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Sample records for optik lapisan tipis

  1. PENUMBUHAN LAPISAN TIPIS SILIKON MIKROKRISTAL TERHIDROGENASI DENGAN TEKNIK HWC-VHF-PECVD

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    Ida Usman

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Telah dikembangkan teknik HWC-VHF-PECVD (Hot Wire Cell Very High Frequency Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition untuk menumbuhkan lapisan tipis silikon mikrokristal terhidrogenasi (mc-Si:H. Dari hasil penumbuhan lapisan tipis yang dilakukan, teknik HWC-VHF-PECVD memperlihatkan laju deposisi yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan laju deposisi lapisan tipis yang diperoleh dari teknik PECVD maupun teknik VHF-PECVD konvensional. Berdasarkan hasil pengukuran XRD dan SEM, lapisan yang diperoleh pada temperatur filamen yang rendah masih berstruktur amorf. Indikasi yang mengarah pada pembentukan lapisan tipis berstruktur mikrokristalin mulai terlihat pada temperatur filamen ≥ 500oC, dimana puncak-puncak di fraksi spektrum XRD untuk orientasi kristalin tertentu mulai terbentu, sejalan dengan pembentukan butiran-butiran kristalin dari hasil foto SEM permukaan lapisan-lapisan tersebut.

  2. KARAKTERISTIK MAGNETIK LAPISAN TIPIS NI-FE SEBAGAI FLAT CORE FLUX GATE SENSOR

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    B. Purnama

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKarakteristik magnetik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe hasil elektrodeposisi sebagai flat core flux gate sensor didiskusikan pada makalah ini.  Lapisan tipis Ni-Fe dideposisi di atas substrat printed circuit board (PCB dengan variasi komposisi Ni dan rapat arus J.  Untuk memperoleh kualitas lapisan tipis yang baik, zat aditif vanily digunakan untuk mengurangi laju deposisi untuk keseluruhan ekperimen.  Hasil menunjukkan modifikasi karakteristik magnetik hasil vibrating sample magnetometer karena perubahan parameter penumbuhannya. Koersif field (Hc meningkat dengan kenaikan prosentase komposisi Ni pada lapisan tipis yang terbentuk.  Sedangkan Hc tidak membentuk pola tertentu dengan modifikasi apat arus J. Akhirnya magnetisasi jenuh maksimum mS = 0.72 emu/gr diperoleh untuk prosentase Ni = 51%, dan mS = 0.43 emu/gr untuk J = 5 mA/cm2.  Klarifikasi dengan STM, hal ini akibat perubahan struktur mikroskopik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe.ABSTRACTThis paper discusses magnetic characteristic of Ni-Fe permalloy thin film produced by electro deposited as flat core flux gate sensor.  Ni-Fe thin films were deposited on printed circuit board (PCB substrates with variation of composition in Ni percentage and current density J.  In order to obtain high quality thin films, an additive ingredient of vanily was used to reduce rate deposition for whole experimental procedure. Experiment results showed that modified of magnetic characteristic evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometer was caused by the modified of deposition parameters.  Coersive field (Hc increased with the increase of percentage of Ni composition, while the Hc did not form any particular pattern by modifying current density J. Finally, maximum saturated magnetization mS = 0.72 emu/gr was attained for percentage Ni of 51% and mS = 0.43 emu/gr for J = 5 mA/cm2. Clarification by using STM showed that this was caused by the change of microscopic structure in Ni-Fe thin films.

  3. KARAKTERISTIK MAGNETIK LAPISAN TIPIS NI-FE SEBAGAI FLAT CORE FLUX GATE SENSOR

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    B. Purnama

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKKarakteristik magnetik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe hasil elektrodeposisi sebagai flat core flux gate sensor didiskusikan pada makalah ini.  Lapisan tipis Ni-Fe dideposisi di atas substrat printed circuit board (PCB dengan variasi komposisi Ni dan rapat arus J.  Untuk memperoleh kualitas lapisan tipis yang baik, zat aditif vanily digunakan untuk mengurangi laju deposisi untuk keseluruhan ekperimen.  Hasil menunjukkan modifikasi karakteristik magnetik hasil vibrating sample magnetometer karena perubahan parameter penumbuhannya. Koersif field (Hc meningkat dengan kenaikan prosentase komposisi Ni pada lapisan tipis yang terbentuk.  Sedangkan Hc tidak membentuk pola tertentu dengan modifikasi apat arus J. Akhirnya magnetisasi jenuh maksimum mS = 0.72 emu/gr diperoleh untuk prosentase Ni = 51%, dan mS = 0.43 emu/gr untuk J = 5 mA/cm2.  Klarifikasi dengan STM, hal ini akibat perubahan struktur mikroskopik lapisan tipis Ni-Fe.ABSTRACTThis paper discusses magnetic characteristic of Ni-Fe permalloy thin film produced by electro deposited as flat core flux gate sensor.  Ni-Fe thin films were deposited on printed circuit board (PCB substrates with variation of composition in Ni percentage and current density J.  In order to obtain high quality thin films, an additive ingredient of vanily was used to reduce rate deposition for whole experimental procedure. Experiment results showed that modified of magnetic characteristic evaluated by vibrating sample magnetometer was caused by the modified of deposition parameters.  Coersive field (Hc increased with the increase of percentage of Ni composition, while the Hc did not form any particular pattern by modifying current density J. Finally, maximum saturated magnetization mS = 0.72 emu/gr was attained for percentage Ni of 51% and mS = 0.43 emu/gr for J = 5 mA/cm2. Clarification by using STM showed that this was caused by the change of microscopic structure in Ni-Fe thin films.

  4. Pengaruh Tekanan Parsial Oksigen Terhadap Koefisien Absorpsi Lapisan Tipis Indium Tin Oxide (ITO

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    Muslimin Muslimin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available DOWNLOAD PDFProses  absorpsi  foton  dengan  energi  tertentu  akan  mengeksitasi  elektron  darikeadaan energi yang lebih rendah ke keadaan energi yang lebih tinggi. Untuk menentukankoefisien  ini  secara  eksperimen  terutama  karena  adanya  pengaruh  interferensi  optis  daripola-pola  transmitansi  dan  reflektansi.  Tujuan  penelitian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukanbesarnya absorpsi lapisan tipis In2O3: SnO2dengan berbagai kadar oksigen yang diberikanpada saat deposisi. Proses pelapisan dilakukan 90% berat In2O3 dan 10% berat SnO2padasubstrat kaca dengan cara sputtering. Pada saat sputtering dilakukan penambahan oksigentertentu  yaitu  2,50%,  3,70%,  5,10%,  6,15%  dan  8,90%  yang  dilakukan  deposisi  padatemperature 1750C. Hasil analisis teramati adanya pergeseran interferensi dan transmitansike arah panjang gelombang yang lebih pendek sebanding dengan kenaikan kadar oksigen.Pada  kadar  oksigen  2,50%  dan  3,70%  koefisien  absorbsi  makin  naik,  tetapi  pada  kadaroksigen  5,10%,  6,15%  dan   8,90%  koefisien  absorpsi  mulai  menurun.  Perlakuan  kadaroksigen  pada  saat  deposisi  lapisan  tipis  ITO  dapat  mempengaruhi  koefisien  absorpsilapisan tipis yang terbentuk.Kata kunci : Kadar oksigen, koefisien absorpsi

  5. VARIASI SUHU DEPOSISI PADA STRUKTUR, SIFAT OPTIK DAN LISTRIK FILM TIPIS SENG OKSIDA DENGAN DOPING GALIUM (ZNO:GA)

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    S. Sulhadi; F. Fatiatun; P. Marwoto; S. Sugianto; E. Wibowo

    2015-01-01

    Telah dilakukan deposisi film tipis ZnO:Ga di atas substrat kaca korning pada tekanan deposisi 500 mtorr dengan metode DC-magnetron sputtering. Film ditumbuhkan masing-masing pada suhu 325oC, 375oC, dan 425oC. Struktur, sifat optik dan sifat listrik film tipis yang dideposisikan telah dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan EDX, XRD, SEM, spektrofotometer UV-Vis dan I-V Meter. Analisis EDX menunjukkan bahwa film yang terdeposisi merupakan film tipis ZnO:Ga. Hasil analisis struktur dengan XRD menun...

  6. VARIASI SUHU DEPOSISI PADA STRUKTUR, SIFAT OPTIK DAN LISTRIK FILM TIPIS SENG OKSIDA DENGAN DOPING GALIUM (ZNO:GA

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    S. Sulhadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan deposisi film tipis ZnO:Ga di atas substrat kaca korning pada tekanan deposisi 500 mtorr dengan metode DC-magnetron sputtering. Film ditumbuhkan masing-masing pada suhu 325oC, 375oC, dan 425oC. Struktur, sifat optik dan sifat listrik film tipis yang dideposisikan telah dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan EDX, XRD, SEM, spektrofotometer UV-Vis dan I-V Meter. Analisis EDX menunjukkan bahwa film yang terdeposisi merupakan film tipis ZnO:Ga. Hasil analisis struktur dengan XRD menunjukkan bahwa film tipis ZnO:Ga yang dideposisikan merupakan polikristalin dengan struktur heksagonal wurtzite. Film ZnO:Ga yang dideposisikan pada suhu 325o mempunyai kualitas kristal yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan film yang dideposisikan pada suhu 375o dan 425oC. Hasil XRD juga terkonfirmasi dengan observasi SEM menunjukkan bahwa film ZnO:Ga yang dideposisikan pada suhu 325oC mempunyai ukuran butir yang lebih homogen dibandingkan dengan film yang ditumbuhkan pada suhu deposisi 375o dan 425oC. Film tipis ZnO:Ga yang ditumbuhkan pada suhu 325oC mencapai transmitansi optik ~ 89% dan energi bandgap ~3,33 eV. Sifat listrik dapat diketahui dengan menggunakan I-V Meter yang menunjukkan nilai  1,74 x10ˉ3 (Ωcmˉ1 pada suhu deposisi 325oC. Thin films ZnO:Ga were deposited on corning glass substrates with argon gas pressure 500 mtorr and variation temperature at 325oC,  375oC and 425oC by DC-Magnetron Sputtering. The structural studies, optical and electricity properties of the thin films have been investigated by means of EDX, XRD, SEM, Uv-Vis spectroscopy and I-V meter. The EDX result show that thin films were deposited is ZnO:Ga thin films. The structural studies result from XRD show the ZnO:Ga thin films deposited have polycrystalline with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. ZnO:Ga film were deposited at 325oC have the better quality crystal with the other. The XRD result also appropriate with SEM, it was shown at 325oC has grain size more homogeny with

  7. KAJIAN VARIASI SUHU ANNEALING DAN HOLDING TIME PADA PENUMBUHAN LAPISAN TIPIS BaZr0,15Ti0,85O3 DENGAN METODE SOL GEL

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    S Hadiati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Penumbuhan lapisan tipis BaZr0,15Ti0,85O3 telah dilakukan menggunakan metode sol gel di atas substrat Pt/Si yang disiapkan dengan spin coater. Penumbuhan lapisan tipis menggunakan variasi suhu annealing 8000C dan 9000C, dan variasi waktu tahan (holding time 3 jam dan 4 jam dengan kecepatan putar 4000 rpm. Hasil karakterisasi XRD menunjukkan, seiring dengan bertambahnya waktu tahan menunjukkan bertambahnya intensitas yang semakin tinggi. Hal ini  menandakan tingkat kekristalan makin tinggi. Namun, dengan penambahan suhu annealing maka intensitas semakin kecil. Setelah dilakukan penghalusan menggunakan metode Rietveld dengan program GSAS, parameter kisi lapisan tipis BaZr0,15Ti0,85O3 semakin besar dengan bertambahnya suhu annealing dan waktu tahan serta memiliki struktur kristal tetragonal. Partikel size yang didapat dengan formula Scherer semakin besar seiring dengan bertambahnya suhu annealing dan waktu tahan. Hal ini juga ditunjukkan dari SEM, ukuran butir semakin besar seiring dengan bertambahnya suhu annealing, akan tetapi pada varisi suhu annealing ukuran butir tidak dapat ditentukan.  Thin Films BaZr0,15Ti0,85O3 have deposited on Pt/Si substrate by using sol gel method that was prepared by using spin coater. Deposition of thin films applies by using annealing temperatures in 8000C and 9000C, while the holding time was 3 and 4 hours and the rotation speed was 4000 rpm.The XRD characterization results show that the x-ray intensity increases along with the increasing of its holding time therefore it indicates that the crystallinity level is higher. Meanwhile the x-ray intensity decreases along with the increasing of annealing temperature. The refinement results using the Rietveld method with the GSAS program show that the thin films BaZr0.15Ti0.85O3 have tetragonal crystal structure and its lattice parameter value increases along with the increasing of its annealing temperature and holding time. Particle size obtained by Scherer formula was

  8. RADIASI OPTIK

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    Sri Soewasti Soesanto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Radiasi optik tidak terlalu masuk ke dalam maka mata dan kulit merupakan bagian tubuh yang perlu mendapat perhatian. Efek akut utama adalah fotokeratitis, cedera retina mata karena panas, dan fotokimia serta erithema, dan terbakarnya kulit. Efek lanjut termasuk timbulnya katarak, mungkin degenerasi retina mata, serta penuaan dini, dan kanker kulit. Efek biologis dari semua radiasi optik dapat dibagi menjadi tiga kategori utama yaitu: thermal (termasuk termo-mekanik, fotokimia, dan efek medan listrik langsung.

  9. STRUKTUR MORFOLOGI, KOMPOSISI KIMIA DAN RESISTANSI LAPISAN TIO2-CU SEBAGAI LAPISAN AKTIF PADA SEL SURYA FOTOELEKTROKIMIA

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    Rita Prasetyowati

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Peningkatan efisiensi sel surya titania terus dikembangkan. Salah satunya adalah memodifikasi titania yang berfungsi sebagai lapisan aktif. Lapisan titania dapat disisipi dengan logam Cu. Penyisipan logam Cu pada TiO2 dilakukan melalui pembuatan nanokomposit TiO2-Cu dengan metode sol-gel. Lapisan TiO2-Cu yang terbentuk dikarakterisasi dengan SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy untuk mengetahui struktur morfologi permukaan, EDX (Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy untuk mengetahui komposisi bahan. Sedangkan resistansi lapisan diukur menggunakan Jembatan Wheatstone. Berdasarkan hasil SEM dapat ditunjukkan bahwa struktur morfologi permukaan lapisan TiO2-Cu tidak berbeda secara signifikan dengan lapisan TiO2, yaitu cukup homogen dan memiliki ukuran butir (grain yang hampir sama. Tetapi dari hasil EDX diperoleh bahwa lapisan TiO2-Cu yaitu lapisan TiO2 yang disisipi logam tembaga mengandung  unsur Ti sebanyak 59,8%, unsur O sebanyak 40,02% dan unsur Cu sebanyak 0,19%. Sedangkan lapisan TiO2 saja mengandung unsur Ti sebanyak 54,25% dan unsur O sebanyak 45,75%. Penyisipan logam tembaga pada lapisan titania dapat menurunkan resistansi listrik lapisan. Nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2 adalah 7,714 kilo ohm. Sedangkan nilai resistansi lapisan TiO2-Cu adalah 6,624 kilo ohm.

  10. Studi Disorder Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H Hasil Deposisi Metode Dc Sputtering

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    Rosari Saleh

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Disorder Study of Amorphous Silicon Carbon (a-SiC:H Films Deposited by DC Sputtering Method. Disorder amorphous network of amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films has been investigated for films prepared by dc sputtering method. The films were deposited using silicon target in argon and methane gas mixtures. The optical absorption coefficients have been performed by UV-VIS (ultra violet-visible reflectance and transmittance spectroscopy. Disorder parameter has been obtained from the optical absorption coefficient α (E using Tauc plot. Increasing methane flow rate has an effect on increasing Tauc gap and decreasing disorder parameter. The amorphous network of the films tends to be more disorder with increasing methane flow rate. The relation of disorder amorphous network with structural and compositional properties will be discussed.

  11. PENUMBUHAN DAN KARAKTERISASI LAPISAN TIPIS PbTiO3 YANG DISIAPKAN DENGAN TEKNIK SPIN COATING

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    Bilalodin

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The growth of PbTiO3 ferroelectric thin films have successfully done. Thin films were made from bulk (powder PbTiO3 dissolved in methanol solution. The condensation was mixed during 1 hour to get homogeneous condensation. Thin films were grown above corning substrates by spin coating method. Optimation was done by various of annealing temperature. The physical properties of thin films were characterized by Energi Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Scanning and Electron Microscopy (SEM. EDS measurement showed that the stoichiometry composition ratio of Pb/Ti is 1/1.26 at annealing temperature 600oC and 1/1.29 at annealing temperature 700oC. The result of XRD pattern showed that crystal structure of PbTiO3 thin films are tetragonal. The calculated lattice parameters ontained from Chohen Method are

  12. PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI SIFAT OPTIK KACA POSFAT

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    - Sulhadi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Gelas fosfat telah sukses dibuat dengan komposisi P2O5-MgO dan P2O5-CaO menggunakan teknik quenching leleh. Bahangelas dibuat dengan memanasinya pada suhu 850oC selama 30 menit. Sampel gelas dipersiapkan dengan komposisi fosfat 70-85%, dengan interval 5%. Gelas fosfat yang diproduksi dengan komposisi 80% memiliki sifat transparan yang baik dan tidak pecahketika dicetak. hasil analisis optik menunjukkan bahwa gelas fosfat dengan pemodifikasi MgO memiliki sifat optik yang baik. lebihtransparan daripada CaO. Phosphate glass has been successfully made with compotition P O -MgO dan P O -CaO by melt quenching technique. The 2 5 2 5 process of making glass forming material by heating at a temperature 850oC and maintained for 30 minutes. Glass samlpe preparedwith the compotition of phosphate 85%, 80%, 75%, 70%. Phosphate glass produced with 80% compotitions which have goodtransparency properties and do not break when molded. The result of optical analysis shows phosphate glass with modifier MgOhas good optical properties than CaO. Taken as a macroscopic phosphate glass with MgO modifier is more transparent than withCaO, so that both glass allows for futher applicationsKeywords: phosphate glass; optical properties; preparation,quenching

  13. PENENTUAN LAPISAN AKUIFER AIR TANAH DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK KONFIGURASI CHLUMBERGER DI DESA SUNGAI JATI KECAMATAN MATARAMAN KABUPATEN BANJAR KALIMANTAN SELATAN

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    Dinisa Hanifa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk mencari lapisan akuifer air tanah di Desa Sungai Jati sebagai dasar dalam perencanaan dalam pembuatan sumur bor. Salah satu cara untuk mengetahui potensi keberadaan air tanah adalah melakukan pengukuran geolistrik dengan konfigurasi schlumberger. Hasil penelitian  geolistrik  konfigurasi  schlumberger  menunjukkan  struktur  lapisan batuan di Desa Sungai Jati pada titik pengukuran GL1, GL2, GL3, GL4, GL5 dan GL6  terdiri  dari  lapisan  lapuk,  batu  pasir,  lanau,  lempung,  dan  lempung gampingan karena Sungai Jati termasuk kedalam formasi Keramaian (Kak. Sebaran akuifer air tanah tersebar pada lapisan batu pasir dengan  kedalaman akuifer air tanahnya bervariasi. Hasil interpretasi diketahui tebal lapisan berkisar antara  2 – 11  meter  dengan kedalaman  sekitar  6  –  40  meter  dengan  nilai resistivitas 100 – 450 Ωm. Secara keseluruhan semakin ke bawah jenis batuanya semakin padat, lapisan ini kurang bersifat sebagai lapisan pembawa air (akuifer. Lapisan air tanah yang berpotensi untuk pembuatan sumur bor dengan kualitas dan kuantitas yang cukup baik terdapat lapisan impermeable pada bagian atas dan bawah sedangkan pada Desa Sungai Jati merupakan akuifer bebas dimana lapisan impermeable hanya terdapat pada lapisan di bawah lapisan akuifer.   Kata kunci : geolistrik, konfigurasi schlumberger, akuifer

  14. Perancangan Coupling Antara Solar Collector-Serat Optik Untuk Sistem Pencahayaan Alami

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    Bantara Bayu Permana Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak—Solar lighting merupakan salah satu energi alternatif yang memanfaatkan matahari sebagai sumber cahaya untuk penerangan ruangan.Solar lighting dapat diaplikasikan dengan berbagai macam metode, salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan serat optik. Sistem solar lighting berbasis serat optik terdiri dari dua komponen utama, yaitu solar collector dan serat optik. Solar collector merupakan alat yang digunakan untuk memantulkan dan mengumpulkan sinar matahari pada satu titik, sedangkan serat optik merupakan alat yang digunakan sebagai media transmisi cahaya.Salah satu masalah yang dapat mempengaruhi transmisi cahaya adalah coupling dari solar collector ke serat optik.Dalam tugas akhir ini dilakukan perancangan sistem coupling antara solar collector dengan serat optik pada sistem solar lighting berbasis serat optik dengan hasil intensitas keluaran serat optik sesuai dengan standar SNI03-6575-2001 dalam pencahayaan laboratorium (500 lux.Dasar perancangan dalam sistem coupling adalah pemilihan - pemilihan parameter dari kolektor parabola dan serat optik untuk besar berkas masukan cahaya tertentu.Berdasarkan diameter berkas cahaya yang diterima kolektor dan sudut penerimaan maksimal dari serat optik dapat ditentukan besar harga parameter panjang fokus (f dan aperture (D yang menghasilkan coupling yang maksimum.Selain itu panjang serat optik dapat mempengaruhi dari transmisi. Pada tugas akhir ini digunakan serat optik sepanjang 50 m sebagai salah satu batasan  penelitian. Hasil dari perhitungan, untuk memperoleh intensitas sebesar 500 lux pada keluaran serat optik diperlukan parabola dengan panjang fokus 1,51 m dan aperture 1,31 m, sedangkan hasil eksperimen dengan panjang fokus dan aperture yang sama diperoleh intensitas kurang dari 500 lux. Ketidaksesuaian antara hasil perhitungan dengan eksperimen ini dapat diakibatkan oleh kurang simetrisnya kolektor parabola yang dibuat. Hal ini dapat dilihat dari terjadinya pelebaran spot size berkas cahaya

  15. PEMETAAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN PENUTUP BATU GAMPING BAHAN BAKU SEMEN MENGGUNAKAN METODE GEOLISTRIK KONFIGURASI SCHLUMBERGER

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    Setiyawan Adi Saputro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Penelitian geolistrik resistivitas untuk mengetahui struktur bawah permukaan serta kedalaman dari batu gamping di Daerah Paciran Kabupaten Rembang Jawa Tengah telah dilakukan menggunakan konfigurasi Schlumberger. Pengambilan data sebanyak sembilan belas titik sounding dengan bentangan AB/2 sejauh 150 m. Peralatan yang digunakan diantaranya yaitu seperangkat resistivitymeter OYO MODEL 2119C MCOHM-EL. Pertama pengolahan data yaitu menggunakan software IP2Win untuk mengetahui kedalaman dan ketebalan lapisan secara vertikal. Kedua, hasil interpretasi VES menjadi masukan software RockWork 14 dalam membuat cross section. Hasilnya menunjukan terdeteksi 3 lapisan batuan yang diduga sebagai top soil, batu gamping dengan kandungan MgO tinggi dan batu gamping dengan kandungan CaO tinggi. Lapisan top soil terdeteksi dengan ketebalan antara 0,140–1,53 m. Sedangkan lapisan kedua diduga sebagai lapisan batu gamping dengan kandungan MgO tinggi terdeteksi dengan ketebalan antara 2,16–10,3 m. Dengan demikian, kedalaman lapisan batu gamping dengan CaO tinggi terdeteksi pada kedalaman 2,30–10,3 m. Hal ini menunjukan pada bagian Timur kedalaman batu gamping dengan kandungan CaO tinggi lebih dalam dibandingkan bagian Barat. Namun kedalaman paling dalam pada bagian Timur Laut dan Tenggara. Pada bagian tengah kedalaman lebih dalam dari yang diperoleh pada bagian Barat pada lokasi penelitian, tapi tidak sedalam pada bagian Timur Laut dan Tenggara.   Kata kunci: Geolistrik, batu gamping, Rembang

  16. SIMULASI PERHITUNGAN REFLEKSI CAHAYA OLEH PERMUKAAN SEL SURYA SILIKON : STUDI PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN LAPISAN ANTI REFLEKSI ZINC OKSIDA (ZnO

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    Andi Suhandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan simulasi perhitungan untuk mendapatkan gambaran pengaruh penambahan lapisan anti refleksi ZnO terhadap persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon. Proses perhitungan dilakukan dengan bantuan software Sigma Plot. Perhitungan menggunakan konsep-konsep dasar fisika terkait optika, diantaranya konsep refleksi dan transmisi gelombang cahaya ketika melewati bidang batas dua medium yang berbeda kerapatan optiknya, konsep polarisasi cahaya, dan konsep anti refleksi. Hasil simulasi perhitungan menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya bergantung pada panjang gelombang cahaya datang (. Persen refleksi turun dari dari 38% ketika permukaan sel surya Silikon tidak dilapisi lapisan antirefleksi ZnO menjadi sekitar 15 % setelah permukaan sel surya silikon dilapisi lapisan ZnO dengan ketebalan sekitar 110 nm. Hasil lainnya menunjukkan bahwa persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya Silikon yang telah dilapisi lapisan anti refleksi ZnO nilainya bervariasi bergantung pada ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi yang digunakan. Dalam rentang data simulasi, ketika tebal lapisan anti refleksi ZnO ditingkatkan, persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya silikon nilainya turun, namun ketika ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi ditingkatkan lagi, ternyata persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya naik kembali. Keadaan ini menunjukkan adanya nilai ketebalan lapisan anti refleksi optimum yang menghasilkan persen refleksi cahaya oleh sel surya bernilai minimum. Penurunan persen refleksi cahaya oleh permukaan sel surya akan meningkatkan persen transmisi cahaya menuju lapisan aktif sel surya, yang pada akhirnya akan meningkatkan efisiensi konversi sel surya Silikon.

  17. Perambatan Gelombang Optik pada Grating Sinusoidal dengan Chirp dan Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnani Darti

    2009-11-01

    menggunakan MIL, dipelajari perubahan respon optik pada grating sinusoidal akibat variasi amplitudo modulasi indeks (taper dan variasi frekuensi spasial grating (chirp. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa taper menyebabkan adanya fenomena penghilangan side-lobe pada spektrum transmitansi. Adanya chirp menyebabkan penghalusan side-lobe pada spektrum transmitansi dengan semakin besar parameter chirp menyebabkan peningkatan transmitansi di sekitar pusat band-gap dari grating homogen. Selain implementasi integrasi numerik (Runge-Kutta, MIL merupakan metode eksak sehingga dapat digunakan untuk mengevaluasi validitas metode yang sering digunakan yaitu Persamaan Moda Tergandeng (PMT. Dari hasil perbandingan dapat disimpulkan bahwa secara umum PMT kurang akurat dalam menganalisis struktur grating sinusoidal baik homogen maupun tak-homogen.

  18. PEMANFAATAN KIT OPTIK SEBAGAI WAHANA DALAM PENINGKATAN SIKAP ILMIAH SISWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Wahyudi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini mengkaji bagaimana bentuk kegiatan pemanfaatan kit yang dapat meningkatkan sikap ilmiah siswa, serta sikapsikapilmiah apa saja yang dapat dikembangkan melalui pemanfaatan kit dalam pembelajaran. Penelitian tindakan kelas inidilaksanakan dalam empat siklus dengan memanfaatkan kit optik pada pokok bahasan optika geometri. Hasil penelitianmenunjukkan bahwa peningkatan sikap ilmiah dapat dilakukan dengan mengembangkan perangkat kegiatan pemanfaatan kitOptik dalam pembelajaran, meliputi: rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP yang berorientasi pada aktivitas belajar siswa,berupa pembiasaan bersikap ilmiah dengan melakukan kerja ilmiah, lembar kerja siswa (LKS yang dirancang dengan pendekataninquiry yang menjadi arah serta panduan bagi siswa dalam bekerja ilmiah. Sikap ilmiah yang dapat dikembangkan dalam penelitianini adalah objektif, kritis, ulet, rendah hati, dapat bekerjasama dengan orang lain dan pandangan positif terhadap kegagalan. This Classroom action research discusses how activities of kit optic utilization can improve students' scientific attitudes and whatscientific attitudes can be developed in their learning. This research is conducted in four cycles that applies kit optic as the maintopic in optical geometry. The result shows that students' scientific attitudes can be improved by implementing specific units ofactivity in kit optic utilization in students' learning. They consist of RPP (The Plan for Teaching Implementation with the orientationof students' learning activities in the forms of developing students' habit of scientific attitude in scientific project and students' paperwork through inquiry approach. This research suggests that kit optic utilization improves students' scientific attitudes of beingobjective, critical, perseverance, modest, cooperative, and optimistic toward failures.Keywords: kit optic, scientific attitudes, optical geometry, scientific attitude

  19. Penentuan Konstanta Optis di Daerah Absorpsi Fundamental Menggunakan Formulasi Forouhi dan Bloomer untuk Lapisan Tipis Amorf Silikon Karbon (A-Sic:H

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    Dewi Marianty

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available An expression of the imaginary and real parts of the complex refractive index derived by Forouhi and Bloomer have been applied to obtain wider energy range of optical constants for amorphous silicon carbon (a-SiC:H films deposited by dc sputtering method using silicon and graphite targets. Excellent agreement was obtained between the formula and experimentally measured values of both n(E and k(E. The optical constants obey Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation and show a maximum at high-energy range. The dependence of five parameters to carbon concentration and the variation of optical constants with composition for both targets will be discussed.

  20. Pengaruh NiCrAlY, Ni/Cr2O3/CrxCy Sebagai Variasi Bond Coat Dengan Penambahan Lapisan Al2O3 dan YSZ Pada Inconel 625 Terhadap Struktur Mikro Lapisan Menggunakan Metode Flame Spraying

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    Aprian Immanuel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC berfungsi untuk mengurangi temperatur substrat serta meningkatkan daya tahannya terhadap korosi dan oksidasi. Pada penelitian ini, digunakan flame spraying dari variasi bond coat (Ni-Cr-Al-Y, (Ni/CrO3/CrXCY dan tanpa bond coat serta melapisi kembali lapisan bond coat dengan Al2O3 dan ZrO2 – 8%Y2O3 sebagai Thermal Barrier Coating untuk diteliti pengaruhnya terhadap struktur mikro lapisan yang terbentuk. Hasil flame spray diamati dengan SEM pada variasi bond coat NiCrAlY ditemukan beberapa serbuk dari material top coat dengan beberapa kondisi yaitu meleleh (melted, meleleh sebagian (semi melted, dan tidak meleleh (unmelted. Ditemukan poros yang merata hampir di seluruh permukaan sampel dan munculnya pengintian retak. Perbedaan sebelum dan sesudah perlakuan ada pada persebaran setiap unsur di setiap spesimen, dan lapisan oksida yang terbentuk pada seluruh variasi bond coat

  1. Mobil tabanlı optik form değerlendirme sistemi

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    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ülkemizde ve dünyadaki eğitim sistemlerinde gerek öğrencilerin başarılarının değerlendirilmesinde gerekse öğrenci seçiminde çoktan seçmeli şıklar içeren optik formlar çok sık kullanılmaktadır. Optik formlar optik okuyucu cihazlar sayesinde optik işaret tanıma teknikleri kullanılarak değerlendirilmektedir. Bu tip cihazların pahalı olması, bu cihazlara erişimin sınırlı olması ve değerlendirme sonuçlarını bekleme süresinin uzun olması hem büyük şehirlerde hem de taşrada çalışan eğitimcilere zorluk çıkarmaktadır. Bu çalışmada eğitimcilerin sahip oldukları akıllı telefon ya da tabletleri aracılığı ile bir mekâna ya da optik cihaza bağlı kalmadan, hızlı bir şekilde öğrenci cevap formlarını değerlendirebilecekleri mobil bir yazılım geliştirilmiştir. Optik form tanıma, okuma ve değerlendirme işlemi eğitimcinin mobil telefonu ya da tableti aracılığı ile çektiği öğrencinin cevap formu görüntüsü üzerinde yapılmaktadır. Geliştirdiğimiz Android tabanlı mobil uygulama kullanıcı dostu bir arayüze sahip olup başarı oranı yüksektir ve bu alanda mobil ortamlarda çalışan ilk uygulama olma özelliğini taşımaktadır.

  2. Aplikace marketingového mixu na příkladu firmy Optik Otava

    OpenAIRE

    Otavová, Petra

    2008-01-01

    The final aim of my study is to create marketing mix for selling luxury eyeglasses. This study is worked out in conditions of the company named Optik Otava which does not use professional marketing strategic planning. First of all the optical profession is presented and the optical market is analyzed. In the second part, there is prepared a theoretical base for marketing mix creation. Marketing mix is just one part of marketing strategic planning, therefore I also have to speak of particular ...

  3. Rancang Bangun Sensor Specific Gravity pada Crude Oil Menggunakan Serat Optik Plastik

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    Achmad Wahyu Rizky W

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Tingkat kebutuhan energi minyak bumi di dunia semakin meningkat seiring berkembangnya teknologi. Untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tersebut, pihak produsen harus menambah jumlah produksinya dengan meningkatkan efisiensi pada saat proses produksi. Salah satu hal yang harus dilakukan adalah melakukan uji specific gravity pada minyak bumi. Uji specific gravity pada minyak bumi penting untuk dilakukan karena berdasarkan oAPI , hal ini menentukan apakah minyak bumi tersebut diklasifikasikan dalam heavy oil, medium oil atau light oil. Selain itu, nilai specific gravity juga akan menentukan nilai kapasitas kapal tanker untuk pengangkutan minyak mentah tersebut. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan menggunakan sensor serat optik plastik yang dikelupas cladding-nya dengan variasi panjang sensor 1 cm, 2 cm, 4 cm dan 8 cm. Prinsip kerja dari sensor ini adalah pemanfaatan dari perubahan medan evanescent apabila dilakukan penggantian cladding serat optik oleh crude oil. Daya keluaran serat optik sebelum dan sesudah diberikan minyak mentah diukur menggunakan powermeter, dan beda daya yang dihasilkan nantinya akan dikonversi menjadi nilai specific gravity. Dari hasil uji karakteristik statis sensor, sensor dengan panjang 2 cm adalah sensor dengan respon terbaik yang memiliki sensitivitas sebesar 74,65µW per satuan specfic gravity, dengan span pengukuran terbesar yaitu sebesar 5,048µW, nilai koefisien determinasi sebesar 91,6% dan nilai error maksimal sebesar 0,86%.

  4. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR) BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sujarwata -; P. Marwoto

    2014-01-01

    Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor) berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithogra...

  5. PENGARUH TEMPERATUR ANNEALING PADA SIFAT LISTRIK FILM TIPIS ZINC OKSIDA DOPING ALUMINIUM OKSIDA

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    S Sugianto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Penumbuhan film tipis zinc oksida di-doping aluminium oksida dengan variasi temperatur annealing menggunakan metode dc magnetron sputtering telah berhasil dilakukan. Pengaruh variasi temperature annealing pada struktur dan sifat listrik film tipis telah dipelajari dengan menggunakan XRD dan I-V meter. Berdasarkan karakterisasi XRD, film tipis yang dihasilkan memiliki struktur wurtzite dengan orientasi yang dominan adalah (002. Penambahan temperatur annealing pada proses penumbuhan meningkatkan intensitas orientasi (002. Selanjutnya analisis sifat listrik menggunakan I-V meter. Film tipis zinc oksida di-doping Al  pada temperatur annealing 300°C memiliki nilai resitivitas yang optimum yaitu 2,89 x 102  Wcm. Hal tersebut konsisten dengan hasil XRD yang menyatakan bahwa film tipis zinc oksida yang di doping  dengan  aluminium oksida pada temperature 300°C memiliki ukuran kristal yang semakin besar, kompak dan homogen.Growth of zinc oxide doped aluminum oxide thin film with annealing temperature variation using dc magnetron sputtering method has been done. Effect of annealing temperature variations on the structure and electrical properties of thin films has studied using XRD and I-V meter. According to XRD characterization, thin film was obtained has wurtzite structure with dominant orientation is (002. Increasing of annealing temperature on the growth process was increased the intensity of orientation (002. Furthermore, the electrical properties were measured using I-V meter.  Zinc oxide doped Al thin film shows the optimum resistivity around of 2.89 x 102 Wcm when the annealing temperature of 300 °C. This is consistent with XRD results which is the Zinc oxide doped aluminum oxide thin has a crystal size is getting bigger, dense, and homogeneous at annealing temperature 300°C.

  6. PERFORMA OKSIDASI METAN PADA REAKTOR KONTINYU DENGAN PENINGKATAN KETEBALAN LAPISAN BIOCOVER LANDFILL

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    Opy Kurniasari

    2013-11-01

    methane through the form of methanol metabolite. ABSTRAKPenanganan sampah kota di Indonesia pada umumnya dilakukan pada tempat pemrosesan akhir sampah (TPA, yang sebagian besar dilakukan dengan cara pengurugan (landfilling yang cenderung bersifat anaerob (tidak ada oksigen. Cara pengurugan ini biasanya dioperasikan lapis perlapis sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya proses anaerob. Pada kondisi ini dipastikan biogas, yaitu gas metana (CH4 dan CO2, akan muncul. Metana adalah gas rumah kaca dengan potensi pemanasan global lebih besar dari CO2, dan dapat mengabsorpsi radiasi infra merah 23 kali lebih efisien dari CO2 pada periode lebih dari 100 tahun. Salah satu cara yang dapat dilakukan untuk mengurangi gas metana dari landfill yang lepas ke alam adalah dengan mengoksidasinya dengan memanfaatkan material penutup landfill (biocover sebagai media mikroorganisma pengoksidasi metana. Aplikasi kompos sebagai material penutup landfill merupakan pendekatan dengan biaya rendah untuk mereduksi emisi gas dari landfill sehingga cocok untuk negara berkembang. Biocover yang digunakan pada penelitian ini adalah kompos landfill mining, yaitu kompos yang terdegradasi secara alami di landfill. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengevaluasi kemampuan biocover kompos landfill mining dalam mengoksidasi metana pada ketebalan lapisan tertentu dengan kondisi aliran kontinyu. Tiga buah reaktor kolom yang digunakan terbuat dari flexy glass berukuran tinggi 70 cm dan diameter 15 cm. Gas metana dialirkan dari bawah reaktor secara kontinyu dengan laju alir 5 ml/menit. Kolom diisi dengan biocover kompos landfill mining dengan ketebalan lapisan 5, 25, 35 dan 60 cm. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa semakin tebal lapisan biocover, semakin tinggi efisiensi oksidasi metana. Efisiensi oksidasi yang diperoleh pada setiap ketebalan lapisan 15, 25, 35 dan 60 cm adalah masing-masing 56,43%, 63,69%, 74,58% dan 80,03%, dengan laju oksidasi 0,287 mol m-2 d-1 dan fraksi oksidasi 97%. Hasil oksidasi yang diperoleh tersebut

  7. Gelatin dalam Elektrolit Gel terhadap Ketebalan dan Kekuatan Lekat Lapisan Krom pada Baja dengan Metode Elektroplating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikin Hermanto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Elektroplating pada dunia industri banyak dimanfaatkan untuk melakukan pelapisan terhadap benda kerja dengan cara pencelupan benda kerja dalam larutan elektrolit. Cara ini dirasa kurang efektif bila digunakan pada benda kerja yang telah terpasang pada rangkaian kerjanya, sehingga penelitian tentang elektrolit gel ini dilakukan. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode alternatif elektroplating, yaitu elektrolit gel. Elektrolit gel merupakan metode elektroplating tanpa perlu melakukan pencelupan, penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi H2CrO4 (250 g/l; 300 g/l; 350 g/l dan gelatin sebagai gelling agent (40,5 g/l; 81 g/l; 121,5 g/l dalam elektrolit gel H2CrO4 terhadap ketebalan dan kualitas lapisan krom hasil elektroplating pada baja. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa semakin besar konsentrasi asam kromat dalam elektrolit gel akan meningkatkan ketebalan deposit krom sedangkan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin akan menurunkan ketebalan deposit krom. Penambahan konsentrasi asam kromat akan menurunkan nilai kelekatan deposit krom pada spesimen, sedangkan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin akan mencapai nilai kelekatan maksimalnya pada konsentrasi 81 g/l dan penambahan konsentrasi gelatin melebihi konsentrasi tersebut akan menyebabkan penurunan nilai kelekatan.

  8. Spex Tipi Mekanik Alaşımlama/Mekanik Öğütme Cihazı ile Üretilen TiB2 Parçacık Takviyeli Alüminyum Bazlı Kompozit Tozların Karakterizasyonu

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    Hasan KAYA

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalısmada, SPEX tipi yüksek enerjili mekanik alasımlama/ögütme (MA/MÖ degirmeninde TiB2 seramik parçacık takviyeli Al-bazlı metal matris kompozit (MMK toz malzeme üretimi yapılmıstır. MA/MÖ isleminde ögütme elemanı olarak 6 mm çapında paslanmaz çelik bilye, 10:1 bilye-toz oranı (BTO, islem kontrol kimyasalı (IKK olarak %2 stearik asit kullanılmıstır. Toz ve bilye sarjı glow-box'ta argon ortamında yapılmıstır. Üretilen kompozit tozlar optik mikroskop, tarama elektron mikroskobu (SEM, EDAX analizleri ve toz boyut analizörü ile karakterize edilmistir. Yapılan çalısmalar sonucunda, aynı ögütme süreleri kullanılmasına ragmen takviye elemanı oranı arttıkça toz boyutunda daha fazla küçülme oldugu ve EDAX analizleri sonucunda ise kompozit tozlarda herhangi bir kirlenme olmadıgı belirlenmistir.

  9. Analisis Pengaruh Susunan Komposit Laminat Graphene-TiO2 sebagai Lapisan Semikonduktor Terhadap Unjuk Kerja Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC

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    Wahyu Tirta Nugraha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai sel surya mengalami peningkatan yang signifikan beberapa tahun terakhir. Khususnya penelitian tentang sel surya lanjutan, Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC.Karena fabrikasinya yang mudah dan murah dibandingkan dengan sel surya konvensional. Penelitian ini akan dilakukan untuk menghasilkan prototype DSSC. DSSC tersebut difabrikasi menggunakan susunan komposit laminat Graphene – TiO2 yang berbeda dengan metode Spincoating sebagai lapisan semikonduktor dan dye organik dari ekstrak Bunga Geranium. Lapisan semikonduktor dikarakterisasi menggunakan X –Ray Diffraction (XRD dan Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM untuk mengetahui terbentuknya lapisan Graphene-TiO2. Absorbansi larutan dye diuji menggunakan UV-Vis Spektrofotometer. Dan pengujian unjuk kerja kelistrikan diukur menggunakan I-V Keithley Instrumen.Hasil terbaik didapatkan pada susunan komposit laminat TiO2/Graphene/TiO2 (TGT dengan nilai daya maksimum sebesar 0.259 Wm-2 , nilai efisiensi sebesar 0.0241 % dan Fill Factor sebesar 0.42.

  10. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwata -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source (S dan drain (D sebagai panjang saluran (channel dan diakhiri dengan deposisi elektrode gate (G. Karakterisai OFET berbasis film tipis dilakukan dengan El-Kahfi 100, untuk menentukan karakteristik keluaran V-I. Hasil karakterisasi OFET dengan panjang channel (L 100 μm dan lebar (W 1 mm, mempunyai daerah aktif, yaitu: 2,80 V sampai dengan 3,42. Mobilitas pembawa muatan OFET untuk daerah saturasi, µ = 0,00182278 cm2 /Vs dan untuk daerah linier, µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this research is to produce and characterize the OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor based on thin film with bottom-contact structure. The OFET production consists of the substract wash by using ethanol in the ultrasonic cleaner, then electrode deposition of source and drain on the SiO2 substract by using vacuum evaporation in the room temperature and lithography technique.  Then, the deposition of thin film of CuPc between source (S and drain (D was done as the channel length and ended with electrode gate (G deposition. The OFET characterization  with channel length (L  100 μm and wide (W 1 mm  obtained the active area of 2,80 - 3,42 v. While the mobility of OFET charge carrier  obtained µ =  0,00182278 cm2 /Vs for the saturation area and µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs for linier area.

  11. MOBILITAS PEMBAWA MUATAN PADA OFET (ORGANIC FIELD EFFECT TRANSISTOR BERBASIS FILM TIPIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwata -

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tujuan penelitian ini adalah pembuatan dan karakterisasi pada OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact. Pembuatan OFET dilakukan dengan cara pencucian substrat dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat SiO2 dengan metode  penguapan hampa udara pada suhu ruang dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source (S dan drain (D sebagai panjang saluran (channel dan diakhiri dengan deposisi elektrode gate (G. Karakterisai OFET berbasis film tipis dilakukan dengan El-Kahfi 100, untuk menentukan karakteristik keluaran V-I. Hasil karakterisasi OFET dengan panjang channel (L 100 μm dan lebar (W 1 mm, mempunyai daerah aktif, yaitu: 2,80 V sampai dengan 3,42. Mobilitas pembawa muatan OFET untuk daerah saturasi, µ = 0,00182278 cm2 /Vs dan untuk daerah linier, µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ The purpose of this research is to produce and characterize the OFET (Organic Field Effect Transistor based on thin film with bottom-contact structure. The OFET production consists of the substract wash by using ethanol in the ultrasonic cleaner, then electrode deposition of source and drain on the SiO2 substract by using vacuum evaporation in the room temperature and lithography technique.  Then, the deposition of thin film of CuPc between source (S and drain (D was done as the channel length and ended with electrode gate (G deposition. The OFET characterization  with channel length (L  100 μm and wide (W 1 mm  obtained the active area of 2,80 - 3,42 v. While the mobility of OFET charge carrier  obtained µ =  0,00182278 cm2 /Vs for the saturation area and µ = 0,000343818  cm2 /Vs for linier area.

  12. SENSOR GAS BERBASIS FILM TIPIS DENGAN KONFIGURASI TRANSISTOR EFEK MEDAN (FET UNTUK DETEKSI GAS CO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujarwata Sujarwata

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pembuatan dan karakterisasi Transistor Efek Medan (FET berbasis film tipis dengan struktur bottom-contact dan panjang channel 100 ?m untuk aplikasi sensor gas. Pembuatan FET dengan cara: permulaan dilakukan pencucian substrat Si/SiO 2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, kemudian dilakukan pendeposisian elektroda source/ drain dengan metode penguapan hampa udara dan teknik lithography. Selanjutnya dilakukan deposisi film tipis CuPc diantara source/drain sebagai panjang channel dan elektrode gate. Karakteristik FET, untuk daerah aktif untuk V DS (2,80 s/d 3,42 V dan kuat arus I (0,00095 s/d 0,00169 A. FET akan aktif beroperasi hanya diperlukan tegangan V DS (2,79 V s/d 3,43 V dan dengan ukuran sangat kecil ( 1,5 mm x 3,1 mm serta jarak antara S ke D adalah 100 ?m. Aplikasi sensor gas telah dilakukan untuk mendeteksi gas CO, diperoleh hasil untuk response time 90 detik dan recovery time 120 detik. DS

  13. APLIKASI METODE GEOLISTRIK SKALA MODEL UNTUK MENENTUKAN NILAI RESISTIVITAS LAPISAN TANAH YANG MENGALAMI PENCEMARAN

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    Taufika Damayanti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pemantauan tentang sebaran limbah cair dari industry di lingkungan pemukiman perlu dilakukan. Sulitnya mengamati secaralangsung sebaran limbah dalam tanah menjadi persoalan yang harus diselesaikan. Pengukuran menggunakan metode geolistriktahanan jenis konfigurasi Schlumberger dengan alat resistivitymeter G-Sound. Pemodelan dibuat menggunakan ukuran panjang200 cm dan lebar 100 cm kemudian pengukuran dilakukan sebelum penginjeksian dan setelah penginjeksian limbah kuningan danminyak jarak. Pengolahan data menggunakan software Res2Dinv32. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa nilai resistivitas tanahsebelum diinjeksi limbah cair yaitu berkisar antara 47!m– 75 !m. Resistivitas tanah setelah diinjeksi limbah minyak jarak denganmassa jenis 0,912, 0,918, dan 0,920 g/cm berturut-turut adalah 47 – 71, 47 - 63, dan 47 – 55 !m. Sedangkan resistivitas tanahsetelah diinjeksi limbah kuningan dengan massa jenis 1,018, 1,019, dan 1,020 g/cm berturut-turut adalah 47 – 75, 47 – 63, dan 47– 51 !m. Penginjeksian limbah cair pada lapisan tanah skala model mempengaruhi nilai resistivitas listrik tanah. Hal ini karenalimbah yang bersifat konduktif mengisi ruang interfase tanah yang sebelumnya berisi udara. Monitoring of liquid waste distribution is needed to be done. The difficulty of direct observation of waste distribution in the soilbecomes a crucial problem should be solved. One of the solutions of that problem is by doing physical modelling to detect thedistribution of the waste. The measurement used is geoelectricity method of Schlumberger configuration. The modelling useslength of 200 cm and width of 100 cm. The measurement was performed before and after injection of liquid and solid waste. Theinstrument used is G-Sound resistivitymeter. Data processing is performed using Res2Dinv32 software. The result shows that theresistivity value of the soil before injection is around 47 m– 75 m, while the resistivity of soil

  14. PENGEMBANGAN KETERAMPILAN PROSES DAN PEMAHAMAN SISWA KELAS X MELALUI KIT OPTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Widayanto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Keterampilan proses sains sangat diperlukan sebagai dasar agar siswa mampu memecahkan masalah. Ketrampilan proses sains dapat dilatihkan melalui kegiatan laboratorium. Dengan memanfaatkan kit optik peneliti bertujuan meningkatkan keterampilan proses sains dan pemahaman materi fisika bagi siswa SMA. Subyek penelitian adalah siswa kelas X-C SMA 3 Sragen tahun ajaran 2006/2007. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemanfaatan kit optik dalam pembelajaran dapat meningkatkan pemahaman dan keterampilan proses sains siswa. Skor rata-rata pemahaman siswa pada siklus I sebesar 73,27 dengan ketuntasan belajar secara  klasikal  sebesar  80,49%,  sedangkan  siklus II  skor  rata-rata  adalah  84,20  dengan  ketuntasan klasikal  sebesar  100%. Sedangkan prosentase rata-rata keterampilan proses sains siswa pada siklus I sebesar 77,37% dan siklus II sebesar 87,36%.The science process skills play an important role as basic for students in solving their problems and can be developed through laboratory activities. By using optical kit, we aim increasing science process skill and understanding physics matter for students. The research subject is X-C Class Senior High School 3 Sragen academic year 2006/2007. The research result show that the use of optical  kit  in  the  learning  can increase  understanding  and  science  process  skill  of students.  The  average  score  of  students understanding at cycle I equals to 73,27 with mastery of learning as much as 80,49%, while that of the cycle II equals to 84,20% with the classically mastery of learning 100%. In addition, the average percentages of students science process skill at cycle I and II are 77,37% and 87,36% respectively© 2009 Jurusan Fisika FMIPA UNNES SemarangKeywords: mastery of learning; optical kit; learning process

  15. SINTESIS LAPIS TIPIS BERBASIS NANOPARTIKEL TITANIA TERMODIFIKASI SILIKA SECARA SOL-GEL SEBAGAI BAHAN ANTIFOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Rissa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis lapis tipis berbasis nanopartikel titania termodifikasi silika (TiO2-SiO2 secara sol-gel sebagai bahan antifogging untuk (i mengetahui pengaruh temperatur kalsinasi terhadap energi band-gap, struktur dan ukuran kristal, serta porositas titania-silika, (ii mengetahui pengaruh komposisi sol terhadap karakteristik lapis tipis titania-silika yang meliputi hidrofilitas dan sifat transparan, serta (iii mengetahui kinerja antifogging lapis tipis titania-silika pada substrat kaca. Sintesis dilakukan melalui  metode sol-gel. Teknik pelapisan pada kaca menggunakan teknik celup, kemudian diaplikasikan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. Hasil sintesis TiO2-SiO2 dikarakterisasi dengan XRD untuk mengetahui struktur dan ukuran kristal, SEM-EDX untuk mengetahui morfologi dan komposisi padatan, serta DR-UV untuk mengetahui band-gap TiO2-SiO2. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa TiO2-SiO2 dengan 15% b/b silika  pada temperatur kalsinasi 500°C memiliki ukuran partikel dan band gap optimum  yaitu masing-masing sebesar 11,15 nm dan  3,20 eV. Hasil ini bersesuaian dengan hasil pengukuran sudut kontak minimum yaitu sebesar sebesar 14,49°. Hasil uji kinerja antifogging menunjukkan bahwa lapis tipis TiO2-SiO2 memiliki kemampuan untuk digunakan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. The research on synthesis of thin layer Based on TiO2 nanoparticle modified silica by sol gel as antifogging materials has been conducted to (i determine the effect of calcination temperature on the gap energy, structure and size of crystal, and porous titania-silica, (ii determine the effect of sol composition on thin layer titania-silica covering hydrophilic and transparent character, and (iii determine the performance of antifogging thin layer titania-silica on glass substrate. The synthesis is done by using sol-gel method. Dye technique was used to coat the glass, and then applied as antifogging materials. The result of synthesis of TiO2-SiO2

  16. SINTESIS LAPIS TIPIS BERBASIS NANOPARTIKEL TITANIA TERMODIFIKASI SILIKA SECARA SOL-GEL SEBAGAI BAHAN ANTIFOGGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Rissa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang sintesis lapis tipis berbasis nanopartikel titania termodifikasi silika (TiO2-SiO2 secara sol-gel sebagai bahan antifogging untuk (i mengetahui pengaruh temperatur kalsinasi terhadap energi band-gap, struktur dan ukuran kristal, serta porositas titania-silika, (ii mengetahui pengaruh komposisi sol terhadap karakteristik lapis tipis titania-silika yang meliputi hidrofilitas dan sifat transparan, serta (iii mengetahui kinerja antifogging lapis tipis titania-silika pada substrat kaca. Sintesis dilakukan melalui  metode sol-gel. Teknik pelapisan pada kaca menggunakan teknik celup, kemudian diaplikasikan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. Hasil sintesis TiO2-SiO2 dikarakterisasi dengan XRD untuk mengetahui struktur dan ukuran kristal, SEM-EDX untuk mengetahui morfologi dan komposisi padatan, serta DR-UV untuk mengetahui band-gap TiO2-SiO2. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa TiO2-SiO2 dengan 15% b/b silika  pada temperatur kalsinasi 500°C memiliki ukuran partikel dan band gap optimum  yaitu masing-masing sebesar 11,15 nm dan  3,20 eV. Hasil ini bersesuaian dengan hasil pengukuran sudut kontak minimum yaitu sebesar sebesar 14,49°. Hasil uji kinerja antifogging menunjukkan bahwa lapis tipis TiO2-SiO2 memiliki kemampuan untuk digunakan sebagai bahan anti-kabut. The research on synthesis of thin layer Based on TiO2 nanoparticle modified silica by sol gel as antifogging materials has been conducted to (i determine the effect of calcination temperature on the gap energy, structure and size of crystal, and porous titania-silica, (ii determine the effect of sol composition on thin layer titania-silica covering hydrophilic and transparent character, and (iii determine the performance of antifogging thin layer titania-silica on glass substrate. The synthesis is done by using sol-gel method. Dye technique was used to coat the glass, and then applied as antifogging materials. The result of synthesis of TiO2-SiO2

  17. Development of the evaluation instrument use CIPP on the implementation of project assessment topic optik

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfaroh, Jati Aurum; Rosana, Dadan; Supahar

    2017-08-01

    This research aims to develop an evaluation instrument models CIPP valid and reliable as well as determine the feasibility and practicality of an evaluation instrument models CIPP. An evaluation instrument models CIPP to evaluate the implementation of the project assessment topic optik to measure problem-solving skills of junior high school class VIII in the Yogyakarta region. This research is a model of development that uses 4-D. Subject of product trials are students in class VIII SMP N 1 Galur and SMP N 1 Sleman. Data collection techniques in this research using non-test techniques include interviews, questionnaires and observations. Validity in this research was analyzed using V'Aikens. Reliability analyzed using ICC. This research uses 7 raters are derived from two lecturers expert (expert judgment), two practitioners (science teacher) and three colleagues. The results of this research is the evaluation's instrument model of CIPP is used to evaluate the implementation of the implementation of the project assessment instruments. The validity result of evaluation instrument have V'Aikens values between 0.86 to 1, which means a valid and 0.836 reliability values into categories so well that it has been worth used as an evaluation instrument.

  18. OPTiK FiBER İLETİŞİM SİSTEMLERİNİN ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze AYDEMİR

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Bugün insanlık bilgi patlamas ı nın ortasındadır. Her kanaldan sınırsız bilgi akışı insanı çevrelenıiştir. Sorun ise bu kadar yoğun bil gini n nasal ve han gi iletişim aracı ile taş•nacağıdır. Dalga ldavuzlayırısı olarak fiberlerin kullanımi ve gelişiıni, optik fiber haberleşme sistemini g ü ndeme get irıniştir. Bakır teller de elektronların hareket etmesine dayanan elekt ron ik yerine, ranı teller· diyebileceğimiz optik fıbe rlerde, fatonlar hareket etmektedir. Optik fiber iletim siste mlerinin diğer ileti m sistemlerinden üstün b irç ok öz e l l iği vardır. Bu iistiinlükleri s ayesi n de ülkemizde de telellt;omünikasyon al anında ve farklı daha birçok a1anda optik iletimin yaygınlaşınası optik fibere olan ilgiyi arttırmıştır. Bu çahşnıada optik fiber sistemler incelcnrniştir.

  19. PENGARUH TEMPERATUR DEPOSISI PADA PENUMBUHAN FILM TIPIS SILIKON KARBIDA DENGAN METODE HOMEMADE HOT-MESH CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Astuti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis silikon karbida (SiC telah ditumbuhkan di atas substrate graphene/SiO2/Si dengan metode Homemade Hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (Hot-Mesh CVD. Pengaruh dari temperature deposisi pada struktur dan morfologi film tipis SiC telah dipelajari dengan menggunakan X-Ray diffractometer (XRD, FESEM dan EDX, dan spektroskopi Raman. Karakterisasi XRD menunjukkan bahwa film tipis SiC memiliki struktur polikristal tipe kubik dengan orientasi (111. Kualitas film tipis SiC, dan ukuran butir kristal dari morfologi film yang dihasilkan meningkat dengan peningkatan temperatur deposisi. Dari karakterisasi spektroskopi Raman, dapati terdapat dua puncak pergeseran Raman yang dominan pada daerah sekitar 780 - 800 cm-1 dan  950 – 980 cm-1 yang merupakan mode fonon SiC-TO dan SiC-LO. Puncak pergeseran Raman tersebut bergeser ke bilangan gelombang yang lebih pendek dengan peningkatan temperature deposisi.Silicon carbide (SiC thin film grown on graphene/SiO2/Si substrate using homemade hot mesh chemical vapor deposition (Hot-Mesh SVD method has been done. Effect of  deposition temperature on structure and morphology of the thin film was studied by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD, FESEM and EDX, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD characteristics shows that SiC thin film has cubic polycrystalline structure with (111 orientation. Quality of the SiC thin film, and crystallite grain size from the film morphology was resulted increases with the increase of the deposition temperature. Based on the characterization of Raman spectroscopy, shows that two peak Raman shift in the range of 780 - 800 cm-1 and  950 – 980 cm-1 was attributed to SiC-TO and SiC-LO phonon mode.  The Raman shift peak was shifted toward the lower wavenumber with the increase of deposition temperature.

  20. PENGARUH TEMPERATUR DEPOSISI PADA PENUMBUHAN FILM TIPIS SILIKON KARBIDA DENGAN METODE HOMEMADE HOT-MESH CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Astuti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis silikon karbida (SiC telah ditumbuhkan di atas substrate graphene/SiO2/Si dengan metode Homemade Hot-mesh chemical vapor deposition (Hot-Mesh CVD. Pengaruh dari temperature deposisi pada struktur dan morfologi film tipis SiC telah dipelajari dengan menggunakan X-Ray diffractometer (XRD, FESEM dan EDX, dan spektroskopi Raman. Karakterisasi XRD menunjukkan bahwa film tipis SiC memiliki struktur polikristal tipe kubik dengan orientasi (111. Kualitas film tipis SiC, dan ukuran butir kristal dari morfologi film yang dihasilkan meningkat dengan peningkatan temperatur deposisi. Dari karakterisasi spektroskopi Raman, dapati terdapat dua puncak pergeseran Raman yang dominan pada daerah sekitar 780 - 800 cm-1 dan  950 – 980 cm-1 yang merupakan mode fonon SiC-TO dan SiC-LO. Puncak pergeseran Raman tersebut bergeser ke bilangan gelombang yang lebih pendek dengan peningkatan temperature deposisi.Silicon carbide (SiC thin film grown on graphene/SiO2/Si substrate using homemade hot mesh chemical vapor deposition (Hot-Mesh SVD method has been done. Effect of  deposition temperature on structure and morphology of the thin film was studied by using X-ray diffractometer (XRD, FESEM and EDX, and Raman spectroscopy. XRD characteristics shows that SiC thin film has cubic polycrystalline structure with (111 orientation. Quality of the SiC thin film, and crystallite grain size from the film morphology was resulted increases with the increase of the deposition temperature. Based on the characterization of Raman spectroscopy, shows that two peak Raman shift in the range of 780 - 800 cm-1 and  950 – 980 cm-1 was attributed to SiC-TO and SiC-LO phonon mode.  The Raman shift peak was shifted toward the lower wavenumber with the increase of deposition temperature.

  1. Pengaruh Densitas Arus dan Waktu Kontak Efektif Elektrolit Gel Terhadap Ketebalan Dan Kekuatan Lekat Lapisan Krom Pada Baja Dengan Metode Elektroplating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naufal Gati Furqon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam dunia industri, korosi merupakan ancaman yang sering muncul yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinnya kegagalan material. Korosi bukanlah sesuatu yang dapat dicegah, akan tetapi korosi dapat dikendalikan dengan beberapa cara. Pengendalian terhadap korosi merupakan cara yang dilakukan memperlambat timbulnya korosi pada material dan merupakan suatu hal yang vital untuk dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode elektroplating dengan menggunakan media elektrolit gel dengan penam bahan 5% gelatin pada larutan elektrolit dan menganalisa pengaruh densitas arus (0.3 A/cm2; 0.45 A/cm2; 0.6 A/cm2 dan waktu kontak ( 300s ; 600s; 900s dari hasil penelitian didapatkan peningkatan ketebalan dan berat dari lapisan seiring penambahan nilai parameter yang diaplikasikan. Sedangkan pada kualitas kelekatan  lapisan tidak memiliki keteraturan pada hasil yang didapatkan akan tetapi kelekatan maksimal pada penelitian ini didapatkan pada 0.6A/cm2 dan 600 s sebesar 23.15 MPa

  2. Kızıl Ötesi Optik Modemin Tasarlanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem ÖZÜTÜRK

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada serbest uzayda veri iletişiminde kullanılmak üzere bir kızılötesi optik MODEM devresi tasarlanmaktadır. Tasarlanan devre bir verici ve bir alıcı kısımdan oluşmaktadır. MODEM’in verici kısmından gönderilen veriler bir kızılötesi LED’in ışığını modüle etmektedir. Alıcı uçta ise fotodedektör olarak fotoiletken modunda çalışan bir fotodiyot kullanılmıştır. Vericideki LED, iletişim uzaklığını arttırmak için darbeli yüksek akımla sürülmektedir. LED’i darbeli yüksek akımla sürebilmek için veri darbelerinin uygun şekilde modüle edilmesi gerekmektedir. Burada bunun için uygun modülasyon (ve demodülasyon tekniği tasarlanmaktadır. Modülasyon işlemi esnasında veri darbelerinin yükselen ve düşen kenarlarında iki farklı kısa süreli darbe üretilmektedir ve bunlar alıcıda uygun şekilde demodüle edilmektedir. Burada tasarımı yapılan modemi oluşturan her bir devre yapısı tek tek ele alınıp incelenmekte ve modemin nasıl çalıştığı devrenin belirli noktalarında oluşan işaretler birbirine bağlı olarak çizilerek açıklanmaktadır.

  3. Pengaruh Jenis Katalis terhadap Kekuatan Tarik dan Stabilitas Termal Polidimetilsiloksan (PDMS untuk Lapisan Pelindung Baja AISI 1050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atha Illah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Polisiloksan adalah polimer yang paling banyak digunakan sebagai lapisan pelindung pada baja karena memiliki sifat yang unggul dibandingkan polimer lain. Polidimetilsiloksan (PDMS adalah salah satu  keluarga polisiloksan yang paling banyak digunakan dalam bentuk karet Room-Temperature Vulcanization (RTV. Pada penelitian ini, PDMS divulkanisir menggunakan katalis Bluesil Catalyst 60R (komersial, NaOH 2 M, H2SO4 2 M, Poli aminoamid, dan Red 683 (komersial dengan variasi komposisi masing-masing katalis 2 - 10 wt%. Katalis yang bisa membentuk karet silikon hanyalah Bluesil Catalyst 60R dan Red 683. Pada percobaannya, waktu pematangan semakin cepat seiring bertambahnya komposisi katalis yang diberikan. Elastisitas karet silikon sangat tinggi, karena sifat inilah karet silikon tidak pecah ketika diuji fleksural hingga 180o. Hasil pengujian tarik menunjukkan karet dengan Bluesil Catalyst 60R 6wt% memiliki kekuatan tarik paling optimum yaitu 1,625 MPa. Penambahan Bluesil Catalyst 60R 10wt% juga memberikan nilai kestabilan termal  karet silikon yang paling baik, berat sisanya adalah 39,172 % pada temperatur 800oC.

