuan atau sensitivitas primer hemolisin dalam mendeteksi Vibrio patogen dengan lama pemaparan berbeda. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan menginfeksikan Vibrio harveyi pada benur udang dengan metode perendaman pada konsentrasi 106 cfu/mL. Pengambilan sampel dilakukan pada waktu tiga, enam, 12, 24, 48, dan 72 jam pascainfeksi. Keberadaan gen hemolisin pada bakteri V. harveyi dideteksi menggunakan teknik polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Hasil elektroforesis memperlihatkan bahwa pada pemaparan tiga dan enam jam keberadaan gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio patogen yang diinfeksikan sudah dapat terdeteksi pada benur walaupun masih terlihat tipis. Pada pemaparan 12 jam terlihat sangat jelas pita-pita DNA dari bakteri patogen. Sedangkan pada pemaparan 24, 48, dan 72 jam sudah tidak terdeteksi lagi gen hemolisin dari bakteri Vibrio. Hal ini diduga disebabkan terjadinya penurunan populasi

  14. Stress indotto dalla guida di autoveicoli: studio di parametri psicofisiologici

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    R. Vivoli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    La guida di un autoveicolo, specie in condizioni di intenso traffico o di cattive condizioni meteoclimatiche, è considerata uno dei principali fattori stressanti della vita odierna. Durante la guida si possono infatti osservare significative risposte simpatoadrenergiche e cardiovascolari con la comparsa anche di episodi coronarici. Tali risposte presentano un’ampia variabilità interindividuale in quanto sono influenzate da vari fattori (stile di vita, personalità etc..

    In questa rassegna, vengono presentati i principali risultati degli studi da noi condotti sulle risposte psicofisiologiche indotte dalla guida di diversi tipi di autoveicoli. In conducenti di autobus urbani è stato registrato un sensibile aumento del tasso urinario di adrenalina durante il turno lavorativo rispetto alla stessa fascia oraria di un giorno di riposo. Tale risposta adrenergica era esaltata dall’abitudine tabagica e dall’assunzione di caffè e bevande alcoliche. In soggetti che alla guida di camion coprono lunghe distanze, i più elevati tassi urinari di catecolamine e i più alti livelli di frequenza cardiaca sono stati registrati quando la guida era particolarmente stressante per la presenza di nebbia o di intenso traffico. In soggetti che partecipano, a livello amatoriale, a manifestazioni agonistiche di velocità su pista, abbiamo osservato che durante la gara, rispetto al periodo pre-gara, l’escrezione urinaria di catecolamine aumenta in misura molto rilevante. Analogamente a quanto osservato in autisti di camion, l’attivazione del sistema adrenergico è risultata direttamente associata ai livelli di ansietà. Dall’elettrocardiogramma dinamico è emerso che durante la gara la frequenza cardiaca raggiunge un valore medio di 163.5±7.4 battiti/min. (range: 146,180 battiti/min..

    Un significativo peggioramento della percezione visiva stereoscopica, con potenziale ricaduta negativa sulla performance dei guidatori, è stato osservato in

  15. L’“umile Italia” di Guido Ceronetti: alcune considerazioni sui paesaggi visibili ed invisibili di Un viaggio in Italia / Guido Ceronetti's "Humilis Italia": Remarks on the Visible and Invisible Landscapes in Un viaggio in Italia (A Journey in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Bedin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In epoca contemporanea il tema del “viaggio in Italia”, meta irrinunciabile del Grand Tour settecentesco, viene usato come espediente per sottolineare la decadenza della bellezza dell’Italia provocata dalla progressiva industrializzazione. In questo articolo, partendo dall’analisi di due tipologie contemporanee di racconto di viaggio, il collezionismo erudito e il metaviaggio, si intende mostrare le caratteristiche principali di Un viaggio in Italia di Guido Ceronetti. Mescolando elementi di queste due categorie odeporiche, lo scrittore si ripromette nel suo diario di viaggio di trasmettere un’immagine generale di un’Italia non più “umile”e destinata a perdere la propria bellezza. Quello che ne risulta è un complesso resoconto che riporta alla memoria le ricchezze del patrimonio italiano e rispecchia lo squallore della speculazione edilizia del secondo dopoguerra. Sul suolo italiano sono presenti due tipi di paesaggi, quelli visibili, che appaiono spesso avvolti dal grigiore tipico della modernità, e quelli invisibili, che, invece, sono suggeriti e ispirati dalla letteratura. Un viaggio in Italia è, quindi, un taccuino in cui l’autore annota quello che lo ferisce nell’Italia della contemporaneità.   In the contemporary era the theme of the “Travel in Italy”, a pivotal aspect of the the Grand Tour, is used as a expedient to emphasize the decline of Italy's beauty and its decline because of the progressive industrialization. This paper starts with an analysis of two contemporary typologies of travel book – the erudite collection and meta-travel – and intends to explore the main features of Un viaggio in Italia by Guido Ceronetti. In his travel diary the Italian writer – mixing elements of erudite collection and meta-travel – wants to show an general picture of the no more “umile Italia” that loses its beauty. The result of this travel book is a complex report that illustrates the lost richness of the

  16. Italiano per Cinesi – Didael. Corso di lingua italiana online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Bosc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Per gli apprendenti sinofoni la lingua italiana, con la sua complessità e fragilità morfologica, rappresenta  un ostacolo notevole. Il corso  pone attenzione alla lontananza tipologica delle due lingue con schede grammaticali in cinese e, soprattutto, i livelli A1 e A2 hanno una progressione molto controllata per fissare le basi della lingua italiana. Sono disponibili un Glossario, tre diversi tipi di dizionario (il dizionario automatico, il dizionario, visuale e il dizionario fraseologico e approfondimenti culturali. Si tratta di un corso completo che consente di sviluppare le competenze previste  dal Quadro Comune Europeo; il modello formativo è flessible e prevede varie opzioni di erogazione.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} For Chinese speakers Italian, in all its complexity and morphological fragility, represents a great obstacle.  This course takes into careful account the distance between the two language types, with grammar fact cards in Chinese and, above all, progression at levels A1 and A2 which is very carefully controlled in order to establish the bases of the Italian language.  A Glossary, three different types of dictionary (an automatic dictionary, a visual dictionary and a dictionary of phrases

  17. Decision making information systems and data base management; Applicazioni dei sistemi di supporto alle decisioni manageriali in un ente fortemente decentrato. Sviluppo di un prototipo per la valutazione di nuovi progetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minelle, F [Rome, Univ. ` La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R A [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica; Belli, A

    1997-01-01

    In these years Information Technology has been used in activities that require an intelligent intervention. In this context take placing Decision Support Systems, since they use Information Technology to support users in decision processes, that is problems of logical level greater then problems normally treated by traditional information systems. The purpose of this work is to describe Decision Support Systems specifying what they are, their functionally and structure, identifying, furthermore, user types referred to and interaction modality between them; and to present a prototype of these systems. From a preliminary analyses phase of ENEA being and its Information Systems to understand which topics can be supported by systems of this type, it deals with one of these topics: weighing of new project, finding parameters, or key quantity, that affect and determine decisions. It describes, then, models, conceived form parameters, that permit to the user, through a simple representation of results, to evaluates advantages and disadvantages of a new project. From models, analyses of data necessary to models and from requisites of simplicity and use fullness of user interface, it has been carried out a prototype. For this purpose it has been followed the Sprague and Carlson model that provides a data base, a Model Base and a Software System. [Italiano] In questi anni si sta assistendo ad un utilizzo dell`informatica in attivita` che richiedono un intervento `intelligente`. In tale contesto si collocano i Sistemi di Supporto alle Decisioni, poiche` utilizzano le tecnologie informatiche per supportare l`utente in processi decisionali, quindi problemi di livello logico piu` elevato di quelli trattati dai tradizionali sistemi informativi. Il presente lavoro ha lo scopo di descrivere i Sistemi di Supporto alle Decisioni specificando cosa sono, le loro funzionalita` e la loro struttura, individuando, inoltre, i tipi di utenti a cui sono rivolti e le modalita` di interazione

  18. Keberlanjutan dan Perubahan Pakarena Paolle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifie Febryanti Sukman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kehadiran Tarian Paolle dalam masyarakat Bantaeng merupakan latar belakangkebiasaan yang mengikuti tradisi leluhur mereka yang dilakukan sejak zaman dahulumelalui upacara adat yang memiliki Paolle Dance di dalamnya. Perubahan dari segibentuk Tarian Paolle terletak pada seorang penari, tempat, dan kostum. Para penariPaolle hari ini juga berbeda dari penari pertama pada zaman Kerajaan Paolle. Sepertipada hari-hari tertentu, para penari Raya Paolle adalah gadis remaja yang masihdalam keadaan suci atau tidak menstruasi, di saat para penari menjadi orang tua,mereka memiliki banyak pengalaman hidup dalam menari, sebuah praktik yangpada awalnya merupakan milik kerajaan, yang dapat dipilih dan dilihat oleh publikdi lapangan. Kostum atau pakaian yang digunakan para penari adalah irisan hitambodo yang sangat tipis dan sekarang hal itu berubah menjadi merah. KeberlanjutanTarian Paolle di masa sekarang harus dilihat dalam pernikahan atau baby shower.Masyarakat Bantaeng masih menunjukkan tarian ini dalam siklus hidup, misalnya,dalam acara pernikahan, sunat atau hanya berfungsi sebagai hiburan Tarian Paolle. Continuities and Changes of Pakarena Paolle. The background presence of PaolleDance in Bantaeng societies is a habit that follows the customs of their ancestors whohave practiced them since the time immemorial through the traditional ceremony that hasPaolle Dance in it. Changes in terms of the shape of Paolle Dance depend on a dancer,a venue, and costumes. Today’s Paolle Dancers are also different from the first dancers inKingdom era of Paolle. On the days of the Kingdom Paolle, dancers were teenage girls whowere still in a state of purity or not menstruation, but now dancers are the parents becausethey have a lot of life experiences in dancing, a practice that was originally familiarizedin the kingdom can be seen by the public in the field. Costume outfit that used a very thinblack wedge of bodo now turns into red. Paolle Dance sustainability in the

  19. Pengaruh Pemberian Vitamin A terhadap Penurunan Parasitemia Mencit Strain Swiss yang diinfeksi Plasmodium berghei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Isnaeni

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A merupakan vitamin yang berperan sebagai imunostimulan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui apakah pemberian vitamin A dapat menurunkan parasitemia Plasmodium berghei pada mencit strain Swiss. Penelitian ini menggunakan 24 ekor mencit strain Swiss jantan berumur 6-8 minggu dengan berat badan 20-30 gram/ekor. Penelitian dilaksanakan secara eksperimental dengan menggunakan time series design. Dalam penelitian ini dilakukan perlakuan berupa pemberian vitamin A dengan 3 variasi dosis yaitu 0 IU/g BB, 35 IU/g BB dan 70 IU/g BB serta kelompok kontrol negatif dengan masing- masing kelompok terdiri dari 6 ekor mencit. Vitamin A diberikan 1 jam sebelum penginfeksian dan mencit dirawat sampai mencit pada kelompok kontrol negatif mati. Sediaan apus darah tipis dibuat 2 hari sekali dan parasitemia dihitung dengan pengecatan Giemsa. Data parasitemia dianalisis dengan ANOVA.Untuk hasil yang signifikan maka dilanjutkan dengan uji lanjut Post hoc pada taraf kesalahan 1%. Hasil uji ANOVA untuk kelompok perlakuan B, C dan D diperoleh nilai p <0,001 pada masing-masing kelompok perlakuan. Hal tersebut menyatakan bahwa adanya perbedaan yang signifikan pada perlakuan yang diberikan. Begitu juga untuk uji lanjut Post hoc yang telah dilakukan diperoleh nilai p < 0,001. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa pemberian vitamin A berpengaruh terhadap penurunan parasitemia Plasmodium berghei pada mencit strain Swiss.Vitamin A is a vitamin that acts as an immunostimulant. This research aims to determine whether the administration of vitamin A can reduce parasitaemia of Plasmodium berghei in Switzerland strain mice. This research used 24 mice Switzerland strain mice 6-8 weeks old weighing 20-30 grams/tail. Research conducted experimentally by using time series design. In this research, the provision of vitamin A treatment with 3 doses of variation is 0 IU/g BW, 35 IU/g BW and 70 IU/g BW as well as the negative control group, with each group consisting of 6 mice. Vitamin A

  20. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dewi Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa kimia yang diisolasi dari fraksi n-butanol ekstrak metanol herba lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. Ekstrak metanol diperoleh secara maserasi dan difraksinasi berturut-turut denganpetroleum eter, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi n­-butanol difraksinasidengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dihasilkan fraksi A, B, C, dan D. Fraksi B dimurnikan dengan kromatografi lapis tipis preparatif pada silika geldihasilkan isolat B1. Isolat B1 berupa padatan tidak berwarna danberfluoresensi putih di bawah lampu UV 366 nm. Panjang gelombang maksimum pada spektra UV  isolat B1 adalah 225 nm dan 272.5 nm yang menunjukkan adanya ikatan rangkap tak terkonjugasi. Spektra IR isolat B1 menunjukkan adanya gugus C=C, –OH, C=O lakton, –CO, C–H ulur, dan C–H tekuk. Spektra 1H-NMR isolat B1 menunjukkan sinyal proton pada ikatan rangkap, proton –OH, proton pada –CH2 yang terikat atom oksigen, serta proton gugus metil –CH3. Berdasarkan data spektra UV, IR, dan 1H-NMR maka isolat B1 disarankan sebagai turunan senyawa triterpenoid hopan-lakton. Kata kunci : diplazium esculentum Swartz, fraksi n-butanol, triterpenoid hopan-lakton  Abstract The research  aims to identify chemical compounds isolated fromn-butanol fraction methanol extract of lampasau herbs (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. The methanol extract was obtained by maceration and fractioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. N-butanol fraction was fractionated using column chromatography on silica gel produced fractions A, B, C, and D. Fraction B was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel produced isolate B1. Isolate B1was colorless solid and has white fluorescent under UV lamp 366 nm. The maximum wavelength on UV spectra of B1 are 225 nm and 272,5 nm indicates the unconjugated double bond. IR spectra of B1 showed the vibration of C=C, –OH, C=O lactone, –CO, C

  1. Uji Unjuk Kerja dan Durability 5000 Km Mobil Bensin 1497 Cc Berbahan Bakar Campuran Bensin-Bioetanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasca Hariyadi Winanda

    2017-01-01

    visualisasi ruang bakar pemakaian bahan bakar E5, E10 dan E15 menghasilkan pengotoran relatif lebih tipis dibandingkan bahan bakar premium. Secara akeseluruhan penambahan bioetanol sampai 15% tidak mengalami perubahan pada kondisi operasional mesin.

  2. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study with Spanish Accounting Terms Ekwivalent-seleksie in gespesialiseerde e-leksikografie: 'n Gevallestudie met Spaanse rekeningkundige terme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Interest in specialized lexicography has been propelled both by the development of LSP communication in academic circles and by the consolidation of function-based approaches to lexicography that have identified the existence of several user types, e.g., experts, semi-experts and interested laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group, accountants and financial experts (secondary user group, as well as students of accountancy and translation, journalists, and interested laypersons (tertiary user group. It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions taken by elaborating on three lexicographical principles that take into consideration the nature of lexicography, the technical options the Internet offers, and the defining characteristics of specialized discourse: relevance, proscription and recreation.

    Belangstelling in gespesialiseerde leksikografie is aangevuur deur sowel die ontwikkeling van TSD-kommunikasie in akademiese kringe as die konsolidasie van funksie-gebaseerde benaderings tot leksikografie. Laasgenoemde benadering het die bestaan van verskeie gebruikerstipes, bv. kundiges, semi-kundiges en geïnteresseerde leke, en gebruiksituasies, tipies kognitief-georiënteerde en kommunikatief-goriënteerde situasies, geïdentifiseer (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. Hierdie artikel volg hierdie ontwikkelings na en wei uit oor die seleksie van Spaanse ekwivalente in 'n spesifieke woordeboekprojek: die Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, 'n

  3. İnşaat Projelerinin Ağ Diyagramlarıyla Planlanmasında Süre-Maliyet Değişimlerinin Yeni İşgücü Eklenmesi Orijininde Analizi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Onur UĞUR

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Düzce ili TOKİ Toplu Konut Projesi’nde 8 adet B tipi bloğundan oluşan kompleksin inşaat maliyeti; CPM ile hazırlanan iş programları, iş gücü, ilgili yıl enflasyon ve faiz değerleri esas alınarak proje süresinin değişimi halinde maliyetlerin alacağı değerler bazında incelenmiştir. İşin sözleşmesinde belirtilen sürede (16 ay tamamlanması durumundaki iş gücü maliyeti, aylık gelir-giderler, enflasyon ve faiz değerleri hesaplanmıştır. İşin tamamlanma süresinin 12 aya, 10 aya, 8 aya, ve 6 aya çekilmesi halinde proje maliyeti değerlerinin; iş gücü maiyetleri, aylık gelir-giderler, enflasyon ve faiz değişimi durumuna göre aldığı değerler irdelenmiştir. Bunun için her süre kısaltması haline karşılık gelen iş programları düzenlenmiş, artış gerektiren iş gücü maliyetleri hesaplanarak ilgili diyagramlar çizilmiş ve süre-maliyet karşılaştırmaları yapılmıştır. Bir projenin yatırım planlaması yapılırken; farklı koşullara göre farklı planlamaların yapılması ve her planlamanın zaman, kaynak ve maliyet analizlerinin yapılarak en rasyonel olanın tercih edilmesinin; edinilen bulguların da desteği ile makro ve mikro ölçeklerde en uygun yol olacağı fikri pekiştirilmiştir

  4. Campuran kitosan dengan resin akrilik sebagai bahan gigi tiruan penghambat Candida albicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismiyati

    2018-04-01

    tiruan penghambat Candida albicans. Spesimen penelitian berbentuk cakram berdiameter 10 mm dan tebal 2 mm dibuat dari resin akrilik kuring panas (QC 20 dicampur dengan kitosan dari cangkang udang yang ditambahkan asam akrilat dalam pelarut aseton. Spesimen dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok. Kelompok 1 terdiri dari resin akrilik tanpa kitosan sebagai kontrol, sedangkan kelompok 2, 3, dan 4 terdiri dari campuran resin akrilik dengan kitosan 5 ml pada konsentrasi 0,5%, 1%, dan 2%, secara berurutan. Hasil campuran resin akrilik dengan kitosan dianalisis dengan menggunakan Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, dan digital mikroskop optik. Efek antijamur diuji dengan menggunakan metode dilusi. Data yang didapat dianalisis statistik dengan Kruskal Wallis. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa campuran resin akrilik dengan kitosan signifikan menghambat pertumbuhan Candida albicans. Berdasarkan hasil yang diperoleh, dapat disimpulkan bahwa campuran resin akrilik dan kitosan dapat bersifat fungistatik, sehingga dapat dikembangkan sebagai bahan gigi tiruan antijamur.