  4. PENINGKATAN KUALITAS FILM TIPIS CdTe SEBAGAI ABSORBER SEL SURYA DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DOPING TEMBAGA (Cu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Marwoto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Film tipis CdTe dengan doping tembaga (Cu berkonsenterasi 2% telah berhasil ditumbuhkan di atas substrat Indium Tin Oxide (ITO dengan metode dc magnetron sputtering. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui pengaruh doping Cu(2% terhadap struktur morfologi, struktur kristal, fotoluminisensi dan resistivitas listrik film CdTe. Citra morfologi Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM dan hasil analisis struktur dengan X-Ray Diffraction (XRD menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe:Cu(2% mempunyai citra permukaan dan struktur kristal yang lebih sempurna dibandingkan film CdTe tanpa doping. Hasil analisis spektrometer fotoluminisensi menunjukkan bahwa film CdTe dan CdTe(2% mempunyai puncak fotoluminisensi pada tiga panjang gelombang yang identik yaitu 685 nm (1,81 eV, 725 nm (1,71 eV dan 740 nm (1,67 eV. Film CdTe dengan doping Cu(2% memiliki intensitas puncak fotoluminisensi yang lebih tajam pada pita energi 1,81 eV dibandingkan dengan film CdTe tanpa doping. Pengukuran arus dan tegangan (I-V menunjukkan bahwa pemberian doping Cu(2% dapat menurunkan resistivitas film dari 8,40x109 Ωcm menjadi 6,92x105 Ωcm. Sebagai absorber sel surya, kualitas film tipis CdTe telah berhasil ditingkatkan dengan pemberian doping Cu(2%.CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has been successfully grown on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO substrates by using dc magnetron sputtering. This study was carried out in order to investigate the effect of Cu(2% doping on the morphologycal structure, crystal structure, photoluminesence, and resistivity of CdTe thin film. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM  images and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD results showed that CdTe:Cu(2% thin film has morphologycal and crystal structures more perfect than undoped CdTe film. Photoluminesence spectroscopy results showed that CdTe and CdTe:Cu(2% thin films have luminesence peak at three identical wevelength regions i.e. 685 nm (1.81 eV, 725 nm (1.71 eV and 740 nm (1.67 eV however CdTe:Cu(2% film shows sharper photoluminescence peak at band

  5. PEMBUATAN SENSOR GAS HIDROGEN BERBASIS FILM TIPIS GaN DENGAN TEKNIK SOL GEL SPIN COATING UNTUK KOMPONEN PADA SISTEM PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN GAS

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdiana, D.

    2013-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sensor gas dengan sensitivitas baik, dipergunakan sebagai komponen dalam sistem pendeteksi kebocoran gas hidrogen. Bahan dasar sensor berbahan  film tipis semikonduktor Gallium Nitrida (GaN) yang ditumbuhkan di atas substrat sapphire (Al2O3) menggunakan teknik sol gel spin coating. Parameter penumbuhan film tipis temperatur penumbuhan 8500 C, laju spinner 1000 rpm, molaritas Ga2O3 1,33 M dan laju aliran gas nitrogen 100 sccm.  Hasil pengujian sifat lis...

  6. IMLEMENTASI SIMULASI PhET DAN KIT SEDERHANA UNTUK MENGAJARKAN KETERAMPILAN PSIKOMOTOR SISWA PADA POKOK BAHASAN ALAT OPTIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Prihatiningtyas

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menuntaskan hasil belajar psikomotor fisika siswa dengan penerapan simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana pada siswa. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa keterlaksanaan pembelajaran berjalan dengan baik sesuai dengan RPP, hasil psikomotor kelas eksperimen 1 dengan menggunakan simulasi PhET dan kelas eksperimen 2 dengan menggunakan KIT sederhana dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar siswa, serta respon siswa terhadap pembelajaran positif. Berdasarkan hasil temuan di atas dapat disimpulkan bahwa implementasi simulasi PhET dan KIT sederhana untuk mengajarkan keterampilan psikomotor siswa pada pokok bahasan alat optik dapat menuntaskan hasil belajar psimotor siswa. This study aims to resolve learning outcomes physics psychomotor of students with the application of PhET simulations and simple KIT on students. The results showed that implementation of learning  going well according to the lesson plan, student who are in the experimental class 1 using PhET simulation and the experimental class 2 using a simple KIT could complete the learning outcomes, and student respond to learning was positive. According to the finding above it could be conclude that the implementation PhET simulation and simple KIT to teach psychomotor skills of students on the subject of optical can to complete psychomotor learning outcomes of students.

  7. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI SENG ASETAT DEHIDRAT (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) TERHADAP SIFAT OPTIK DAN STRUKTUR KRISTAL ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    syamsuluri, sri

    2015-01-01

    Penelitian tentang pembuatan film tipis ZnO pada substrat kaca dengan perbedaan konsentrasi seng asetat dehidrat menggunakan metode sol-gel spin coating telah dilakukan. Seng asetat dehidrat, etanol dan dietanolamin digunakan sebagai prekursor, pelarut dan stabiliser. Struktur kristal dari film ZnO dianalisis dengan menggunakan XRD. Hasil uji XRD memperlihatkan bahwa film ZnO merupakan kristal dengan struktur wurtzite heksagonal. Morfologi permukaan dari film ZnO diamati dengan menggunakan sc...

  8. Işık ve Optik Konuları ile İlgili Üniversite Öğrencilerinin Kavramsal Anlama Düzeyleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşet DEMİRCİ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı üniversite öğrencilerinin ışık ve optik konuları ile ilgili kavramsal anlama düzeylerini belirlemektir. Bu çalışma, Türkiye’nin farklı bölgelerinde bulunan dört adet üniversiteden (Balıkesir Üniversitesi, Atatürk Üniversitesi, Dicle Üniversitesi ve Sütçü İmam Üniversitesi toplam 252 kişi ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya katılan öğrencilerin ışık ve optik konularıyla ilgili kavramsal anlama düzeylerini belirlemek amacıyla; görüntü oluşumu, yansıma, kırılma, ince kenarlı ve kalın kenarlı mercekler, polarizasyon, tek yarıkta kırınım ve çift yarıkta girişim konularını kapsayan optik kavram testi kullanılmıştır. Verilerin analizi sonucunda, üniversite öğrencilerinin ışık ve optik konularında (görüntü oluşumu, yansıma, kırılma, ince kenarlı ve kalın kenarlı mercekler, polarizasyon, tek yarıkta kırınım ve çift yarıkta girişim birçok problemleri olduğu ve öğrencilerin kavramsal anlama düzeylerinin de düşük olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Kavramsal anlama düzeylerinin düşük olmasında öğrencilerin sahip oldukları kavram yanılgılarının büyük etkisinin olduğu düşünülmektedir.

  9. Analisis FTIR dan Minimum Loss pada Kaca Tellurite-Bismuth-Zinc-Plumbum untuk Aplikasi Fiber Optik Infrared

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyudi -

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Peneltian ini bertujuan menganalisis spektrum Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR dan menentukan minimum loss dari kaca Tellurite-Bismuth-Zinc-Plumbum (TBZP yang dipengaruhi oleh variasi (PbO. Kaca TBZP difabrikasi dengan teknik melt quenching dengan komposisi 55TeO2–2Bi2O3–[43-x]ZnO–xPbO (%mol dengan x=2, 3, 4, 5. Hasil uji spektrum Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR menunjukkan pita absorbsi terbesar berada pada panjang gelombang lebih dari 620nm. Absorbansi tersebut lebih diakibatkan oleh adanya transisi vibrasi pada daerah infrared. Minimum loss pada kaca TBZP diprediksikan secara teoritis melalui fitting data infrared edge dengan kurva Rayleigh scattering. Minimum loss kaca TBZP sebasar 2,94 dB/km hingga 2,35 dB/km pada λ=5534,2nm hingga 5821,2nm. Nilai minimum loss menurun seiring pertambahan konsentrasi ion Pb2+ dalam kaca TBZP. Sifat tersebut menjadikan kaca ini sebagai kandidat yang baik untuk aplikasi yang menggunakan gelombang infrared seperti fiber optik infrared. The aims of this research were to analyze the spectrum of Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR and determine the minimum loss of Tellurite-Bismuth-Zinc-Plumbum (TBZP based glass which affected by the variation of (PbO. The TBZP glass has been fabricated by melt quenching technique with composition 55TeO2–2Bi2O3–[43-x]ZnO–xPbO (mol% with x=2, 3, 4, 5. Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR spectra test results showed that the greatest absorption bands were at wavelengths over 620nm. Vibrational transition has the reason behind the absorbance in the infrared region. Minimum loss on glass TBZP theoretically was predicted by fitted data from the infrared edge and rayleigh scattering curve. The minimum loss of TBZP was of the range 2,94 dB/km to 2,35 dB/km at λ=5534,2nm to 5821,2nm. The minimum loss of TBZP glass decreases as the Pb2+ content in glass increases. This makes these glasses are good candidate for IR-application such as infrared optical fiber.

  10. Pengaruh Fraksi Berat Serbuk Karbon Hitam Dan Jumlah Lapisan Serat E-Glass Terhadap Reflection Loss Pada Komposit E-Glass/Ripoxy Untuk Aplikasi Radar Absorbing Structure (Ras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Ramadhan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Saat ini penelitian tentang radar absorbing structure (RAS dengan menggunakan bahan komposit polimer yang diperkuat serat (FRP yang ditambahkan dengan serbuk penyerap gelombang elektromagnetik menjadi populer karena sifat elektromagnetik dari material tersebut dapat disesuaikan secara efektif hanya dengan menambahkan beberapa serbuk yang dapat menyerap gelombang elektromagnetik, seperti karbon hitam, ferit, besi karbonil, dan lain-lain ke dalam matrik komposit. RAS bekerja tidak hanya sebagai struktur bantalan beban untuk menopang sistem antenna tetapi juga mempunyai peranan penting dalam menyerap gelombang elektromagnetik yang datang dari energi elektromagnetik sebuah sistem pelacak. Dalam penelitian ini, komposit serat E-glass yang diperkuat dengan resin ripoxy  dibuat dengan mencapurkan serbuk karbon hitam yang konduktif (Ketjenblack EC300J dengan matrik komposit dan memaksimalkan koefisien penyerapan lebih dari 90 % (lebih dari -10 dB dalam jangkauan frekuensi X-Band (8 – 12 GHz. Pengujian yang dilakukan yaitu dengan menggunakan uji konduktivitas listrik (LCR meter dan Vector Network Analyzer (VNA. Spesimen yang terbaik untuk diaplikasikan sebagai radar absorbing structure (RAS adalah komposit E-glass/ripoxy dengan fraksi berat serbuk karbon hitam  0,02 dan jumlah lapisan serat E-glass  4 lapis dengan nilai ketebalan sebesar 2,1 mm, nilai konduktivitas listrik 8,33 × 10-6 S/m, dan nilai maksimum reflection loss sebesar -27,123 dB. Kata Kunci—serbuk karbon hitam, komposit E-glass/ripoxy, radar absorbing structure

  11. PEMERIKSAAN BAKTERI PENYEBAB PERIODONTITIS KRONIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    BASYAR, HUSNUL

    2014-01-01

    2011 Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri dan dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan periodontal. Plak gigi dinyatakan berperan penting dalam inisiasi periodontitis. Periodontitis umumnya disebabkan oleh plak. Plak adalah lapisan tipis biofilm yang mengandung bakteri, produk bakteri, dan sisa makanan. Lapisan ini melekat pada permukaan gigi dan berwarna putih atau putih kekuningan. Plak yang menyebabkan gingivitis dan periodontitis adalah plak yang...

  12. PEMERIKSAAN BAKTERI PENYEBAB PERIODONTITIS KRONIS DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION (PCR)

    OpenAIRE

    BASYAR, HUSNUL

    2014-01-01

    2011 Penyakit periodontal merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh infeksi bakteri dan dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan jaringan periodontal. Plak gigi dinyatakan berperan penting dalam inisiasi periodontitis. Periodontitis umumnya disebabkan oleh plak. Plak adalah lapisan tipis biofilm yang mengandung bakteri, produk bakteri, dan sisa makanan. Lapisan ini melekat pada permukaan gigi dan berwarna putih atau putih kekuningan. Plak yang menyebabkan gingivitis dan periodontitis adalah plak yang...

  13. PEMBUATAN SENSOR GAS HIDROGEN BERBASIS FILM TIPIS GaN DENGAN TEKNIK SOL GEL SPIN COATING UNTUK KOMPONEN PADA SISTEM PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rusdiana

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sensor gas dengan sensitivitas baik, dipergunakan sebagai komponen dalam sistem pendeteksi kebocoran gas hidrogen. Bahan dasar sensor berbahan  film tipis semikonduktor Gallium Nitrida (GaN yang ditumbuhkan di atas substrat sapphire (Al2O3 menggunakan teknik sol gel spin coating. Parameter penumbuhan film tipis temperatur penumbuhan 8500 C, laju spinner 1000 rpm, molaritas Ga2O3 1,33 M dan laju aliran gas nitrogen 100 sccm.  Hasil pengujian sifat listrik dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen ternyata resistansi listrik sensor gas menurun secara tajam dari 1,5 x 10-2 Ohm.cm menjadi 7 x 10-3 Ohm.cm bila laju aliran gas diperbesar dari 20 sccm hingga 150 sccm. Pengujian sensitivitas sensor gas dilakukan dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen dan gas nitrogen. Hasil pengujian sensor gas dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen memiliki sensitivitas sekitar 60 % sedangkan dalam lingkungan gas nitrogen sekitar 50 % laju aliran gas 100 sccm. Tingkat sensitivitas sensor gas dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen lebih tinggi dibandingkan dalam lingkungan gas nitrogen. This research aims to make the gas sensors using GaN films that grown on sapphire substrate (Al2O3 by sol gel spin coating techniques with growth temparature 8500 C, spinner rate 1000 rpm, molarity of Ga2O3 1.33 M and nitrogen flow rate 100 sccm. Upon exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC, especially to hydrogen gas, the electrical resistance of semiconducting GaN thin film was found to rapidly decrease from 1.5 x 10-2 Ohm.cm to 7 x 10-3 Ohm.cm after increasing the hydrogen gas flow rate from 20 sccm to 150 sccm. The gas sensors exhibited good sensitivity of about 60 % in 100 sccm flowing hydrogen gas and about 50 % in 100 sccm flowing nitrogen gas.

  14. PEMBUATAN SENSOR GAS HIDROGEN BERBASIS FILM TIPIS GaN DENGAN TEKNIK SOL GEL SPIN COATING UNTUK KOMPONEN PADA SISTEM PENDETEKSI KEBOCORAN GAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rusdiana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk membuat sensor gas dengan sensitivitas baik, dipergunakan sebagai komponen dalam sistem pendeteksi kebocoran gas hidrogen. Bahan dasar sensor berbahan  film tipis semikonduktor Gallium Nitrida (GaN yang ditumbuhkan di atas substrat sapphire (Al2O3 menggunakan teknik sol gel spin coating. Parameter penumbuhan film tipis temperatur penumbuhan 8500 C, laju spinner 1000 rpm, molaritas Ga2O3 1,33 M dan laju aliran gas nitrogen 100 sccm.  Hasil pengujian sifat listrik dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen ternyata resistansi listrik sensor gas menurun secara tajam dari 1,5 x 10-2 Ohm.cm menjadi 7 x 10-3 Ohm.cm bila laju aliran gas diperbesar dari 20 sccm hingga 150 sccm. Pengujian sensitivitas sensor gas dilakukan dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen dan gas nitrogen. Hasil pengujian sensor gas dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen memiliki sensitivitas sekitar 60 % sedangkan dalam lingkungan gas nitrogen sekitar 50 % laju aliran gas 100 sccm. Tingkat sensitivitas sensor gas dalam lingkungan gas hidrogen lebih tinggi dibandingkan dalam lingkungan gas nitrogen. This research aims to make the gas sensors using GaN films that grown on sapphire substrate (Al2O3 by sol gel spin coating techniques with growth temparature 8500 C, spinner rate 1000 rpm, molarity of Ga2O3 1.33 M and nitrogen flow rate 100 sccm. Upon exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC, especially to hydrogen gas, the electrical resistance of semiconducting GaN thin film was found to rapidly decrease from 1.5 x 10-2 Ohm.cm to 7 x 10-3 Ohm.cm after increasing the hydrogen gas flow rate from 20 sccm to 150 sccm. The gas sensors exhibited good sensitivity of about 60 % in 100 sccm flowing hydrogen gas and about 50 % in 100 sccm flowing nitrogen gas.

  15. Due tipi di politica monetaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C.R. DOW

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article traces the origin, development and effectiveness of two types of monetary policy. These are the 'demand management' approach, which uses monetary instruments as a means of maintaining policy, and the 'monetary targets' approach. The United Kingdom has moved from favouring the latter approach to the former, and the reasons behind this change of attitude are discussed. In addition the experiences of Italian governments and monetary policies are outlined.  JEL Codes: E52Keywords: Monetary policy, Demand management approach, Monetary targets approach

  16. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li etkisi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raşit Aydın

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM, X-ışını kırınımı (XRD ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak değiştiğini açığa çıkardı. Uv-Vis. analiz sonuçları, filmlerin hem optik bant aralığı değerlerinde hem de geçirgenliklerinde katkı konsantrasyonuna bağlı olarak önemli farklılıkların oluştuğunu ortaya koydu.

  17. ZrC COATING ON FUEL ELEMENT CLADDING ZIRCALOY-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etty Mutiara

    2017-02-01

    zirkaloi-2 dalam koloid grafit pada temperatur kamar. Spesimen yang telah dicelup dipanaskan masing-masing pada temperatur 700oC, 900oC dan 1100oC dalam media gas Argon selama 1 jam. Kelongsong yang telah dilapisi dan mengalami proses pemanasan, dikarakterisasi menggunakan mikroskop optik dan uji XRD untuk mengetahui mikrostruktur dan struktur kristalnya. Pengujian dengan mikroskop optik memperlihatkan pertumbuhan butir seiring dengan naiknya temperatur pemanasan. Pengujian dengan XRD mengungkapkan bahwa struktur ZrC terbentuk pada permukaan spesimen kelongsong zirkaloi-2 yang dipanasi pada temperatur 1100oC. Struktur ZrC tidak muncul pada spesimen hasil pelapisan dengan pemanasan pada temperatur 700oC and 900oC. Berdasarkan analisis data dari riset ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa pembentukan lapisan tipis ZrC pada permukaan spesimen kelongsong zirkaloi-2 dapat dilakukan melalui proses pencelupan spesimen dalam koloid grafit yang diikuti dengan pemanasan pada temperatur 1100oC yang memungkinkan atom-atom karbon mempunyai cukup energi untuk mendifusi ke permukaan kelongsong membentuk struktur ZrC.

  18. Optik Fiberli Dağınık Algılama Yöntemiyle Enerji Kablosunda Sıcaklık ve Gerginliğin Algılanması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Günday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available XLPE (çapraz bağlı polietilen yalıtkanlı yüksek gerilim kablolarında, kablo yalıtkanı, çalışma esnasında elektriksel, ısıl ve mekanik etkilere maruz kalır. Kablo yalıtkanının maruz kaldığı önemli etkilerden biri maksimum işletme sıcaklığı, diğeri de yalıtkan üzerinde meydana gelen gerginliktir. Bu çalışmada, 1550 nm'de tek modlu optik fiber kullanılarak 380 kV yüksek gerilim kablosunda kablo boyunca sıcaklık ve gerginlik algılama benzetimleri yapılmıştır. Kablo boyunca sıcaklık verilerine ulaşabilmek için, Raman saçılmasını baz alan dağınık sıcaklık algılama yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Kablo boyunca gerginlik verilerinin elde edilebilmesi için de, geri saçılan işaretin Brillouin frekans kayması bilgisinden faydalanılmıştır. Kablo ek yerleri, kesişim noktaları ve boru içinden geçme gibi benzetim koşulları altında ve Matlab 6.5 programı kullanılarak 5 km uzunluklu kablo boyunca sıcaklık ve gerginlik profilleri 1.5 m uzamsal çözünürlükte, ~ 1.25 oC sıcaklık çözünürlüğü ve ~ 50 με gerginlik çözünürlüğü ile elde edilmiştir. Ayrıca, kablo boyunca Brillouin frekans kayması ve Brillouin güç değişimi profillerinden faydalanılarak, frekans kayması üzerindeki etkin değer (RMS gürültüsü ~ 1.20 MHz ve güç değişimi üzerindeki RMS gürültüsü ~ % 0.45 olarak hesaplanmıştır.

  19. AC optik - visuaalisen identiteetin suunnittelu optikkoliikkeelle

    OpenAIRE

    Valén, Wilma

    2017-01-01

    Toteutin opinnäytetyöni yhdessä pienen loviisalaisen optikkoliikkeen, AC optikin kanssa. Opinnäytetyössäni suunnittelen AC optikille uuden visuaalisen ilmeen ja brändätyn pakkauksen, jossa silmälasit ja oheistavara on helppo luovuttaa asiakkaalle. Taustoitan aihettani yksityisyrittäjälle tärkeistä näkökulmista eli keskittymällä positiivisen asiakaskokemuksen tärkeyteen brändin rakentamisessa. Sen lisäksi käyn läpi visuaalisen identiteetin suunnittelun elementtejä ja pakkauksen asemaa brän...

  20. Om undervisning- Undervisningsbegrebet i systemteoretisk optik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    Oplægget introducerer til undervisningsbegrebet, sådan som det kommer til udtryk hos den tyske sociolog Niklas Luhmann. Med Luhmann ses undervisning som en særlig form for kommunikation, der sigter mod ’gøre mennesker til personer’ og dermed muliggør livsforløb, som ligger udenfor socialisationen...

  1. Cost-optimized climate stabilisation (OPTIKS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leimbach, Marian; Bauer, Nico; Baumstark, Lavinia; Edenhofer, Ottmar [Potsdam Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung, Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyses the implications of suggestions for the design of post-2012 climate policy regimes on the basis of model simulations. The focus of the analysis, the determination of regional mitigation costs and the technological development in the energy sector, also considers the feedbacks of investment and trade decisions of the regions that are linked by different global markets for emission permits, goods and resources. The analysed policy regimes are primarily differentiated by their allocation of emission rights. Moreover, they represent alternative designs of an international cap and trade system that is geared to meet the 2 C climate target. The present study analyses ambitious climate protection scenarios that require drastic reduction policies (reductions of 60%-80% globally until 2050). Immediate and multilateral action is needed in such scenarios. Given the rather small variance of mitigation costs in major regions like UCA, Europe, MEA and China, a policy regime should be chosen that provides high incentives to join an international agreement for the remaining regions. From this perspective either the C and C scenario (incentive for Russia) is preferable or the multi-stage approach (incentive for Africa and India). (orig.)

  2. Sverige i H.C. Andersens optik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    svendsen, erik

    2008-01-01

    Analyse af H.C. Andersens rejsebog I Sverrig (1851), læst som et krydsfelt mellem biedermeier, romantik og modernitet, som et krydsfelt mellem Ingemans natursværmeri og Østeds mere positivistiske approach til naturen.......Analyse af H.C. Andersens rejsebog I Sverrig (1851), læst som et krydsfelt mellem biedermeier, romantik og modernitet, som et krydsfelt mellem Ingemans natursværmeri og Østeds mere positivistiske approach til naturen....

  3. Öğretmenlerde A Tipi Kişilik, Stres Kaynakları, Öz Yeterlik ve İş Doyumu Type A Personality, Stress Resources, Self Efficacy And Job Satisfaction Among Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet YAZICI

    2013-09-01

    şkilidir. Farklı değişkenlere bağlı olarak öğretmenlerin iş doyumu üzerinde de araştırmalar yapılmaktadır. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, öğretmenlerdeki iş doyumunun kişilik özellikleri, stres kaynakları ve öz-yeterlik inançları ile ilişkilerini incelemektir. Araştırma kapsamında yaş, cinsiyet, medeni durum, çalışılan kurum türü ve idarecilik deneyimi gibi değişkenlerle iş doyumu arasındaki ilişkiler de ele alınmaktadır. Araştırma, 2012-2013 eğitim-öğretim yılında, Trabzon ilindeki özel ve resmi eğitim kurumlarında görev yapan 689 öğretmen (Kadın= 346, Erkek= 343 üzerinde yapılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak, Kişisel Bilgi Formu, İş Doyumu Ölçeği, Stres Kaynakları Ölçeği, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Genel Öz-yeterlik Algısı Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen bulgulara göre; A tipi kişilik özellikleri, stres kaynakları ve öz yeterlik inançları öğretmenlerin iş doyumlarını anlamlı düzeyde açıklamaktadır. Bunun yanı sıra yaş ve çalışılan kurum türü değişkenleri de iş doyumunu anlamlı düzeyde yordamaktadır. Araştırmadan elde edilen sonuçlar, literatür bulguları doğrultusunda tartışılmış ve önerilerde bulunulmuştur.

  4. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat GÜLER

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle incelenmiştir. Veriler, A Tipi Kişilik Ölçeği ve Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi ile toplanmıştır. Genel örneklemde ve A Tiplerinde GBY test performansı ve süresi ile A Tipi kişilik arasında anlamlı bir ilişki gözlenmezken, B Tiplerinde test süresinin ve yaşın GBY test performansının yordayıcısı olduğuna ilişkin bulgulara ulaşılmıştır. Objectively and impartially application of cognitive ability measurements that used in personnel selection of organizations, is a vital issue for providing needed appropriate human resources. But, some findings have been suggested that personality traits influence the measurement of cognitive abilities. In the current study the relationship between general cognitive ability (GCA and Type A personality (TAP was investigated with the data collected from 271 university students. The assessment instruments used were: Type-A Behavior Scale and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices Test. The findings revealed that, while there was no relationship between GCA, testing time and TAP in the general sample and Type A group, testing time and age were predictors of the GCA test performance in the Type B group

  5. Genel Bilişsel Yetenek Ölçümlerinde Süre ve Performans İlişkisinde A Tipi Kişiliğin Rolü(The Role of Type A Personality on the Relationship between Time and Performance in Measurement of General Cognitive Ability)

    OpenAIRE

    Murat GÜLER; H. Nejat BASIM

    2016-01-01

    Organizasyonların personel seçiminde kullanılan bilişsel yetenek ölçümlerinin, objektif ve yansız olarak yapılması, ihtiyaç duyulan uygun nitelikteki insan kaynağının temin edilmesi için önemli bir husustur. Ancak, bilişsel yetenek testlerinin kişilik özelliklerinden etkilendiğine dair bazı bulgular öne sürülmektedir. Mevcut araştırmada, genel bilişsel yetenek (GBY) ölçümlerinde süre ve performans ilişkisinde A Tipi kişiliğin rolü 271 üniversite öğrencisinden elde edilen verilerle...

  6. PENGARUH PENAMBAHAN PLASTICIZER TERHADAP SIFAT FISIK DAN MEKANIK EDIBLE FILM PATI JAGUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Adiansyah; Bastian, Februadi

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRAK AGROKOMPLEKS 2008 Edible film adalah lapisan tipis dan kontinyu yang dibuat dari bahan yang dapat dimakan, diletakkan diantara komponen makanan (film) yang berfungsi sebagai penghambat terhadap transfer massa (uap air, oksigen dan zat terlarut) dan sebagai carrier bahan makanan atau aditif. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan dalam dua tahap yaitu ekstraksi pati jagung. Pada tahap ini akan diperoleh pati jagung sebagai bahan dasar edible film. Parameter yang diukur pada pati jagung yaitu...

  7. A-B Tipi Kişilik Özelliklerine Sahip İşgörenlerin Olası Bir Örgütsel Değişime Yatkınlıklarının Araştırılması Research On The Predisposition To A Probable Organizational Change Of Workers Who Have A-B Type Personality Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan KARA

    2013-09-01

    ışın bilinmesi ve/veya önceden öngörülmesi değişime olan uyumu kolaylaştırabilecektir. Öte yandan değişim süreci ve/veya sonuçları işgörenleri kişiliklerinin bir sonucu olarak, kendilerini stres olarak tanımlanan gergin bir ortama da yöneltebilir. Böyle bir durum işgörenlerin değişime olan yatkınlıklarının yönü ve şiddetini de farklı kılabileceği söylenebilir.Bu çalışmada da olası bir örgütsel değişim karşısında işgörenlerin yatkınlıkları kişilik tipleri açısından ele alınmıştır. Alan yazınında kişilik tip ve özelliklerine yönelik olarak farklı sınıflamaların bulunduğu gözlenmektedir. Ancak yapılan bu araştırmada stres ile ilişkili olduğu için A ve B Tipi Kişilik Tipleri kullanılmıştır. Bu tipler aracılığıyla olası bir örgütsel değişim karşısında işgörenlerin yatkınlıkları sınanmış ve sonuçlarının işgörende yaratacağı stres durumları tartışılmıştır. Bu amaca varmak için gereksinim duyulan veriler Kütahya’da faaliyet gösteren bir seramik örgütünün 385 işgöreninden elde edilmiştir. Elde olunan veriler kurulan hipotezler ile test edilmiştir. Kişilik tipi ile değişime yatkınlık arasındaki korelasyon katsayısı 0,05 anlamlılık düzeyinde istatistiksel açıdan anlamlı ve kişilik tipi ile değişime yatkınlık arasında istatistiksel açıdan negatif yönde bir ilişkinin olduğu görülmüştür. Sonuçlara göre B tipi kişilik yapısına sahip işgörenlerin örgütteki değişiklik çıkarlarına ters düşse bile değişimi desteklememe olasılığı daha yüksek olan A tipi kişilik yapısına sahip işgörenlere göre değişime daha yatkın olabileceği de bulgular arasındadır.

  8. Pengaruh Temperatur, Massa Zink, Substrat Dan Waktu Tahan Terhadap Struktur Dan Morfologi Zno Hasil Sintesis Dengan Metode Chemical Vapour Transport (CVT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arisela Distyawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Material Zink Oksida (ZnO telah berhasil disintesis menggunakan metode Chemical Vapour Transport dengan bahan dasar prekursor berupa serbuk Zn yang dipanaskan hingga mencapai temperatur uap dalam furnace horisontal. Adapun variasi yang diberikan dalam penelitian adalah berupa temperatur pemanasan (850, 900, dan 950oC, massa prekursor Zn (0,15, 0,25, dan 0,35g, lama waktu sputtering substrat (90 dan 180 detik, dan waktu tahan khusus untuk mengetahui initial growth ZnO (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, dan 60 menit. Pembentukan Zink Oksida (ZnO dikonfirmasi melalui data X-RD, dimana telah terbentuk material ZnO dengan struktur hexagonal wurtzite. Berdarsarkan data XRD juga diketahui ukuran kristal pada sampel sputtering 90 detik mengalami penurunan bersamaan penambahan massa Zn. Dari hasil pengamatan SEM didapatkan bahwa morfologi permukaan lapisan tipis ZnO terdiri dari berbagai macam bentuk berupa nanoparticle, nanowires, nanorods, dan nanotetrapod. Lapisan Zno paling tebal sebesar ±350 nm pada sampel 950oC-0,15g sputter 90 detik. Semakin tinggi temperatur operasi berdampak peningkatan ukuran partikel. Pengujian FTIR turut menguatkan terbentuknya lapisan tipis di permukaan substrat Alumina. Hal ini didasarkan terjadinya penyerapan vibrasi yang membentuk lekukan pada kisaran area 509 cm-1 dari masing-masing sampel.

  9. Biologie se uniekheid as substraat vir die tipies menslike funksionering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. J. Ryke

    1989-03-01

    Full Text Available The biological similarities between humans and apes are great but they should not obscure the differences. Some differences are of such great consequence that man should be considered truly unique kind of organism with a marvellous plasticity of mind. All of the uniquely human traits are adaptations to the environments in which man evolved; these Include profound modifications of anatomy, physiology and behaviour. The morphological differences between man and his nearest relatives are very conspicuous. The form of the skeleton is adapted to fully erect posture and bipedal locomotion. The pelvis is broadened to provide adequate attachment for the powerful striding muscles. The transformation of the tail vertebrae is unique among the vertebrates. The joint for the neck is in the middel of the base of the skull. The hands are prehensile, with a large and strongly opposable thumb. The brain is uniquely large in proportion to the body and has a particularly large and complex cerebrum; the cerebral cortex contains the cent res for memory and complex computation. The enlarged brain requires prolonged infant dependency and high quality nutrition. Differences between humans and animals are grea tes t in the realm of behaviour: Ability to make tools (associated with bipedalism; ability to anticipate the future; development of symbolic communication (associated with expansion of cortex. Direct evidence of man's language capabilities comes form the anatomy of the modern human vocal tract. Man is the only species that succeeded in creating a truly productive language, and it is the scaffolding of human culture and civilization.

  10. KARAKTERISTIK FILM TIPIS TiO2 DOPING NIOBIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilalodin

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Niobium (Nb doped Titanium dioxide (TiO2 thin films have been successfully grown using spin coating method. Characterizations of thin films was carried out using EDAX (Energy Dispersion Analysis for X-Ray, XRD (X-Ray Diffaction and SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope to determine the microstructure of thin films. Determination microstructure, particularly of crystal structure was examined using ICDD data, whereas porosity calculation was done using the toolbox application on Matlab 6.1 software. EDAX, XRD and SEM characterization show that the thin films grown well at the Si substrates with the (002 field orientation is dominant and the thin film has the rutile structure. The TiO2 : Nb thin films product have granules round, uniform grain size and porosity value of about 41%.

  11. Perawatan Ortodontik Gigi Anterior Berjejal dengan Tulang Alveolar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje K. Purwanegara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anterior teeth movement in orthodontic treatment is limited to labiolingual direction by very thin alveolar bone. An uncontrolled anterior tooth movement to labiolingual direction can cause alveolar bone perforation at its root segment. This case report is to remind us that alveolar bone thickness limits orthodontc tooth movement. A case of crowded anterior teeth with thin alveolar bone in malocclusion I is reported. This case is treated using adgewise orthodontic appliance. Protraction of anterior teeth is anticipated due to thin alveolar bone on the anterior surface. The conclusion is although the alveolar bone surrounding the crowded anterior teeth is thin, by controlling the movement the teeth reposition is allowed.

  12. Eşiktekiler (Batılılaşmanın İki Ucunda İki Çocuk Tipi: Ömer ve Şermin Ones At The Threshold (Two Children Types at The End of Both Sides Of Westernization: Ömer And Şermin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedia KOÇAKOĞLU

    2013-03-01

    mer’inÇocukluğu (Omar’s Chilhood of Muallim Naci and Şermin of TevfikFikret. With this method, childhood of Muallim Naci which might becaused him to be mixed up in an affair and childhood of Fikret whichmight give birth to Haluk can be observed. Batıcılık, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu’nda başlayıp Cumhuriyet Türkiye’sinde oldukça farklı boyutlara varan ve Batı Avrupa’nın sosyal ve bilimsel algısını, ulaşılması gereken bir hedef olarak gören yaklaşımdır. Bu görüş ilk olarak Osmanlı’da bazen ılımlı bir biçimde ortaya çıkmış, bazen çok köktenci-geleneksel kültür öğelerimizi eleştiren boyutlar kazanmıştır.Bu bağlamda öncelikle sosyal ve siyasal düzenin içinde, yaşanılan sorunların giderilmesine çalışılmış, ardından küçük çapta reform hareketleri ve modernite projesiyle ilişki kurmanın zorunlu olduğunu öneren yönetim dışındaki grupların çalışmaları eklenmiş, en nihayetinde de imparatorluğun dağılarak, ulus-devlete dönüşmesi gerçekleşmiştir.Bu evreleri yaşamış olan Osmanlı’da bu süreç -Tanzimat dönemi başta olmak üzere- oldukça netameli geçmiştir. Özellikle sosyal hayat, sanat ve edebiyat bağlamında ele alınmaya çalışılan Batı, öncelikle bu dönemde kendine sızacak bir aralık bulmuştur. Bunu izleyen Servet-i Fünun ise Batılılaşmanın daha kökten yaşanmaya başladığı bir devir olmuş, sanat ve edebiyatta özellikle Fransız edebiyatı örnek alınmıştır.Bu açıdan bakıldığında Tanzimat, Servet-i Fünun’a göre daha Doğulu kalmış, ortaya kafası karışmış ikinci dönem Tanzimat aydını ile Batılı olmaya çalışan aydın tipi çıkmıştır. Bu iki sınıf kendi algıladıkları Batıyı yaşamış ve yaşatmaya gayret etmiş, bu doğrultuda da bir gelecek nesil hayali kurmuşlardır.Şu halde daha Doğulu bir görünüm arz ederek Tanzimat’ın ikinci dönem sanatçılarından olan Muallim Naci ile Batılı Tevfik Fikret’in çocuk algısına bakmak

  13. Efek Adsorpsi Dye ke dalam Lapisan TiO2 dengan Metode Elektroforesis : DSSC Berbasis Lapisan TiO2 Terbuat dengan Metode Slip Casting dan Metode Elektroforesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratno Nuryadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the effect of dye adsorption into TiO2 layer in dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC, which the TiO2 layer is formed by slip casting and electrophoresis methods. Adsorption process of the dye into the cavities of the TiO2 layer was conducted by electrophoresis technique. As results, two DSSCs prepared by the slip casting and electrophoresis methods were successfully realized and tested. In case of DSSC based on electrophoresis method, XRD results show the appearance of MgO on TiO2 layer, which is probably caused by the addition of salt Mg(NO32 in the electrophoresis solution. Therefore, electrophoresis condition without the addition of salt needs to be investigated in the next research. It is found that the electrophoresis method can be used in the process of dye adsorption into the TiO2 layer. The electrophoresis with larger voltage results in the larger DSSC output. It is also seen that open circuit voltage for the slip casting-based DSSC is found to be greater than that for the electrophoresis-based one. This may be due to the larger size of the pores in TiO2 layer for the slip casting process compared to that for the electrophoresis process. For larger size of the pores, the dye can easily fit into the pores with the help of electrophoresis. Keywords: Dye-sensitized solar cell, Dye adsorption, Electrophoresis, Slip casting

  14. Identifikasi Lapisan Geologi Bawah Permukaan Berdasarkan Data Geomagnetik di Sungai Logawa Banyumas

    OpenAIRE

    Sukmaji Anom Raharjo; Sehah Sehah; Adi Candra

    2014-01-01

    Identification of geological resources can be done either using surface mapping and cross sectional stratigraphy measurement or geophysical approximation beneath the earth surface. Geomagnetic exploration related to the existing of gold mineral begins with the total magnetic field intensity measurements at 173 locations was scattered in 109.196970 - 109.207580E and 7.448830 - 7.454110S. Interpretation from processing of data obtained four anomalous object, which is defined as fine-medium sand...

  15. Kajian Eksperimental Material dan Elemen Dinding Beton Beragregat Kasar Styrofoam dengan Lapisan Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Enda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The concrete material is a type of material that is widely used in building construction. For the purposes of the non-structural, the use of normal concrete causes dead load due to non-structural concrete elements are quite large, because of that to reduce the weight of the non-structural concrete lightweight concrete is used with coarse aggregate of ALWA material, one type of that is styrofoam. From the research that has been done by previous researchers with the concrete with coarse aggregate styrofoam, it is known that the quality of the concrete decrease with the addition of the percentage of the aggregate of Styrofoam in the concrete, this is due to styrofoam as the building blocks of concrete are too weak, so in this study coarse aggregate styrofoam do retrofitting of the coating by using a cement paste, fly ash and water (ALWA styrofoam. Experiment is carried out with Styrofoam granules coated with coating with maximum size of the coating is 2 centimeters is used as coarse aggregate with the ratio of cement water are 0.5, 0.6, 0.7 and 0.8 with a targeted strength of 15 Mpa. The results of the test show that the weight of the concrete ALWA styrofoam 25% -30% lower than normal concrete, the concrete compressive strength increases with decreasing ALWA styrofoam cement water factor .As non-structural wall use/ partition, the results of the analysis show of the structure as a non-structural walls, the collapse pattern of charger wall portal ALWA styrofoam concrete panel begins with the destruction of the corner area and then proceed with the destruction of the bottom of portal column.

  16. Survey Geolistrik Metode Resistivitas Untuk Interpretasi Kedalaman Lapisan Bedrock di Pulau Pakal Halmahera Timur

    OpenAIRE

    e.g., Roswita; Roswita

    2014-01-01

    The research done to know depth of the bedrock layer in Pakal Island, East Halmahera. The method of this research used a Resistivity Geoelectric with wenner electrode configuration. Measuring was done 5 lines that 500 meters and they were processed using by Res2Dinv software. The result is resistivity plate 2D then combined with core logging. The result depth of analysis and measurement data interpretation the bedrock layer variety has resistivity 300 ??m ??? 750 ??m. With maxi...

  17. Pengaruh Pemanasan Terhadap Struktur dan Sifat Optik Kristal ZnO

    OpenAIRE

    Zakaria, Hadria

    2015-01-01

    A Zinc Oxide thin film by sol-gel spin coating method have been investigated using XRD, Uv-Vis and SEM measurement. The ZnO precursor sol was prepared by mixing zinc acetate dehydrate, etanol as a solvent and diethanolamine (DEA) as stabilizer respectively. The ZnO Thin Films were annealed in the temperature range of 400??C-600??C for 60 minutes. The XRD patterns show that ZnO thin film are wurtzite hexagonal structure with a = 2,826 ??, 2,824 ??, 2,826 ?? and c = 4,898 ??, 4,895 ??, 4,899...

  18. Modern building envelope. Autentic optics. Emporio Tower, Hamburg; Moderne Gebaeudehuelle. Authentische Optik. Emporio Tower, Hamburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-10-15

    The former Unilever skyscraper in Hamburg (Federal Republic of Germany) was retrofitted completely. Due to a regulatory submission, the original image of this architectural landmark from the early 1960ies with the new facade should be retrofitted authentically. This submission was fulfilled by means of an highly energetic efficient ''compact double facade''.

  19. Difficulties of Model Construction in Optics (Probleme der Modellbildung in der Optik)

    CERN Document Server

    Horn, M E; Mikelskis, H F; Horn, Martin Erik; Leisner, Antje; Mikelskis, Helmut F.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout all years of study, students of physics are confronted with the question 'what exactly is light?' - a question that is impossible to answer correctly and, therefore, continuously discussed within the framework of models. Numerous models have been introduced for this purpose and subsequently compete with one another for validity. On the one hand, this may lead to learning difficulties. Yet, on the other hand, this may be considered a didactic chance, if thinking about the model is compounded with the consideration of models in general. Research in secondary school level II physics classes and with physics students provides insight into the processes of model construction as well as that of overcoming models, which will be presented and analyzed here. The possibilities which computer simulations provide for the discussion of various models of light are demonstrated and their influence on a structured construction of models will be discussed.

  20. Produksi Functionally Graded Material (FGM dari Hydroxyapatite-Serat Sutra untuk Aplikasi di Bidang Biomaterial dengan Teknik Pulse Electric Current Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjokorda Gde Tirta Nindhia

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is intended to produce functionally graded material (FGM of Hydroxyapatite (Hap-silk fibroin by pulse electric current sintering in facing the need in biomaterial application. The sample is created with 4 layers with the thickness for each layer is 0,625 mm, so that the total samples thickness become 2.5mm, with diameter 15 mm. The carbon die is used to compact the sample. The composition of lower layer is 100% silk fibroin, after that 90% silk fibroin +10% Hap, third layer was 80% silk fibroin + 20%Hap, and 70% silk fibroin +30% Hap for the upper layer. The properties of the FGM product was characterized by optical microscope and scanning electron microscope (SEM, three point bend with single-edge beam fracture toughness test (KIC. The grade of the FGM material is proven by using electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA. The value of fracture toughness is 0.45 MPa.m1/2. The sample still can support the load after maximum load is reached. Optical micrograph and SEM, and result from EPMA indicate that the Hap-silk fibroin FGM can be produce perfectly by using the method that is introduced in this research. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan memproduksi functionally graded material (FGM dari hydroxyapatite (Hap-serat sutra, melalui teknik pulse electric current sintering untuk memenuhi tantangan kebutuhan akan bahan jenis ini untuk digunakan dibidang biomaterial. Benda uji terdiri dari 4 lapis dengan ketebalan sama untuk tiap lapisnya sehingga tebal total menjadi 2.5 mm dengan diameter 15 mm. Komposisi lapisan paling bawah adalah 100% serat sutra, setelah itu 90% serat sutra + 10% Hap. Lapisan ketiga dengan komposisi 80% serat sutra + 20% Hap, dan 70% serat sutra + 30% Hap untuk lapisan paling atas. Perilaku produk FGM ini dikarakterisasikan dengan mikroskop optik, mikroskop electron, uji ketangguhan retak three point bend with single-edge. Gradasi (grade dari FGM dibuktikan dengan electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA

  1. Analisa Sildenafil Sitrat Pada Obat Tradisional Gali-Gali Dengan Metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis

    OpenAIRE

    Arista, Indri

    2010-01-01

    Have done identification sildenafil sitrat in traditional medicine gali – gali. For determination this contained is sildenafil sitrat analysis with thin layer cromatography method, with comparison volume etil acetate : methanol : amonia (85 : 10 : 5) as mobile phase and sildenafil sitrat as solution standart. From result analysis traditional medicine gali – gali contained sildenafil sitrat. Was know that in all traditional medicine not permission contained chemical materials. So that traditi...

  2. Penetapan kadar gentamisin dalam sediaan krim dengan kromatografi lapis tipis - densitometri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isnaeni Yudi Haryanto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The used of Gentamicin is still regarded for overcoming infectious diseases. Several preparations of the gentamicin are available in the market as injection, eye or ear drops, and topical dosage forms. Based on the standard method, determination of the gentamicin is carried out by microbiological assay. Several instrumental method have been reported. In this research, Thin Layer Chromatography-Densitometry (TLC-Densitometry has been validated and used for determining gentamicin in cream dosage form. The TLC was carried out on a Silica gel GF254 using KH2PO4 20% and ninhidrin 2% solution (in ethanol 96% as eluent and spots visualization respectively. Three spots appeared on the chromatogram having Rf value 0.51, 0.47, and 0.36. All the spots gave maximum absorption at 400 nm. The spot with Rf value of 0.51 was the highest intensity. Limit of Detection (LoD and Limit of quantitation (LoQ of the major component was 0.019 and 0.064 respectively. The other validation characteristics met the requirement for determination of gentamicin in the cream dosage form.

  3. Penapisan dan karakterisasi parsial senyawa antimikroba dari siput bakau dan profil kromatografi lapis tipis fraksi aktif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alimuddin Ali

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Mangrove snail is one of the animal medicines used againts bacterial infection, however, the scientific basic of the activity still void. The aim of this research were to investigate the antimicrobial effect of mangrove snail as the primary step to identify an antimicrobial activity and find out substances responsible to this activity. The study was conducted by collecting 4 snail samples. Extract were made be maceration of methanol and followed by chloroform and n-butanol partision, respectively. Antimicrobial activity has been done using Salmonella typhii, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and fungi Candida albicans. The result showed that these mangrove snail capable inhibit bacterial growth either Gram positive or negative, but can not inhibition fungi. Methanol extract of Terebralia sulcata showed inhibition zone has the Rf 0.27, whereas chloroform fractions of Charonia sp. has 6 spots by bioautographic. Two out of six spots showed inhibition zone with Rf 0.16 and Rf 0.4. Methanol extract of N. birmanica has inhibit with Rf 0.56. One spots with Rf 0.42 unclear as inhibition zone suggested negative. Then the methanol extract of Telescopium telescopium with Rf 0.34 showing inhibition zone.

  4. Analisa Sildenafil Sitrat Pada Obat Tradisional Gali-Gali Dengan Metode Kromatografi Lapis Tipis

    OpenAIRE

    Arista, Indri

    2010-01-01

    Have done identification sildenafil sitrat in traditional medicine gali – gali. For determination this contained is sildenafil sitrat analysis with thin layer cromatography method, with comparison volume etil acetate : methanol : amonia (85 : 10 : 5) as mobile phase and sildenafil sitrat as solution standart. From result analysis traditional medicine gali – gali contained sildenafil sitrat. Was know that in all traditional medicine not permission contained chemical materials. So that traditi...

  5. Distribusi lapisan batuan sedimen yang diduga mengandung gas biogenik dengan metode tahanan jenis di Pantai Saronggi, Sumenep, Madura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukman Arifin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: 10.17014/ijog.v5i2.97A research on sediments estimated to contain biogenic gas at Saronggi coast Sumenep in Madura, East Java, has been done by using the resistivity method and produced 2-D (two dimensional cross-sectional along four paths. The results of previous measurements indicate that biogenic gas is present within layers of black shale. It is known that the resistivity values of the black shale bearing biogenic gas is between 0.9-1.3 Ohm m. These resistivity values are used as references to determine the black shale layer bearing gas in four resistivity profiles. The depth of the black shale layers are varies: in profile 1 the depth is between 26.3 and 44.6 m, in profile 2 is between 30 and 45 m, in profile 3 is between 44.6 and 64.8 m, and in profile 4 is between 8,75 and 44,6 m.

  6. PENGGUNAAN TEKNIK KEAMANAN PADA JARINGAN SERAT OPTIK DENGAN METODE ANTI-JAMMING DAN STEGANOGRAFI MENGGUNAKAN MODUL OPTISYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Rosmiati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Serat optic merupakan media transmisi yang dapat menghantarkan informasi dalam bentuk cahaya. digunakannya cahaya sebagai media penghantaran informasi membuat media ini dapat menghantarkan informasi dengan kapasitas besar dalam waktu yang sangat singkat. Sehingga saat ini serat optic banyak digunakan dalam Telekomunikasi. jaringan serat optic ini harus disertai dengan teknik keamanan yang handal dalam proses transmisi informasinya, karena jika terjadi  penyerangan  dalam jaringan yang serat optic maka data yang akan diterima oleh receiver akan jauh berbeda dengan data yang dikirim transmitter. Sehingga hal ini sangat fatal jika informasi yang dikirimkan memiliki tingkat kerahasiaan yang sangat  tinggi seperti informasi keamanan Negara. Adapun metode yang dapat digunakan dalam pengamanan jaringan serat optic adalah metode steganography dan metode anti-jamming. Dari percobaan yang telah dilakukan terlihat bahwa teknik steganography memiliki tingkat kehandalan yang lebih baik jika dibandingkan dengan metode anti-jamming dengan  nilai BER untuk metode steganography adalah 1.91219e-077.

  7. Pasak Customized Fiber Reinforced Composite Indirect pada Gigi Incisivus Lateralis Kiri Atas dengan Dinding Saluran Akar yang Tipis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Prima Dewi Ayuningtyas Subroto

    2015-06-01

    restoration of a non vital post root canal treatment tooth with thin root canal walls using indirect customized fiber-reinforced composite post. A 27-year-old female patient with over instrumentation in root canal of the upper left lateral incisor was referred to the Department of Conservative Dentistry. The radiograph examination finds that there was a very thin wall of the remaining root canal structure. The restoration was carried out in 3 visits. In the first visit, post canal impression was obtained using double impression technique. Indirect customized fiber reinforced composite post was made in the mold using composite resin Premise Indirect (Kerr reinforced with fiber band (Construct, Kerr. The formed post and core were light cured for 20 seconds, and then refined by oven polymerization for 20 minutes. In the second visit, the post was inserted and crown impression was obtained using double impression technique. In the third visit, the jacket crown was inserted. The root canal treated tooth with remaining thin post canal wall could be restored with indirect customized fiber reinforced composite.

  8. THIN FILM-BASED SENSOR FOR MOTOR VEHICLE EXHAUST GAS, NH3, AND CO DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sujarwata

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A copper phthalocyanine (CuPc thin film based gas sensor with FET structure and channel length 100 μm has been prepared by VE method and lithography technique to detect NH3, motor cycle exhaust gases and CO. CuPc material layer was deposited on SiO2 by the vacuum evaporator (VE method at room temperature and pressure of 8 x10-4 Pa. The stages of manufacturing gas sensor were Si/SiO2 substrate blenching with ethanol in an ultrasonic cleaner, source, and drain electrodes deposition on the substrate by using a vacuum evaporator, thin film deposition between the source/drain and gate deposition. The sensor response times to NH3, motorcycle exhaust gases and CO were 75 s, 135 s, and 150, respectively. The recovery times were 90 s, 150 s and 225, respectively. It is concluded that the CuPc thin film-based gas sensor with FET structure is the best sensor to detect the NH3 gas.Sensor gas berbasis film tipis copper phthalocyanine (CuPc berstruktur FET dengan panjang channel 100 μm telah dibuatdengan metode VE dan teknik lithography untuk mendeteksi NH3 gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO. Lapisan bahan CuPc dideposisikan pada permukaan silikon dioksida (SiO2 dengan metode vacuum evaporator (VE pada temperatur ruang dengan tekanan 8 x10-4 Pa. Tahapan pembuatan sensor gas adalah pencucian substrat Si/SiO2 dengan etanol dalam ultrasonic cleaner, deposisi elektroda source dan drain di atas substrat dengan metode vacuum evaporator, deposisi film tipis diantara source/drain dan deposisi gate. Waktu tanggap sensor terhadap NH3, gas buang kendaraan bermotor dan CO berturut-turut adalah 75 s, 135 s,dan 150 s. Waktu pemulihan berturut-turut adalah 90 s, 150 s,dan 225 s. Disimpulkan bahwa sensor gas berstruktur FET berbasis film tipis CuPc merupakan sensor paling baik untuk mendeteksi adanya gas NH3.

  9. Pengaruh Densitas Arus dan Waktu Kontak Efektif Elektrolit Gel Terhadap Ketebalan Dan Kekuatan Lekat Lapisan Krom Pada Baja Dengan Metode Elektroplating

    OpenAIRE

    Naufal Gati Furqon; Sulistijono Sulistijono

    2015-01-01

    Dalam dunia industri, korosi merupakan ancaman yang sering muncul yang dapat menyebabkan terjadinnya kegagalan material. Korosi bukanlah sesuatu yang dapat dicegah, akan tetapi korosi dapat dikendalikan dengan beberapa cara. Pengendalian terhadap korosi merupakan cara yang dilakukan memperlambat timbulnya korosi pada material dan merupakan suatu hal yang vital untuk dilakukan. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan metode elektroplating dengan menggunakan media elektrolit gel dengan penam bahan 5% ge...

  10. STUDI PREPARASI DAN KARAKTERISASI SEL SURYA BERBASIS TITANIA MELALUI PENYISIPAN LOGAM TEMBAGA (CU DENGAN BERBAGAI VARIASI MASSA PADA LAPISAN AKTIF TITANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Prasetyowati

    2017-05-01

                This study aims to determine the effect of insertion of copper (Cu with a variety of mass to structure morphology and composition of surface layer of titania, absorbance of titania, resistance of titania and solar cell performance based on titania.. Solar cell performance is characterized from voltage of solar cell.                 Preparation of titania-copper layer (TiO2-Cu to form a paste was made using a sol-gel method. Pasta titania-copper deposited on a transparent electrode (Indium Tin Oxide with a doctor blade method. There were five variations of Cu mass pasted on layers of titania, namely 0,050 grams (Sample 1; 0,075 grams (sample 2; 0,100 grams (3 samples; 0.0125 (sample 4 and 0.0150 (sample 5. Each variation of the mass of Cu is inserted in one gram of TiO2. SEM and EDS characterization performed on layers of titania-copper to know the structure morphology and composition of the titania-copper. Layer absorbance was characterized using UV-Visible spectrometer. Resistance of titania was measured using a Wheatstone bridge. The performance of solar cells measured by measuring the voltage of the solar cell.                  Keywords: titania, copper, surface morphology, absorbance, resistance, solar cells

  11. Pemodelan Dan Optimasi Pada Jaringan Internet Protocol Over Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (Ip Over Sdh)

    OpenAIRE

    Nora Wahyuni

    2009-01-01

    Jaringan Internet Protocol over Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (IP over SDH) adalah gabungan dua lapisan jaringan, yaitu lapisan internet yang berbasiskan Internet Protocol dan Synchronous Digital Hierarchy. Pada jaringan IP over SDH yang menjadi lapisan transport adalah SDH, sedangkan trafiknya berasal dari lapisan internet. Pemakaian kapasitas link dalam melayani pengiriman informasi harus seefisien mungkin. Untuk itu perlu dilakukannya optimasi dan analisa terhadap faktor-faktor yang mempe...

  12. Lexicon of optics. Vol.1: A to L. Vol.2: M to Z; Lexikon der Optik. Bd. 1: A bis L. Bd. 2: M-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul, H. (ed.)

    2003-07-01

    This lexicon contains the actual knowledge for all aspects in optical sciences and technology. More than 4.000 headings are leading through the whole science of optics in two volumes together with more than 800 figures. More than 70 high-ranked authors guarantee the uptodate knowledge.

  13. ANALISIS KESULITAN PEMAHAMAN KONSEP ALAT OPTIK PADA SISWA KELAS VIII SEMESTER GENAP SMP NEGERI 3 METRO TAHUN PELAJARAN 2012/2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriani .

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research to know form of difficulties were experienced by students looked form cognitive domain and questionsettlement stage. The subject of this research was student of grade VIIIc of junior high school 3 Metro academic year 2012/2013 the total of 33 students. Data capture technique used essay test. Data analysis was done by qualitative by identification, tabulation, describtion, and interpretationsteep. Base on analysis can be knowed that the most dominant difficulties were looked from question settlement stage that was operated stage the rules or the laws as much as 73%. Students difficulties were looked from coqtinive domain in ability stage such as knowledge, comprehension, application, and analysis. Difficulties in cognitive domain the most dominant wasexperienced by students are in analysis ability stage as much as 91%. To overcome the difficulties, the teacher is adviced in order that learning the most important to physic concept are felt difficult, that are aplication stage and analysis. 

  14. ZnO Filmlerinin Optik, Elektrik ve Yüzey Özellikleri Üzerine Tavlama İşleminin Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay GENÇYILMAZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ZnO films were prepared on glass at 3005 C substrate temperature by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures (350, 450, 550 C for 2 hours. Annealed and unannealed of ZnO films were characterized by studying their optical, electrical and surface properties. The optical transmittance and absorbance spectra of all films were examined by UV-VIS Spectrophotometer and the optical band gap was found using optic method. Besides, visible emission peaks and native point defects of ZnO films were determinate using photoluminescence spectra. Thickness, refractive index and extinction coefficient values were obtained with spectroscopic ellipsometry technique. The electrical and surface properties of the films were characterized four point technique and atomic force microscopy, respectively. According to result, the effects of annealing temperature on the optical, electrical and surface properties of the ZnO films are discussed

  15. ZnO Filmlerinin Optik, Elektrik ve Yüzey Özellikleri Üzerine Tavlama İşleminin Etkileri

    OpenAIRE

    Olcay GENÇYILMAZ; ATAY, Ferhunde; İdris AKYÜZ

    2014-01-01

    ZnO films were prepared on glass at 3005 C substrate temperature by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The deposited films were annealed at various temperatures (350, 450, 550 C) for 2 hours. Annealed and unannealed of ZnO films were characterized by studying their optical, electrical and surface properties. The optical transmittance and absorbance spectra of all films were examined by UV-VIS Spectrophotometer and the optical band gap was found using optic method. Besides, visible emission peaks ...

  16. Optics of the CuGaSe{sub 2} solar cell for highly efficient tandem concepts; Optik der CuGaSe{sub 2}-Solarzelle fuer hocheffiziente Tandemkonzepte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Martina

    2010-01-25

    A principle aim of solar cell research lies in optimizing the exploitation of the incident solar light. Yet, for single junction solar cells there exists an efficiency limit as described by Shockley and Queisser. The only concept realized so far to overcome this threshold is - apart from concentration - the multijunction solar cell. However, any kind of multijunction design poses new challenges: The upper wide-gap solar cell (top cell) needs to show efficient light absorption in the short-wavelength region. At the same time sufficient transmission for long-wavelength light is required which then needs to be absorbed effectively by the low-gap bottom cell. In tandem solar cells a proper light management in top and bottom solar cell is of great importance. This work focuses on chalcopyrite-based tandem solar cells. For the wide-bandgap IR-transparent ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell an optical model has been established. Starting from modeling each of the individual layers building the stack the optical behavior of the complete thin film system of the top cell could be described. Carefully selected layer combinations and comparison of experimental and calculated data allowed for the attribution of transmission losses to the distinct material properties. Defects in the absorber are of crucial importance but also free carrier absorption in the window and in the transparent back contact contribute significantly to optical losses. The quantification of the losses was achieved by calculating the effects of reduced top cell transmission on the photo current of a simplified bottom cell. An extension of the optical model allowed to calculate the effective absorption in the individual layers and to determine reflection losses at the interfaces. From these results an optimized top cell stack was derived which is characterized by A) simulation of the monolithic integration, B) reduced layer thicknesses wherever possible from the electrical point of view, C) addition of an antireflection coating and D) optimization of layer thicknesses with respect to antireflection behavior for the long-wavelength light. The optimized stack promises an increase in sub-gap transparency of the top cell from 60 to 80 % considering realistic material properties. Monolithically connecting a Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} based bottom cell for simulating the chalcopyrite tandem, the fundamental requirement of current match for top and bottom cell was investigated. Suitable CuGaSe{sub 2}/Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} tandem combinations are identified and potential efficiencies calculated. They predict a maximum achievable tandem efficiency of 26 % in the case of realistic materials. Furthermore first experimental realizations of the optimized top cell stack were carried out. Their optical properties coincide with the model. Also measured and modeled photo current densities in a mechanically connected Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} bottom cell shaded by various CuGaSe{sub 2} top cell stacks are in agreement within an error range of 5 %. A highest efficiency of 6.3 % was measured for the shaded bottom cell. However, for fundamental improvement of the chalcopyrite tandem performance novel concepts are required. Prospects of integrating nanoparticles as mediators of plasmonic absorption enhancement are given. Theoretical and experimental background is provided to integrate plasmonic effects in the thin film multilayer modeling. Conclusions about the most suitable size and the best position of the nanoparticles within the stack of the ZnO:Al/i-ZnO/CdS/CuGaSe{sub 2}/SnO{sub 2}:F/glass solar cell could be derived: for a 200 nm thick absorber the integration of silver nanoparticles with radii over 50 nm deposited at the interface SnO{sub 2}:F - glass promises an absorption enhancement of 28 %.

  17. Le pinete demaniali costiere di Ravenna e Ferrara: analisi dei tipi forestali e strutturali per la scelta del trattamento selvicolturale nel processo di pianificazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Cantiani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The state-owned pine forests on the coast of Ravenna and Ferrara: analysis of forest and structure types for choice of silvicultural system in the planning process. Results of the analysis on typology and structure of state forests dominated by maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait. are reported. These formations grow on a narrow coastal belt between Cervia (Ravenna and Volano (Ferrara, in the Emilia-Romagna region (Italy. The aim of the study is to support the proper silvicultural system in order to satisfy multiple use of pine forests using the analysis of forest types and model types of structure. Main ecological and structural features of principal pine forest types and experimental criteria on silvicultural systems are explained.

  18. Il lavoro “a chiamata” e le piattaforme online della collaborative economy: nozioni e tipi legali in cerca di tutele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Aloisi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper, after giving an overview of recent labour trends in the digital economy, describes alternative working arrangements such as “crowdworking” and “work on-demand via platform”. The regulatory framework and the legal consequences of such innovative and non-standard forms of work are analysed in detail with emphasis on the improper classification of workers in the gig-economy. In the second section, the essay focuses on the recent Communication of the European Commission on Collaborative Economy that is aimed at establishing under which conditions an online platform should be considered a provider of the “underlying services”. This focus is followed by an analysis of antitrust as well as labour law implications of Spanish, Italian and British rulings.The contribution explores the proposals on how to craft an intermediate category between employees and independent contractors. Workers in the on-demand economy have brought lawsuits alleging that the online platforms are misclassifying them as independent contractors, but the question remains still unsolved. Proponents recently advocated that a third category would be a good fit for digital platform work. Conversely, as far as Italy is concerned, the quasi-subordinate category created an opportunity for uncertainty and arbitrage resulting in the erosion of protection. The article describes the notion of the so called “collaborazioni organizzate dal committente” (contractors whose performance is organised by the principal as a tool to expand crowdworkers’ rights.Finally, the most recent Italian labour market reform could eventually provide a solution for the current disputes on how work in the gig-economy could be regulated. In fact, the scheme of “collaborazioni organizzate dal committente” could represent a useful template, since it broadens the scope of the protections granted to standard employees.

  19. CO2 Özümlemesinde C-3 ve C-4 Tipi Bitkilerde Fotosentez-Solunum Denge Noktalarının Belirlenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. TÜRK

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Bilindiği gibi yüksek yapılı bitkilerin çok büyük bir bölümü fotosentezde ilk ve kararlı bileşik olarak 3 karbonlu hidrokarbonları üretirken, bir bölümü de 4 karbonlu bileşikleri üretirler. Bu bitkilerin belirlenmesinde değişik yöntemler kullanılır. Bu çalışmada, C-3 ve C-4 bitkilerinde CO2 denge noktası pratik ve basit pH metodu ile ölçülmüştür. Bu metod sulandırılmış NaHCO3 çözeltisinin pH değerlerinin bu çözelti içinde çözünen CO2 miktarına göre değişmesi ilkesine dayanmaktadır. Çözünen CO2 miktarı, çözelti dengede olduğunda atmosferdeki CO2'in kısmi basıncına bağlıdır. Böylece daha düşük atmosferik CO2 konsantrasyonu daha yüksek NaHCO3 - pH değerini verir. Çalışma sonucunda elde ettiğimiz veriler C-4 bitkilerinin C-3 bitkilerine göre daha düşük CO2 konsantrasyonlarında fotosenteze devam ettiklerini göstermiştir. Bitkilerdeki bu farklı CO2 denge noktaları C-3 ve C-4 bitkilerinin teşhisinde kullanılabilecek en önemli kriterlerden biridir.

  20. Il lavoro “a chiamata” e le piattaforme online della collaborative economy: nozioni e tipi legali in cerca di tutele

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonio Aloisi

    2016-01-01

    .... In the second section, the essay focuses on the recent Communication of the European Commission on Collaborative Economy that is aimed at establishing under which conditions an online platform should...

  1. ANALISA FLAVONOID DARI EKSTRAK ETANOL 96% KULIT BUAH OKRA MERAH (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench SECARA KROMATOGRAFI LAPIS TIPIS DAN SPEKTROFOTOMETRI UV-VIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nia Lisnawati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Has done research on flavonoids Analysis of Ethanol Extract 96% Fruit Leather Red Okra In Thin Layer Chromatography and Spectrophotometer UV-Vis. The purpose of this study was to analyze the content of the fruit skin red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench by using the method of thin layer chromatography (TLC under UV light and spectrophotometry UV-Vis. Reference standards used in this study is the Standard Solution Routine Quercetin. The results of the research that has been done by the method of thin layer chromatography obtained Rf values of 0.81 and produces the color orange. And the results of research conducted by spectrophotometry UV-Vis method obtained 333,117 mg.L-1 or 421,629 mg.kg-1 or 0,84339 %. The conclusion from this study is that the 96% ethanol extract of the fruit leather red okra (Abelmoschus esculentus L. Moench positive (+ contains flavonoids with levels of 0,84339 %.

  2. SILAR yöntemi ile üretilen CuO filmlerin yapısal, morfolojik ve optik özelliklerine ikili katkılamanın (Zn, Li) etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışmada katkısız CuO ve farklı konsantrasyonlarda Li-katkılı Li-ZnCuO filmler cam altlıklar üzerine SILAR yöntemi ile başarılı bir şekilde büyütüldü. Üretilen bu filmler metalurjik mikroskop (MM), X-ışını kırınımı (XRD) ve UV-Vis. spektroskopi ile karakterize edildi. MM sonuçları, CuO filmlerin morfolojisi üzerine Li-Zn ikili katkılama konsantrasyonunun önemli bir etkiye sahip olduğunu gösterdi. XRD verileri filmlerin nanoboyutta kristalize olduklarını ve kristallenme kalitesinin katkı k...

  3. Development of a calculation tool for energy optimization in lighting fixtures. Part 2: Modelling of light sources in Pinball; Udvikling af beregningsvaerktoej til energioptimering af optik til belysningsarmaturer. Del 2: Modellering af lyskilder i Pinball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Michael

    1998-08-01

    Pinball reads a description of a calculation model, does the relevant lighting calculations and provides results for illuminance, luminous intensity and luminance. The program is run by means of a simple menu as explained in annex A. The description of the model must be based on a set of conventions. The description has to be provided in one or more text files, where actual data are given on coded lines. The structure of files and the use of coded lines is explained in annex B. The methods of lighting calculations are discussed. Some work may be needed to extend the compatibility of Pinball to different conventions in the field of lighting. The field of application of Pinball is already wide, but the method allows that it can be further widened. Some models lead to a low calculation efficiency, for instance when only balls reaching an interior through windows or similar from an illuminated exterior are of interest. It would be convenient to have a particular set of conventions for `gates` that focus the attention on balls eventually passing the gate. Sometimes the colour or the polarization of light is of interest. It is possible to associate such properties to surfaces, when simultaneously the balls are made to have a `memory` for the wavelength or the plane of polarization. (EG)

  4. Development of a calculation tool for energy optimization in lighting fixtures. Part 3: Modelling of materials in Pinball; Udvikling af beregningsvaerktoej til energioptimering af optik til belysningsarmaturer. Del 3: Modellering af materialer i Pinball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Jens Joergen

    1998-08-01

    Pinball reads a description of a calculation model, does the relevant lighting calculations and provides results for illuminance, luminous intensity and luminance. The program is run by means of a simple menu as explained in annex A. The description of the model must be based on a set of conventions. The description has to be provided in one or more text files, where actual data are given on coded lines. The structure of files and the use of coded lines is explained in annex B. The methods of lighting calculations are discussed. Some work may be needed to extend the compatibility of Pinball to different conventions in the field of lighting. The field of application of Pinball is already wide, but the method allows that it can be further widened. Some models lead to a low calculation efficiency, for instance when only balls reaching an interior through windows or similar from an illuminated exterior are of interest. It would be convenient to have a particular set of conventions for `gates` that focus the attention on balls eventually passing the gate. Sometimes the colour or the polarization of light is of interest. It is possible to associate such properties to surfaces, when simultaneously the balls are made to have a `memory` for the wavelength or the plane of polarization. (EG)

  5. Santral Kornea Kalınlığının Ultrasonik Pakimetre, Optik Kohorens Tomografi ve Placido-Disk Korneal Topografi ile Kombine Scheimpflug Kamera ile Karşılaştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    KALAYCI, Mustafa; Güneş, Alime; Özertürk, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare the results of ultrasonic pachymetry, optical cohorence tomography and Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido-disk corneal topography in central corneal thickness measurement. Material and Methods: Central corneal thickness was measured with ultrasonic pachymetry, optical cohorence tomography and Scheimpflug camera combined with Placido-disk corneal topography in 112 eyes of 112 healthy volunteers between the ages of 15 and 65 years. The measurements of each instrumen...

  6. The tropospheric aerosol at mid-latitudes - microphysics, optics, and climate forcing illustrated by the LACE 98 field study; Das troposphaerische Aerosol in mittleren Breiten - Mikrophysik, Optik und Klimaantrieb am Beispiel der Feldstudie LACE 98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiebig, M.

    2001-07-01

    This study investigates the column closure of optical aerosol parameters as part of the Lindenberg Aerosol Characterisation Experiment (LACE 98). The optical aerosol parameters were calculated from microphysical aerosol parameters which were measured height resolved from tropopause to boundary layer and compared with the direct measurement of the respective property (closure). The closure allows the validation of the measured aerosol properties and the inversion of aerosol properties which are not measurable directly. The radiative forcings of the measured aerosol columns are estimated. The measured, quality assured microphysical aerosol properties are parameterized and tabulated as input data for models. The successful closure of the aerosol column's optical depth validates the measured particle size distributions, whereas the successful closure of the backscatter coefficient validates the assumptions made on the aerosol chemical composition and serves to deduce its state of mixture, the latter point exemplified using a 7 day old forest fire aerosol. The local, instantaneous radiative forcing of the measured continental particle columns are estimated to lie between -33 W/m{sup 2} for continental and -6 W/m{sup 2} for marine air masses for a solar zenith angle of 56 . (orig.) [German] Als Teil des Lindenberger Aerosol Charakterisierungsexperimentes (LACE 98) behandelt diese Arbeit die Saeulenschliessung optischer Aerosolparameter. Diese wurden aus den von Tropopause bis Grenzschicht hoehenaufgeloest gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften berechnet, um sie mit den am gleichen Ort direkt gemessenen optischen Aerosolparametern zu vergleichen (Schliessung). Es wird gezeigt, dass die Schliessung die Qualitaetssicherung der gemessenen Aerosoleigenschaften und die Invertierung direkt nicht messbarer Aerosoleigenschaften ermoeglicht. Die Strahlungsantriebe der vermessenen Aerosolsaeulen werden abgeschaetzt. Die qualitaetsgesicherten gemessenen mikrophysikalischen Aerosoleigenschaften werden als Eingabedaten fuer Modelle parameterisiert und tabelliert. Die erfolgreiche Schliessung der optischen Dicke der Aerosolsaeule validiert die gemessenen Partikelgroessenverteilungen, die erfolgreiche Schliessung der Rueckstreukoeffizienten validiert die Annahmen zur chemischen Aerosolzusammensetzung und dient zur Invertierung seines Mischungszustands, letzteres vorgefuehrt an einem 7 Tage gealterten Waldbrandaerosol. Die lokalen, instantanen Strahlungsantriebe der gemessenen kontinentalen Partikelsaeulen liegen zwischen -33 W/m{sup 2} fuer kontinentale und -6 W/m{sup 2} fuer marine Luftmassen bei einem solaren Zenithwinkel von 56 . (orig.)

  7. Augšdevona dolomīta litoloģiski morfoloģiskie tipi Rīgas Kultūrvēsturiskajos pieminekļos

    OpenAIRE

    Hodireva, V; Sidraba, I; Purvins, E

    2010-01-01

    Vietējais Latvijas dolomīts plaši izmantots tagadējās Rīgas pilsētas un apkārtnes teritorijā esošajās viduslaiku kultūrvēsturiskajās celtnēs. Kultūrvēsturiskajos pieminekļos izmantotā dolomīta litoloģisko tipu identifikācija sniedz gan kultūrvēsturiski nozīmīgu informāciju, gan dod iespēju kultūrvēsturiskā objektā pielietotajam dolomīta litoloģiskajam paveidam piemeklēt atbilstošāko paveidu mūsdienu dolomīta ieguves vietās, kas būtu pielietojams kultūrvēsturiska objekta restaurācijā. Litoloģi...

  8. Konsentrasi Asam Lemak Terbang dan Glukosa Darah Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (VOLATILE FATTY ACID CONCENTRATION AND BLOOD GLUCOSE ON THIN-TAILED SHEEP GIVEN WITH TANINE-PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nuraliah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to analyze the influence of tannin-protected protein source feed to livestock productivitybased on its influence on methane production, Volatile fatty acids (VFA production, and blood glucose inthe use of tannin-protected protein on complete feed in thin-tailed ram. The study uses thin-tailed ramaged about 8 months, as many as 16 rams with body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg. The researchusesa completerandomized design(CRD withfour treatmentsandfourreplications. The treatments areP0:15% soybeanmeals without tannin protection in complete feed, P1:15% soybean meals with 0.5% tannin protection incomplete feed, P2:15% soybean meals with 1% tannin protection in complete feed and P3:15% soybeanmeals with 1.5% tannin protection in complete feed. The results indicates that administration of tanninsin soybean meal in complete feed showed significant effect (P <0.05 on blood glucose, the production ofpropionic acid in the 3rd hour, but the VFA production at hour 0, hour 6, as well as methane productionshowed no significant effect (P> 0.05. The conclusion is that 15% protected soybean meal with 1% oftannin in the complete feed is able to contribute to the proportion of propionate and contribute to increasedblood glucose on a thin-tailed ram but can not to reduce methane production.

  9. Perkiraan Pasokan Nitrogen Mikrob pada Domba Ekor Tipis yang Diberi Bungkil Kedelai Terproteksi Tanin (ESTIMATION OF MICROBIAL NITROGEN SUPPLY IN THIN-TAILED SHEEP FED WITH TANNIN PROTECTED SOYBEAN MEAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husnaeni .

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study the effect of soybean meal protection mangrove leaf tannin onpurine derivative (PD excretion, estimated microbial nitrogen (MN supply, and estimated efficiency MNsuplay based on DOMR in thin-tailed sheep. A total of 16 thin-tailed sheep aged eight months withaverage body weight of 11.81±1.65 kg, and were randomly fed with complete feed with tannin-protectedsoybean meal in different levels. The research was conducted according to completely randomized designwith four treatments and four replications. T0 (soybean meal without tannin, T1 (protected soybean meal0.5% tannin, T2 (protected soybean meal 1% tannin, and T3 (protected soybean meal 1.5% tannin.Research finding indicated that organic matter consumption (OMC, organic matter digestibility (OMD,and digestible organic matter in rumen (DOMR were not affected (P> 0.05 by the treatment, however thetreatment had significant effects (P<0.05 against PD, estimated MN supply, and estimatedMN supply based on DOMR. Purine derivative, estimated MN supply, and estimated MN supply basedDOMR markedly decreased in the treatment of soybean meal protection 1.5% tannins. It was concludedthat soybean meal protection with mangrove leaf tannins was not significant against OMC, OMD andDOMR thin-tailed sheep, but protected soybean meal with tannins 1.5% affected on decreasing purinederivative excretion, estimated MN supply and estimated MN supply based on DOMR.

  10. Penentuan Korelasi Perubahan Kelembaban Relatif Terhadap Ketinggian Inversi Dan Kualitas Udara Ambien Di Kota Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achmad Alvinsyah Rasyidi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Kualitas udara Kota Surabaya memiliki konsentrasi yang berubah-ubah. Perubahan ini disebabkan oleh lapisan inversi yang dipengaruhi kelembaban relatif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menganalisa hubungan dari kelembaban relatif, lapisan inversi, dan kualitas udara ambien.  Penelitian ini menggunakan data sekunder dalam kurun waktu 5 tahun, mulai 2009-2014. Data tersebut perlu diolah terlebih dahulu sebelum dianalisa dan dikorelasikan. Pengolahan data itu dengan cara mencari data ketinggian lapisan inversi, kelembaban relatif, dan konsentrasi gas pencemar. Pengolahan ini termasuk melingkupkan data berdasarkan kelengkapan data, pembagian musim penghujan dan kemarau, saat siang dan malam hari, dan pada hari senin-jum’at. Berdasarkan hasil pelingkupan data inilah bisa melakukan langkah selanjutnya yaitu antar data satu dengan data lainnya dikorelasikan dengan korelasi Pearson. Hasil analisa data menunjukkan bahwa tidak berkorelasinya antara kelembaban relatif dengan lapisan inversi, antara lapisan inversi dengan gas pencemar, serta kelembaban relatif dengan gas pencemar. Tidak berkorelasinya ini kemungkinan  disebabkan oleh sinar dan panas matahari.

  11. Dansk LED - Museumsbelysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders

    Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen.......Projektet har til formål at anvende dansk forskning inden for optik og lys til at realisere innovative energieffektive LED lyssystemer til museumsbranchen....

  12. ERBİYUM KATKILI FİBER OPTİK YÜKSELTEÇLERİN (EDFA) KULLANILDIĞI UZUN MESAFE SOLİTON İLETİŞİM SİSTEMLERİNİN OPTİMİZASYONU

    OpenAIRE

    ARI, Murat

    2014-01-01

    Solitonlar, fiber optik iletişim sistemlerinde bozulmaya uğramadan yüzlerce kilometre gidebilen özel tip optikdarbelerdir. Erbiyum Katkılı Fiber Optik Yükselteçler (EDFA) ise, silika fiberlerin zayıflamasının minimum olduğu 1550 nm dalga boyu civarında 40-50 nm aralıkta çalışabilen ve ticari olarak da tercih edilen optik yükselteçlerdir. Optik yükselteçlerin fiber zayıflamasını dengeleyerek kayıpsız bir optik iletişim sistemini efektif olarak sağlayabildikleri düşünüldüğünde, soliton tabanlı ...

  13. PENERAPAN METODE GEOFISIKA UNTUK PEMETAAN DAERAH RAWAN LONGSOR DAS BRANTAS KECAMATAN SUKUN KOTA MALANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurriawan Budi Pranata

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui distribusi tahanan jenis dan bidang gelincir pada pada Daerah Aliran Sungai (DAS Brantas Kecamatan Sukun Kota Malang. Lokasi penelitian merupakan daerah dengan tebing yang  curam berkisar 70o hingga 90o. Penelitian dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode geolistrik resistivitas dengan konfigurasi Wenner. Hasil pengolahan data geolistrik resistivitas menunjukkan bahwa material lempung pasiran dengan tahanan jenis 23,4 Ohm-meter, material lempung kedap air dengan tahanan jenis 30,9–57,3 Ohm-meter diduga sebagai bidang gelincir (slip-surface. Hal tersebut disebabkan resapan air hujan yang mencapai lapisan lempung kedap air akan mengalami kontak dengan lapisan lempung, air mengalir diatas lapisan lempung dan menyebabkan hancurnya lapisan lempung sehingga menjadi licin yang kemudian menjadi bidang gelincir. Berdasarkan interpretasi hasil pengolahan data dapat disimpulkan bahwa daerah penelitian memiliki potensi yang tinggi untuk terjadi longsor

  14. PENGARUH KOMPOSOSI LAPISAN PADA PERMUKAAN GLOBULA MINYAK EMULSI SEBELUM PENGERINGAN SEMPROT TERHADAP SIFAT-SIFAT MIKROKAMSUL TRIGLISERIDA KAYA ASAM LEMAK W-3 [The Effect of the Composition of Adsorbed Layer at Globule Interface of -3 Fatty Acids Enriched Triglyceride Prior to Spray Drying on its Microcapsule Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Adnan2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Emulsification is the critical factor in microencapsulation by spray drying method. Sodium caseinate is a protein with good emulsifying properties. The properties could be improved by phospholipids addition in the emulsification. Phospholipids addition which stabilized oil globule might change the composition of adsorbed layer.This research was conducted to analyze the changes in composition at oil globule interface by analyzing emulsion systems of triglyceride enriched by -3 fatty acids at 5% (w/v stabilized by sodium caseinate (10% w/v and addition of phospholipids at 0; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; and 2,5% (w/v. The changes in composition of adsorbed layer could be determined from the changes in phospholipids and adsorbed protein concentrations at oil globule interface. Analyses were done to measure the possibility of casein-phospholipids complex, phospholipids and protein adsorption concentration at interface, and adsorbed protein.The increase of phospholipids concentration in the emulsions stabilized by sodium caseinate changed the composition of adsorbed layer at interface. There was phospholipids increase and adsorbed protein decrease at oil globule interface. These changes were caused by casein-phospholipids complex which that decreased surface activity and displacement protein by phospholipids that was adsorbed at oil globule interface.Changes of composition of casein-phospholipids at oil globule prior to microcapsulation process caused changes in the properties of microcapsule produced. The increasing phospholipids and decreasing casein concentrations at oil globule interface decreased the quality of the microcapsule, including decreasing in microencapsulation efficiency, in oxidative stability, and decreasing in EPA+DHA content.

  15. Studi Proses Pemisahan Bitumen dari Asbuton dengan Proses Hot Water Menggunakan Bahan Pelarut Kerosin dan Larutan Surfaktan

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    Mochamad Sidiq

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini merupakan studi proses pemisahan bitumen dari asbuton dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Asbuton adalah aspal alam yang terdeposit dalam batuan dengan kadar bitumen antara 15-30% yang terdapat di Pulau Buton, Sulawesi Tenggara dengan jumlah deposit aspal sebesar 677juta ton. Bitumen dapat digunakan sebagai campuran aspal minyak untuk pembangunan dan pemeliharaan sarana infrastruktur berupa jalan raya. Salah satu cara pemisahan bitumen dari mineral adalah dengan proses hot water menggunakan bahan pelarut kerosin dan larutan surfaktan. Sistem yang ditinjau dalam penelitian ini adalah tangki berpengaduk berbentuk silinder dengan kapasitar 2000cm2. Dalam penelitian ini akan ditinjau pengaruh dari penambahan ratio larutan surfaktan/asbuton dan penambahan kerosin terhadap %recovery bitumen. Proses ekstraksi dilakukan selama 20 menit dengan suhu proses 90oC dan kecepatan putar pengaduk 1500 rpm. Hasil proses ini akan terbentuk 3 lapisan yaitu lapisan atas terdiri dari larutan bitumen (kerosin dan bitumen, lapisan tengah terdiri dari air, larutan surfaktan dan mineral murni yang terpisah, dan lapisan bawah terdiri dari asbuton yang tidak terekstrak, kerosin dan sedikit air. Lapisan paling atas di ambil dan dilakukan analisa densitasnya untuk diketahui konsentrasi bitumennya. Sehingga dapat dihitung %recovery bitumen yang dihasilkan. Lapisan paling atas dipisahkan dan dianalisa konsentrasi bitumennya dengan mengukur densitasnya. Dari hasil eksperimen diperoleh kesimpulan bahwa (% recovery bitumen tertinggi adalah pada penambahan kerosin 50% dan 0,1% konsentrasi larutan surfaktan 35 % sebesar 80,797%.

  16. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Uveitis dalam Upaya Mencegah Kebutaan

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    Ratna Sitompul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Uveitis adalah peradangan uvea yang dapat mengakibatkan kebutaan. Uveitis dapat disebabkan oleh peradangan di uvea saja, merupakan bagian dari penyakit sistemik (autoimun, infeksi, keganasan, perluasan peradangan di kornea dan sklera, trauma, namun sebagian tidak diketahui penyebabnya (idiopatik. Uveitis anterior adalah inflamasi di iris dan badan siliar dengan gejala nyeri, mata merah, fotofobia, dan penurunan tajam penglihatan. Uveitis intermediet merupakan peradangan di pars plana namun sering diikuti vitritis dan uveitis posterior. Gejala uveitis intermediet biasanya ringan, tidak disertai nyeri dan mata merah namun tajam penglihatan dapat menurun akibat edema makula dan agregasi sel di vitreus. Uveitis posterior adalah peradangan di koroid dan retina yang sering terjadi di negara berkembang karena tingginya penyakit infeksi (toksoplasmosis, tuberkulosis, HIV, sifilis. Pasien mengeluh penglihatan kabur namun tanpa disertai mata merah, nyeri, atau fotofobia. Komplikasi uveitis posterior adalah katarak, glaukoma, edema makula, keratopati, kekeruhan vitreus, ablasio retinae, dan atrofi nervus optik. Prognosis uveitis posterior lebih buruk dibandingkan uveitis anterior. Panuveitis adalah peradangan seluruh lapisan uvea. Diagnosis uveitis ditetapkan berdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan fisik dan mata, pemeriksaan laboratorium dan pencitraan. Terapi uveitis ditujukan untuk menekan inflamasi, perbaikan struktur dan fungsi penglihatan, menghilangkan nyeri serta fotofobia. Kortikosteroid dan imunosupresan merupakan obat pilihan untuk mengatasi inflamasi sedangkan NSAID untuk mengurangi nyeri dan sikloplegik untuk mencegah sinekia posterior. Antimikroba diberikan bila uveitis disebabkan oleh infeksi. Penyakit yang mendasari uveitis harus diatasi secara komprehensif untuk mencegah perburukan, komplikasi dan kebutaan. Kata kunci: uveitis anterior, uveitis intermediet, uveitis posterior, panuveitis, autoimun, infeksi, trauma, peradangan Diagnosis and

  17. Norma in linguistica e sociolinguistica e incongruenze tra norma e uso nell'ítaliano d'oggi

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    Nora Galli de' Paratesi

    1988-12-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro consta di due parti. Nella prima (par. 1, 2, 3, 4 vorrei tentare una definizione di diversi tipi o aspetti della normatività linguistica, nella seconda (par. 5 vorrei analizzare come i diversi tipi di norma hanno agito e agiscono nell'ambito della lingua italiana d'oggi.

  18. Bernhard Schmidt - realiteet müütide vastu / Ülo Tonts

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tonts, Ülo, 1931-2016

    1996-01-01

    Raamatust Optical illusions. The life story of Bernhard Schmidt the great stellar optician of the twentieth century by Erik Schmidt. Estonian Academy Publishers 1995. B. Schmidt - eestlasest optik, kellest kirjutas J. Kross romaanis "Vastutuulelaev"

  19. Physik ein Lehrbuch

    CERN Document Server

    Westphal, Wilhelm H

    1953-01-01

    Mechanik der Massenpunkte und der starren Körper ; Physik der Stoffe ; Wärmelehre ; Elektrostatik ; Magnetismus und Elektrodynamik ; Optik und allgemeine Strahlungslehre ; Quantentheorie, Atome und Moleküle, Kristalle ; Astrophysik und Physik des Weltalls.

  20. Development of a calculation tool for energy optimization in lighting fixtures. Part 1: Documentation of methods in the recently developed Pinball software; Udvikling af beregningsvaerktoej til energioptimering af optik til belysningsarmaturer. Del 1: Dokumentation af metoder m.v. i det nyudviklede software Pinball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, Kai

    1998-08-01

    Pinball reads a description of a calculation model, does the relevant lighting calculations and provides results for illuminance, luminous intensity and luminance. The program is run by means of a simple menu as explained in annex A. The description of the model must be based on a set of conventions. The description has to be provided in one or more text files, where actual data are given on coded lines. The structure of files and the use of coded lines is explained in annex B. The methods of lighting calculations are discussed. Some work may be needed to extend the compatibility of Pinball to different conventions in the field of lighting. The field of application of Pinball is already wide, but the method allows that it can be further widened. Some models lead to a low calculation efficiency, for instance when only balls reaching an interior through windows or similar from an illuminated exterior are of interest. It would be convenient to have a particular set of conventions for `gates` that focus the attention on balls eventually passing the gate. Sometimes the colour or the polarization of light is of interest. It is possible to associate such properties to surfaces, when simultaneously the balls are made to have a `memory` for the wavelength or the plane of polarization. (EG)

  1. Development of a calculation tool for energy optimization in lighting fixtures. Part 4: Examples of practical Pinball applications in efficient light fixture design; Udvikling af beregningsvaerktoej til energioptimering af optik til belysningsarmaturer. Del 4: Eksempler paa virksomheders praktiske anvendelser af Pinball til effektivt armaturdesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudum, J.; Oebro, P. [Hansen og Henneberg A/S (Denmark); Pedersen, H. [Jakobsson A/S (Denmark); Olsen, N. [Louis Poulsen A/S (Denmark); Lund, S.; Hedam, M. [Riegens A/S (Denmark)

    1998-08-01

    Pinball reads a description of a calculation model, does the relevant lighting calculations and provides results for illuminance, luminous intensity and luminance. The program is run by means of a simple menu as explained in annex A. The description of the model must be based on a set of conventions. The description has to be provided in one or more text files, where actual data are given on coded lines. The structure of files and the use of coded lines is explained in annex B. The methods of lighting calculations are discussed. Some work may be needed to extend the compatibility of Pinball to different conventions in the field of lighting. The field of application of Pinball is already wide, but the method allows that it can be further widened. Some models lead to a low calculation efficiency, for instance when only balls reaching an interior through windows or similar from an illuminated exterior are of interest. It would be convenient to have a particular set of conventions for `gates` that focus the attention on balls eventually passing the gate. Sometimes the colour or the polarization of light is of interest. It is possible to associate such properties to surfaces, when simultaneously the balls are made to have a `memory` for the wavelength or the plane of polarization. (EG)

  2. PEMODELAN PONDASI DANGKAL DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN TIGA LAPIS GEOTEKSTIL DI ATAS TANAH LIAT LUNAK

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    Subianto Tjandrawibawa

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available It was common practice to apply a layer of ''sirtu'' (sandy gravel beneath the shallow foundations of buildings on soft subsoil. Though the bearing capacity is increased, it is usually limited to anticipate future consolidation settlements which might be detrimental. This could be overcome by reinforcing the ''sirtu'' layer with geotextiles. To study the effect of geotextile reinforcement, a laboratory foundation model was constructed on a soft soil deposit. The model measured 5x5x2cm³. The bearing capacity of this model was compared with the bearing capacity of the model on ''sirtu'' layer, and geotextile reinforced ''sirtu''. Geotextile reinforcement was laid in one, two and three layers. Based on the bearing capacity tests, it is concluded that with one geotextile layer the strength was increased 182,6% higher than soft soil, with two geotextile layers the strength increased 197,8% higher than soft soil and with three geotextile layer the strength increased 241,3% higher than soft soil. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Bangunan di atas tanah yang lunak sering menggunakan lapisan sirtu di bawah pondasi dangkalnya. Cara ini dapat meningkatkan daya dukung pondasi namun daya dukung ini masih harus dibatasi untuk menghindari kemungkinan penurunan jangka panjang yang merugikan. Penurunan lapisan sirtu sendiri dapat ditanggulangi dengan memasang perkuatan berupa lapisanlapisan geotekstil di dalamnya. Sebuah model dibuat di laboratorium untuk mempelajari efektifitas lapisan-lapisan geotekstil ini terhadap peningkatan daya dukung. Model pondasi berukuran 5x5x2cm³. Daya dukung model ini, langsung di atas tanah lunak, dibandingkan dengan daya dukung model pondasi yang terletak pada lapisan sirtu dan lapisan sirtu yang diperkuat geotekstil. Lapisan sirtu diperkuat dengan satu, dua sampai tiga lapis geotekstil. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan dengan satu lapis geotekstil kekuatan meningkat sebesar 182,6% dibanding tanah lunak, dengan dua lapis geotekstil

  3. Penggunaan Tetes Telinga Serum Autologous dengan Amnion untuk Penutupan Perforasi Membran Timpani

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    Hidayatul Fitria

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Latar Belakang: Gangguan pendengaran atau ketulian mempunyai dampak yang merugikan bagi penderita , keluarga, masyarakat maupun negara. Salah satu penyebab ketulian yang sering dijumpai adalah radang telinga tengah, terutama yang disertai perforasi membran timpani yang menetap. Penutupan perforasi membran timpani dapat dilakukan dengan operatif dan konservatif. Secara konservatif sudah banyak cara yang dilakukan. Salah satunya dengan mengkaustik tepi perforasi dengan menggunakan silver nitrat untuk membuat luka baru, kemudian digunakan amnion sebagai jembatan (bridge dan faktor regulasi yang terdapat pada tetes telinga serum autologous. Tujuan: Untuk menjelaskan gambaran penggunaan amnion sebagai jembatan dan tetes telinga serum autologous sebagai faktor regulasi. Tinjauan pustaka: Penutupan perforasi membran timpani dapat dilakukan secara konservatif salah satunya dengan menggunakan tetes telinga serum autologous sebagai faktor regulator, amnion sebagai jembatan dan penggunaan silver nitrat pada tepi perforasi untuk membuat luka baru. Serum autologous memiliki asselerator pertumbuhan yaitu epidermal growth factor (EGF , transforming growth factor β1 (TGF- β1 dan fibronektin. Asselerator pertumbuhan ini dapat kita temukan pada penyembuhan membran timpani normal. Sedangkan membran amnion adalah jaringan semi transparan tipis yang membentuk lapisan terdalam membran fetus dengan susunan membran basalis yang tebal dan jaringan stroma avaskuler. Membran amnion mempercepat pembentukan epitel normal dengan menekan pembentukan jaringan fibrosis. Sel epitel amnion memproduksi faktor pertumbuhan seperti fibroblast growth factor dan transforming growth factor beta. Faktor pertumbuhan akan membantu komunikasi antara epitel dan sel fibroblast stroma untuk menekan proliferasi dan diferensiasi jaringan fibrosis. Kesimpulan: Diperlukan tiga elemen pada penutupan perforasi membran timpani yaitu faktor regulasi, jembatan (bridge dan membuat luka baru

  4. Cis-2,6-bis(2-klorofenil-3,3-dimetilpiperidin-4-one bileşiği üzerine yapısal, spektroskopik, elektronik ve doğrusal olmayan optiksel araştırmalar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömer Tamer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Piperidin, heterosiklik moleküller arasında en iyi bilinen yapılardan biridir. Güncel çalışmalar bu tür bileşiklerin yapı-doğrusal olmayan optiksel performans ilişkisine odaklanmaktadır. Doğrusal olmayan optik malzemelerin fiber optik iletişim ve optik sinyal işlemlerinde hayati öneme sahip oldukları bilinmektedir. Bu çalışmada, bir piperidin türevi olan cis-2,6-bis(2-klorofenil-3,3-dimetilpiperidin-4-one (2C3DMPO bileşiğinin yapısal, spektroskopik, elektronik ve doğrusal olmayan optik özellikleri analiz edilmiştir. 2C3DMPO için elde edilen teorik sonuçlar deneysel değerler ile iyi bir uyum içindedirler. NMR spektrumunda, elektronegatif O atomundan dolayı, C4 atomu aşağı alanda sinyal vermiştir. HOMO ve LUMO arasındaki küçük enerji aralığı, bağ ve antibağ yörüngeleri arasındaki yoğun etkileşmeler yüksek doğrusal olmayan optik özelliklerin göstergesidir.

  5. APLIKASI METODE GEOLISTRIK DALAM SURVEY POTENSI HIDROTHERMAL (STUDI KASUS: SEKITAR SUMBER AIR PANAS KASINAN PESANGGRAHAN BATU

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    Ika Yulia Sulistyarini, Irjan

    2012-03-01

    Hasil penelitian menunjukkan lapisan penyusun bawah permukaan pada lintasan B dan C tidak kontinu dan didominasi oleh lapisan yang tidak memiliki sifat pembawa air panas yang berupa batuan lava dan campuran batuan lava dengan andesit yang menunjukkan kemas tertutup dan porositas batuan jelek. Potensi air panas masih kecil dan diduga air panas yang muncul ke permukaan berasal dari aliran air panas dari arah songgoriti-cangar. Air panas tersebut muncul ke permukaan diduga karena adanya rekahan batuan di bawah permukaan. Kata Kunci : Air Panas (Hidrothermal, Geolistrik Resistivitas Konfigurasi Wenner, Potensi air panas.

  6. Læring i videnssamfundet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier.......Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier....

  7. Fra selvdannelse til eksistensoplysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en perspektiv......Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en...

  8. Rammer og vilkår for rehabilitering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangshaab, Jette; Bonfils, Inge Storgaard

    2012-01-01

    Kapitlet skaber et overblik over de rammer og vilkår som rehabilitering i Danmark aktuelt er indlejret i. Der fremstilles i kapitlet velfærdsstatslige teorier, lovgivningsmæssige rammer for rehabilitering, strukturreformens betydning for rehabilitering, NPM optik, dokumentation og kvalitetsudvikl......Kapitlet skaber et overblik over de rammer og vilkår som rehabilitering i Danmark aktuelt er indlejret i. Der fremstilles i kapitlet velfærdsstatslige teorier, lovgivningsmæssige rammer for rehabilitering, strukturreformens betydning for rehabilitering, NPM optik, dokumentation og...

  9. Læring i videnssamfundet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Jørgen; Dalsgaard, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier.......Artiklen gør rede for en forståelse af begrebet ’viden’, og det diskuteres om begrebet ’vidensmedier’ kan anvendes som en samlende optik for udforskningen af relationerne mellem viden og medier i videnssamfundet. Derefter følger en kort oversigt over karakteristika ved digitale medier....

  10. Fra selvdannelse til eksistensoplysning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Finn Thorbjørn

    2002-01-01

    Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en perspektiv......Dette indledningskapitel for KVANs temanummer om børn og modernitet gør rede for modernitetsfænomenet beskrevet gennem henholdsvis Foucaults, Rortys og Schanzs optik og det diskuteres hvordan disse tre forskellige optikker tegner en oplysningsforståelse i dag. Artiklen afsluttes med en...

  11. Stres, A ve B Tipi Kişilik Yapısı ve Bunlar Arasındaki İlişki Üzerine Bir Araştırma(Stress, Type A And Type B Personalıty Charasterıstıcs And A Research On The Relatıonshıp Between Stress And The Two Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufuk DURNA

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available People are exposed to the stress due to various reasons. We can classify these reasons into two groups: organizational reasons and extraorganizational reasons. Today many techniques which aim to cope with stress have been developed. Stress could be managed and controlled by physiological, psychological, behavioral, environmental techniques.Type A individuals are extremely competitive, highly work oriented, impatient and sensitive to time. Type B individuals are with less conflict with both other people and time and have a more balanced and relaxed life style.Our research attempts to explore relationship between the individual stress level and Type A and Type B personality. It has been found that, individuals who have a high stress level show mostly Type A personality characteristics.

  12. Sexl Physik 7 für die 7. und 8. Klasse der allgemein bildenden höheren Schulen (1. Teil)

    CERN Document Server

    Sexl, Roman U; Stadler, Helga; Jakesch, Peter; Sattlberger, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Die Schwerpunkte dieses Bandes sind die Erarbeitung der Themen Optik, Atombau und Elektrodynamik über einen historisch-philosophischen Zugang. Wie in jedem Band des Lehrgangs sind übersichtliche Zusammenfassungen, Test- und weiterführende Fragen sowie Rechenbeispiele enthalten.

  13. Af materialitet er du kommet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skiveren, Tobias; Gregersen, Martin

    2015-01-01

    På baggrund af bogen "Den materielle drejning. En (ny) optik i og på aktuel dansk litteratur", der udkommer i 2016, skitserer artiklen, hvordan en filosofisk-teoretisk nyorientering under overskriften "den materielle drejning" i øjeblikket udkrystalliserer sig på en henholdsvis økokritisk, posthu......, posthuman og kropsmaterialistisk strømning i dansk samtidslitteratur....

  14. Fagre nye læringsliv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    optik skarpt på en kultur, hvor den vigtigste kompetence bliver at kunne glemme snarere end kumulativt at opbygge et videnslager, og hvor det kortsigtede afløser det langsigtede perspektiv. Teksterne kan læses som en provokation rettet mod dem, der forestiller sig, at individualisering, privatisering og...

  15. Mobil nationalisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koefoed, Lasse Martin

    2006-01-01

    , varer, mennesker og kapital men derimod en integreret del af disse tendenser. Gennem begrebet mobil nationalisme argumenteres der for en analytisk optik, hvor nationalisme forstås som en proces hvorigennem skiftende relationer og bevægelser mellem forskellige socio-rumlige skalaer som kroppen...

  16. Akustisk Territorialitet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    udvikler en klar anti-urban optik. Særligt undersøges Schafers mere eller mindre reflekterede inspiration fra samtidige amerikanske tænkere som Marshall McLuhan og John Cage. Som en alternativ indgang til det auditive erfaringsfelt introduceres territorialitetsbegrebet i kapitel 3. Konrad Lorenz...

  17. Digital literacy som læringsoptik i det senmoderne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    indledes med en redegørelse for de aktuelle potentialer for folkeskolen i dag. Herefter følger et generelt koncept for digital literacy. I det tredje afsnit opstilles på baggrund af projektets undersøgelser udfordringer for den nye optik, og i det sidste afsnit gives et udblik, hvor konceptets muligheder...

  18. Proceedings of the Workshop on Millimeter and Submillimeter Atmospheric Propagation Applicable to Radar and Missile Systems, held at Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, 20-22 March 1979

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-02-01

    4.8 5.2 indeisen, W., 1932: M4essunjen der Orbsse und - I Anzahl der Nebeltropfen zum Studium der Sep-Nov 10.6 8.8 21.5 42.7 Koagulation Inhomogenen...zur Optik triber Medien, 6, 519-526. speziell kolloidaler Metallbhungen. Annalen Tverskoi, P. N., 1965: Physics of the atmos- der Physik , 25, fourth

  19. At komme fra 'udkanten'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sune Jon

    behov for/krav om videregående uddannelse. Med Pierre Bourdieus relationelle tilgang til den sociale verden og hans begreber om socialt rum, kapital og habitus som styrende teoretisk optik, oparbejdes og analyseres den lokale og aktuelle erhvervs- og uddannelsesorientering i relation til en...

  20. On the Computation of Motion from Sequences of Images - A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Fennema and Thompson extract mw,.ng regions h, (olle(ting similar optical flow vectors vex, y) = v, + Vx + V, y + v,, x [96]. Adiv segmented an opti...K. Kearney, "Gradient-based estimation of optical flow," [96) C. L. Fennema and W. B. Thompson, "Velocity determi- Ph.D. Dissertation, University of

  1. Pemodelan Matematik Kinerja Pengering Surya Efek Rumah Kaca (ERK-Hibrid Menggunakan Rak Berputar secara Vertikal (Mathematical Modeling Performance of Greenhouse Effect (GHE-Hybrid Solar Dryer with a Vertical Rotating Rack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigit Triwahyudi

    2016-12-01

    ini menyajikan uji unjuk kerja dan pemodelan matematik pengering energi surya (ERK-Hibrid  menggunakan  rak berputar secara vertikal. Pengering terdiri dari bangunan rumah kaca berukuran (1100 × 860 × 1300 mm dengan delapan buah rak dan sistim pemanas tambahan yang terdiri dari kolektor plat datar (1,04 m2, tangki penyimpan air panas (197 liter dan penukar panas. Untuk mengetahuikinerja pengering energi surya, dilakukan lima kali percobaan variasi kecepatan putar rak (1, 4, 7, 10 rpm dan tanpa pemutaran rak. Bahan yang dipergunakan pada pengujian adalah kapulaga lokal (Amomum cardamomum Wild. Masing-masing percobaan seberat 9 sampai dengan 10 kg. Rata-rata suhu air tangki penyimpan panas bervariasi dari 50,0 sampai dengan 55,0 °C suhu ruang pengering antara 38,9 sampai dengan 45,9 °C, sedangkan kelembaban relatif (RH ruang pengering berkisar antara 32,1 sampai dengan 47,4 %. Perlakuan pemutaran rak berpengaruh terhadap keseragaman suhu bahan maupun kadar air pada masing rak pengering. Pada perlakuan pemutaran 1 rpm (percobaan II, didapatkan kondisi terbaik (suhu bahan maupun kadar air yang paling seragam. Dengan kecepatan putar rak yang semakin meningkat menyebabkan nilai ragam suhu bahan maupun kadar air semakin meningkat. Untuk melakukan simulasi unjuk kerja dilakukan pemodelan matematik berdasarkan pindah panas dan massa serta pendekatan pengeringan lapisan tipis. Persamaan diselesaikan secara numerik menggunakan finite difference Euler dengan bantuan bahasa pemrograman Visual Basic Aplication (VBA Excell. Validasi dilakukan dengan membandingkan antara perhitungan hasil pemodelan (data prediksi dengan data hasil pengukuran (data observasi. Kriteria kevalidan ditentukan dengan melihat nilai koefisien determinasi (R2, nilai RMSD maupun nilai MAPD. Pemodelan  matematik yang telah dibangun dapat menggambarkan dengan tepat perubahan suhu air tangki penyimpan panas, suhu ruang pengering, suhu bahan maupun penurunan kadar air. Kata kunci: Pengering surya efek rumah

  2. PENENTUAN TAHANAN JENIS BATUAN ANDESIT MENGGUNAKAN METODE GEOLISTRIK KONFIGURASI SCHLUMBERGER (STUDI KASUS DESA POLOSIRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Munaji

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian untuk menentukan nilai resistivitas dan kedalaman batuan andesit di Desa Polosiri. Prinsip kerja metode geolistrik adalah mempelajari aliran listrik di dalam bumi dan cara mendeteksi di permukaan bumi. Metode tahanan jenis didasari oleh hukum Ohm, untuk mengetahui jenis lapisan batuan didasarkan pada distribusi nilai resistivitas pada tiap lapisan. Variasi harga tahanan jenis akan didapatkan jika jarak masing-masing elektroda diubah, sesuai konfigurasi alat yang dipakai (konfigurasi Schlumberger. Data hasil pengukuran di lapangan berupa beda potensial dan arus yang dapat digunakan untuk menghitung resistivitas semu. Penelitian ini dilakukan sebanyak tiga lintasan. Data hasil pengukuran diolah menggunakan software IPI2Win. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian diperoleh bahwa batuan andesit di Desa Polisiri memiliki resistivitas 212 Ωm – 300 Ωm dengan kedalaman 1.3 m - 1.86 m.

  3. APLIKASI METODE GEOLISTRIK RESISTIVITAS KONFIGURASI SCHLUMBERGER UNTUK IDENTIFIKASI AKUIFER DI KECAMATAN PLUPUH, KABUPATEN SRAGEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Ayu Tyas Winarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK. Identifikasi akuifer di Kecamatan Plupuh, Kabupaten Sragen telah dilakukan dengan metode geolistrik resistivitas konfigurasi Schlumberger. Akuisisi data di lapangan dilakukan pada 8 titik sounding dengan panjang lintasan tiap titik adalah antara 250-400 m. Hasil akuisisi data lapangan menunjukkan nilai resistivitas semu (ρa, selanjutnya diolah dengan software IPI2win untuk memperoleh nilai resistivitas sebenarnya, kedalaman dan ketebalan tiap-tiap lapisan permukaan bumi. Dari hasil pengolahan ini kemudian nilai resistivitas dibandingkan dengan tabel nilai resistivitas literatur. Berdasarkan hasil interpretasi diperoleh lapisan akuifer dangkal pada kedalaman antara 2,23-27,6 m dengan ketebalan antara 2,42-70,7 m dan akuifer dalam berada pada kedalaman 32,6-124 m dengan ketebalan antara 13,6-80,4 m. Dari hasil interpretasi kemudian dibuat penampang 2 dimensi yang menghubungkan titik-titik sounding yang segaris dengan software Rockwork 15 untuk mengetahui persebaran akuifer.   Kata Kunci: Akuifer, geolistrik, resistivitas

  4. PEMANFAATAN TEKNIK GEOLISTRIK UNTUK MENDETEKSI PERSEBARAN AIRTANAH ASIN PADA AKUIFER BEBAS DI KOTA SURABAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui persebaran airtanah asin di Kota Surabaya, menganalisis faktor penyebabnya dan mencari kemungkinan ditemukannya airtanah tawar pada akuifer tertekan. Untuk rnencapai tujuan tersebut dilakukan pendugaan geolistrik pada tujuh penampang dengan masingmasing penampang terdiri atas dua hingga tiga titik pendugaan. Untuk menganalisis hash pendugaan, data tahanan jenis hash pendugaan lapangan diinterpretasi dengan Program Schlumberger 0 Weil. Hasil interpretasi dapat ditentukan kedalaman dan ketebalan lapisan airtanah beserta sifat-sifatnya. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa di Kota Surabaya telah terdeteksi adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau, dengan jarak dari garis pantai dan ketebalan lapisan yang beniariasi. Faktor penyebab adanya airtanah asin dan airtanah payau tersebut adalah air fosil (connate water Hasil lain dari penelitian ini adalah bahwa hingga kedalaman 150 meter dari permukaan tanah, tidak ditemukan akuifer tertekan yang mengandung airtanah tawar.

  5. Analisis SWOT Implementasi Tekonologi Finansial terhadap Kualitas Layanan Perbankan di Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imanuel Adhitya Wulanata Chrismastianto

    2017-04-01

    Menyikapi realisasi era digital saat ini, kualitas layanan perbankan di Indonesia diharapkan semakin meningkat secara signifikan, agar mampu menjangkau seluruh lapisan masyarakat, khususnya bagi masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah 3T (Terdepan, Terluar, dan Terpencil. Namun, pada kenyataannya kualitas layanan perbankan di Indonesia saat ini masih minim dalam mengakses masyarakat yang tinggal di daerah 3T tersebut. Mencermati berbagai realita yang telah diuraikan di atas, maka melalui analisis SWOT implementasi kebijakan teknologi finansial ini, diharapkan kualitas layanan perbankan semakin dapat ditingkatkan dan dirasakan oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat Indonesia secara riil dan para pelaku perbankan dapat memahami pengelolaan fungsi manajemen perbankan dengan tepat didasarkan pada sikap takut akan Tuhan dan menghargai sesama, dalam konteks pengelolaan aset internal maupun eksternal yang mencakup aktivitas perbankan secara holistik. Dengan demikian, tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis secara lebih mendalam mengenai kekuatan, kelemahan, peluang, dan ancaman (SWOT implementasi teknologi finansial terhadap kualitas layanan perbankan Indonesia di era digital melalui studi literatur perbankan.

  6. Sintetik Seismik Lingkungan Vulkanik

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ghazalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eksplorasi hidrokarbon saat ini mengharuskan geosaintis untuk mencari area baru yang sebelumnya dianggap tidak menghasilkan hidrokarbon. Dengan ditemukannya rembesan minyak pada daerah vulkanik mengindikasikan adanya petroleum play aktif yang memiliki cadangan hidrokarbon. Ketidakmampuan gelombang seismik untuk menggambarkan bawah permukaan pada daerah vulkanik menjadikan dibutuhkannya pemodelan seismik. Pemodelan seismik akan memodelkan atau merekonstruksikan penjalaran gelombang seismik pada model geologi yang telah ditentukan, pada kasus ini model geologi yang digunakan adalah model geologi pada lingkungan vulkanik. Penelitian ini menggunakan 2 model, yang pertama adalah model “Kue Lapis” dan yang kedua adalah model “Serayu” yang merupakan model kompleks dari cekungan North Serayu di Jawa tengah. Kedua model tersebut memiliki lapisan basalt dengan tebal 200 m yang menutupi lapisan bawahnya yang menjadi target karena menyimpan cadangan hidrokarbon. Dari hasil pemodelan dapat dilihat fenomena gelombang ketika merambat melalui lingkungan vulkanik.

  7. KAJIAN EKSPERIMENTAL POROUS CONCRETE YANG MENGGUNAKAN SEMEN PORTLAND POZZOLAN DAN SERAT POLYPROPYENE

    OpenAIRE

    Irmawaty, Rita; Tjaronge, M. Wihardi

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRAK TEKNOSAINS 2009 Porous concrete adalah beton tanpa agregat halus dan hanya terdiri dari agregat kasar,semen dan air serta bahan kimia tambahan.Porositas atau lubang-lubang pada porous concrete bermanfaat untuk menyaring kotoran sehingga tidak terbawa ke dalam tanah atau saluran air.Selain itu,lubang-lubang tersebut diharapkan dapat menyerap energy sinar matahari.Porous concrete telah banyak digunakan sebagai lapisan permukaan jalan pada daerah pedestrian seperti tempat-tempat untuk...

  8. PEMETAAN POTENSI AIR-TANAH (AQUIFER BERDASARKAN INTERPRETASI DATA\tRESISTIVITAS WENNER SOUNDING (Studi kasus: Pengembangan kampus II Universitas Islam Negeri Maulana Malik Ibrahim Malang di Desa Tlekung Kecamatan Junrejo Kota Batu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irjan Irjan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian pemetaan potensi air-tanah (aquifer di daerah pengembangan kampus II UIN Maliki Malang di desa Tlekung kecamatan Junrejo wilayah kota Batu Jawa Timur. Urgensi dari penelitian ini adalah mencari sumber air-tanah dan melakukan pemetaan potensi air-tanah di bawah permukaan ke arah vertikal pada lokasi yang diduga setelah terlebih dahulu dilakukan survei permukaan. Dalam melakukan pemetaan potensi dan sebaran air-tanah di daerah survei, penulis menggunakan metode geolistrik resistivitas. Metode ini biasanya digunakan untuk menyelidiki lapisan bawah permukaan dangkal berdasarkan tingkat resistivitas batuannya dengan air-tanah yang menempati rongga-rongga dalam lapisan geologi (tanah. Survei ini dapat memetakan potensi air-tanah baik secara vertikal maupun horizontal. Survei geolistrik vertikal (sounding dimaksudkan untuk menduga ketebalan lapisan yang mengandung air-tanah atau aquifer. Sementara itu, untuk menduga persebaran air-tanah di bawah permukaan telah dilakukan  pengukuran  dibeberapa titik sounding pada daerah survei. Akuisisi data  metode geolistrik ini menggunakan sebuah alat Resistivity meter OYO Mc 2119. Secara prinsip pengukuran data dilakukan dengan cara menembakkan arus melalui elektroda arus (I dan mengamati beda potensial (  V pada setiap posisi jarak antara elektoda a, 2a, 3a, dan seterusnya. Titik sounding (titik datum pada penelitian ini berjumlah 3 (tiga buah dan terletak pada satu lintasan yang memanjang dari arah utara ke selatan. Untuk mengetahui posisi datum point, seperti   posisi lintang, bujur serta ketinggian dari permukaan laut digunakan GPS (Global Positioning System. Hasil pengukuran data-data lapangan, dengan menggunakan metode resistivitas wenner sounding mampu mendeteksi kehadiran lapisan zona aquifer serta mampu menduga lithologi batuan berdasarkan klasifikasi resistivitas sepanjang dinding sumur ke arah vertikal. Keyword:  Air-tanah  (aquifer,  metode  geolistrik resistivitas

  9. Penggunaan Bahan Tumpatan Resin Komposit Dengan Prosedur Etsa Asam

    OpenAIRE

    Della Arfiza

    2008-01-01

    Etsa asam adalah larutan monomer pada permukaan dentin yang akan membentuk suatu lapisan monomer resin untuk meningkatkan ikatan antara komposit dengan struktur permukaan enamel. Pembagian bahan etsa asam terdiri dari Benzalkonium chlohda (BCA) dan Scotchbond Etchant yang mengandung asam posfat, Etsa asam dilakukan dengan asam posfat 37% selama 15-30 detik kemudian dicuci minimal selama 15 detik. Pemilihan bahan etsa asam sebaiknya dalam bentuk gel atau semigel karena lebih lengket dan dapat ...

  10. ANALISIS VEGETASI DAN VISUALISASI STRUKTUR VEGETASI HUTAN KOTA BARUGA, KOTA KENDARI Vegetation Analysis and Visualization of vegetation Structure Baruga Urban Forest, Kendari City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Zulkarnain

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui komposisi, struktur dan tingkat keragaman vegetasi di Hutan Kota Baruga, Kota Kendari. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan menggunakan metode sensus. Data dianalisis untuk memperoleh Indeks Nilai Penting (INP dan Index Keanekaragaman Shannon-Wiener (H'. Software Sexi-FS digunakan untuk mendapatkan visualisasi distribusi vegetasi dan stratifikasi lapisan tajuk yang menyerupai kondisi lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa komposisi vegetasi disusun oleh 76 spesies yang terkelompok dalam 29 famili dengan jumlah total 8.296 individu untuk semua spesies. Alstonia macrophylla, Gironniera subaequalis dan Nephelium lappaceum adalah spesies yang mendominasi komunitas vegetasi. Distribusi vegetasi menunjukkan pola distribusi mengelompok, dengan stratifikasi terdiri 4 lapisan tajuk, yang menunjukkan bahwa lokasi-studi disusun oleh lapisan tajuk yang relatif lengkap. Indeks keragaman tergolong tinggi, dengan nilai lebih dari 3 pada tingkat pertumbuhan pohon, tiang dan pancang, kecuali pada tingkat semai dengan H'= 2,89. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa ketahanan ekosistem hutan cukup baik. Kata Kunci : Komposisi vegetasi, Keanekaragaman, Struktur vegetasi, Hutan Kota.

  11. Pelapisan Alloy FeNiAl Menggunakan Metode Detonation Gun (D-Gun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R.T. Siregar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pelapisan material alloy Fe38Ni10Al dilakukan dengan metode D-Gun untuk meningkatkan kekerasan material Stainless Steel AISI 316 L. Analisis parameter proses dilakukan dengan perangkat statistik ANOVA (Analysis of Variance – Taguchi untuk memperoleh ukuran kristal, ketebalan dan tingkat kekerasan yang optimum. Lapisan paling tebal dimiliki oleh sampel SS03 sebesar 280 mikron, sedangkan sampel SS02 memiliki ketebalan paling rendah, 97 mikron. Ketebalan lapisan sangat dipengaruhi oleh laju aliran gas pembawa serbuk dengan rasio kontribusi sebesar 82, 7%. Kekerasan optimum diperoleh sampel SS08 dengan tingkat kekerasan sebesar 281,6 HV yang jauh lebih besar dari tingkat kekerasan Stainless Steel tanpa lapisan (195,0 HV. Analisis struktur dan ukuran kristal dilakukan dengan menggunakan XRD dan Metode Scherrer yang menghasilkan struktur kristal Taenite (γ-(Fe,Ni dengan ukuran kristal pada orde nanometer (nanokristal pada kisaran 27,5 hingga 37,7 nm. Ukuran kristal sangat dipengaruhi oleh parameter rasio gas asetilene – oksigen dengan rasio kontribusi 60,4 %. Kata kunci: Detonation Gun (D-Gun, ANOVA –Taguchi, XRD, Nanokristal, Metode Scherer, Tingkat Kekerasan (Hardness

  12. Pembuatan Biodiesel Secara Batch Dengan Memanfaatkan Gelombang Mikro (Microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhesa Purnama Putra

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel merupakan bioenergi atau bahan bakar nabati yang dibuat dari minyak nabati, baik minyak baru atau bekas penggorengan melalui proses transesterifikasi, esterifikasi, atau proses esterifikasi-transesterifikasi. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat biodiesel dari minyak goreng secara batch melalui proses transesterifikasi dengan menggunakan radiasi mikrowave serta mempelajari berapa daya dan waktu optimal yang diperlukan untuk proses pembuatan biodiesel dengan radiasi microwave dengan katalis CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan tiga variabel, yaitu daya (Watt;100,200,300,400, waktu (menit; 5,10,15,20 dan jenis katalis; CaO, H2SO4, dan tanpa katalis. Pada tahap persiapan menghitung volume minyak dan metanol yang akan dicampur. Kemudian mencampurnya didalam reaktor. Lalu mendinginkan campuran hingga terbentuk dua lapisan atas dan bawah dilanjutkan dengan melakukan pemisahan lapisan atas (biodiesel dari lapisan bawah (gliserol. Adapun pada tahap analisis, biodiesel hasil reaksi transesterfikasi dianalisa untuk mendapatkan data yield metil ester, densitas, viskositas, dan flash point. Dari penelitian diketahui bahwa hasil yang didapatkan masih belum dapat memenuhi standar biodiesel yang ditetapkan. Katalis CaO dapat memberikan hasil yang lebih baik dibandingkan dengan katalis H2SO4 dan tanpa katalis. Kondisi operasi untuk menghasilkan kualitas yield biodiesel terbaik yaitu pada daya 200 Watt selama 20 menit dengan menggunakan katalis CaO. Yield biodiesel terbesar didapatkan yield sebesar 60,11 %.

  13. Arg72Pro polymorphism of p53 may predict poor response to medical treatment in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vietri, Maria Teresa; Riegler, Gabriele; Pellino, Gianluca; Molinari, Anna Maria; Cioffi, Michele

    2014-01-01

    dominio ricco di proline del gene Tp53. Tale polimorfismo può determinare lo sviluppo di diversi tipi di cancro, quali il tumore della mammella, del polmone, della cervice, del colon-retto e del fegato. Studi precedenti hanno riportato un’associazione tra omozigosi Pro72 ed il decorso clinico della Colite Ulcerosa (CU).

  14. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context. Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI. Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context. Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items. Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability. Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited. Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  15. Building ASIPS the Mescal methodology

    CERN Document Server

    Gries, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    A number of system designers use ASIP's rather than ASIC's to implement their system solutions. This book gives a comprehensive methodology for the design of these application-specific instruction processors (ASIPs). It includes demonstrations of applications of the methodologies using the Tipi research framework.

  16. With Great Power Comes Great Responsibility: An Examination of the Behaviors of Leaders in Student Services Administrative Officers Positions within Southern California Based Institutions of Higher Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jalin A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the Big Five Personality Traits and the leaders self-efficacy as measured by the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) as developed by Gosling, Rentfrow, and Swann, 2003 and the Leadership Self-Efficacy Measure as developed by Chan and Drasgow (2001) for Student…

  17. Un altro precursore di Francesco Scaduto: Giuseppe Ingoglia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ingoglia

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Contributo destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del convegno su “Il contributo di Francesco Scaduto alla scienza giuridica” (Palermo, 18 -19 febbraio 2005 per i tipi della Cedam.SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. L’attività accademica – 3. Il metodo d’insegnamento - 4. Influenze sugli orientamenti enunciati dallo Scaduto. Conclusioni.

  18. AGARD Highlights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    m) IT ala (1) a freccia ES sensacion (r) artificial ES indicador (m) tipo A NE pillvleugel FR I sensation MI artificielle FR indicateur (m) type A...visualizzatore (m) tipo A TU W tipi kanat fT sensirie Nf errificiale NE A-scharmt iro) NE kunstmastig I stuurkracht) gevroel In) PO dcran Wm tipo A 10596

  19. Die ästhetische Dimension des Parsonsschen Voluntarismus

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Ronald

    1991-01-01

    Unter der Optik der ästhetischen Theorie Friedrich Schillers offenbart die voluntaristische Handlungstheorie Talcott Parsons' Gehalte, die sich für eine Theorie des ästhetischen Handelns nutzbar machen lassen. Der Voluntarismus und die Ästhetik Schillers zielen auf den Punkt, wo Handlungsdynamik und Handlungssteuerung durch einen frei bestimmten Konsens zwischen Neigung und Regel ihres Spannungsverhältnisses verlustig gehen. Allein diese Selbstbestimmung wird bei Schiller und Parsons k...

  20. 布鲁克公司傅立叶变换型近红外光谱仪及其应用简介%Brief application introduction of Bruker Fourier transform NIR spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽丽; 王颜萍; 吴严巍

    2011-01-01

    This article focus on introducing the application of several new Fourier transform NIR spectrometers of BrukcrOptik GmbH in chemical industry, pharmacy, food and feed.%结合布鲁克公司的几款新型傅立叶变换近红外光谱仪,重点介绍在化工、制药以及食品饲料等行业的应用.

  1. Direct Strain Tensor Approximation for Full-Field Strain Measurement Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    of grating coordinates using correlation filter techniques. Optik 1988; 80:76–79. 3. Bruck H, McNeill S, Sutton M, Peters W. Digital image correlation...record.url?eid=2-s2.0-46949097860&partnerID=40&md5= 25dddce389c9640db7cf8fbf3c50dc4e. 27. Cheng P, Sutton M, Schreier H, McNeill S. Full-field speckle

  2. The role of Poisson's binomial distribution in the analysis of TEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejada, Arturo; den Dekker, Arnold J

    2011-11-01

    Frank's observation that a TEM bright-field image acquired under non-stationary conditions can be modeled by the time integral of the standard TEM image model [J. Frank, Nachweis von objektbewegungen im lichtoptis- chen diffraktogramm von elektronenmikroskopischen auf- nahmen, Optik 30 (2) (1969) 171-180.] is re-derived here using counting statistics based on Poisson's binomial distribution. The approach yields a statistical image model that is suitable for image analysis and simulation.

  3. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires. PMID:26973962

  4. Evaluation of antinociceptive effect of Petiveria alliacea (guiné in animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza C. M. de Lima

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Petiveria alliacea (Phytolaccaceae is a bush widely distributed in South America including Brazil, where it is popularly known as "guiné", pipi", "tipi" or "erva-de-tipi". Brazilian folk medicine attributes to the hot water infusion of its roots or leaves the following pharmacologicalproperties: antipyretic, antispasmodic, abortifacient, antirrheumatic, diuretic, analgesic and sedative. The present study has evaluated the alleged effects of P. alliacea on central nervous system (CNS, particularly, the sedative and analgesic properties of root crude aqueous extract of this plant in mice and rats. This extract showed an antinociceptive effect in acetic acid - acetylcholine - and hypertonic saline - induced abdominal constrictions, but not in hot-plate and tail flick tests P. alliacea did not produce any CNS depressor effect. Thus its antinociceptive action in animals can be responsible by its poplar use as an analgesic.

  5. EFEK EKSTRAK DAUN KEMBANG BULAN (Tithonia diversifolia A. Gray. TERHADAP Candida albicans SERTA PROFIL KROMATOGRAFINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Sulistijowati S.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Uji mikrobiologi dilakukan terhadap ekstrak petroleum eter, fraksi etil asetat, fraksi air, dan ekstrak air pada media pertumbuhan C. Albicans (Sabouraud dengan metode dilusi padat. Konsentrasi ekstrak yang digunakan adalah 40% dan 80%. Pengamatan dilakukan 24 jam setelah penanaman. Secara kualitatif, pada konsentrasi 80% ekstrak petroleum eter dan fraksi etil asetat menghambat secara nyata, sedangkan pada konsentrasi 40% terjadi pengurangan kepadatan pertumbuhan (dibandingkan dengan kontrol. Fraksi air dan ekstrak air tidak menghambat pertumbuhan C. albicans. Pemeriksaan golongan kimia tanaman dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis yang menggunakan berbagai variasi komposisi pelarut dan pereaksi wama. Hasil pemeriksaan golongan kimia tanaman menunjukan bahwa Kembang Bulan mengandung sedikitnya 12 senyawa terpenoid, 14 senyawa flavonoid, dan gula. Daun dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis, tak terdeteksi adanya alkaloid dan triterpenoid.

  6. Psychometric properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five personality questionnaire for the Greek population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ypofanti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Goldberg’s International Personality Item Pool (IPIP big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811, in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193 also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form. Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/ neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01. Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01. The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88 and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  7. Psychometric Properties of the International Personality Item Pool Big-Five Personality Questionnaire for the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ypofanti, Maria; Zisi, Vasiliki; Zourbanos, Nikolaos; Mouchtouri, Barbara; Tzanne, Pothiti; Theodorakis, Yannis; Lyrakos, Georgios

    2015-09-30

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) big-five personality factor markers currently lack validating evidence. The structure of the 50-item IPIP was examined in two different adult samples (total N=811), in each case justifying a 5-factor solution, with only minor discrepancies. Age differences were comparable to previous findings using other inventories. One sample (N=193) also completed additionally another personality measure (the TIPI Short Form). Conscientiousness, extraversion and emotional stability/neuroticism scales of the IPIP were highly correlated with those of the TIPI (r=0.62 to 0.65, P=0.01). Agreeableness and Intellect/Openness scales correlated less strongly (r=0.54 and 0.58 respectively, P=0.01). The IPIP scales have good internal consistency (a=0.88) and relate strongly to major dimensions of personality assessed by the two questionnaires.