  5. An integrated strategy for improving contrast, durability, and portability of a Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Jenna; Asma, Betsy; Asiedu, Mercy; Krieger, Marlee S.; Chitalia, Rhea; Dahl, Denali; Taylor, Peyton; Schmitt, John W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2018-01-01

    Introduction We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector) to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare), increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget. In addition, anti-fogging and waterproofing features were incorporated to prevent the Pocket Colposcope from fogging in the vaginal canal and to enable rapid disinfection by submersion in chemical agents. Methods Cross-polarization (Generation 3 Pocket Colposcope) and a new reflector design (Generation 4 Pocket Colposcope) were used to reduce glare and improve contrast. The reflector design (including the angle and height of the reflector sidewalls) was optimized through ray-tracing simulations. Both systems were characterized with a series of bench tests to assess specular reflection, beam pattern uniformity, and image contrast. A pilot clinical study was conducted to compare the Generation 3 and 4 Pocket Colposcopes to a standard-of-care colposcope (Leisegang Optik 2). Specifically, paired images of cervices were collected from the standard-of-care colposcope and either the Generation 3 (n = 24 patients) or the Generation 4 (n = 32 patients) Pocket Colposcopes. The paired images were blinded by device, randomized, and sent to an expert physician who provided a diagnosis for each image. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. The primary outcome measures were the level of agreement (%) and κ (kappa) statistic between the standard-of-care colposcope and each Pocket Colposcope (Generation 3 and Generation 4). Results Both generations of Pocket Colposcope had significantly higher image contrast when compared to

  6. Progressionsmodel: Entreprenørskabs- og innovationsundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Nybye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager afsæt i en forståelse af entreprenørskab, som en praksisform, hvor muligheder og idéer omsættes til enten økonomisk, kulturel eller social værdi. Denne forståelse kædes sammen med behovet for, at elever og studerende lærer at agere i forskellige omverdenssammenhænge og her kan skabe værdi. Artiklen peger på behovet for at kunne operationalisere tilgangen til entreprenørskab i form af eksplicitte undervisningsdimensioner og læringsmål. Artiklen præsenterer således en progressionsforståelse, der giver en teoretisk optik på den sammenhængende udvikling af læringsmål for elever og studerendes entreprenørskabs- og innovationsviden og kompetencer igennem uddannelsesforløbet, og den peger på en forståelse, der indlejrer entreprenørskab i kernefagligheder og i de studerendes deltagelse i erfaringsskabende processer. Artiklen er skrevet med udgangspunkt i Fonden for Entreprenørskab – Young Enterprise, der understøttes af de fire ministerier, der danner det nationale Partnerskab for Uddannelse i Entreprenørskab. Artiklen har i foråret 2013 været i høring hos en række lærere, undervisere og forskere i det danske uddannelsessystem inden offentliggørelsen i sommeren 2013.     This article is based on the premise that entrepreneurship encompasses a combination of business, cultural and social attributes. We use this understanding in a ‘Progression Model’ considering ways in which students may be educated in entrepreneurship, in line with the requirements of the government-backed Danish Foundation for entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise initiative. The aim of the initiative is to teach students how to convert ideas and opportunities into value. The article uses the broad understanding of entrepreneurship outlined above as a conceptual frame to define learning dimensions and outcomes for entrepreneurial knowledge and competences that students may be expected to acquire during their education. It is

  7. An integrated strategy for improving contrast, durability, and portability of a Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening and diagnosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T Lam

    Full Text Available We have previously developed a portable Pocket Colposcope for cervical cancer screening in resource-limited settings. In this manuscript we report two different strategies (cross-polarization and an integrated reflector to improve image contrast levels achieved with the Pocket Colposcope and evaluate the merits of each strategy compared to a standard-of-care digital colposcope. The desired outcomes included reduced specular reflection (glare, increased illumination beam pattern uniformity, and reduced electrical power budget. In addition, anti-fogging and waterproofing features were incorporated to prevent the Pocket Colposcope from fogging in the vaginal canal and to enable rapid disinfection by submersion in chemical agents.Cross-polarization (Generation 3 Pocket Colposcope and a new reflector design (Generation 4 Pocket Colposcope were used to reduce glare and improve contrast. The reflector design (including the angle and height of the reflector sidewalls was optimized through ray-tracing simulations. Both systems were characterized with a series of bench tests to assess specular reflection, beam pattern uniformity, and image contrast. A pilot clinical study was conducted to compare the Generation 3 and 4 Pocket Colposcopes to a standard-of-care colposcope (Leisegang Optik 2. Specifically, paired images of cervices were collected from the standard-of-care colposcope and either the Generation 3 (n = 24 patients or the Generation 4 (n = 32 patients Pocket Colposcopes. The paired images were blinded by device, randomized, and sent to an expert physician who provided a diagnosis for each image. Corresponding pathology was obtained for all image pairs. The primary outcome measures were the level of agreement (% and κ (kappa statistic between the standard-of-care colposcope and each Pocket Colposcope (Generation 3 and Generation 4.Both generations of Pocket Colposcope had significantly higher image contrast when compared to the standard

  8. Customer Showrooming Behavior and the Effect on Salesperson Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabelle Sarah Astari

    2017-09-01

    mendapatkan informasi dan membeli produk-produk tanpa mengunjungi toko secara fisik. Dengan cara ini pelanggan berpotensi untuk melakukan Showrooming. Pada penelitian ini akan diteliti mengenai showrooming di Indonesia  Produk yang akan diteliti adalah kaca mata sebagai objek dan tenaga penjual di optik sebagai subjek penelitian. Dari 178 sample yang dikumpulkan untuk penelitian ini hanya 154 yang dapat digunakan, data Primar diambil dari tenaga penjual di toko kaca mata di Jakarta. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa Perceived Showrooming Behavior memiliki pengruh positif dan signifikan, terhadap self efficacy dan Kinerja tenaga penjual. Dan juga Self Efficacy  memiliki pengaruh signifikan dan positif  terhadap Kinerja tenaga penjual  Toko Kacamata, sementara itu Coping dan Cross Selling Strategies memiliki pengaruh yang moderat positif namun tidak berpengaruh signifikan. Hasilnya menunjukan bahwa tenaga penjual tidak menanggapi secara negatif terhadap showrooming yang dilakukan oleh Pelanggan antara lain seperti perbndingan harga, window shooping, informasi produk, ketersediaan barang, berbelanja online didepan tenaga penjual, Tenaga penjual tetap optimis dan percaya diri ketika kedatangan pelanggan karena mereka telah di latih umtuk berorientasi terhadap pelanggan ketersediaanya dukungan dari Supervisi dan percaya bahwa pelanggan akan bertransaksi pada toko fisik apabila mereka menjelaskan dengan baik terhadap produk yang di jual.

  9. Bağlam temelli öğrenme ile lise fizik derslerinde kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konular [Daily life subjects that can be used with context based learning in high school physics lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali ÇETİN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı bağlam temelli öğrenme sırasında kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konuların belirlenmesi, bu konuların sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırmasının yapılmasıdır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde içerik analizi, yüzde ve frekans analizi gibi betimsel analizler kullanılmıştır. Bilgiler belirli kriterlere göre kategoriler halinde gruplandırılmış ve sayısal, yüzdesel ve oransal olarak görülme sıklığı ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmaya Ankara il sınırları içerisindeki bir okulun 9., 10. ve 11. sınıflarında okuyan 94 öğrenci katılmıştır ve günlük hayata ilişkin fizik konularında ayrı ayrı birer poster hazırlamaları istenmiştir. Toplanan posterler konu başlıklarına, sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırılarak alt kategoriler oluşturulmuştur. Her alt kategoride hazırlanan poster sayıları kullanılarak, öğrencilerin bu alt başlığa olan ilgileri ortaya konmuştur. Başlıklar kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoride fizik dersindeki sekiz konu başlığı (mekanik, elektrik, uçan cisimler, astronomi ve uzay, gökyüzü, modern fizik, optik, dalgalar ortaya çıkmıştır. Sınıf seviyeleri kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoriye göre 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla gökyüzü, 10. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla astronomi ve uzay konularına ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Cinsiyete göre yapılan sınıflandırmada ise 9. sınıflarda sadece erkek öğrencilerin uçan cisimler konusunu seçtiği, mekanik, astronomi ve uzay konularında erkeklerin ilgilerinin kızlara göre daha yüksek olduğu, dalgalar konusunda ise kızların erkeklerden daha çok ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuç kısmında ortaöğretim fizik programı ile öğrencilerin fizik derslerinde görmek istedikleri konuların benzerlik ve farklılıkları karşılaştırılmıştır.

  10. Virtual endoscopy of the upper urinary tract based on contrast material-enhanced MR urography data sets; Virtuelle Endoskopie des oberen Harntraktes auf der Basis kontrastangehobener MR-Urographie Datensaetze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nolte-Ernsting, C.C.A.; Krombach, G.; Staatz, G.; Kilbinger, M.; Adam, G.B.; Guenther, R.W. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik

    1999-06-01

    dienten T{sub 1}-gewichtete 3D Gradienten-Echo-Sequenzen nach intravenoeser Gabe von Gadolinium-DTPA und vorheriger Injektion von niedrigdosiertem Furosemid. Ergebnisse: Die verwendete MR Urographietechnik gewaehrleistete in allen 28 Faellen eine vollstaendige und kraeftige Kontrastierung des Harntraktes. Die 3D Datensaetze ermoeglichten die Rekonstruktion einer VURS selbst bei nichtgestautem Hohlsystem. Zu diesem Zweck waren die MR-urographischen Sequenzen mit der kleinsten Voxelgroesse am besten geeignet. Zudem war die Datenakquisition mittels Atemstillstand der Atemgatingtechnik ueberlegen. Innerhalb des Pyelons liessend sich alle Kelchgruppen durch Schwenken der virtuellen Optik in die entsprechende Richtung einsehen. Auch die Beurteilung der Harnleiterostien innerhalb der Harnblasenwand war mittels VURS moeglich. Alle MR urographisch diagnostizierten Fuellungsdefekte liessen sich mit der VURS von endoluminal her darstellen. Ihre genauere Charakterisierung anhand von Oberflaechenmerkmalen war schwierig. Schlussfolgerung: Die Rekonstruktion einer virtuellen Endoskopie des oberen Harntraktes ist auf der Basis moeglichst hochaufloesender 3D MR-Urographie-Datensaetze gut durchfuehrbar. (orig.)

  11. Progressionsmodel: Entreprenørskabs- og innovationsundervisning

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    Nicolai Nybye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager afsæt i en forståelse af entreprenørskab, som en praksisform, hvor muligheder og idéer omsættes til enten økonomisk, kulturel eller social værdi. Denne forståelse kædes sammen med behovet for, at elever og studerende lærer at agere i forskellige omverdenssammenhænge og her kan skabe værdi. Artiklen peger på behovet for at kunne operationalisere tilgangen til entreprenørskab i form af eksplicitte undervisningsdimensioner og læringsmål. Artiklen præsenterer således en progressionsforståelse, der giver en teoretisk optik på den sammenhængende udvikling af læringsmål for elever og studerendes entreprenørskabs- og innovationsviden og kompetencer igennem uddannelsesforløbet, og den peger på en forståelse, der indlejrer entreprenørskab i kernefagligheder og i de studerendes deltagelse i erfaringsskabende processer. Artiklen er skrevet med udgangspunkt i Fonden for Entreprenørskab – Young Enterprise, der understøttes af de fire ministerier, der danner det nationale Partnerskab for Uddannelse i Entreprenørskab. Artiklen har i foråret 2013 været i høring hos en række lærere, undervisere og forskere i det danske uddannelsessystem inden offentliggørelsen i sommeren 2013.  This article is based on the premise that entrepreneurship encompasses a combination of business, cultural and social attributes. We use this understanding in a ‘Progression Model’ considering ways in which students may be educated in entrepreneurship, in line with the requirements of the government-backed Danish Foundation for entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise initiative. The aim of the initiative is to teach students how to convert ideas and opportunities into value. The article uses the broad understanding of entrepreneurship outlined above as a conceptual frame to define learning dimensions and outcomes for entrepreneurial knowledge and competences that students may be expected to acquire during their education. It is

  12. FORMULASI MIKROEMULSI MINYAK DALAM AIR (O/W YANG STABIL MENGGUNAKAN KOMBINASI TIGA SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DENGAN NILAI HLB RENDAH, TINGGI DAN SEDANG Stable O/W Microemulsion Formulation Using Combination of Three Nonionic Surfactants with Low, High and Med

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    Sih Yuwanti

    2012-05-01

    menghasilkan mik- roemulsi minyak dalam air yang stabil menggunakan kombinasi tiga surfaktan non ionik dengan nilai HLB rendah, tinggi dan sedang; dan mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan nilai HLB sedang dalam formulasi mikroemulsi minyak da- lam air. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang pertama disiapkan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (80 %:10 %:10 % dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan 1:3, 1:3,5 dan 1:4. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang kedua disiap- kan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (90 %:5 %:5 % dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan1:4, 1:4,5 dan 1:5. Uji stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan disimpan pada suhu kamar, dioven 105 0C selama 5 jam dan disentrifuge 2300 g selama 15 menit. Pengamatan stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan mengukur absorbansi mikroemulsi pada λ 502 nm yang dikonversi menjadi persen turbiditas. Untuk mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan HLB sedang maka dibuat mikroemulsi tanpa surfaktan HLB sedang, dan juga dibuat mikroemulsi dengan variasi rasio surfaktan  HLB rendah dan sedang yaitu 1:1, 2:1 dan 1:2. Mikroemulsi paling stabil diperoleh dari formula dengan proporsi VCO:surfaktan:air = 4:20:76 dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Span 40 = 90:3,33:6,67. Pe- nambahan surfaktan HLB sedang pada formulasi mikroemulsi minyak dalam air lebih menstabilkan mikroemulsi yang dihasilkan. Surfaktan HLB sedang menjembatani fase minyak dan air dengan lapisan surfaktan sehingga meningkatkan interaksi surfaktan-air dan surfaktan-minyak, transisi antara fase minyak dan fase air menjadi lebih halus dan mikro- emulsi menjadi lebih stabil.

  13. Perawatan Kandidiasis Pseuodomembran Akut dan Mukositis Oral pada Penderita Kanker Nasofaring yang Menerima Khemoterapi dan Radioterapi

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    S. Supriatno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Terapi radiasi merupakan metode primer perawatan pasien kanker leher dan kepala. Perubahan funsional dan kerusakan jaringan oral menyebabkan timbulnya mukositia oral yang diikuti dengan kandidiasis oral. Tujuan: Melaporkan efek samping perawatan khemoterapi dan radioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring yang terjadi di rongga mulut berupa kandidiasis pseudomembran akut dan mukositis oral serta penatalaksanaannya. Kasus: Seorang laki-laki, 69 tahun, datang ke Bagian Gigi dan Mulut RSUP Dr. Sardjito, atas rujukan dari instalasi Penyakit Dalam., RSUP Dr. Sardjito, dengan keluhan sakit untuk menelan makanan dan mulutnya banyak bercak-bercak putih. Keluhan dirasakan satu minggu setelah dilakukan khemoterapi ke-3 dan radioterapi ke-9. Pasien didiagnosa kanker nasofaring (NPC dengan klasifikasi T2N3M0. Pemeriksaan klinik menunjukkan adanya lapisan putih pada mukosa lidah, pipi, palatum, dan mukosa bibir. Seluruh mukosa mulut berwarna merah tua dan terdapat anguler cheilitis di kedua sudut bibir. Pasien diklasifikasikan menderita mukositis oral derajat 1. Penatalaksanaan: Menghilangkan jaringan nekrotik dan debris dengan berkumur larutan perhidrol 3% dan pemberian medikasi termasuk tablet nistatin 500.000 IU, betadin kumur, dan larutan perhidrol 3% selama 1 minggu. Saat reevaluasi, pasien sudah dapat menelan dan makan yang sedikit keras tanpa ada rasa sakit lagi. Pemeriksaan klinis didapatkan bercak putih di lidah, palatum, pipi dan bibir sudah tidak ada. Warna mukosa oral telah normal, OHI dan kondisi umum baik dalam 1 minggu pasca perawatan. Kesimpulan: Perawatan kandidiasis dan mukositis oral akibat kemoradioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring telah berhasil dan kondisi oral membaik. Pasien dapat mengunyah dan menelan makanan tanpa ada rasa sakit, dan hasil pengobatan yang diberikan pada pasien sesuai dengan harapan operator.   Background: Radiation therapy remains the primary method of treatment for patients with head and neck

  14. PENGGUNAAN SILVER DIAMINA FLUORIDA (SDF 38% SEBAGAI Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT PADA ANAK-ANAK

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    Lendrawati Lendrawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries merupakan masalah kesehatan gigi yang banyak diderita oleh anak-anak seluruh dunia terutama negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Kerusakan gigi pada anak-anak terjadi lebih cepat dibandingkan orang dewasa karena gigi yang baru erupsi masih dalam proses maturasi dan proses mineralisasi belum sempurna. Tubuli dentin anak anak yang masih lebar menyebabkan pembentukan jaringan sklerotik tidak sempurna dan buffer saliva masih kurang sehingga aktivitas proteolitik menjadi lebih banyak di dalam mulut. Fluor merupakan zat mineral yang digunakan sebagai bahan yang efektif mencegah terjadinya karies gigi dapat membuat lapisan email tahan terhadap kerusakan yang disebabkan pelarutan email oleh zat asam. Strategi pencegahan karies lebih efektif sejak diperkenalkannya silver diamina fluoride (SDF yang merupakan cairan tidak berwarna mengandung ion fluoride yang digunakan untuk memacu terjadinya proses remineralisasi hidoksiapatit mineral gigi. Penggunaan SDF ini merupakan metoda Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT. SDF menggabungkan efek penguatan gigi dari natrium fluoride (NaF dan efek nitrat perak.Konsentrasi efektif solusi SDF 38% (44.800 ion fluoride ppm digunakan untuk menghambat perkembangan karies pada gigi sulung anak-anak, terutama anak-anak yang sulit untuk dilakukan perawatan. SDF sederhana, mudah dalam mengaplikasikan dan biaya pemakaian lebih murah. SDF merupakan bahan yang tepat untuk digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah kesehatan gigi masyarakat terutama pada anak-anak.Kata Kunci : karies gigi, silver diamine fluoride, Arresting Caries Treatment, topikalAbstractDental caries is a health problem that affects many children all over the world, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Tooth decay in children occurs more rapidly than adults because the new tooth eruption is still in the process of maturation and mineralization process is not perfect. Dentin tubules of children is still wide lead sclerotic tissue formation

  15. Pulpal inflammation after vital tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide

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    Ardiny Andriani

    2012-06-01

    subjek sehat yang akan melakukan pencabutan gigi untuk perawatan ortodontik. Seluruh subjek telah menandatangani informed consent. Hidrogen peroksida 38% diaplikasikan pada permukaan bukal gigi kelompok perlakuan. Gigi kemudian dicabut 1 jam, 5, 8, dan 15 hari setelah aplikasi H2O2 38%. Seluruh spesimen kemudian ditanam dalam parafin, dipotong secara serial dan diwarnai dengan Hematoxillin Eosin. Pengamatan preparat histologis dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroskop cahaya. Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gangguan pada lapisan odontoblas dan peradangan pada jaringan pulpa di bawah daerah aplikasi H2O2. Jumlah PMN meningkat secara signifikan (p<0,05 1 jam setelah aplikasi H2O2 38% sedangkan jumlah makrofag meningkat secara signifikan 5 hari setelah aplikasi hidrogen peroksida 38%. Infiltrasi PMN dan makrofag paling banyak ditemukan 5 hari setelah aplikasi dan menurun secara bertahap 5 dan 8 hari setelah aplikasi H2O2 38%. Kesimpulan: Aplikasi H2O2 38% sebagai bahan pemutih gigi vital dapat menginduksi inflamasi akut pada pulpa gigi manusia, namun, inflamasi akan mereda 8 hari setelah aplikasi.

  16. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

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    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan hutan tanaman di lahan gambut tidak terlepas dari sorotan isu negatif lingkungan terkait dengan penurunan kedalaman muka air tanah, sehingga terjadi perubahan ekosistem asli. Kegiatan reklamasi lahan untuk HTI Acacia crassicarpa dalam jangka panjang disinyalir akan menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap perubahan karakteristik tanah gambutnya seperti tingkat kematangan dan laju penurunan permukaan tanah gambut (subsiden. Kajian mengenai dampak pembangunan HTI di lahan gambut terhadap tingkat kematangan dan laju subsiden perlu dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai kondisi exsisting daya dukung lahannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tingkat kematangan gambut baik secara vertikal (berdasarkan kedalaman gambut maupun secara horizontal (berdasarkan jarak dari bibir kanal dan mengetahui laju subsiden sebagai dampak dari reklamasi lahan gambut menjadi HTI A. crassicarpa. Penelitian dilakukan di PT AA, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau. Plot penelitian ditempatkan dalam satu transek sepanjang 100 m yang dibuat tegak lurus dengan kanal tersier, terdapat 12 plot dan dalam satu transek terdapat 3 titik pengamatan sehingga total titik pengamatan adalah 36 titik. Parameter yang diamati adalah dinamika kedalaman muka air tanah, nilai kadar serat tanah gambut dan laju subsiden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dampak perubahan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut di lokasi penelitian hanya mempengaruhi tingkat kematangan gambut pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m, sedangkan jarak kanal tersier sebesar 125 m tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap tingkat kematangan gambut. Pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m tingkat kematangan gambut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lapisan di bawahnya. Pembangunan HTI A. crassicarpa di lokasi penelitian menyebabkan laju subsiden sebesar rata-rata 5,5 cm/tahun.  ABSTRACT The establishment of forest on peat areas is insepatable from the glare of the negative environmental issues associated

  17. Pengaruh Asam Kuat, Pengamplasan, Dan Lama Perendaman Terhadap Laju Imbibisi Dan Perkecambahan Biji Aren (Arenga pinnata

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    Marina Silalahi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Biji Arenga pinnata memiliki kulit biji  keras dan berlignin sehingga menghambat masuknya air ke dalam biji. Lapisan lignin pada kulit biji dapat didegradasi melalui reaksi kimia maupun perlakuan fisik. Perendaman biji aren dengan asam kuat (HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl dan pengamplasan akan mempengaruhi laju imbibisi air melewati kulit biji. Variabel bebas dalam penelitian ini adalah konsentrasi asam kuat (HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl, luas pengamplasan, air panas, lama perendaman, sedangkan variabel terikat laju imbibisi pada biji aren. Konsentrasi asam kuat yang digunakan adalah 1M dan 0,5M untuk masing-masing HNO3, H2SO4, dan HCl. Pengamplasan dilakukan di bagian pangkal biji, dan luas pengamplasan bervariasi (tanpa amplas, amplas ½ bagian, dan amplas keseluruhan. Setiap perlakuan direndam selama 18, 24 dan 36 jam. Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik maupun kimia mengalami pengelupasan kulit biji. Laju imbibisi biji pada perendaman 24 jam lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lama perendaman 18 maupun 36 jam. Laju imbibisi tertinggi terjadi pada waktu perendaman 1M HCl dan amplas penuh dengan lama perendaman 24 jam sebesar 0,038 ± 0,002 mL/jam dan 0,038 ± 0,007 mL/jam . Biji aren yang diberi perlakuan fisik dan kimia mulai berkecambah 7 minggu setelah tanam dengan daya kecambah tertinggi pada pemberian HNO3 dan lama perendaman 18 jam.Abstract Arenga pinnata seed has a hard seed coat and lignin that inhibit the absorption of water into the seed. The lignin in the seed coat can be degraded by chemical or physical treatments. Soaking of the palm seeds into strong acids (HNO3, H2SO4, or HCl and sanding may affect the imbibition rate. The research was conducted to investigate the effect of a strong acid, sanding, and soaking time to the imbibition rate of A. pinnata seed. The independent variables in this research are concentration of the strong acids HNO3, H2SO4, and HCl; sanding, and soaking time, while the dependent variable is the rate of imbibition