  8. PENERAPAN TEORI HANS KELSEN DALAM TERTIB HUKUM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhtadi Muhtadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui bagaimana pengaturan susunan dan tertib hukum Indonesia dalam hirarki norma berdasarkan Stufenbautheorie Hans Kelsen. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah doctrinal research dengan menggunakan data sekunder yang diperoleh melalui studi pustaka. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pilihan hukum susunan norma hukum Indonesia berdasarkan teori Hans Kelsen adalah berjenjang dan berlapis-lapis, dari norma hukum lapisan terendah yang operatif-konkret-individual berjenjang dan bersumber pada norma hukum general-abstract berpuncak dalam pandangan dan cita hukum yang menjadi staatsnorm atau staatsfundamentalnorm, yaitu berpuncak pada Pancasila sebagai cita hukum.

  9. Indagine sull'uso dei nuovi media tra gli studenti delle scuole superiori lombarde

    OpenAIRE

    Gui, M

    2013-01-01

    La ricerca, svolta dal Dipartimento di Sociologia e Ricerca Sociale dell’Università di Milano-Bicocca, con la collaborazione di OssCom (Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano) è stata svolta nella primavera 2012, su un campione di 2327 studenti delle scuole superiori in Lombardia. Vengono indagati svariati aspetti dell'uso dei nuovi media da parte dei giovani: dotazioni tecnologiche, tipi d'uso, social network, sovraconsumo, mediazione genitoriale, ruolo della scuola. Sono presenti in...

  10. A nice book on forest entomology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanti P

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Salutiamo con piacere l’uscita del testo di zoologia forestale recentemente edito per i tipi dell’Ateneo Padovano: Battisti A, De Battisti R, Faccoli M, Masutti L, Paolucci P, Stergulc F, 2013. Lineamenti di zoologia forestale. Padova University Press, Padova, pp. 442 . Esso riempie un vuoto editoriale e didattico sulle tematiche affrontate, rendendo disponibile una trattazione organica, rigorosa, e a un prezzo assolutamente contenuto.

  11. Peranan Gliserol Sebagai Plastisiser Dalam Film Pati Jagung Dengan Pengisi Serbuk Halus Tongkol Jagung

    OpenAIRE

    Farida Arriany Pasaribu

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian pembuatan film pati jagung yang dibuat dari pati jagung dengan pemlastis gliserol sehingga diperoleh film yang tipis yang fleksibel dan elastis. Tujuan penelitian untuk menyelidiki peranan gliserol sebagai pemlastis dalam film pati jagung dengan variasi gliserol 3 gram, 4 gram, 5 gram, 6 gram, dan 7 gram untuk pati jagung 10 gram. Setelah dilakukan uji tarik dan kemuluran ternyata hasil yang optimum dengan pemakaian 3 gram gliserol. Penelitian berikutnya dengan ...

  12. Studi Pemanfaatan Plastisiser Gliserol Dalam Film Pati Ubi Dengan Pengisi Serbuk Batang Ubi Kayu

    OpenAIRE

    Yusmarlela

    2009-01-01

    Telah dilakukan penelitian pembuatan film pati ubi kayu, yang terbuat dari pati ubi kayu dengan pemlastis gliserol. Sehingga diperoleh film tipis yang fleksibel dan elastis. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui pemanfaatan plastisiser gliserol dalam film pati ubi dengan variasi gliserol 1gram, 2 gram, 3 gram, 4 gram dan 5 gram gliserol untuk 10 gram pati ubi. Setelah dilakukan uji tarik dan kemuluran ternyata hasil yang baik dengan pemakai 1 gram gliserol. Kemudian dilanjutkan dengan penamb...

  13. La sfida: dire “qualcosa di antropologico” sulla scuola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Piasere

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Come tutte le istituzioni, la scuola si presta a entrare in molti tipi di discorsi e a suscitarne altrettanti; come tutte le invenzioni culturali complesse, può essere oggetto di valutazioni, emozioni, convinzioni, aspettative contrastanti; come ogni costruzione a vocazione universalistica con la tentazione intrinseca all’espansione planetaria (per ora: ma si pensino alle scuole con alunni intergalattici che compaiono in Star Trek…

  14. Examining the construct validity of the Basic Traits Inventory and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory in the South African context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha A. Metzer

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: As there has recently been a need for researchers to consider shorter personality measures, we compared the construct validity of a longer and a shorter personality measure in the South African context.Research purpose: The main purpose of this study was to examine the discriminant and convergent validity of two personality measures that measure the big five personality factors: the longer Basic Traits Inventory (BTI and the shorter Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI.Motivation for the study: Researchers have indicated a need for shorter personality measures, such as the TIPI, to assess personality dimensions. This study assessed the validity of the shorter measure in comparison with the BTI, which is considered cross-culturally valid in the South African context.Research approach, design and method: This study used a quantitative research design. Both personality measures were administered manually to a convenience sample of student participants (n = 662, and data were analysed through factor analysis utilising oblique rotation for all items.Main findings: The main findings indicate that, although the construct validity of both measures was satisfactory, the TIPI yielded unsatisfactory reliability.Practical/managerial implications: The BTI is a more reliable measure than the TIPI, which should only be used when time is limited.Contribution/value-add: In addition to providing insight into how the length of an assessment impacts on the reliability of a measure, this study further reinforces the use of the basic traits inventory as a measure that reliably measures personality in South Africa.

  15. KONDOM WANITA (FEMALE CONDOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Suryati Suryati

    2010-01-01

    Di Indonesia penggunaan kondom wanita tidak begitu popular seperti kondom pria, khususnya di Sumatera Barat. Kondom wanita ini menyerupai satu sarung atau kantong kecil yang sangat tipis yang dapat digunakan oleh para wanita pada waktu melakukanhubungan seks. Kondom wanita ini semuanya harus dimasukkan ke dalam vagina, dan kondom ini dapat membantumencegah terjadinya kehamilan dan penyakit-penyakit seksual (STDs) termasuk HIV. Kondom wanita ini terbuat dari polyurethane yang menyerupai sarung...

  16. Esperienze didattiche in ambienti virtuali 3D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boniello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Le esperienze didattiche in ambienti 3D si stanno diffondendo sempre più€ e con risultati significativi, specialmente in ambienti internazionali. In questo articolo illustro alcune sperimentazioni didattiche che attraverso una modalità di cooperative learning ho svolto su differenti tipi di tematiche scientifiche. In un primo momento con ambienti immersivi creati ad hoc e poi con una metodologia ludica e collaborativa.

  17. DARENDE CEViZLERİNİN (Juglans regia L. SELEKSiYON YOLUYLA ISLAHI ÜZERİNDE ARAŞTIRMALAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÖMER BEYHAN

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Darende ilçesinde üç yıl süren bu selksiyon yaklaşık, 6000 ceviz ağacı incelenerek 416 ağaçtan meyve örneği alınmış ve bunlardan 62 ceviz tipi ümit var olarak seçilmiştir.

  18. Penggunaan Pelapis Lunak Pada Gigitiruan Lepasan Untuk Mengatasi Rasa Sakit Akibat Tekanan Pengunyahan Terhadap Linggir Alveolus Yang Tajam

    OpenAIRE

    Febi Fauzia

    2008-01-01

    Resorpsi linggir alveolus dapat mempengaruhi bentuk dan ukuran linggir, salah satunya linggir alveolus yang tajam. Permukaan linggir alveolus yang tajam ditutupi oleh mukosa yang tipis, atrofi dan terasa sakit bila dipalpasi, pemasangan gigitiruan lepasan resin akrilik akan menimbulkan masalah yaitu rasa sakit, karena mukosa di atas linggir alveolus akan tertekan secara terus menerus antara puncak linggir alveolus dengan permukaan anatomis basis gigitiruan lepasan ketika berfungsi. Untuk meng...

  19. Emotional Intelligence and Personality Traits as Predictors of Occupational Therapy students' Practice Education Performance: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ted; Williams, Brett; Etherington, Jamie

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated whether occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence and personality traits are predictive of specific aspects of their fieldwork performance. A total of 114 second and third year undergraduate occupational therapy students (86.6% response rate) completed the Genos Emotional Intelligence Inventory (Genos EI) and the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI). Fieldwork performance scores were obtained from the Student Practice Evaluation Form Revised (SPEF-R). Linear regressions were completed with the SPEF-R domains being the dependent variables and the Genos EI and TIPI factors being the independent variables. Regression analysis results revealed that the Genos EI subscales of Emotional Management of Others (EMO), Emotional Awareness of Others (EAO), Emotional Expression (EEX) and Emotional Reasoning (ERE) were significant predictors of various domains of students' fieldwork performance. EAO and ERE were significant predictors of students' Communication Skills accounting for 4.6% of its variance. EMO, EAO, EEX and ERE were significant predictors of students' Documentation Skills explaining 6.8% of its variance. EMO was a significant predictor of students' Professional Behaviour accounting for 3.2% of its variance. No TIPI factors were found to be significant predictors of the SPEF-R domains. Occupational therapy students' emotional intelligence was a significant predictor of components of their fieldwork performance while students' personality traits were not. The convenience sampling approach used, small sample size recruited and potential issue of social desirability of the self-reported Genos EI and TIPI data are acknowledged as study limitations. It is recommended that other studies be completed to investigate if any other relevant constructs or factors are predictive of occupational therapy students' fieldwork performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. PULLUK SİLİNDİRİK KULAĞININ BİLGİSAYAR DESTEKLİ TASARIMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaşar KARAGÖZ

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available Pulluk, bitkisel toprak tabakasını kabartarak ekime hazır hale getirmeye yarayan bir tarım aletidir. Pulluğun görevi, toprağı parçalayarak fiziksel yapısını kültür bitkilerinin yaşamaları için elverişli bir duruma getirmektir. Kulak, pulluğun aktif yüzeyinin en önemli kısmıdır. Kulağın geometrik şekli, uç demiri ile birlikte meydana getirdiği aktif yüzeyin şeklini belirler. Pulluklar Avrupa ve Amerika tipi olmak üzere iki çeşittir. Avrupa ve Amerika kökenli pullukların kulak tipleri arasında ?, ß, ? açıları yönünden önemli farklar mevcuttur. Gorjatschkin, Avrupa pulluklarındaki kulak şekillerini dört esas tip altında toplamıştır. Bunlar, l. Silindirik kulak tipi, 2. Kültürform kulak tipi, 3. Yarı bükük kulak tipi, 4. Bükük kulak tipidir. Bu çalışmada silindirik kulağın tasarımı araştırılmıştır.

  1. Irvine Welsh's Trainspotting: a social depiction of the underprivileged in 1980s Edinburgh : diplomsko delo

    OpenAIRE

    Begić, Emir

    2009-01-01

    Diplomsko delo je vpogled v način kako Irvine Welsh predstavlja sodobno škotsko družbo v romanu "Trainspotting". Pomen romana se kaže v spretnosti prikazati osebe z obrobja družbe kot tipične predstavnike deviantnosti. Istočasno pa avtor z vidika marginalnih skupin kritično prikaže tudi širšo družbo.

  2. Fisica. I progressi nello studio delle particelle piu' abbondanti ma piu mistriose

    CERN Multimedia

    Bilenky, Samoil Mikhelevich

    2003-01-01

    "Caccia ai neutrino conferme all'inutizione di Pontecorvo: hanno una masa (sia pure minima) e i loro 3 tipi si mutano l'uno nell'altro fisica i progressi nello studio delle particelle piu' abbondanti ma piu' misteriose". [The hunt for the neutrinos. Pontecorvo's theory has been confirmed: the neutrino has a mass (though minimal). It switches from one of the 3 types into the others].

  3. L’estrema destra in Italia fra passato e presente: il discorso sulla globalizzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Caiani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available L’obiettivo di questo articolo è rilevare empiricamente e confrontare la rilevanza (e le forme del tema della globalizzazione nell’estrema destra, concentrandosi sul discorso dell’estrema destra in Italia e sottolineando somiglianze e differenze fra tipi di organizzazioni diverse. Lo studio si basa su una frame analisys condotta su diversi tipi di documenti organizzativi (giornali di partito, riviste mensili, documenti e archivi di forum di discussioni online in un periodo dal 2000 al 2006 per un totale di 2500 frames analizzati. Quanto è importante la globalizzazione rispetto ad altri temi nel discorso dell’estrema destra? Quali sono le principali issues alle quali la globalizzazione viene riferita (economia, politica, cultura, ecc.? Quali le soluzioni suggerite dalle organizzazioni di estrema destra per far fronte alla globalizzazione e quale il ‘noi’ e il ‘loro’ costruito nel discorso in relazione a questo tema? Le diverse strategie di framing di tipi di gruppi differenti (partitici e non, fino a gruppi violenti subculturali verranno mostrate, così come la modernità, ma anche la non-modernità del modo in cui l’estrema destra italiana inquadra il tema della globalizzazione, con l’osservazione della costruzione, su questi temi, di una identità complessa in cui convivono (non sempre pacificamente valori e schemi interpretativi tradizionali e elementi innovativi.

  4. NANO BOYUTLU KRiSTAL YAPILI KOLOİTLERİN METAL İYONU OPTİK SENSÖR Y APlMlNDA KULLANILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Serkan Keskin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Kristal koloitler son zamanlarda optik sensör yapım1nda kullanılmaya başlanmıştır. Sahip oldukları kristal örgü yapısısayesinde görünür bölge ışığını kırmaları sensör yapunında kullanılmalannın önünü açmıştır. Bu kristal yapılıkoloitlerin polimer ağ içerisine hapsedilmesiyle, serbest gruplara sahip hidrojeller oluşturulmaktadır. Böylece görünürbölge ışığını kırabilen, sahip olduğu serbest gruplar sayesinde modifiye edilebilen polimer yapılar elde edilmiş olur. Buyapılara hedef analite göre tanıyıcı moleküllerin tutturulması ile de anorganik ve organik madde sensörlerioluşturulmaktadır. Görünür bölge ışığını kınnalanyla ile de optik sensör özelliği kazanırlar. Bu çalışmada alkalimetallerle kompleks yapma yeteneğine sahip 4-aminobenzo-15-crown-5 ( 4AB 1 5C5 taç eteri hidrojel yapıyabağlanarak, yapının metal iyonu optik sensör özelliği araştırılmıştır.

  5. TITIK SEBAGAI DASAR PENCIPTAAN KARYA SENI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanny Wijaya

    2010-09-01

    pengolahan titik-titik warna sudah berkembang sejak lama. Pada masa pergerakan seni Impresionisme, beberapa seniman sudah mencoba untuk mengaplikasikan titik-titik warna sebagai sebuah teknik baru yang disebut dengan Pointilisme. Georges Seurat adalah seniman yang menjadi pelopor pengembangan teknik ini. Teknik Pointilisme sering dikenal dengan sebutan Divisionisme atau Chromoluminarism pada masanya. Teknik ini menggunakan metode additif yang mengkombinasikan pigmen dasar warna merah, hijau dan biru untuk menghasilkan vibrasi optikal pada lukisan, sehingga para pengamat lukisan dapat mencapai tingkat luminosity yang maksimal pada mata.Keberadaan teknik Pointilisme ini telah membuktikan bahwa ilmu pengetahuan dan seni dapat saling mendukung. Perpaduan logika dan estetika dapat menciptakan karya seni yang luar biasa.

  6. CdCr2S4 İnce Filmlerin Çözelti Molaritesinin Yapısal ve Optiksel Özellikleri Üzerindeki Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat BOYRAZ

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Farklı molarite değerlerinde saydam kadmiyum kromiyum sülfat çözeltisi [CdCr2S4, (CCS] cam altlıkların yüzeyi üzerine kimyasal banyo yöntemi ile kaplanmıştır. Yapısal analiz, film kalınlığı, elemental komposizyon analizi ve yüzey morfolojisi için X-ışını kırınımı (XRD, taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM, enerji dağıtıcı X-ışını spektrometresi ve atomik kuvvet mikroskobu (AFM ölçüm teknikleri kullanılmıştır. Filmlerin optik özelliklerini belirlemek için UV-1800 spektrum analiz cihazı kullanılmıştır. XRD sonuçlarından, ince film örneklerinde molarite arttıkça pik şiddetinde azalma olduğu görülmüştür. AFM sonuçları, molarite arttıkça filmlerin oluşturduğu yüzey yapısının iki boyutlu yapıdan (2B, üç boyutlu (3B yapıya geçtiğini göstermiştir. Parçacık büyüklüğü molarite ile doğru orantılı olarak değişmiştir. CCS ince filmlerinin optik ölçümleri, yasak bant optik enerji aralıklarının 2,6 – 2,7 eV aralığında değiştiğini göstermiştir. Optik bant enerji aralığındaki enerji kaymasında kuantum kafesleme etkisinin bir sonucu olduğu fikri öne sürülmüştür.

  7. Applications of Integrated Polymer Waveguides in Microsystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhenyu

    2006-01-01

    Denne PhD afhandling fokuserer på anvendelsen af integrerede polymerer bølgeledere for real-time optisk detektion i mikrofabikerede analysesystemer. Ved at anvende en ny fabrikationsteknologi til plane bølgeledere blev SU-8 bølgeledere integreret i mikrochip flow cytometer, mikrochip DEP-flow...... cytometer, og real-time mikrochip PCR. På grund af sine gode optiske egenskaber blev den negative epoxy fotoresist SU-8 valgt til at fremstille integreret polymer optik (bølgeledere, linser, og fiber-til-bølgeledere koblere) til optisk detektion. Det mikrofluide netværk blev også fremstillet i SU-8. Den...

  8. Workshop on Future Directions for Optical Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    experiments were reported by Pappu, Kumar and Mehta [531, and Roychoudhuri and malacara 9 28 A- (541 explored constrast reversal with halftoning. Kato and...1978). Curr. Sci. 47, No. 1, 1-6. 54. Roychoudhuri, C., and Malacara , D. (1975). Appl. Opt. 14, 1683-1689. 55. Sawchuk, A.A., and Dashiell, S.R...Soc. Amer. 60, 1421. 57. Delingat, E. (1972). Optik 34, 433-441. 58. Schneider, W. (1974). Optica Acta. 21, 563-576. 59. Schnieder, W., Fink, F., and

  9. Teori-praksis i sygeplejerskeuddannelsen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bering Keiding, Tina

    2008-01-01

     Artiklen diskuterer med afsæt i Erling Lars Dale og Niklas Luhmann samspillet mellem skole- og klinisk undervisning, og tilbyder gennem Luhmann et alternativ til Dales begreb om didaktisk rationalitet. Mens Dale tiilbyder en blik der orienterer sig mod enshed, tilbyder Luhmann en...... differensteoretisk optik, som nok virker kompleks, emn som også tilbyder en betydelige kompleksitetsfølsomhed. Den kompleksitetsfølsomhed som Luhmann tilbyder, peger for det første på, at der må forventes forskelle mellem såvel intention og interaktion, som mellem forskellige interaktionssystemer. Og at denne...

  10. Numeriske tåger

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergaard, Martin

    2015-01-01

    med dette talpar omtyder vi alt, hvad der lader sig omtyde, til tabeller i en ustoppelig bevægelse, som efterlader det omtydede til glemsel og nostalgi. Afhængig af hvordan vi anskuer disse tabeller, i det rene Aristoteliske perspektiv eller i Heideggers mere spekulative optik, er det enten causa...... finalis eller causa efficiens, som tabellerne fremstiller for os, men hvad blev der af causa materialis og causa formalis undervejs? Og at producere betyder netop at stille frem, at fremstille - dette vægter ifølge sagens natur det 'stillads' - den teknik eller teknologi - gennem hvilket noget stilles...

  11. Border Spectra in the Skies of Hokusai and Hiroshige

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Olaf L.

    2015-01-01

    In his earliest prismatic experiments (1665), the young Newton discovered the two border spectra (black-blue-turquoise/cyan-white; white-yellow-red-black). Newton chose to ignore them in his celebrated theory of light and colours (1672), as he took them to be derivative phenomena. In Goethe's Beyträge zur Optik (1791) and in his Farbenlehre (1808/10), they regained prominent attention. To the human eye, their colours appear much cleaner than the colours of Newton's spectra – particularly in t...

  12. Analisis Perbandingan Kinerja Mach-Zehnder berdasarkan Ragam Format Modulasi pada Jaringan FTTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZULIA NURUL KARIMAH

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPada jurnal ini dibuat pemodelan link FTTH pada software Optisystem 7.0 untuk mengetahui pengaruh dari Kerr effect dengan membandingkan performansi serat optik kaca dan serat optik plastik berdasarkan format modulasi berupa NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK dan CSRZ. Terdapat dua skenario, dengan skenario pertama, variabel input yang diubah adalah format modulasi pada Mach-zehnder, sedangkan pada skenario kedua, variabel yang diubah adalah pemakaian serat optik yang dipakai, yaitu serat optik bahan kaca, plastik dan hybrid kaca plastik. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan dengan efek linier dan non-linier pada kabel kaca yang menghasilkan performansi jaringan dari yang terbaik, dengan Q factor di atas 6 dan BER di bawah 10-9 adalah NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ dan RZ-DQPSK. Sedangkan dengan penggunaan kabel PMMA, yang menunjukkan performansi jaringan yang baik adalah dengan konfigurasi G652D-G652D-PMMA pada format modulasi NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK dan RZ-DQPSK. Efek non-linier yang terjadi pada jaringan ini hanya SPM dan XPM.Kata kunci: FTTH, mach-zehnder, format modulasi, efek non-linier, GOF, POF.ABSTRACTIn this journal is creating a FTTH link on Optisystem software 7.0 to determine the effect of Kerr effect by comparing the performance of fiber optic glass and plastic optical fiber based on modulation formats such as NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, RZ-DQPSK and CSRZ. There are two scenarios, first, input variables are changed based on format in Mach-zehnder modulator, while in the second scenario, the changed variable is the material of optical fiber, the materials are optical fiber glass, plastic and hybrid plastic and glass. The simulation results based on comparison with linear and nonlinear effects on glass optical fiber, which produce Q factor above 6 and BER below 10-9 are NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK, CSRZ and RZ-DQPSK. While the use of PMMA cable, which indicates good network performance is the configuration G652D-G652D-PMMA on the modulation format NRZ, RZ, RZ-DPSK and RZ

  13. QuickASP: PEMBANGKIT KODE PROGRAM ASP UNTUK APLIKASI BASIS DATA BERBASIS WEB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Kuswardayan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dalam pembuatan sistem aplikasi basis data berbasis web, perancangan antarmuka pengguna (presentation layer dan lapisan bisnis (bussiness layer merupakan tahap yang dilalui setelah pemahaman terhadap kebutuhan pengguna sistem. Adanya pola atau keteraturan dalam implementasi tahap ini menyebabkan pengembangan sistem akan lebih efisien jika menggunakan suatu aplikasi yang dapat menghasilkan kerangka dasar aplikasi web dengan cepat untuk kedua lapisan tersebut dan bahkan beserta kode programnya. Pada penelitian ini telah diimplementasikan suatu perangkat lunak yang selanjutnya disebut QuickASP. QuickASP membangkitkan kode ASP untuk membangun  homepage otomatis. Untuk membangkitkan kode ASP, QuickASP membutuhkan komponen berupa basis data dan file Cascading Style Sheets (CSS. Proses awal yang dilakukan QuickASP dalam membangkitkan kode program ASP adalah membaca informasi basis data berupa tabel-tabel, nama field dan tipe data. Setelah itu QuickASP akan membangkitkan file-file ASP beserta file-file pendukungnya berdasarkan hasil pengaturan tampilan halaman web yang dilakukan oleh pengguna.Uji coba QuickASP dilakukan pada tiga jenis basis data yaitu Microsoft Access, Microsoft SQL Server, dan Oracle. Dari hasil uji coba tersebut, QuickASP terbukti dapat membangkitkan homepage otomatis beserta fungsi–fungsi yang disediakan untuk modifikasi record dan fungsi navigasi.Kata kunci: QuickASP, file cascading style sheets, kode program ASP.

  14. Analisis Teknis dan Ekonomis Ketebalan Bilah Laminasi Bambu sebagai Material Lambung Kapal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andika Prabowo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Laminasi bambu terdiri dari bilah-bilah yang nantinya akan direkatkan menjadi satu lapisan dan kemudian dibuat laminasi dari beberapa lapisan tersebut sehingga perlu dilakukan pengujian pengaruh ketebalan bilah terhadap mechanical properties dan sisi ekonomis laminasi bambu. Konfigurasi bilah yang digunakan dalam proses laminasi adalah sistem carvel dengan variasi ketebalan bilah 5 mm, 8 mm, dan 10 mm. Pengujian yang dilakukan adalah pengujian tarik (Tensile Test dan pengujian tekan (Compressive Test dengan menggunakan standar pengujian SNI. Hasil pengujian tarik menunjukkan bahwa besar ketebalan bilah berbanding terbalik dengan kuat tariknya meskipun tidak begitu signifikan. Nilai kuat tarik tertinggi dihasilkan oleh laminasi bambu dengan ketebalan bilah 5 mm sebesar 135,87 MPa dengan selisih terhadap kuat tarik terendah hanya 1,72 MPa. Sedangkan hasil pengujian tekan menunjukkan bahwa kuat tekan berbanding lurus dengan ketebalan bilah laminasi bambu. Kuat tekan tertinggi dihasilkan oleh laminasi bambu dengan ketebalan bilah 10 mm dengan nilai 52,56 MPa. Perhitungan ekonomis menunjukkan bahwa besar ketebalan bambu berbanding lurus dengan semakin sedikitnya biaya material total kulit lambung kapal yang harus dikeluarkan. Biaya material total terkecil dihasilkan dengan ketebalan bilah 10 mm dengan nilai Rp 11.203.049,00/m3. Ketebalan bilah 10 mm merupakan ketebalan bilah laminasi bambu yang paling baik karena menghasilkan kuat tarik yang tidak jauh berbeda dengan kuat tarik tertinggi, memiliki kuat tekan dan nilai ekonomis paling tinggi.

  15. Conditional Neural Fields untuk Pengenalan Fase Gerak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Nurma Yulita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pengenalan pola merupakan area informatika yang banyak dikaji hingga saat ini. Hal ini dikarenakan pemanfaatannya yang luas diterapkan dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Di dalam makalah ini disajikan pengenalan pola untuk gerakan khususnya fase gerak. Secara khusus pengenalan fase gerak di dalam makalah ini menitik beratkan pada pengenalan pola pada data berbentuk sekuensial. Pengenalan ini dapat saja mengabaikan faktor sekuensialnya, namun tentu akan menurunkan akurasi yang akan diperoleh. Oleh karena itu untuk mengatasi tantangan tersebut, maka ditawarkan penggunaan Conditional Neural Fields (CNF. Metode ini merupakan gabungan antara Conditional Random Fields (CRF dan Artifisial Neural Networks (ANN. Representasi ANN disajikan dalam bentuk gate pada lapisan tengah dari CRF. Lapisan ini bertujuan untuk memetakan hubungan non-linear antara input dan output yang terdapat di dalam data. Sebagai hasilnya diperoleh bahwa CNF terbukti lebih efektif dan efisien dibandingkan CRF berdasarkan akurasi dan banyaknya iterasi yang dibutuhkan. Namun penggunaan terlalu banyak gate ternyata tidak efektif dikarenakan konvergensi dari model pengenalan semakin sulit tercapai. Di sisi lain, jika hanya satu gate yang digunakan maka konvergensi tercapai namun akuarsi yang diperoleh rendah. Sehingga diperlukan upaya untuk menemukan banyaknya gate optimal yang diperlukan.

  16. Analisis Kekuatan Tangki CNG Ditinjau dengan Material Logam Lapis Komposit pada Kapal Pengangkut Compressed Natural Gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulia Firmansah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Pada penelitian ini, dilakukan analisa perbandingan pada kekuatan pressure vessel compressed natural gas. Pressure vessel yang digunakan yaitu tipe satu dan tipe tiga, tipe satu adalah tabung menggunakan material logam yaitu Carbon Steel SA 516 Grade 70 dan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061. Pada tabung tipe tiga material menggunakan Aluminium Alloy T6-6061 dengan lapisan Komposit (Carbon Fibre – Epoxy pada seluruh tabung (full wrapped. Sudut orientasi serat yang digunakan 54.73560 dan terdiri dari 4 lapis komposit yang membungkus aluminium. Variasi yang dilakukan pada tebal komposit yaitu 25% komposit, 50% komposit, dan 75% komposit. Pressure vessel mendapat perlakuan internal pressure sebesar 125 bar dan temperatur -300C. Analisa dilakukan dengan dua metode yaitu dengan perhitungan manual dan software finite element method (NASTRAN 2010. Dari hasil perhitungan tersebut tabung tipe satu dengan material logam terbukti aman karena memenuhi dari faktor keamanan yang ditentukan tetapi pressure vessel sangat berat. Pada tabung tipe tiga lamina dengan komposisi 75% komposit dan 50% komposit dinyatakan aman karena memenuhi dari kriteria tegangan maksimum. Sedangkan pada komposisi 25% komposit lamina mengalami kegagalan yang disebabkan terlalu rendahnya lapisan komposit. Dari keseluruhan hasil perhitungan dan analisa didapatkan komposisi ideal pressure vessel yaitu 75% komposit dan 25% aluminium dari tebal keseluruhan sehingga menghasilkan tegangan yang sangat kecil dan memiliki berat yang paling ringan.

  17. DISTRIBUSI AIRTANAH ASIN DI DATARAN PANTAI KOTA SEMARANG DAN KESEDIAAN MEMBAYAR PENDUDUK DALAM PERBAIKAN KONDISI SUMBER AIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2016-10-01

    Untuk mengidentifikasi dan menganalisis kondisi kualitas airtanah digunakan analisis spasial dan analisis statistik. Untuk menganalisis distribusi air asin digunakan metode Revelle dengan menghitung rasio 1C11/(11-1CO3-j-F [C01], sedangkan metode Kloosterman dengan diagram Piper segiempat digunakan untuk menganalisis faktor penyebabnya. Untuk mengidentifikasi keberadaan air tawar dilakukan pendugaan geolistrik yang kemudian dianalisis menggunakan program Schlumberger O'Neil. Selanjutnya, untuk menghitung dan menganalisis besarnya kesediaan membayar (WTP digunakan analisis CVM. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa airtanah di daerah pantai mengandung DHL, kesadahan, kalsium, magnesium, nairium, kalium, klorida, sulfa! dan salinitas dalam konsentrasi tinggi. Kesimpulan ini juga didukung oleh hasil analisis statistik. Diketahuijuga bahwa sebagian besar airtanah di daerah penelitian telah tercemar air asin dengan tingkat keterpengaruhan yang bervariasi. Pencemaran air asin tersebut terutama disebabkan oleh air evaporit. Hasil analisis geolistrik menunjukkan bahwa di bawah lapisan air asin, dapat ditemukan lapisan air tawar dengan kedalaman dan produktivitas yang bervariasi. Selanjutnya, hasil analisis CYM menunjukkan bahwa penduduk daerah penelitian bersedia membayar perbaikan kondisi sumber air lebih tinggi daripada harga air dari PDAM yang berlaku pada saat ini.

  18. RANCANG BANGUN MODEL KOMPRESI DAN TARIK PERMODELAN SANDBOX DAN MANFAATNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahrudin Fahrudin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Permodelan sandbox dibuat dengan system tektonik konvergen dan divergen dengan menggunakan pergerakan satu sumbu. Permodelan ini bertujuan untuk membuat alat mesin sandbox yang bisa digunakan untuk penelitian dan pengajaran. Mesin berhasil dibuat dan sudah diujicobakan. Ujicoba dengan menggunakan satu lapisan pasir yang diambil dari Formasi Ngrayong. Percobaan selanjutnya dengan beberapa lapisan. Percobaan dilakukan dengan pengamatan yang meliputi pengamatan permukaan dan penampang verikal. Pengamatan yang aspek morfologi, kelurusan struktur, dan perkembangan sesar yang terbentuk. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pembentukan morfologi sangat berkaitan dengan pembentukan sesar. Struktur sesar dengan pola forward propagating thrust faults. Sesar tersebut disebabkan imbrikasi. Lipatan yang terbentuk akibat mekanisme propagasi sesar.[Design of Compression and Extensional of the Sandbox Model and Its Benefit] Divergent and convergent tectonic sytem can be studied from the sandbox modelling. This model has a axis of movement. Sandbox models itends to study the progress of structural geology such as fault and fold. We successfully made machine of sandbox. This machine has basal detachment from duraluminum. Material for model is taken by loose sand from Ngrayong Formation. This experiment focused to observation about morphology in surface and thrust or backthrust in subsurface. This experiment has compression system. Result of model was that morphological sequences associated with fault sequences. Fault is formed to have the pattern of forward propagating thrust faults. It’s caused by imbricate thrust system. Folding is formed by the mechanism of fault propagation folding. 

  19. E-læringsparadigmer og disses implikationer for valg og brug af e-læringsplatforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Johannsen Duus

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 2: E-læringsplatforme - muligheder og potentialer, januar - marts 2004, red. Tom Nyvand og Michael Pedersen. ISSN 1603-5518.

    Mange af de hidtidige forsøg på at bringe orden i kaos gennem inddelinger og analyser er ikke tilfredsstillende. Hvis der ikke er tale om praksisfjern teori er der på det empiriske felt ofte tale om opremsninger af pædagogiske læringsstile (en unuanceret pædagogisk optik, teknologiske beskrivelser af forskellige læringssystemer (en unuanceret teknologisk optik eller såkaldte branche- og markedsanalyser (en unuanceret konsulentoptik, som ved nøjere eftersyn (som regel viser sig at være dårligt funderet i økonomisk teori og i marketing teori. Forskning og analyser burde ydermere gå i ”dybden” med praktiske betragtninger af arbejdet på forfronten. Jeg har valgt en anden måde at inddele e-læringsområdet, hvorefter e-læring bliver set som noget, der foregår på mange markeder (afhængigt af kunde/bruger behov, i to brancher (afhængigt af udbudsgrundlaget og følgende fire paradigmer (afhængigt af verdensbilledet hos udbyderen.

  20. Bilateral generating functions and operational methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G. [ENEA, Divisione Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Bilateral generating functions are those involving products of different types of polynomials. It is showed that operational methods offer a powerful tool to derive these families of generating functions. Cases relevant to products of Hermite and Laguerre, Hermite and Legendre ... polynomials and propose further extensions of the method are studied in this report. [Italian] Le funzioni generatrici bilaterali sono quelle che coinvolgono prodotti di tipi differenti di polinomi, si dimostra che i metodi operazionali offrono uno strumento potente per derivare queste nuove famiglie di funzioni speciali. Si studiano casi relativi a prodotti di polinomi di Hermite e Laguerre, Hermite e Legendre. Si propongono infine possibili estensioni del metodo.

  1. IZDELAVA TISKALNIKA 3D

    OpenAIRE

    Brdnik, Lovro

    2015-01-01

    Diplomsko delo analizira trenutno stanje 3D tiskalnikov na trgu. Prikazan je razvoj in principi delovanja 3D tiskalnikov. Predstavljeni so tipi 3D tiskalnikov, njihove prednosti in slabosti. Podrobneje je predstavljena zgradba in delovanje koračnih motorjev. Opravljene so meritve koračnih motorjev. Opisana je programska oprema za rokovanje s 3D tiskalniki in komponente, ki jih potrebujemo za izdelavo. Diploma se oklepa vprašanja, ali je izdelava 3D tiskalnika bolj ekonomična kot pa naložba v ...

  2. Lacuna della legge

    OpenAIRE

    Salvatore Berlingò

    2011-01-01

    Per gentile concessione dei curatori si anticipa in questa sede la pubblicazione del testo che, tradotto in lingua spagnola, sarà inserito nel Diccionario General de Derecho canónico, edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, alla voce corrispondente.SOMMARIO: 1. La metafora delle lacune - 2. «Completezza» e «incompiutezza»- 3. I vari tipi di lacuna - 4. La dialettica fra auto- ed etero-integrazione - 5. La problematica delle lacune negli or...

  3. Analiza in izboljšava vzmetenja gorskega kolesa

    OpenAIRE

    Šantl, Jure

    2012-01-01

    V diplomski nalogi so predstavljena gorska kolesa, ki imajo nameščeno sprednje in zadnje vzmetenje ter opisne prednosti, ki jih omogoča zadnje vzmetenje. Opisani so problemi, ki jih povzroča zadnje vzmetenje. Prav tako so predstavljeni različni tipi koles s sprednjim in zadnjim vzmetenjem ter opisane njihove prednosti, pomanjkljivosti ter področje uporabe. Povzete so tudi študije, ki so jih opravili različni strokovnjaki. Med te spadajo računalniške simulacije in izračuni ter eksperimenti v l...

  4. Percepcije biciklističkog prometa na području Zagreba: razlike u odnosu na dob, rod i članstvo u udruzi Sindikat biciklista

    OpenAIRE

    Sindik, Joško; Halgota, Vladimir; Kirac, Mislav; Šarić, Tena; Gregović, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Prometovanje biciklom danas predstavlja raširen oblik prometovanja, ali uvjeti za vožnju bicikla u Zagrebu, premda unaprijeđeni, još uvijek nisu zadovoljavajući. Cilj ovog istraživanja je bio utvrditi rodne razlike, kao i razlike u percepcijama članova udruge Sindikat biciklista s »tipičnim« zagrebačkim biciklistima, po pitanju različitih čimbenika vezanih uz problematiku vožnje bicikla u Zagrebu. Ispitana je povezanost istih percepcija s dobi sudionika. Ispitano je preko 3.000 članova Udruge...

  5. Caratteristiche dei sistemi differenziali e propagazione ondosa lezioni raccolte dal Dott. G. Lampariello

    CERN Document Server

    Levi-Civita, Tullio

    1988-01-01

    L'edizione originale di questo libro (qui riprodatta anastaticamente) fu pubblicata nel 1931 per i tipi di Zanichelli nella serie delle Attualità scientifiche (n.41). Del suo contenuto valga come descrizione e giudizio di sintesi quanto ne scrisse a suo tempo H. Bateman nel Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society: " Theses lectures give a clear account of the branch of partial differential equations in which attention is focused on the problem of Cauchy and its exceptional cases. The theory is well illustrated by examples from hydrodynamics, optics, and the recent theory of the Broglie waves".

  6. L'attività concordataria di Giovanni Paolo II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Dalla Torre

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Relazione tenuta in occasione del Convegno Internazionale organizzato dall'Istituto DiReCom di Lugano e dalla Fondazione Giovanni Paolo II, (Lugano, 22 e 23 marzo 2012, sul tema "Giovanni Paolo II: legislatore della Chiesa. Fondamenti, innovazioni e prospettive". Gli atti sono in corso di stampa per i tipi della LEVSOMMARIO: 1. Una tematica che ha suscitato interesse- 2. Novità formali e sostanziali dell’attività concordataria di Giovanni Paolo II - 3. Ragioni storiche di un fenomeno in espansione - 4. Un Papa giurista o un Papa pastore? - 5. Alcune considerazioni finali.

  7. Impact of Electronic Services on Users: A Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitha Krishna Sami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Biblioteche e centri informativi adottano servizi nuovi e innovativi per rendere servizi sempre più efficaci ai loro utenti.A seconda dell'esposizione degli utenti a questi servizi, questi ultimi potranno avere tipi di impatto differenti sulle differenti tipologie di utenti. Un impatto positivo avrà come risultato un'attitudine positiva e una certa preferenza per il servizio.L'articolo analizza inoltre i metodi per trasformare un impatto negativo in uno positivo e migliorare i risultati del servizio, così da rafforzare l'uso dei nuovi strumenti introdotti in biblioteca.

  8. INDIGO OTROCI - VZGOJA GENERACIJE INDIGO S STALIŠČA STARŠEV

    OpenAIRE

    Sovič, Maja

    2012-01-01

    V zadnjih desetletjih so se začele pojavljati nove generacije tako imenovanih »indigo otrok«, katerih fenomen je obkrožil svet. Kljub temu da je ta koncept zelo popularen, pa stroka tega fenomena še ni uspela znanstveno potrditi. Tako fenomen indigo otrok še vedno ostaja na poljudni ravni in empirično nedokazljiv. Namen moje diplomske naloge je bil osvetliti problematiko vzgoje otrok s stališča staršev, kateri tipi indigo otrok glede na mnenja strokovnjakov obstajajo in ali so indigo nadarjen...

  9. Fattori di crescita e recettori tirosin chinasici nelle neoplasie e displasie degli animali domestici

    OpenAIRE

    Muscatello, Luisa Vera

    2016-01-01

    La perdita della comunicazione cellulare può portare ad una crescita deregolata e dunque alla trasformazione neoplastica. Gli scopi dello studio di dottorato sono stati di individuare il rapporto funzionale di alcuni fattori di crescita (FC) e dei loro recettori (RTC) in tipi di neoplasie e displasie degli animali domestici, quali: 1. Amplificazione del proto-oncogene ERBB2 e sovra-espressione del RTC erb-b2. in tumori mammari della gatta. 2. Espressione di erb-b2, di recettori ormonal...

  10. L’ARTIGIANO, LO STORICO E L’INTERPRETE TRA STORIOGRAFIA FILOSOFICA E APPROCCIO SPECULATIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Grigenti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Il tema centrale del saggio è la questione del rapporto tra storiografia filosofica e approccio speculativo. Il testo di riferimento è il volume di Gregorio Piaia, Il lavoro storico filosofico, Questioni di metodo ed esiti didattici (Padova: Cleup, 2001. Nello svolgimento si analizzano le caratteristiche dei differenti tipi di ricostruzione del passato della filosofia, dando particolare importanza ai concetti di “metodo” e di “interpretazione”. Nelle conclusioni si sostiene che storiografia filosofica e approccio speculativo esprimono tendenze contrarie entro delle possibilità comprese tra limiti estremi.

  11. PENGEMBANGAN COMPUTER VISION SYSTEM SEDERHANA UNTUK MENENTUKAN KUALITAS TOMAT Development of a simple Computer Vision System to determine tomato quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudiati Evi Masithoh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to develop a simple computer vision system (CVS to non-destructively measure tomato quality based on its Red Gren Blue (RGB color parameter. Tomato quality parameters measured were Brix, citric acid, vitamin C, and total sugar. This system consisted of a box to place object, a webcam to capture images, a computer to process images, illumination system, and an image analysis software which was equipped with artificial neural networks technique for determining tomato quality. Network architecture was formed with 3 layers consisting of1 input layer with 3 input neurons, 1 hidden layer with 14 neurons using logsig activation function, and 5 output layers using purelin activation function by using backpropagation training algorithm. CVS developed was able to predict the quality parameters of a Brix value, vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar. To obtain the predicted values which were equal or close to the actual values, a calibration model was required. For Brix value, the actual value obtained from the equation y = 12,16x – 26,46, with x was Brix predicted. The actual values of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar were obtained from y = 1,09x - 3.13, y = 7,35x – 19,44,  and  y = 1.58x – 0,18,, with x was the value of vitamin C, citric acid, and total sugar, respectively. ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian adalah mengembangkan computer vision system (CVS sederhana untuk menentukan kualitas tomat secara non­destruktif berdasarkan parameter warna Red Green Blue (RGB. Parameter kualitas tomat yang diukur ada­ lah Brix, asam sitrat, vitamin C, dan gula total. Sistem ini terdiri peralatan utama yaitu kotak untuk meletakkan obyek, webcam untuk menangkap citra, komputer untuk mengolah data, sistem penerangan, dan perangkat lunak analisis citra yang dilengkapi dengan jaringan syaraf tiruan untuk menentukan kualitas tomat. Arsitektur jaringan dibentuk dengan3 lapisan yang terdiri dari 1 lapisan masukan dengan 3 sel

  12. Odontoblast layer structure alteration as a response to carious lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries is a bacterial disease affecting the hard tissue of the teeth as well as the pulp. The human dental pulp consists of odontoblast which are organized as a densely packed cell layer. Odontoblasts is located at the periphery of the pulp; therefore, they are the first cells encountered by cariogenic bacteria and their products that are represented in the carious lesion. Purpose: This study aimed to elucidate the effect of cariogenic bacteria to odontoblasts of human teeth. Methods: Five intact third molars and 15 third molars with occlusal caries at various stages of decay were extracted because of orthodontic or therapeutic reasons. The tooth specimens were fixed, decalcified with 10% EDTA solution (pH 7.4, and embedded in paraffin. Serial sections of 5 μm thickness were cut and stained with haematoxylin eosin and Gram’s, in addition to nestin immunohistochemistry. The specimens were then examined under light microscopy. Results: In normal teeth, odontoblast layer were aligned along the pulp chamber showing normal morphology of the cells. Slight disorganization of odontoblast layer was seen in the cases of carious lesions confined to enamel. In the cases of carious lesions confined to dentin, odontoblast layer was not observed in the areas subjacent to the lesions, only single cells showing flattened cell morphology were found. Odontoblasts beneath the lesion suffered severe damage and diminished nestin immunoreaction were observed in all cases of carious lesions with pulp exposure. Conclusion: Cariogenic bacteria invasion may damage the odontoblasts by affecting the morphology and vitality of the cells. The severity of the damage of the odontoblasts may increase as the bacterial invasion progresses toward the pulp.Latar belakang: Karies merupakan penyakit yang disebabkan oleh bakteri, yang dapat memengaruhi jaringan keras gigi maupun pulpa. Pada pulpa gigi manusia terdapat sel odontoblas yang tersusun atas lapisan sel

  13. Persepsi Masyarakat Terhadap Kebijakan Politik di Kota Parepare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Hardi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Dalam dunia politik, peranan etika politik tidak dapat diabaikan. Hal ini terkait dengan, moralitas politik berguna untuk menyelidiki apa yang mengkonstitusi baik-buruk, keutamaan, keabsahan hukum, kebenaran suara hati, kewajiban moral politik dan sebagainya. Realitas persoalan yang dihadapi dalam budaya politik adalah adanya gap antara campur tangan Politik dengan indenpendensi birokrat (Administrator tentang pengelolaan pelayanan pada Masyarakat. Kemudian, terdapat sikap dan perilaku yang “negatif”, baik politisi mau pun birokrat dalam melaksanakan fungsi masing-masing.. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengidentifikasi etika budaya politik dan tanggapan/sikap masyarakat terhadap perkembangan kondisi dan situasi budaya politik di Kota Parepare. Metode yang digunakan adalah Survey sampel dengan unit analisis masyarakat pemilih. Responden diambil dengan stratified random sampling dari masyarakat kota Parepare. Instrumen penelitian adalah pedoman wawancara dan kuesioner. Analisa yang digunakan adalah deskriptif pada data kualitatif. Hasil penunjukkan bahwa secara keseluruhan, baik lapisan bawah, menengah, dan lapisan atas, menilai bahwa etika politisi di kota Parepare relatif buruk, yaitu 191 (63,67% dari 300 responden. Dan alasan responden adalah bahwa setelah menjadi politisi, mereka cenderung individual atau memikirkan kepentingan diri, keluarga dan atau partainya yang terlihat dari kebijakan-kebijakan yang mereka lahirkan. Hal itu sangat berbeda dengan waktu kampanye. Kesimpulan, dalam mewujudkan partisipasi politik di kota Parepare, masyarakat memiliki dua ciri atau bentuk dari partisipasi politik berdasarkan sifat yaitu dimobilisasi dan otonom. Kemudian, untuk menilai bagaimana etika politik di Kota Parepare, ada tiga pola pola sikap dan orientasi individu terhadap politik, yakni: (1. Orientasi Kognitif : pengetahuan, keyakinan (2. Orientasi Afektif : perasaan terkait, keterlibatan, penolakan dan sejenisnya tentang obyek politik, dan

  14. PENGEMBANGAN PENCEGAHAN SERANGAN DISTRIBUTED DENIAL OF SERVICE (DDOS PADA SUMBER DAYA JARINGAN DENGAN INTEGRASI NETWORK BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS DAN CLIENT PUZZLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septian Geges

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Denial of Service (DoS merupakan permasalahan keamanan jaringan yang sampai saat ini terus berkembang secara dinamis. Semakin tinggi kemampuan komputasi suatu komputer penyerang, serangan DoS yang dapat dihasilkan juga semakin membahayakan. Serangan ini dapat mengakibatkan ketidakmampuan server untuk melayani service request yang sah. Karena itu serangan DoS sangat merugikan dan perlu diberikan pencegahan yang efektif. Ancaman berikutnya yang juga sangat membahayakan adalah Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS, dimana serangan ini memanfaatkan sejumlah besar komputer untuk menjalankan serangan DoS kepada server, web service, atau sumber daya jaringan lain. Mengingat resiko besar yang diakibatkan serangan DDoS ini, banyak peneliti yang terdorong untuk merancang mekanisme penga-manan sumber daya jaringan. Pada penelitian ini, penulis mengkhususkan pokok permasalahan pada pengamanan web service. Penulis mengemuka-kan sebuah mekanisme untuk mengamankan web service dengan cara melakukan filtrasi dan validasi permintaan yang diterima untuk mengakses sumber daya jaringan. Filtrasi dan validasi ini dilakukan dengan gabungan metode Network Behavior Analysis (NBA dan Client Puzzle (CP. Metode NBA menjadi lapisan pertahanan pertama untuk mendeteksi apakah sedang terjadi serangan DDoS dengan mengukur tingkat kepadatan jaringan/Network density. Dari metode NBA, didapatkan IP Address yang perlu divalidasi dengan metode CP sebagai lapisan pertahanan kedua. Apabila suatu service request sudah berhasil melewati proses filtrasi dan validasi ini, maka service request ini baru akan dilayani. Dari hasil percobaan, terbukti metode ini dapat mendeteksi serangan DDoS sekaligus menjamin bahwa service request yang sah mendapat pelayanan yang seharusnya sehingga server dapat melayani service request dengan baik.

  15. ISLAM AND ARAT SABULUNGAN IN MENTAWAI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskota Delfi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The remoteness of the Mentawai Islands has contributed to an almost autonomous development, unaided by mainland Sumatra. As a result of a well endowed environment and supported by staple local foods such as sago, taro and bananas, as well as an abundance of wildlife including wild boars, a finely tuned self-sufficiency was realised. In this space the management and distribution of food, including animal protein, is an important aspect of the culture of Arat Sabulungan. As the result of the compulsory state sanctioned religions program introduced in 1954, some Mentawaians have converted to Islam or Catholicism as their formal religious identity. However, a remarkable adaptation occured in which the layers of Mentawai identity were not lost in the adaption to the Islamic faith. Islam with its teachings, and other formal religions, are considered as  the sasareu (outsiders. The prohibition of consuming boar as part of islamic rules is a sasareu rules that contradict to Mentawaian Arat .[Kepulauan Mentawai yang terisolasi telah berkembang secara mandiri tanpa bantuan dari pulau induknya, Sumatra. Lingkungan yang subur dan mendukung ketersediaan sumber makanan pokok lokal seperti sagu, talas, dan pisang serta berlimpahnya satwa liar, termasuk babi hutan, telah mendorong terciptanya swasembada pangan. Manajemen dan distribusi makanan merupakan aspek penting dalam jalinan budaya dan sistem kepercayaan local, Arat Sabulungan. Sebagai hasil dari kebijakan pemerintah untuk menerapkan agama resmi bagi orang Mentawai pada tahun 1954, orang Mentawai kemudian masuk Islam atau Katolik. Namun demikian, adaptasi yang luar biasa juga terjadi, sehingga lapisan-lapisan identitas Mentawai tidak hilang dalam adaptasinya dengan keyakinan Islam. Islam dengan ajaran-ajarannya, juga agama-agama dunia lainnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing. Larangan mengkonsumsi daging babi sebagai bagian dari ajaran Islam, misalnya, dipandang sebagai ajaran asing yang bertentangan

  16. MONITORING DAERAH RESAPAN AIR DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK STUDI KASUS KELURAHAN SEKARAN, KECAMATAN GUNUNGPATI, KOTA SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Millah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Kecamatan Gunungpati merupakan salah satu wilayah konservasi di Kota Semarang yang mengalami perkembangan sejakdidirikannya Kampus Unnes di Kelurahan Sekaran. Pesatnya pembangunan yang ada saat ini telah mengakibatkan terjadinyaperubahan tata guna lahan. Untuk mengetahui pengaruhnya terhadap fungsi daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran makadilakukan pengukuran dengan metode geolistrik konfigurasi Schlumberger. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahuistatus daerah resapan air di Kelurahan Sekaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kawasan Kampus Unnes Sekaran dan sekitarnyadalam 2 tahap, yaitu bulan Nopember 2010 dan Januari 2011. Hasil pengolahan data dengan software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 diketahuibahwa untuk TS 01, TS 02, TS 04, TS 05 resapan air paling banyak terjadi pada bulan Nopember 2010, untuk TS 03 pada bulanJanuari 2011. Lapisan batuan penyusun yang ada umumnya terdiri dari lempung dan batu pasir. Lapisan batu pasir inilah yangdiharapkan dapat berfungsi sebagai penyimpan air hujan yang meresap dan teridentifikasi sebagai air tanah dangkal. Simpulandari penelitian ini yaitu Kelurahan Sekaran masih berfungsi sebagai daerah resapan air dengan ditemukannya air tanah dangkal dilokasi penelitian. This research aims to study the influence of development of Sekaran into the function of its water infiltration area by using a methodof Schlumberger configuration. There were two steps of research conducted in November 2010 and January 2011. The result ofdata processing using software Res2dinv ver. 3.56 shows that the most water infiltration happened in Nopember 2010 forTS 01,TS02, TS 04, TS 05 points, while those for TS 03 happened in January 2011. In general, the composing layers are clay and sand. Thesand is supposed to have the function of infiltrated rain water keeper and identified as shalow soil water. Based on the identifiedshalow soil water, the research concluded that Sekaran still has a function of water infiltration

  17. Rights Information Infrastructures and Voluntary Stakeholders Agreements in Digital Library Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Attanasio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La gestione dei diritti delle opere testuali digitalizzate è analizzata attraverso specifici esempi e possibili soluzioni applicative. Uno dei più diffusi metodi di amministrazione è il Voluntary Stakeholders Agreements (VSA, un accordo molto elastico negoziato tra le associazioni di diritti d'autore e i possibili utenti delle opere.A questo proposito, si sono sviluppate Rights Information Infrastructure, progetti specificamente finalizzati all'amministrazione dei diritti delle opere digitalizzate dalle biblioteche. L'attuale pratica di VSA necessita tuttavia di una revisione, poiché non riesce a soddisfare in modo completo i bisogni degli autori e delle istituzioni che digitalizzano le opere. Le biblioteche hanno raggiunto in alcuni paesi accordi che prevedono parziali diritti di sfruttamento: tutti tipi di opera con una licenza limitata (Norvegia, oppure un utilizzo completo, compreso di libera diffusione su internet, ma solo per alcuni tipi di opere, ad esempio quelle pubblicate prima di una certa data e ormai fuori stampa (Danimarca, Germania, Francia e Google. Il futuro sviluppo nella fruizione delle risorse digitalizzate e nel loro libero utilizzo da parte delle biblioteche è legato necessariamente a quello dei costi, costituiti dall'identificazione dello stato giuridico (di pubblico dominio o sotto copyright e commerciale (in stampa o fuori catalogo delle opere.

  18. Pengaruh Massa Zn Dan Temperatur Hydrotermal Terhadap Struktur Dan Sifat Elektrik Material Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rizki Ilhami

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Kemajuan teknologi yang sangat berkembang pada saat ini membutuhkan material yang tidak hanya kecil ataupun ringan, tetapi juga memiliki sifat thermal, elektrik, dan mekanik yang baik. Graphene adalah material yang dapat menjawab kebutuhan hal tersebut. Permasalahan yang kemudian muncul adalah proses sintesis massal yang masih menjadi kendala. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mensintesis material graphene dengan metode hydrothermal dan menggunakan serbuk Zn sebagai reduktor. Penelitian ini menganalisa pengaruh varaiasi penambahan massa sebesar 0,8 gram, 1,6 gram, dan 2,4 gram zinc serta variasi temperatur hydrthermal 160ᵒC, 180ᵒC, 200ᵒC. Proses karakterisasi material graphene dilakukan dengan pengujian Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, Fourier Transform Infraredspectroscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis/Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA/DSC, dan Four Point Probe digunakan untuk mengetahui nilai konduktivitas elektrik material. Morfologi dari graphene yang dihasilkan berbentuk lembaran-lembaran transparan dan tipis yang saling menumpuk.Semakin banyak serbuk Zn yang diberikan menjadikan permukaan graphene semakin tipis. Nilai konduktivitas elektrik terbesar dihasilkan dari variasi panambahan serbuk zinc sebesar 2,4 gram dan temperatur hydrothermal sebesar 180ᵒC dengan nilai sebesar 0,012526 S/cm.

  19. Pneumatic positioning and mesh fixation in laparoscopic ventral/incisional hernia repair. New surgical technique and a new device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darecchio, Antonio; Bocchi, Paolo; Kukleta, Jan F

    2015-01-01

    Oggetto di questa pubblicazione è la descrizione di una nuova tecnica chirurgica per la riparazione videolaparoscopica di laparoceli ed ernie della parete addominale anteriore. Tale tecnica è strettamente dipendente dall’utilizzo di un nuovo strumento pneumatico per il posizionamento della protesi. Attualmente esistono in commercio svariati tipi di protesi intraperitoneali con valide caratteristiche strutturali. Tuttavia lo scoglio concettuale rimane sui metodi e sui mezzi di fissaggio delle protesi. I mezzi meccanici di qualsiasi conformazione per il fatto stesso di essere dei mezzi meccanici (spirali metalliche ancorette e viti) espongono al pericolo di danno iatrogeno le strutture vascolari nervose che possono incontrare nel loro percorso. La nuova tecnica proposta mira alla perfetta distensione delle protesi per utilizzo intraperitoneale ed ai loro ottimale fissaggio con adesivo chirurgico in condizioni di sicurezza per le strutture circostanti. Tale tecnica è stata eseguita su cadavere di suino* con protesi intraperitoneali di poliestere-gel-collageno e cyanoacrylate come adesivo chirurgico ma non è esclusa la fattibilità con altri tipi di colle, di protesi, protesi auto-adesive già esistenti in commercio o che potrebbero essere appositamente prodotte.

  20. L’intonazione interrogativa in italiano L2 di parlanti egiziane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Gamal I. Abou-El-Enin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Questo studio presenta un primo contributo all’analisi della codifica prosodica di alcuni tipi di domande in italiano L2. Sono stati analizzati domande check, query-yn e query-w in italiano L2 ricavate da 4 dialoghi di parlato semispontaneo elicitati con il metodo del ‘gioco delle differenze’. Le quattro informatrici egiziane sono apprendenti guidate di due livelli diversi di competenza linguistica. Sono stati rilevati i parametri acustici della durata e della frequenza fondamentale e sono stati determinati gli accenti principali. Il contorno melodico è stato definito con l’annotazione INTSINT e gli accenti sono stati trascritti secondo il modello ToBI-like. La variazione pragmatica dei tipi analizzati ha avuto riscontro nella realizzazione prosodica presentando delle variazioni a livello di range, pendenza della salita sul nucleo finale dell’unità tonale (la TU  e nella collocazione, tipo, allineamento e pendenza degli accenti principali. Si è confermata la posizione finale di accento come preferenza delle parlanti. Ai due diversi livelli di competenza le informatrici si sono mostrate sensibili al contesto comunicativo e hanno presentato realizzazioni prosodiche che hanno molto in comune con la prosodia rilevata finora nella Penisola. Le conclusioni, infine, rivelano varie prospettive di ricerca nell’ambito linguistico e non solo fonetico. Parole chiave:   Prosodia – Intonazione – Domande – L2.

  1. Language in Online Dating Texts: Trait Identification, Homophily, and their Effect on Attraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox Hamilton, Nicola; Fullwood, Chris; Kirwan, Grainne

    2015-01-01

    Research has indicated that online daters may pick up on language cues connected to personality traits in online dating profile texts, and act upon those cues. This research seeks to investigate the level of accuracy of detection of personality in dating profile texts, and the extent to which perceived or actual similarity of personality has an effect on attractiveness of the author. An online survey was conducted collecting the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI) for each participant and text author, a peer-report TIPI score by participants for each text author, and an attractiveness rating on a Likert scale for each author. Participants correctly identified Extraversion, though the effect size was small. Contrary to the hypotheses, participants preferred texts when written by an author with a personality they perceived as dissimilar to their own, specifically in Openness and Conscientiousness, and no relationship was found between actual similarity of personality and attractiveness. Online daters may choose partners with complementary or desirable traits rather than similar traits, or other factors in attraction may be more salient in the initial stages of determining attraction.

  2. Snehvides Billede som virkelighedsteater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krøgholt, Ida

    2015-01-01

    Det var ikke så almindeligt at tale om virkelighedsteater i 1994, hvor Hotel pro Forma præsenterede forestillingen Snehvides Billede. I dag gør teatret brug af virkelighedsfragmenter og eksperimenterer med at iscenesætte sit materiale i stadigt mere komplekse former, og artiklen undersøger, hvordan......-produktion og materiale-feedback, undersøge, hvordan blikke på virkelighed og identitet kan genereres i et teatralt møde, hvor tilskuere udsættes for sensoriske ’vrid’. Disse blikke på virkelighed som et materiale er Hotel Pro Formas særlige greb og optik, og de gør det muligt at indfange det kompleks, der...

  3. Optical Photon Reassignment Microscopy (OPRA)

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, Stephan; Wicker, Kai; Heintzmann, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    To enhance the resolution of a confocal laser scanning microscope the additional information of a pinhole plane image taken at every excitation scan position can be used [C. J. R. Sheppard, Super-resolution in confocal imaging, Optik 80, 5354 (1988)]. This photon reassignment principle is based on the fact that the most probable position of an emitter is at half way between the nominal focus of the excitation laser and the position corresponding to the (off centre) detection position. Therefore, by reassigning the detected photons to this place, an image with enhanced detection efficiency and resolution is obtained. Here we present optical photon reassignment microscopy (OPRA) which realises this concept in an all-optical way obviating the need for image-processing. With the help of an additional intermediate optical beam expansion between descanning and a further rescanning of the detected light, an image with the advantages of photon reassignment can be acquired. Due to its simplicity and flexibility this m...

  4. Hot air in the glasshouse. Cooperation ensures identification; Wer im Glashaus sitzt, der schwitzt. Nur Zusammenarbeit schafft Identifikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenbruch, D. [VDI, ASHRAE, Koeln (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Buildings with double-glazed walls are transparent and attractive. The new technology also reduces the heat demand of buildings in the colder season. Natural ventilation via windows is possible, and offices are independent of outside weather and noise. (orig.) [German] Geplant von Architekten mit internationalem Ruf in Verbund mit einer neuen Generation von Ingenieuren der Bauklimatik schaetzen viele Investoren die Transparenz und attraktive Optik der Gebaeude mit Doppelfassaden. Zugleich soll die neue Fassadentechnologie auch dazu beitragen, in kuehleren Jahreszeiten den Waermebedarf des Gebaeudes zu verringern. Durch den Schutz der ''zweiten Huelle'' wird in den Bueros eine natuerliche Lueftung ermoeglicht (individuelle Fensteroeffnung) sowie eine Entkopplung der Buerozonen von der Aussenwetterlage (Regen, Winddruck etc.) und von aeusseren Laermeinfluessen sichergestellt. (orig.)

  5. Das Risiko der Landschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosé Ricci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Die italienischen Landschaften sind in Gefahr wegen der immer zunehmenden Umweltschaeden, und es ist noetig, ueber diese Notstandlage, die nicht allen bewusst ist, nachzudenken. Wir leben in einen zweideutigen Zustand, in welchem theoretisch alle die Unversehrtheit des Landes verteidigen, aber dann einen Lebensstil fuehren, der nicht die Systeme der Umwelt und der Landschaft schuetzt. Achgeben auf das Risiko der Landschaft hat eine doppelte Bedeutung, fuer das kollektive Gewissen und fuer die Regelung des Territoriums. Die Analyse der Gefahr fuer die Landschaft, der Kompetenz der Forschung ueber den Kulturschatz Italiens, hat die Unterstuetzung der “Carta del rischio del ministero per i beni e le attività culturali”. Um diese in Kraft treten zu lassen, ist es noetig, das Landschaftsgut aus Vermoegensanschauungen zu definieren, so wie in der Europaischen Konvention und aus Juristischer Sicht vorgesehen ist. In dieser Optik kann die Planung und Aenderung des Territoriums als Punkt der Risikokontrolle angesehen werden.

  6. SINTESIS PIGMEN ALAMI DAUN TANAMAN ANDONG (CORDYLINE FRUTICOSA L. SEBAGAI PEWARNA BATIK DAN ANALISIS SIFAT OPTIKNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nita Rosita

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Pigmen alami dari daun tanaman Andong (Cordyline fruticosa L. telah berhasil disintesis secara sederhana dengan merendamnya pada larutan 20 ml HCl 1,47 M. Massa daun dijadikan sebagai variabel bebas penelitian dimana 1 gram hingga 6 gram daun direndam pada larutan kemudian dianalisis sifat optik berupa transmitansi dan absorbansinya. Pigmen yang dihasilkan dalam penelitian ini berwarna merah. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa transmitansi pigmen yang diperoleh menurun secara eksponensial dengan penambahan massa daun. Hasil tersebut menunjukkan pada massa daun 4 gram pigmen telah mengalami saturasi. Adapun absorbansi pigmen yang dihasilkan pada penelitian ini memiliki spektrum absorbansi pada daerah UV hingga spektrum tampak yaitu pada panjang gelombang 200 – 700  nm. Dari hasil analisis absorbansi tersebut, pigmen yang dihasilkan dari penelitian ini secara umum merupakan pigmen jenis flavonoid.  Berdasarkan hasil penelitian ini, disimpulkan bahwa daun tanaman Andong berpotensi sebagai pewarna alami yang selanjutnya dapat diaplikasikan untuk pewarna batik.