  18. Pemikiran Filosofis Sadra Dalam Tafsir Al-Qur’an Al-Karim : Surah Al-’A‘la

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    Kerwanto Kerwanto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Dalam tafsir atas Surah al-’A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, melalui karyanya Tafsīr al Qur’ān al-Karīm, mengajak jiwa kita berpetualang menuju lapisan makna terdalam untuk mengenali realitas ketauhidan (al- mabdā’, kenabian (shirāth atau nubuwwah dan kebangkitan (ma‘ād dan mengulasnya secara filosofis. Penelitian ini merupakan suatu upaya untuk menggali manfaat dari aspek-aspek penting dari sumber-sumber keagamaan yang tergali dari petunjuk al Qur’an yang berpadu dengan prinsip- prinsip rasional filosofis dan pengalaman mistik (intuitif Sadra. Setiap bab pada tafsir ini diberikan judul dengan tasbīḥ (pernyataan pemujian dan pensucian, dengan tetap memaparkan beragam pokok persoalan terkait metafisika al-Qur’an. Prinsip-prinsip filosofis yang digunakan dalam risalah tafsir ini bisa menjadi salah satu bukti ketidakberjarakan antara filsafat dengan teks-teks keagamaan. Sadra menggunakan metode tafsir yang tetap menerima sisi lahiriah al-Qur’an, dan selanjutnya mencari misteri-misteri, rahasia-rahasia, dan dengan bantuan intelek (akal, intuisi dan iluminasi Tuhan untuk memperoleh realitas-realitas dan makna- makna dibalik selaput ekternalnya (aspek literalnyaKata kunci : Ḥikmah Muta’āliyah, irfan, al-mabdā’, kebangkitan setelah mati, nubuwwah, takwīl, gerak substansial (ḥarakah jawhariyyah, denotasi utama (al-maqshūd al-ashlī, penyempurnaan diri (takammul, tasbīḥ.  Abstract : In his commentary on Surah al-’ A‘lā, Mulla Sadra, through his Tafsīr al-Qur’ān al-Karīm invites our souls to ventureinto the deepest layers of meaning to recognize the reality of Divinity (al- mabdā’, prophethood (Ṣirāṭ or nubuwwah and resurrection (ma‘ād and discusses it in a more philosophical manner. This study is an attempt to explore the benefits of these important aspects of religious sources unearthed from Qur’anic injunctions combined with rational principles of philosophical and mystical experiences

  19. EKSISTENSI HUKUM PIDANA ADAT DI INDONESIA : Pengkajian Asas, Norma, Teori, Praktik dan Prosedurnya

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    Lilik Mulyadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Eksistensi hukum pidana adat Indonesia dikaji dari perspektif normatif (ius constitutum diatur Pasal 18 B UUD 1945 hasil Amandemen, Pasal 1, Pasal 5 ayat (3 sub b UU Nomor 1 Drt tahun 1951, Pasal 5 ayat (1, Pasal 10 ayat (1 dan Pasal 50 ayat (1 UU Nomor 48 Tahun 2009. Kemudian secara parsial dalam daerah tertentu seperti Aceh Nangroe Darussalam diatur dalam UU Nomor 44 Tahun 1999, UU Nomor 11 Tahun 2006, berikutnya diimplementasikan dalam bentuk Qanunbaik tingkat Propinsi dan Kabupaten. Berikutnya di Bali diatur dan diimplementasikan dalam bentuk Awig-AwigDesa Adat (Pakraman serta dari perspektif ius constituendumdiatur dalam ketentuan Pasal 2 ayat (1, (2 RUU KUHP Tahun 2012. Kemudian tataran asas diatur Kitab Ciwasasanaatau Kitab Purwadhigama, Kitab Gajahmada, Kitab Simbur Cahaya, Kitab Kuntara Raja Niti, Kitab Lontara ‘ade’dan awig-awig. Selain itu, dikaji dari perspektif teori, praktik dan prosedurnya ditemukan dalam bentuk yurispudensi Mahkamah Agung RI seperti Putusan Mahkamah Agung RI Nomor 42 K/Kr/1966 tanggal 8 Januari 1966, Putusan Mahkamah Agung RI Nomor 275 K/Pid/1983 tanggal 29 Desember 1983 serta penjatuhan sanksi adat (obat adat hakikatnya bersifat untuk pemulihan keseimbangan alam magis, pemulihan alam kosmos guna mengembalikan pada keseimbangan yang terganggu agar bersifat religio magis kembali. Kemudian dalam kajian hukum pidana maka eksistensi hukum pidana adat Indonesia berada pada tataran dogmatik hukum, teori hukum dan filsafat hukum. Oleh karena itu hukum pidana adat secara holistik menjiwai seluruh lapisan ilmu hukum dalam praktek hukum sehingga eksistensi dari dimensi ilmu hukum maka hakikatnya hukum pidana adat tidak diragukan kapabilitasnya sebagai karakteristik praktek hukum di Indonesia. Existence of indigenous Indonesian criminal law examined from the perspective of normative (ius constitutum set forth in Article 18 B of the 1945 Amendment, Article 1, Article 5 paragraph (3 sub B Drt Law No. 1 of 1951, Article 5

  20. Tax Law Enforcement Sebagai Upaya Optimalisasi Penerimaan Pajak Negara Ditinjau Melalui Tingkat Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak

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    Catur Martian Fajar

    2016-03-01

    mengalami peningkatan. Selama kurun waktu tersebut, 105 kasus telah dinyatakan lengkap oleh kejaksaan (P-21 dan 85 di antaranya telah divonis di pengadilan dengan total putusan denda pidana berkisar Rp. 4,36 triliun. Pada tahun 2008 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 10.682.099, pada tahun 2009 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 15.911.576, pada tahun 2010 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 19.112.590, pada tahun 2011 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 22.319.073, dan pada tahun 2012 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 24.812.569. Dapat diketahui bahwa jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar pada setiap tahunnya mengalami kenaikan. Selama 4 tahun terakhir (2010-2013 terjadi peningkatan jumlah penyampaian SPT Tahunan PPh walaupun secara persentase rasio kepatuhan terjadi penurunan di tahun 2011 dan 2012 dibandingkan dengan tahun 2010. Realisasi penerimaan pajak masih jauh dari optimal. Dalam hal ini pemerintah perlu melakukan kontrol yang memadai dalam pemerataan terhadap daerah dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat demi meningkatkan dan menggali potensi pajak yang seharusnya masih dapat diterima oleh masyarakat   Kata Kunci :    Tax Law Enforcement, Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak, Penerimaan Pajak

  1. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

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    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  2. Sebaran Horizontal Zat Hara di Perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur (Horizontal Distribution of Nutrients in the Waters Lamalera, East Nusa Tenggara

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    Marojahan Simanjuntak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur merupakan perairan yang sangat penting karena kondisi oseanografinya yang dipengaruhi daratan, Laut Sawu, dan Samudera Hindia sehingga kaya akan sumberdaya laut. Penelitian oseanografi di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur telah dilakukan pada bulan Juli 2011. Tujuan penelitian tersebut untuk mengkaji kualitas air ditinjau dari kandungan zat hara yang merupakan indikator kesuburan perairan serta faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur. Parameter yang diteliti meliputi fosfat, nitrat, dan silikat serta parameter kualitas air yaitu oksigen terlarut, dan keasaman (pH. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah pengambilan air laut dari lapisan permukaan (5 m, termoklin (15-150 m dan dibawah termoklin (100-300 m pada 19 stasiun penelitian. Kadar fosfat, nitrat, dan silikat dianalisis menurut metode Strickland dan Parsons. Kadar oksigen terlarut diukur dengan menggunakan metode Winkler. Derajat keasaman (pH diukur dengan pH meter Cyber Scan 300. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan bahwa kadar zat hara pada umumnya lebih tinggi di sebelah selatan perairan ini. Kadar fosfat berkisar 0,53–5,93 μg A/l; nitrat 0,34–28,31 μg A/l, dan silikat 0,69–44,60 μg A/l. Kadar oksigen terlarut berkisar 2,30–4,90 ml/l, dan nilai pH 7,85–8,21. Parameter yang diteliti di perairan Lamalera, Nusa Tenggara Timur masih baik untuk kehidupan berbagai biota mengacu pada Baku Mutu yang telah ditetapkan oleh Kementerian Negara Lingkungan Hidup (KMNLH. Kata kunci: Kualitas air, fosfat, nitrat, silikat, Perairan Lamalera. Lamalera Waters, East Nusa Tenggara is one of the waters are very important because the condition of the affected land, Sawu Sea, and Indian Ocean, so rich in marine resources. Oceanographic research in the Lamalera Waters, East Nusa Tenggara have been carried out in July 2011. The research objective was to assess water quality in terms of the nutrients content, which is an

  3. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

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    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  4. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

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    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  5. Peran Pencitraan dalam Diagnosis Uveitis

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    Ratna Sitompul

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis merupakan penyakit inflamasi yang dapat melibatkan berbagai bagian mata seperti iris, badansiliar, pars plana, vitreus, koroid dan retina. Penyakit tersebut dapat disebabkan oleh inflamasi lokal di mataatau merupakan bagian dari penyakit inflamasi sistemik akibat autoimun, infeksi dan keganasan. Uveitisdapat menimbulkan gejala nyeri, fotofobia, penurunan tajam penglihatan hingga kebutaan. Oleh karenaitu, diagnosis harus segera ditegakkan agar tata laksana uveitis dapat dilakukan dengan cepat dan tepat.Diagnosis uveitis dapat ditetapkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan mata secara klinis, pemeriksaanlaboratorium dan pemeriksaan penunjang yaitu pencitraan. Slitlamp dan fotografi umum adalah teknikpencitraan sederhana yang dapat membantu menegakkan diagnosis uveitis. Pemeriksaan tersebut dapatdigunakan untuk melihat tanda inflamasi di bagian luar mata hingga ke bilik mata depan. Untuk menilai derajatinflamasi secara kuantitatif dapat digunakan laser flare photometry (LFP dan fotografi fundus berwarna dapatdigunakan untuk melihat bagian posterior bola mata. fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA, indocyaninegreen angiography (ICG, dan fundus autofluorescence (FAF bermanfaat untuk mengevaluasi integritasvaskular retina dan koroid. USG, optical coherence tomography (OCT, dan pencitraan multimodal merupakanteknik pencitraan non-kontak dan non-invasif yang dapat memperlihatkan gambaran retina, koroid, sarafoptik dan lapisan serat saraf retina dengan baik. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI dapat digunakan untukmengevaluasi kondisi inflamasi di mata. Berbagai teknik pencitraan tersebut dapat membantu dokter dalammenegakkan diagnosis uveitis serta memantau perjalanan penyakit dan keberhasilan terapi. Kata kunci: uveitis, slit lamp, fotografi fundus, LFP, FFA, ICG, FAF, USG, OCT, MRI   The Role of Imaging in Uveitis Diagnosis Abstract Uveitis is an inflammatory disease affecting iris, ciliary body, pars plana, vitreous, choroid and retina

  6. PERAN REVEGETASI TERHADAP RESTORASI TANAH PADA LAHAN REHABILITASI TAMBANG BATUBARA DI DAERAH TROPIKA (The Role of Revegetation on the Soil Restoration in Rehabilitation Areas of Tropical Coal Mining

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    Cahyono Agus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pertambangan batubara terbuka menyebabkan degradasi lahan, sehingga perlu upaya rehabilitasi lahan melalui program revegetasi. Penelitian dilakukan di areal PT. Berau Coal  pada site Binungan, Lati dan Sambarata, Kabupaten Berau, Kalimantan Timur, Indonesia. Penelitian menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap ber-blok dengan umur revegetasi sebagai perlakuan, tiga kali ulangan dan tiga site sebagai blok. Pemilihan lokasi menggunakan metode purposif sampling yaitu pengambilan sampel yang didasarkan pada pertimbangan pada umur pengolahan lahan revegetasi, meliputi S1 : area hutan sebelum ditambang (rona awal, S2 : revegetasi awal, umur tanaman  5 tahun. Pengambilan sampel tanah pada  kedalaman 0–20 dan 20-40 cm pada setiap perlakuan di ketiga lokasi, selanjutnya dianalisis sifat fisik dan kimianya. Tanah Typic Hapludult pada lahan hutan sebelum ditambang batubara secara terbuka (S1,  rona awal mempunyai kadar C-organik (1,87 %, N-total (0,14 %, P-tersedia (31,40 ppm, K-tertukar (0,11 me/100g, pH (3,98, KTK (10,72 me/100g dan kejenuhan basa (17 %. Penambangan terbuka batubara telah menyebabkan lapisan bawah dan  permukaan tanah menjadi terbongkar dan terjadi penurunan kualitas tanah yang sangat drastis. Penimbunan lahan dengan media tanah permukaan sebelumnya, telah cukup  mampu memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah tertambang namun belum sesuai sebagai media pertumbuhan, serta sangat rentan terhadap degradasi lahan lebih lanjut. Revegetasi menggunakan tanaman pionir, cepat tumbuh dan adaptif seperti Sengon, Akasia, Sungkai, Melina, Angsana, Jarak serta Legume Cover Crop (LCC pada area bekas tambang  batubara memberikan pengaruh yang  nyata terhadap peningkatan kandungan C-organik, N-total dan  pH tanah. Revegetasi menggunakan spesies cepat tumbuh setelah berumur 5 tahun telah mengembalikan bahkan memperbaiki sifat kimia tanah dibanding dengan kondisi pada hutan tropika basah sebelum dilakukan penambangan terbuka.   ABSTRACT Open coal mining

  7. Pengaruh Lama Perendaman dan Jenis Minuman Beralkohol Bir dan Tuak terhadap Kekerasan Email Gigi Manusia (In Vitro

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    Malida Magista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Erosi gigi merupakan hilangnya lapisan email gigi karena asam. Jenis asam, pH rendah, serta kandungan kalsium, fosfat, dan fluoride pada bir dan tuak diduga merupakan faktor kimiawi penyebab erosi gigi. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pengaruh lama perendaman dan jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro. Penelitian ini menggunakan 14 sampel gigi premolar pertama atas. Setiap gigi dibagi menjadi 2 bagian, bukal dan palatal. kemudian dibagi menjadi 7 kelompok perlakuan, yaitu kelompok (A1 perendaman dalam bir (ringan; (A2 kelompok perendaman dalam bir sedang; kelompok (A3 perendaman dalam bir berat, kelompok (B1: perendaman dalam tuak ringan, (B2: perendaman dalam tuak sedang, (B3: perendaman dalam tuak berat dan kelompok kontrol (C. Uji kekerasan email gigi dilakukan menggunakan Micro Vickers Hardness Tester. Pengujian kekerasan awal email gigi dilakukan sebelum perendaman gigi. Perendaman gigi premolar pertama atas pada bir dan tuak dilakukan selama 10 detik, 50 detik, dan 250 detik perhari dengan penyimpanan subjek penelitian pada saliva buatan. Uji kekerasan akhir email gigi dilakukan setelah perlakuan selama 30 hari. Nilai perubahan kekerasan email gigi merupakan selisih nilai kekerasan akhir dan nilai kekerasan awal email gigi. Sebagai tambahan data, pada bir dan tuak juga diukur kandungan pH, kalsium, dan fosfor. Data dianalisis menggunakan uji ANAVA dua jalur dilanjutkan dengan uji LSD. Hasil analisis ANAVA dua jalur menujukkan bahwa jenis minuman dan lama perendaman berpengaruh bermakna terhadap kekerasan email gigi (p<0,05. Hasil uji LSD menunjukkan adanya perbedaan rerata yang signifikan (p<0,05 antar kelompok uji bir dan tuak. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat pengaruh jenis minuman beralkohol bir dan tuak dan lama perendaman terhadap kekerasan email gigi manusia (in vitro. The Effect Of Contact Time And Alcohol Beverages Beer And Tuak On Human Dental Enamel Hardness (In

  8. Mehmed Enisî Yalkı’nın Alman Ruhu Adlı Seyahatnamesine İmgebilimsel Bir Yaklaşım An Imagologist Approach To Mehmet Enisi Yalkı's Travelbook

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    Yılmaz DAŞCIOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    , Cumhuriyetle birlikte sistematik hale getirilen batı tipi Türk kimliğinin inşasında önemli bir görev üstlendiğini söylemek yanlış olmayacaktır. Bu çalışmada, II. Meşrutiyet’in ilanı ile birlikte büyük bir artış gösteren yurt dışı seyahatnamelerinden birisi imgebilimsel yöntemle incelenmektedir. Meşrutiyet dönemi isimlerinden gazeteci-yazar Mehmed Enisî Yalkı’nın, henüz Latin alfabesine aktarılmayan Alman Ruhu adlı seyahatnamesinde yeni bir ulusun, batı tipi Türk’ün inşası için teklif ettiği Alman/Almanya modeli çeşitli imgeler aracılığıyla çözümlenmektedir. Bütün bir seyahatname boyunca “Alman gibi çalış”, “Alman gibi metin ol”, “Alman gibi ruhunu kuvvetlendir”, “Alman gibi adalete hizmet et” nidalarının bir arka fon olarak çınlaması, Almanya’nın model alınmasının teklif edilmesinin açık işaretleridir. Çalışmanın sonunda, Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e kadar uzanan yeni bir ulusun inşası bunalımını yaşayan Osmanlı aydınının, seyahatnameyi bir edebi tür gibi kullanmaktan çok, toplumu eğitmek, ona yön vermek, ona alternatif yaşam ve kültür sunmak kaygısıyla kaleme aldığı tespit edilmektedir.

  9. Tüketim Dinamikleri Ölçeği: Kurumsal Din Eğitimi Almış Bireylerde Tüketim Eğilimleri

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    Abdullah İnce

    2018-06-01

    tespit etmek ve ne yönde değiştiğini ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla “Tüketim Dinamikleri Ölçeği” (TDÖ geliştirilmiştir. Ölçekler araştırmacıların, bireylerin herhangi bir konu hakkında ne hissettiğini ya da düşündüğünü ölçmeyi hedeflediği durumlarda sıklıkla kullanılır. Sosyal bilimlerde yer alan farklı ölçekler mevcuttur. Thurstone, Likert, Guttman ve Bogardus’un ölçekleri yaygın olarak kullanılan ölçekler arasındadır. Bu çalışmada amaç ve kapsam doğrultusunda Likert tipi ölçek hazırlanmıştır. Çalışmada birinci pilot uygulama sürecinde 5’li Likert tipi ölçek, ikinci pilot uygulama ve veri toplama sürecinde 10’lu Likert tipi ölçek kullanılmıştır. Literatürde bireylerin kurumsal din eğitimi almış tüketim eğilimlerinin altında yatan dinamikleri ortaya çıkarmak için yapılan bir çalışmaya rastlanmamıştır. Çalışmada nicel araştırma yaklaşımı benimsenmiş ve yüz yüze anket tekniğiyle veriler toplanmıştır. Ölçek geliştirme çalışması 2016 yılı Ağustos ayından başlayarak yaklaşık altı aylık bir süre almıştır. Bu kapsamda %3 hata payı ile 516 kişiye ulaşılması yeterlidir ancak 600 kişiye anket uygulanmış, geçersiz anketler araştırma dışında bırakılarak örneklem sayısı 563 olmuştur. Örnekleme dâhil olan bireyler kota örnekleme ile seçilmiştir. Bu çalışmada literatür taraması, uzman görüşüne başvurma, akademisyenlerle yapılan beyin fırtınası ve gözlemlerimiz sonucunda bir ifade havuzu oluşturulmuştur. İlk aşamada 93 maddelik soru havuzu değerlendirme sonrasında 49 maddeye indirilmiş, daha sonra bazı sorular birleştirilmiş ve yakın anlama gelen sorular çıkarılarak soru formu 30 madde ile pilot uygulamaya hazır hale getirilmiştir. Çalışmada iki pilot uygulama gerçekleştirilmesi uygun görülmüştür. Birinci pilot uygulama kapsamında 47 kişiye ulaşılmış ve 30 soruluk 5’li Likert tipi anket

  10. The Contribution of Missionaries to Shona Lexicography*

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    Advice Viriri

    2011-10-01

    Research Institute (ALRI (waarin die ALLEX-projek omskep is. Die sendelingehet verskillende metodes gebruik wat nie net die begin van 'n ekonomies uitbuitende verhoudingtussen "the West and the rest of us" ingelui het nie, maar ook bykomende kulturele gevolge gehadhet (Dathorne 1975: 3. Hul motiewe betreffende die ontwikkeling van Afrikaliteratuur in diealgemeen en Zimbabwiese leksikografiese werk in die besonder was primêr evangeliserend en nieom skeppende skryfwerk te bevorder nie. Dit het veroorsaak dat Vader Hannan probleme ondervindhet nie net by sy vertaling van die Shona Bible nie, maar ook in sy Standard Shona Dictionary.Hannan word gebruik as voorbeeld omdat sy vertaalprobleme tipies was van dié wat alle sendelinge ervaar het. Hannan se woordeboek was 'n welkome nuwe ontwikkeling wat die ortografiegebruik wat in 1931 ingevoer en in 1955 hersien is. Die doel van sy woordeboek was "to recordShona words in Standard Shona spelling" (Hannan 1959: ix. Hannan se woordeboek het 'n aansienlikebydrae gelewer tot die standaardisering van die Sjonaortografie.