  7. Septo-Optic Dysplasia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Bilgin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old male patient was admitted with loss of vision in the right eye and blurred vision in the left eye. The right eye did not respond to the stimuli in the pattern visual evoked potentials (PVEP test, and there was a significant delay in the p100 latency in the left eye. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed a decrease in the calibration of both optical nerves, absence of septum pellucidum, and deformity in both frontal horns of the side ventricles. Despite the rare incidence of Septo-optik displazi (SOD, it should be considered in cases of unilateral or bilateral visual complaints, especially if optical nerve hypoplasia is also present. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 246-8

  8. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørn

    2015-01-01

    overgangen fra trykkekultur til digital kultur. For det første problemstillingen omkring digitalisering af litterær kulturarv med fokus på kodning og tagging af teksten samt organisering i hypertekststrukturer. For det andet reorganiseringen af det digitale dokument i dataelementer og database. For det......, der betragter DH som forbundet med "making" og "building" af digitale objekter og former. Dette kan også karakteriseres som DH som praktisk-produktiv vending. Artiklen har valgt tre typer af digitalisering. De er valgt ud fra, at de skal repræsentere forskellige måder at håndtere digitaliseringen på...... og forskellige versioner af den praktisk-produktive vending. Artiklen undersøger tre typer digitalisering fra 1990erne til i dag ud fra denne optik. De repræsenterer forskellige former for approach til digitalisering og det digitale dokument og afspejler forskellige typer af problemstillinger i...

  9. Forestillinger om kvinden i sygeplejefaget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holen, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Kapitlet analyserer forestillingen om at kvindelighed og sygeplejefaget hører sammen. Den teoretiske optik er Judith Butlers opgør med forestillingen om, at kønnet har en biologisk komponent og en social/kulturel komponent. Kapitlet er en analyse af forskellige tekster skrevet af tre forskellige...... forbinder kvinden til sygeplejefaget. Denne forbindelselinje er dog på mange måder paradoksal, hvilket fremkommer ved at læse teksterne i lyset af Butlers kritik af skellet mellem sex og gender. For på den ene side beskrives det kvidnelige om særlig værdifuldt i forhold til sygeplejefaget, og på den anden...

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of blue compact galaxies (Kong+, 2002)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, X.; Cheng, F. Z.; Weiss, A.; Charlot, S.

    2003-08-01

    This is the second paper in a series studying the star formation rates, stellar components, metallicities, and star formation histories and evolution of a sample of blue compact galaxies. We analyzed spectral properties of 97 blue compact galaxies, obtained with the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (China) 2.16m telescope, with spectral range 3580{AA}-7400{AA}. We classify the spectra according to their emission lines: 13 of the total 97 BCG sample are non-emission line galaxies (non-ELGs); 10 have AGN-like emission (AGNs), and 74 of them are star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Emission line fluxes and equivalent widths, continuum fluxes, the 4000A Balmer break index and equivalent widths of absorption lines are measured from the spectra. Please find more detail information in http://optik2.mtk.nao.ac.jp/~xkong/bcg/ (5 data files).

  11. Hvorfra min verden går

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Tina Bering

    uddannelsessystemet med re-ference til dette systems optik konstitueret gennem forskellen bedre/værre og ikke i den form, de antager i den teoretiske didaktik. Denne forståelse af forholdet mellem didaktik og uddannelse/undervisning bidra-ger til udvikling af didaktikken på flere måder: For det første ved...... bliver kausalitetsrelationer altså no-get, der formes og tilskrives i systemet, det vil sige mellem systemets elementer, frem for en beskrivelse af relationer mellem systemer. Når undervisningen iagtta-ger, at de studerende løser de stillede opgaver rigtigt og tilskriver dette egne ydel-ser, siger denne...

  12. SIMULASI POLA MEDAN ELEKTROMAGNET PADA PANDU GELOMBANG PERSEGI DENGAN DUA PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujito

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan visualisasi pola medan elektromagnetik 4 moda terendah pada pandu gelombang persegi untuk moda berorde tinggi, yaitu moda TE00, TE01, TE10 dan TE11. Konstanta propagasi sebagai salah satu parameter yang digunakan untuk mengkarakter moda gelombang optik diformulasikan secara semi analitik. Hal ini dikarenakan formulasi konstanta propagasi efektif moda gelombang tidak dapat diturunkan secara eksak. Beberapa bagian dipecahkan menggunakan penyelesaian analitik, sedangkan beberapa bagian diselesaikan melalui analisa numerik secara komputasional dengan menggunakan perangkat lunak Matlab. Analisis karakter pola medan dilakukan dengan menggunakan prinsip Variasional fungsi trial polinom Hypergeometri, sedangkan profil indeks bias berbentuk secant hyperbolik. Analisis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan berbagai orde moda menunjukkan kesesuaian terhadap metode indeks efektif dan mampu mendeskripsikan pola medan.

  13. ANALISIS KUALITAS JARINGAN GPON PADA LAYANAN IPTV PT. TELKOM DI DAERAH DENPASAR, BALI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngakan Oka Pramundia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available GPON adalah sebuah teknologi berbasis fiber optik. PT.TELKOM menerapkan teknologi GPON sebagai jaringan access network untuk layanan IPTV Usee TV. Penelitian ini membahas kualitas jaringan GPON pada layanan IPTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali mengacu pada topologi dan standarisasi kualitas jaringan. Kualitas jaringan dikategorikan baik untuk 3 parameter yaitu Rx Power(Prx, Attenuatiion, dan Attainable Rate. Untuk Rx Power (Prx nilai berkisar antara -18 dBm sampai dengan -24 dBm. Pada Attenuation klasifikasi kualitas jaringannya termasuk pada kategori Excellent. Sedangkan untuk Attainable Rate-nya nilai downstream berkisar antara 2 Gbps sampai dengan 2.4 Gbps. Dengan nilai downstream tersebut dapat memenuhi kebutuhan layanan Usee TV. Hal ini menyatakan bahwa GPON PT.TELKOM sudah mampu melayani layanan IPTV UseeTV di daerah Denpasar, Bali dengan baik

  14. ADHD SOM SOCIALT OG KULTURELT FÆNOMEN

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Nichlas Permin

    Der har i Danmark de seneste årtier været en eksplosiv vækst i antallet af mennesker, der stilles en ADHD-diagnose. Der eksisterer et væld af forskellige bud på forklaringer på dette fænomen. Lige fra epidemiologiske og medicinske tolkninger, der peger på, at mennesker generelt er blevet mere syge...... at forbinde psykiske lidelser, herunder i væsentlig grad ADHD, som en risikofaktor for kriminalitet, antisocial adfærd, misbrug og en række andre sociale problemer. Med interesse i dette komplekse fænomen belyses empirisk den sociale og kulturelle forudsætning for ADHD-diagnosen i Kriminalforsorgens...... institutioner i en kulturanalytisk og socialkonstruktivistisk optik. Afhandlingen undersøger, hvordan ADHD og kriminalitet diskursivt kobles sammen af voksne kriminelle med en ADHD-diagnose og frontmedarbejdere i Kriminalforsorgen....

  15. Faglige fællesskaber og MOOCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, René Boyer; Rosenlund, Lea Tilde

    2016-01-01

    Fag og faglige fællesskaber må etableres på ny, når traditionelle faglokaler skiftes ud med uddannelsesformater som MOOCs. Dette kapitel sætter fokus på de potentialer og udfordringer, der opstår for både undervisere og studerende, når læringsressourcer og faglige opgaver gøres tilgængelige i et...... uddannelsesformat uden mulighed for umiddelbar personlig kontakt. I kapitlet præsenteres kort forskellige uddannelsesformaters muligheder, og der etableres med begreberne “teknisk og didaktisk understøttelse af læring” en optik på de refleksioner og tiltag, undervisere og producenter af MOOCs kan gøre, ligesom...

  16. INFLUENCE OF CONCENTRATION OF RIND EXTRACT OF RED DRAGON FRUIT (HYLOCEREUS COSTARICENSIS AGAINST THE DSSC EFFECIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on utilization of rind extracts of red dragon fruit (hylocereus costaricensis as sensitizer for dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC has been conducted by reviewing influence of the concentration against the DSSC efficiency. Characterization on optical absorption at various concentrations and identification of functional groups, each using an UV-Vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infra red (FTIR, have done to the dye in the form of the extracts. The dye characterization result on optical absorption at various concentration shows that the optical absorption at range of wavelength 320-760 nm has the peak of absorbance tend to increase with increasing the concentration. Therefore the dye is capable to role as a sunlight absorber. Meanwhile, infra red absorption spectrum obtained from FTIR results indicate the presence of functional groups O-H, C=O, C=C, C-O, and C-H aromatic. Results of current-voltage characterization of DSSC show an increase in maximum power and efficiency with increasing concentration.Penelitian mengenai pemanfaatan ekstrak kulit buah naga merah (hylocereus costaricensis sebagai penyensitif pada dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC telah dilakukan dengan meninjau pengaruh konsentrasi ekstrak terhadap efisiensi DSSC. Terhadap dye berupa ekstrak kulit H. Costaricencis dilakukan pengujian serapan optik pada berbagai konsentrasi dan identifikasi gugus fungsi, masing-masing menggunakan spektrometer UV-Vis dan fourier transform infra red (FTIR. Hasil pengujian dye pada konsentrasi 100 %, 50 %, 33,33 %, 25%, dan 20% menunjukan serapan optik yang terjadi pada panjang gelombang 320-760 nm, memiliki puncak yang cenderung semakin tinggi seiring dengan peningkatan konsentrasi. Dye yang berasal dari ekstrak kulit H. Costaricensis ini mampu berperan sebagai sunlight absorber. Sementara itu, spektrum serapan infra red yang diperoleh dari hasil FTIR mengindikasikan adanya gugus fungsi O-H, C=O, C=C, C-O, dan C-H aromatik. Hasil karakterisasi

  17. THERMAL NEUTRON FLUX MAPPING ON A TARGET CAPSULE AT RABBIT FACILITY OF RSG-GAS REACTOR FOR USE IN k0-INAA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutisna Sutisna

    2015-03-01

    di dalam kapsul dan kanal iradiasi yang berbeda untuk kuantifikasi unsur-unsur menggunakan k0-AANI. Pemetaan fluks neutron termal (фth pada dua jenis kapsul iradiasi telah dilakukan untuk kanal RS01 dan RS02 di reaktor RSG-GAS. Fluks neutron termal ditentukan dengan menggunakan paduan Al - 0,1 % Au melalui reaksi nuklir 197Au (n,g 198Au, sementara pemetaan fluks dilakukan menggunakan statistik R. Fluks neutron termal dihitung menggunakan perangkat lunak k0-IAEA yang disediakan oleh IAEA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bawa rata-rata fluk neutron termal adalah (5,6±0,3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (5,6±0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1, (5,2± 0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 dan (5,3 ± 0,4×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 masing-masing untuk lapisan 1, 2, 3 dan 4 pada kapsul polietilena. Dalam kasus kapsul aluminium, fluk neutron termal adalah lebih rendah dibandingkan dengan fluk neutron termal pada kapsul polietilena, yaitu (3,0 ± 0,2 ×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (2,8 ± 0,1×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1; (3,2 ± 0,3×10+13 n.cm-2.s-1 masing-masing untuk lapisan 1, 2 dan 3. Untuk setiap lapisan dalam kapsul, distribusi fluks neutron termal adalah tidak seragam dan tidak ada degradasi fluk dalam arah aksial, baik untuk kapsul polietilena maupun untuk kapsul aluminium. Peta kontur fluk neutron termal untuk delapan lapisan pada kapsul polietilena dan enam lapisan pada kapsul aluminium untuk kanal iradiasi RS01 dan RS02, memiliki pola yang sama dengan keragaman yang relatif kecil untuk semua jenis kapsul iradiasi. Kata kunci: neutron thermal, fluks, kapsul, AAN

  18. Observation On Void Formed In Oxide Scale Of Fe-Cr-Ni Alloy At 1073k In Dry And Humid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbar Kaderi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Void formation in oxide scale during high temperature oxidation is a common phenomenon. Over a long period of time voids will affect the mechanical property of scales by influencing the cracking and spalling. Voids formed in dry environment are different than that of formed in humid environment. With the presence of water vapor in humid environment the formation of void will increase, thus greater number of void compared to that in dry environment. Fe-Cr-Ni alloy samples were exposed isothermally at 1073 K in air (P_(O_2 = 0.21atm = 2.1×?10?^(5 Pa and  humid (air + steam environments. XRD analysis done to all samples confirms that Fe2O3, Fe3O4, NiCr2O4, FeCr2O4, Cr2O3 and NiO phases exist in the scale. EDX analysis done shows varying compositions of Fe,Cr,Ni and O in outer and inner oxide scale, oxide scale/metal interface and metal. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM was used to investigate voids formed in the cross sections of the oxidized samples. Volume fraction of voids in the oxide scale was calculated in accordance to the cross sectional area fraction of voids in the scale. It shows that Fe-Cr-Ni alloy samples exposed in humid environment has as high as 71% more voids than that exposed in dry environment. It is concluded that the humid environment increased the number of void formed in the oxide scale, thus facilitates the exfoliation of protective scale during the high temperature oxidation. ABSTRAK: Pembentukan gelembung udara di dalam lapisan oksida ketika proses pengoksidaan di suhu tinggi merupakan satu fenomena biasa. Pada satu jangka masa yang panjang gelembung-gelembung ini akan memberi kesan kepada sifat mekanikal oksida dengan mempengaruhi pembentukan keretakan dan pengelupasan oksida. Gelembung udara yang terbentuk di dalam persekitaran kering berbeza daripada yang terbentuk di dalam persekitaran lembap. Dengan adanya wap air, pembentukan gelembung akan bertambah berbanding yang terbentuk di dalam

  19. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (Africa had relatively low costs (Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  20. Sustainable development applied to the Italian territorial planning, sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources; Problematiche territoriali relative al suolo, al sottosuolo, alle acque e contributo allo sviluppo sostenibile nazionale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basili, M.; Colonna, N.; Del Ciello, R.; Grauso, S.; Napoleoni, S.; Zarlenga, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1998-07-01

    The paper carries out on analysis on the state of the art about sustainable development applied to the territorial planning. Tree types of approach to the sustainability are described: social, economic and environmental, using a large bibliography starting from the Bruntland report. The Italian situation is discussed. An operative proposal on the sustainable management of the renewable and un renewable resources: groundwater, soil and building materials are defined for the Italian context. [Italian] Nel lavoro vengono descritti i principi generali dello sviluppo sostenibile ed i tre tipi di approccio derivanti dall'analisi dell'imponente bibliografia degli ultimi quindici anni, a partire dal rapporto Bruntland che per primo ne ha preso in considerazione i concetti. Vengono proposte tre architetture logiche per procedure di gestione sostenibile delle risorse nel contesto istituzionale italiano.

  1. KONDOM WANITA (FEMALE CONDOM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suryati Suryati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Di Indonesia penggunaan kondom wanita tidak begitu popular seperti kondom pria, khususnya di Sumatera Barat. Kondom wanita ini menyerupai satu sarung atau kantong kecil yang sangat tipis yang dapat digunakan oleh para wanita pada waktu melakukanhubungan seks. Kondom wanita ini semuanya harus dimasukkan ke dalam vagina, dan kondom ini dapat membantumencegah terjadinya kehamilan dan penyakit-penyakit seksual (STDs termasuk HIV. Kondom wanita ini terbuat dari polyurethane yang menyerupai sarung atau kantong kecil dengan panjang 1 7 cm (6,5 inci. Pada setiap ujungnya terdapat cincin yang sangat fleksibel. Organisasi Kesehatan Dunia (WHO telah menasehatkan atau menganjurkan kepada masyarakat se dunia untuk menggunakan kondom wanita yang baru, pada setiap kali melakukan hubungan seksual, untuk mencegah teijadinya kehamilan dan melindungi diri dari penularan penyakit-penyakit infeksi seksual, dan HIV.

  2. La condizione della donna nel diritto delle religioni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Dammacco

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Relazione al Colloquio internazionale sul tema La femme en Méditerranée,organizzato dalla Université Paris Sorbonne - Paris IV e dalla Università degli Studi di Bari (Bari, 8-9 giugno 2007, destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti per i tipi di Schena editore.SOMMARIO: 1. Necessità di nuove categorie oltre i luoghi comuni – 2. Diversaflessibilità e permeabilità del diritto delle religioni. La secolarizzazione e laglobalizzazione – 3. Lo statuto della donna nei diritti religiosi mediterranei:ebraismo, islam, cristianesimo – 4. La tutela della donna come espressione di una cultura della laicità. L’attuale debolezza degli interventi legislativi. Il ruolo degli ordinamenti civili – 5. Il progresso della condizione femminile e le religioni. L’importanza del dialogo tra le religioni – 6. L’importanza delle relazioni tra gli stati e le confessioni religiose.

  3. Erişkin erkek sıçanlarda doksorubisin ile oluşturulan testis hasarı üzerine L-karnitinin etkisi

    OpenAIRE

    Mutlu, Ebru

    2013-01-01

    Erişkin erkek sıçanlarda doksorubisin ile oluşturulan testis hasarı üzerine L-karnitinin etkisi. Doksorubisin, lösemi, lenfoma ve çeşitli kanser tiplerinde, dayanıklı tümörlere karşı antitümör ajanı olarak kullanılan antrasiklin tipi bir antibiyotiktir. Kanser tedavisinde kullanılan doksorubisin, kemoterapik bir ajandır. Sitotoksik etkilerine ek olarak çok sayıda ciddi yan etkileri de bulunmaktadır. L-karnitin, in vivo olarak metiyonin ve lizin aminoasitlerinden sentezlenen, antiapoptotik ...

  4. Native Skywatchers: Kapemni. As it is Above, It is Below. . . A Hands-On STEM + Art + Culture Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A. S.

    2015-11-01

    In D(L)akota star knowledge there is one overlying idea, “kapemni.” Imagine two tipis lined up vertically so that the tops are touching. The top triangle represents the spirit world or the star world; the bottom triangle is the material world or physical world. The idea is when a mirroring of the star world is created with what's happening on Earth (or vice versa), a doorway is created and opened between the worlds. There is a flow. This workshop will use the D(L)akota star map, “Dakota Makọce Wicaƞngḣpi Wowapi,” to teach participants the native constellations that are visible in tonight's sky. Then participants will visually communicate their connection to the stars and the seasons.

  5. Lacuna della legge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Berlingò

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Per gentile concessione dei curatori si anticipa in questa sede la pubblicazione del testo che, tradotto in lingua spagnola, sarà inserito nel Diccionario General de Derecho canónico, edito dall’Instituto Martìn de Azpilcueta, alla voce corrispondente.SOMMARIO: 1. La metafora delle lacune - 2. «Completezza» e «incompiutezza»- 3. I vari tipi di lacuna - 4. La dialettica fra auto- ed etero-integrazione - 5. La problematica delle lacune negli ordinamenti secolari coevi - 6. La problematica delle lacune nell’ordine giuridico della Chiesa - 7. Le specificità tipiche dell’ordinamento canonico - 8. I tratti distintivi più marcati delle lacune nelle vicende di Chiesa - 9. Le ragioni delle peculiarità canoniche - 10. Dalla «lacunosità»degli ordinamenti secolari alla «latenza» del diritto canonico.

  6. Yenidoğan Buzağılarda ve Annelerinde Infectıous Bovıne Rhınotracheıtıs (Ibr) ve Bovıne Vıral Dıarrhoea (Bvd) Enfeksiyonlarının Serolojik Olarak Araştırılması

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Bu çalısmada, Afyonkarahisar ilinde Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus (BVDV) ve Bovine Herpesvirus type 1 (BHV1) enfeksiyonlarının insidenslerinin arastırılması amaçlandı. Toplam 162 inek ve prekostral yavruları örneklendi, organize sürülerden örneklenen ineklerin sayısı 155 iken aile tipi isletmelerden 7 inek kullanıldı. Toplam 324 serum Virus Nötralizasyon test ile kontrol edildi. Organize sürülerdeki sığırlarda BVDV spesifik antikor oranlarının %77.7 ile %100 arasında değiºtiğ...

  7. Cosmologia, crisi e paradosso: lo spirito bianco nella tradizione sciamanica kuna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Severi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il rapporto tra i vari tipi di narrazione e la costruzione della memoria sociale è diventato ovvio per gli storici, per gli antropologi e in generale per gli scienziati sociali grazie all’opera di Paul Ricoeur. Se, come ha sottolineato Ricoeur, raccontare una storia non è solo un modo per ricordarla, ma anche per “rifigurare la propria esperienza del tempo” (Ricoeur 1991, p. 152, allora la narrazione non va considerata solo uno stile letterario particolare, ma anche una forma di esistenza della memoria stessa. Questa prospettiva ha indotto molti storici e alcuni psicologi a sostenere che la memoria non sia immaginabile al di fuori di una struttura narrativa (White 1973, Bruner 1990.

  8. Kahramanmaraş İli Badem Ağaçlarında Bakla Zınnı (Epicometis Hirta (Poda, 1761)) (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae)’nın Farklı Tuzaklarla Yakalanması Üzerine Araştırma

    OpenAIRE

    ASLAN, Özcan; Aslan, Mahmut

    2016-01-01

    Özet: Kahramanmaraş ili Dulkadiroğlu ilçesine bağlı Karacasu Yöresi sınırları içerisinde bulunan 172 dekar Ferraduel çeşidi badem (Prunus amygdalus Batsch) bahçesinde Şubat 2015 ile Haziran 2015 tarihleri arasında farklı tuzak tipleri ile Epicometis hirta (Poda, 1761)’nın yakalanma etkinliğinin araştırılması üzerine yapılan çalışmayla, farklı tipteki tuzakların etkisi ortaya konulmuştur. Çalışmada 4 tuzak tipi kullanılmıştır. Toplam 35 tuzakla yapılan 12 sayım sonucunda 8.762 adet Epicometis ...

  9. The influence of the pedological factor on the relief dynamics within Sasaus River catchment (Transylvania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA-GEORGIANA ALEXANDRU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Influenza del fattore pedologico sulla dinamica del paesaggio nel bacino Săsăuș. Il paesaggio ha un'influenza indiretta sullo sviluppo del suolo, attraverso diversi fattori. Una caratteristica importante dei suoli è che essi sono soggetti ad una serie di stadi nella loro evoluzione, ottengono un profilo profondo, con una moltitudine di orizzonti ben differenziati. Questi tipi di suolo influenzano la dinamica del paesaggio del bacino idrografico, attraverso la loro tessitura e struttura, che sono più o meno soggetti a certi processi geomorfologici. In questo caso, causa dell'espansione dei depositi d'argilla, sabbia e ghiaia, i processi di erosione di superficie sono dominanti a causa della pioggia e della rete idrografica e a volte si incontrano frane di terreno.

  10. La riqualificazione energetica e architettonica del patrimonio edilizio recente. Il caso dei quartieri di edilizia residenziale pubblica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annarita Ferrante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell’ambito dell’attuale riflessione sulla fattibilità degli interventi di riqualificazione energetica, l’esperienza condotta nel quartiere Corticella a Bologna propone una revisione aggiornata dei metodi e delle tecnologie finalizzate al contenimento energetico degli edifici. In particolare, a partire da ipotesi di intervento standard, come isolamento e sostituzione degli infissi, nella riqualificazione degli edifici sono state ipotizzate soluzioni di incremento volumetrico; tali soluzioni sono indicate come possibili strumenti per: i potenziare la fattibilità tecnico-economica delle opere di trasformazione; ii superare la rigidezza dei tipi edilizi esistenti; iii promuovere soluzioni adattabili, flessibili, rivolte all’utenza, utilizzandole come mezzo di comunicazione con la componente umana, come “guida” tecnica per elevarne il grado di conoscenza e consapevolezza in materia di risparmio energetico.

  11. Can 4-port laparoscopic cholecystectomy remain the gold standard for gallbladder surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartal, Kinyas; Uludag, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Fin dalla prima esecuzione di una colecistectomia laparoscopica (LC), questo approccio ha attratto l’attenzione di tutti i chirurghi per continuare quindi la sua rivoluzione tecnica. Con l’aumentare dell’esperienza chirurgica si è sviluppata la tendenza verso approcci sempre meno invasivi ed ha comportato innovazioni nel campo della chirurgia laparoscopica. Le procedure chirurgiche correnti sono: l’approccio con 4 port (4PLC) che rappresenta tutt’ora il gold standard, l’approccio con 3 port (3PLC), quello con 2 port (2PLC) ed infine quello con un solo port (SPLC). La colecistectomia robotica (RC) e la chirurgia eseguita endoscopicamente tramite orifici coporei naturali (NOTES) rappresentano le altre nuove tecniche per l’esecuzione dell’asportazione della colecisti. In questo articolo ci si propone di fare un confronto obiettivo tra i diversi tipi di colecistectomia laparoscopica sulla base della corrente letteratura medica del settore.

  12. L’immunogenicità nella cavia e nel cavallo di due formulazioni di un vaccino inattivato e adiuvato per la peste equina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Federico Ronchi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available L’efficacia di due vaccini monovalenti, inattivati e adiuvati per il controllo della Peste Equina, allestiti con i sierotipi 5 e 9, è stata saggiata su cavia per selezionare la formulazione con le migliori capacità immunogene. Nella formulazione dei vaccini sono state prese in considerazione: la risposta immunitaria evocata nella cavia e le proprietà infiammatorie di due diversi tipi di adiuvanti precedentemente saggiati nella specie di destino del vaccino.Il vaccino allestito con il sierotipo 9, saggiato in uno studio pilota su cavallo, si è dimostrato capace fin dalla prima somministrazione di stimolare la produzione di anticorpi neutralizzanti. La risposta anticorpale evocata ha subito un marcato rialzo dopo la somministrazione della dose di richiamo, effettuata dopo 28 giorni, perdurando per almeno 10 mesi. La cavia sembra essere un utile modello di laboratorio per la valutazione delle proprietà antigeniche dei vaccini contro la peste equina.

  13. Effectiveness of two trapping protocols for studying the demography of common voles

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    Eva Janova

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Efficacia di due metodi di trappolaggio per lo studio della demografia dell’arvicola campestre.
    Per valutare l'efficacia di due tipi di trappole, trappole “killer” e trappole “a vivo” tipo Rödl, sono stati confrontati i risultati della rimozione completa di una popolazione di arvicola campestre Microtus arvalis in merito a età, sesso, status riproduttivo e peso degli individui trappolati tramite ciascun metodo. Le trappole Rödl hanno catturato, in media, animali di età maggiore e più femmine riproduttive, mentre non sono state rilevate differenze significative in termini sia di rapporto sessi sia di peso medio. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono di utilizzare almeno due metodi di cattura e che il confronto dei parametri demografici di popolazioni differenti può essere considerato valido solo quando siano stati utilizzati gli stessi metodi di trappolaggio.

  14. Absorption of Stationary Elastic Vibrations ili Rocks

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    e. v. Karus

    1958-06-01

    Full Text Available Il carattere di divergenze e d'assorbimentodelle onde sismiche è stato investigato medianteil metodo sismo-acustico basato sullemisurazioni di ampiezze e fasi delle oscillazioniquali sono eccitate nelle roccia da unasorgente d'oscillazioni armoniche stazionarie.I risultati d'investigazione sperimentalemediante il m. s.-a. d'assorbimento della rocciapermettono di differenziare le roccie diversesecondo i parametri d'assorbimento. L'assorbimentomassimo è proprio di roccia sedimentariail minimo di roccia d'eruzione edi roccia sottoposta a un metamorfismo.La proporzionalità inversa è stata osservatatra la velocità delle onde elastiche e ladiminuzione d'assorbimento per i tipi diversidi roccia. È dimostrato che il coefficiente d'assorbimentoè aumentato linearmente con lafrequenza. È osservato il fenomeno della dispersioneanomala della velocità di fase.I dati sperimentali ottenuti confermano leconclusioni della teoria basata sul fenomenod'elasticità in seguito a quella svolta daB. V. Derjagin.

  15. MODEL JARINGAN SYARAF TIRUAN UNTUK MEMPREDIKSI PARAMETER KUALITAS TOMAT BERDASARKAN PARAMETER WARNA RGB (An artificial neural network model for predicting tomato quality parameters based on color

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    Rudiati Evi Masithoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial neural networks (ANN was used to predict the quality parameters of tomato, i.e. Brix, citric acid, total carotene, and vitamin C. ANN was developed from Red Green Blue (RGB image data of tomatoes measured using a developed computer vision system (CVS. Qualitative analysis of tomato compositions were obtained from laboratory experiments. ANN model was based on a feedforward backpropagation network with different training functions, namely gradient descent (traingd, gradient descent with the resilient backpropagation (trainrp, Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfrab and Shanno (BFGS quasi-Newton (trainbfg, as well as Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm.  The network structure using logsig and linear (purelin activation function at the hidden and output layer, respectively, and using  the trainlm as a training function resulted in the best performance. Correlation coefficient (r of training and validation process were 0.97 - 0.99 and 0.92 - 0.99, whereas the MAE values ​​ranged from 0.01 to 0.23 and 0.03 to 0.59, respectively. Keywords: Artificial neural network, trainlm, tomato, RGB   Jaringan syaraf tiruan (JST digunakan untuk memprediksi parameter kualitas tomat, yaitu Brix, asam sitrat, karoten total, dan vitamin C. JST dikembangkan dari data Red Green Blue (RGB  citra tomat yang diukur menggunakan computer vision system. Data kualitas tomat diperoleh dari analisis di laboratorium. Struktur model JST didasarkan pada jaringan feedforward backpropagation dengan berbagai fungsi pelatihan, yaitu gradient descent (traingd, gradient descent dengan resilient backpropagation (trainrp, Broyden, Fletcher, Goldfrab dan Shanno (BFGS quasi-Newton (trainbfg, serta Levenberg Marquardt (trainlm. Fungsi pelatihan yang terbaik adalah menggunakan trainlm, serta pada struktur jaringan digunakan fungsi aktivasi logsig pada lapisan tersembunyi dan linier (purelin pada lapisan keluaran. dengan 1000 epoch. Nilai koefisien korelasi (r pada tahap pelatihan dan validasi

  16. Propanoyl(1Z-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl-2-oxopropanehydrazonoate as inhibitor for corrosion of 6061 Al alloy15 % (v SiC(p composite in hydrochloric acid media

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    Achutha Kini U

    2012-10-01

    , kadar kakisan meningkat dan keberkesanan perencatan menurun. Keputusan dari ekstrapolasi Tafel, polarisasi linear dan kehilangan berat.adalah saling bersetuju antara satu sama lain. Penjerapan perencat ke atas permukaan komposit aloi 6061 Al alloy 15 % (v SiC(p memenuhi penjerapan Temkins’ isoterma yang mengesahkan andaian penjerapan lapisan-mono ke atas permukaan komposit homogenus yang seragam melalui interaksi pada lapisan penjerapan. Perencatan dikawal oleh mekanisma fizijerapan.

  17. SEBARAN SUHU DAN SALINITAS DI PERAIRAN UTARA IRIAN JAYA

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    Muh Hatta

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik massa  air melalui pola sebaran suhu dan salinitas diperairan Utara Irian Jaya.  Kegunaan yang diharapkan dari hasil penelitian ini adalah dapat memberikan informasi mengenai pola sebaran suhu dan salinitas yang dapat dikaitkan dengan kondisi biologis agar dapat dimanfaatkan dalam upaya pengembangan pengelolaan sumberdaya perairan. Khususnya bagi industri penangkapan, informasi itu dapat digunakan sebagai salah satu petunjuk untuk memudahkan menentukan daerah penangkapan pada musim tertentu. Pengambilan data penelitian ini dilaksanakan pada bulan Mei-Juli 2011 di BPPT. Data oseanografi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah hasil surveI di Perairan Utara Irian Jaya yang dilakukan selama Musim Timur (tanggal 26 Juni 1992 sampai 23 Juli 1992.   SurveI ini dilaksanakan dalam kerjasama antara Pusat Penelitian Pengembangan Oseanologi (P3O-LIPI, Badan Pengkajian dan Penerapan Teknologi (BPPT dan Balai Penelitian Perikanan Laut-Jakarta  dengan  menggunakan  kapal KAL  Baruna  Jaya  I.  Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebaran suhu.di permukaan Perairan Utara Irian Jaya cenderung homogeny.  Pada lapisan 100 meter dengan pola sebaran suhu yang relatih lebih hangat di sebelah timur.  Pada lapisan 200, 300 dan 400 meter sangat mirip dimana massa air yang lebih hangat di dekat pantai dibandingkan dengan di  lepas  pantai.  Sebaran  salinitas  menunjukkan  massa  air  di  permukaan  relatif  homogeny.  Pada kedalaman 100 meter agak jelas terlihat gradasi salinitas yang semakin menurun ke arah barat. Pada kedalaman 200 meter menunjukkan adanya massa air yang bersalinitas rendah dari arah utara menuju ke selatan.   Pada kedalaman 400  meter (Gambar 3e salinitas sangat  homogen,  dimana sebagian besar wilayah penelitian salinitasnya antara 34.65–34.70 ‰. Karakteristik massa air di Perairan Utara Irian Jaya pada Musim Timur sangat dipengaruhi oleh massa air dari Pasifik

  18. DIDATTICA PROCESS DRAMA: PRINCIPI DI BASE, ESTETICA E COINVOLGIMENTO

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    Erika Piazzoli

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo descrive un progetto di ricerca sull’estetica del process drama per l’insegnamento delle lingue straniere. La ricerca si basa sulla metodologia reflective practitioner, rivolta a tre casi di studio analizzati con metodi sia qualitativi che quantitativi. L’articolo costituisce un’introduzione alla ricerca, nonché alla didattica process drama, ai suoi principi di base, l’estetica e i vari tipi di coinvolgimento che può suscitare. In particolare, prende in considerazione il primo caso di studio del progetto, condotto presso l’Università degli Studi di Milano, con sedici apprendenti di Italiano L2 e tre tirocinanti in qualità di osservatrici. I risultati preliminari dell’analisi puntano a un’aumentata motivazione comunicativa e consapevolezza interculturale degli apprendenti. I risultati puntano anche a una complessa relazione multilaterale fra vari tipi di coinvolgimento nel laboratorio process drama L2.     Process drama didactics: basic principles, esthetics and involvement   This paper outlines a doctoral research project on the aesthetics of process drama for intercultural language learning. The project was framed by a reflective practitioner paradigm, using multiple case studies with a mixed methods approach. This paper introduces process drama as an approach, discussing its principles, aesthetics and underpinning theory; it focuses on process drama for additional language learning and the kinds of engagement it can generate. It illustrates the first case study, conducted at the University of Milan with sixteen learners of L2 Italian and three observing teachers. Preliminary findings suggest that process drama was beneficial to support motivation to communicate and to foster intercultural awareness in the learners. Findings also suggest a complex, intertwined relationship between types of engagement in the L2 process drama classroom. 

  19. PENGARUH KETEBALAN IRISAN DAN LAMA PEREBUSAN (BLANCHING TERHADAP GAMBARAN MAKROSKOPIS DAN KADAR MINYAK ATSIRI SIMPLISIA DRINGO (Acorus calamus L.

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    Heru Sudrajad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Beberapa simplisia perlu mengalami proses seperti perajangan dan blanching. Perajangan dilakukan untuk mempermudah proses pengeringan, pengepakan dan penggilingan. Semakin tipis bahan yang dikeringkan, semakin cepat penguapan air yang dikandung, sehingga mempercepat waktu pengeringan. Namun irisan yang terlalu tipis menyebabkan zat yang mudah menguap seperti minyak atsiri akan berkurang kadarnya, sehingga mempengaruhi komposisi, bau dan rasa terutama pada simplisia seperti temu lawak, temu giring, jahe, kencur dan bahan sejenis lainnya. Perebusan (blanching adalah suatu proses pemanasan yang diberikan kepada bahan mentah selama beberapa menit  pada  suhu  air  mendidih yang bertujuan untuk memperbaiki kualitas produk yang diolah. Rimpang tanaman ini secara empiris digunakan sebagai insektisida, demam nifas, karminatif. disentri dan limpa bengkak. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat pengaruh ketebalan irisan dan lama perebusan (blanching terhadap gambaran makroskopis dan kadar minyak atsiri simplisia dringo (Acorus calamus L. Sebagai model digunakan Acorus calamus L. Penelitian disusun dalam rancangan acak lengkap menggunakan 2 faktor perlakuan, yaitu faktor pertama ketebalan irisan (K. yaitu K1 =2 mm, K2 =4 mm. K3 = 6 mm dan lama blanching (B yaitu BO = tanpa blanching, B 1 = 5 menit dan B2 = 10 menit. Pengamatan dilakukan terhadap kualitas (warna, bentuk permukaan dan tekstur simplisia dan kadar minyak atsiri rimpang dringo. Simplisia dengan ketebalan irisan 2 mm tanpa perlakuan blanching menghasilkan minyak atsiri lebih tinggi (4,5% dengan kualitas simplisia yang lebih baik (warna putih kekuningan, permukaan rata dan tekstur liat, mudah dipatahkan sedangkan yang hasil terendah diperoleh pada perlakuan ketebalan irisan 2 mm dengan perlakuan lama blanching 10 menit yaitu  warna simplisia coklat, keadaan fisik irisan bergelombang, permukaan keras, sukar dipatahkan dengan kadar minyak atsiri (2%. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa tebal

  20. Dokuma Karbon Elyaf Takviyeli Karbon Nano Tüp-Epoksi Kompozit Malzemelerin Mekanik ve Termal Karakterizasyonu

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    Nazife KORKMAZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada karbon elyaf takviyeli-karbon nano tüp ile modifiye edilmiş epoksi kompozit malzemelerin üretilmesi ve üretilen kompozit malzemelerin mekanik, termal ve kırılma yüzeylerinin karakterizasyonu hedeflenmiştir. Bu hedef doğrultusunda matris elemanı olarak çok katmanlı karbon nano tüp içeren epoksi nano kompozit, dokuma karbon kumaş ise 4/4 dimi takiveye elemanı olarak kompozit malzeme üretiminde kullanılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında ayrıca, karbon nano tüp ile matris modifikasyonu işleminin etkisini belirlemek için saf epoksi reçine sisteminin matris malzemesi olarak kullanıldığı kompozit numuneleri de üretilmiştir. Üretilen kompozitlerde karbon nano tüp ile matris modifikasyonu işleminin mekanik performans özellikleri üzerindeki etkisi çekme, eğilme ve düzlem içi kayma testleri ile değerlendirilmiştir. Kompozit malzemlerin termal karakterizasyonu ise simültane termal analiz ünitesinde (TG-DTG/TG-DSC/TG, diferansiyel termal gravimetre (TG-DTG ve diferansiyel taramalı kalorimetre (DSC analizleri ile yapılmıştır. Çekme testi sonucu kırılmış veya hasarlı parçalardan optik mikroskop ve taramalı elektron mikroskobu (SEM cihazı ile alınan yüzey görüntüleri incelenerek kompozit malzemelerde hasar ilerleme mekanizmaları tespit edilmiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar, epoksi reçine sistemine karbon nano tüp dispersiyonu ile karbon elyaf takviyeli polimerik kompozit malzemelerin mekanik ve termal özelliklerinde iyileşmeler sağlandığını göstermektedir. Ayrıca, SEM ve optik mikroskop görüntüleri de mekanik karakterizasyon aşamasında elde edilen kompozit malzeme performans iyileşmesini desteklemektedir.

  1. PERANCANGAN DAN PEMBUATAB ALAT UKUR KADAR KROM DALAM AIR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN PRINSIP SPEKTROSKOPI SERAPAN ATOM

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    Tin Yunis Mahfudloh, Mohammad Tirono

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Air adalah bahan yang berperan penting dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia. Air steril dengan kandungan mineral yang cukup dan tidak terpolusi dapat berperan sebagai cairan yang menata keseimbangan tubuh. Apabila air yang dikosumsi manusia telah tercemar oleh sampah dan limbah industri yang mengandung zat-zat kimia/logam berat yang bersifat racun akan berbahaya Seperti kromium/krom dengan kode kimiawi Cr. Penelitian dilakukan untuk membuat alat ukur kadar krom dalam air dengan metode absorpsi dengan instrumen fotometri. Alat ukur kadar krom dalam air menggunakan prinsip spektroskopi serapan atom terdiri dari 2 sistem, yaitu sistem optik dan sistem elektronik. Sistem optik terdiri dari lampu halogen, filter cahaya dengan panjang gelombang 520.4, kuvet dan sensor photodioda. Sedangkan sistem elektronik terdiri dari ADC 0804, MCU AT89S51 dan LCD.  Prinsip keja alat ini adalah cahaya polikromatis yang dipancarkan oleh lampu halogen akan melewati filter sehingga cahaya polikromatis akan bersifat monokromatis. Cahaya akan melewati air dengan kadar krom 0% untuk mereset reagen dan pelarut kemudian dideteksi oleh sensor sehingga menghasilkan data I0. Setelah dideteksi air  akan bergeser ke atas dan sensor bergeser kebelakang untuk mendeteksi sampel yang mempunyai kadar krom tertentu dan menghasilkan data I1. Di dalam sampel ini terjadi penyerapan intensitas cahaya oleh atom krom. Kemudian data I0 dan I1 akan diolah oleh MCU AT89S51 dan ditampilkan pada LCD. Sampel yang digunakan adalah larutan H2O dengan K2Cr2O7 sebanyak 10 sampel dengan variasi kadar 0%, 1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3%, 3.5%, 4%, 4.5%, dan 5%. Larutan krom diperoleh dengan cara mengencerkan 10gr K2Cr2O7 dalam 100ml H2O sehingga didapatkan K2Cr2O7 10% sebagai larutan stok, selanjutnya untuk mendapatkan K2Cr2O7 dengan kadar tertentu, maka diambil dari larutan stok kemudian diencerkan sampai volume 25 ml sesuai dengan rumus M1 V1 =M 2 V2 Hasil pegujian pada sistem elektronik menunjukkan

  2. STUDY OF CHLOROPHYLL-A DISTRIBUTIONS IN LOMBOK STRAIT USING BIOGEOCHEMICAL MODEL BASED ON REGIONAL OCEAN MODELLING SYSTEM (ROMS

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    KADEK ARY ANGGRENI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Regional Ocean Modelling System atau Sistem Pemodelan Laut Regional (ROMS telah digunakan untuk bermacam keperluan, bermacam pemodelan kelautan. Model Biogeokimia yang dipasangkan dengan ROMS terdiri dari tujuh pasang bagian persamaan yang berbeda-beda mencakup: nitrat, amonium, detritus kecil dan besar, fitoplankton, zooplankton, dan karbon fitoplankton yang dinamis menjadi suatu rasio klorofi.1. Studi pola penyebaran klorofil-a di Selat Lombok (-7 °N - -10 °5 dan 114 °E - 117 °E pada tahun 2006 telah dianalisis menggunakan model Biogeokimia berdasar pada ROMS. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebaran klorofil-a teramati rendah (0,20 mgChl-a/m3 di Selat Lombok pada bulan Januari. Klorofil-a diperkirakan di bagian sebelah selatan Selat Bali dan penyebaran klorofil-a rendah pada lapisan atas dari Selat Lombok. Klorofil-a berlimpah (0,32 mgChl-a/m3 teramati di bulan Agustus. Arah arus timur laut bergerak kearah barat clan bagian selatan di daerah penelitian melalui Selat Lombok. Konsentrasi klorofil-a tertinggi diperkirakan di sebelah utara hingga bagian barat daya Pulau Bali clan juga di bagian selatan Pulau Lombok. Selama musim kering, angin arah tenggara berhembus dari Australia memicu terjadinya proses upwelling ( temperatur rendah clan air yang kaya nutrien di dekat permukaan juga diperkirakan berdasarkan ROMS.

  3. PEMODELAN STRUKTUR BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAERAH SUMBER AIR PANAS SONGGORITI KOTA BATU BERDASARKAN DATA GEOMAGNETIK

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    Dafiqiy Ya’lu Ulin Nuha, Novi Avisena

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian dengan metode geomagnetik pada tanggal 26 -27 April 2011 di daerah Songgoriti Kota Batu dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pola Anomali Magnet Total dan struktur geologi bawah permukaan. Setelah dilakukan koreksi data yang meliputi koreksi diurnal dan koreksi IGRF maka didapatkan nilai anomali magnet total serta kontinuasi ke atas dan reduksi ke kutub. Selanjutnya dilakukan interpretasi secara kualitatif dan kuantitatif. Interpretasi kuantitatif dilakukan dengan membaca pola kontur anomali magnet lokal dan reduksi ke kutub, sedangkan interpretasi kualitatif dilakukan dengan membuat penampang 2,5 D pada dua lintasan AB dan CD. Berdasarkan interpretasi kuantitatif pada kontur anomali  magnetik lokal didapatkan variasi nilai anomali antara -800 nT-600 nT dengan anomali tinggi terdapat pada arah timur dan barat daerah penelitian, anomali sedang terletak pada daerah tengah penelitian dan anomali rendah terdapat pada sedikit   daerah   tengah   penelitian.   Daerah   penelitian   didominasi   anomali   magnetik   sedang. Berdasarkan interpretasi kualitatif pada model penampang 2,5 D lintasan AB dan CD, didapatkan tujuh body yaitu batuan tufa, batuan tufa, batuan breksi vulkanik, batuan breksi tufaan, batuan lava, batuan basalt, dan batuan andesit. Berdasarkan sifat fisik dari tiap lapisan batuan, diduga batuan sarang dalam sistem geothermal yang berupa sumber air panas di daerah penelitian adalah batuan breksi vulkanik dengan batuan penutup (cap rock berupa batuan tufa. Kata Kunci : Anomali Magnet, Struktur Geologi, Air Panas.

  4. Gambaran Histopatologik Lesi Karies pada Email dengan Aplikasi Fluor In Vitro

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    Agoeng Tjahjani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Tahap dini karies telah lama dikenal dengan istilah bercak putih. Untuk mengetahui terjadinya lesi karies di bawah permukaan email in vivo, maka dilakukan penelitian secara in vitro dengan merendam gigi Premolar dengan dan tanpa aplikasi fluor dalam perbenihan kuman Streptococcus mutans FA-1 (ATCC 16495. Enam puluh empat gigi Preolar tanpa karies dibagi dalam 2 kelompok. Pada kelompok perlakuan, gigi diaplikasi dengan fluor sedang pada kelompok kontrol gigi tanpa aplikasi fluor. Semua gigi dimasukkan dalam perbenihan tioglikolat air yang ke dalamnya telah ditanam Streptococcus mutans FA-4 (ATCC 16495 selama 4 dan 8 minggu. Pembentukan bercah putih diamati dengan mikroskop 'zoom-stereo'. Sedang besarnya porusitas di bawah permukaan email diaamti dengan mikroskop polarisasi. Pada akhir minggu ke-4 dan ke-8 pada kedua kelompok ditemukan peningkatan jumlah gigi dengan pembentukan bercak putih dan peningkatan nilai rata-rata kedalaman lapisan badan lesi. Uji statistik dengan chi-square test menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna pada p<0.05. Berdasarkan penelitian tersebut di atas disimpulkan bahwa (1 aplikasi NaF hanya menghambat sebagian pembentukan lesi karies dan (2 sistem perbenihan kuman yang digunakan tidak dapat mencerminkan keadaan mulut yang sebenarnya.

  5. Analisa Pengaruh Luasan Scratch Permukaan Terhadap Laju Korosi pada Pelat Baja A36 dengan Variasi Sistem Pengelasan

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    Fedriansyah Priyantoro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pada umumnya jenis pengelasan yang dilakukan di galangan kapal adalah jenis pengelasan SMAW,FCAW,dan GMAW. Masalah yang sering terjadi di lapangan adalah timbulnya goresan pada pelat saat peluncuran kapal secara memanjang (End Launching. Goresan tersebut sangat mempengaruhi lapisan cat pada pelat yang tergores khususnya di sambungan las serta dapat mempercepat laju korosi yang terjadi pada daerah lasan tersebut yaitu weld metal, HAZ, dan base metal. Dan dalam penelitian ini, akan dilakukan pengujian untuk mengetahui laju korosi terhadap material BKI Grade A36 yang telah diberikan perlakuan pengelasan SMAW,GMAW dan FCAW dengan variasi letak dan luasan scratch pada pelat karena dengan luasan scratch yang berbeda – beda akan menghasilkan nilai laju korosi yang berbeda juga. Dari data hasil perhitungan laju korosi tersebut didapat kesimpulan bahwa semakin besar luasan yang dibuat maka laju korosi akan semakin besar. Pengelasan FCAW lebih baik dibandingkan dengan pengelasan lainnya ditinjau dari nilai laju korosi (mmpy. Daerah pengelasan yang terjadi korosi paling besar terletak di HAZ.

  6. Aplikasi Semikonduktor TiO2 dengan Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

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    Maula Nafi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor TiO2 yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5500C, 6500C, dan 7500C, dengan waktu tahan 60 dan 120 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan TiO2 pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel TiO2 berupa sphere. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal TiO2 adalah body centered tetragonal. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5500C ke 6500C, namun menurun pada 7500C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 650oC dengan waktu tahan 60 menit yaitu sebesar 0,356 mA/cm2 dan 593,1 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,469208%. DSSC dimodifikasi dengan menambahkan pembungkus plastik, sehingga dapat memperlambat penurunan daya yang terjadi saat DSSC bekerja.

  7. Pengaruh Temperatur Kalsinasi pada Kaca FTO yang di-coating ZnO terhadap Efisiensi DSSC (Dye Sensitized Solar Cell yang Menggunakan Dye dari Buah Terung Belanda (Solanum betaceum

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    Akbar Nur Prasetya

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian mengenai dye sensitized solar cell dilakukan dengan dye dari ekstrak buah terung belanda sebagai sumber energi alternatif dari tenaga surya. Dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC dibuat dengan menggunakan semikonduktor ZnO yang dilapiskan pada kaca konduktif Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide (FTO dan dikalsinasi  dengan variasi temperatur 5000C, 5500C, dan 6000C, dengan waktu tahan 30 menit pada tiap temperaturnya. Lapisan ZnO pada substrat dikarakterisasi dengan menggunakan SEM dan XRD. Luas permukaan aktif diukur dengan pengujian BET. Hasil SEM menunjukkan ukuran bentuk partikel ZnO berupa hexagonal. Hasil XRD menunjukkan struktur kristal ZnO adalah Wurthzite. Luas permukaan aktif dibandingkan dengan hasil kelistrikan DSSC, yang selaras meningkat dari temperatur 5000C ke 5500C, namun menurun pada 6000C. Densitas arus dan voltase maksimum diperoleh pada variasi temperatur 550oC yaitu sebesar 0,591 mA/cm2 dan 1140 mV. Efisiensi maksimum yang diperoleh sebesar 0,150%. Karena sampel 550oC memiliki luas permukaan aktif paling besar 146,185 m2/gr.

  8. Komputasi Penghamburan dan Penyerapan Gelombang Elektromagnetik karena Titik Hujan dengan Metode Analitis pada Frekuensi diatas 10 GHz

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    Muhammad Yahya Batubara

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Pertumbuhan pesat yang terjadi pada dunia komunikasi mendesak para engineer untuk mengembangkan sistem komunikasi gelombang mikro yang bekerja pada frekuensi yang lebih tinggi. Dalam penggunaannya, frekuensi diatas 10 GHz rentan terhadap redaman yang disebabkan oleh partikel-partikel di atmosfer yang akan menurunkan keandalan dan kinerja dari hubungan komunikasi radar dan ruang terkait. Partikel-partikel tersebut meliputi oksigen, ice crystals, hujan, kabut, dan salju. Diantara partikel tersebut, redaman terbesar disebabkan oleh titik-titik hujan. Memprediksi kinerja sistem yang terganggu akibat endapan lapisan ini sangat penting dengan melakukan pengujian.Pengujian dilakukan dengan asumsi titik hujan tersebut berbentuk bola (spherical. Untuk intensitas curah hujan yang tinggi, bentuk oblate spheroidal-lah yang lebih realistis. Pembangkitan dan pengalokasian titik hujan menggunakan lima distribusi, yaitu distribusi Eksponensial Marshall-Palmer, Eksponensial Le Wei Li, Eksponensial Lince, Weibull Sekine, dan Weibull Lince. Metode perhitungan redaman yang dilakukan adalah metode redaman hujan spesifik dan metode analitik.Berdasarkan hasil analisis, besar redaman hujan berbanding lurus dengan besar curah hujan dan frekuensi kerjanya. Semakin tinggi curah hujan dan semakin besar frekuensi kerjanya, maka gelombang akan mengalami redaman yang makin besar pula. Redaman hujan mulai berpengaruh pada frekuensi 10 GHz dan mengalami nilai tertinggi pada frekuensi antara 100 hingga 120 GHz.

  9. PERLUNYA MENANAMKAN BUDAYA ANTIKORUPSI DALAM DIRI ANAK SEJAK USIA DINI

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    Indang Sulastri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Corruption in Indonesia is very difficult to eradicate because it is entrenched, both in the legislative, executive, and judicial systems. Therefore, installing anti-corruption culture to children from their early age is necessary, because children are our young successors and leaders. If anti-corruption behaviour has been entrenched within all law enforcement agencies and society, it is hoped that the habit of committing bribery would disappear. The saying “to clean the floor with a dirty broom” to illustrate corruption eradication efforts in Indonesia would then vanish. Korupsi di Indonesia begitu sulit diberantas karena sudah sangat membudaya, baik di kalangan lembaga legislatif, eksekutif, maupun yudikatif. Oleh sebab itu, menanamkan budaya antikorupsi dalam diri anak sejak usia dini menjadi hal yang sangat diperlukan, karena anak akan menjadi penerus estafet kepemimpinan. Apabila budaya antikorupsi tersebut sudah terpatri di dalam diri seluruh aparat penegak hukum dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat, maka budaya suap-menyuap yang merupakan salah satu bentuk dari tindak pidana korupsi dengan sendirinya akan menjadi tergeser bahkan sirna, sehingga tidak akan ada lagi istilah “membersihkan lantai dengan sapu yang kotor” dalam upaya pemberantasan tindak pidana korupsi di Indonesia.

  10. Studi Eksperimen Pengaruh Variasi Perubahan Refrigeran-22 Dengan Musicool-22 Pada Sistem Pengkondisian Udara Dengan Pre-cooling

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    Arnovia Christine Sabatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Air conditioning system merupakan mesin sistem refrigerasi kompresi uap sederhana. Kemudian dimodifikasi menjadi dua indoor unit dan satu outdoor unit. Dimana outdoor unit memiliki dua jenis kondenser yaitu, water cooled condenser dan air cooled condenser. Pembuangan kalor pada bagian water cooled condenser dimanfaatkan untuk memanaskan air yang nantinya dapat digunakan untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari kedepannya. Penggunaan refrigeran CFC atau HCFC mengakibatkan beberapa dampak negatif terhadap lingkungan dan penggunaan mesin refrigerasi ini, diantaranya dapat merusak lapisan ozone, pemanasan global dan tidak hemat energi listrik. Penelitian pada ini adalah untuk menganalisis dan membandingkan performansi suatu sistem refrigerasi sederhana yang mampu menghemat konsumsi energi dan ramah lingkungan. Metoda penelitian ini dilakukan pertama menggunakan R-22 sebagai refrigeran primernya dan selanjutnya dilakukan proses retrofitting (penggantian refrigeran dengan menggunakan MC-22. Selanjutnya analisis dilakukan berdasarkan data dari setiap titik-titik pengukuran dengan begitu akan diperoleh suatu sistem refrigerasi dengan performansi yang paling baik dengan konsumsi energi listrik yang sedikit, serta sistem refrigerasi yang ramah lingkungan. Sistem tersebut aladah yang menggunakan MC-22 baik menggunakan atau tanpa pre-cooling dengan nilai COPelektrik 3,786; dan 3,933, COPthermal 4,501; dan 4,670, dan nilai penghematan energi listrik sekitar 20% lebih hemat dibanding sistem yang menggunakan R-22.

  11. COPEPODA: SUMBU KELANGSUNGAN BIOTA AKUATIK DAN KONTRIBUSINYA UNTUK AKUAKULTUR

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    Media Fitri Isma Nugraha

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulasan ini mencoba memperkenalkan dan manfaat jasad renik copepoda untuk domain manusia. Perannya sebagai basal kehidupan akuatik dan taksa vertebrata lainnya sering dilupakan, pada ulasan ini pula akan mengenalkan jasanya pada akuakultur. Copepoda digolongkan dalam Phylum Crustacean, yang berukuran sangat kecil sekitar 60-200 μm. Copepoda menghuni hampir setiap lapisan perairan dari permukaan sampai dasar lautan. Jasad renik ini dijadikan sebagai indikator kesuburan perairan, juga sebagai konsumen tingkat pertama yang memberikan gizi berupa EPA dan DHA pada setiap jenis biota perairan. Sejarah manusia pertama kali mengenal copepoda pasca kesuksesan ekspedisi Challenger 1872-1876. Kepedulian kita dalam mengenal spesies ini berarti telah membantu dalam mewujudkan keseimbangan ekosistem. Atas dasar kepedulian dan untuk keseimbangan alam dan lingkungan, maka multi institusional yang bergerak dalam domain akuakultur telah mengoleksi dan mengembangbiakkan satu sub spesies dari copepoda ini di dalam sebuah bak terkontrol, dan dijadikan sebagai sumber pakan alami larva kultivan.

  12. Implementasi Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (Anfis untuk Peramalan Pemakaian Air di Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum Tirta Moedal Semarang

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    Ulfatun Hani'ah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Peramalan pemakaian air pada bulan januari 2015 sampai April 2015 dapat dilakukan menggunakan perhitungan matematika dengan bantuan ilmu komputer. Metode yang digunakan adalah Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS dengan bantuan software MATLAB. Untuk pengujian program, dilakukan percobaan dengan memasukkan variabel klas = 2, maksimum epoh = 100, error = 10-6, rentang nilai learning rate = 0.6 sampai 0.9, dan rentang nilai momentum = 0.6 sampai 0.9. Simpulan yang diperoleh adalah bahwa implementasi metode Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System dalam peramalan pemakaian air yang pertama adalah membuat rancangan flowchart, melakukan clustering data menggunakan fuzzy C-Mean, menentukan neuron tiap-tiap lapisan, mencari nilai parameter dengan menggunakan LSE rekursif, lalu penentuan perhitungan error menggunakan sum square error (SSE dan membuat sistem peramalan pemakaian air dengan software MATLAB. Setelah dilakukan percobaan hasil yang menunjukkan SSE paling kecil adalah nilai learning rate 0.9 dan momentum 0.6 dengan SSE 0.0080107. Hasil peramalan pemakaian air pada bulan Januari adalah 3.836.138m3, bulan Februari adalah 3.595.188m3, bulan Maret adalah 3.596.416 m3, dan bulan April adalah 3.776.833 m3. 

  13. Analisis Pengaruh Massa Reduktor Zinc Terhadap Sifat Kapasitif Superkapasitor Material Graphene

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    Rahman Faiz Suwandana

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Material graphene merupakan material inovatif yang memiliki kristal berupa lapisan dua dimensi. Kristal terdiri dari hibridisasi sp2 atom karbon dan membentuk struktur heksagonal serta memiliki luas permukaan spesifik sangat tinggi, mencapai 1500 m2/gram. Dengan luas permukaan tersebut, graphene sangat cocok digunakan sebagai bahan elektroda pada kapasitor elektrokimia karena alat tersebut bekerja berdasarkan luas permukaan untuk proses charging-discharging. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis komposisi massa reduktor zinc agar didapat graphene dengan kapasitansi listrik terbaik. Grafit dioksidasi menjadi grafit oksida melalui metode Hummer. Grafit oksida yang diperoleh dilarutkan dalam aquades dan diultrasonikasi selama 90 menit sehingga diperoleh graphene oksida (GO. GO kemudian direduksi dengan menambahkan Zinc (Zn sebanyak 0,8 gram, 1,6 gram, dan 2,4 gram. Proses selanjutnya hydrothermal selama 12 jam pada temperatur 160 oC. X-Ray Diffraction (XRD untuk mengetahui perbandingan jarak antar layer dan kristalinasi grafit, graphene oksida dan graphene. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM untuk menganalisis morfologi graphene.  Four Point Probe (FPP untuk mengukur konduktivitas listrik graphene, dan Cyclic Voltametry (CV untuk mengukur kapasitansi elektroda nickel foam-graphene

  14. Variasi Temperatur dan Waktu Tahan Kalsinasi terhadap Unjuk Kerja Semikonduktor TiO2 sebagai Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC dengan Dye dari Ekstrak Buah Naga Merah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahat M. R. Nadaek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu energi alternatif yang mempunyai potensi sumber energi yang sangat besar untuk mencegah terjadinya krisis energi namun sering kali terabaikan adalah sinar matahari. Oleh karena itu, penelitian ini dilakukan untuk  menghasilkan prototype dalam mengkonversi energi cahaya matahari menjadi energi listrik. Dye Sensitized Solar Cell (DSSC telah difabrikasi dengan menggunakan serbuk Titanium Dioksida (TiO2 yang dilapisi ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide dan diberi variasi temperatur 350oC, 450oC, dan 550oC dengan waktu tahan kalsinasi 30 dan 60 menit yang kemudian disensitisasi ke dalam larutan dye ekstrak buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus. DSSC di-assembling dengan coating Pd/Au yang telah di-sputtering ke kaca Indium Tin Oxide yang selanjutnya ditetesi dengan larutan elektrolit. Kemudian lapisan TiO2 tersebut dikarakterisasi menggunakan uji (SEM dan (XRD. Luas permukaan aktif partikel diidentifikasi dengan menggunakan BET analyzer. Dari hasil XRD dapat diketahui struktur kristalnya tetragonal. Hasil SEM menunjukkan bahwa bentuk partikel TiO2 adalah spherical. Untuk luas permukaan aktif yang dihasilkan menunjukkan nilai yang berbanding lurus dengan kenaikan nilai kelistrikan DSSC buah naga. Dari uji kelistrikan didapatkan hasil optimum pada temperatur 550oC dan waktu tahan 60 menit dengan voltase 562 mV, kuat arus 0.307 mA, dan memiliki efisiensi sebesar 0.089%. Kata kunci: Dye ekstrak buah naga merah, dye sensitized solar cell, temperatur kalsinasi, TiO2, waktu tahan kalsinasi.

  15. UJI KHASIAT ANTIDIARE INFUS DAUN JATI BELANDA (GUAZUMA ulmifolia LAMK. PADA TIKUS PUTIH

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    Dian Sundari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu pemakaian empirik daun jati-belanda adalah sebagai obat mencret atau diare. Diketahui di dalam daun jati-belanda terkandung zat yang berperan sebagai astrigen yaitu menciutkan lapisan permukaan usus, sehingga mengurangi kepekaan sekresi yang dapat menekan peristaltik usus. Untuk mengetahui efek antidiare infus daun jati-belanda, telah dilakukan percobaan uji khasiat antidiare infus daun jati-belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk. menggunakan model tikus putih yang dibuat diare dengan pemberian minyak jarak. Infus daun jati-belanda diberikan secara oral dengan dosis 60 mg, 180 mg dan 600 mg/100 g bb. satu jam sebelum pemberian minyak jarak. Sebagai pembanding positif digunakan Loperamide HC1 dengan dosis 0,12 mg/100 g bb. serta akuades sebagai kontrol negatif. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pemberian infus dengan dosis 60 mg dan 180 mg/100 g bb. memperlihatkan efek antidiare dibandingkan dengan akuades, tetapi bila dibandingkan dengan Loperamide kedua dosis tersebut efek antidiarenya lebih kecil. Infus dosis 600 mg/100 g bb. mempunyai efek antidiare yang hampir sama dengan Loperamide.   Kata kunci: Tanaman Obat, Jati-Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia Lamk., Antidiare.

  16. PEMBUATAN RESIN PHENOL FORMALDEHID TERHADAP APLIKASINYA SEBAGAI VERNIS

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    Nur Rokhati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Phenol formaldehid termasuk kelompok resin sintetis yang dihasilkan dari reaksi polimerisasi antara phenol dengan formaldehid. Ada dua jenis resin phenol formaldehid yaitu : novolak yang bersifat termoplast dan resol yang bersifat termoset. Phenol formaldehid dapat diaplikasikan sebagai vernis karena dapat membentuk lapisan film yang kering.Penelitian dilakukan dengan mereaksikan phenol dan formaldehid dengan pH dan perbandingan mol bervariasi. Jenis novolak dibuat pada suasana asam dengan penambahan HCl, suhu 900C, dan waktu reaksi 5 jam, sedangkan jenis resol dibuat pada suasana basa dengan penambahan NaOH, suhu 800C dan waktu reaksi 3 jam. Hasil resin phenol formaldehid diaplikasikan sebagai vernis pada kayu jati. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dengan bertambahnya pH dan perbandingan reaktan, waktu kering semakin lama. Kondisi optimum jenis novolak diperoleh pada pH 2,5 dan perbandingan reaktan 1 : 0,8, sedangkan untuk jenis resol dicapai pada pH 10 dan perbandingan mol reaktan 1 : 2. Aplikasi jenis novolak sebagai vernis kayu menghasilkan warna yang lebih cerah (tingkat gloss tinggi dibanding dengan jenis resol

  17. PROFIL PERUBAHAN KONSEPTUAL SISWA PADA MATERI KEPENDUDUKAN DAN PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN

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    Lusiana Dwi Hastuti Muchyar

    2015-02-01

    ABSTRAK           Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui profil konsepsi awal dan profil konsepsi akhir siswa serta untuk melihat proses dan pola perubahan konseptual siswa. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena banyak siswa yang memiliki konsepsi yang tidak sesuai dengan konsepsi ilmiah mengenai masalah lingkungan seperti pemanasan global, deplesi lapisan ozon, hujan asam dan polusi radioaktif yang diakibatkan oleh pencemaran lingkungan. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah metode deskriptif. Subjek penelitian ini adalah siswa kelas VII yang diajar oleh guru berpengalaman dan guru praktikan di salah satu SMP di Kota Bandung. Instrumen yang digunakan untuk melihat profil konsepsi awal, profil konsepsi akhir, serta pola perubahan konseptual siswa adalah tes tertulis berupa soal pilihan ganda disertai dengan penjelasan yang diberikan pada awal pembelajaran serta akhir pembelajaran. Jawaban dari tes tersebut kemudian dianalisis secara kualitatif. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa terjadi perubahan konseptual pada siswa, baik yang diajar oleh guru berpengalaman, maupun yang diajar oleh guru praktikan. Proses perubahan konseptual ini terjadi pada beberapa konsep seperti konsep efek rumah kaca, daya dukung lingkungan, gas CFC, serta pemanasan global. Selain itu, hasil analisis juga menunjukkan adanya pola perubahan konseptual pada siswa yaitu berubah positif, berubah negatif, bertahan positif, dan bertahan negatif. Kata kunci: perubahan konseptual, pola perubahan konseptual, profil konsepsi awal, profil konsepsi akhir

  18. Efisiensi Pengolahan Limbah Cair Mengandung Minyak Pelumas pada Oil Separator dengan Menggunakan Plate Settler

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    Kasih Ditaningtyas Sari Pratiwi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Kegiatan pencucian kendaraan bermotor menghasilkan limbah cair mengandung minyak pelumas yang dapat menimbulkan permasalahan lingkungan, terutama menghambat suplai oksigen ke dalam tanah, meracuni mikroorganisme tanah, serta dapat mencemari perairan sampai ke lapisan aquifer air tanah. Salah satu cara mengolah limbah yang mengandung minyak pelumas adalah dengan pemisahan menggunakan gravity separator yang memanfaatkan plate settler. Penelitian ini lalu dilaksanakan untuk menentukan efisiensi pemisahan minyak pelumas pada oil separator dengan plate settler. Variabel yang digunakan dalam penelitian yakni konsentrasi campuran minyak pelumas sebesar 90 mg/L, 120 mg/L, dan 150 mg/L serta sudut kemiringan plate settler sebesar 30°, 45°, dan 60°. Pengujian konsentrasi minyak pelumas dalam air sampel menggunakan metode ekstraksi soxhlet. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, sudut kemiringan 60° dan konsentrasi minyak pelumas dalam influent 150 mg/L memberikan efisiensi tertinggi, yakni 84,93%. Sudut 60° berdasarkan hasil penelitian diketahui pula merupakan sudut yang paling optimum untuk proses pemisahan minyak pelumas dengan air.

  19. PengaruhRPM Terhadap Kualitas Sambungan dan Metalurgi Las Pada Joint Line Untuk Aluminium Seri 5083 Dengan Proses Friction Stir Welding

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    Fery Nurdiansyah

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Proses penyambungan Aluminium dengan GTAW dan GMAW mempunyai kekurangan yaitu menyebabkan rusaknya lapisan tahan korosi pada permukaan Aluminium, untuk mengatasi kekurangan tersebut dilakukan pengelasan yang suhu pengelasannya berada di bawah titik leleh Aluminium yaitu Friction Stir Welding. Pada penelitian ini dilakukan pengelasan dengan mesin frais tipe PM 1 1/2 HU sebagai pengganti mesin Friction Stir Welding pada aluminium paduan 5083 dengan tebal 4 mm dengan ukuran 20 mm x 10 mm menggunakan empat variasi RPM sebesar (394,536,755,1084 dengantravel speed sebesar 0.33 mm/detik serta sudut inklinasi 30. Kemudian dilakukan analisa terhadap perubahan metalurgi, defect yang terjadi dan besarnya heat input yang diwakilkan dengan temperatur pada permukaan weld joint. Dari hasil percobaan diketahui bahwa semakin besar RPM maka semakin besar suhu pengelasan menyebakan bentuk butir semakin besar, surface irragularitis semakin pendek, kekerasan material menjadi lebih rendah serta diskontinuitas berupa weld flash semakin besar. Variasi RPM yang paling optimum adalah RPM dengan kecepatan putar 755 karena pada variasi RPM ini tidak terdapat defect pada weld joint serta memiliki panjang surface irragularitis cukup pendek.

  20. ANALISA PERUBAHAN IONOSFER AKIBAT GEMPA MENTAWAI TAHUN 2010 (Studi Kasus : Kepulauan Mentawai, Sumatra Barat

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    Leni Septiningrum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gempa merupakan fenomena alam akibat aktifitas tektonik yang sering terjadi di Indonesia. Sepanjang pulau Sumatra merupakan pertumbukan antara lempeng Indo-Australia dan lempeng Eurasia menjadikan Sumatra sebagai daerah paling aktif dengan aktifitas tektoniknya. Pada tahun 2010 tercatat tiga gempa besar yang terjadi, yaitu gempa berkekuatan 6,8 SR pada 5 Maret, disusul 6,5 SR pada 5 Mei dan terakhir 7,8 SR pada 25 Oktober 2010. Post-earthquake anomali merupakan fluktuasi TEC yang terjadi sesaat setelah terjadinya gempa, fenomena ini terjadi 3 menit hingga 1 jam setelah gempa terjadi. Post-earthquake anomali dapat digunakan sebagai early warning sebelum tsunami datang. Pengamatan TEC (Total Electron Content dilakukan dengan menggunakan GPS. Satelit GPS akan secara kontinyu memancarkan sinyal gelombang double frequency pada L band. Pada saat terjadi gempa, sinyal yang dipancarkan oleh satelit GPS akan mengalami delay ketika melewati lapisan ionosfer kira-kira 300 km dari permukaan bumi. Variasi ionosfer diamati pada saat terjadi time-delay ini, sehingga didapat nilai TEC dimana I TECU sama dengan 1016 elektron/m2. Nilai tersebut yang akan menggambarkan besaran gangguan akibat adanya gempa. Pada gempa Mentawai 2010 dengan menggunakan stasiun pengamat GPS pada ketiga kejadian gempa tidak menunjukkan adanya gangguan pada ionosfer, hanya terjadi fluktuasi pada beberapa stasiun pengamat.

  1. Single-Use Instrumente in der endoskopischen Gastroenterologie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Henning; Wintermantel, Erich

    In der Medizin werden flexible Endoskope in natürliche Körperöffnungen eingeführt, um z. B. den Verdauungstrakt und die Atemwege zu untersuchen. Ein solches Endoskop besteht aus einem langen Schlauch, dessen distaler Bereich mit Hilfe einer Griffmechanik in alle Richtungen bewegt wird und so der Anatomie und morphologischen Gegebenheiten des menschlichen Verdauungstrakts folgen kann. Das Endoskop wird an eine Lichtquelle angeschlossen. Innerhalb des Schlauchs befindet sich ein Glasfaserstrang, der das Licht an die Spitze des Schlauchs leitet. Über die Optik kann der Arzt dann den beleuchteten Bereich des Körperinneren inspizieren. Während sich früher nur ein Okular direkt am Griff befunden hat, werden die Bildinformationen heute zusätzlich über einen CCD-Chip an der Spitze des Endoskops auf einen Monitor übertragen. Über den Arbeitskanal werden Instrumente eingeführt, die dann unter optischer Kontrolle angewendet werden können.

  2. An Examination Of Fracture Splitting Parameters Of Crackable Connecting Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Özdemir

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Fracture splitting method is an innovative processing technique in the field of automobile engine connecting rod (con/rod manufacturing. Compared with traditional method, this technique has remarkable advantages. Manufacturing procedures, equipment and tools investment can be decreased and energy consumption reduced remarkably. Furthermore, product quality and bearing capability can also be improved. It provides a high quality, high accuracy and low cost route for producing connecting rods (con/rods. With the many advantages mentioned above, this method has attracted manufacturers attention and has been utilized in many types of con/rod manufacturing. In this article, the method and the advantages it provides, such as materials, notches for fracture splitting, fracture splitting conditions and fracture splitting equipment are discussed in detail. The paper describes an analysis of examination of fracture splitting parameters and optik-SEM fractography of C70S6 crackable connectıng rod. Force and velocity parameters are investigated. That uniform impact force distrubition starting from the starting notch causes brittle and cleavage failure mode is obtained as a result. This induces to decrease the toughness.

  3. Feasibility Analysis Of Free Space Earth To Satellite Optical Link In Tropical Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhanis Aida M. Nor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO becomes a great attention because of the chances in transmitting data up to 2.5Gbps. There are a lot of advantages offered by FSO such as easily deployment with saving time and cost and no electromagnetic interference. In spite of the advantages, FSO has an uncontrolled drawback which is highly sensitive to atmospheric phenomena because uses air as tranmission medium. Current studies and researches are only focusing on FSO terrestrial link with short path length and based on data from temperate region. Therefore, this paper is aiming to provide feasibility analysis of FSO link from earth to satellite especially Low Earth Orbit (LEO based on atmospheric data in tropical region. The analysis will include the losses from geometrical attenuation, absorption, scintillation, haze attenuation, and rain attenuation. ABSTRAK: Ruang Bebas Optik (Free Space Optics (FSO mendapat perhatian kerana kebolehannya memancarkan data pada kelajuan tinggi. Di sebalik kelebihannya, FSO amat sensitif terhadap fenomena atmosfera kerana ia menggunakan udara sebagai perantara transmisi. Penyelidikan dan kajian terkini hanya memfokus kepada jalinan darat FSO dengan kepanjangan jarak pendek dan bergantung kepada kawasan tenang.  Oleh itu, kertas ini menyasarkan untuk memberikan analisis kebolehlaksanaan  jalinan FSO dari bumi ke satelit terutamanya Orbit Rendah Bumi (Low Earth Orbit (LEO bergantung kepada data atmosfera di kawasan tropika. Analisa termasuklah kehilangannya akibat pengecilan geometri, penyerapan, kelipan, pelemahan jerebu dan pelemahan hujan.KEYWORDS:  feasibility; Free Space Optics; availability; atmospheric attenuation; beam divergence angle; elevation angle

  4. Polarization-dependent losses of integrated optical splitters in glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenbach, Uwe; Eckstein, Holger; Fabricius, Norbert; Krause, Michael; Kobayashi, Shigeru

    1996-01-01

    During the last two years investments have been made in order to develop new measurement techniques for the characterization of fiber networks. An important characteristic is the neutrality of polarization dependence losses (PDL). Fiber networks contain beside optical sources and detectors a series of basic components like singlemode fibers, integrated optical components (IOC) for the subdistribution, wavelength selective components (WDM) and amplifying elements. The quality of the optical data between transmitters and receivers and the achieved maximum range are determined essentially by the PDL value. In this report the PDL characteristics of passive splitters made by IOT Integrierte Optik GmbH will be described, especially those of N X M splitters. N stands for the entrance port of the splitter and can be 1 or 2. M stands for the exit port of the splitter and can be 2, 4, 8, or 16. Different measuring processes will be described and the achieved measurement results for the PDL will be discussed, In addition to this the different sources of error during the process are described. The achieved results of IOT's N X M splitters have very low PDL values. They are typically smaller than 0.1 dB what makes them excellently suitable for the construction of long-distance optical communication networks. In the meantime such splitters are valued worldwide by different systems suppliers and installed in first optical networks.

  5. Breaking the spherical and chromatic aberration barrier in transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitag, B; Kujawa, S; Mul, P M; Ringnalda, J; Tiemeijer, P C

    2005-02-01

    Since the invention of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 1932 (Z. Physik 78 (1932) 318) engineering improvements have advanced system resolutions to levels that are now limited only by the two fundamental aberrations of electron lenses; spherical and chromatic aberration (Z. Phys. 101 (1936) 593). Since both aberrations scale with the dimensions of the lens, research resolution requirements are pushing the designs to lenses with only a few mm space in the pole-piece gap for the specimen. This is in conflict with the demand for more and more space at the specimen, necessary in order to enable novel techniques in TEM, such as He-cooled cryo electron microscopy, 3D-reconstruction through tomography (Science 302 (2003) 1396) TEM in gaseous environments, or in situ experiments (Nature 427 (2004) 426). All these techniques will only be able to achieve Angstrom resolution when the aberration barriers have been overcome. The spherical aberration barrier has recently been broken by introducing spherical aberration correctors (Nature 392 (1998) 392, 418 (2002) 617), but the correction of the remaining chromatic aberrations have proved to be too difficult for the present state of technology (Optik 57 (1980) 73). Here we present an alternative and successful method to eliminate the chromatic blur, which consists of monochromating the TEM beam (Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 161 (1999) 191). We show directly interpretable resolutions well below 1A for the first time, which is significantly better than any TEM operating at 200 KV has reached before.

  6. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Physical Processes in Laser-Materials Interaction, which was the 9th course of the Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics

    CERN Document Server

    1983-01-01

    It is a pleasure to write a few words as an introduction to the proceedings of the 1980 NATO ASI on "Physical Processes in Laser­ Naterial Interaction." This ASI is the ninth course of a series devoted to lasers and their applications, held under the responsibility of the Quantum Electronics Division of the European Physical Society, and for this reason known as the "Europhysics School of Quantum Electronics." Since 1971 the School has been operating with the joint direc­ tion of myself as representative of the academic research, and Dr. D. Roess (formerly with Siemens AEG, Munich, and now with Sick, Optik und Electronik, GmbH, Munich) for the industrial applications. Indeed the aim of the School is to alternate fundamental and applied frontier topics in the area of quantum electronics and modern optics, in order to introduce young research people from universities and industrial R&D laboratories to the new aspects of research opened by the laser.

  7. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  8. Review: Hans Carl von Carlowitz (2013: Sylvicultura oeconomica oder haußwirthliche Nachricht und naturmäßige Anweisung zur wilden Baum-Zucht. Joachim Hamberger (ed.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kramer, Hans-Ulrich

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Der Begriff „Nachhaltigkeit“ hat in den letzten 25 Jahren eine beispiellose Karriere gemacht: Er ist zu einem Schlüsselbegriff, wenn nicht gar zu einem Leitprinzip für das 21. Jahrhundert geworden. Wenn man zu den ideengeschichtlichen Wurzeln des Begriffs vordringen möchte, muss man genau 300 Jahre zurückgehen: 1713 erschien das Buch „Sylvicultura oeconomica“ des Sachsen Hans Carl von Carlowitz (1645-1714, der erstmals ein geschlossenes Werk über die Forstwirtschaft vorlegte und den Begriff „Nachhaltigkeit“ im heute gebräuchlichen Sinne einer positiven Zukunftsgestaltung verwendete. Anlässlich des 300. Jahrestags der Erstveröffentlichung von „Sylvicultura oeconomica“ ist unlängst im oekom-Verlag eine Neuausgabe dieses wichtigen Werks erschienen, die eng an das Original angelehnt ist, dieses aber noch um weiterführende Informationen ergänzt. Von der Optik weiß die liebevolle, edle Aufmachung der Neuausgabe zu gefallen, die vom promovierten Forstwissenschaftler Joachim Hamberger herausgegeben wurde. Neben dem ästhetischen wird auch der wissenschaftliche Anspruch voll und ganz erfüllt: Das Carlowitz-Werk ist in einen größeren Kontext eingebettet und wird so für den heutigen Leser nachvollziehbar.

  9. Non-linear image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregor, Ingo; Ros, Robert; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, multiphoton microscopy can be considered as a routine method for the observation of living cells, organs, up to whole organisms. Second-harmonics generation (SHG) imaging has evolved to a powerful qualitative and label-free method for studying fibrillar structures, like collagen networks. However, examples of super-resolution non-linear microscopy are rare. So far, such approaches require complex setups and advanced synchronization of scanning elements limiting the image acquisition rates. We describe theory and realization of a super-resolution image scanning microscope [1, 2] using two-photon excited fluorescence as well as second-harmonic generation. It requires only minor modifications compared to a classical two-photon laser-scanning microscope and allows image acquisition at the high frame rates of a resonant galvo-scanner. We achieve excellent sensitivity and high frame-rate in combination with two-times improved lateral resolution. We applied this method to fixed cells, collagen hydrogels, as well as living fly embryos. Further, we proofed the excellent image quality of our setup for deep tissue imaging. 1. Müller C.B. and Enderlein J. (2010) Image scanning microscopy. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104(19), 198101. 2. Sheppard C.J.R. (1988) Super-resolution in confocal imaging. Optik (Stuttg) 80 53-54.

  10. Statens blik – blikket på staten

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ivarsson, Søren; Rud, Søren

    2016-01-01

    aspekter af disse fænomeners komplekse natur. I det følgende indkredser vi Scotts statsforståelse gennem en præsentation af Scotts analyser i de tre bøger Seeing Like a State, The Moral Economy of the Peasant og The Art of Not Being Governed. Derefter kontekstualiserer og problematiserer vi Scotts...... bedre verden til tider er endt i fiasko. Imidlertid rejser en nærlæsning af Scotts argumenter en række spørgsmål om karakteren af den stat, som på mange måder er udgangspunktet for hans undersøgelse. Vi tænker her dels på, at staten, i Scotts optik, optræder som en monolit, der af natur er repressiv og...... udbyttende. Dels på hvordan stat og samfund fremstår som enheder, der helt uproblematisk kan adskilles. På den ene side gør Scotts essentialisering af statens natur, og hans dikotomiske opfattelse af stat-samfund, det muligt at rette en helt fundamental og ofte vedkommende kritik af statslige projekter. På...

  11. Rehabilitering og 'motion på recept'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Niels Sandholm; Larsen, Kristian

    2008-01-01

    I denne artikel vil vi søge at analysere fænomenerne 'rehabilitering' og 'motion på recept' med særlig fokus på relationerne til det, som vi efterfølgende betegner som medicinsk felt. Vi vil via en sociologisk optik beskrive og forklare opkomsten af rehabilitering som del af en række andre...... stridigheder og bevægelser i medicinsk felt. Vi vil i den forbindelse samtidig vise, at rehabilitering, og også det nye fænomen 'motion på recept', hverken kan forstås som en selvstændig substans eller som et isoleret fænomen. Rehabilitering og 'motion på recept' konstrueres som fænomener, der udgør et slags...... sociologisk analyse af nogle relativt upåagtede områder indenfor sundhedsområdet, og hensigten er at vise, at denne type praksisområder med fordel kan beskrives og forklares sociologisk.  I Danmark ser vi aktuelt en genkomst eller opblomstring af fænomenet 'rehabilitering'. Rehabilitering beskrives i...

  12. Global overeksponering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus A. Foss

    2007-01-01

    - idet min lillebror er blandt de anholdte; og mine forældre derfor skulle være blandt de skyldige. Hvilket har fået mig til at fare i blækhuset, med en alternativ forklaringsmodel, der ikke handler om skyld. Kulturen omkring Ungdomshuset er globalt orienteret, og derfor meget sensible overfor global...... forandringer. Den globale orientering kommer blandt andet til udtryk i det relativt store internationale netværk, som bakker de unge op i deres protester - enten ved tilstedeværelse i København eller andre sympatiaktioner. Siden den 11. september, 2001, er globale realiteter blevet eksponeret i massemedierne...... også sig selv og sin omverden igennem en global optik. Ungdommen af i dag er som børn vokset op i et samfund og dannelseskultur, der ikke har været globalt orienteret, hvor demokratiske værdier som frihed, lighed, menneskerettigheder her hersket i det socialdemokratiske projekt om sammenhængskraft. Og...

  13. At undervise på poststrukturalistisk - undervisning i organisation og ledelse som en selv-refleksiv iagttagelsesmaskine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christa Breum Amhøj

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Den offentlige sektor er i krise og skal genopfindes, lyder den danske ledelsesdebat. Lederuddannelser som MPA og Diplom i Ledelse udpeges som svar på, hvordan vi kan skabe de ledere, der med refleksiv distance proaktivt kan sætte præmisserne for, hvordan den skal genskabes. Men hvordan kan vi indenfor de eksisterende undervisningsformer omsætte ledelsesdebatten i en konkret undervisning i organisation og ledelse? Sådan lyder spørgsmålet i nærværende artikel. Artiklen er normativ i den forstand, at den giver et bud på, hvordan undervisning i organisation og ledelse kan designes, så den ikke blot ansporer de studerende til læse og anvende tekster, der handler om at genopfinde den, men også får et glimt af, hvordan de selv er – og proaktivt kan være - med til at genopfinde, skabe og lede den offentlige sektor gennem deres valg af iagttagelser af organisationen. Artiklen tilbyder ikke ny viden om organisation og ledelse eller nye undervisningsteknikker men viser, hvordan forholdsvis velkendte teknikker ud fra en poststrukturalistisk optik bliver en slags social teknologi. Herfra bliver de ikke neutrale metoder til at formidle eller anvende en ny viden om vores organisationer. Derimod bliver de teknikker, hvormed man som underviser proaktivt kan skabe betingelserne for en ny måde at se på.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of gas-to-particle conversion in an emission plume from mining and metallurgical industry based on airborne sounding in a polar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonenkov, Denis V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Belan, Boris D.

    2016-11-01

    The results of an airborne survey of plumes from the Norilsk Mining and Metallurgical Plant by an Optik-É AN-30 aircraft laboratory on November 10, 2002 are discussed. Most pollutants are blown out of the city in the gas phase in the form of acidic oxides (mainly sulfur). Mapping of the substances is performed along the main trajectory of air mass transport at a distance of 20-140 km from the city. Horizontal flights were performed at 400, 600, 800, and 1200 m above sea level at equidistant traverses (from 3 to 6 at each height) normally to the main flow direction. Most pollution was concentrated above the 400-m level. An active gas-to-particle conversion was observed at a distance of 60-100 km from the emission source. In the plume areas distant from the source there was a sulfate anion increase from 4% to 51% in aerosol composition weight and a calcium decrease from 64% to 9%. Under the conditions of low humidity in the polar atmosphere in winter, SO2 is apparently removed from the air mainly due to dry heterogeneous condensation with calcium oxide as the main counteragent of industrial origin. The concentrations of these active pollutants in the plume are well approximated by a two-parameter transformation model.

  15. APLIKASI INFO HALAL MENGGUNAKAN BARCODE SCANNER UNTUK SMARTPHONE ANDROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beki Subeki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract – In the production and trade of food products in the era of globalization, people are consuming, especially Muslims need to be given the knowledge, information and access to adequate in order to obtain the correct information about the halal status of products bought. The use of barcode scanners halal product information using the mobile platform is effective and useful for the public to find out information on a product. Barcode scanners can be read by optical scanners called barcode readers or scanned from an image by special software. In Indonesia, most mobile phones have the scanning software for 2D codes, and similar devices available via smartphone.   Keywords : Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Halal Products, Smartphone     Abstrak - Dalam kegiatan produksi dan perdagangan produk pangan di era globalisasi ini, masyarakat yang mengkonsumsi, khususnya umat islam perlu diberikan pengetahuan tentang kehalalan produk, informasi dan akses yang memadai agar memperoleh informasi yang benar tentang status kehalalan produk yang dibelinya. Penggunaan barcode scanner informasi produk halal dengan menggunakan mobile platform dinilai cukup efektif dan berguna bagi masyarakat luas untuk mengetahui informasi sebuah produk. Barcode scanner dapat dibaca oleh pemindai optik yang disebut pembaca kode batang atau dipindai dari sebuah gambar oleh perangkat lunak khusus. Di Indonesia, kebanyakan telepon genggam memiliki perangkat lunak pemindai untuk kode 2D, dan perangkat sejenis tersedia melalui smartphone.   Kata Kunci: Barcode Scanner, Mobile Platform, Produk Halal, Smartphone

  16. YAPAY DENİZ SUYUNDA FARKLI HIZLARDA Cu-%10 Ni ALAŞIMININ EROZYON-KOROZYON DAVRANIŞI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet GAVGALI

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada yapay deniz suyunda Cu-10 % Ni bakır-nikel alaşımının erozyon-korozyon davranışı incelenmiştir. Erozyon-korozyon testleri farklı hızlarda dönen silindirik elektrot kullanılarak gerçekleştirilmiştir. Denemelerde serbest korozyon potansiyeli, anodik polarizasyon, elektrokimyasal impedans analizi, ağırlık kaybı testleri ve optik mikroskop incelemesi yapılmıştır. Dönme hızı ve zamanın artması ile yapay deniz suyundaki Cu-10 % Ni alaşımının korozyon hızı artmıştır. Koruyucu yüzey filmindeki hasarın, dönme hızı 1600 d/d olduğunda 3. saatten itibaren, 2000 d/d olduğunda ise 1. saatten itibaren başladığı ve giderek arttığı belirlenmiştir.

  17. PENGEMBANGAN APLIKASI BERBASIS MATLAB UNTUK MENGANALISIS SIFAT LASING KACA Te-Zn-Bi YANG TERDADAH ION Er3+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Susanto

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengembangkan  aplikasi untuk menganalis sifat lasing kaca bahan penguat optik dengan parameter Judd-Ofelt. Pengembangan aplikasi menggunakan kaidah Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC yang terdiri dari analisis, perancangan, pembangunan dan pengujian. Perancangan aplikasi mengunakan flowchart yang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan pembangunan aplikasi mengunakan GUI matlab. Pengujian aplikasi mengunakan metode black box serta perbandingan hasil aplikasi dan perhitungan manual. Hasil pengujian menunjukan bahwa aplikasi mampu bekerja sesuai fungsionalitasnya yaitu digunakan untuk menganalisis sifat lasing kaca Te-Zn-Bi dengan doping Er3+ yang ditunjukan dengan output aplikasi berupa  (1 Parameter , (2 Probabilitas Transisi, (3 Branching Ratio, (4 Life Time, (5 Omega4/ Omega6 serta(6 Aem/AESA. Output aplikasi tersebut merupakan parameter yang digunakan untuk menganalis sifat lasing sesuai parameter Judd Ofelt. Hasil perbandingan perhitungan manual dan aplikasi dapat diketahui bahwa rata-rata kesalahan relative adalah 1.2476%. Dari hasil pengujian dapat disimpulkan bahwa aplikasi dapat digunakan untuk menganalisis sifat lasing.

  18. DOĞRUSAL DİZİN (PUSHBROOM GÖRÜNTÜLEME SİSTEMLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gürcan BÜYÜKSALİH

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, son teknoloji uydu görüntüleme sistemlerinde yoğunlukla kullanılan doğrusal dizin (pushbroom tarayıcılar incelenmiştir. Tarihsel gelişim süreçlerine değinildikten sonra, günümüzde bu teknikten yararlanan uzayda yerleşik uydu algılayıcılarının; özellikle Fransız SPOT, Alman MOMS, Hint IRS ve Japon JERS uydularının optik ve geometrik tasarımları üzerinde detaylı olarak durulmuştur. Son olarak, bu sistemlerin harita yapım amaçlı kullanımlarda sağlayacakları doğruluk düzeyleri ortaya koyulmuştur.

  19. Gerthsen Physik

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Auf mehr als 1000 Seiten findet man von der Kinematik des Massenpunktes über die Quantenchromodynamik, die Fullerene, die Halbleiterlaser, die Hochtemperatur-Supraleiter bis hin zum Chaos im Kochtopf praktisch alles, was Physik heute ausmacht. ... In diesem sehr weit gespannten Bogen nimmt der Gerthsen den Platz eines echten, ja eigentlich des einzigen Kompendiums der Physik ein. Kein Physiker kommt heute noch ohne dieses Werk aus. (Physikalische Blätter) Für die Studierenden der Physik im Haupt- und Nebenfach ist der Gerthsen ein unverzichtbarer und kompetenter Begleiter durch das gesamte Studium, das jetzt in der Neuauflage noch preisgünstiger zu erwerben ist. Nahezu alle Studierenden beginnen mit dem Klassiker Gerthsen. Sämtliche Gebiete der Physik werden ausführlich und gut verständlich dargestellt. Das Buch stellt alle klassischen Themen vor - Mechanik, Wärmelehre, Elektrodynamik, Optik. Darauf aufbauende Themen der klassischen Physik wie die Nichtlineare Dynamik und die Relativitätstheorie sin...

  20. Caratteristiche dei segni di marcatura territoriale nel capriolo, Capreolus capreolus L., 1758

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Sorino

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available I maschi maturi di capriolo sono territoriali dagli inizi della primavera (aprile fino all?epoca degli amori, tardo agosto ? inizio settembre. Durante il periodo territoriale, i maschi eseguono due tipi di marcatura olfattiva a significato territoriale: le raspate e i fregoni. Le prime sono effettuate con le ghiandole site tra le dita delle zampe anteriori, i secondi con le ghiandole poste alla base dei palchi. Nel presente contributo si riportano alcuni risultati preliminari sull?abbondanza relativa dei due tipi di marcatura in due habitat alpini con differente copertura vegetazionale, per stabilire se questa influenzi la scelta del tipo di marcatura. L?area di studio è situata nella Val Chisone (Alpi nord ? occidentali ed è compresa tra i 1800 e i 1900 metri di quota con una superficie di 238,5 ha. L?area è caratterizzata da un pascolo di 96,5 ha (pari al 40,5% dell?area e da un lariceto di 142 ha (pari al 59,5% dell?area. Lo studio è stato effettuato nel periodo estivo nell?arco del triennio 2001-2003. I segni territoriali sono stati rilevati in aree di forma quadrata con lati di 15 metri (225 m² campionate con un metodo di randomizzazione. In ogni area campione si è valutato il numero, le dimensioni e la densità dei segni di marcatura nonché il tipo di stratificazione vegetazionale (arborea, arbustiva, erbacea, le classi percentuali di copertura, il numero di piante marcate e quelle potenzialmente marcabili. Per valutare l?esistenza di correlazione tra i segni di marcatura e i diversi parametri ambientali misurati si sono utilizzati dei test di Spearman. Sono stati rilevati 52 fregoni (x = 3,71; SE = 0,90 e 24 raspate (x = 1,71; SE = 0,57. Il 68% dei fregoni è stato rilevato in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 3,1 alberelli/10 m², mentre il 100% delle raspate è stato rinvenuto in aree campione con una densità di alberelli inferiore a 2,2 alberelli/10 m². In ogni area campione il numero di fregoni

  1. Rare extra-adrenal paraganglioma mimicking a painful Schwannoma: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picchetto, Andrea; M Paganini, Alessandro; Balla, Andrea; Quaresima, Silvia; Cantisani, Vito; D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Lezoche, Emanuele

    2014-09-26

    paragangliomi extra-surrenalici sono raramente riconosciuti duranti gli esami preoperatori. Questo errore è spesso dovuto alla sua capacità di simulare vari altri tipi di tumore. Gli Autori credono che i paragangliomi possano essere resecati con successo tramite approccio laparoscopico, che essi sono difficili da distinguere altri tipi di tumore e che debbano essere sospettati anche se i risultati preoperatori depongono per qualcos’altro.

  2. Alloying of titanium by oxygen during chamber electroslag remelting/Legiranje titanijuma kiseonikom u peći za elektropretapanje pod troskom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoliy D. Ryabtsev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of alloying titanium by oxygen in the process of chamber electroslag remelting. As an oxygen-containing ligature, we used the electrodes-satellite from the reaction mass residues mixture from the retort lid for magnesium thermal reduction of a titanium sponge, a specially prepared gaseous argon oxygen mixture containing 30% oxygen applied directly to the melting space, microsize (10-15 mm powder particles of titanium oxide and titanium oxide nanopowder with a particle size of 21 ± 5 nm. The structure and the properties of titanium alloyed by oxygen from the oxygen-containing ligature, gas phase and titanium oxide powder during chamber electroslag remelting of the titanium sponge are investigated. It was found that at the oxygen content of 0.053%mas. to 0.22%mas. in the metal formed a homogeneous single-phase structure typical for commercial titanium formed by polyhedral grains of the α-phase. The increase of the oxygen concentration in titanium for more than 0.22%mas. leads to the formation of the microstructure with a typical needle structure, which allows it to be classified as the α ׳-phase. / U radu su prikazani rezultati legiranja titanijuma kiseonikom u procesu elektropretapanja pod troskom u peći. Za vezivo, koje sadrzi kiseonik, korišćene su satelit elektrode iz reakcije masenih ostataka mešavine iz poklopca retorte za termalnu redukciju magnezijumtitanijumskog sunđera, specijalno pripremljena mešavina gasa argona i kiseonika sa 30% kiseonika primenjena direktno na mesto topljenja, čestice praha titanijum-oksida mikroveličine 10-15mm i nanoprah titanijum-oksida veličine čestica od 21± 5 nm. Ispitane su struktura i karakteristike titanijuma legiranog kiseonikom iz veziva , gasne faze i praha titanijum-oksida tokom elektropretapanja titanijumovog sunđera pod troskom u peći. Utvrđeno je da se pri sadržaju kiseonika od 0.053%mas.do 0.22%mas. u metalu formira homogena jednofazna struktura tipi

  3. Determination of Parent and Hydroxy PAHs in Personal PM2.5 and Urine Samples Collected During Native American Fish Smoking Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motorykin, Oleksii; Schrlau, Jill; Jia, Yuling; Harper, Barbara; Harris, Stuart; Harding, Anna; Stone, David; Kile, Molly; Sudakin, Daniel; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed for the measurement of 19 parent PAHs (PAHs) and 34 hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs) in urine and personal air samples of particulate matter less than 2.5 um in diameter (PM2.5) using GC-MS and validated using NIST SRM 3672 (Organic Contaminants in Smoker’s Urine) and SRM 3673 (Organic Contaminants in Nonsmoker’s Urine). The method was used to measure PAHs and OH-PAHs in urine and personal PM2.5 samples collected from the operators of two different fish smoking facilities (tipi and smoke shed) burning two different wood types (alder and apple) on the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) while they smoked salmon. Urine samples were spiked with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase to hydrolyze the conjugates of OH-PAHs and the PAHs and OH-PAHs were extracted using Plexa and C18 solid phases, in series. The 34OH-PAHs were derivatized using MTBSTFA, and the mixture was measured by GC-MS. The personal PM2.5samples were extracted using pressurized liquid extraction, derivatized with MTBSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS for PAHs and OH-PAHs. Fourteen isotopically labeled surrogates were added to accurately quantify PAHs and OH-PAHs in the urine and PM2.5 samples and three isotopically labeled internal standards were used to calculate the recovery of the surrogates. Estimated detection limits in urine ranged from 6.0 to 181 pg/ml for OH-PAHs and from 3.0 to 90 pg/ml for PAHs, and, in PM2.5, they ranged from 5.2 to 155 pg/m3 for OH-PAHs and from 2.5 to 77 pg/m3 for PAHs. The results showed an increase in OH-PAH concentrations in urine after 6 hours offish smoking and an increase in PAH concentrations in air within each smoking facility. In general, the PAH exposure in the smoke shed was higher than in the tipi and the PAH exposure from burning apple wood was higher than burning alder. PMID:25461072

  4. Photocatalytic reactors for the abatement of organic pollutants in aqueous phase; Reattori fotocatalitici per l`abbattimento di inquinanti organici in fase acquosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brucato, A.; Rizzuti, L.; Sciascia, A.; Sclafani, A. [Palermo Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Chimica dei Processi e dei Materiali

    1998-10-01

    The research concerning the development of the photo catalytic process for the abatement of organic pollutants, also those considered bio resistant, has shown on one hand the need of better defining the proper kinetic model, that also takes into account the photons absorbed by the photo catalyst, and on the other hand of studying various types of photo reactors, also with the aim of determining those parameters fundamental for developing and checking the kinetic model. In this paper, after a short description of the photo catalytic process, the experimental results, obtained by using several types of photo reactors for phenol abatement, are discussed. Some interpretations on the relevant kinetic models are linked to the kind of photo reactor used. A type of photo reactor, prone to the utilisation of solar photons, is also proposed. Its behaviour well agrees with a very simple model developed to foresee the plant-scale performances. Finally, on the grounds of the analysis of the experimental data here reported, the kinetic model proposed by Turchi and Ollis (1989) is criticised. [Italiano] La ricerca riguardante lo sviluppo del processo fotocatalitico per l`abbattimento di inquinanti organici anche bioresistenti ha evidenziato da un lato la necessita` di definire meglio il modello cinetico piu` adatto e che tenga conto anche dei fotoni assorbiti dal catalizzatore e dall`altro di studiare vari tipi di fotoreattori anche al fine di determinare quei parametri necessari allo sviluppo del modello cinetico e della sua verifica. In queso lavoro dopo una breve e sommaria descrizione del processo fotocatalitico vengono discussi i risultati sperimentli ottenuti, mediante l`impiego di diversi tipi di fotoreattore, nell`abbattimento del fenolo. Alcune interpretazioni cinetiche vengono poste in relazione al tipo di fotoreattore utilizzato. Viene proposto anche un tipo di fotoreattore che si presta all`utilizzazione dei fotoni solari e per la simulazione del suo comportamento e

  5. Il diritto come «cura». Suggestioni dall’esperienza canonistica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edoardo Dieni

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La pubblicazione postuma di questo scritto di Edoardo Dieni, rimasto in lettura al Prof. Salvatore Berlingò, intende ricordarne nell’anniversario della scomparsa la figura di studioso.SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa - 2. Dalla «rocca sull’onda» ai «diritti sbagliati»: la giuridicizzazione dei rapporti inter-personali come problema - 2.1. L’ «atomismo sociale» e i «diritti egoistici» - 2.2. I «diritti egoistici» nella tradizione canonistica: il caso del matrimonio - 3. Creonte e Antigone: diritto vs. morale o diritto «maschile» vs. diritto «femminile»? - 3.1. Gender Studies e modelli di genere nel diritto. - 3.1.1. Etica dei diritti ed etica della cura - 3.1.2. Dal non-diritto al diritto «altro»: categorie, tipi di  ordinamento, stili «femminili» - 3.1.3. Dimostrazione vs. argomentazione,rigidità vs. flessibilità - 3.2. Il lato «femminile-materno» del diritto canonico e il diritto come «cura» – 3.2.1. «Maschile» e «femminile» nel cattolicesimo - 3.2.2. Diritto canonico, stereotipi sessuali e tipi di diritto - 3.3. L’esigenza di ricomporre la scissione - 4. Lo sfondo filosofico-politico del diritto post-moderno (radici ebraicocristiane della critica interna al liberalismo - 5. Uno jus o potestas pro persona come categoria della «cura»? - 5.1. Cura, responsabilità, diritti: l’opportunità di ripensarele categorie giuridiche tradizionali - 5.1.1. La responsabilità verso l’altrodell’amicizia. - 5.1.2. Un diritto («debole», e della cura dell’amicizia? - 5.2. La pista ricoeuriana della collaborazione tra amore e giustizia (e l’«economia della gratitudine» - 5.3. La pista levinasiana del visage (e la razionalità concreta dell’empatia - 5.4. Per un’ipotesi di nuove categorie positive.

  6. Incidenza di meningiti nell'ASL di Brescia nei primi mesi del 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Magoni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: nell’ASLdi Brescia durante i mesi di gennaiomaggio 2003 si è verificato un consistente aumento di casi di meningite che ha allarmato oltre agli operatori sanitari anche l’opinione pubblica locale.

    Metodi: i dati riguardanti i casi di meningite verificatisi dal gennaio 1999 al maggio 2003 sono stati raccolti dal Servizio Igiene Pubblica dell’ASLdi Brescia.

    Tenuto conto della omogeneità dei dati nel quadriennio 1999- 2002 e della stagionalità che le meningiti possono avere, sono stati calcolati i tassi di incidenza per i primi cinque mesi dell’anno per tutte le meningiti in generale e per agente eziologico, durante il quadriennio 1999-2002. Tali tassi sono stati confrontati con i tassi corrispondenti nei primi mesi del 2003.

    Risultati: nel primi 5 mesi del 2003 si sono registrati in tutto 48 casi, di cui 9 da meningocco, 13 da pneumococco, 14 virali, 3 da altri agenti batterici e 8 senza agente microbico identificato. Nei 4 anni precedenti erano stati notificati 66 casi di meningite nei primi 5 mesi dell’anno, con una media annua di 16.5. Il tasso di incidenza di meningite in gennaio-maggio è stato quindi il triplo nel 2003 (rischio relativo = 2.9 rispetto ai 4 anni precedenti (p=0.0001. L’eccesso di incidenza si è riscontrato per tutti i tipi di meningite considerati in base all’agente eziologico.

    L’analisi per diverse età ha mostrato un aumento di incidenza sia nei bambini che nei giovani adulti e negli anziani. Non si è riscontrata alcuna differenza statisticamente significativa tra l’incidenza nel comune di Brescia (area urbana rispetto all’intera ASL nel periodo in studio.

    Conclusioni: l’aumento di incidenza per meningiti
    osservato nel 2003 non sembra spiegabile in termini di variabilità casuale del fenomeno da un anno all’altro e riguarda tutti i tipi di meningite e tutte le categorie d

  7. “Native Skywatchers - Earth Sky Mirroring, Kapemni Pairs - Ojibwe and D(L)akota Sacred Star Sites “

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annette S.; Gawboy, Carl; Rock, Jim; Wilson, William; Tibbetts, Jeff; O'Rourke, Charleen

    2015-08-01

    Late in February, deep in the heart of the northern hemisphere winter, Ojibwe people know to look to the east a few hours after sunset and offer tobacco to Mizhi Bizhiw -Curly Tail, the Great Spirit Cat in the night sky. There are many beautiful and layered teachings about Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail relating to the coming of spring, respect for the water, sugar bush camp, but most important; knowing the stars meant survival.Painted high on the granite rock cliffs above the glacial waters in red ochre is the Mizhi Bizhiw - Curly Tail constellation. Along with the Ojibwe lion are two neighboring seasonal constellations: Mooz (Pegasus) and Biboonkionini -Wintermaker (Orion+). On Lake Hegman in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area located near Ely, Minnesota, a sacred reflection, an earth-sky mirroring is illustrated. It is here that tangible and intangible star knowledge meet.In D(L)akota star knowledge one of the most important teachings is kapemni. Wrapped up in this one word are layers of meaning that can be thought of as ‘As it is above; it is below.’ Imagine two tipis stacked vertically. The top triangle is inverted so that the pair meets at the apex. It is understood that the top realm represents the sky above, the stars or the spirit world. The bottom tipi represents the Earth, the material or the physical world.On Summer Solstice each year the Sun can be found in the Mato Tipila - Bear’s Lodge D(L)akota constellation (Gemini). The day when this astronomical alignment happens is known as the ‘Wacipi - Sundance Ceremony in the Stars’. At this time traditionally D(L)akota people would meet at Mato Tipila Paha - Grey Horn Butte (Devil’s Tower) in northeast Wyoming and participate in the earthly Wacipi - Sun Dance ceremony. This is a beautiful example of a kapemni pair or an earth-sky mirroring.Presented here are just two examples of sacred star sites found in our region: Minnesota, North & South Dakota, US. These are examples of cultural heritage that is

  8. SILICON COMPATIBLE ACOUSTIC WAVE RESONATORS: DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliza Aini Md Ralib

    2014-12-01

    -unsur diskret kerana keupayaan untuk mengintegrasikan dengan litar yang disertakan itu. Integrasi ini membawa kepada peningkatan prestasi, fungsi yang lebih baik dengan pengurangan kos pada pengeluaran jumlah yang besar. Oleh itu, Karya ini mengkaji silikon resonator akustik yang serasi, yang bersepadu dengan muka litar untuk membolehkan integrasi yang lengkap. Resonator gelombang akustik yang digunakan adalah gelombang permukaan akustik ( SAW dan gelombang akustik pukal ( BAW resonator . Kriteria penting untuk menilai prestasi resonator seperti faktor kualiti, frekuensi resonans dan kehilangan sisipan juga digariskan dalam setiap kerja sebelumnya. Pemilihan bahan piezoelektrik yang sesuai adalah penting untuk memastikan pekali gandingan elektromekanik yang mencukupi dihasilkan untuk mengurangkan kehilangan sisipan. Lapisan tambahan pasif SiO2   yang bertindak sebagai bahan rendah sisipan dipercayai meningkatkan faktor kualiti dan kestabilan suhu reka bentuk. Teknik integrasi juga dipengaruhi oleh proses fabrikasi dan pembungkusan. Struktur tanpa pembungkusan menggunakan AlN sebagai lapisan pengasingan tambahan itu dicadangkan untuk melindungi peranti SAW dari persekitaran untuk kebolehpercayaan yang tinggi. Banyak lagi kemajuan perlu dilakukan dalam pengecilan silikon serasi resonator gelombang akustik untuk merealisasikan sistem cip transceiver tunggal.KEYWORDS: RF-MEMS; piezoelectric; resonator; surface acoustic wave (SAW;bulk acoustic wave (BAW; FBAR

  9. ANALISIS KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN PERAIRAN BERDASARKAN KOMUNITAS MEIOBENTOS DAN KUALITAS SEDIMEN DI PANTAI DAN AREA PERTAMBAKAN, PESISIR SRIWULAN KABUPATEN DEMAK (The Quality Analysis of Aquatic Environment based on Meiobentos Community and Sediment Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhandis Sidqi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK  Tujuan studi ini meliputi (1 menentukan kualitas lingkungan daerah pesisir dan tambak ikan, kualitas sedimen, dan komunitas meiobentos, (2 menemukan hubungan antara kualitas sedimen dan meiobentos, dan (3 menentukan tingkat produktivitas peikampungan tambak ikan berdasarkan jarak, tingkat polusi dan destruksi. Parameter kualitas air dianalisis menggunakan metode deskriptif-komparatif, sedangkan parameter sedimen dianalisis menggunakan PCA (Principal Component Analisys untuk menentukan distribusi spasial pada setiap stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Komunitas meiobentos diperiksa dengan menggunakan CA (Factorial Correspondence Analysis untuk mendeteksi tingkat distribusi spasial yang juga berdasarkan stasiun pemantauan dan lapisan kedalaman sedimen. Data tersebut dianalisis menggunakan korelasi dan regresi untuk memahami pengaruh parameter bebas terhadap produktivitas tambak ikan. Kemudian tes statistik non parametric dari Kruskall Wallis digunakan untuk membedakan produktivitas pada 3 desa berdasarkan jarak terhadap sumber pencemaran dan tingkat destruksi tambak ikan. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa nilai parameter kualitas air (muddy, TSS NH3, NO2, beyond threshold level, negative redox potential (Eh sediment value/reduction zone, and IMLP adalah moderat. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa kondisi air di daerah penelitian tidak stabil. Penelitian juga menunjukkan nilai indeks diversitas yang rendah, dominasi organisme meiobentos tertentu, dan konformitas antar komunitas bentos. Hasil tes statistik Kruskall Wallis menunjukkan adanya signifikansi antara produktivitas tambak ikan dengan factor jarak dan tingkat destruksi diantara 3 desa dalam daerah penelitian yaitu Bedono, Sriwulan. Purwosari yaitu dengan nilai produktivitas 0.65,0.56, 0.41 ton/hektar/tahun.   ABSTRACT The objective of this study area to determine the environmental quality of coastal area and fish ponds which are on water quality, sediment quality, and Meiobentos

  10. APLIKASI GEOLISTRIK 3-DIMENSI UNTUK MENGETAHUI SEBARAN LIMBAH RCO (RUBBER COMPOUND OILS DI KABUPATEN KENDAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FV Daraninggar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Teknologi pengolahan limbah ban karet bekas hingga menghasilkan minyak bakar RCO (Rubber Compound Oils merupakan solusi menumpuknya ban bekas tidak terpakai. Namun limbah pembuatan minyak bakar RCO yang dibuang langsung berakibat pada pencemaran lingkungan. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui nilai resistivitas dan pola sebaran 3-dimensi limbah industri RCO di daerah pabrik pengolahan ban bekas Kecamatan Boja, Kabupaten Kendal. Pengambilan data menggunakan metode geolistrik tahanan jenis konfigurasi Wenner dengan spasi antar elektroda lima meter. Data nilai resistivitas limbah industri minyak bakar RCO diolah menggunakan software IPI2Win, kemudian distribusi resistivitas digambarkan dalam bentuk 3-dimensi menggunakan software Res2dinv, Res3dinv, Slicer Dicer. Hasil interpretasi 3-dimensi menyimpulkan bahwa limbah industri minyak bakar RCO telah menyebar lebih dari 43,75 meter ke arah timur pabrik, lebih dari 20 meter ke arah utara dan kedalaman lebih dari 12 meter dengan nilai resistivitas 11-20 ohm.m. Limbah diduga tersebar pada lapisan tanah dengan struktur batuan lempung dan pasir. {0>Teknologi pengolahan limbah ban karet bekas hingga menghasilkan minyak bakar RCO (Rubber Compound Oils merupakan solusi menumpuknya ban bekas tidak terpakai.<}0{>Waste treatment technology of used rubber tires to produce RCO (Rubber Compound Oils fuel oil is a solution of the accumulatoin of abandoned used tires.<0} {0>Namun limbah pembuatan minyak bakar RCO yang dibuang langsung berakibat pada pencemaran lingkungan.<}0{>However, the oil conversion of dumped RCO wastes might cause environmental pollution.<0} {0>Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah mengetahui nilai resistivitas dan pola sebaran 3-dimensi limbah industri RCO di daerah pabrik pengolahan ban bekas Kecamatan Boja, Kabupaten Kendal.<}0{>The purpose of this study was to determine the resistivity value and the pattern of 3D distribution of industrial RCO wastes in a treatment plant, subdistrict

  11. Perbedaan Kadar Endotelin-1 Plasma pada Penderita Preeklampsia dengan Kehamilan Normotensif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susi Hartati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Endotelin-1 merupakan derivat endotelium yang ampuh sebagai vasokontriksi  paling kuat yang memiliki 21 asam amino. Kerusakan lapisan endotel mengaktivasikan peningkatan vasokontriksi yaitu endotelin-1. Peningkatan endotelin-1 ini menyebabkan terjadinya resistensi diseluruh sistem vaskuler maternal yang memiliki lapisan endotel sehingga menimbulkan manifestasi klinis preeklampsia. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan perbedaan kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia dan kehamilan normotensif. Penelitian bersifat observasional dengan desaincross sectional comparative. Penelitian ini dilakukan di RSUP Dr.M.Djamil Padang dan RS Tk.III Reksodiwiryo Padang. Sampel penelitian ini terdiri dari dua kelompok yaitu 16 penderita preeklampsia dan 16 kehamilan normotensifdengan waktu penelitian dari  Juni sampai Agustus 2014. Analisis sampel dilakukan di Laboratorium Biomedik Universitas Andalas Padang. Pemeriksaan kadar endotelin-1 menggunakan metode ELISA. Analisa statistik mengunakan univariat dan bivariat. Analisa bivariat mengunakan uji t tidak berpasangan yang telah dilakukan uji normalitas dan uji homogenitas. Hasil penelitian ini diperoleh bahwa rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia yaitu 0,73 ± 0,15 pg/ml, rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada kehamilan normotensif yaitu 0,56 ±0,13 pg/ml dengan nilai p<0,05 (0,002. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah terdapat perbedaan kadar endotelin-1 yang signifikan rerata kadar endotelin-1 plasma pada penderita preeklampsia dengan kehamilan normotensif.Kata kunci: preeklampsia, endotelin-1, normotensifAbstract  Endothelin-1 is potent endothelium derived as the strongest vasocontrictor that has 21 amino acids. Damage of endothelial layer activated the increasing of vasoconstriction which is endothelin-1. The increasing of endothelin-1 caused a resistence across the maternal vascular system that has endothelial layer make a clinical manifestations of preeclampsia. The

  12. IN SITU TRANSESTERIFIKASI MINYAK BIJI MAHONI MENJADI METIL ESTER DENGAN CO-SOLVENT THF (TETRAHYDROFURAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvianto Dwi Daryono

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan dari penelitian  adalah untuk mengkaji efektifitas penggunaan co-solvent THF pada reaksi transesterifikasi in situ minyak biji mahoni sebagai solusi proses pembuatan biodiesel yang efektif dan efisien. Variabel dan kondisi operasi  meliputi katalis NaOH, kecepatan pengadukan 450 rpm, suhu reaksi suhu kamar, rasio molar minyak:metanol = 1:101,39, rasio molar katalis:minyak = 0,5:1, % FFA minyak 1,42%, kadar air biji 0,8%, waktu reaksi 3, 8, 13, 18, dan 23 menit serta rasio molar minyak:THF 1:47,15, 1:57,85 dan 1:67,85. Biji mahoni yang telah dikeringkan dan dihaluskan ukuran +20/-30 mesh sebanyak 50 gram dimasukkan dalam labu leher tiga yang dilengkapi pendingin balik dan ditambahkan metanol, THF dan katalis NaOH serta dilakukan reaksi sesuai dengan variabel dan kondisi operasi penelitian. Setelah reaksi selesai dipisahkan antara ampas dan filtratnya. Filtrat didistilasi pada suhu ± 70oC dan residu hasil distilasi dimasukkan dalam corong pemisah dan didiamkan selama ± 12 jam agar terbentuk 2 lapisan. Lapisan atas sebagai metil ester kemudian dianalisis konsentrasi metil oleatnya dengan GC. Dari data hasil penelitian didapatkan hasil terbaik pada rasio molar minyak:THF = 1:67,85 dan waktu reaksi 23 menit dengan  konsentrasi metil oleat 59,10% dan yield metil ester 79,69%. Densitas metil ester 0,8791 g/cm3 memenuhi SNI 04-7182-2006 yaitu 0,85 – 0,89 g/cm3. Kata kunci : biodiesel, co-solvent, minyak biji mahoni, transesterifikasi in situ Abstract The purpose of this research was to assess the effectiveness of the use of co-solvent THF for in situ transesterification reaction mahogany seed oil as a biodiesel manufacturing process solutions that effectively and efficiently. Variables and operating conditions include catalyst NaOH, stirring speed of 450 rpm, room temperature the reaction temperature, molar ratio of oil: methanol = 1: 101.39, the molar ratio of catalyst: oil = 0.5: 1, % FFA oil is 1,42%,  moisture content seed of 0

  13. SEISMOGRAM ANALYSIS OF EARTHQUAKES IN SUMATRA-JAVA AT HYB OBSERVATORY STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.J. B.J. Santosa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penelitian ini struktur bumi di bawah lempeng Lautan Hindia Timur Laut dikaji melalui analisis seismogram atas seismogram gempa-gempa bumi yang terjadi di Sumatra dan direkam di stasiun observasi HYB, India. Analisis seismogram dilaksanakan dalam domain waktu dan ketiga komponen-komponen Kartesian secara simultan. Perbandingan seismogram menunjukkan bahwa model bumi global PREM memberikan seismogram sintetik yang menyimpang dari seismogram terukur dan waktu tiba gelombang S yang lebih lambat dibandingkan waktu tiba terukur. Untuk mencapai pencocokan seismogram, gradient βh di upper mantle diubah dari positif menjadi negative, sebagaimana dinyatakan dalam model bumi PREMAN, dan koreksi kecepatan positif ditambahkan pada koefisien-koefisien kecepatan orde nol pada struktur kecepatan S dalam semua lapisan mantel bumi. Pengepasan yang bagus dicapai pada gelombang ruang S, gelombang permukaan Love dan Rayleigh, begitu juga dengan gelombang terpantul inti bumi ScS dan ScS2.In this research, the earth structure beneath North East Indian Ocean plates is investigated using waveform analysis of Sumatra’s earthquakes recorded in HYB station. Seismogram analysis was conducted in the time domain and three Cartesians components simultaneously. The seismogram comparison shows that the global earth mantle of PREM provides deviating synthetic seismogram and has later arrival times than those from the measurement. To achieve the seismogram fitting, the gradient βh in the upper mantle layers was altered to positive from its negative slope as stated in the PREM model, and positive corrections are added to the zero order of polynomials coefficients of S velocity structure in all earth mantle layers. The excellent fitting, as well as travel time and waveform, were achieved on the S wave, Love and Rayleigh surface waves, as well as the ScS and ScS2 core reflected waves.

  14. PEMBANGUNAN PERMUKIMAN YANG BERKELANJUTAN UNTUK MENGURANGI POLUSI UDARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timoticin Kwanda

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase of urban population will cause environment problems, such as clean water scarcity, bad condition of sanitation, garbage disposal, and air pollution. Main sources of air pollution in large cities are emissions of motor vehicles (CO which is 70% to 80% of the total air pollutant. Air pollution may create hazard for human health. Carbon monoxide (CO which changes into carbon dioxide (CO2 will cause global warming, and then climate change happened will cause flood and dry land, which then it effects on human health. In addition, the damage of Ozone layer caused by CFC chemical will cause more ultra violet going into the troposphere which causes skin cancer. To solve air pollution, first is to decrease energy consumption and search for a cleaner alternated energy. Second is to build sustainable buildings and settlements, and environment friendly public transportation system. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Peningkatan jumlah penduduk perkotaan yang relatif tinggi menimbulkan masalah bagi lingkungan hidup, misalnya masalah kurangnya air bersih, buruknya kondisi sanitasi, pembuangan sampah, dan polusi udara. Sumber terbesar polusi udara di kota besar adalah asap kendaraan bermotor (CO yaitu sebesar 70% - 80% dari total polutan udara. Pencemaran udara berdampak pada kesehatan manusia. Karbon monooksida (CO yang berubah menjadi karbon dioksida (CO2 akan berakibat pada pemanasan global, sehingga terjadi perubahan iklim yang menyebabkan banjir dan kekeringan, yang kemudian berpengaruh pada kesehatan manusia. Selain itu, rusaknya lapisan Ozon yang diakibatkan oleh senyawa kimia CFC, berakibat pada banyaknya sinar ultra violet memasuki troposfer yang dapat mengakibatkan kanker kulit. Untuk mengatasi masalah polusi udara ini, pertama adalah mengurangi konsumsi energi dan mencari energi alternatif yang lebih bersih. Kedua, mengurangi polusi udara dengan cara pembangunan ruang terbuka hijau, pembangunan bangunan dan permukiman yang

  15. FAKTOR VIRULENSI Salmonella enterica SEROVAR TYPHI

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    Marvy Khrisna Pranamartha

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Demam tifoid disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, dengan gejala umum berupa demam tinggi dan nyeri perut. Tifoid adalah penyakit infeksi yang disebabkan oleh bakteri Salmonella typhi, yang masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui mulut dan saluran cerna.1 Untuk bisa memahami patogenesis dari demam tifoid sampai ke tingkat selular dan molekular, ada 5 hal penting yang harus digaris bawahi, yaitu: 1.\tTipe 3 Sistem Sekresi (T3SS 2.\tVirulence Genes dari Salmonella yang mengkode 5 SIP (Salmonella Invasion Protein SIP A, B, C, D, dan E. 3.\tToll R2 dan toll R3 yang merupakan lapisan luar dari makrofag. 4.\tSistem imun lumen usus sampai ke organ dalam 5.\tFungsi endotelial sel dalam inflamasi. Infeksi Salmonella dapat berakibat fatal kepada bayi, balita, ibu hamil dan kandungannya serta orang lanjut usia. Hal ini disebabkan karena kekebalan tubuh mereka yang menurun. Virulensi salmonella tidak lepas dari peranan SPI, yang terletak di dalam kromosom dan plasmid bakteri. Dimana SPI 1 dan SPI 2 telah dikaji cukup mendalam karena keterkaitannya dengan T3SS, dan berperan sangat penting pada invasi awal serta siklus hidup intrasel dari bakteri Salmonella. Kontaminasi Salmonella dapat dicegah dengan mencuci tangan dan menjaga kebersihan makanan yang dikonsumsi. Selalu menjaga kebersihan lingkungan hidup kita agar terhindar dari kontaminasi dengan bakteri Salmonella typhi. Agar mewaspadai sejak dini pencegahan dan pengobatan penyakit typhus. Studi mendalam perlu dilakukan agar kita mampu lebih memahami proses kompleks antara patogen dan sel inang. Mengingat dari 15 SPI yang sudah diketahui, hanya SPI 1 dan SPI 2 yang sudah dikaji secara mendalam. Kata Kunci: Salmonella, Salmonella Invasion Protein, Typhi.

  16. Adsorption of Procion Red on Natural Bentonite : Kinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarmizi Taher

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Adsorption of procion red on natural bentonite was studied by kinetic study to know the reactivity of procion red. Kinetic adsorption was determined using batch adsorption system at various times in several concentrations of procion red. Time of adsorption was investigated at 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 minutes in 10, 25, 50, and 75 mg/L of procion red. The data was calculated using Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic equation. The diffusions process of procion red into bentonite at lower concentration was faster than at higher concentration in general with fit correlation between [(ln(Co/C/C] vs t/C from Langmuir-Hinshelwood data. The adsorption procion red on bentonite data at various times shows Langmuir monolayer adsorption process in the surface of bentonite. Keyword: adsorption, procion red, natural bentonite, kinetic Abstrak (Indonesian: Adsorpsi procion merah pada bentonit alam telah dipelajari melalui studi kinetik untuk mengetahui reaktivitas procion merah. Kinetika adsorpsi ditentukan menggunakan sistem adsorpsi simultan pada berbagai waktu dalam beberapa konsentrasi procion merah. Waktu adsorpsi dipelajari pada 5, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, dan 120 menit pada konsentrasi procion merah 10, 25, 50, dan 75 mg/L. Data dihitung menggunakan persamaan kinetika Langmuir-Hinshelwood. Proses difusi procion merah ke dalam bentonit pada konsentrasi rendah lebih cepat dibanding pada konsentrasi lebih tinggi secara umum dengan hubungan korelasi yang lurus antara [(ln(Co/C/C] versus t/C dari data Langmuir-Hinshelwood. Adsorpsi procion merah pada bentonit dengan berbagai variasi waktu adsorpsi menunjukkan proses adsorpsi satu lapisan pada permukaan bentonit. Katakunci: adsorpsi, procion merah, bentonit alam, kinetik

  17. GEO-ARKEOLOGI TERAS PURBA BENGAWAN SOLO DI SEKITAR KABUPATEN BOJONEGORO, JAWA TIMUR The Geo-archaeology of Ancient Terrace of Bengawan Solo in Bojonegoro Surrounding Regency, East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Arif

    2016-07-01

    Abstrak Pemetaan teras purba Bengawan Solo merupakan kajian geo-arkeologi tahap awal yang dilakukan di beberapa lokasi di wilayah kabupaten Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Permasalahannya adalah ditemukannya indikasi keberadaan peralatan batu paleolitik dan fosil-fosil vertebrata di beberapa teras purba di wilayah ini. Oleh karena itu, tujuan dari kegiatan ini adalah mendapatkan gambaran sebaran teras purba Bengawan Solo berumur Kuarter serta memberikan usulan kepada para ahli arkeologi dalam merancang kegiatan pencarian sisa-sisa budaya manusia antara lain peralatan batu paleolitik maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan pada suatu teras purba. Metode yang dipakai di dalam penelitian ini adalah metode pemetaan geologi, deskripsi profil sedimen, pengambilan contoh-contoh sedimen (termasuk fosil hewan untuk keperluan analisa sedimentologi dan analisa kimia. Di daerah penelitian yang terletak di kabupaten Bojonegoro dijumpai tiga teras yaitu Teras Menden (berumur sub-Resen, Jipangulu (berumur Holosen Awal dan Ngandong (berumur Plestosen Atas. Teras Menden dijumpai di Payaman, Teras Jipangulu di Prangi dan Wotangare dan Teras Ngandong dijumpai di Prangi dan di desa Kedung. Berdasarkan bukti stratigrafinya ketiga teras tersebut disusun oleh lapisan pasir ukuran kasar hingga kerikilan di bagian bawah dan berubah menjadi pasir lempungan dan lempung pasiran di bagian atas. Fenomena ini menunjukkan bahwa ketiga teras tersebut dibentuk oleh sungai yang berkelok-kelok yaitu Bengawan Solo purba. Kedudukan masing-masing teras purba di daerah penelitian yang diukur dari Bengawan Solo adalah 2-3 m (Teras Menden, 5-7 m (Teras Jipangulu dan >8 m (Teras Ngandong. Berdasarkan hasil kajian teras purba ini diusulkan agar para ahli arkeologi lebih memfokuskan kepada perlapisan sedimen yang berukuran kasar dalam sistem endapan sungai purba berumur Kuarter untuk mencari sisa-sisa budaya manusia paleolitikum seperti peralatan batu maupun sisa-sisa fosil rangka manusia dan hewan.   Kata

  18. Teratoma del mediastino associato ad infezione da HIV: descrizione di un caso

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    V. Garretto

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available La comparsa di neoplasie maligne è un evento frequente nei soggetti HIV positivi; si calcola infatti che circa il 25% di tali soggetti sviluppi una neoplasia maligna durante il corso dell’infezione. La maggioranza dei tumori insorgenti nei pazienti HIV positivi è rappresentata dal Sarcoma di Kaposi, dai Linfomi non Hodgkin e dai carcinomi della regione ano-genitale; un’aumentata incidenza appare presente anche per altre neoplasie maligne, quali il carcinoma basocellulare cutaneo, il Morbo di Hodking, il leiomiosarcoma del bambino. Inoltre, sporadicamente differenti tipi di tumori sono stati descritti in soggetti HIV positivi; il significato di queste associazioni tuttavia non è chiaro. In questo lavoro viene presentato un caso di teratoma del mediastino occorso in un paziente HIV positivo maschio di 37 anni. La causa dell’infezione da HIV è rimasta sconosciuta; al momento della diagnosi il valore assoluto di CD4 è risultato essere di 27/mmc. Il paziente è giunto a morte per la comparsa di un tamponamento cardiaco intrattabile riferibile alla progressione della patologia neoplastica. Anche per questo caso non è possibile definire con esattezza il significato della coesistenza tra infezione da HIV e neoplasia mediastinica; è comunque da sottolineare la assoluta rarità dell’associazione osservata.