    Sleutelwoorde: LEKSIKOGRAFIE, SENDELING, COBUILD, SJONAWOORDEBOEK,EENTALIGE WOORDEBOEK, TWEETALIGE WOORDEBOEK, KULTUUR, VERTALING,STANDAARD ORTOGRAFIE, KOLONIALISME, KULTURELE IMPERIALISME, SJONASPREEKWOORDE,AFRICAN LANGUAGES RESEARCH INSTITUTE (ALRI, INVLOED

  11. Distorsioni strutturali della regolamentazione prudenziale delle banche (Structural distortions in prudential regulation of banks

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    Mario Tonveronachi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A livello nazionale, la regolamentazione finanziaria basata su divieti, cioè la cosiddetta regolamentazione strutturale, veniva accusata di produrre rilevanti distorsioni. Il grado di concorrenza ne risultava limitato, favorendo inefficienze di tutti i tipi; la cultura del rischio ne risultava indebolita; ampi poteri discrezionali erano usati dalle autorità nazionali per distorcere i meccanismi di mercato e la proprietà pubblica distorceva la concorrenza e favoriva pratiche clientelari.Una nuova comune cultura regolamentativa è quindi emersa, basata sulla libera concorrenza interna al settore bancario e per il sistema finanziario nel suo complesso. Essa richiede l’eliminazione di stretti limiti all’operatività bancaria, l’abbandono del principio di specializzazione tra attività di banca commerciale e attività finanziaria non bancaria, l’affermazione della proprietà privata, l’assoggettamento delle banche a una più forte disciplina di mercato, anche con riguardo alla loro corporate governance. Le regole di Basilea producono distorsioni non meno serie di quelle attribuite alla precedente regolamentazione strutturale. La concorrenza eccessiva non è meno dannosa di un basso grado di concorrenza, l’impostazione del level playing field aiuta la grande dimensione e pratiche di too big to fail, i capital crunches producono seri effetti sull’economia, mentre i costi di regolamentazione assorbono importanti quote delle risorse delle banche minori. È materia di ulteriore ricerca verificare se la nuova impostazione di regolamentazione abbia anche favorito un aumento nella quota del reddito nazionale assorbito dal sistema finanziario senza aver prodotto una migliore distribuzione dei rischi e un proporzionale aumento in quella che James Tobin (1984 ha definito efficienza di piena assicurazione.   At the national level, financial regulation based on prohibitions, the so-called structural rules, was accused of producing significant

  12. Distorsioni strutturali della regolamentazione prudenziale delle banche (Structural distortions in prudential regulation of banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A livello nazionale, la regolamentazione finanziaria basata su divieti, cioè la cosiddetta regolamentazione strutturale, veniva accusata di produrre rilevanti distorsioni. Il grado di concorrenza ne risultava limitato, favorendo inefficienze di tutti i tipi; la cultura del rischio ne risultava indebolita; ampi poteri discrezionali erano usati dalle autorità nazionali per distorcere i meccanismi di mercato e la proprietà pubblica distorceva la concorrenza e favoriva pratiche clientelari.Una nuova comune cultura regolamentativa è quindi emersa, basata sulla libera concorrenza interna al settore bancario e per il sistema finanziario nel suo complesso. Essa richiede l’eliminazione di stretti limiti all’operatività bancaria, l’abbandono del principio di specializzazione tra attività di banca commerciale e attività finanziaria non bancaria, l’affermazione della proprietà privata, l’assoggettamento delle banche a una più forte disciplina di mercato, anche con riguardo alla loro corporate governance.Le regole di Basilea producono distorsioni non meno serie di quelle attribuite alla precedente regolamentazione strutturale. La concorrenza eccessiva non è meno dannosa di un basso grado di concorrenza, l’impostazione del level playing field aiuta la grande dimensione e pratiche di too big to fail, i capital crunches producono seri effetti sull’economia, mentre i costi di regolamentazione assorbono importanti quote delle risorse delle banche minori. È materia di ulteriore ricerca verificare se la nuova impostazione di regolamentazione abbia anche favorito un aumento nella quota del reddito nazionale assorbito dal sistema finanziario senza aver prodotto una migliore distribuzione dei rischi e un proporzionale aumento in quella che James Tobin (1984 ha definito efficienza di piena assicurazione. At the national level, financial regulation based on prohibitions, the so-called structural rules, was accused of producing significant

  13. The photoluminescence of the molecule Alq{sub 3} stabilized by phenols; La fotoluminescenza della molecola Alq{sub 3} stabilizzata con i fenoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Montereali, R. M.; Pace, A. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Gagliardi, S. [Enea guest, Rome (Italy); Baldacchini, T. [Boston College, Dept. of Chemistry, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Pode, R. B. [Nagpur University, Dept. of Physics, Nagpur (India)

    2001-07-01

    ben noti dispositivi inorganici semiconduttori LED. Tra questi nuovi composti, un ruolo preminente e' occupato dalla molecola metalchelata Alq{sub 3}, che possiede una efficiente banda di emissione nella regione spettrale del verde ed e' facilmente maneggiabile. Pero' i dispositivi realizzati con questo composto ed altri similari, malgrado le numerose precauzioni adottate, posseggono una emivita (tempo necessario per dimezzare l'intensita' dell'emissione) di circa 5000 h, che e' considerata ancora troppo breve per una loro applicazione pratica pervasiva. In questo lavoro si sono eseguiti alcuni studi di base su semplici per determinare la causa primaria della degradazione della molecola Alq{sub 3} e quindi della sua fotoluminescenza. Essa e' stata attribuita ad un fenomeno di auto-ossidazione al quale partecipa in modo determinante l'ossigeno atmosferico. Sono state fatte delle esperienze per verificare la possibilita' di bloccare in parte questo processo naturale e si e' scoperto che la molecola di BHT agisce come si attendeva. Infatti essa appartiene alla grande famiglia dei composti fenolici, i quali sono ben noti nel mondo della chimica organica per la loro forte azione antiossidante. In conclusione, l'utilizzo del composto BHT e, per estensione, di altri tipi di fenoli ed anche di altri appropriati composti organici, e' efficace nell'aumentare la emivita della fotoluminescenza di film sottili di spessore nanometrico di Alq{sub 3} e quindi anche dei dispositivi OLED realizzati con composti molecolari o polimerici. Questo risultato e' di grande rilievo nel mondo della foto- ed elettroluminescenza sia per i suoi aspetti fondamentali che applicativi.

  14. Comparison between dry deposition fluxes measured with water and solid surfaces, and estimated by an inferential model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, R.; Consuma, A.; Polesello, S.; Tartari, G. [Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Brugherio, MI (Italy)

    2000-08-01

    The quantification of the dry atmospheric input to natural surfaces is currently a complete task. In this study a water surface sampler (Das) was used contemporary to conventional solid surface samplers (wet and dry and bulk) to monitor the dry deposition in a densely inhabited and industrialised area. The dry contribution to the total deposition was 33-56% for sulfate, 11-39% for ammonium and 18-28% for nitrate ion, depending on the measurement technique. Among the three samplers, the Das one was the most efficient to collect sulfate, ammonium and nitrate. The comparison of the seasonal trends showed that the dry collector using a polyethylene surface, collected mainly aerosol particles of ammonium sulfate, while the aqueous surface of Das sampler was able to sample also the gaseous form of the pollutants. Sulfate and nitrate flux values determined from direct measurements were also compared with those obtained by a resistance model. The sulphate measured values fitted quite well with those predicted from the model showing similar seasonal variations. The quantitative differences observed in winter could be due to an increase in the acidity of water, used as collecting medium, which lowered the solubility of gaseous sulphur dioxide. In order to investigate the effect of water acidity on the deposition on a water body, a series of experiments were carried out. [Italian] La quantificazione della deposizione secca costituisce, ancora oggi, un'operazione complessa. Tre tipi di campionatori, rispettivamente con una superficie acquosa (Das) e con superfici solide in polietilene (wet and dry e bulk) sono stati impiegati per misurare la deposizione secca in un'area densamente antropizzata. Il contributo della deposizione secca alla deposizione totale e' risultato compreso tra 33 e 56% per i solfati, tra 11 e 39% per l'ammonio e tra 18 e il 28% per i nitrati, secondo la tecnica di campionamento. Il campionatore Das si e' dimostrato il piu

  15. The Cementation of Boron to Steels by the Method of Electrolytic Deposition; Cementation Electrolytique d'Aciers par le Bore; Tsementirovanie bora v stali putem ehlektroliticheskogo osazhdeniya; Cementacion de Aceros con Boro por Deposito Electrolitico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan)

    1964-06-15

    aceros al carbono, aceros inoxidables, acero de elevado contenido de cromo, etc.; todos ellos dan resultados satisfactorios. (author) [Russian] Privoditsja metod izgotovlenija upravljajushhego sterzhnja s cementirovaniem bora. Jetot process osushhestvljaetsja posredstvom jelektroliza rasplavlennogo tetrabornokislogo natrija pri temperature okolo 900 Degree-Sign S . Obrabatyvaemyj stal'noj sterzhen' sluzhit katodom, v k a chestve anoda ispol'zuetsja grafitovyj jelektrod. V processe jelektroliza bor osazhdaetsja na stal'noj sterzhen' i diffundiruet v sta l'. Pri podhodjashhih uslovijah jelektroliza legko udaetsja poluchit' stal'noj sterzhen', soderzhashhij po 20% bora. Issledovalis' sledujushhie tipy stali: uglerodistaja, nerzhavejushhie, hromistaja i t.d. , vo vseh sluchajah byli polucheny polozhitel'nye rezul'taty. (author)

  16. PENENTUAN FAKTOR DAN TARAF FAKTOR DALAM PENGENDALIAN KUALITAS PRODUKSI BENANG PCM DI PT APAC INTI CORPORA DENGAN METODE DESAIN EKSPERIMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT. APAC Inti Corpora merupakan salah satu perusahaan tekstil yang terbesar di Asia Tenggara dimana salah satu jenis produknya adalah benang PCM yang dihasilkan oleh departemen spinning 4. Permasalahan yang muncul adalah produk akhir yang cacat melebihi target perusahaan sebesar 0,8% dari total produksi, sedangkan perusahaan dituntut untuk menghasilkan produk cacat seminimal mungkin. Masalah ini muncul karena masih banyaknya cacat yang timbul pada benang PCM yang didominan oleh cacat crossing (24,67%,  cacat ring cone (21,98%, cacat tanpa ekor (16,02% dan kontaminasi (12,50%. Penelitian ini dimaksudkan untuk melakukan penilaian terhadap proses yang terjadi dan apabila ternyata memang terjadi proses yang tidak terkendali maka selanjutnya akan dilakukan identifikasi dan analisa faktor-faktor yang mempunyai pengaruh secara signifikan terhadap ttimbulnya cacat crossing pada benang PCM. Metode yang digunakan untuk menilai proses operasi adalah metode pengendalian proses statistik (statistical process control, sedangkan metode yang digunakan untuk menganalisa faktor-faktor yang berpengaruh terhadap timbulnya cacat benang PCM adalah metode desain eksperimen faktorial.  Dari grafik pengendali dan penentuan kemampuan proses dapat diketahui bahwa proses operasi yang terjadi berada di luar kontrol karena menghasilkan cukup banyak produk cacat. Faktor-faktor yang akan diteliti dalam penelitian ini adalah faktor ukuran benang, umur mesin dan kecepatan mesin yang masing-masing faktor terdiri dari 2 taraf faktor. Faktor ukuran benang terdiri dari tipis dan tebal. Faktor umur mesin terdiri dari mesin lama dan mesin baru.Faktor kecepatan mesin terdiri dari 900 MPM dan 1000 MPM. Berdasarkaan perhitungan analisa variansi (ANAVA dan test hipotesa, faktor yang signifikan menyebabkan timbulnya cacat crossing adalah faktor ukuran benang  dan umur mesin.   Kata kunci : cacat crossing, pengendalian kualitas, ANAVA   PT.APAC Inti Corpora is the largest textile

  17. Marmara Bölgesi Islah Zonu’nda (200-600 m kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten. döl denemeleri: 12. yaş sonuçları

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yrd.Doç.Dr. Murat ALAN

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Marmara Bölgesi Islah Zonu’nda seçilen 158 plus ağaç birinci seri ve altı adet tohum bahçesinde bulunan 160 adetklon ikinci seri olacak şekilde gruplandırılmış, toplanan açık tozlaşma ürünü tohumlardan üretilen fidanlarla iki seri kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten. döl denemesi kurulmuştur. Deneme alanlarında 12. arazi yaşına ait boy ve göğüs çapı ölçülmüş, bu değerler kullanılarak genetik parametreler ve Best Linear Unbiased Prediction (BLUP yöntemi ile ailelerin ıslah değerleri tahmin edilmiştir. Birinci seri deneme alanlarının ortak değerlendirilmesinde boy ve çap için bireysel kalıtım derecesi sırasıyla 0,24 ve 0,16; aile ortalamaları kalıtım derecesi ise 0,52 ve 0,55; ikinci seri deneme alanlarında bireysel kalıtım derecesi aynı sırayla 0,29 ve 0,12; aile ortalamaları kalıtım derecesi ise 0,54 ve 0,45 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Boy ve göğüs çapı arasındaki genetik korelasyon birinci seri denemelerde 0,48 ve ikinci seri denemelerde ise 0,50 olarak tahmin edilmiştir. Dördüncü yaştaki boy ile 12. yaştaki boy arasında genetik korelasyon birinci seri denemelerde 0,81 ve ikinci seri denemelerde ise 0,70 bulunmuştur. B tipi genetik korelasyonlar ise birinci ve ikinci seride 0,54 - 1,00 arasında tahmin edilmiş, genotip çevre etkileşimi açısından uygulamayı etkileyecek düzeyde bulunmamıştır. Birinci seri denemelerde plus ağaç seçimleriyle genetik kazanç düşük olurken, İkinci seri denemelerde fenotipik tohum bahçelerinden boy için %4, göğüs çapı için %5 en iyi 30 klonla genetik tohum bahçesi kurulduğunda ise yine aynı sırayla %13 ve %11 genetik kazanç tahmin edilmiştir. Boy ve göğüs çapı için en yüksek ıslah değerine ulaşan 32, 35, 40 ve 188 nolu tohum bahçeleri, ağaçlandırmalarda kullanıldığında daha fazla boy ve çapa ulaşabilen bireyler elde edilebileceği anlaşılmıştır.Anahtar Kelimeler: Kalıtım derecesi, ıslah de

  18. EVALUASI KUALITAS WARNA IKAN KLOWN Amphiprion percula Lacepède 1802 TANGKAPAN ALAM DAN HASIL BUDIDAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarman Sukarman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas warna ikan klown hasil budidaya lebih rendah dibandingkan tangkapan alam, hal ini dipengaruhi oleh berbagai faktor, namun belum ada data ilmiah sebagai dasar untuk melakukan perbaikan. Tujuan penelitian adalah menganalisis dan mengevaluasi kualitas warna ikan klown (Amphiprion percula hasil tangkapan alam dibandingkan dengan hasil budidaya. Kualitas warna diukur pada dua zona: zona-I kulit berwarna oranye antara insang dengan band warna putih pada tengah badan dan zona-II adalah bagian kulit warna oranye antara band putih tengah badan dengan band warna putih pada pangkal ekor, dengan parameter nilai L* (lightness, a* (redness, b* (yellowness, C (chroma, H (Hue. Analisis total karotenoid (TC dilakukan pada kulit kedua zona, sirip pektoral, sirip dorsal, sirip kaudal, dan serum darah. Analisis kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT dilakukan pada kulit dan sirip untuk mengonfirmasi jenis karotenoid dalam kulit dan sirip. Data kualitas warna dianalisis menggunakan t-test, hubungan kualitas warna dengan TC dianalisis dengan regresi sederhana, dan analisis deskriptif untuk hasil KLT. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas warna ikan klown tangkapan alam lebih baik dibanding budidaya, didukung oleh tingginya total karotenoid pada kulit zona-I, kulit zona-II, sirip pektoral, sirip dorsal, sirip kaudal, dan serum darah berturut-turut 51,64; 51,24; 136,40; 124,37; 194,18 mg/kg; dan 2,2 mg/mL; pada ikan hasil budidaya berurut-turut 2,5; 3,5; 8,45; 10,01; 23,43 mg/kg; dan 0,8 mg/mL. Hasil KLT menunjukkan bahwa jenis karotenoid pada kulit dan sirip ikan klown adalah astaxanthin, serta satu jenis karotenoid diduga zeaxanthin. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, maka perlu ditambahkan pigmen karotenoid, dan prekursor pigmen lainnya melalui pakan untuk ikan klown budidaya. The color quality of cultured clownfish is not as good as the wild one. However, it’s influenced by several factors. However, but there is not enough scientific data to be used as the basis

  19. Peracetic acid as disinfectant of municipal wastewaters; L'acido peracetico nella disinfezione dei reflui urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Reparto di Medicina Ambientale, Rome (Italy); Lopez, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Reparto di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Acque, Bari (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    altri settori tra cui quello alimentare, e' dovuto, diversamente da quanto si verifica con l'uso di altri disinfettanti, alla dichiarata assenza di sottoprodotti pericolosi ed al conseguente mancato aumento di tossicita' dei reflui trattati. Tuttavia, nonostante tali premesse, nel settore dei reflui urbani l'impiego dell'acido peracetico stenta ad affermarsi sia per fattori economici che per la prevedibile diffidenza verso un prodotto relativamente nuovo che cosi' <> la limitata conoscenza, specie se comparata con quella relativa al cloro, della sua reale efficacia germicida nei confronti dei diversi tipi di microrganismi patogeni (batteri, virus, parassiti), delle sue proprieta' eco-tossicologiche, delle sue prestazioni come disinfettante in impianti in piena scala. Il presente lavoro oltre a fornire un'ampia raccolta di riferimenti bibliografici, esamina i dati disponibili sul PAA con particolare riferimento: all'efficacia disinfettante nei confronti dei diversi microrganismi patogeni; alla formazione e tossicita' di sottoprodotti di disinfezione; all'impatto ambientale associato allo scarico di reflui trattati con PAA nei corpi idrici; alle condizioni operative adottate in impianti di dimensioni signficative.

  20. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  1. The photoluminescence of the molecule Alq{sub 3} stabilized by phenols; La fotoluminescenza della molecola Alq{sub 3} stabilizzata con i fenoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G; Montereali, R M; Pace, A [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Gagliardi, S [Enea guest, Rome (Italy); Baldacchini, T [Boston College, Dept. of Chemistry, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Pode, R B [Nagpur University, Dept. of Physics, Nagpur (India)

    2001-07-01

    ben noti dispositivi inorganici semiconduttori LED. Tra questi nuovi composti, un ruolo preminente e' occupato dalla molecola metalchelata Alq{sub 3}, che possiede una efficiente banda di emissione nella regione spettrale del verde ed e' facilmente maneggiabile. Pero' i dispositivi realizzati con questo composto ed altri similari, malgrado le numerose precauzioni adottate, posseggono una emivita (tempo necessario per dimezzare l'intensita' dell'emissione) di circa 5000 h, che e' considerata ancora troppo breve per una loro applicazione pratica pervasiva. In questo lavoro si sono eseguiti alcuni studi di base su semplici per determinare la causa primaria della degradazione della molecola Alq{sub 3} e quindi della sua fotoluminescenza. Essa e' stata attribuita ad un fenomeno di auto-ossidazione al quale partecipa in modo determinante l'ossigeno atmosferico. Sono state fatte delle esperienze per verificare la possibilita' di bloccare in parte questo processo naturale e si e' scoperto che la molecola di BHT agisce come si attendeva. Infatti essa appartiene alla grande famiglia dei composti fenolici, i quali sono ben noti nel mondo della chimica organica per la loro forte azione antiossidante. In conclusione, l'utilizzo del composto BHT e, per estensione, di altri tipi di fenoli ed anche di altri appropriati composti organici, e' efficace nell'aumentare la emivita della fotoluminescenza di film sottili di spessore nanometrico di Alq{sub 3} e quindi anche dei dispositivi OLED realizzati con composti molecolari o polimerici. Questo risultato e' di grande rilievo nel mondo della foto- ed elettroluminescenza sia per i suoi aspetti fondamentali che applicativi.

  2. Deteksi Pengimbasan Ketahanan Pisang terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium dengan Asam Fusarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    2015-07-01

    tilosis yaitu pertumbuhan sel dalam jaringan xilem. Pengimbasan ketahanan diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu cara pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan penambahan asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan dapat mengimbas ketahanan bibit pisang terhadap penyakit layu fusarium. Asam salisilat adalah salah satu signal ketahanan yang akan meningkat kandungannya bila terjadi peningkatan ketahanan akibat pengimbasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi hasil pengimbasan ketahanan pisang dengan asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan. Tanaman telah ditanam di lapangan yang terinfeksi berat oleh Foc. Intensitas penyakit di lapang diamati dengan menghitung persentase daun menguning dan atau layu. Intensitas kerusakan akar diamati dengan pembuatan irisan tipis dan pengamatan tilosis dengan cara skoring. Analisis asam salisilat dalam akar dilakukan dengan metode analisis senyawa fenol menggunakan HPLC. Hasil penelitian tanaman dari bibit yang diimbas dengan 1,165 ppm asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan menunjukkan peningkatan ketahanan di lapang. Intensitas tilosis lebih rendah pada tanaman yang diimbas ketahanannya dibandingkan yang tidak diimbas. Asam salisilat dalam tanaman yang diimbas ketahannnya denga asam fusarat 9,32 ppm terdeteksi pada konsentrasi yang sangat rendah yaitu 2 ppb, dengan ketahanan moderat. Pada tanaman hasil pengimbasan yang menunjukkan kriteria tahan asam salisilat tidak terdeteksi, namun terdeteksi tiga puncak senyawa fenol yang belum teridentifikasi. Intensitas tilosis pada tanaman yang diimbas ketahanannya tidak menunjukkan penurunan dibandingkan dengan tanaman yang tidak diperlakukan. Penelitian ini perlu dilanjutkan dengan sampel yang lebih banyak. Identifikasi jenis senyawa fenol perlu dilakukan dalam penelitian lanjutan.

  3. TALYUMUN LUCILIA SERICATA MEIGEN 1826’NIN LARVAL GELİŞIMİ VE PMI TAHMİNİ ÜZERİNE ETKİLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat ALTUNSOY

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Calliphoridae larvalarının adli analizlerle yaşlarının ve larval büyüme oranlarının belirlenmesi adli incelemelerde minimum ölüm zamanının ve ölüm sonrasında geçen sürenin ölüm sonrası zamanın belirlenmesinde kullanışlı delillerdir. Ancak sıcaklık, larvaların beslendiği doku tipi ve dokuların ilaç veya toksinlerle kontamine olması gibi birçok faktör yapışkan sinek larvalarının gelişimini dolayısıyla ölüm sonrası zamanın tahminini etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmada adli açıdan son derece önemli olan yapışkan sinek türü olan Lucilia sericata Meigen 1826’nın toksik ağır metal olan Talyumun farklı konsantrasyonlarındaki (0,12; 0,25; 0,50; 1 and 2 µg/g gelişimi kontrol altındaki laboratuvar koşullarında incelenmiştir. Larvaların boy, ağırlık değişimi ile larval ve pupal ölüm oranları kontrol grubu ile karşılaştırılmıştır. Sonuçlar doğrultusunda, kontrol grubu ile deney gruplarının gelişimleri arasında önemli ölçüde farkların olduğu belirlenmiştir. Kısaca, kontrol grubuna oranla, daha geç deri değiştirdikleri, maksimum uzunluğa daha geç ulaştıkları ve dozaja bağlı olarak oldukça küçük pupa oluşturdukları tespit edilmiştir. Bu sonuçlar, adli çalışmalarda, standart besi ortamında yetiştirilen larval örneklerin gelişim süreleri kullanıldığında, adli araştırmacının dokulardaki kontaminasyonu belirlemesinin önemini vurgulamaktadır.

  4. Novità procedurali riguardanti la Rota Romana: le facoltà speciali

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    Joaquín Llobell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, accettato dal Direttore, riproduce la Relazione al “V Corso di aggiornamento in diritto matrimoniale e processuale canonico” della Facoltà di Diritto Canonico della Pontificia Università della Santa Croce (Roma, 16-20 settembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Corso, per i tipi della Edusc, Roma.SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. La facoltà speciale n. I: «Le sentenze rotali che dichiarano la nullità del matrimonio siano esecutive, senza che occorra una seconda decisione conforme»: 2.1. La prima facoltà speciale vieta l’appello contro la sentenza rotale che dichiara per la prima volta la nullità del matrimonio?; 2.2. Il diritto di appello alla Rota Romana e le fattispecie in cui la Rota può emettere una prima sentenza “pro nullitate matrimonii”; 2.3. Cenni minimi sulle conseguenze della prima facoltà speciale sulla delibazione della prima sentenza a favore della nullità del matrimonio – 3. La facoltà speciale n. II: «Dinanzi alla Rota Romana non è possibile proporre ricorso per la N.C.P. [“nova causae propositio”], dopo che una delle parti ha contratto un nuovo matrimonio canonico» – 4. La facoltà speciale n. III: «Non si dà appello contro le decisioni rotali in materia di nullità di sentenze o di decreti» – 5. La facoltà speciale n. IV: «Il Decano della Rota Romana ha la potestà di dispensare per grave causa dalle Norme Rotali in materia processuale», con particolare riferimento alla modifica dei turni giudicanti per affidare le cause a collegi “videntibus septem iudicibus” – 6. La facoltà speciale n. V: «Siano avvertiti gli Avvocati Rotali circa il grave obbligo di curare con sollecitudine lo svolgimento delle cause loro affidate, sia di fiducia che d’ufficio, così che il processo davanti alla Rota Romana non ecceda la durata di un anno e mezzo» – 7. Brevissime conclusioni – Appendice (Testo delle facoltà speciali della Rota Romana, 11 febbraio 2013

  5. Potensi Seni Pertunjukan Bali Sebagai Penunjang Industri Pariwisata di Kota Mataram, Nusa Tenggara Barat

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    I Gede Yudarta

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilihat dari perspektif  seni dan budaya, Propinsi  Nusa Tenggara  Barat  (NTB} pada  umurnnya memiliki kcragaman  budaya yang sangat  pluralistis,  di samping  scni budaya  yang bcrakar dari tradisi  dan budaya Sasak, terdapat pula seni tradisi yang berakar dari tradisi budaya dari etuik yang lain yang telab menempati wilayab Lombok dan Mataram khususnya  dalam kurun waktu yang cukup lama. Pluralitas  tradisi  budaya tcrscbut apabila dicksplorasi  dan dikcmbangkan  sccara lcbih luas mcrupakan nilai tambab bagi NTB dalam pembangunan  industri kepariwisataan. Dari berbagai bentuk seni tradisi budaya yang ada, seni pertunjukan Bali merupakan salab satu bentuk kesenian yang berkembang  di Kota Mataram dan memiliki potensi yang cukup tinggi jika dilibatkan  dalam industri  pariwisata.  Adanya himbauan untuk lebih menonjolkan  tradisi budaya  asli  masyarakat  Sasak,  ini  menyebabkan  kesenian  Bali  menjadi  terpinggirkan dan  sangat  tipis peluang untuk dapat berpartisipasi secara aktif dalam usaha pengembangan  dunia kepariwisataan di Kola Mataram. Fenomena inilab yang dikaji dalam stodi ini khususnya  yang terkait dengan permasalahan  yang diketengabkan  yaito, peran pemerintab, masyarakat dan komponen pariwisata dalam memanfaatkan  potensi seni pertunjukan  tradisional  dalam industri pariwisata  serta konsepsi bentuk dan struktur  seni pertunjukan tradisional  dalam industri pariwisata di Kota Mataram. Viewed from tbe perspective  of art and cnltore, in general tbe province ofNusa Tenggara Barat (NTB has a very pluralistic  cultoral diversity,  in addition to art and culture tbat are rooted in tradition  and cultore of Sasak, tbere are also art traditions  rooted in the cultoral  traditions  of other ethnic   which   have occupied especially  the territory  of Lombok  and Mataram   in  tbe periods  of long enough  time. The plurality  of cultoral traditions  when explored and

  6. ANALISIS KECEPATAN GELOMBANG GESER (Vs DI CILACAP, JAWA TENGAH SEBAGAI UPAYA MITIGASI BENCANA GEMPABUMI

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    Pupung Susilanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cilacap merupakan daerah yang sering merasakan dampak guncangan gempabumi. Populasi penduduk yang besar dan keberadaan obyek penting pemerintah menjadi suatu pertimbangan diperlukannya kajian efek guncangan gempabumi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memetakan daerah yang memiliki potensi mengalami kerusakan akibat guncangan gempabumi berdasarkan jenis tanah hasil analisis kecepatan gelombang geser (Vs sebagai salah satu upaya mitigasi bencana gempabumi. Nilai Vs didapatkan dari pengukuran Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW pada 14 lokasi dan pengolahan menggunakan perangkat lunak WinMASW untuk mendapatkan profil Vs 1D. Selanjutnya dibuat sayatan selatan – utara dan barat daya–timur laut untuk mendapatkan gambaran Vs secara 2D. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa daerah penelitian memiliki nilai Vs rata-rata (0-30 m antara 153 m/s – 355 m/s. Berdasarkan sayatan 2D tersusun oleh jenis tanah lunak (Vs ≤ 175 m/s, jenis tanah sedang (175 < Vs ≤ 350m/s, dan jenis tanah keras (Vs ≥ 350 m/s, dengan dominasi utama adalah tanah sedang dengan endapan sedimen yang cukup tebal. Hal ini menyebabkan daerah penelitian terutama di bagian selatan, tengah, dan barat berpeluang besar mengalami guncangan yang lebih besar ketika terjadi gempabumi, sehingga berpotensi mengalami kerusakan yang lebih besar. Sedangkan daerah yang relatif aman untuk pengembangan wilayah berada di sisi utara dan timur daerah penelitian karena tersusun atas endapan sedimen tipis dan tanah yang keras.   Cilacap is an area that often suffers earthquake shocks impact. Large population and existence of important government object becomes a consideration for a study related to earthquake shocks effect. This study aims to map areas that have potential damages due to earthquake, based on soil type from shear wave velocity (Vs analysis, as an effort to earthquake disaster mitigation. Vs obtained from Multichannel Analysis of Surface Wave(MASW at 14 locations and processed

  7. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs; Telangiectasia emorragica ereditaria: TC multidetettore multifasica e programmi di ricostruzione nello studio delle alterazioni vascolari epatiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). DiMIMP Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba' , Carlo [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). Centro Interdipartimentale per lo studio dell' HHT

    2005-02-01

    studio multifasico del fegato con TCMD in 105 pazienti con il sospetto clinico della malattia. Il ritardo delle scansioni e' stato determinato con un bolus test di mdc. L'indagine e' stata eseguita con tecnica trifasica (doppia fase arteriosa ed una fase venosa). Le immagini ottenute sono state riprocessate per ottenere ricostruzioni multiplanari di tipo angiografico. Le alterazioni ricercate sono state: presenza di shunts, disordini perfusivi, lesioni vascolari (telangiectasie e larghe masse vascolari confluenti), segni indiretti di ipertensione portale e varianti anatomiche vascolari. Risultati: Sono state trovate alterazioni vascolari epatiche in 78/100 casi (67/89 pazienti affetti da TEE ed in 11/16 pazienti con sospetto clinico). La diagnosi di TEE e' stata esclusa in 5 pazienti. Sessantotto/100 pazienti affetti da TEE presentavano alterazini vascolari intraepatiche: shunts arterioportali in 40/78 (51,2%), shunts arteriosistemici in 16/78 (20,5%) ed entrambi i tipi di shunt in 22/78 (28,3%). In 46/78 (58,9%) pazienti sono stati evidenziati disordini perfusivi intraparenchimali. Sono state trovate telangiectasie in 50/78 (64,1%) pazienti, larghe masse vascolari confluenti (LMVC) in 20/78 (64,1%) pazienti, segni indiretti di ipertensione portale in 46/78 (58,9%) casi e varianti anatomiche della vascolarizzazione arteriosa epatica in 38/100 casi (38%). Conclusioni: La TCDM multifasica ed i nuovi software di ricostruzione consentono il riconoscimento e la caratterizzazione delle complesse alterazioni vascolari epatiche tipiche della TEE.

  8. Isıl İşlem Uygulanmış Et ve Et Ürünlerinde Heterosiklik Aromatik Aminler

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    Fatih Öz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available 1977 yılında Japon bilim adamları, kızartılmış et ve balık ürünlerinden Heterosiklik Aromatik Amin (HAA olarak sınıflandırdıkları yüksek oranda toksik yeni bir grup bilesikler belirlemişlerdir. HAA’ler balık ve et gibi protein bakımından zengin gıdaların 150 °C’nin üzerindeki sıcaklıklarda pişirilmesi esnasında oluşan mutajenik ve/veya kanserojenik bileşiklerdir. Bu bileşikler aminoasitler ve karbonhidratlar ile kreatin veya kreatininin reaksiyon ürünleridir. Bu çalışmada HAA’lerin oluşumu, prekürsörleri, oluşum seviyelerinin azaltılması ve analiz metotları ile ilgili araştırmalar derlenmiştir. Gıda mutajenleri ile karşılaştırıldığında HAA’lerin aflatoksin B1 den 100 kat, benzo[a]pyrene den ise 2000 kat daha fazla mutajenik oldukları belirtilmiştir. Güçlü mutajen olan bu bileşikleri içeren gıdaların birçok ülkede yaygın olarak tüketilmesi ve epidemiyolojik çalışmaların bu tür gıdaları fazlaca tüketen ülkelerde kanser oranının çok daha yüksek olduğunu belirtmesinden dolayı konu dünya çapında büyük öneme sahiptir. Günümüze kadar, gıdalardan ve model sistemlerden 25’i aşkın HAA izole edilmiştir. HAA’ler genelde ısıl işlem uygulanmış et ve et ürünlerinde bulunurlar. HAA’lerin konsantrasyonları ısıl işlem gören ürünün tipi, pişirme sıcaklığı ve süresi,  pişirme ekipman ve metodu, pH ve su aktivitesi gibi fiziksel faktörler ile karbonhidratlar, serbest aminoasitler ve kreatin gibi kimyasal faktörlere bağlıdır. Ayrıca, ısı ve kütle transferi, yağlar, yağ oksidasyonu ve antioksidanların HAA’lerin konsantrasyonuna etki ettiği saptanmıştır.

  9. In vitro effect of Q-switched Nd:YAG laser exposure on morphology, hydroxyapatite composition and microhardness properties of human dentin

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    Retna Apsari

    2011-12-01

    : Mode Q-Switch pada laser Nd:YAG dapat menghasilkan fenomena ablasi pada dentin. Laser Nd:YAG yang digunakan mempunyai panjang gelombang 1064 nm, durasi pulsa 8 ns beroperasi dengan mode TEM00. Sampel dentin yang digunakan tanpa karies dan plak, yang dipapari laser dengan mode Q-switch dalam berbagai variasi dosis energi. Tujuan: Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengamati efek ablasi dentin secara in vitro akibat paparan laser Nd:YAG Q-switch dengan pengamatan morfologi permukaan, komposisi hidroksiapatit, dan uji kekerasan mikro. Metode: Laser Nd:YAG Q-switch dengan frekuensi 10 Hz dan variasi dosis energi 13,9 J/cm2, 21,2 J/cm2 dan 41,7 J/cm2 ditembakkan pada sampel dentin manusia dengan teknik penyinaran bebas tanpa dilewatkan serat optik. Dentin yang terbuka diamati menggunakan x-ray diffraction (XRD dan fluoresence scanning electron microscopy for energy dispersive (FESEM-EDAX. Kekerasan mikro dari dentin juga diamati menggunakan microhardness vickers test (MVT. Hasil: Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi hidroksiapatit dari dentin setelah paparan laser Nd:YAG Q-Switch menunjukkan peningkatan berkisar 75,02% sampai 78,21% dibandingkan normal, dengan kekerasan mikro berkisar 38,7 kgf/mm2 sampai 86,6 kgf/mm2. Perubahan pada struktur mikro tersebut disebakan karena adanya efek fototermal. Kerapatan daya yang bervariasi berdasarkan variasi dosis energi menyebabkan efek panas pada dentin yang menyebabkan adanya fenomena optical breakdown, yang ditandai dengan munculnya efek leleh dan lubang pada sampel karena produksi plasma dan adanya gelombang kejut, mulai dosis 21,2 J/cm2. Berdasarkan uji XRD, efek yang muncul pada dentin tidak menyebabkan terjadinya perubahan struktur kristal hidroksiapatit, tetapi menyebabkan perubahan komposisi hidroksiapatit yang disebut dengan fotoablasi. Kesimpulan: Dapat disimpulkan bahwa penggunaan mode Q-switched pada laser Nd:YAG sebagai alat dengan kontak minimal dapat dijadikan teknik alternatif untuk meningkatkan kualitas perawatan

  10. TEKNIK PENGELOLAAN USAHATANI TANAMAN CABAI BERKELANJUTAN DI DATARAN TINGGI KECAMATAN CIKAJANG KABUPATEN GARUT (Management Technique of Sustainable Red Pepper Crop Farming System in Upland Distric of Cikajang Garut Regency

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    Wa Ode Muliastuty

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Permasalahan yang dihadapi dalam usahatani cabai merah dataran tinggi adalah penurunan produktivitas tanaman akibat ketidaksesuaian agroteknologi dengan karakteristik lahan dan kebutuhan tanaman. Hal ini mempercepat proses erosi dan meningkatkan kehilangan lapisan atas tanah yang lebih subur sehingga menurunkan produktivitas lahan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui besar erosi, menganalisis kontribusi pendapatan usahatani terhadap Kebutuhan Hidup Layak (KHL petani, dan mengkaji alternatif teknik Konservasi Tanah dan Air (KTA.Erosi dianalisis menggunakan persamaan USLE. Pendapatan usahatani menggunakan analisis anggaran arus uang tunai. KHL petani dihitung berdasarkan jumlah anggota keluarga petani, didekati dari kebutuhan fisik minimal ditambah kebutuhan hidup tambahan. Teknik konservasi tanah diuji pada percobaan petak erosi berukuran 2 x 20 meter dan dibuat pada kemiringan lereng 40 %. Rancangan percobaan menggunakan rancangan acak kelompok dua faktor. Pertama adalah pola tanam, yaitu cabai merah monokultur (T1 dan cabai merah tumpangsari dengan kubis (T2. Kedua adalah teknik konservasi tanah, yaitu guludan searah lereng sebagai kontrol (K1, guludan searah lereng + guludan memotong lereng jarak 6,60 meter (K2, guludan memotong lereng (K3, dan guludan memotong lereng miring 20° (K4. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin curam kemiringan lereng maka erosi semakin besar melebihi batasETol dan kontribusi pendapatan usahatani terhadapKHL petani semakin rendah. Pola tanam cabai merah monokultur mempunyai erosi yang lebih besar dan kontribusi pendapatan terhadapKHL lebih kecil daripada tumpangsari. Teknik konservasi T1K3, T2K3, T1K4 dan T2K4 dapat diterapkan pada lahan dataran tinggi karena mampu menurunkan erosi ≤ ETol (30,92 ton.ha-1.th-1 dan meningkatkan pendapatan usahatani ≥ KHL (Rp. 23.920.000 kk-1.th-1, sehingga keberlanjutan lingkungan dan ekonomi dapat tercapai. ABSTRACT The problems encountered in red pepper

  11. INVESTIGATION ON THERMAL-FLOW CHARACTERISTICS OF HTGR CORE USING THERMIX-KONVEK MODULE AND VSOP'94 CODE

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    Sudarmono Sudarmono

    2015-03-01

      Kegagalan sistem pembuangan panas pada reaktor berpendingin air jenis PWR, Three Mile Islands dan reaktor BWR Fukushima Daiichi, menyebabkan masyarakat nuklir mulai memikirkan penggunaan reaktor pembangkit daya jenis temperatur tinggi berpendingin gas (HTGR. Bidang Fisika dan Teknologi Reaktor di Pusat Teknologi Reaktor dan Keselamatan Nuklir (PTRKN mempunyai tugas melaksanakan kegiatan litbang desain konseptual reaktor kogenerasi dengan tingkat daya menengah yang berpendingin gas helium dengan daya 200 MWt. Desain HTGR200K merupakan salah satu sistem pembangkit energi yang memiliki efisiensi energi paling besar, dan tingkat keselamatan inheren yang tinggi dan bersih. Komposisi geometri dan struktur teras didesain agar dapat menghasilkan keluaran pendingin gas helium bertemperatur 950 0C sehingga dapat digunakan untuk produksi hidrogen dan atau unit industri proses lainnya secara kogeneratif. Luaran gas helium bertemperatur sangat tinggi ini akan menimbulkan tegangan termal pada bola bahan bakar yang mengancam integritas sistem pengungkungan produk fisi di dalamnya. Oleh karena itu perlu dilakukan evaluasi karakteristika termal flow untuk menentukan distribusi temperatur bahan bakar bola dan outlet temperatur pendingin gas helium teras HTGR. Hal ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan modul Thermix-Konvek yang terintegrasi dalam program VSOP’94. Geometri teras HTGR dikerjakan dalam modul BIRGIT untuk model teras 2-D (R-Z dengan 5 kanal aliran pebble dalam teras aktif arah radial. Hasil evaluasi menunjukkan bahwa nilai tertinggi dan terendah temperatur yang terdapat pada teras   adalah sebesar 999.3 °C dan 886,5 °C. Demikian pula hasil temperatur tertinggi bahan bakar TRISO dan bahan bakar pebble di dalam teras, yaitu diperoleh sebesar  1510,20°C yang terletak pada lapisan bahan bakar inti UO2, di posisi z= 335.51 cm dan  r=0 cm. Analysis di lakukan pada laju massa aliran pendingin, tekanan dan daya masing-masing sebesar 120 kg/s, 7 Mpa dan 200MWth. Hasil