  19. Le reazioni redox: un pasticcio concettuale?

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    Elena Ghibaudi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Le reazioni di ossidoriduzione costituiscono un argomento centrale di qualsiasi corso di base di chimica, sia a livello scolastico che universitario. Il loro apprendimento comporta il superamento di svariati ostacoli concettuali, la cui difficoltà può risultare amplificata da prassi didattiche inadeguate. Gli errori più ricorrenti nel presentare l’argomento sono di due tipi: i fare implicitamente riferimento a modelli esplicativi distinti (es. il numero di ossidazione e il trasferimento elettronico, senza esplicitarli e senza evidenziarne la differente natura e il campo di validità; ii confondere il livello della spiegazione formale con quello della realtà fisica. I fenomeni redox sono normalmente interpretati sulla base di tre distinti modelli empirici, che fanno riferimento al trasferimento di atomi di ossigeno, di atomi di idrogeno, di elettroni; e di un quarto modello, formale, fondato sul cambiamento del numero di ossidazione. La confusione tra questi modelli può generare considerevoli problemi di apprendimento. Il presente lavoro riporta un’analisi critica delle implicazioni concettuali della didattica dei processi redox. L’analisi è articolata in tre sezioni: i disamina della evoluzione storica del concetto di ossidoriduzione; ii analisi dei modelli redox e del loro campo di validità; iii discussione di alcuni aspetti epistemologici inerenti i processi redox che sono rilevanti per la didattica della chimica.

  20. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ketepatan Diagnosis Malaria di Puskesmas Kabupaten Belu Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Fridolina Mau

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Pengobatan malaria di Kabupaten Belu Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur berdasarkan pada diagnosisklinis dan mikroskopis. Angka kesalahan diagnosis mikroskopis malaria dilaporkan masih tinggi, di atasnilai toleransi kesalahan diagnosis menurut Kementerian Kesehatan >5%. Tujuan penelitian ini untukmengetahui faktor-faktor penyebab kesalahan diagnosis malaria di Puskesmas. Rancangan penelitianini adalah explorasi dan observasional secara potong lintang terhadap 16 mikroskopis sampel dalammendiagnosis mikroskopis malaria. Penelitian dilakukan di 10 puskesmas Kabupaten Belu dari bulanApril hingga Juni 2012. Hasil pengamatan menunjukkan faktor yang mempengaruhi kesalahan diagnosisadalah kelengkapan mempersiapkan alat dan bahan sebelum pengambilan darah (p < 0,029, tidakmelakukan sediaan darah tipis (p < 0,07, menggunakan Kaca Sediaan (KS bekas/slide bekas (p <0,08 hasil pewarnaan Sediaan Darah (SD tidak baik (p < 0,02, kurang pengalaman kerja (p < 0,029dan kurang pelatihan (p <0,08. Penilaian terhadap mikroskopis dilakukan oleh expert microscopistyang tersertifiasi dan ditemukan responden memiliki nilai Kappa jelek (0,00-0,20 sebanyak 35,2%.

  1. Sporta ziņu valoda

    OpenAIRE

    Vāvere, Ilze

    2010-01-01

    Maģistra darbs "Sporta ziņu valoda" sniedz ieskatu par leksiskajām, gramatiskajām, vārddarināšanas īpatnībām sporta ziņās. Īpaša uzmanība pievērsta sporta ziņu valodas stilistiskajām iezīmēm un valodas kultūras jautājumiem. Aplūkots publicistikas valodas lietojums plašsaziņas līdzekļos kopumā, publicistikas žanru tipi, kā arī tieši sporta publicistikas valodai raksturīgās īpatnības. Darbā analizēti arī mākslinieciskās izteiksmes līdzekļi un to izmantošana sporta publicistikā latviešu val...

  2. Türkiye'nin 7 akarsu havzasında horozbina, Salaria fluviatilis (Asso,1801, balığına ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali İlhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada Türkiye‟nin 7 akarsu havzasından toplanmış olan Horozbina Balığı (Salaria fluviatilis‟na ait boy-ağırlık ilişkisinin ortaya çıkarılması amaçlanmıştır. Marmara, Küçük Menderes, Batı Karadeniz, Antalya, Doğu Akdeniz, Seyhan ve Ceyhan havzalarına ait akarsulardan toplanmış olan 652 birey incelenmiştir. Tüm bireyler dikkate alındığında türün Türkiye içsularındaki total boy dağılımı 2.0-12.9 cm, total ağırlık dağılımı 0.10-33.82 g, boy-ağırlık ilişkisi parametreleri a= 0.0135, b= 3.004, r2= 0.986 olarak hesaplanmıştır. Ayrıca, büyüme tipi havzaların 5‟inde izometrik, 1 havzada pozitif allometrik ve 1 havzada da negatif allometrik olarak belirlenmiştir

  3. The Challenge of Fostering Healthy Organizations: An Empirical Study on the Role of Workplace Relational Civility in Acceptance of Change and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bucci, Ornella; Guazzini, Andrea; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The world of work in the twenty-first century is characterized by globalization, instability, and unavoidable change. Organizations need to develop a positive relational environment in the workplace thereby enabling workers to enhance their personal resources in order to face with on-going changes in the sphere of work for promoting their well-being. Against this background, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between workplace relational civility and both acceptance of change and well-being (hedonic well-being as well as eudaimonic well-being) beyond the effect of personality traits. The following instruments were administered to 261 Italian workers: the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), the Acceptance of Change Scale (ACS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM). The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that workplace relational civility explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond personality traits in relation to acceptance of change, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. These results underscore the positive relationship between workplace relational civility and acceptance of change, hedonic well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, offering new research and intervention opportunities to meet the challenge of fostering healthy organizations. PMID:27917131

  4. Aria `96; ARIA `96

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risica, S.; Di Ciaccio, P. [eds.] [Istituto Superiore di Sanita`, Rome (Italy). Lab. di Fisica

    1996-03-01

    The Congress is devoted to the study of the indoor air quality in different types of indoor environments: work and life environments, transportation and leisure environments. In the various sessions, the different aspects of indoor pollution (health effects, detection and measurement of pollutants, legislation, experimental techniques, etc.) were presented and discussed. The high number of invited and submitted papers gives an idea of the numerous research activities performed in Italy in this field and proves the interest in this kind of interdisciplinary seminars, where physicists, chemists, physicians, engineers, architects and many other professional meet in a single scientific effort to improve the quality of life. [Italiano] Il Convegno e` dedicato allo studio della qualita` dell`aria nei diversi tipi di ambienti interni: gli ambienti di vitae di lavoro, i mezzi di trasporto, i luoghi del tempo libero. Le diverse sessioni affrontano, in modo interdisciplinare, i vari aspetti dell`inquinamento cioe` gli effetti suulla salute, la determinazione e la misura degli inquinanti, la normativa, le attivita` internazionali nel settore, ecc. L`elevato numero di relazioni ad invito e comunicazioni raccolte testimonia non solo i numerosi progetti di ricercasviluppati in Italia su queste tematiche, ma anche l`interesse per questo tipo di incontri che vedono confrontarsi fisici, chimici, ingegneri, architetti e numerose altre figure professionali in un unico sforzo scientifico per il miglioramento della qualita` della vita.

  5. The Big Five personality dimensions and mental health: The mediating role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atari, Mohammad; Yaghoubirad, Mahsa

    2016-12-01

    The role of personality constructs on mental health has attracted research attention in the last few decades. The Big Five personality traits have been introduced as parsimonious dimensions of non-pathological traits. The five-factor model of personality includes neuroticism, agreeableness, conscientiousness, extraversion, and openness to experience. The present study aimed to examine the relationship between the Big Five dimensions and mental health considering the mediating role of alexithymia as an important emotional-processing construct. A total of 257 participants were recruited from non-clinical settings in the general population. All participants completed the Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Structural equation modeling was utilized to examine the hypothesized mediated model. Findings indicated that the Big Five personality dimensions could significantly predict scores of alexithymia. Moreover, alexithymia could predict mental health scores as measured by indices of depression, anxiety, social functioning, and somatic symptoms. The fit indices (GFI=0.94; CFI=0.91; TLI=0.90; RMSEA=0.071; CMIN/df=2.29) indicated that the model fits the data. Therefore, the relationship between the Big Five personality dimensions and mental health is mediated by alexithymia.

  6. Il linguaggio della CMC... il «Dolce Stil Novo» del web? Un percorso di riflessione linguistica all’Orientale di Napoli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Elia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La comunicazione mediata sincrona ed asincrona nel web e nei mondi 3D, è costellata dall’uso sempre crescente di nuovi termini e dall’impiego di abbreviazioni, acronimi ed emoticons divenuti oramai parte integrante della nostra vita virtuale. Dal punto di vista linguistico un aspetto interessante del Cyberspeak è il processo di formazione morfologica. Autorevoli linguisti (Crystal, 1995; Algeo, 1999 hanno messo a punto una tassonomia che ha reso possibile la classificazione dei diversi tipi di formazione lessicale in atto nella nuova microlingua. Si intende qui presentare un’esperienza sviluppata nel laboratorio di «Informatica Umanistica» del corso di laurea in «Linguaggi Multimediali e Informatica Umanistica» della Facoltà di Lingue e Letterature Straniere dell’Università degli Studi di Napoli «L’Orientale» rivolta agli studenti di lingua inglese e finalizzata allo sviluppo della competenza e consapevolezza linguistica nell’uso dei corretti ed appropriati registri linguistici richiesti dai vari con(testi d’uso.

  7. CONTENUTO DI URANIO E TORIO NELLE METEORITI

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    M. SANTANGELO

    1955-06-01

    Full Text Available Molti ricercatori in questi ultimi anni si sono interessati al problema
    della composizione delle meteoriti; dai risultati sperimentali si
    è cercato trarre elementi circa la genesi di questi materiali, questione
    ancora aperta, ed avere informazioni sui processi chimici e termodinamici
    cui le meteoriti furono soggette prima della loro caduta sulla
    terra.
    Uno degli aspetti del problema è quello dell'abbondanza percentuale
    degli elementi chimici e della loro composizione isotopica nella
    materia meteorica dei diversi tipi : ciò perché esso è connesso con
    quello piii generale dell'origine e distribuzione degli elementi nel cosmo
    e nella terra, nonché con quello dell'età delle meteoriti (l .
    In un recente lavoro Urey e collaboratori (-, esaminando un gran
    numero di analisi chimiche effettuate su questi materiali, sono pervenuti
    alla formulazione di alcuni criteri di classificazione in base alla
    percentuale dei componenti più abbondanti ed alla presenza o meno
    di disomogeneità strutturali nella massa fondamentale. Fra gli elementi
    meno abbondanti presentano particolare interesse quelli delle due famiglie
    radioattive naturali Torio e Uranio; le loro concentrazioni sono
    state determinate per alcune meteoriti siliciche (stonv ineteorites e
    per qualcuna ferrica (iron meteorites

  8. Stilometrie en karakterisering in The Big Bang Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryka van Zyl

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Dialoog is ’n belangrike aspek van televisuele karakterkonstruering. Skrywers maak talige keuses namens die karakters en hierdie keuses kan daartoe aanleiding gee dat kykers ’n karakter met ’n spesifieke stereotipe subkultuur of sosiale groep vereenselwig. Hierdie studie ondersoek die talige konstruering van die karakter Sheldon Cooper in die CBS-sitkom The Big Bang Theory. ’n Trosanaliseboom van die spraak van elk van die vyf hoofkarakters in die eerste sewe seisoene (gegenereer deur die R-skrip Stylo 0.6.0 dui daarop dat die karakter Sheldon Cooper van die ander hoofkarakters (Leonard, Penny, Howard en Rajesh verskil ten opsigte van taalstyl. Hierdie verskille word verder ondersoek deur gebruik te maak van die korpusanalise program (WordSmith 6.0. om sleutelwoorde en leksikale bondels te identifiseer en om die gebruik van aktiewe en passiewe werkwoordkonstruksies te vergelyk. Sheldon se keuse van wetenskaplike of meer formele woorde en sy relatiewe voorkeur vir die passiefkonstruksie tipeer sy taalstyl as verduidelikend eerder as tipies van omgangstaal.

  9. Archeologia virtuale, realismo, interattività e performance: dalla ricostruzione alla fruizione on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Pescarin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available L'articolo presenta le diverse fasi di un progetto di archeologia virtuale, nel quale i diversi tipi di dati vengono acquisiti e realizzati utilizzando approcci metodologici diversi, per poi essere integrati all'interno di un unico ambiente interattivo. Tale ambiente è costituito da una parte accessibile solo da utenti “esperti” (tramite accesso ristretto ad una sezione beck-end in cui è possibile comporre la scena 3d ed esporla e da una parte 3d esplorabile interattivamente da un pubblico più ampio. Viene dunque descritto il software open source  realizzato, OSG4WEB, recentemente ottimizzato tramite l'aggiunta di nuove funzionalità che consentono di pubblicare on line ampi paesaggi 3d ricostruiti. Viene quindi analizzato un caso di studio, Aquae Patavinae VR, su cui si sono testati gli approcci metodologici e le funzionalità del software di visualizzazione e interazione on line. Vengono infine sottolineate le problematiche ancora aperte nel settore della creazione di paesaggi archeologici e nella loro esplorazione all'interno di ambienti di realtà virtuale.

  10. Preliminary study on the acoustic communication of captive otters (Lutra lutra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gnoli

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The study was conducted on captive otters (Lutra lutra in a large enclosure (1.64 ha in area. Data on different kind of sounds related to specific behaviours were recorded by videocamera. Furthermore, sounds were collected by tape recorder, analysed by spectrograph and represented by spectrograms. A general pattern of the vocalizations of otter has been obtained, in order to understand the acoustic communication system of the species. The main sound categories were blows, mewings and cries in an aggressive context, murmurs and two kinds of whistles in a social context. Riassunto Studio preliminare sulla comunicazione acustica della lontra (Lutra lutra in cattività - Lo studio è stato condotto su lontre (Lutra lutra tenute in cattività in un ampio recinto (1,64 ha. Attraverso riprese effettuate tramite videocamera, sono stati raccolti dati sull'emissione delle diverse tipologie di suoni in determinati contesti comportamentali. Inoltre, per mezzo di un magnetofono sono state registrate alcune manifestazioni sonore, successivamente analizzate mediante sonografo e rappresentate in forma di spettrogrammi. In questo modo è stato ottenuto un quadro della gamma di vocalizzazioni della lontra che può contribuire alla comprensione del suo sistema di comunicazione acustica. Le principali categorie di suoni individuate consistono in sbuffi, miagolii e grida nell'ambito aggressivo, mormorii e due tipi di fischi nell'ambito del contatto sociale.

  11. PERCOBAAN OSILASI BANDUL FISIS BENTUK SEDERHANA SEBAGAI TUGAS PROYEK PENELITIAN PADA MATERI MOMEN INERSIA DI SMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Khanafiyah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Percobaan ayunan bandul fisis bertujuan untuk menentukan suatu besaran fisis, misalnya percepatan gravitasi bumi atau momeninersia pusat massa suatu benda. Dasar dari percobaan ini adalah terjadinya getaran harmonis pada benda yang berosilasidengan amplitudo kecil, sehingga mempunyai periode yang nilainya tergantung pada besarnya momen inersia. Tiga macampercobaan osilasi bandul fisis dengan bentuk sederhana telah dilakukan, yaitu dengan bentuk sembarang, batang tipis dancakram. Hasil percobaan menunjukkan bahwa pada percobaan ayunan bandul fisis, grafik antara kuadrat perioda dengan variabelbebas adalah linier. Dengan demikian dapat dibuktikan adanya faktor momen inersia pusat massa yang besarnya tertentu.Dengan demikian percobaan ini dapat memperdalam pemahaman tentang momen inersia benda, dan dapat dijadikan sebagaimateri pengayaan. Physical oscillation experiments aimed to determine a physical quantity such as gravity acceleration or centre of mass inertia. Theexperiment based on harmonic vibration caused by a small amplitude particle oscillation, such that the period depends on its inertiamoment. The experiment was done using three kinds of pendulums, such as arbitrary shape, thin rod and disc. The results showthat in physical oscillation experiment, the graph of free variables of squared period is linear. This proves the existence of a centremass inertia moment factor. This experiment can be used to deepen the understanding on moment inertia.Keywords: physical oscillation; inertia moment; centre mass; inertia moment

  12. PADE YAKLAŞlMLARI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serpil HALICI

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Yapılan bu çalışmada, bir formal kuvvet serisiyardımıyla bir fonksiyona nasıl yaklaşılabileceğiçalışıldı. Bir fonksiyona yaklaşabilmenin birçokyolları vardır. Pa de ve Pade tipi yaklaşımlarıbunlardan bazılarıdır. B u yaklaşımlar birer rasyonelyaklaşım olduklarından, rasyonel yaklaşımlarınözelliklerini taşırlar. Bu yaklaşım tipinin gösterimi,hesaplanışı ve hatasının bulunması, farklı şekillerdegösterimi ç alışıldı. Enterpotasyon polinomları ilebağlantıları anlatılarak, bu yaklaşırnların tek ve çokdeğişkenli durumları da incelendi.

  13. Analysis of xanthines in beverages using a fully automated SPE-SPC-DAD hyphenated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedovici, A. [Bucarest Univ., Bucarest (Romania). Faculty of Chemistry, Dept. of Analytical Chemistry; David, F.; David, V.; Sandra, P. [Research Institute of Chromatography, Kortrijk (Belgium)

    2000-08-01

    Analysis of some xanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) in beverages has been achieved by a fully automated on-line Solid Phase Extraction - Supercritical Fluid Chromatography - Diode Array Detection (Spe - Sofc - Dad). Three adsorbents have been tested for the Spe procedure: octadecyl modified silicagel (ODS) and two types of styrene-divinylbenzen copolymer based materials, from which Porapack proved to be the most suitable adsorbent. Optimisation and correlation of both Spe and Sofc operational parameters are also discussed. By this technique, caffeine was determined in ice tea and Coca-Cola in a concentration of 0.15 ppm, theobromine - 1.5 ppb, and theophylline - 0.15 ppb. [Italian] Si e' realizzata l'analis di alcune xantine (caffeina, teofillina e teobromina) mediante un sistema, in linea, completamente automatizzato basato su Estrazione in Fase Solida - Cromatografia in Fase Supercritica - Rivelazione con Diode Array (Spe - Sfc - Dad). Per la procedura Spe sono stati valutati tre substrati: silice ottadecilica (ODS) e due tipi di materiali polimerici a base stirene-divinilbenzene, di cui, quello denominato PRP-1, e' risultato essere il piu' efficiente. Sono discusse sia l'ottimizzazione che la correlazione dei parametri operazionali per la Spe e la Sfc. Con questa tecnica sono state determinate, in te' ghiacciato e Coca-Cola, la caffeina, la teobromina e la teofillina alle concentrazini di 0.15, 1.5 e 0.15 ppm.

  14. Susanlimae ianwhittingtoni gen. nov., sp. nov. (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae, a dweller of the gill rakers of Pseudeutropius moolenburghae (Siluriformes: Schilbeidae from Sumatra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A new genus and species of Monogenoidea, Susanlimae ianwhittingtoni gen. nov., sp. nov., are proposed for dactylogyrids collected from the "Nuayang tipis", Pseudeutropius moolenburghae Weber & de Beaufort, 1913, which inhabits freshwater in Sumatra. While clearly a member of a putative clade that includes Asian and African catfish parasites, S. ianwhittingtoni sp. nov. differs from most members of this clade by having a bifurcated haptor that embraces the gill rakers of its host. This haptoral morphology and mode of attachment also occur in species of Bifurcohaptor Jain, 1958. However, species of Susanlimae gen. nov. are easily distinguished by the comparative morphology of their haptoral armature. In Susanlimae gen. nov., the ventral and dorsal bars are single, elongated, and inverted u-shaped (ventral bar short and two short dorsal bars in Bifurcohaptor spp.; the dorsal anchor is robust with well-defined roots (reduced roots and elongate shaft in Bifurcohaptor spp.; and the ventral anchor has an elongated, deep root (inconspicuous in Bifurcohaptor spp..

  15. [CONTATTI SONORI] Ballos sardos in pratza. La nuova stagione delle danze nell’isola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Calzia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Tutte le musiche sono in perenne trasformazione. Il mondo delle danze tradizionali in Sardegna ha conosciuto una brusca accelerazione negli ultimi anni. Dal ruolo centrale di strumenti come i vari tipi di fisarmoniche e le launeddas si è giunti oggi alla nascita di nuovi ensemble specializzati nell’esecuzione dei balli per la piazza. Come controparte è avvenuta una sempre maggiore adesione alle danze tradizionali da parte di molti giovani inurbati nelle grandi città dell’isola. La situazione contemporanea è quindi in pieno fermento. In che modo si sono trasformate le musiche, quali linguaggi sono entrati in contatto con lo stile esecutivo, fortemente legato sino ad allora ad un sistema di censura rigoroso legato tanto alla piazza quanto al fenomeno dei gruppi folk? Come si stanno trasformando le danze delle singole comunità ora che sono oggetto di apprendimento da parte di tanti giovani che vivono a centinaia di chilometri dal luogo ove sono nate? La proposta propone uno sguardo analitico sull’introduzione di innovazioni nella musica e nella danza ed il loro passaggio da un suonatore all’altro e da un gruppo all’altro il tutto condito da una accesa competitività propria della cultura musicale isolana.

  16. The abominable tale of progress. The monsters of Juan Rodolfo Wilcock, between comedy and horror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Trifiro'

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Il presente contributo intende esplorare le strategie di demistificazione grottesca impiegate da Juan Rodolfo Wilcock per ritrarre l’impasse culturale della società italiana degli anni Sessanta, catapultata nella vacua frenesia di un improvviso benessere. Attraverso il suo «ridente sguardo cadaverico», come lo definisce Pasolini, la seduzione effimera del miracolo economico e, soprattutto, le sue disfunzioni, assumono le sembianze di una funerea profezia sociale, alimentata dal potere corrosivo e destabilizzante della satira. In particolare, sarà indagata la categoria dei mostri, cui l’autore italo-argentino fa sistematicamente ricorso allestendo, sia nei racconti che a teatro, una galleria di tipi umani e sub-umani esilarante e, al contempo, tragica. In questo sottobosco urbano, popolato da strambi personaggi e creature zoomorfe, i clamori luccicanti e le malie del progresso si degradano in formule stereotipe e oscene fiabe, trasmesse dagli schermi televisivi ad una massa senza miti, certificando la diagnosi lancinante di un disagio profondo.

  17. Contributo alla didattica della lingua Italiana come lingua seconda

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    Lucija Pišot - Čok

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available La tesi postlaurea "Contributo alia didattica della lingua italiana come lingua seconda" è frutto di esperienze raccolte dall'autrice nell'insegnamento della lingua italiana come L2, nonché sintesi riflessiva dellavoro empirico che l'educazione al bilinguismo le ispirava. L'insegnamento della lingua italiana nell'ambiente bilingue e biculturale dell'Istria deve differire dall'insegnamento dell'italiano come lingua straniera. Esso si pone finalità immediate (L'italiano è lingua veicolare e fmalità a lungo termine (L'italiano è una delle due lingue- culture del bilingue. Esso ha obiettivi cognitivi (L'italiano è scienza, sociali e etnolinguistici (L'educazione bilingue è fattore di transculturismo. L'autrice in prima persona ha avuto modo e opportunita di avvedersene, sia come collaboratrice nella stesura dei programmi per la lingua seconda, che come autrice di libri di testo per l'insegnamento di questa lingua, e relatrice in diversi tipi di aggiornamento professionale per insegnanti di lingua italiana elaborando, sperimentando e verificando le specificità dell'insegnamento della lingua italiana come L2 . II suo contributo alla teoria dell'educazione bilingue e le proposte per rendere l'insegnamento della lingua italiana come L2 efficace e valido, sono i1 nucleo della tesi.

  18. İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Araştırma Ormanı’nda Eylül 2007-Ağustos 2009 Dönemi Güncel Polen Dağılımı

    OpenAIRE

    Karlıoğlu, Nurgül; Akkemik, Ünal

    2012-01-01

    ÖzetÇalışma, İ.Ü. Orman Fakültesi Araştırma Ormanı’nda vejetasyonun çeşitlilik gösterdiği 3 örnek alanda (orman içi, orman kenarı ve açık alan) 2007-2009 yılları arasında toprağa düşen odunsu ve otsu bitki polen yoğunluğunu (cm2/ay) incelemek ve polen yoğunluğu değerlerinin önemli meteorolojik parametrelerle olan ilişkisini ortaya koymak amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Üç ayrı örnek alana Tauber tipi polen tuzakları yerleştirilmiş ve aylık olarak değiştirilmiştir. 2007-2008 yılına ait odunsu b...

  19. Evidências desfavoráveis para avaliação da personalidade com um instrumento de 10 itens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas de Francisco Carvalho

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo objetivou analisar a estrutura interna, a precisão e as diferenças de média por sexo e idade em uma escala de 10 itens para avaliação dos Cinco Grandes Fatores de Personalidade. Participaram 404 estudantes do ensino médio, com média de idade de 15,9 anos, do Estado de São Paulo. A escala Ten-Item Personality Inventory (TIPI é composta por 10 itens, que são duplas de adjetivos e que representam os traços de personalidade respondidos em escala Likert de 1 a 7. Não foi possível recuperar a estrutura de cinco fatores por meio da análise dos componentes principais, mas sim uma estrutura de três fatores que englobaram conteúdos de desejabilidade social, problemas de ajustamento e estabilidade emocional, com precisões entre 0,41 e 0,63. Além disso, houve diferenças significativas de média associadas à idade. Os resultados são discutidos em termos das limitações do estudo bem como da escala utilizada.

  20. Gibt es eine linguistische „Werkstattsprache“? Ein Versuch der vertikalen Schichtungder Fachsprache Linguistik. Ar yra praktinė kalbotyros kalba? Bandymas vertikaliai suskirstyti kalbotyros kalbą kaip dalykinę kalbą

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Kontutytė

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vienas iš dalykinės kalbos teorijos uždavinių yra apibrėžti dalykinės kalbos tyrimo objektą, t. y. nustatyti dalykinės komunikacijos situacijas, kurių kalba yra tiriama. Norint suskirstyti kalbotyros mokslo kalbą kaip dalykinės kalbos atmainą, remiamasi L. Hoffmanno vadinamuoju vertikalaus skirstymo modeliu, pagal kurį išskiriami penki skirtingo dalykiškumo laipsnio sluoksniai. Sluoks­nį laikant tekstų žanrų, kurie kuriami tam tikru tikslu, visuma, išskiriami tokie kalbotyros kalbos sluoksniai: kalbotyros teorijos kūrimo kalba, kalbos aprašymo kalba, kalbotyros mokymo kalba, kalbos praktikos kalba, kalbotyros mokslo populiarinimo kalba, kalbos mokymo kalba. Aprašant atskirus sluoksnius, pateikiami tipiškiausi vokiečių ir lietuvių kalbų tekstų žanrų pavyzdžiai. Iša­nalizavus vokiškų ir lietuviškų kalbotyros tekstų žanrų pavyzdžius, nustatyti vokiečių ir lietuvių kalbotyros kalbų vertikalių sluoksnių bei atskirų tekstų žanrų panašumai ir skirtumai.

  1. Research Regarding the New Biodiversity Indicators in Genetic Diversity of the Region -Country Hateg

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    Iudith Ipate

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research started in June 2009 by identification of the species and breeds in the livestock of the 11 villages and 1 town existing in the Hatseg Land area. We use the modern genotyping tool for the study of zootechnical biodiversity- molecular biology tests- based on identification, amplification and characterization of nucleic acid, revolutionized the conservation of indigene animal genetic resources, gene assisted selection, pathology diagnostic and food traceability. The original Tipy Fix methods – internatinal patented by Prof.Brem - that were used in Romania (using for the first time in Romania by the researchers of CSCBA to reveal DNA polymorphism are described as their applicability in species identification and meat traceability. Vulnerability of farm animal breeds is caused by the lack of interest apart breeders for one breed. In Hateg land area the main mean of reducing biodiversity in farm animals is the crossbreeding. It was analysis the prion protein for scrapie resistance genotyping as codonamino acid at codon 136, 154, 171 from 5 known haplotypes resulting PrP Genotype .In results of analysis in Hateg country 41 the probes present the arginine (R at codon 171 of the prion protein who confers resistance to the structural change of prion scrapie.We presented biodiversity indicator for domestic animal in Hateg country.

  2. ITALY: WEB TOURISM PROMOTION

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    Katarína Klimová

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Tourism, an important industry with a significant social and cultural dimensions, provides interesting stimuli for the study of communication, particularly in the search for adequate tools for persuading potential clients. Since the internet is an essential tool for self-promotion nowadays, specialists examine how tourist destinations are presented in different types of digital texts such as official tourism websites, which combine the informative function of guidebooks with the promotional function of brochures and leaflets. The purpose of this study is to analyse the rhetorical strategies used on the official homepages of nine Italian regions to catch the eye of potential clients and create an identity for a particular region as a tourist destination.   Il turismo, industria importante che ha una significativa dimensione sociale e culturale, costituisce un’area che fornisce stimoli interessanti per lo studio della comunicazione, in particolare nella ricerca di strumenti adeguati a persuadere potenziali clienti. Dal momento che oggi Internet è uno strumento essenziale per l’auto-promozione, molti specialisti si sono dedicati allo studio di come le destinazioni turistiche sono presentate in diversi tipi di testi digitali quali, ad esempio, i siti turistici ufficiali, che combinano la funzione informativa delle guide con quella promozionale di opuscoli e volantini. Scopo di questo studio è analizzare le strategie retoriche utilizzate nelle homepage ufficiali di nove regioni italiane per catturare l’attenzione dei potenziali clienti e per caratterizzare la regione come destinazione turistica.

  3. Nekustāmā īpašuma vērtēšanas modeļi

    OpenAIRE

    Novikova, Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Bakalaura darbs veltīts nekustāmā īpašuma masveida vērtēšanas problemātikai. Bakalaura darbā apskatīti nekustāmā īpašuma masveida vērtēšanas pamatprincipi un vērtēšanā izmantotie modeļu tipi. Darbā apskatīta ratio analīzes metodoloģija, kas tiek izmantota masveida vērtēšanas rezultātu novērtēšanai. Aprakstot spēkā esošo dzīvokļa īpašuma vērtēšanas modeli, ko izmanto Valsts zemes dienests, darbā piedāvāts vērtēt dzīvokļa īpašumu kā vienotu īpašumu, nedalot tās vērtību atsevišķās sastāvdaļa...

  4. Quale crisi, quale sociologia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Wieviorka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1929 gli studi sociologici che hanno preso in esame la crisi in atto nel momento stesso in cui questa si dispiegava sono stati molto limitati e, fino ad oggi, questa tendenza sembra confermarsi anche con riferimento alla crisi attuale. Per contro si registra una notevole diffusione di contributi di analisi del fenomeno da parte degli economisti che rivelano, in particolare, due tipi di ragionamenti: uno che limita l’analisi al breve periodo, l’altro che invece legge la crisi inquadrandola nei mutamenti dell’ultimo trentennio. La sociologia non è in crisi ma è necessario che rifletta nuovamente sugli strumenti teorici di cui dispone per analizzare la crisi contemporanea. Lo spazio dell’analisi sociologica è quello in cui si coniugano le letture dell’avvenimento attuale e le analisi di lungo periodo, lo spazio in cui può trovare adeguata considerazione la soggettività degli individui. È in questo senso che la sociologia può dare il proprio contributo, anche attraverso la collaborazione con le scienze «dure», nel tracciare degli itinerari di uscita dalla crisi.

  5. Onde elettromagnetiche

    CERN Document Server

    Toraldo di Francia, Giuliano

    1988-01-01

    Prefazione: "L'opera "Onde Elettromagnetiche" di Giuliano Toraldo di Francia vide la luce per i tipi della Casa Editrice Zanichelli nel lontano 1953. Tradotta ben presto in inglese e in giapponese, ha incontrato il favore di varie generazioni di studenti universitari e un apprezzamento dei docenti che non sembra ancora estinto. Ma è evidente che in trentacinque anni tante cose, troppe cose sono avvenute in quel campo di studio, per poter pensare che oggi il vecchio libro non presenti cospicue lacune. Ed è proprio a colmare tali lacune che ci siamo dedicati nell'elaborare il presente volume, pur conservando quasi tutto il materiale che aveva dato buona prova nel suo progenitore. La mole è inevitabilmente raddoppiata; eppure siamo ben lungi dall'avere esaurito un dominio così vasto, né ci eravamo proposti di farlo. Quello che presentiamo è il frutto di una scelta ragionata. Abbiamo ritenuto opportuno ampliare la parte sulle onde piane (con l'introduzione dei parametri di Stokes, e dei concetti di velocit�...

  6. The Challenge of Fostering Healthy Organizations: An Empirical Study on the Role of Workplace Relational Civility in Acceptance of Change and Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabio, Annamaria; Giannini, Marco; Loscalzo, Yura; Palazzeschi, Letizia; Bucci, Ornella; Guazzini, Andrea; Gori, Alessio

    2016-01-01

    The world of work in the twenty-first century is characterized by globalization, instability, and unavoidable change. Organizations need to develop a positive relational environment in the workplace thereby enabling workers to enhance their personal resources in order to face with on-going changes in the sphere of work for promoting their well-being. Against this background, the aim of this research was to examine the relationship between workplace relational civility and both acceptance of change and well-being (hedonic well-being as well as eudaimonic well-being) beyond the effect of personality traits. The following instruments were administered to 261 Italian workers: the Ten Item Personality Inventory (TIPI), the Acceptance of Change Scale (ACS), the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS), and the Meaningful Life Measure (MLM). The results of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that workplace relational civility explained a percentage of incremental variance beyond personality traits in relation to acceptance of change, life satisfaction, and meaning in life. These results underscore the positive relationship between workplace relational civility and acceptance of change, hedonic well-being, and eudaimonic well-being, offering new research and intervention opportunities to meet the challenge of fostering healthy organizations.

  7. Özel Okullara Yönelik Bir Tutum Ölçeğinin Geliştirilmesi: Geçerlik ve Güvenirlik Çalışması

    OpenAIRE

    OTRAR, MUSTAFA; KANDEMİR, Yasemin

    2016-01-01

    Bu çalışma devlet okulu öğretmenlerinin özel okullara yönelik tutumlarını belirlemek için Likert tipi bir ölçek geliştirmek amacıyla gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu İstanbul ili Kartal ilçesinde tesadüfi oransız küme örneklem yöntemi ile seçilen 29 adet Milli Eğitim Bakanlığı’na bağlı resmi devlet okulunda görev yapan 511 öğretmen oluşturmaktadır. Uygulamalar 2014-2015 eğitim öğretim yılında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada öncelikli olarak özel okullara yönelik tutumları ...

  8. PEMBUATAN DEKSTRIN DARI PATI UBI KAYU MENGGUNAKAN KATALIS AMILASE HASIL FRAKSINASI DARI Azospirillum sp. JG3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zusfahair

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Amilase merupakan salah satu enzim potensial dalam proses industri. Amilase dapat diperoleh dari bakteri Azopsirillum sp. JG3. Amilase ini dapat dimanfaatkan untuk hidrolisis pati ubi kayu pada pembuatan dekstrin. Dekstrin memiliki peran yang cukup penting dalam industri seperti pembuatan roti, makanan bayi dan bahan penyalut lapis tipis tablet. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakterisasi biokimiawi amilase hasil fraksinasi dari Azospirillum sp. JG3 serta potensinya dalam pembuatan dekstrin. Tahap penelitian ini dimulai dengan memproduksi enzim yang dilakukan dengan cara menumbuhkan inokulum ke dalam medium produksi selama 30 jam kemudian diekstraksi dengan sentrifugasi sehingga diperoleh ekstrak kasar. Ekstrak kasar amilase kemudian difraksinasi secara bertahap (15%, 30%, 45% dan 60% dengan menggunakan ammonium sulfat dan didialisis. Fraksi yang diperoleh diukur aktivitas, volume dan kadar proteinnya. Fraksi dengan aktivitas spesifik tertinggi dikarakterisasi dan digunakan untuk membuat dekstrin dari pati ubi kayu. Dekstrin pati ubi kayu yang diperoleh dikarakterisasi berupa rendemen, kadar air, kadar abu dan dextrose equivalen. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa fraksi hasil dialisis 45% (FHD 45% menghasilkan aktivitas dan aktivitas spesifik tertinggi berturut-turut sebesar 11,659 U/mL dan 7,319 U/mg. Aktivitas amilase optimum pada suhu 30°C, pH 7 dan konsentrasi substrat 4%. Dekstrin yang diperoleh memiliki rendemen 95,14, kadar air 3,411%, kadar abu 0,209% dan dextrose equivalen 13,4.

  9. Censura e street creativity

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    Edwige Comoy Fusaro

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Scopo di questo contributo è osservare la funzione seminale della censura nella street creativity e gli spostamenti dei confini tra lecito e illecito nei complessi rapporti tra censorship e creatività nell’ambiente urbano. Sono prese in considerazione tutte le produzioni iconografiche eseguite nello spazio pubblico, commissionate e non commissionate, qualunque siano i supporti prescelti e le tecniche di esecuzione, e  prescindendo da ogni giudizio estetico e artistico. Lo studio è basato su pezzi osservati in varie città d’Italia, Francia, Germania e Inghilterra nel 2014. Si prendono in considerazione la loro precisa collocazione, i motivi raffigurati e/o espressi e le motivazioni dei loro autori, quando sono note. Vari tipi di censura spingono i doers a esprimersi per strada: anzitutto la regolamentazione dell’occupazione visiva dell’ambiente urbano, le ingiunzioni e i divieti che emanano dai media autorizzati a occupare tale ambiente. I doers denunziano inoltre le menzogne delle autorità politiche, tramite rappresentazione delle verità censurate o azioni di artivism. All’origine del gesto espressivo di strada si trovano inoltre l’impulso trasgressivo, la volontà di comunicare con la gente e, soggiacente, la consapevolezza della caducità della vita.

  10. Sinesio Delgado et al., Le vergini folli. Romanzo estemporaneo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Ravasini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Esce in Italia per i tipi di Marchese Editore e la cura di Donatella Siviero un curioso romanzo apparso in Spagna nel 1886. Ideato da Sinesio Delgado, ma scritto a più mani in collaborazione con altri dieci autori, e pubblicato a puntate su una rivista letteraria madrilena, il romanzo non rappresenta solo un ludico esercizio parodico, ingegnoso e divertente, ma lascia intravedere nella produzione romanzesca spagnola del tardo Ottocento aperture inaspettate e spazi di sperimentazione inediti. Un romanzo che, seppure maturato nell’orbita di una narrativa minore e della letteratura di consumo, rivela uno sguardo attento a quanto accadeva fuori dai confini spagnoli, nonché un’inventiva e una capacità di giocare con le strutture della narrazione che, nel superamento dei limiti della scrittura realista, preparano il terreno per formule narrative che, di lì a poco, con ben altre implicazioni, praticheranno gli scrittori del primo Novecento e le Avanguardie.Delgado, Sinesio et al. Le vergini folli. Romanzo estemporaneo. Introd. e trad ital. di Donatella Siviero, Napoli: Marchese, 2012. Stampa.

  11. L'Acqua e la città. Urbanistica involontaria / Water and the City. Unintentional Urbanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Stessens

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo articolo tratta di «epifenomeni», una parola relativamente indefinita che si rivolge ad effetti di sfondo o collaterali dei quali la relazione con la loro causa è piuttosto sfocata. In questo caso, ci concentriamo specificamente sugli aspetti fisici dell’ambiente urbano-bioclimatico come i flussi d’acqua, i flussi termici e la presenza di spazi verdi. Più specificamente, analizzeremo come questi sono soggetti a diversi tipi di urbanizzazione. Sulla base di una breve trattazione su Bordeaux, giungiamo alla conclusione che l’acqua - in tutte le sue presenze - sta riconquistando importanza nel funzionamento e la progettazione della città, seppur in modo più astratto e computazionale. / This paper is framed by the word «epiphenomena», a rather undefined word pointing to background or side effects of which the relation with their cause is relatively blurry. In our case, we focus on physical aspects of the bio-climatic urban environment, such as water flows, heat flux and presence of green space. More specifically, we look at how these are subject to different types of urbanization. Based on a brief discussion of Bordeaux, we arrive at the conclusion that water - in all of it's appearances - is regaining importance in the functionning and designing of the city, albeit in a more abstract and computational way.

  12. Rating of personality disorder features in popular movie characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schliewe Sanna

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tools for training professionals in rating personality disorders are few. We present one such tool: rating of fictional persons. However, before ratings of fictional persons can be useful, we need to know whether raters get the same results, when rating fictional characters. Method Psychology students at the University of Copenhagen (N = 8 rated four different movie characters from four movies based on three systems: Global rating scales representing each of the 10 personality disorders in the DSM-IV, a criterion list of all criteria for all DSM-IV personality disorders in random order, and the Ten Item Personality Inventory for rating the five-factor model. Agreement was estimated based on intraclass-correlation. Results Agreement for rating scales for personality disorders ranged from 0.04 to 0.54. For personality disorder features based on DSM-IV criteria, agreement ranged from 0.24 to 0.89, and agreement for the five-factor model ranged from 0.05 to 0.88. The largest multivariate effect was observed for criteria count followed by the TIPI, followed by rating scales. Raters experienced personality disorder criteria as the easiest, and global personality disorder scales as the most difficult, but with significant variation between movies. Conclusion Psychology students with limited or no clinical experience can agree well on the personality traits of movie characters based on watching the movie. Rating movie characters may be a way to practice assessment of personality.

  13. La “casa virtuale” e l’abitare reale. Relazioni tra sepolture e insediamento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rossi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’architettura del sepolcro e del cimitero esprimono rispettivamente un modello ridotto della casa e della città, che caratterizza il rapporto tra tipo insediativo e tipo abitativo in forme che rispecchiano il gusto e il costume coevi. La crisi dei cimiteri legata allo scadimento della qualità architettonica degli interventi del dopoguerra corrisponde alla crisi identitaria della società e della periferia contemporanea, perché l’architettura rispecchia i valori di chi la abita e la città quelli di chi la vive. I rilievi del cimitero della Villetta a Parma documentano il rapporto tra l’articolazione architettonica e la struttura sociale nelle relazioni formali tra le sepolture collettive e quelle individuali. La generalizzazione dell’esempio specifico offre elementi per la comprensione del rapporto tra significato e significante nell’evoluzione dell’architettura funeraria nella definizione di tipi insediativi e abitativi coerenti con i valori sociali di una società in continua trasformazione.

  14. Evaluation of genotoxicity of Lake Como water and localisation of contamination sources; Valutazione dell'attivita' genotossica delle acque del Lago di Como e localizzazione delle fonti di contaminazione

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guzzella, L.; Bellavista, D. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Brugherio, MI (Italy). Ist. di Ricerca sulle Acque; Monarca, S.; Feretti, D. [Brescia Univ., Brescia (Italy). Dipt. di Medicina Sperimentale ed Applicata, Sez. di Igiene

    2000-12-01

    A monitoring campaign was performed in 1997-98 in order to evaluate the genotoxic activity of Lake Como water (Italy). The water samples were concentrated by two different SPE methods (tC{sub 18} and Lichrolut EN) for the evaluation of the most efficient recovery system of mutagenic and toxic compounds. The extracts were analysed by gas chromatographic techniques and were tested in order to evaluate the potential mutagenic and toxic effects. The results showed the presence of toxic and mutagenic compounds but the observed activity was lower than the one found in a previous study. The main source of the lake contamination seems to be the river Cosia influent. [Italian] La valutazione della genotossicita' delle acque del lago di Como e' stata effettuata mediante una campagna di monitoraggio delle acque condotta nel 1997-1998. I campioni sono stati concentrati mediante due tipi di cartucce SPE (tC{sub 18} e Lichrolut EN) allo scopo di detrminare il metodo piu' efficace per il recupero delle sostanze mutagene e tossiche presenti. Gli estratti sono stati analizzati mediante tecniche gascromatografiche e con test di mutagenesi e tossicita' per la valutazione degli effetti genotossici. I risultati hanno evidenziato la presenza di sostanze tossiche e mutagene, anche se l'attivita' osservata e' inferiore a quella misurata in ricerche precedentemente condotte. La principale fonte di inquinamento del lago e' stata individuata nell'affluente Cosia.

  15. Information driven self-organization of complex robotic behaviors.

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    Georg Martius

    Full Text Available Information theory is a powerful tool to express principles to drive autonomous systems because it is domain invariant and allows for an intuitive interpretation. This paper studies the use of the predictive information (PI, also called excess entropy or effective measure complexity, of the sensorimotor process as a driving force to generate behavior. We study nonlinear and nonstationary systems and introduce the time-local predicting information (TiPI which allows us to derive exact results together with explicit update rules for the parameters of the controller in the dynamical systems framework. In this way the information principle, formulated at the level of behavior, is translated to the dynamics of the synapses. We underpin our results with a number of case studies with high-dimensional robotic systems. We show the spontaneous cooperativity in a complex physical system with decentralized control. Moreover, a jointly controlled humanoid robot develops a high behavioral variety depending on its physics and the environment it is dynamically embedded into. The behavior can be decomposed into a succession of low-dimensional modes that increasingly explore the behavior space. This is a promising way to avoid the curse of dimensionality which hinders learning systems to scale well.

  16. Il progetto Siria: una proposta di archiviazione, ricerca e presentazione dati per Gortina e Mitropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Baldini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Il Progetto SIRIA, sviluppato nell’ambito di un progetto strategico del Dipartimento di Archeologia dell'Università di Bologna, è un sistema centralizzato per la gestione, la ricerca e la presentazione della documentazione archeologica. Il sistema è in grado di gestire, all'interno di un database relazionale, le classi di informazioni principali generate dalla ricerca archeologica: dati alfanumerici-tabulari, dati spaziali, immagini e in generale tutti i tipi di file che necessitano di essere archiviati. L'architettura del database, organizzata in un modo flessibile, consente agli utenti di utilizzare, in una struttura comune, gruppi specifici di informazioni (plug-in. L'obiettivo è andare incontro alle istanze dei singoli studiosi permettendo loro di organizzare liberamente i propri dati; inoltre, consentire l’integrazione dei dati e un allargamento della scala di riferimento dei singoli progetti. Il Progetto SIRIA aderisce alla filosofia e agli scopi del movimento open source: il codice è rilasciato sotto la licenza libera software GPLv3.

  17. Computation of the brightness of the variably-polarizing undulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dattoli, G.; Torre, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Rome (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione; Schettini, G. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica; Carpanese, M.

    1999-01-01

    Undulators, producing variably polarized radiation, generate magnetic fields which induce different types of electron motion (vertically, horizontally sinusoidal and helical). The properties of the emitted radiation reflect the complexity of the motion and cannot be described with the method based on the conventional Bessel functions expansion. It`s shown that the problem can be overcome by exploiting a method which employs generalized forms of Bessel functions. The proposed technique provides an effective tool to analyze the properties of the emitted radiation. [Italiano] Ondulatori con polarizzazione variabile generano campi magnetici che inducono tipi differenti di moto degli elettroni (sinusoidale in direzione verticale o orizzontale, elicoidale). Le proprieta` della radiazione emessa riflettono la complessita` del moto e non possono essere derivate utilizzando il metodo della espansione in funzioni di Bessel ordinarie. Si dimostra come il problema possa essere superato utilizzando un metodo che utilizza forme generalizzate di funzioni di Bessel. Il metodo proposto fornisce una tecnica efficacie per l`analisi delle proprieta` della radiazione emessa.

  18. How much OOO in your MOOC?

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    Maja Kuna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Il formato MOOC (Massive Open Online Course continua a creare numerose riflessioni, soprattutto in merito alla sua capacità di raggiungere tanti utenti contemporaneamente e all’uso innovativo delle nuove tecnologie. Questo articolo esamina il rapporto di simultanea attrazione e repulsione che la comunità educativa attualmente rivela verso i MOOC, un’ambivalenza che sembra sorgere a causa della qualità di apertura (openness. Le recenti implementazioni di MOOC divergono dalla radice connettivista. Un modo per comprendere le loro differenze può essere tramite l’osservazione di come vengano applicati i sette tipi di apertura. L’openness è ritenuta la dimensione più significativa perché è quella che definisce meglio la qualità dei MOOC, anche se, al contempo, è quella che crea le maggiori sfide.Questo articolo esplora le tendenze attuali nelle offerte di MOOC, mettendo in discussione il valore pedagogico delle nuove implementazioni, ma anche apprezzando la loro rapida crescita e il loro potenziale impatto. L’articolo suggerisce che il formato MOOC debba essere adottato con un cosciente e deliberato intento di utilizzare l’apertura che offre, e non semplicemente perché aiuta a raggiungere un numero decisamente più ampio di studenti.

  19. Performance Analysis of a Free Space Optics Link with Multiple Transmitters/Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Haedzerin Md Noor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT:  Multiple transmitters/receivers (TX/RX are used to improve the quality of Free Space Optics (FSO communication systems. With the current needs of this technology for longer distance communication, the qualitative analysis of the system has become essential. In this work, the received power level (PR and bit error rate (BER are considered to influence the FSO link performance. The relationship between the two parameters are investigated and analysed. Furthermore, the received power for various numbers of TXs and RXs are experimentally measured and compared with the values obtained from theoretical calculations. The first part of the work deals with the theoretical calculation and simulation designs of multiple laser beams based on the commercial FSO used in actual sites. The second part describes the practical work and analysis of the system’s performance.ABSTRAK: Pemancar/penerima berganda (TX/RX digunakan bagi meningkatkan kualiti sistem komunikasi Ruang Optik Bebas (FSO. Analisis kualitatif ke atas sistemnya adalah penting bagi keperluan semasa teknologi ini untuk jarak jauh. Di dalam kajian ini, aras kuasa penerima (PR dan kadar ralat bit (BER telah diambilkira bagi menentukan prestasi rangkaian FSO. Hubungan di antara kedua-dua parameter telah dikaji dan dianalisis. Seterusnya, kuasa penerima untuk pelbagai nombor TXs dan RXs diukur secara eksperimen dan dibandingkan dengan nilai teori yang dikira. Bahagian pertama skop kajian berkaitan dengan pengiraan teori dan rekabentuk simulasi sinaran laser berdasarkan FSO komersial di lapangan. Bahagian kedua kajian adalah kerja lapangan dan analisis prestasi sistem.KEY WORDS:  Free Space Optics (FSO link; Multiple TX/RX FSO; bit error rate (BER; eye diagram.

  20. Analysis of Rain Effects on Terrestrial Free Space Optics based on Data Measured in Tropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suriza Ahmad Zabidi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Free Space Optics (FSO shows a great alternative as the solution for last mile problem where fiber optics is unavailable due to deployment time and cost constraint.  However, the feasibility of using FSO system as communication link very much depends on local weather.  Since tropical region experiences heavy rainfall, rain with high intensity is expected to affect the FSO link severely. Few prediction models have been proposed by ITU-R based on France and Japan’s measurement. This paper has compared  rain attenuation predicted by  models and  data measured in Malaysia over Free Space Optical links for one year period. Prediction models are clearly unable to predict attenuation measured in tropical climate. ABSTRAK: Wayarles optik menjadi alternatif sebagai satu penyelesaian kepada masalah kesesakan terutama diakhir sesuatu talian dimana ianya tidak dapat diselesaikan dengan menggunakan gentian fiber akibat daripada kekangan masa pemasangan dan masalah kewangan.  Walaubagaimanapun, kejayaan untuk menggunakan wayarless optic ini amat bergantung kepada keadaan cuaca di sesuatu tempat.  Di rantau tropika  hujan lebat sentiasa dialami, oleh itu hujan dengan kepadatan tinggi adalah dijangkakan lebih memberi kesan kepada talian wayarles optic ini. Beberapa model yang telah dicadangkan oleh ITU-R berlandaskan kepada pengumpulan data yang dibuat di Perancis dan Jepun.  Kertas kajian ini akan membandingkan antara model-model yang telah digunapakai dengan data yang dikumpulkan di Malaysia selama setahun.  Jelasnya model yang telah digunapakai tidak dapat digunakan secara berkesan di rantau tropika.KEYWORDS: free space optics; rainfall rate; rain attenuation

  1. Googles Augmented-Reality-Game "Ingress"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl H. Stingeder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Das an das "Geocoaching"-Spielprinzip erinnernde Augmented-­Reality-Game "Ingress" ist auf allen mit Android-Betriebssystem ausgestatteten Smartphones spielbar. Das Alleinstellungsmerkmal des Spiels ist gleich­zeitig auch das beste Patent-Rezept für bzw. gegen notorisches "Couch-Potato-ing": Das Game-Design des "Draußenspiels" erfordert jedoch stets die physische Anwesenheit der SpielerInnen am realen Ort des Geschehens, meist touristisch attraktive Sehenswürdigkeiten und architektonisch markante Plätze. Sobald "Ingress" per App am Smart­phone gestartet wird, stehen Interaktionen und Machtverhältnisse auf dem Handy-Display im Dreh- und Angelpunkt des Geschehens. Die Spielgrafik ist auf das Wesentliche reduziert und erinnert an die Optik von Videospielen der 80er Jahre. "Ingress" im Allgemeinen sowie "Magnus13", die erste von Google organisierte Fan-Veranstaltung Österreichs mit mehreren Hundert TeilnehmerInnen und ist mit einer "digitalen Schnitzeljagd" vergleichbar: Gemeinsam ist der klassischen "Schnitzeljagd" und dem digitalen "Schere-Schein-Papier" Prinzip von "Ingress" die tragende Rolle des im Spiel entstehenden Gemeinschaftsgefühls, welche in einer hohen Langzeitmotivation mündet. Trotz aller Euphorie, ob des unkonventionellen Augmented-Reality-Spielkonzepts und des in Folge der sozialen Dynamik außergewöhnlichen Sucht­potentials, ist angesichts von Edward Snowden und vielfältiger NSA-Abhörmaßnahmen, eine gesunde Portion Skepsis angebracht: Welchen Zweck erfüllt "Ingress"? Gibt es ein verhülltes "Mittel zum Zweck"? Welche Gefahren bestehen mit einer systematischen Auswertung des umfangreichen, ortsrelevanten Daten-Sammelsuriums? "Ingress" verdeutlicht trotz aller Risiken den soziokulturellen Bedeutungswandel des digitalen Spiels: Spiele per se und das Spiel als soziale Interaktion sind aktuell dabei, alle Bereiche unseres Lebens zu erfassen.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Photometry and spectroscopy of LS V+44 17 (Yan+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, W.; Liu, Q.

    2016-10-01

    Most of our spectra of RX J0440.9+4431 were obtained with the 2.16m telescope at Xinglong Station of National Astronomical Observatories. The optical spectroscopy with an intermediate resolution was made with a CCD grating spectrograph at the Cassegrain focus of the telescope. We took the red spectra covering from 5500 to 6700Å. Sometimes low-resolution spectra (covering from 4300 to 6700Å) were also obtained. In 2012 March and 2013 November, we also carried out the spectroscopic observations with the Yunnan Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (YFOSC) instrument of the Lijiang 2.4m telescope in the Yunnan Astronomical Observatory. The Grism #8 was used with a resolution of 1.47Å/pixel, with a spectral range from 5050 to 9750Å. The journal of our observations is summarized in Table1. Since 2007, we performed systematic photometric observations on a sample of X-ray binaries with the 100cm Education and Science Telescope (EST) and the 80cm Tsinghua-NAOC Telescope (TNT) at Xinglong Station of NAOC. The EST, manufactured by EOS Technologies, is an altazimuth-mounted reflector with Nasmyth foci at a focal ratio of f/8. TNT is an equatorial-mounted Cassegrain system with a focal of f/10, made by AstroOptik, funded by Tsinghua University in 2002 and jointly operated with NAOC. Both telescopes are equipped with the same type of Princeton Instrument 1340*1300 thin back-illuminated CCD. The CCD cameras use standard Johnson-Cousins UBVRI filters made by Custom Scientific. The BVRI differential magnitudes and their errors are listed in Table2. (2 data files).

  3. EVALUASI PENGGUNAAN KAMERA NON METRIK PADA FOTOGRAMETRI JARAK DEKAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Ricky Pratama

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Citra yang ideal adalah citra yang merepresentasikan obyek secara sempurna tanpa terjadi degradasi kualitas. Namun tidak ada lensa yang dapat memnuhi  hal tersebut. Kemampuan lensa dikatakan maksimum apabila sebuah lensa mereproduksi citra dari sebuah obyek hingga mencapai titik di mana detail citra sudah tidak dapat lagi direproduksi dari obyek. MTF (modulation transfer function diukur sebagai patokan kemampuan lensa untuk membedakan antara daerah gelap dan terang pada obyek. Standar optik untuk pengukuran MTF menggunakan unit frekuensi spasial disebut ”line pair per millimeter” atau lp/mm. Dengan mengetahui nilai MTF, sebuah citra dengan degradasi kualitas dapat ditingkatkan kualitasnya. Kecerahan merupakan salah satu faktor penting dalam hasil MTF. Peningkatan kontras dengan meningkatkan perbedaan kecerahan antara obyek dan latar belakang benda dapat memberikan perbedaan informasi yang didapat. Manipulasi kontras dilakukan sebagai peregangan kontras dengan meningkatkan perbedaan kecerahan yang seragam di seluruh dynamic range dari citra.   Dari informasi MTF suatu lensa dan perubahan nilai kontras dengan teknik contrast stretching akan menghasilkan sebuah citra dengan peningkatan kualitas sehingga interpretasi citra tersebut lebih fleksibel untuk menghasilkan informasi yang dibutuhkan.Sebuah citra digital harusnya memiliki tingkat kecerahan yang optimum yaitu mulai dari gelap  sampai terang. Hal tersebut ditandai dengan nilai digital number citra yang memiliki range 0 – 225. Dari hasil penelitian penggunaan kamera Canon Powershot A2200 menunjukkan perubahan digital number pada citra hasil perekaman yang sebelumnya memiliki rentang 10 - 255 untuk band merah dan biru menjadi  0 – 255 pada semua band dengan peningkatan nilai mean untuk tiap – tiap band : Red(115.2 menjadi 127.1, Green(111.4 menjadi 126.9 dan Blue(93.9 menjadi 129.5. Peningkatan nilai digital number tersebut menunjukkan bahwa adanya peningkatan kecerahan dari citra

  4. Diagnosis dan Penatalaksanaan Tumor Ganas Laring

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    Dolly Irfandy

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Laring berperan dalam koordinasi fungsi saluran aerodigestif atas seperti bernafas, berbicara dan menelan.Laring terbagi tiga yaitu supraglotis, glotis dan subglotis. Laring merupakan daerah tersering kedua untuk kasuskarsinoma sel skuamosa kepala-leher, biasanya berhubungan dengan tembakau dan alkohol. Lebih dari 95% kasustumor ganas laring adalah karsinoma sel skuamosa. Pasien tumor ganas laring datang dengan berbagai keluhanseperti disfonia, obstruksi jalan napas, disfagia, odinofagi dan hemoptisis. Diagnosis tumor ganas laring ditegakkanberdasarkan anamnesis, pemeriksaan klinis menggunakan endoskopi kaku, serat optik dan biopsi. Penatalaksanaantumor ganas laring tergantung stadium dengan modalitas berupa operasi, kemoterapi, radiasi atau terapi kombinasi.Dilaporkan kasus laki-laki 53 tahun dengan karsinoma glotis stadium III (T3N0M0 squamous cell ca keratinized welldifferentiated. Penatalaksanaan pada pasien ini dengan melakukan laringektomi total.Kata kunci: Tumor ganas laring, karsinoma, laringektomi, tembakau Abstract Larynx plays a certain role in coordinating functions of the upper aerodigestive tract, such as respiration,speech, and swallowing. The larynx is divided into three region; supraglottic, glottic, and subglottic. Larynx is thesecond most common site for squamous cell carcinoma in the head and neck and usually related to tobacco andalcohol exposure. Primary malignant tumors of the larynx are squamous cell carcinomas can found more than 95% ofcases. Patients with laryngeal tumors usually present with complaints of hoarseness, respiratory obstruction,dysphagia, odynophagia and hemoptysis. Diagnosis of laryngeal cancer is made by medical history, clinicalexamination using a rigid or fiberoptic endoscope and biopsy. Management of laryngeal tumour depends on stadiumwith various modality included surgery, chemotheraphy, radiotheraphy or combined therapy. Reported case of 53years old male with Glottic carcinoma of the larynx

  5. 8-Isoprostane is a dose-related biomarker for photo-oxidative ultraviolet (UV) B damage in vivo: a pilot study with personal UV dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, L A; Bloch, W; Kopp, K; Hainzl, A; Rettberg, P; Wlaschek, M; Horneck, G; Scharffetter-Kochanek, K

    2006-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) B irradiation causes visible erythema, which has been linked with DNA damage. However, besides such direct photochemical conformation changes, UVB also induces many indirect photochemical effects in the skin. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) is in this context one of the major pathways by which photo-oxidative stress disturbs cell signalling and promotes photocarcinogenesis and photoageing. So far we lack techniques for visualizing photo-oxidative stress in the skin. Furthermore, LPO has never been linked with individually acquired UVB doses measured by personal dosimetry. Measuring the skin reaction and photo-oxidative damage by LPO in vivo after UVB exposure in a pilot study surveyed by personal dosimetry in order to allow for a correlation analysis of acquired dose, skin reaction and amount of LPO. UVB exposure was measured with the opto-electronic X2000-1 (Gigahertz Optik, Puchheim, Germany) and the biological DLR Biofilm (German Aerospace Center DLR, Cologne, Germany) portable dosimeter. The skin reaction following UVB exposure was quantified with a Minolta chromameter (Minolta, Tokyo, Japan) and LPO in vivo was measured by 8-isoprostane generation by means of densitometric analysis of immunohistochemical samples obtained 30 min post-UVB irradiation. Regression analysis revealed significant linear relations between UVB exposures recorded by the dosimeters and colorimetry parameters of the skin reaction. Furthermore, an even better linear relation with higher significance was found between the generation of 8-isoprostane in the skin and the dosimeter readouts. LPO measured by the generation of 8-isoprostane provides a suitable intrinsic biomarker for photo-oxidative UVB damage in vivo. This study provides a new approach to visualizing photo-oxidative stress in the skin in vivo. Furthermore, future dosimeter readouts can now be set into relation to the expected increase of LPO that can be calculated within the limits of our study.