  12. Türkiye’de Seçilmiş Bazı İllerde Arı Ürünlerinin Tüketim Alışkanlıklarının ve Farkındalık Düzeylerinin Belirlenmesi

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    Rahşan İvgin Tunca

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye genelinde seçilmiş illerde, bal başta olmak ve arı ürünleri tüketimini etkileyen faktörler ile arı ürünlerinin tüketim alışkanlık ve farkındalık düzeylerini değerlendirmektir. Çalışmanın ana materyalini, 2014 yılı içerisinde Batman, Bursa, Diyarbakır, Erzincan, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Mersin, Muğla, Muş, Ordu ve Samsun illerinden tesadüfî olarak seçilen 1112 kişiye yapılmış olan anket çalışmasından elde edilen orijinal veriler oluşturmuştur. Çalışmadaki veriler iki kısımda incelenmeye alınmıştır. İlk kısım ankete katılanların bal tüketim alışkanlık ve farkındalıklarını içerirken, ikinci kısımda bireylerin polen, propolis, arı sütü ve zehiri gibi arı ürünlerinin kullanım tercihleri incelenmiştir. Her bir kısım için arı ürünleri üzerinde çalışılan değişkenlere ait verilere çok değişkenli lojistik regresyon modeli uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre, tüketicilerin % 39.6’sı aylık olarak 0-500 gram arasında bal tükettiği tespit edilmiştir. Tüketicilerin % 51.2’ si balı genel olarak tanıdıklardan, % 41’i ise market ve pazardan aldıklarını belirtmişlerdir. Televizyonda yapılan reklamları inandırıcı bulanların oranı % 5.9 olarak belirlenmiştir. Bal kullananların % 45.8’ i balın kalitesini anlayabildiğini ifade etmişlerdir. Marka olmasına dikkat edenlerin oranı % 52.7 olarak belirlenmiştir. Tüketicilerin yaşı, balı nereden aldığı, balda marka tercihi ve bal reklamlarını inandırıcı bulma durumları 0.05’e göre, eğitim seviyesi, aylık gelir, bal tipi tercihi ve bal reklamından etkilenme durumları ise 0.01’e göre önemli bulunmuştur. Tüketicilerin propolis, polen, arı zehri ve arı sütünü duyma oranları sırasıyla % 28.2 , % 22.9, % 56.8 ve % 23.3 olarak belirlenmiştir. Sonuç olarak çalışma, tüketicilerin arı ürünlerinin faydaları konusunda

  13. Planning of mobility and parking. The acting of the Urban Mobility Plan Pianificazione delle mobilità e sosta. L’attuazione del Piano Urbano di Mobilità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2009-05-01

    Mobilità è l’ultimo nato tra questi ed è uno strumento prevalentemente strategico in quanto agisce sul sistema nel suo complesso ipotizzando una generale razionalizzazione ed evoluzione di reti e mezzi. L’articolo approfondisce i caratteri di questo strumento, a partire dalle previsioni legislative ed in relazione a specifici casi applicativi. In particolare, la prima parte analizza i concetti che sono alla base delle relazioni tra città, mobilità urbana e regolazione della sosta. Nella seconda parte si analizzano gli aspetti normativi, ossia il Piano Urbano della Mobilità, anche in relazione ad uno strumento che lo ha preceduto e che era specificamente indirizzato alla programmazione delle infrastrutture per la sosta, il Programma Urbano dei Parcheggi. La terza parte analizza due casi di applicazione dello strumento, relativi alle città di Ferrara e Perugia con lo scopo di evidenziare le diverse opzioni che si aprono davanti al pianificatore nel momento in cui è necessario applicare lo strumento teorico ad una specifica realtà urbana. Infine, nella quarta parte, sono messe in evidenza alcune delle tecniche e degli strumenti utilizzabili per la risoluzione del problema della sosta in relazione ai tipi di sosta, alle diverse modalità per la sua organizzazione e alle tecniche di gestione indirizzate a favorire comportamenti più corretti in relazione ai diversi ambiti urbani.

  14. İngilizce Öğrencilerinin Arka Koltuk TV Sistemleri ve Altyazılı Filmlere olan Tutumları English Language Learners’ Attitudes to Back-seat TV Systems and Subtitled Movies

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    Buğra ZENGİN

    2013-09-01

    çin filmlerden yararlanma imkânlarını örgün eğitim kurumları dışındaki ortamlarda aramayı gerektirmektedir. Bununla birlikte, sosyo-ekonomik açıdan durumu birbirinden farklı olan her insanın, filmleri bu yönde değerlendirmesinin imkânları dâhilinde olduğunu farz etsek dahi, sosyal bir eğlence olan film etkinliğinde bize eşlik eden kişilerin dil tercihlerinin etkisiyle filmi dublaj olarak izleyebilmemiz olası bir durum. Başka bir deyişle eşlik edenlerin dublaj tercihinin filmi orijinal dilinde izlemeye engel teşkil etme ihtimali hiç de düşük bir olasılık değildir.Öğrencilerin üniversitelerinin bulunduğu şehirden başka bir şehre gidiş gelişlerininin çok sık olduğu bir üniversiteye odaklanan bu çalışmada gidiş geliş yapan öğrencilerin arka-koltuk TV sistemleri ve altyazılı filmlere olan tutumları ele alınmaya çalışılmıştır. İngilizce hazırlık öğrencilerinin tutumlarını ölçmek için beş seçenekli Likert tipi anket kullanılan bu çalışmada bulgular böyle bir hizmetin başlatıldığı andan itibaren takdir toplayıp benimseneceğini gösterdi. Bu çalışmanın, Hükümet, eğitim kurumları, yayın ve seyahat şirketlerinin bir çözüm için işbirliği kurmalarına neden olması umulmaktadır.

  15. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis

    2010-08-01

    attività dei chirotteri è stato investigato in siti di macchia mediterranea mediante rilevatori ultrasonori nella regione centrale dell’isola di Creta (Grecia. In primavera ed autunno 2007 e 2008, abbiamo registrato i segnali di ecolocalizzazione lungo 15 transetti egualmente distribuiti in tre fasce altitudinali (500, 1000 e 1500 m s.l.m.. I segnali registrati in “time expansion” sono stati successivamente identificati mediante funzioni discriminanti quadratiche.
    Delle 13 specie registrate, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii e Tadarida teniotis sono risultate le più comuni e abbondanti. Nella fascia altitudinale più bassa abbiamo registrato 13 specie, 7 in quella intermedia e 8 nei siti a 1500 m s.l.m. La ricchezza specifica, il numero di passaggi delle specie più frequenti, così come il numero totale di passaggi non sono risultati significativamente influenzati dalla quota. In primavera, sia la ricchezza specifica sia l’attività sono risultate maggiori che in autunno, sebbene le corrispondenti differenze di temperatura non fossero significative.
    L’elevata variabilità nell’attività dei chirotteri e nel numero di specie tra siti entro ciascuna fascia altitudinale si spiega probabilmente con la presenza di altri tipi di habitat nelle immediate circostanze dei siti investigati; anche la presenza e la localizzazione di rifugi può avere una influenza su tale variazione. Suggeriamo che la capacità dei chirotteri di spostarsi regolarmente lungo il gradiente altitudinale debba essere considerata negli studi che analizzano l’influenza della quota sulla diversità e abbondanza della chirotterofauna. Anche la natura geologica dell’area di studio, influendo sulla disponibilità di siti di alimentazione e rifugio, può svolgere un ruolo determinante.

    doi:10.4404/hystrix-21.1-4485

  16. Tankerlerde Yükleme-Tahliye Operasyon Sisteminin Otomasyonu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat H. A. ALTUN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tanker tipi gemiler için yükleme tahliye operasyonları en kritik operasyonlardır. (1 Gemi limanda iken çevre kirliliği, yangın ve patlama riski ile kaza sonucunda doğabilecek zararların büyük ölçeklerde olma olasılığı yükleme-tahliye operasyonlarını kritik hale getirmektedir. (2. Bu kazaların oluşmasındaki nedenlerin başında personelin üzerine düşen ağır iş yükü neticesinde oluşan aşırı yorgunluk gelmektedir.(3 Bu çalışmada, insan hatasını ve doğabilecek operasyonel riskleri en aza indirgemek için yükleme ve tahliye operasyonunun operatör tarafından belirlenecek kriterlere göre çalışan bir otomasyon sisteminin oluşturulması hedeflenmiştir. Bu sistemin oluşturulması için gemi stabilite formüllerinden yararlanılarak oluşturulacak bilgisayar programları kullanılacaktır. Oluşturulan bilgisayar yazılımı sayesinde geminin kargo ve balast tanklarında bulunan mevcut değerler belirli aralıklarla ölçülüp operatör tarafından belirlenen trim, meyil, kargo akış miktarı, basınç ve geminin intakt stabilite kriterleri hiçbir safhada aşılmadan operasyon gerçekleştirilebilecektir. Sistem, otomasyon sistemine bağlı olan kargo ve balast tanklarının valflerini belirlenen kriterlere bağlı kalarak ayarlamaktadır. Tüm bunları yaparken girilen kargo akış miktarı ve basınç değerlerine bağlı olarak kargo pompasının cinsine bağlı olarak devir sayısını ayarlayabilmektedir. Otomasyon sistemi emniyet açısından beklenmedik durumlarda alarm vererek operatörü uyarmaktadır. Alarm sistemi meyil, basınç, intakt stabilite, akış miktarı ve trim değerleri için farklı olarak ayarlanmakla beraber operatörün belirleyeceği periyotlarda susturulmaması neticesinde genel alarm devreye girecek şekilde tasarlanmıştır. Ayrıca geminin fribord ve draft değerleri arasındaki fark hesaplanarak geminin ne kadar yükseldiği ve alçaldığı hesaplanmaktadır. Yap

  17. Tablet PC Destekli Türkçe Öğretiminin Temel Dil Becerilerine Etkisini Belirlemeye Yönelik Ölçek Çalışması A Scale Study Of Tablet PC Based Teaching Turkish Language To Determine The Effect On Basic Language Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BALCI

    2013-07-01

    ılarak madde havuzu oluşturulmuş ve uzman görüşlerine başvurulmuştur. Öncül soru sayısı 20 maddeden oluşan 5’li likert tipi taslak ölçekte, Türkçe dersinde tablet pc kullanımının temel dil becerilerine (okuma, dinleme, konuşma ve yazma etkisinin olup olmadığını belirlemeye yarayan maddeler yer almaktadır. Maddeler, Türkçe dersi öğretim programında belirlenen dil becerileri kazanımlarının soru kalıbına dönüştürülmesi ile elde edilmiştir. Taslak ölçek, Fatih Projesi kapsamında pilot bölge olarak seçilen Uşak İl Merkezi Yaşar Akar İlköğretim Okulu ile Bingöl İl Merkezi İMKB Fatih İlköğretim Okulu I. kademe 5. sınıfta öğretim gören 114 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Ölçeğin kapsam geçerliliği uzman görüşleri alınarak sağlanmıştır. Yapı geçerliliğini belirlemek için yapılan faktör analizi sonucunda 16 maddeden oluşan, faktör yükleri .50-.84 arasında, toplam varyansın % 56’sını açıklayan üç alt boyutu kapsayan bir ölçek elde edilmiştir. Ölçek maddelerinin 9’u olumlu, 7 tanesi olumsuz ifade içermektedir. Ölçeğin Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin değeri .85, Bartlett testi anlamlılık değeri .00 ve Cronbach-alpha iç tutarlılık” katsayısının ise .90 olduğu bulunmuştur. Yapılan literatür taraması sonucunda Türkçe dersinde tablet pc kullanımının temel dil becerilerine etkisini belirleme anlamında bir ölçeğin bulunmaması bir eksiklik olarak görüldüğünden, geçerlilik ve güvenirliği sağlanan bu ölçeğin alana katkı sağlayacağı düşünülmektedir.

  18. Türkçe Dersinde “Tablet Pc Pilot Uygulaması”Yla Öğretim Gören Öğrencilerin Tutumlarını Belirlemeye Yönelik Ölçek Çalışması A Scale Study that Determines the Attitudes of the Students Who Study by "Pilot Application Of Tablet Pc” in Turkish Lesson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Süleyman BALCI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it has been aimed to develop a valid and reliableattitude scale to determine first grade Primary school students'attitudes towards the use of tablet book in Turkish Language Teachingcourse . The scale was created by scanning field method on the basisof the expert opinions 20 items as a 5-point Likert-type which isdetermining the attitudes of the students towards the use of technologyproduct ( tablet pc in Turkish lesson take place in the draft scale. Thedraft scale applied on the two pilot elementary schools ’ 114 fifthgrade students studying in Uşak Yaşar Akar Primary School and BingölFatih Primary School ; and the validity and reliability studies have beencarried out. Content validity of the scale were based on expert opinion.As a result of factor analysis for construct validity, a tree sub-dimensionscale describing the total variance of 59.92% percent between factorloadings .59 - .82 and consisting of 15 items were obtained. The itemsof scale include 10 positive and 5 negative expressions. The scale valueof Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was found 81, Bartlett test of significance valuewas found .00 and the internal consistency coefficient of Cronbachalphawas found .84. In this sense, the lack of scale as a result of workdone in the field of Turkish seen as a shortcoming. This context theProject is implelemented in scools considered to contribute to the fieldscale was created from the data obtained. In addition, the use oftechnology for Turkish language course will be useful to conduct moredetailed studies are emerging. Bu araştırmada, İlköğretim birinci kademe öğrencilerinin Tablet kitabın Türkçe dersinde kullanılmasına yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek için geçerli ve güvenilir bir tutum ölçeği geliştirilmesi amaçlanmıştır. 20 maddeden oluşan 5’li likert tipi taslak ölçek, alan taraması yapılarak ve uzman görüşleri alınarak oluşturulmuştur. Ölçekte, öğrencilerin Türkçe dersinde teknoloji

  19. Problems raised by pulse analysers - functional multi-dimensional analysers; Problemes poses par les analyseurs en impulsions - Analyseurs multidimensionnels fonctionnels; Problemy, voznikayushchie v svyazi s ispol'zovaniem analizatorov impul'sov - funktsional'nye mnogorazmernye analizatory; Problemas planteados por los analizadores de impulsos - Analizadores multidimensionales funcionales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pages, A [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1962-04-15

    kazhdyj. Proizvedeno razdelenie mezhdu osnovnymi razlichnymi funktsiyami: razvertka, peredacha (mnogorazmernyj rezhim), ispol'zovanie rezul'tatov. Gospoda Amram, Gijon i Tenar izuchayut i stroyat v Sektsii obshchej ehlektroniki mnogorazmernyj analizator s 1023 kanalami kh 63 kanala, kotoryj prednaznachen dlya Gruppy izmereniya skorosti nejtronov. Krome togo, dlya togo, chtoby obojti ranee vyskazannye ogranicheniya, avtory stroyat v ehlektronnoj laboratorii mnogorazmernyj funktsional'nyj analizator, kotoryj razrabatyvaetsya po sleduyushchim osnovnym zadaniyam: kak i predydushchij tip, ehtot analizator razdelyaetsya v sootvetstvii s tremya vysheukazannymi funktsiyami, no sama funktsiya peredachi byla razbita po otdel'nym blokam (khronizator, neintegriruyushchee zapominayushchee ustrojstvo, konditsioner i vychislitel'noe ustrojstvo). Vybiraemye tipy blokov, kak i opredelyayushchie puti predely, izmenyayutsya v zavisimosti ot potrebnostej i slozhnosti opyta (mezhfunktsional'nyj standartnyj kod). (author)

  20. Türk Edebiyatında Birbirine Yakın Üç Kelime: Hiciv, Medih ve Hezel Three Closely Related Concepts in Turkish Literature: Satire, Eulogy, and Comic Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zülküf KILIÇ

    2012-09-01

    kullanıldığı, konuyla ilgili diğer birçok kavramın bunlarla eş anlamlı yahut yakın anlamlar ifade ettiği ve topluca daha çok hiciv ana başlığıyla ifade edildiği görülür. Bazen aynı bazen de farklı anlamları ifade eden bu üç kavramın sınırlarını belirlemenin bir hayli güç olduğunu başta belirtmek gerekir. Üstelik eski Arap, Fars ve Türk edebiyatlarında bunlar arasında kesin sınırların çizildiği de görülmemiştir. Yine de her birinin kendine has bazı özellikleri olduğu söylenebilir. Klâsik Türk şiirinde şahıslar hakkında yapılmış eleştiriler çoktur. Şahıslar, fizikî yapıları, kılık kıyafetleri, mizaçları ve davranışları yönünden eleştirilmişlerdir. Makam ve meslek sahipleri görevlerini hakkıyla yapmadıkları için; toplum ve zaman ise ahlâkî, siyâsî ve iktisâdî bozulma yönünden eleştirilmiştir. Bu eleştiriler yapılırken bazen bir şahıs hedef alınsa da o şahıstan, yani tekten bütüne uzayıp yayılan bir eleştiri söz konusu olmuştur hep. Bu da, çoğunlukla hiciv, medih ve hezelle yapılmaktadır. Eleştirinin bu türlerinde merkeze tek bir şahıs alınmış olsa da o tek bir şahıs, bazen tek hedef değildir ve o şahıs genellikle bir tipi temsil eder ve bu şekilde o şahısla daha geniş bir kitlenin eleştirisi yapılmış olur.

  1. Città al limite. Per una trattazione urbanistica del disastro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattia Bertin

    2014-11-01

    reunificación en una única categoría de pensamientos, observaciones, análisis, y sobre todo praxis conectadas a las ciudades golpeadas por un desastre, el crecimiento de un saber urbanístico capaz de contestar de manera ágil y eficaz a situaciones de este tipo, mediante una rápida reconstrucción del («todavía no» “ya no más?” Abstract: Between the different fields of urban studies, there is a sector yet low strengthened: the regeneration after a disaster. We have traces and trails of analysis applied to the different types of disaster, but still we haven’t a categorical and general reflection over the disaster as urban fact. Disaster studies well knows that these events have common features, which allow to label these as elements of a single class, and to be studied and faced more effectively than what a single field could done. The goal of this volume is to sustain a reflexive boost, which leads to a deeper specialisation of urban studies in relation to face a disaster, specially in the regeneration of an affected city. Abstract en italiano: Tra i differenti campi degli studi urbani, vi è un settore ancora molto poco approfondito: la rigenerazione dopo un disastro. Negli anni si sono senza dubbio prodotte tracce e  sentieri analitici applicati ai diversi tipi di disastro, ma tuttora soffriamo la mancanza di una riflessione generale e categoriale sul disastro come fatto urbano. I saperi che si occupano di disastri hanno da tempo superato gli approcci settoriali, consci dei molti comuni aspetti tra le diverse manifestazioni di questo fenomeno, che suggeriscono di affrontarlo come un campo unitario. L’obiettivo di questo volume è di sostenere un incremento di riflessione, che porti ad una più profonda specializzazione, degli studi urbani in relazione al disastro, in particolare nella rigenerazione di una città colpita.

  2. Radiation-Induced Polymerization of Aldehydes and Ketones; Polymerisation radiochimique des aldehydes et des cetones; Radiatsionnaya polimerizatsiya al'degidov i ketonov; Polimerizacion radioinducida de aldehidos y cetonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, K.; Yamaoka, H.; Fujiwara, K.; Sakamoto, M.; Mori, S.; Natori, T.; Yoshida, H.; Okamura, S. [Japanese Association for Radiation Research on Polymers, Neyagawa Osaka (Japan); Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    1963-11-15

    polimerizatsiyu, keton mozhno prevratit' v polimer poliehfirnogo tipa; esli polimerizatsiya proizvoditsya v tverdom sostoyanii, to poluchaetsya, krome togo, poliketon. Sopolimer ketona s formal'degidom neskol'ko bolee ustojchiv. Dimetilketon mozhno legko polimerizovat' v poliatsetal' kak v zhidkom, tak i v tverdom sostoyanii. Vse ehti tipy polimerizatsii predstavlyayut soboj raznovidnosti vyzyvaemykh oblucheniem reaktsij, kinetika kotorykh predstavlyaet interes. Otdel'nye aspekty ehtoj dannoj problemy rassmatrivayutsya v ehtoj rabote. (author)

  3. Akdeniz Üniversitesi’nde taşeron sağlık işçilerinin işçi sağlığı ve iş güvenliği durum tespiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Cumhur İzgi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Amaç: Neoliberal politikaların Türkiye’deki yansımalarından biri olan Sağlıkta Dönüşüm Projesi taşeronlaşmayı içeren bir programdır. Sağlıkta taşeronlaşma, çalışanın sağlığını ve ürettiği hizmetin niteliği nedeniyle toplum sağlığını etkilemektedir. Çalışmanın amacı, bir üniversite hastanesinde taşeronlaşma sonrası çalışanların işçi sağlığı ve iş güvenliği açısından durumlarını değerlendirmek, konuya yönelik farkındalık yaratmak ve geniş çaplı çalışmaların planlanıp gerekli önlemlerin alınmasına katkı sağlamaktır. Yöntem: Akdeniz Üniversitesi Hastanesi’nde taşeron olarak çalışan 1175 işçiden, meslek grupları temel alınarak tanımlayıcı araştırmanın 153 kişilik örneği belirlenmiş ve araştırmaya katılmayı kabul eden 128 çalışana iki bölümden oluşan anket uygulanmıştır. Anketin ilk bölümünde sosyodemografik veriler ve araştırmaya ilişkin açık uçlu sorular, ikinci bölümünde ise beşli Likert tipi soru kökleri yer almaktadır. Bulgular: Katılımcıların %62.5’i iş öncesi sağlık risk eğitimi almadığını, %82.8’i riskler konusunda işveren tarafından bilgilendirilmediğini, %85.2’si aşı yapılmadığını, %57.0’si koruyucu donanımın yetersiz olduğunu, %73.4’ü yaptıkları işin sağlık riski yarattığını, %71.1’i taşeron çalışmanın sağlığı olumsuz etkilediğini, %94.6’sı kadrolu çalışmanın güvenceli olduğunu belirtmişlerdir. Sonuç: Çalışma ortamının sağlık risklerinden arındırılması, iş güvencesinin sağlanması ve sağlık hizmet üretiminde insan haklarının yaşama geçirilmesi için taşeronlaşmaya son verilmesi gerekir.

    Anahtar Kelimeler: Taşeronlaşma, sağlık hakkı, işçi sağlığı, iş güvenliği

  4. Parking Policies in Tourist Cities Politiche della sosta in città turistiche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2009-05-01

    miglioramento delle condizioni di spostamento e per garantire buoni livelli di sicurezza stradale. La realizzazione di strutture per la sosta in ambito urbano, invece, è regolamentata dal programma urbano dei parcheggi introdotto alla fine degli anni ottanta. All’interno di tali strumenti, le indicazioni relative alla predisposizione di specifiche aree da destinare alla sosta turistica occupa un ruolo marginale. La totalità delle indicazioni relative alla mobilità turistica fanno riferimento a due tipi di interventi: –istituzione di una zona a traffico limitato per la circolazione dei bus turistici; –individuazione delle aree di sosta breve dove è consentito ai visitatori di scendere o salire dal bus. In relazione alla sosta, le indicazioni si riferiscono alla individuazione di aree urbane o di assi stradali dove viene consentito lo stazionamento temporaneo. Molto raramente, per quel che riguarda la situazione italiana nelle principali città turistiche, gli interventi prevedono la realizzazione di specifiche strutture integrate al trasporto pubblico o a modalità di spostamento sostenibile che garantirebbero una migliore distribuzione dei flussi turistici consentendo al contempo al visitatore differenti modalità di visita con positivi effetti anche sulla percezione della visita. Nel tentativo di dimostrare come gli interventi finalizzati alla realizzazione di aree per la sosta dei bus turistici possano essere strumenti di riqualificazione fisica e funzionale della città, l’articolo nella prima parte si focalizza sulla definizione delle caratteristiche della domanda di spostamento turistico in ambito urbano. Nella seconda parte, attraverso una panoramica delle politiche della sosta urbana in Italia si evidenzia la carenza di interventi finalizzati alla realizzazione di una rete per la sosta turistica integrata all’offerta di servizi urbani. Nella parte conclusiva si individuano gli elementi che consentirebbero alle aree di sta di porsi come aree di qualit

  5. Manisa merkez yarı kentsel bölgede bir aile sağlığı birimine kayıtlı kadınlarda bazı birinci basamak sağlık hizmet özelliklerinin değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Öznur Özkan Bambal

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Özet                       Amaç: Birinci basamak sağlık hizmet özellikleri kaynakça doğrultusunda bilimsel olarak ölçülebilir niteliktedir ve ilk başvuru, süreklilik, kapsayıcılık ve koordinasyon gibi temel hizmet özellikleri üzerinden değerlendirilir. Yöntem: Örnek seçiminde çok aşamalı küme örnekleme yöntemi kullanılmış, veriler yüz yüze görüşme tekniğine göre yapılandırılmış anketle toplanmıştır. Araştırma bölgesindeki toplam hane sayısı 870’tir. Küme örnekleme yöntemi ile 376 haneden 318 kadına ulaşılmıştır. Araştırmanın ulaşılabilirlik oranı % 84.6’dır. Araştırmanın bağımlı değişkenleri; İlk başvuru, Süreklilik, Kapsayıcılık ve OHS (Olağan Hizmet Sürekliliği gibi hizmet özellikleridir. Bağımsız değişkenler ise kadının ve eşinin yaşı, kadın ve eşinin eğitimi, medeni hal, kadının çalışma durumu, sosyal sınıf (eşin işine göre, gelir algısı, bölgede yaşama yılı, göç edilen bölge, sağlık güvencesi, aile tipi, beş yaşından küçük çocuk varlığı ve hanedeki çocuk sayısı kullanılmıştır. Bulgular: Katılımcıların yaş ortalaması 38.3±15.3’tür. Bir sağlık sorunu nedeniyle aile hekimine başvurma % 61.0, ondan bir önceki sağlık sorununda AH’ne (Aile Hekimi başvuru %55,2 oranındadır. Bu soruların her ikisine de “aynı aile hekimine başvururum” cevabını verenlerin (OHS oranı  %40.1 olmuştur. Aile Sağlığı Birimini yakın, normal mesafe bulanların oranı %93.1’dir. Aile hekiminin ismini bilme %84, ebenin ismini bilme %36.2, her türlü sorununuzla sürekli ilgilenen bir hekim veya sağlık kuruluşuna kayıtlı olduğunu söyleyenlerin %74.5’tir. Son bir yılda evime ebe ziyareti aldım diyenler %40.6 oranındadır. Sonuç: Araştırmanın yapıldığı ASB’de geçen bir yıllık ilk AH uygulama döneminde sosyalleştirme dönemiyle karşıla

  6. The Development of Materials for Application to Control Rod Systems in Graphite moderated Reactors; Mise au Point de Materiaux pour les Dispositifs de Controle a Barres, Utilbes dans les Reacteurs Ralentis au Graphite; Razrabotka materialov , primenyaemykh v sistemakh upravlyayushchikh sterzhnej v reaktorakh s grafitovym zamedlitelem; Perfeccionamiento de Materiales Aplicables a las Barras de Control en los Reactores Moderados por Grafito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wade, G. E.; Kempf, F. J. [Hanford Atomic Products Operation, General Electric Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    1964-06-15

    utilizando cualquiera de los materiales mencionados. Los canales de las barras requieren a menudo un revestimiento para proteger el moderador de grafito que los circunda contra los impactos y el efecto de desgaste debidos a la insercion de las barras y para asegurar que el canal conserve la alineacion correcta. Tales revestimientos deben consistir en materiales capaces de soportar la abrasion y el impacto, dotados de gran resistencia mecanica, de reducida seccion eficaz y aptos para trabajar sin refrigeracion. Se ha ensayado con ese fin el grafito pirolitico puro y en forma de mezclas, el oxido de aluminio y el carburo de silicio. Los datos obtenidos acerca de los danos fisicos y de irradiacion indican que algunos de estos materiales se prestan para el revestimiento de los canales de las barras en los reactores. (author) [Russian] Materialy, primenjaemye v sistemah upravljajushhih i avarijnyh sterzhnej reaktorov s grafitovym zamedlitelem i teplonositelem v trubkah, mogut byt' podrazdeleny na dve kategorii: materialy dlja izgotovlenija upravljajushhih sterzhnej i materialy dlja izgotovlenija rubashek rabochih kanalov sterzhnej. Materialy dlja izgotovlenija upravljajushhih sterzhnej, naprimer bor ili gadolinij, mogut sostavljat' edinoe celoe s obolochkoj sterzhnja, kak pri ispol'zovanii boristoj nerzhavejushhej stali, primenjaemoj dlja izgotovlenija avarijnyh sterzhnej. Drugoj metod sostoit v zakljuchenii spechennogo bloka, soderzhashhego bor, naprimer B{sub 4}C -grafit ili B{sub 4}C -aljuminij, v metallicheskuju obolochku. Sterzhni poslednego tipa podhodjat dlja celej regulirovanija vvidu povyshennogo procenta soderzhanija bora. Ispytanija i opyt izgotovlenija pokazyvajut, chto pri ispol'zovanii jetih materialov mozhno skonstruirovat' razlichnye tipy udovletvoritel'nyh sterzhnej;. V kanalah sterzhnej v reaktore chasto trebujutsja rubashki dlja zashhity okruzhajushhego grafitovogo zamedlitelja ot vozdejstvija nagruzok pri vvedenii sterzhnja i iznosa i dlja podderzhanija

  7. Tablet PC Destekli Fen Ve Teknoloji Dersine Yönelik Öğrenci Velilerinin Tutumları The Attitudes Of Students’ Parents Towards Tablet PC Supported Science And Technology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek BALCI

    2013-09-01

    students who are in theexperimental group identified the tablet pc usage in the coursesbeneficial in terms of trainer, applicability in the schools and studentperformance at the level of ineligibility. In addition, the attitudes ofparents of students who are studying with the support of tablet pc werefound to be positive and significant increase in level in favour of theexperimental group. Bu araştırmada, tablet pc destekli fen ve teknoloji dersine yönelik ilkokul 4. ve 5. sınıf öğrenci velilerinin tutumlarının belirleyebilmek için likert tipi geçerli ve güvenilir bir tutum ölçeğinin geliştirilmesi ve bu ölçek kapsamında öğrenci velilerinin tutumlarının belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Ölçeğin geliştirilmesi aşamasında alanyazındaki mevcut ölçekler incelenmiş olup, bu çalışmalardan yola çıkılarak özgün tutum maddeleri belirlenerek taslak ölçek oluşturulmuştur. Taslak ölçeğin geçerlik ve güvenirlik çalışmaları Uşak İl Merkezi İlköğretim 4. ve 5. sınıfta okuyan öğrenci velilerinden 134 öğrenci velisine uygulanarak yapılmıştır. Ölçeğin kapsam geçerliliği uzman görüşleri alınarak sağlanmıştır. Yapı geçerliliği için faktör analizi yapılmıştır. Ölçekte yer alan maddelerin Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin değeri 0.84 ve Bartlett’s testi anlamlılık değeri ise 0.00 bulunmuştur. Ölçeğin Cronbach’s alpha güvenirlik katsayısı 0.88 olarak tespit edilmiştir. Ölçekte 12 olumlu, 10 olumsuz olmak üzere toplamda 22 madde bulunmaktadır. Tüm bu aşamalardan sonra geliştirilen ölçek, Uşak ili merkez Yaşar Akar ilköğretim okulundaki 27 deney, 27 kontrol grubu olmak üzere toplam 54 öğrenci velisine uygulanmıştır. Fen ve teknoloji dersi, kontrol grubundaki öğrencilere geleneksel yöntemlerle işlenirken, deney grubundaki öğrencilere ise tablet pc ve akıllı tahta desteğiyle işlenmiştir. Araştırmada betimsel tarama modeli kullanılmış olup, ölçekten elde edilen veriler SPSS

  8. Design Experience on a Multi-Mecacurie Radiation Facility; Etudes et experiences concernant un emetteur de rayonnements de plusieurs megacuries; Opytnoe proektirovani e ustanovki, obladayushchej sverkhmoshchnym izlucheniem; Estudios sobre el proyecto de un dispositivo de irradiacion de varios megacuries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunton, D C; Donovan, J; Voyvodic, L [Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Princeton, NJ (United States); Armour Research Foundation, 10 W. 35th Street, Chicago 10, IL (United States)

    1960-07-15

    issledovanij mnogodiskovykh, mnogokanal'nykh sistem, a poehtomu ona vklyuchaet trekhrazmernuyu formu istochnika, a takzhe diskovye tipy izluchatelej. Potrebnosti inzhenernogo kharaktera, kasayushchiesya konvejerov dlya obrashcheniya s produktami, izuchayutsya sovmestno s proektom istochnika i vliyaniem na usloviya stroitel'stva . Podrobno izuchayutsya metody obrashcheniya s istochnikom, sistema bezopasnosti i kontrol'. Nakonets, daetsya opisanie podgotovki samogo iskhodnogo materiala, vklyuchaya izmereniya, zadelyvanie v kapsyulyu i ispytanie utechki. (author)

  9. A Theory of Radioisotope Scanning Systems; Une Theorie des Systemes de Scintigraphoe au Moyen des Radioisotopes; Teoriya sistem radioizotopnogo skennirovaniya; Teoria de los Sistemas de Exploracion Radioisotopica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, R. N. [Argonne Cancer Research Hospital, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1964-10-15

    rtuti-203 pri obnaruzhenii opuholej mozga opredelennogo razmera, glubiny i t . d . ? V doklade delajutsja popytki sistematizacii razlichnyh komponentov takoj teorii i vyvedenija uravnenij dlja rassmatrivaemyh biologicheskih i fizicheskih parametrov. Oni vkljuchajut razmer opuholej, glubinu, kojefficient pogloshhenija, chuvstvitel'nost' kollima- tora, razreshajushhuju sposobnost', fokusnoe rasstojanie, ploshhad' skennirovanija, vremja, na- dezhnost' it. d. Osnovoj takoj teorii javljaetsja kriterij ili cifrovye parametry, kotorye mogut byt' vychisleny dlja ljuboj sistemy i ispol'zovany dlja sravnenija razlichnyh sistem. Ob- suzhdajutsja cifrovye parametry, osnovannye na vizual'nom vosprijatii i teorii informa- cii i prinimaetsja odin iz nih, imejushhij statisticheskuju osnovu. Jeti cifrovye parametry javljajutsja funkciej chuvstvitel'nosti detektora i e g o razreshajushhej sposobnosti, kotorye podrobno rassmatrivajutsja. Podrobno obsuzhdaetsja harakteristika kollimatora otnositel'no mesta, urovnja i ob{sup -} ema raspredelenija radioaktivnosti. Obshhaja harakteristika [E{sub t} = E ( + P + S)] detektora, snabzhennogo kollimatorom, napravlennogo na krupnyj raspredelennyj istochnik, sostoit iz treh komponentov, proizvodimyh gamma-luchami, kotorye popadajut v kollimator 1) ''geo- metricheski'' ili pravil'no (E), 2) putem proniknovenija cherez peregorodki kollimatora (ER), i putem rassejanija v istochnike ili kollimatore (ES). Tochnye uravnenija dlja jetih kompo- nentov javljajutsja ochen' slozhnymi dlja mnogokanal'nyh kollimatorov. Vyvedeny poleznye priblizitel'nye vyrazhenija dlja E, R i S; obsuzhdaetsja ogranichennost' primenenija jetih vyrazhenij. Razreshajushhaja sposobnost' kollimatora, opredeljaemaja nekotoroj frakciej shiroty krivoj chuvstvitel'nosti k tochechnomu istochniku, ne adekvatna dlja predskazanija chuvstvi- tel'nosti k raspredelennomu istochniku. 'Analogichnoe polozhenie sushhestvuet v optike, gde ''vse chashhe priznaetsja, chto preimushhestva

  10. The Use of Short-Lived Radioactive Isotopes in an Activation Analysis Service Programme; Emploi des Radioisotopes a Courte Periode dans un Service d'Analyses par Activation; ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ КОРОТКОЖИВУПИХ РАДИОАКТИВНЫХ ИЗОТОПОВ В ПРОГРАММЕ АКТИВАЦИОННОГО АНАЛИЗА; Empleo de Radioisotopos de Periodo Corto en los Servicios de Analisis por Activacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, D.; Simpson, H. [Wantage Research Laboratory, Wantage (United Kingdom)

    1963-03-15

    'sheniju jetogo fona, a takzhe uluchshaet chuvstvitel'nost'. Opisyvajutsja nekotorye tipy avtomaticheskih priborov, ispol'zuemyh pri izmerenii aktivnosti korotkozhivushhih izotopov, vkljuchaja metody fotoregistracii, avtomaticheskaja smena obrazcov i razlichnye programmirujushhie ustrojstva. (author)

  11. Non-Destructive Methods for Determining Burn-Up in Nuclear Fuel; Methodes Non Destructives d'Evaluation du Taux de Combustion dans le Combustible Nucleaire; Metody opredeleniya vygoraniya v yadernom toplive bez razrusheniya obraztsa; Metodos No Destructivos para Determinai el Grado de Combustion de los Elementos Combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGonnagle, W. J. [Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1966-02-15

    jadernyh reaktorah bez razrushenija obrazca javljajutsja poleznymi i zhelatel'nymi. Ideal'nym byl by metod, ne trebujushhij special'nyh dannyh o nejtronnom spektre, istorii radiacii ili vremeni ohlazhdenija. Obluchennye toplivnye jelementy sami po sebe javljajutsja nositeljami informacii o stepeni vygoranija topliva. Jeta informacija soderzhitsja v forme radioaktivnyh i stabil'nyh izotopov, obrazujushhihsja v processe delenija. K sozhaleniju,kak pri metodah analiza topliva bez razrushenija obrazca, tak i s razrusheniem obrazca nejtronnyj spektr, istorija radiacii i period ohlazhdenija vlijajut na jetu informaciju. Tochno tak zhe nedostatok tochnyh jadernyh dannyh, takih, kak znachenija jadernyh poperechnyh sechenij, vlijaet na ljubye vychislenija, kotorye mozhno bylo by proizvesti. Drugoj trudnost'ju pri analizah bez razrushenija obrazca javljaetsja nalichie polej vysokoj radiacii, kotoraja vnosit dopolnitel'nyj ''shum'' v fon pri izmerenijah. Razrabotka poleznyh i real'nyh standartov javljaetsja trudnym delom. Metody analiza stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca osobenno polezny togda, kogda trebuetsja bystro i jekonomichno, dazhe pri sushhestvujushhem polozhenii s ih nedostatkom, poluchit' zhelatel'nuju tochnost' priblizitel'noj velichiny vygoranija. Ispol'zovalos' neskol'ko metodov dlja opredelenija stepeni vygoranija bez razrushenija obrazca; vedetsja ih ocenka ili oni predlagajutsja. Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy spektrometrov, v tom chisle spektrometry s izognutym kristallom, magnitnyj komptonovskij spektrometr, komptonovskij spektrometr na sovpadenija i scintilljacionnyj spektrometr dlja analiza gamma-izluchenija radioaktivnogo materiala, obrazujushhegosja vo vremja processa delenija. Drugie metody analiza bez razrushenija obrazca vkljuchajut aktivaciju fol'gi, propuskanie nejtronov, aktivacionnyj analiz, izmerenie zahvata gamma-luchej i izmerenie mgnovennyh i zapazdyvajushhih nejtronov. Rassmatrivajutsja osnovnye principy kazhdogo iz vyshenazvannyh metodov i

  12. Wholesomeness and Public Health Research in the United States Atomic Energy Commission Food Irradiation Programme; Recherches sur la Comestibilite et la Sante Publique au Titre du Programme d'Irradiation des Produits Alimentaires de la Commission de l'Energie Atomique des Etats-Unis; Issledovaniya bezvrednosti obluchennykh pishchevykh produktov i svyazannykh s nimi problem zdravookhraneniya po programme komissii po atomnoj ehnergii ssha v oblasti oblucheniya pishchevykh produktov; Programa de Irradiacion de Alimentos de la Comision de Energia Atomica de los Estados Unidos: Investigaciones Sobre Comestibilidad u Sanidad Publica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehair, L. A. [Division of Biology and Medicine, United States Atomic Energy Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1966-11-15

    potencial'no patogennyh organizmah. V nastojashhee vremja provodjatsja issledovanija s cel'ju tshhatel'noj ocenki uslovij, opredeljajushhih radioustojchivost' i teploustojchivost', sporuljaciju, rost i obrazovanie toksinov u Clostridium Botulinum, tip E. Issleduetsja prirodnaja rasprostranennost' organizmov tipa E v nekotoryh morskih chroduktah i okeanskoj srede. Obsuzhdajutsja rezul'taty mikrobiologicheskih issledovanij. Poslednie issledovanija pokazali, chto obshhie perspektivy bezvrednosti obluchenija pishhevyh produktov javljajutsja blagoprijatnymi. V nastojashhee vremja proizvoditsja ocenka toksichnosti bananov, mango, papaji i tomatov. Budut prodolzheny issledovanija, svjazannye s Clostridium Botulinum, tipy E i F, a takzhe salmonelloj i drugimi potencial'no patogennymi organizmami. (author)

  13. Thermoluminescent Dosimeter as the Gamma Component of a Nuclear Accident Dosimeter; Utilisation du Dosimetre Thermoluminescent Comme Element Detecteur Gamma d'un Dosimetre pour les cas d'Accident Nucleaire; 0422 0415 0420 041c 0414 ; Los Detectores de Termoluminiscencia Como Elemento Gammametrico de un Dosimetro para Casos de Accidente Nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handloser, J. S. [Edgerton, Germeshausen and Grier, Inc., Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1965-06-15

    diametro quetiueda hermeticamente cerrado, con el fosforo en su interior. Este dosimetro mide 0,8 mm de diametro y 6 mm de longitud. El autor ha disenado blindajes destinados a corregir la respuesta energetica de estos dos dosimetros. (author) [Russian] Ispol'zovalis' razlichnye tipy gamma-dozimetrov v kachestve komponenta avarijnyh dozimetrov, izmerjajushhih gamma-izluchenie. Oni vkljuchali razlichnye vidy stekljannyh, plenochnyh, himicheskih dozimetrov i dozimetrov polimerizacii. Termo- ljuminiscentnyj dozimetr obladaet znachitel'nymi preimushhestvami po sravneniju s dozimetrami drugih tipov. Shirokij diapazon termoljuminiscentnogo dozimetra daet vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' ego v kachestve povsednevnogo kontrol'no-izmeritel'nogo pribora i v kachestve avarijnogo dozimetra. Pri jetom otpadaet nadobnost' v special'noj apparature dlja avarijnoj dozimetrii i sozdaetsja vozmozhnost' ispol'zovat' v avarijnoj dozimetricheskoj sisteme horosho kalibrovannye pribory povsednevnogo ispol'zovanija. Obychno diapazon, prisushhij termo- ljuminiscentnomu dozimetru, kolebletsja ot 5 mr do 100 000 r pri vosproizvodimosti {+-}10%. Byl sproektirovan i izgotovlen edinichnyj tip dozimetra s o ftoristym kal'ciem i s neobhodimym prisposobleniem dlja snjatija pokazanij, v diapazone ot 5 mr do 5000 r . Chtenie pokazanij dozimetra proizvoditsja putem nagreva fosfora i izmereniem vyhoda sveta. Imejutsja pribory dlja registracii pokazanij shesti porjadkov, i sproektirovany polnost'ju avtomatizirovannye sistemy. Ni odin iz priborov ne trebuet dlja opredelenija pokazanij bolee 20 sek na dozimetr. Drugoe preimushhestvo termoljuminiscentnogo dozimetra sostoit v maloj chuvstvitel'nosti k nejtronam. Ona kolebletsja v zavisimosti ot tipa kontejnera i tipa fosfora. Odin tip dozimetra s ftoristym kal'ciem obladaet nejtronnoj chuvstvitel'nost'ju, ravnoj 0,27 * 10{sup -9} r ad /n/cm{sup 2}. Rassmatrivajutsja dva termoljuminiscentnyh dozimetra razlichnyh fizicheskih form. Pervyj predstavljaet soboj nagrevaemyj

  14. PREFACE: Stimuli Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Hans J.

    2011-01-01

    for efficient and low-cost production of laser diodes and thus earned a promotion to Vice Presidency. One of the most recent, gratifying encounters with Zhores Alferov happened to me in a cozy retreat in the forests near Madrid, with Antonio Luque being our gracious host for a solar cell symposium. We Stuttgarters had hoped to use multi-pair generation in perfected silicon solar cells [19], but a better chance to capture more photons from the solar spectrum exists most likely in multi-junction cells [20], with fancy tunnel-contacts interconnecting between heterojunctions. We shall see if this approach might eventually lead to more efficient, yet still economical solar energy conversion. Semiconductor heterojunctions for communications and consumers! Many of Alferov's present activities in St Petersburg and Berlin are governed by this magic modern prefix nano, which might one day also provide some applications in solar cells; but we have yet to carefully investigate [21]! References [1] Queisser H J 1958 Z.Physik 152 507 and 495 [2] Buckel W and Hilsch R 1956 Z. Physik 146 27 [3] Wittke J P 1957 Proc. IRE 45 291 with references to earlier work [4] Queisser H J 1959 Naturwiss. 46 394 [5] Queisser H J 1988 The Conquest of the Microchip (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press) [6] Wolf H C and Agnew Z 1958 Physik 10 480 [7] Pohl R W Optik (Heidelberg: Springer) [8] Yariv A 1968 Quantum Electronics (New York: Wiley) [9] Shockley W and Queisser H J 1961 J. Appl. Phys. 32 510 [10] For details, see Sze S M and Ng K K 2007 Physics of Semiconductor Devices 3rd edn (Hoboken, NJ: Wiley) [11] Shockley W 1951 US Patent Specification 2.569.347 [12] Krömer H 1957 Proc. IRE 45 1535 [13] Queisser H J 1966 J. Appl. Phys. 37 2909 (this paper was withheld internally for some time due to the patent application: US Pat.3.387.163) [14] Panish M B and Casey C H 1978 Heterostructure Lasers (New York: Academic) [15] Kressel H Private communications [16] Güttler G and Queisser H J 1996 J

  15. Dergilerden Özetler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şebnem Korur Fincancı

    2000-04-01

    üzeyi gösterdiler ve yalnız erişkin istismarına maruz kalmış olan kadınlardan daha fazla anksiyete ve TSSB ile ilişkili semptomlar bildirdiler. Yalnız saldırıya maruz kalan veya istismara uğramamış kadınların endişe düzeyi benzerdi. KAFAYA YÖNELİK KENDİ KENDİNE YAPİLMİŞ ÇOK SAYIDA ATEŞLİ SİLAH YARALARI: OLGU RAPORU VE LİTERATÜR İNCELEMESİ Multiple self-inflicted gunshot wounds to the head: report of a case and review of the literature. Kury G, Weiner J, Duval fV. Am J Forensic Med Pathol, 2000; 21(l:32-5. Kafaya yönelik kendi kendine yapılmış çok sayıda ateşli silah yaralarıyla seyrek karşılaşılır ve genellikle patolog ve polisleri ölüm şeklini belirlemede zorluğa düşürür. Biz, kafada iki intihar amaçlı ateşli silah yarası olgusunu inceledik. Litaratür tarandı, yaraların yerleşimi, beyin hasarının yerleşimi, kullanılan silahların tipi ve ölümün orj inini belirlemede önemli kriterler içeren uygun bulgular tartışıldı. AKUT STRESS BOZUKLUĞU ÖLÇEĞİ: AKUT STRESS BOZUKLUĞUNUN KİŞİSEL BİLDİRİM İLE ÖLÇÜMÜ Acute Stress Disorder Scale: a self-report measure of acute stress disorder. Bryant RA, Moulds ML, Guthrie RM. Psychol Assess 2000 Mar;12(l:6l-8. Akut Stress Bozukluğu Ölçeği (ASBÖ ASB’nu gösteren ve TSSB’nu önceden belirleme olanağı sağlayan bir kişisel bildirim envanteridir. 19 maddelik bir envanter olan ASBÖ’nin temelini "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM- IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994" oluşturmaktadır. ASB tanısı için görüşme yapılan 99 sivil travma mağdurunun sonuçlarına göre sensitivite (%95 ve spesivisitesi (%83 iyi idi. Test ve testin tek- rarlanabilirliğine güvenilirlik puanları 2 ve 7 gün arasında kuvvetliydi (r= .94 ASBÖ bir gerilla saldırısına maruz kalıp TSSB gelişenlerin % 91’ini ve TSSB gelişmeyenlerin %93’ünü önceden belirleyebildi. Riskli olarak değerlendirilenlerin

  16. Depo Gazı Enerji Üretim Tesisi Baca Gazı Atık Isısının Seralarda Değerlendirilmesi: İstanbul Örneği / Utilization of Waste Heat in Energy Production Plant from Landfill Gas at Greenhouses – Case Study in Istanbul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Enç

    2012-12-01

    Kullanımı Projesi” kapsamında yürütülmüştür. Bu kapsamda; çevre, tarım ve enerji sektörü için, atık ısı ve atık maddelerin değerlendirilmesini içeren çevresel ve ekonomik açıdan sürdürülebilir eko yenilikçi bir sistemin oluşturulması amaçlanmıştır. Bu çalışmada İBB Odayeri Düzenli Depolama Sahasında depo gazından elektrik enerjisi üretim tesisinden çıkan baca gazının değerlendirilmesine ve mevsimlik çiçek üretim serasının kurulmasına ilişkin süreçler yer almaktadır. Kurulması düşünülen seranın ısıl hesaplamaları yapılmıştır. Yapımda kullanılacak her malzemenin sebep olduğu ısı kayıpları ve hacim kaynaklı hava değişimine bağlı ısıl kayıplar göz önüne alınarak gerekli ısı miktarı belirlenmiştir. Depo Gazı Enerji Üretim Tesisinden elektrik üretim faaliyeti sonucu egzoz gazı atmosfere verilmektedir. Bu gazın değerlendirilmesi için baca gazı emisyon ölçümü ve analizi yapılmıştır. Analiz sonuçlarına göre yaklaşık 470 °C sıcaklıktaki gazın geri kazanımı için gerekli ısıl hesaplamalar yapılmıştır. Egzoz gazının emisyon ölçümü için CO, CO2, O2, SO2, NO, NO2 ve NOx Tayini Elektrokimyasal Hücre Metodu ile, Bacada Hız ve Debi Tayini ise S Tipi Pitot Tüpü ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Bacalarda oluşan atık ısının kullanımı için sistem alternatifleri araştırılmıştır. Proje ile ilgili olarak hava-su ısı değiştiriciler incelenmiştir. Analiz sonuçları ve seranın ihtiyacı olan enerji miktarına göre ekonomizer ya da eşanjör ölçüleri hesaplanmış, malzeme çeşidi tespit edilmiş, sistemin dizaynı ve imalatı yapılmıştır. Atık ısı geri kazanım ünitesinde ısıtılan su, pompalar vasıtasıyla seraya iletilecektir. Isı İletim sistemi ısı kayıpları minimuma düşürecek şekilde dizayn edilecek, sera içinde bulunan otomasyon sistemi vasıtasıyla ihtiyaç duyulan zaman dilimlerinde seraya sıcak su beslemesi

  17. The Control of Fast Reactors: Current Methods and Future Prospects; Controle des Reacteurs a Neutrons Rapides. Methodes Actuelles et Perspectives d'Avenir; Upravlenie reaktorami na bystrykh nejtronakh. sushchestvuyushchie metody i dal'nejshie perspektivy; Control de Reactores Rapidos: Metodos Actuales y Perspectivas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewenstein, W. B. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1964-06-15

    efectividad de los mecanismos de control han evolucionado desde evaluaciones poco precisas hasta calculos muy fidedignos confirmados experimentalmente en conjuntos criticos. El autor describe los resultados experimentales y las tecnicas analiticas, que suelen ser seguras. Los experimentos criticos que precedieron la construccion de los actuales modelos de reactores de neutrones rapidos comprendieron muchas investigaciones sobre la efectividad de sus mecanismos de control y experimentos marginales para sistemas perfeccionados en los que el cuerpo tiene un volumen mayor. El autor cita algunos estudios analiticos provisionales de los que se puede deducir que no habra necesidad de efectuar en lo sucesivo investigaciones experimentales detalladas en maquetas. (author) [Russian] Obsuzhdajutsja prakticheskie aspekty obespechenija sootvetstvujushhej reaktivnosti dlja upravlenija reaktorami na bystryh nejtronah, kotorye sushhestvenno otlichajutsja ot analogichnyh aspektov pri osushhestvlenii kontrolja sistem teplovyh nejtronov. Jeti razlichija vyzvany glavnym obrazom blagodarja nebol'shim sechenijam na bystryh nejtronah. V sistemah na bystryh nejtronah otsutstvujut sil'nye poglotiteli nejtronov. V rezul'tate jetogo takie sil'nye poglotiteli nejtronov v teplovyh reaktorah, kak produkty raspada (naprimer He i Zt)trebujut znachitel'no men'she reaktivnosti na ih kompensaciju, chem poterja reaktivnosti, vyzvannaja deleniem i zahvatom rasshhepljajushhihsja materialov. Poskol'ku atomnye sechenija bystrogo spektra dovol'no maly po sravneniju s sechenijami dlja teplovyh nejtronov atomnaja plotnost' materiala igraet vazhnuju rol' pri vybore materialov dlja regulirujushhih sterzhnej. Opisyvajutsja sushhestvujushhie tipy kontrol'nyh mehanizmov reaktorov na bystryh nejtronah. Jeti sposoby napravleny na vozmozhnost' ispol'zovanija, tam, gde jeto priemlemo,, kontrolja za utechkoj nejtronov. Kogda takoj kontrol' prakticheski neosushhestvim, to pri menjaetsja kontrol' s pomoshh'ju peredvizhenija

  18. Dergilerden Özetler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Tok

    2001-08-01

    üçlük çekeceği için daha da önemlidir. Çalışmamız, kadınların adli muayene imkanları sunulduğu veya sunulmadığı her iki durumda muayene olmaktan neden kaçındıklarının belirlenmesi için ileri araştırmalar yapılması gerektiğini göstermiştir. POSTMORTEM SÜRE VE FARE BÖBREK HÜCRECİKLERİNİN DNA MİKTARINDAKİ DEĞİŞİM ARASINDAKİ İLİŞKİ ÜZERİNE BİR ÇALIŞMA A study on the relationship between postmortem interval and the changes of DNA content in the kidney cellule of rat Liu L, Peng DB, Liu Y, Deng WN, Liu YL, Li JJ. Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi 2001 May;17(2:65-8 Fare böbrek hücreciklerinde DNA miktarı değişimi ve bu değişimin postmortem süre ile ilişkisinin incelenmesi. YÖNTEM: Bu deneyde hücre çekirdeğini değerlendirmek amacıyla aralarında alan, bütünsel optik yoğunluğun da bulunduğu yedi parametre seçildi ve postmortem 0-48 saat aralığında farklı sürelerde auto-TV-image sistemi ile 15 farenin böbrek hücreciğinin DNA miktarındaki değişim belirlendi. BULGULAR: Hücre çekirdeğinde DNA yıkım hızı, farede erken postmortem süre (0-48 saat ile kesin olarak ilişkilidir ve iki terimli gerileme denklemi elde edilebilir. SONUÇ: Hücre çekirdeğinde DNA miktarının belirlenmesi postmortem süre tayininde objektif ve kesin sonuç veren bir yöntemdir.

  19. Dergilerden Özetler

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    Mete Korkut Gülmen

    1997-10-01

    .\tKalıntıların kimliklendirmeye uygun fotoğrafları (yüzün önden ve yandan görünümleri b.\tKesiler. 1. Üst taraf kesisi: Bir kulak tragusundan diğerine nasal çentiği içine alacak şekilde. 2. Alt taraf kesisi. Alt çene kemiğinin çene ucu çıkıntısından (pıotuberentia mentalis'başlar. Her iki yanda alveoler çıkıntılar boyunca kemik alt kenarına parelel arkaya doğru devam edip alt çene kolunu (ramus mandíbula geçince sonlanır. 3- Yan kesiler: Alt çene kolunu geçip sonlanan alt kesi uçları ile kulak tragusları hizasındaki üst kesi uçları her iki yanda da birleştirilirler. c.\tDudak ve yanak dokuları dikkatlice çıkartılır. Bu işlem alev ve ısının yapmış olduğu değişiklikler nedeni ile zor olacaktır. d.\tM.pterygoideus medialis, alt çene eklem çıkıntısı (processus condylaris ve temporomandibular eklemin kapsül bağlarının kesilmesi. e.\tAlt ve üst diş kemerinin incelenmesine ve olgunun fotoğraflarının çekilmesine izin verecek şekilde alt çene kemiğini çekerek ağız içi boşluğun açılması. f.\tAğız içinde bulunan protezlerin, çıkabilen oı- todontik/ortopedik aletlerin ve herhangi bir yabancı cismin çıkarılması. g.\tAğzın diyagramda gösterilmesi. h.\tŞekil anomalileri, diş pozisyonu ve boyutlarının tanımlanması. i.\tOklüzyon tipinin diyagramda gösterilmesi. j. Gerekli ise, üst ve alt çene kemiklerinin in situ oklüzyal radyografilerinin çekilmesi. k. Alt çene kemiğinin orijinal pozisyonuna konularak ağzın kapatılması. 1.\tCesedin yüz görünümünü koruyacak şekilde önceden çıkartılan yumuşak dokuların yerine konması. m. Protez, ortopedik ve ortodontik aletlerin tanımlanması . Diğer özellikleri yanında bu aletlerin üretiminde kullanılmış materyal ve plan tipi göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. n. Toplanan bilgi aileden ve ölenin diş hekiminden alınan veriler ile karşılaştırılmalıdır. İKİ GENÇ KARDEŞİN KLİNİK ve TOKSİKOLOJİK BİLGİLERİ ve BİRKAÇ DEFA

  20. Dergilerden Özetler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Akif İnanıcı

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available GÖZ YARALANMASI OLAN KİŞİLERDE YAPILAN BİR ÇALIŞMA A Study on patients presenting with injuries to the eye N.L. Abeyasinghe. J. Clinical Forensic Medicine 1997; 4/2 : 77-80. Gözün travmaya çok hassas bir organ olması nedeniyle göz yaralanmaları sıkça ortaya çıkan olaylardır. Bu çalışma göz yaralanmalarının gerçek nedenlerini belirlemeyi ve bu şekildeki yaralanmaların neden olduğu görme kaybının derecesini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. Bir yıllık dönemde adli tıbbi muayenesi yapılan toplam 191 kurban cins, yaş, travma tipi ve görme kaybının derecesine göre incelenmiştir. Bu çalışma grubundaki kurbanların çoğu saldırı sonrası yaralanmaları olduğunu iddia etmişlerdir. Silah kullanımı ve göz yaralanmasının ağırlık derecesi arasında herhangi bir bağlantı kurulamamıştır. Kurbanların çok azında asit yanığı görülmekle birlikte, görme kaybı derecesinin ağırlığı açısından en ağır hasarlar bu grupta oluşmaktadır. YÜKSEK DOZ ALKOL ALIMI İLE İNTİHAR Suicide by alcohol overdose M.N. Michalodimitrakis, R. La Grange, A.M. Tsatsakis J. Clinical Forensic Medicine 1997; 4/2 : 91- 4. İntihar girişiminde bulunan kişinin vücudunda alkol sıkça saptanabilen bir maddedir. Alkol, intihar girişiminde bulunacak kişinin yaşamını sonlandırmada ortaya çıkabilecek son içgüdüsel direnmeyi azaltmak amacıyla kullanılabilir. Özellikle kanserli hastalarda görülen intihar girişimleri birbirlerine benzer özellik- dedir. Depresyon içerisindeki kanserli bir kişi alkolü sıklıkla duygularını baskılamak amacıyla kullanır. Ancak akut entoksikasyon düşüncesiyle ve kendini öldürme amacıyla kullanımı nadirdir. Bununla birlikte bu çalışmada iki şişe ispirto içerek intihar eden kanserli bir hastadan elde edilen sonuçlar bildirilmiştir. Postmortem kalp kanı ve göziçi sıvısında alkol seviyeleri 9.0 ve 6.2 mg/ml olarak bulunmuştur. CAM PAR

  1. Svojstva i struktura wolframkarbid-kobalt prevlake deponovane plazma-sprej postupkom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailo Rade Mrdak

    2013-10-01

    , 2011, (Turbojet engine-standard practices manuel TURBOMECA. Mikrostruktura svih prevlaka je lamelarna. Na mikrofotografijama se vidi da su istopljene čestice praha pravilno razlivene. Slojevi prevlake deponovani su kontinualno bez prisutnih mikro i makropukotina kroz slojeve. U slojevima nisu prisutne neistopljene čestice praha, precipitati i interlamelarne pore. U deponovanim slojevima svih prevlaka jasno se uočavaju ravnomerno distribuirane karbidne faze u žilavoj osnovi kobalta. Na svim mikrofotografijama jasno se uočavaju svetla polja metalnih faza i tamnosiva polja karbidnih faza. U svetlim poljima prisutna je polazna metalna faza Co i metalna faza W koja potiče od delimične razgradnje polaznog kubnog monocarbidea WC (Saha, et al., 2010, pp.592-595. U sivim poljima prisutna je polazna faza kubnog monokarbidea WC i karbidne faze koje su nastale razlaganjem kubnog karbida WC u karbide tipa W2C,W3C i mešoviti karbid ή - Co3W3C (Saha, et al., 2010, pp.592-595, (de Villiers Lovelock, 1998, pp.357–373. Zaključak Plazma-sprej postupkom (APS deponovane su prevlake WC17Co sa  protocima plazma gasa od 12 l/min, 22 l/min i 32 l/ min He. U radu su analizirane mehaničke karakteristike deponovanih slojeva i mikrostrukturne karakteristike na svetlosnom mikroskopu. Morfologija čestica praha ispitana je na (SEM skening elektronskom mikroskopu. Na osnovu izvršenih analiza došlo se do određenih zaključaka. Morfologija čestica praha WC17Co je sfernog oblika i tipična je za čestice praha koje se proizvode tehnikom  suvo  raspršavanje/sinterovanje. Vrednosti mikrotvrdoće i čvrstoće spoja deponovanih slojeva bili su u direktnoj vezi sa protocima helijuma kao plazma gasa. Svi deponovani slojevi imali su vrednosti mikrotvrdoće u propisanim granicama od 850 do 1300 HV0.3. Najravnomerniju raspodelu mikrotvrdoće imali su slojevi deponovani sa protokom plazma gasa od 22 l/min He.  Ti su slojevi imali najmanju razliku  mikrotvrdoće između maksimalnih i