  6. Complications of Meckel’s Diverticle in Adults

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    Özgür Korkmaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal sistemin en sık rastlanan konjenital anomalisi olup %1–3 oranında görülür. Bu çalışma ile kliniğimizde on sekiz yıllık dönemde karşılaşılan Meckel divertikül komplikasyonlarına bağlı takip ve tedavisi yapılan olgular tartışıldı.Bu çalışmada 1987–2005 yılları arasında Dicle Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Genel Cerrahi Kliniğinde Meckel divertikülüne bağlı komplikasyonlar nedeniyle takip ve tedavi edilen 27 olgunun bilgileri retrospektif olarak incelendi. Yaş, cinsiyet, Meckel divertikülünün yerleşimi ve büyüklüğü, komplikasyon tipi, preoperatif tanı yöntemleri, uygulanan ameliyat ve insizyon tipi, postoperatif komplikasyonlar, hastanede kalış süreleri ve patoloji sonuçları kaydedildi.Olguların, 12’ i erkek, 15’ i kadındı. Ortalama yaş, 30,7±12.39 idi. Meckel divertikül komplikasyonu olarak olguların 14’ünde (%50 divertikülit, 12’sinde (%46,2 intestinal tıkanıklık, birinde (%3,8 ise alt gastrointestinal kanaması ile karşılaşıldı. Ameliyatta 17 olguya wedge rezeksiyon-primer sütür, on olguya ise ince barsak rezeksiyonu gerçekleştirildi. Bir olguya ise mevcut genel peritonit tablosu nedeniyle rezeksiyon ve stoma uygulandı. Divertikülün uzunluğu ortalama 2,93±0,71 cm idi. Histopatolojik incelemede ektopik dokuya rastlanılan olgu olmadı. Genel morbidite oranı %18,5 idi. Genel mortalite oranı ise: %3,7 idi.Bu çalışmada Meckel divertikülü komplikasyonları, literatür verilerin aksine her iki cinste eşit ağırlıkta görüldü. Ayrıca alt gastrointestinal kanaması daha düşük oranlarda rastlanıldı. Ameliyat öncesi tanının sıklıkla mümkün olmaması ve ameliyatta gecikilmesi ciddi sorunlara neden olabilmektedir. Bu nedenle adından sıkça söz edilmesine rağmen nadir görülen Meckel divertikülünün ileus, akut karın ve alt gastrointestinal kanaması ile başvuran olgularda göz önünde bulundurulması erken tanı ve

  7. L’ELICITED ORAL IMITATION TEST COME STRUMENTO DI MISURAZIONE DELLE CONOSCENZE IMPLICITE E DELLE ABILITÁ DI PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Borro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Lo studio esamina la validità dell’Elicited Oral Imitation Test (EI nella misurazione delle conoscenze implicite e delle strategie di processing. Si basa sull’ipotesi elaborata da Erlam secondo il quale l’EI è ricostruttivo, cioè richiede agli apprendenti di processare l’input orale e non di ripeterlo meccanicamente. La struttura misurata nello studio è il participio passato: la scelta è motivata dal fatto che si tratta di una struttura problematica a diversi livelli di competenza e richiede la capacità di processare tratti morfologici e sintattici allo stesso tempo (Salvi, Vanelli, 2004.I partecipanti sono 26 studenti cinesi di livello A2 e B1 che, all'epoca, avevano frequentato per circa 400 ore un corso di lingua italiana all'Università degli Studi di Milano. Lo studio utilizza, oltre all’EI, altre due forme di valutazione: un Untimed Grammaticality Judgment Test (UGJT e un Metalinguistic Knowledge Test (MKT. Lo studio ha dimostrato che l'EI ha un debole correlazione con  l'UGJT e con l’MKT, a conferma del fatto che gli studenti hanno fatto affidamento su due tipi di competenze differenti che possono essere identificate con le conoscenze implicite e il processing nel caso dell'EI e con le conoscenze esplicite nel caso dell’UGJT e dell’MKT. I dati raccolti nello studio hanno anche evidenziato una correlazione tra UGJT e MKT a riprova che i due tipi di valutazione richiedono competenze basata su costrutti simili.  The elicited oral imitation test as a tool for measurement of knowledge and skills of implied processingThe study examined the validity of the Elicited Oral Imitation Test (EI in the measurement of implicit knowledge and processing strategies. It is based on the hypothesis developed by Erlam that EI is reconstructive, requiring learners to process oral input and not to repeat it mechanically. The structure measured in the study was the past participle: this choice was motivated by the fact that it is a

  8. The phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography results of Jatropha gossypiifolia seeds

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    Anis Nurwidayati

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Schistosomiasis saat ini masih menjadi masalah kesehatan di daerah endemis di Sulawesi Tengah. Keong Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis, perantara schistosomiasis tersebar luas di wilayah tersebut. Pemberantasan yang dilakukan selama ini dilakukan dengan penyemprotan moluskisida kimia. Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengidentifikasi golongan senyawa kimia di dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah.Metode: Penelitian dilakukan pada bulan Mei 2009. Biji jarak merah dikumpulkan dari wilayah Tondo, Kota Palu. Ekstraksi biji jarak merah dilakukan dengan metode perkolasi menggunakan pelarut metanol. Dilakukan skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung untuk mendeteksi golongan senyawa di dalam ekstrak biji jarak merah. Skrining dilanjutkan dengan uji kromatografilapis tipis untuk memastikan hasil skrining dari uji tabung.Hasil: Ekstrak yang dihasilkan dari 500 gram serbuk biji jarak merah kering dengan 2500 ml pelarut metanol adalah sebanyak 250 ml ekstrak kental berwarna coklat kemerahan. Skrining fitokimia dengan uji tabung menunjukkan hasil positif alkaloid dengan terbentuknya endapan pada reaksi tes Meyer, tes Wagner, tes Dragendorff. Skrining ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah juga menunjukkan hasil positif saponin pada tes busa dan tes Lieberman-Burchard. Hasil positif pada tes Keller Killiani dan tes Kedde menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak biji jarak merah mengandung cardenoline dan bufadienol. Analisis kromatografilapis tipis menunjukkan ekstrak biji jarak merah positif terpen dengan terbentuknya spot pada plat silika gel dengan penyemprotan pereaksi terpen yaitu serium sulfat. Kesimpulan: Komponen kimia yang terkandung dalam ekstrak metanol biji jarak merah terdiri dari alkaloid, saponin, cardenolin, bufadienol, dan terpen.(Health Science Indones 2012;2:xx-xxKata kunci:schistosomiasis, Jatropha gossypifolia, komponen kimiaABSTRACTBackground:Schistosomiasis is still a health problem in Central Sulawesi. Snail Oncomelania hupensis lindoensis

  9. Perancangan dan Realisasi Web-Based Data Logging System menggunakan ATmega16 melalui Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP

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    RATNA SUSANA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP merupakan protokol jaringan pada lapisan aplikasi TCP/IP yang menjadi dasar komunikasi pada World Wide Web (WWW. Penelitian ini merancang dan merealisasikan web-based data logging system yang bertujuan untuk memperkenalkan aturan HTTP, sehingga perangkat elektronik dapat berkomunikasi dengan website secara langsung. Sistem dirancang dengan dua sub sistem utama yaitu website data logger dan website. Data logger direalisasikan menggunakan ATMega16 yang diintegrasikan dengan sumber data analog dan digital, RTC serta modem GSM. Data logger berfungsi sebagai pengirim data, sedangkan website berfungsi sebagai pengatur, penerima, pengolah dan penyaji data. Sistem ini telah berhasil melakukan komunikasi antara data logger dengan website melalui HTTP, artinya protokol ini dapat diimplementasikan pada data logger yang menggunakan ATmega16. Perubahan data analog dan status logika 0 dan 1 dari data digital yang terjadi pada data logger dapat dilihat pada tampilan di website. Kata kunci:  basis data, data logger, Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP, website, protokol jaringan. Abstract Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP is an application layer network protocols in TCP/IP is the basis of communication on the World Wide Web (WWW. This research was to design and realize a web-based data logging system that aims to introduce the rules of HTTP, so that electronic devices could communicate with the website directly. The system was designed with two main sub-system, namely data logger and website. The data logger was realized using ATmega16 are integrated with analog and digital data sources, RTC and a GSM modem. Data logger function as the sender of data, while the website functions as regulator, receiver, processing and presenter data. This system had been successfully perform communication between the data logger to a website via HTTP, meaning that this protocol could be implemented on a data logger that uses ATmega16

  10. MODEL INKLUSI KEUANGAN PADA UMKM BERBASIS PEDESAAN

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    Setyani Irmawati

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In general, regional economy is supported by micro, small and medium enterprises (SMEs. They have important role in promoting economic growth in Indonesia. In Indonesia, there are various types of SMEs that are spreadout throughout the region, one of which is batik SMEs. Klaten regency has the largest number of Batik SMEs in Central Java province. Commonly, the issue of SMEs in general is the problem of capital. To overcome this issue, there is a model named “Financial Inclusion” to encourage the financial system to be accessible by society. The purpose of this study is to identify the application of financial inclusion in rural-based batik SMEs in Klaten regency and analyze its strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and obstacles in the implementation of financial inclusion in the SME. Data analysis technique used is descriptive analysis and SWOT analysis. The results revealed that the form of the model of financial inclusion for SMEs Batik in Klaten regency is financial institutions in terms of capital. This is in the form of low interest loans and KUR (Business Credit fo Society. Then, there is a provision of assistance from financial institutions. In terms of marketing, it is necessary for SMEs in having intensive assistance, participating in batik exhibition and advertisement. Having applied this model, it is expected that SMEs Batik Klaten will be well-improved. Perekonomian daerah pada umumnya ditopang oleh Usaha Mikro Kecil dan Menengah (UMKM. Perannya sangat vital dalam meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi di Indonesia. Di Indonesia terdapat berbagai jenis UMKM yang tersebar diseluruh wilayah, salah satunya adalah UMKM batik. Kabupaten Klaten memiki jumlah UMKM batik terbanyak di provinsi Jawa Tengah. Persoalan UMKM pada umumnya adalah masalah permodalan. Untuk mengatasinya terdapat satu model bernama “Inklusi Keuangan” yang dapat mendorong sistem keuangan agar dapat diakses seluruh lapisan masyarakat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah

  11. Kandidiasis di Mulut akibat Khemoterapi dan Penatalaksanaannya

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    Sri Budiarti Wonso Hardjono

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: kandidiasis (kandidosis adalah infeksi jamur yang disebabkan oleh spesies Candida biasanya Candida albicans. Faktor predisposisi yang memicu kandidiasis adalah terganggunya ekologi mulut karena antara lain pemakaian antibiotika, kortikosteroid, penyakit kronis dan keganasan, beberapa gangguan darah; terapi radiasi di leher dan kepala; khemoterapi; leukimia, obat sitotoksik, juga kebersihan mulut yang buruk. Tujuan: melaporkan kasus kandidiasis di mulut karena khemoterapi dan penatalaksanaannya. Kasus dan penatalaksanaannya: seorang anak laki-laki umur 3 tahun 11 bulan penderita Leukimia Limfoblastik Akut (LLA sedang dalam perawatan khemoterapi menderita kandidiasis di mulut sehingga mengalami disfoni dan disfagia. Makanan dimasukkan lewat hidung. Klinis pasien terlihat lemah infus lewat tangan. Dalam mulut terlihat patch putih tebal menutupi permukaan dorsal dan ventral lidah, palatum durum dan ventral lidah, palatum durum dan molle, mukosa pipi kanan kiri dan gingiva rahang atas dan bawah. Pasien disedasi untuk dilakukan pengerokan lapisan kandida di mulut; pemberian Nystatin solution dan ketokonazol dilanjutkan. Pengerokan psedomembran kandidiasis telah memberikan hasil yang memuaskan, satu minggu kemudian rongga mulut pasien sudah terlihat bersih, pasien sudah dapat makan minum melalui mulut, juga sudah dapat berbicara lagi/tidak serah. Kesimpulan: Pembersihan jamur dengan pengerokan telah dilakukan, kandidiasis pseudomembran dapat diangkat dan mulut pasien sudah bersih, pasien dapat makan dan berbicara lagi.   Background: Candidiasis (candidosis is an fungal infection caused by Candida species usually Candida albicans. Predisposing factors which trigger candidiasis are the ecological disruption caused by use of oral antibiotics, corticosteroids, malignancy and chronic disease; some blood disorders; head and neck radiation; chemotherapy; leukimia, cytotoxic drugs, as well as poor oral hygiene. Aim: To report a case of

  12. ANALISIS LAJU DOSIS NEUTRON REAKTOR PLTN PWR 1000 MWe MENGGUNAKAN PROGRAM MCNP

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    Amir Hamzah

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dalam rangka menyongsong PLTN pertama di Indonesia, dilakukan kajian dan analisis berbagai aspek teknologi reaktor tersebut. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menentukan laju dosis neutron di luar perisai biologik reaktor PLTN PWR 1000 MWe yang merupakan bagian dari kegiatan besar di atas. Data hasil analisis laju dosis radiasi pada posisi tertentu sangat dibutuhkan untuk menunjukkan tingkat paparan radiasi di posisi tersebut. Analisis laju dosis neutron ditentukan berdasarkan hasil analisis fluks dan spektrum neutron. Analisis fluks dan spektrum neutron di teras reaktor daya PWR 1000 Mwe dilakukan menggunakan program MCNP. Model perhitungan yang dilakukan meliputi 9 zona material yaitu, teras, air, selimut, air, tong, air, bejana tekan, beton dan lapisan udara luar. Penentuan distribusi fluks dan spektrum neutron dilakukan ke arah radial hingga di luar perisai beton dengan akurasi antara 10% hingga 30% dalam tiap kelompok energi yang jumlahnya 1 dan 50 kelompok. Hasil analisis laju dosis neutron di permukaan perisai biologik reaktor PLTN PWR 1000 MWe pada kondisi reaktor beroperasi daya penuh sudah di bawah nilai batas keselamatan. Maka dapat disimpulkan bahwa dari segi paparan radiasi neutron, penggunaan perisai radiasi beton setebal dua meter sudah memenuhi persyaratan keselamatan. Kata kunci: PLTN PWR, fluks neutron, perisai, laju dosis neutron, MCNP.   In order to meet the first nuclear power plant in Indonesia, it has been conducted a study and analysis of various aspects of reactor technology. The purpose of this study was to determine the neutron dose rates at the outside of biological shield of NPP PWR 1000 MWe reactor that is a part of the activities described above. The analysis data of radiation dose rate at a specific position is needed to show the level of radiation exposure in those positions. Analysis neutron dose rate is determined based on the results of the analysis of neutron flux. Analysis of flux and neutron spectrum in

  13. Post-Feminitas: Teknologi Sebagai Basis Keadilan Gender (Teknopolitik dan Masa Depan Relasi Gender

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    Sadari Sadari

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Kesetaraan gender yang kian hari semakin melemah, dengan kecanggihan teknologi dapat bangkit kembali untuk memberikan peran dan porsi kerja yang sama antara laki-laki dan perempuan baik dalam wilayah domistik maupun publik. Keterbatasan seorang perempuan dibandingkan laki-laki tidak lagi menjadi kendala, seorang perempuan di dalam eksoskeleton bisa 1.000 kali lebih perkasa dibandingkan seorang laki-laki. Untuk itulah perlu adanya pemberdayaan gender berbasis teknologi dengan melakukan penyusunan anggaran bagi semua lapisan masyarakat (laki-laki dan perempuan menerima manfaat dan memiliki akses yang sama terhadap anggaran tersebut untuk mampu mengaplikasikan teknologi. Penyusunan anggaran responsif gender berbasis teknologi ini mempunyai pandangan dan pemahaman yang sama akan arti, manfaat dan pentingnya kesetaraan dan keadilan gender. Mengingat bahwa kesinambungan sangat penting dalam pencapaian kesetaraan dan keadilan gender, maka analisis gender dalam berbagai kebijakan dan program berbasis teknologi perlu dilanjutkan dan ditingkatkan. Berbagai kendala yang dihadapi dalam pelaksanaan adalah komitmen para penentu kebijakan baik di lingkungan eksekutif, legislatif dan yudikatif, minimnya pakar analisis gender karena kurangnya alokasi dana untuk peningkatan kapasitas, dan terbatasnya data terpilah berdasar jenis kelamin, perlu mendapat perhatian secara seksama agar pelaksanaan strategi dapat berjalan secara efektif dan berkesinambungan di masa yang akan datang.   Gender equality has weakened, technology has to be bounced back to give the same role and the work portion between men and women both in the domestic and public area. Limitations of a woman than men are no longer become an obstacle; a woman inside the exoskeletons could be 1,000 times more powerful than a man. for this reason, the need for the promotion of gender based technology by perform budget formulation, so all levels of society (male and female receive benefits and have equal

  14. Kajian Dampak Lingkungan Global dari Kegiatan Keramba Jaring Apung melalui Life Cycle Assessment (LCA

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    Tri Heru Prihadi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan iklim global yang berlangsung saat ini memberikan pengaruh pada berbagai bidang, termasuk perikanan yang menyebabkan terjadinya degradasi lingkungan perairan. Hal ini berdampak pada muncul dan menyebarnya berbagai penyakit ikan, menurunnya laju pertumbuhan organisme perairan, bahkan hingga menimbulkan kematian massal ikan. Namun hal ini belum sepenuhnya dapat diatasi oleh para ilmuwan tanah air, bahkan bisa dikatakan baru sebagian kecil saja. Penerapan Best Management Practice (BMP dengan aplikasi Life Cycle Assessment (LCA akan sangat berarti dalam upaya penerapan perikanan budidaya berkelanjutan, dengan model pengelolaan kuantitatif. Dalam hal ini metode LCA secara kuantitatif merupakan pertama kalinya dilakukan di Indonesia. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dan mengevaluasi kuantitas dan kategori dampak lingkungan akibat kegiatan budidaya keramba jaring apung (KJA melalui LCA. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kegiatan budidaya di KJA menimbulkan dampak yang signifikan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Dari berbagai faktor yang berperan dalam kegiatan budidaya KJA, pakan ikan merupakan faktor yang paling dominan dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan global (di atas 70%, berupa pemanasan global, penurunan jumlah sumberdaya abiotik, eutrofikasi, penipisan lapisan ozon, toksisitas pada manusia, dan penurunan jumlah keanekaragaman hayati. Dari faktor pakan tersebut, unsur yang paling berpengaruh dalam menghasilkan dampak lingkungan adalah soybean Brazil dan winter wheat, sehingga perlu dicari alternatif bahan untuk mensubstitusi kedua unsur tersebut. Demikian juga faktor-faktor lainnya (seperti: polystyrene foams, drum plastik, bambu, jaring, besi, skala budidaya, dan lain-lain mempunyai peranan terhadap dampak yang ditimbulkan terhadap lingkungan perairan. Global climate change has been affecting many sectors, including fisheries causing aquatic environment degradation such as fish disease outbreaks, decreasing growth rate of fish

  15. DILEMA KEBERADAAN SEKTOR INFORMAL

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    Hartati Sulistyo Rini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sebagai sistem ekonomi alternatif, keberadaan sektor informal mengundang pro dan kontra. Peranannya yang signifikan sebagai katup pengaman ekonomi nasional belum diimbangi dengan proteksi atau perlindungan dari pemerintah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah membahas peran sektor informal dalam mengatasi masalah sosial ekonomi masyarakat dan dilema yang dialami oleh sektor informal dalam menjalankan perannya tersebut. Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan terdapat peran sektor informal pada bidang ketenagakerjaan dan penyerapan angka pengangguran. Sektor formal dianggap tidak mampu menyediakan kesempatan kerja untuk seluruh lapisan masyarakat, apalagi mereka yang ada pada posisi marjinal. Pada beberapa kasus-khususnya yang berhubungan dengan sektor informal perkotaan perlakuan dan kebijakan negara menjadi sangat diskriminatif karena seringkali berhadapan dengan kebijakan negara yang bahkan berakhir dengan kekerasan.  Perlindungan terhadap sektor informal salah satunya adalah pada pedagang kaki lima di Surakarta.  Kota ini menjadi contoh representatif dalam pengorganisasian kepentingan  pemerintah  dan pedagang kaki lima. Ini dapat menjadi inspirasi positif bagi penanganan sektor informal di tempat yang lain untuk memperluas lapangan kerja bagi masyarakat dan meningkatkan kesejahteraan sosial. As an alternative economic system, the existence of informal sector invites pros and cons. The significant role of informal sector as a safety valve of the national economy has not been matched by government with the protection or support The objective of this study is to discuss the role of the informal sector in addressing social and economic issues, and the dilemma faced by the informal sector in carrying out this role. The results of this study shows that there is an important role of the informal sector in the field of employment and unemployment absorption. The formal sector is not considered able to provide job opportunities to all levels of society

  16. INTERPRETASI STRUKTUR BAWAH PERMUKAAN DAERAH MATA AIR PANAS KRAKAL KEBUMEN DENGAN METODE GEOLISTRIK

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    S Fauziyah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Energi geothermal merupakan salah satu kekayaan sumber daya alam yang sedang dikembangkan. Salah satu kawasan geothermal tersebut adalah kawasan wisata mata air panas Krakal, Kebumen. Sumber daya alam geothermal tersebut dikembangkan sebagai objek wisata. Dalam pengembangannya, belum ada informasi struktur bawah permukaan daerah wisata tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui gambaran struktur bawah permukaan daerah mata air panas Krakal. Pengambilan data dilakukan dengan metode geolistrik konfigurasi schlumberger pada 5 lintasan dengan 3 titik sounding tiap lintasan. Pengolahan data menggunakan software Progress dan Surfer 10.  Hasil pengolahan data menunjukkan struktur bawah permukaan tersusun oleh 3 lapisan batuan yaitu batu pasir dengan kisaran nilai resistivitas kurang dari 10 Ωm dan ketebalan hingga 20 meter, batu lempung berpasir  dengan rentang nilai resistivitas 10-50 Ωm dan ketebalan mencapai 20 meter, dan batu lempung gamping dengan kisaran resistivitas 50-65 Ωm dan ketebalan 20 meter. Anomali resistivitas rendah mengindikasikan adanya akuifer air panas dan air dingin yang muncul ke permukaan.  Geothermal energy is one of the wealth of natural resources that are being developed. One such area is the tourist area of geothermal hot springs Krakal, Kebumen. Natural geothermal resources were developed as a tourist attraction. In its development, no information on subsurface structure of the tourist area. This study aims to reveal the subsurface structure of the Hot Springs area Krakal. Data collection was performed by Schlumberger configuration geoelectric method in five 3-point sounding track with each track. Data processing using the software Surfer Progress and 10. The results of the processing of the data showed subsurface structure is composed of 3 layers of rock is sandstone with a range of resistivity values of less than 10 Ωm and a thickness of up to 20 meters, sandy clay stone with a range of values of

  17. Kajian kesesuaian lingkungan untuk pengembangan wisata di Pantai Ganting, Pulau Simeulue, Provinsi Aceh

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    Herdiana Mutmainah

    2016-04-01

    ditetapkan secara purposive random sampling. Kualitas air yang diukur meliputi; pH, suhu, salinitas, kekeruhan, oksigen terlarut, kecerahan, BOD5, bau, lapisan minyak dan sampah. Data tersebut kemudian dipetakan dan dianalisis menggunakan software Ocean Data View (ODV, kemudian dibandingkan dengan baku mutu air laut untuk wisata bahari serta karakteristik pantai untuk indeks kesesuaian kawasan wisata rekreasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa kualitas perairan Pantai Ganting sangat sesuai untuk kegiatan rekreasi dan berenang (indeks 77, kategori S1 dan sesuai untuk kegiatan wisata berperahu, banana boat dan jet ski (indeks 16, kategori S2. Kata kunci:kualitas perairan; wisata bahari; Pantai Ganting.

  18. Exfoliative Cheilitis dan Penatalaksanaannya

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    Dewi Agustina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Exfoliative cheilitis adalah suatu keadaan inflamatori kronis superfisisal yang ditandai dengan adanya pengelupasan permukaankeratin bibir sedangkan area yang lain terjadi pembentukan lapisan keratin. Tujuan: untuk melaporkan suatu  kasus Exfoliative cheilitis yang diikuti +  selama 2 bulan beserta penatalaksanaanya. Laporan kasus: seorang wanita berusia 52 tahun mengeluh bibir bawahnya pecah-pecah, terasa kering dan panas berdasarkan pemeriksaan subyektif dan klinis, Exfoliative cheilitis ditetapkan sebagai diagnosis kerja. Penatalaksanaanya: Komunikasi-Informasi-Edukasi (KIE diberikan kepada pasien pada awal kunjungan disertai pemberian metil prednisolon, Vitamin B1,6,12 dan anjuran untuk menghentikan kebiasaan menjilat-jilat bibir bawah, menghindari stress dan meningkatkan asupan makanan yang mengandung vitamin A. Pada kunjungna berikutnya pemberian metil prednisolon dihentikan karena terdeteksi adanya peningkatan tekanan darah. Untuk selanjutnya kondisi bibir bawah dievaluasi +  selama 2 bulan. Kesimpulan: Progresitas Exfoliative cheilitis dapat dihentikan dengan bantuan KIE serta menghindari faktor pemicu stress, yang pada akhirnya akan dapat meminimalisir aktivitas factitious berupa menjilat-jilat bibir bawah.    Background: Exfoliative cheilitis is a chronic superficial inflammatory condition that is characterized by regular peeling of a superficial excessive layer of karatin, on the other hand, keratinization is developed in the other area. Aim: to report an Exfoliative cheilitis case monitored for two months and its management. Case Report: a 52 year female has been suffering from fissured lower lip with dry and burning sensations. According to subjective and clinical examinations, Exfoliative cheilitis was determined as the working diagnosis. Management: Communication-Information-Education (CIE were given to the patient at the first visit, besides metyl prednisolon and vitamin B1,6,12 administrations. Patient was

  19. Pulp nerve fibers distribution of human carious teeth: An immunohistochemical study

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    Tetiana Haniastuti

    2010-12-01

    15 buah gigi molar tiga yang mengalami karies dengan berbagai tingkat kedalaman karies dan 5 buah gigi molar tiga normal (tidak mengalami karies. Gigi-geligi tersebut dicabut untuk keperluan perawatan ortodontik atau alasan perawatan lainnya. Sebelum didekalsifikasi dengan menggunakan EDTA 10% (pH 7,4, seluruh sampel diamati dengan micro-computed tomography untuk mengetahui kondisi lesi secara tiga dimensi. Spesimen kemudian diproses secara immunohistokimia menggunakan anti-protein gene products (PGP 9,5 yang merupakan penanda spesifik untuk serabut saraf. Hasil: Pada pulpa gigi normal, serabut saraf yang menunjukkan ekspresi PGP 9,5 positif tampak terkonsentrasi di bawah lapisan odontoblast. Distribusi serabut saraf tampak meningkat pada perbatasan dentin-pulpa di bawah lesi karies. Kesimpulan: Densitas serabut saraf pada kamar pulpa meningkat dengan bertambahnya kedalaman karies. Aktivitas dan patogenisitas dari lesi serta kedalaman karies dapat berpengaruh terhadap penyebaran serabut saraf.

  20. PEMAHAMAN ISLAM MELALUI PENDEKATAN TASAWUF

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    zaki Hidayatulloh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Semakin lama perhatian berbagai lapisan masyarakat terhadap tasawuf semakin berkembang. Tasawuf yang semula merupakan bentuk pemaknaan terhadap hadits Rosulullah SAW tentang “al-Ihsan”, dalam perkembangan selanjutnya mengalami perluasan penafsiran. Dalam era sekarang ini apa yang diperlukan oleh dunia Islam adalah format tasawuf yang konsisten dengan nilai-nilai Islam dan kompatibel terhadap kecenderungan perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat. Apa yang diajarkan oleh tasawuf tidak lain adalah bagaimana menyembah Tuhan dalam suatu kesadaran penuh bahwa kita berada di dekat-Nya, sehingga kita “melihat-Nya” atau bahwa ia senantiasa mengawasi kita dan kita senantiasa berdiri di hadapan-Nya. Namun fenomena keagamaan yang terdapat di masyarakat, tasawuf sering dipahami sebagai praktik zuhud, yaitu sikap hidup asketis Tasawuf adalah upaya melatih jiwa dengan berbagai kegiatan yang dapat membebaskan diri manusia dari pengaruh kehidupan duniawi, berpola hidup sederhana dan rela berkorban demi tujuan-tujuan yang lebih mulia disisi Allah, sehingga menjadikan selalu dekat dengan Allah dan jiwanya bersih bersih serta memancarkan akhlak mulia. Sikap demikian pada akhirnya membawa seorang berjiwa tangguh, memiliki daya tangkap yang kuat dan efektif terhadap berbagai godaan hidup yang menyesalkan. Tasawuf ini muncul karena adanya dekadensi moral yang bermula dari kotoran jiwa manusia yaitu jiwa yang jauh dari bimbingan Tuhan, yang disebabkan ia tidak pernah mencoba mendekatinya. Untuk mengatasi masalah ini tasawuflah yang memiliki potensi dan peranan penting. Dengan demikian pentingnya peranan tasawuf dalam kelangsungan hidup manusia. Maka tidak mengherankan apabila tasawuf akrab dengan masyarakat Islam, setelah masyarakat tersebut membina akidah dan ibadahnya, melalui ilmu tauhid dan fiqih. Dengan demikian terjadilah hubungan 3 serangkai yang amat harmonis yaitu akidah, syari’ah dan akhlak. Berkenaan dengan ini telah bermuncullah para peneliti yang

  1. TA’WIL DALAM EPISTEMOLOGI ULUM AL-QUR’AN IMAM AL-GHAZALI

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    M. Muhsin

    2013-12-01

    Tafriqah dan Qanun al­Ta’wil menjawab adanya dugaan absennya pemikir an  al­Ghazali di bidang ‘Ulum al­Qur’an. Khusus dalam Fays al al­Tafriqah dan Qanun al­Ta’wil, ia membahas teori dan kaidah ta’wil. Dalam konsepsi al­Ghazali , bangunan dan struktur al­Qur’an terdiri dari ajaran kulit (al­ Sadf wa al­ Qasr, dan ajaran inti: rahasia (Asrar wa al­Jawhar. Demikian juga ilmu­ilmu al­Qur’an terdiri dari ilmu yang berkaitan dengan lapisan luar, ajaran kulit (al­Qasr; dan ilmu yang berkaitan dengan permata (ilmu Jawhar. Posisi al­Ghazali sebagai seorang sufi acapkali menjadikan hati sebagai ukuran dalam melakukan ta’wil. Di sisi lain, dia menyatakan bahwa ukuran penta’wilan adalah akal. Jika mengacu pada yang pertama, maka ta’wil al­Ghazali bercorak ta’wil batini; dan jika mengacu pada yang kedua ia bercorak ta’wil rasional. Bertolak pada latar belakang dan kegelisah an akademik tersebut, maka penelitian berfokus pada teori ta’wil al­Ghazali. Penelitian ini mennggunakan metode berfikir deduktif, dengan teori hermeneutika teoritis dan teori ta’wil. Hermeneutika teoritis di maksud kan untuk “membaca” dan “mengungkap secara obyektif” pemikiran al­Ghazali dibidang Ulum al­Qur’an, sedang alat yang akan digunakan untuk “menilai” teori ta’wil al­Ghazali adalah teori ta’wil. Berangkat dari teori ta’wil al­Ghazali yang bercorak rasional serta berada di bawah naungan teori keilmuannya yang bercorak sufistik, bisa dikatakan teori ta’wil nya merupakan teori ta’wil rasional batini. Itu terlihat dari prinsip ta’wilnya, yakni menjadikan akal sebagai pijakan penta’wilan; di sisi lain, pembagian al­Qur’an yang menjadi dua kategori zahir dan batin, baik pada sisi struktur ajarannya maupun sisi maknanya pada lafaz.

  2. Keeping Libraries Relevant in the Semantic Web with RDA: Resource Description and Access

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    Barbara Tillett

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Catalogare non vuol dire semplicemente costruire un catalogo. Vuol dire far sì che gli utenti accedano tempestivamente alle informazioni pertinenti alle loro esigenze. Il lavoro di identificazione delle risorse raccolte da biblioteche, archivi, musei, dà luogo a ricchi metadati che possono essere riutilizzati per molti scopi ("le attività dell’utente". Ciò comporta la descrizione delle risorse e il mostrare le loro relazioni con persone, famiglie, enti e altre risorse, consentendo così agli utenti di navigare attraverso surrogati delle risorse per ottenere più rapidamente le informazioni di cui hanno bisogno. I metadati costruiti lungo tutto il ciclo di vita di una risorsa sono particolarmente preziosi per molti tipi di utenti: dai creatori delle risorse, agli editori, alle agenzie, ai librai, agli aggregatori di risorse, ai fornitori di sistemi, alle biblioteche, ad altre istituzioni culturali ed agli utenti finali. Il nuovo codice internazionale di catalogazione, RDA: Resource Description e Access, è progettato per soddisfare le attività di base degli utenti producendo metadati ben formati e interconnessi per l'ambiente digitale, dando la possibilità alle biblioteche di rimanere rilevanti nel web semantico. Acknowledge Il testo inglese del saggio è pubblicato in "Serials", November 2011, 24, 3, con il titolo Keeping Libraries Relevant in the Semantic Web with RDA: Resource Description and Access, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1629/24266. Traduzione italiana di Maria Chiara Iorio e Tiziana Possemato, che ringraziano Carlo Bianchini e Mauro Guerrini per la rilettura della traduzione.

  3. Pilot experiment on utilization of vegetable biomass in Umbria. Part 2. Anaerobic digestion of the wastes coming from the maintenance activity of the lake Trasimeno and the working of energetic cultures; Sperimentazioni pilota sulla utilizzazione delle biomasse vegetali reperibili nella Regione Umbria. Parte 2. Digestione anaerobica dei residui derivanti dall'attivita' manutentiva del lago Trasimeno e dalla lavorazione di culture agro-energetiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletti, A.; Selvaggi, R.; Poletti, L. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Dipt. di Chimica, Laboratorio di Chimica Fisica e Modellistica Ambientale

    2000-12-01

    In this work the energetic exploitation has been assessed of the vegetable biomasses available in the region Umbria, derived both from the maintenance operation of Lake Trasimeno and energetic cultures. Biomethanation experiments have been carried out both on laboratory scale, by preparing anaerobic digestion tests in batch and in continuous, and on pilot scale, through the use of a 2000 litres digestor. Throughout the experiment the main chemical and physical process parameters have been monitored and the process efficiency assessed. The experimental values, measured for the anaerobic digestion process, have shown that both types of biomass can be very good substrated for the production of biogas. Their energetic re-use, when considering the broad and complex problems posed by breeding wastes disposal, could positively contribute to a rational sustainability scheme of the activities operating in the territory. [Italian] In questo lavoro viene valutata la valorizzazione energetica di biomasse vegetali disponibili nella regione Umbria, derivanti dalle operazioni di manutenzione dal Lago Trasimeno e da culture energetiche. Gli esperimenti di digestione anaerobica sono stati eseguiti su scala di laboratorio, con prove in batch ed in continuo, e su scala pilota utilizzando un digestore della capacita' di 2000 libri. Durante il corso degli esperimenti sono stati monitorati i principali parametri chimici e fisici del processo e verificati i rendimenti. I valori sperimentali, misurati per il processo di digestione anaerobica, hanno dimostrato che i due tipi di biomassa studiati possono rappresentare un ottimo substrato per la produzione di biogas. Il loro recupero a fini energetici, inserito nella piu' ampia e complessa problematica connessa con lo smaltimento dei reflui zootecnici, potrebbe contribuire ad un inquadramento razionale della sostenibilita' delle attivita' presenti in quel territorio.

  4. La città bizantina tra il V e il IX secolo: le prospettive storiografiche

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    Luca Zavagno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L’articolo si propone di offrire una una ricognizione della storiografia recente sul tema della città bizantina nel passaggio dalla tarda antichità all’alto medioevo. Il tradizionale dibattito sul destino delle città nei cosiddetti Dark Ages ha sempre avuto quale punto di partenza l’idea di illustrare e dimostrare la continuità o, al contrario, la discontinuità della città nella sua forma classica, ovvero della polis greco-romana, durante il medioevo. Tale polemica storiografica è sintetizzata nelle opere di due dei suoi iniziatori, A. Kazdhan e G. Ostrogorsky ed è proseguita nei lavori di C.Foss. Alcuni studiosi (come Liebeschuetz, Saradi e Trombley sembrano aver sviluppato una reazione a Foss di stampo prettamente conservatore, sforzandosi di adattare la polemica continuità-declino al nuovo panorama archeologico. Altri (come Spieser e anche Ward-Perkins e Zanini hanno deliberatamente scelto di limitare cronologicamente il proprio approccio analitico senza oltrepassare la simbolica soglia del VII secolo. Al contrario, Brandes, Walmsey e, parzialmente, Whittow hanno seguito le orme di Foss, proponendo una serie di studi regionali, esaustivi sotto il profilo archeologico, che avanzano soluzioni peculiari al problema dei mutamenti subiti dalle città bizantine durante il VII e l’VIII secolo. Da ultimo, Wickham e Haldon si sono mossi lungo linee di natura principalmente economica, riconoscendo il contributo strutturale da esse fornito all’evoluzione delle città entro il contesto sociale e statale tardoantico. Ciò ha permesso loro di delineare, al contempo, le distinzioni funzionali tra diversi tipi d’insediamento e le loro mutevoli trasformazioni entro il lento processo di cambiamento della società urbana tardoantica, implicando necessariamente una serie di alterazioni del panorama strutturale e degli assetti urbani.

  5. Gedeo Work Songs in the Context of the Ethiopian Revolution

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    Klaus Wedekind

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Quest’articolo è stato scritto nel 1977 per una conferenza tenuta nell’Etiopia marxista, ma incomincia con un’affermazione controversa: “La società è più di quello che l’economicismo marxista non ci induca a credere” (Attali 1977. Tradizionalmente la gente gedeo possiede la stretta compattezza di una società a strato unico, e in ciascun capitolo il contesto sociologico dei loro “canti di lavoro” fornisce delle indicazioni per la loro comprensione. Il primo capitolo descrive la particolare geografia del territorio densamente popolato di questa società agricola che intrattiene strette relazioni con le popolazioni confinanti (soprattutto con i Gugi. Vengono descritte le condizioni prevalenti all’epoca della rivoluzione etiopica, comprese le condizioni psicologiche e fisiche del loro lavoro e dei loro canti. In ciascun capitolo vengono effettuati dei confronti con altri stili di canto, sulla base dei risultati delle analisi di Alan Lomax. Il secondo capitolo descriver le diverse funzioni dei vari tipi di canti di lavoro – tutti rigorosamente definiti e circoscritti a particolari attività: la raccolta del caffè, la costruzione delle abitazioni e delle strade, la macinatura, la pastorizia, la preparazione dei cibi, o il taglio della legna. Alcune trascrizioni cercano di chiarire il metro, il tempo, l’armonia, la polifonia, il timbro e l’insieme dell’organizzazione tonale. Il terzo capitolo si occupa dei testi. Citazioni in lingua gedeo forniscono un’esemplificazione dei metri e delle rime, ma è la semantica quella che consente a un osservatore esterno di comprendere quanto viene espresso. Il quarto capitolo riassume i diversi rapporti tra gli stili dei canti e i tratti culturali. Keywords: Gedeo, work song, revolution, Ethiopia ISO 693-3: drs, amh, gax Dei file audio consentono al lettore di costruirsi una propria “immagine” di questi canti.

  6. Latent Murine Cytomegalovirus Infection Contributes to EAE Pathogenesis / Latentna Infekcija Mišjim Citomegalovirusom Ima Ulogu U Patogenezi Eksperimentalnog Autoimunskog Encefalomijelitisa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanovic Jelena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Virusna infekcija se navodi kao najverovatniji faktor okoline koji utiče na razvoj multiple skleroze (MS. Postoje konfliktni podaci o ulozi infekcije citomegalovirusom (CMV u patogenezi multiple skleroze. Koristili smo BALB/c miševe, rezistentne na indukciju eksperimentalnog autoimunskog encefalomijelitisa (EAE, i mišji citomegalovirus (MCMV, mišji homolog humanom citomegalovirusu da ispitamo kako virusna infekcija može da utiče na razvoj autoimunske neuroinflamacije. Miševi sa latentnom neonatalnom infekcijom mišjim citomegalovirusom su razvili tipičan EAE. Slično kao u MS, MCMV EAE miševi su razvili infiltrate u centralnom nervnom sistemu (CNS sa sličnom zastupljenošću CD4+ i CD8+ T limfocita. Uočen je influks i Th 1 i Th 17 ćelija u CNS MCMV EAE miševa. Interesantno je da razvoj autoimunske inflamacije nakon latentne MCMV infekcije prati značajan influks samo Tc17 (CD8+IL-17+ i CD8+RoRγt+, a ne i Tc1 ćelija. Naši rezultati ukazuju da latentna MCMV infekcija verovatno utiče na razvoj inflamatornih limfocita koji mogu da indukuju autoimunski proces u CNS-u, direktno pojačava razvoj patoloških procesa u CNS-u nakon indukcije EAE i ukazuje na CMV kao na mogući faktor okoline koji utiče na razvoj multiple skleroze i drugih autoimunskih bolesti.

  7. KERAGAAN WARNA IKAN CLOWN BIAK (Amphiprion percula POPULASI ALAM DAN BUDIDAYA BERDASARKAN ANALISIS GAMBAR DIGITAL

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    Ruby Vidia Kusumah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji keragaan warna ikan clown Biak (Amphiprion percula populasi alam dan budidaya berdasarkan analisis gambar digital sebagai dasar upaya pemuliaannya. Gambar digital diambil dari koleksi ikan clown Biak Balai Besar Perikanan Budidaya Laut Lampung, Balai Besar Penelitian dan Pengembangan Budidaya Laut Gondol, Bali; serta pengumpul ikan hias di Denpasar, Bali menggunakan kamera digital Canon EOS 600D. Pola warna dikarakterisasi secara visual terhadap variasi strip hitam dan putih pada dasar badan oranye, jenis warna dianalisis menggunakan ImageJ 1.49s, persentase penutupan warna dilakukan dengan Adobe Photoshop CS5. Pola warna dikarakterisasi oleh strip hitam tebal, tipis, gelap, pudar, terputus, bergabung, serta strip putih normal, pelana, spot, melebar, dan terputus. Warna hitam alam dikarakterisasi oleh hue (H: 300-60º, saturation (S: 8%-56%, brightness (B: 3%-19%, sedangkan budidaya H: 300-23º, S: 9%-71%, B: 4%-20%. Warna oranye alam H: 19-33º, S: 88%-98%, B: 47%-85%, dan budidaya H: 14-29º, S: 86%-99%, B: 38%-82%. Warna putih alam H: 36-270º; S: 1%-13%, B: 66%-88%, dan budidaya H: 0-229º, S: 0%-14%, B: 55%-87%. Persentase penutupan warna badan didominasi warna oranye dengan rata-rata 45% untuk populasi alam dan 57% untuk populasi budidaya. Keragaan warna ikan clown Biak dapat diarahkan pada pembentukan strain misbar, picasso, spot (domino, dan onyx. Metode analisis gambar digital sangat potensial digunakan untuk analisis keragaan warna ikan hias.

  8. Beethoven rilegge il proprio passato: alcune riflessioni sul rapporto tra le ultime due Sonate e l'Op. 10 n. 1

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    Piero Venturini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro ha due tipi di finalità: la prima riguarda piuttosto la riflessione teorica mentre la seconda è basata sulla pratica esecutiva quotidiana. Dal punto di vista teorico-poietico c’è un’osservazione di partenza solo apparentemente banale. Mentre esiste un’enorme quantità di materiale, sia nella letteratura analitica sia in quella musicologica, che documenta gli influssi di compositori del passato e coevi  sull’opera di Beethoven – mi limito a ricordare qui solo i testi di Webster [1995] e Dahlhaus [1990] – non è altrettanto ben documentata l’influenza che il Beethoven giovanile ha nei confronti del compositore maturo. In cosa le ultime opere del genio di Bonn sono debitrici nei confronti delle opere della gioventù? Più genericamente ci si potrebbe anche chiedere quale sia il movente che spinge un compositore a rileggere le proprie opere del passato e con quale chiave di lettura esse vengano reinterpretate. Dal punto di vista pratico-estesico questo lavoro è partito da un’intuizione estremamente personale e soggettiva: lo studio dell’op. 110 e 111 ha provocato un collegamento spontaneo e irrazionale con l’op 10 n. 1; in pratica, dopo lo studio al pianoforte delle ultime due sonate di Beethoven, lo scrivente si è più volte trovato a canticchiare alcune parti dell’op. 10 n. 1. Visto che il fatto si è ripetuto praticamente dopo ogni seduta di studio, è nata  l’esigenza di una ricerca sui rapporti tra le opere in oggetto. Ovviamente la prima cosa è stata chiarire se questi collegamenti avessero un fondamento oggettivo o non si trattasse piuttosto di una forma di vissuto musicale individuale legata ad impressioni  soggettive. Le strade battute per evitare il rischio di soggettività sono state due: l’esame della letteratura sull’argomento e l’ancoraggio ad una solida metodologia analitica.

  9. Alcune osservazioni sull’istituto del divorzio in Corea del Sud

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    Raffaella Losurdo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, sottoposto a valutazione, è destinato alla pubblicazione a stampa negli Annali della Facoltà di Giurisprudenza di Taranto, per i tipi della Casa editrice Cacucci di Bari.SOMMARIO: 1. Introduzione - 2. La disciplina del divorzio nel Codice Civile coreano e i relativi aspetti patrimoniali - 3. Fidanzamento, matrimonio, nullità e interruzione per morte del matrimonio - 4. La tutela dei figli nel divorzio - 5. Riforma del diritto di famiglia n. 7427/2005ABSTRACT: Some remarks on divorce in South Korea The Korean family law regulates two different procedures for divorce: divorce by agreement (which is used in cases where both spouses are agree to terminate the marriage and judicial divorce. Closely related to divorce are different problems, because of which this institution has been repeatedly the subject of reforms; the most significant reforms are: the first one in 1991, which aims to achieve a way of equality between man and woman, then in 2005, which had as its goal to remove the "head of the family" system and the last one in 2007 made to realize an effective protection of children as the greatest victims of their parents’ divorce. The most innovative reform has been the law n. 7427 of 2 March 2005 (with eight points, four of which came into force immediately and the other in 2008. It deals essentially in abolish the head of the family system, on the ground that it was unconstitutional, because the system contains articles that infringe individual dignity and equality between sexes in marriage and so they are contrary to art. 36 of the Korean Constitution.PAROLE CHIAVE: Codice Civile coreano – Matrimonio - Divorzio – Tutela dei figli – Diritto di famiglia – Leggi di riforma

  10. Voedingpraktyke en behoeftes van hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe deur die oë van laerskoolonderwysers

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    Ronel Ferreira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In hierdie artikel bespreek ons die persepsies van onderwysers (n = 45 wat betref die voedingpraktyke van ’n steekproef laerskoolleerders en hul gesinne in ’n hulpbron-arm gemeenskap. Ons fokus spesifiek op die behoeftes, praktyke en verwagtings ten opsigte van die gebruik van voedsel, wat die produksie, keuse en voorbereiding van voedsel impliseer. Ons studie vorm die eerste deel van ’n groter institusionele navorsingprojek. Vir die doel van ons studie het ons deelnemende refleksie en aksie-gebaseerde werkwinkels gehou om data te genereer en tydens die interpretasie van bevindinge op interpretivisme staatgemaak. Hierdie studie beklemtoon die behoeftes van hulpbron-arm en werklose gemeenskapslede wat dikwels genoodsaak is om teen verlaagde pryse voedsel te koop waarvan die kwaliteit nie optimaal is nie. ’n Verskraalde ontbyt, middagete of aandete waarvan die keuse algemeen beperk is tot swart tee, pap en een of twee snye ou brood, bevestig die manifestasies van armoede in hulpbron-arm gemeenskappe. Maaltye is dikwels beperk tot groot hoeveelhede koolhidrate, min groente, ingelegde vis, pap met inkomazi en marog. Hoenderpote en afval vul soms die spyskaart aan. Onderwysers beklemtoon die feit dat gemeenskapslede tipies op skenkings van werkgewers, kerke en kruidenierswinkels staatmaak om hul voedselbegroting aan te vul. Onderwysers fokus verder op die behoeftes aan opleiding vir gemeenskapslede. Na hulle mening moet gemeenskappe ingelig word oor voedselproduksie, groentetuine, die wyses waarop die kwaliteit van grond bepaal kan word, besproeiing en die toepassing van volhoubare wisselbou. Die artikel word afgesluit met uitvoerbare en leersame wenke vir die opleiding van landelike gemeenskappe. Op grond van dié navorsingsbevindinge word ’n intervensieprogram tans ontwikkel, met die doel om dit in die onderskeie deelnemende skole te implementeer ter bevordering van gesonde voedselverwante gedrag en welsyn.

  11. PENGARUH INTENSITAS CAHAYA DAN JARAK PADA SISTEM AUGMENTED REALITY OBJEK ANIMASI

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    Rudy Kustijono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan penelitian tentang pengaruh intensitas cahaya dan jarak pada sistem Augmented Reality objek animasi. Augmented Reality (AR merupakan upaya untuk menggabungkan dunia maya (virtual dan dunia nyata (real yang dibuat melalui komputer sehingga batas antara keduanya menjadi sangat tipis. Untuk mengembangkan AR banyak sekali library pendukung yang dapat digunakan. FlarToolKit adalah salah satunya. FlarToolKit merupakan library pendukung AR pada platform flash. Dalam penelitian ini dibuatlah sistem AR objek animasi. Sistem yang dibuat dalam objek adalah permainan pingpong. Pada permainan pingpong disini berbeda pada permainan pingpong lainnya dimana telah dikolaborasikan dengan AR untuk menggerakkan setiap langkah dari playernya. Gerak setiap langkah tersebut dibantu dengan alat dengan nama marker pada saat proses rendering yang dilakukan kamera. Marker yang telah diregistrasi dapat dikenali dengan kamera dan dapat berinteraksi dengan objek bola dan komputer. Interaksi antar obyek tersebut dapat dilihat dari gerak bola yang dapat dipukul dengan ojyek virtual yang ditampilkan melalui AR. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembacaan marker oleh kamera sangat dipengaruhi oleh besarnya Intensitas cahaya. Untuk intensitas cahaya sedang (cahaya lampu dapat menampilkan obyek virtual. Sedangkan intensitas cahaya yang terlalu kecil (gelap dan intensitas cahaya yang terlalu besar (cahaya matahari, objek virtual tidak terlihat. Selain intensitas cahaya, jarak marker dengan kamera juga sangat berpengaruh dalam proses berjalannya sistem ini dimana marker yang telah dibaca oleh kamera ini nantinya akan di bandingkan dengan data marker yang menjadi acuannya. Bila terlalu dekat atau terlalu jauh maka kamera tidak dapat membaca marker dengan baik sehingga sistem tidak dapat mengenali marker tersebut. Jarak terdekat untuk marker terhadap kamera yang bisa menampilkan objek virtual adalah 10 cm. Sedangkan jarak terjauh yang tidak bisa menampilkan objek

  12. TERMİT KAYNAĞI İLE BİRLEŞTİRİLEN BİR RAYIN KAYNAK BÖLGESİNDEKİ SERTLİK DAĞILIMI VE METALURJİK ÖZELLİKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cevdet MERİÇ

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Demiryolu taşımacılığında konfor ve emniyete tesir eden faktörler arasında rayların döşenmesi önemli bir yer tutar. Uzun yıllardan beri bilinmekte olan termit kaynağı rayların çökmesini önler, trenin yoldan çıkmasına mani olur ve sarsıntısız bir yolculuk sağlar. Bununla birlikte rayların ve vagonların ömrünü uzatarak çeşitli ekonomik faydalar da temin eder. Bu çalışmada S 49 tipi St 70 çeliğinden imal edilmiş demiryolu rayları termit kaynağı ile birleştirilmiş olup, kaynak bölgesinin sertlik profili, çıkartılmış ve mikro yapısı incelenmiştir. İnceleme sonucunda çıkarılan sertlik profilinde ITAB (Isının Tesiri Altındaki Bölge'de maksimum sertlik değerleri kaynak bölgesinin hemen önünde de tesbit edilmiştir. Isıdan etkilenen bölgede, erime bölgesinin hemen önündeki sahada sertlik değeri 290 HB 5/750 iken, kaynak bölgesinde 260 HB ve ana yapıda ise 220 HB sertlik değerleri elde edilmiştir. Mikroyapı incelemesinde pro-eutectoid ferrit ile birlikte perlit ana yapı tesbit edilmiş, martersit oluşumuna rastlanılmamıştır.

  13. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI KATALIS DAN PERBANDINGAN MOLARITAS REAKTAN PADA SINTESIS SENYAWA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galuh Widiyarti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the laboratory scale, the effect of the concentration of H2SO4 catalyst (1.25-6.25 (% w/w and the equivalent mol ratio between lauric acid and glycerol (1:1; 1:2.5; 2.5:1 on the synthesis of a-monolaurin has been studied. The a-monolaurin compound has been synthesized from lauric acid and glycerol was done by batch esterification on the free solvent system. The esterification by using 5% H2SO4 catalyst and equivalent mol ratio between lauric acid and glycerol 1:2.5 produced most monolaurin, and dilaurin in amount of 31.14 and 4.42%, respectively. The monolaurin and dilaurin are identified by thin layer chromatography (TLC, infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS, and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectrometer. The spectral data of monolaurin was compared to spectral data of standard a-monolaurin.Telah dilakukan penelitian sintesis senyawa a-monolaurin dari asam laurat dan gliserol, dengan konsentrasi katalis H2SO4 (1,25 s.d. 6,25 (% berat dan perbandingan molaritas reaktan asam laurat terhadap gliserol (1:1; 1:2,5; dan 2,5:1 sebagai parameter. Pada reaksi esterifikasi dengan konsentrasi katalis H2SO4 5%  dan perbandingan molaritas asam laurat terhadap gliserol 1:2,5 dihasilkan senyawa a-monolaurin terbanyak 31,14% sebagai hasil utama dan senyawa a,a’-dilaurin 4,42% sebagai hasil samping sintesis. Kedua senyawa hasil sintesis diidentifikasi dengan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT, spektrofotometer infra merah (FTIR, spektrometer massa liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer (LC-MS, dan spektrometer resonansi magnetik inti (NMR. Karakteristik senyawa a-monolaurin hasil sintesis dibandingkan  dengan karakteristik a-monolaurin standar.   

  14. Probability and Statistics Questions and Tests : a critical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Maturo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In probability and statistics courses, a popular method for the evaluation of the students is to assess them using multiple choice tests. The use of these tests allows to evaluate certain types of skills such as fast response, short-term memory, mental clarity and ability to compete. In our opinion, the verification through testing can certainly be useful for the analysis of certain aspects, and to speed up the process of assessment, but we should be aware of the limitations of such a standardized procedure and then exclude that the assessments of pupils, classes and schools can be reduced to processing of test results. To prove this thesis, this article argues in detail the main test limits, presents some recent models which have been proposed in the literature and suggests some alternative valuation methods.   Quesiti e test di Probabilità e Statistica: un'analisi critica Nei corsi di Probabilità e  Statistica, un metodo molto diffuso per la valutazione degli studenti consiste nel sottoporli a quiz a risposta multipla.  L'uso di questi test permette di valutare alcuni tipi di abilità come la rapidità di risposta, la memoria a breve termine, la lucidità mentale e l'attitudine a gareggiare. A nostro parere, la verifica attraverso i test può essere sicuramente utile per l'analisi di alcuni aspetti e per velocizzare il percorso di valutazione ma si deve essere consapevoli dei limiti di una tale procedura standardizzata e quindi escludere che le valutazioni di alunni, classi e scuole possano essere ridotte a elaborazioni di risultati di test. A dimostrazione di questa tesi, questo articolo argomenta in dettaglio i limiti principali dei test, presenta alcuni recenti modelli proposti in letteratura e propone alcuni metodi di valutazione alternativi. Parole Chiave:  item responce theory, valutazione, test, probabilità

  15. Archeologia della produzione architettonica. Le tecniche costruttive

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    Mannoni, Tiziano

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In the field of the building techniques used in the construction of the walls, the majority of the classifications consists of the formal aspects of visible surfaces. These classifications use some attentions distinguishing stratigraphic units and in the field of the aesthetic aspects of surfaces. As the walls take part of the most important load-bearing structure, isn’t possible to speak of the techniques used in the construction of the walls without trying to understand how the different types of wall effectively operate from a static point of view. So it’s necessary to check and to understand the whole volume of each technique used in the construction of the walls, and if there are general or particular rules deductibles from the visible surfaces. In this paper we suggest, also, an classification of the «families» of the most recognized techniques used in the construction of the walls, on the basis of their constructive, functional and formal systems.La maggior parte delle classificazioni dei modi di costruire murari si basa sugli aspetti formali delle superfici visibili, con certe utilità nel distinguere le unità stratigrafiche murarie e negli aspetti estetici delle superfici stesse. Dal momento però che i muri fanno parte delle strutture portanti più importanti, non si può parlare di tecniche murarie senza cercare di capire come i vari tipi classificati si comportino realmente dal punto di vista statico. Si cerca perciò di verificare e in qualche modo di capire l’intero volume di ogni tecnica muraria, e se vi siano della regole generali o particolari che siano in qualche modo deducibili anche dalle superfici visibili. Si propone infine una classificazione delle «famiglie» di tecniche murarie più note sulla base dei loro sistemi costruttivi e funzionali, oltre che formali.

  16. I principali aspetti biologici del volo spaziale, con particolare riguardo al microclima della cabina

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    A. SCANO

    1963-06-01

    Full Text Available Dopo un cenno ai principali aspetti biologici del volo
    spaziale e dopo aver delineato alcune limitazioni a t t u a l i di questo, l'A. espone
    brevemente, sulla scorta delle ricerche eseguite e delle ipotesi presentate
    da vari studiosi, le conoscenze sui più importanti problemi dell'ambiente
    di una cabina spaziale occupata dall'uomo.
    Vengono esaminati criticamente il rifornimento di 02 e l'eliminazione
    di C02, l'eliminazione del vapor d'acqua e delle altre sostanze gassose o
    volatili prodotte dall'uomo o dalle apparecchiature della cabina, l'eliminazione
    ed il ricupero parziale o totale degli escreti, il mantenimento della
    pressione e della composizione dell'aria o della miscela respirata, il mantenimento
    della temperatura.
    Particolare considerazione viene data ai sistemi chiusi di rigenerazione
    dei gas respiratori, dei quali vengono discussi i diversi tipi in base allo s t a to
    a t t u a l e dei risultati sperimentali, alla possibilità di pratica attuazione, alla
    sicurezza ed al rendimento assoluto e relativo al tempo di impiego.
    Si concludo che per viaggi di qualche giorno sono ancora preferibili le
    scorte di <>2 e la fissazione chimica o fisica del C02 e degli altri inquinanti,
    per viaggi di maggior durata (settimane e mesi appaiono attualmente migliori
    i cicli chiusi di rigenerazione chimica e fisico-chimica dell'02 dal C02
    espirato e dall'acqua di ricupero, mentre i cicli chiusi di rigenerazione biologica
    — peraltro interessanti perchè atti a risolvere vari problemi contemporaneamente
    presentano ancora notevoli incognite.

  17. TOD: a new method to characterize electro-optical system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, Piet; Valeton, J. M.

    1998-08-01

    The current standard to characterize Electro-Optical system performance is the MRTD (Minimum Resolvable Temperature Difference) for thermal imagers and the MRC (Minimum Resolvable Contrast) for visual devices. This standard has at least three serious disadvantages: (1) the standard 4-bar test pattern is theoretically and practically unsuitable for 1D or 2D spatially sampled systems such as pixel-array camera's, (2) spatial phase is not taken into account, and (3) the results depend on the observer's subjective decision criterion. We propose an adequate and easily applicable alternative: TOD (Triangle Orientation Discrimination threshold). The TOD is based on an improved test pattern, a better defined observer task, and a solid psychophysical measurement procedure. The new method has theoretical and practical advantages: it is suitable for pixel-array camera's, scanning systems and other (Electro-) Optical imaging systems in both the thermal and vision domain, it has a close relationship to real target acquisition, and the observer task is easy. The results are free from observer bias and allow statistical significance tests. The method lends itself very well for automatic measurement, and can be extended for future sensor systems that include advanced image processing. The TOD curve can be implemented easily in a TA model such as ACQUIRE. An observer performance study with real targets shows that the TOD curve predicts TA performance better than the MRC does. The method has been implemented successfully in a thermal imager field test apparatus called TIPI, and may be implemented in current MRTD and MRC test equipment with little effort.

  18. Pembuatan Gigi Tiruan Lengkap Obturator Rahang atas pada Kasus Kelas III Arammany dengan Penguat Mini Dental Implant untuk Protesa Rahang Bawah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Wihan Pradana

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang. Kasus Edentulous dengan defek maksilofasial pada geriatri merupakan kasus yang komplek dan menyangkut estetika serta fungsi rongga mulut. Penggunaan hollow bulb dan implant untuk memberikan retensi merupakan alternatif cara yang dapat digunakan dalam perawatan defek maksilofasial dan sisa lingir alveolar yang tipis. Tujuan. dari pembuatan protesa GTL ini ialah untuk mengembalikan fungsi pencernaan rongga mulut sehingga dapat mengembalikan kemampuan mencerna dan mengolah makanan. Pembuatan GTL diupayakan untuk dapat retentif dan stabil sehingga protesa dapat bermanfaat sebagai instrumen rehabilitatif dalam rongga mulut. Kasus. Pasien laki-Iaki usia 70 tahun datang ke klinik prostodonsia FKG UGM dengan keluhan gigi tiruan lengkap yang longgar dan tidak dapat berfungsi dengan baik sehingga makanan dan minuman dapat keluar dari hidung melalui lubang di area palatum yang timbul kurang lebih 2 bulan sebelum datang ke RSGM. Penanganan. Setelah dilakukan proses bedah pengangkatan tumor oleh Onkologis selanjutnya dilakukan perencanaan pembuatan GTL. Paska operasi pasien mengenakan GTL sementara dari GTL lama pasien yang diperbaiki. Proses selanjutnya ialah pembuatan GTL baru untuk mengganti GTL lama yang rusak. Setelah GTL selesai dibuat, dilakukan insersi dan dilanjutkan dengan pemasangan mini dental implant untuk rahang bawah. Satu minggu berikutnya dilakukan pemasangan metal housing implant pada fitting surface gigi tiruan lengkap rahang bawah sehingga implant dan gigi tiruan menjadi satu kesatuan gigi tiruan lengkap  dengan dukungan implant. Kesimpulan. Kontrol2 minggu dan satu bulan menunjukan implant masih stabil dan tidak ada keluhan pada pasien. Pasien dapat menggunakan gigi tiruannya untuk makan dan minum. Dari pemeriksaan subjektif diketanui bahwa dan makanan ataupun minuman tidak lagi keluar melalui hidung pasien.

  19. SUSTAINABILITY COST ACCOUNTING - PART 1: A MONETARY PROCEDURE TO EVALUATE THE SUSTAINABILITY OF TECHNOLOGIES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN PROCESS INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The development and management of new technologies is fundamental to the manufacturing sector as a core operational initiative. Managers of a new technology are increasingly pressurised to consider the economic, environmental, and social impacts associated with the life cycle of the technology (and product during decision-making – i.e. the overall sustainability of the technology. At present, there is no consensus on a methodology to incorporate externalities – for example, environmental and social impacts at macro-level, for which a company is (typically not held financially liable – into management practices. This paper introduces the Sustainability Cost Accounting (SCA procedure, whereby externalities (burdens and benefits are translated into financial terms to assess the overall sustainability performance of a developed technology in the process industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ‘n Sentrale operasionele initiatief van die vervaardigings-industrie is die ontwikkeling en bestuur van nuwe tegnologieë. Bestuurders van nuwe tegnologieë word toenemend onder druk geplaas om die ekonomiese-, omgewings-, en sosiale impakte, wat verwant is aan die lewenssiklus van ‘n tegnologie (of produk, in ag te neem tydens besluitneming ten opsigte van die globale volhoudbaarheid van die tegnologie. Op hierdie stadium is daar geen konsensus oor die metodologie wat gevolg moet word om eksterne faktore – bv. omgewings- en sosiale impakte op makrovlak, waarvoor ‘n maatskappy tipies nie aanspreeklik gehou word nie – te inkorporeer in die bestuurpraktyk. Hierdie artikel stel die Volhoudbaarheid Kosterekeningkunde (VKR prosedure voor, waarvolgens die oorgrote volhoudbare prestasie, in terme van eksterne voor- en nadele van ‘n ontwikkelde tegnologie, in die prosesindustrie ge-assesseer kan word in finansiële terme.

  20. Farklı Anyonik, Katyonik ve Noniyonik Flokülantların İnce Boyutlu Lavvar Tesisi Atıklarının Çökelme Davranışlarına Etkileri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan ÇİFTÇİ

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, Dereköy Lavvar Tesisi (Soma, Manisa tikiner girişinden alınan numune üzerinde anyonik (Akkim Akua 5220, Brentag Brentamer A 2030, Brentag Brentamer A 2530, Bifloc An 254, Minefloc Lot X 4119, 3F Sedifloc 750 AHM, katyonik (Snf 5980 Sl ve 3f Sedifloc 408 C ve noniyonik (Snf Fa 920 flokülantlar kullanarak katıların çökelme davranışları incelenmiştir. Flokülasyon deneyleri altı pervaneli jar test cihazında yapılmıştır. Çökelme testlerinde flokülant tipi ve flokülant miktarının lavvar tesisi ince boyutlu artıkların flokülasyonu üzerine etkileri belirlenmiştir. Flokülasyon etkinliği ölçütü olarak çökelme hızı ve bulanıklık değerleri dikkate alınmıştır. Anyonik flokülantların özellikle düşük polimer konsantrasyonlarında daha etkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Minefloc Lot X 4119 anyonik flokülant, çökelme hızı ve bulanıklık açısından diğer flokülantlara göre daha iyi bir flokülasyon performansı göstermiştir.

  1. Določitev območij poselitve v Sloveniji po vodnogospodarskih vidikih

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Gosar

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveljavitev pravnega reda Evropske unije prinaša obsežno strokovno delo tudi v vodno gospodarstvo. Na vodilno, Okvirno direktivo o vodah (WFD se navezujejo številne druge. Izpolnjevanje določil Direktive o ravnanju z odpadnimi komunalnimi vodami (UWWTD in Direktive o celovitem preprečevanju in omejevanju onesnaževanja (IPPCD bo tudi v Sloveniji zahtevalo znatne investicije. Področje komunalnih voda na operativni ravni ureja občina, država pa mora izpolnjevati prevzete državne obveznosti do EU. Pravočasno doseganje ciljev zahteva koordinacijo aktivnosti, temelječo na strokovnih podlagah. V UWWTD je eden osnovnih parametrov aglomeracija kot zaokroženo območje tako zgoščene poselitve, da zanj veljajo posebna določila in dinamika iz direktive. Merilo zgoščenosti je število prebivalcev na hektar. Za Slovenijo so bili izdelani najprimernejša mreža eno-hektarskih kvadratnih celic in trije tipi celic poselitve. Območje posamezne aglomeracije sestavljajo celice dveh najgostejših tipov poselitve, ki se stikajo. Površina aglomeracij je mnogo manjša od površine naselij iz RPE, zato so skupne slovenske obveznosti iz direktiv manjše, kar pokaže tudi strokovna podlaga za nacionalni program zbiranja in čiščenja odpadnih komunalnih in padavinskih voda. Izdelane aglomeracije so osnovni element načrtovanja in ukrepanja tudi za druga vodnogospodarska načrtovanja (npr. proti poplavni ukrepi, lahko pa si bi jih uporabilo tudi za programe komunalnega opremljanja in druga razvojna načrtovanja v prostoru.

  2. Güneş Enerjisi Kaynaklı Bir Stirling Motorunun Matlab-Simulink ile Modellenmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ş. Melih AKYOL

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sürdürülebilir bir kalkınma için yerli ve yenilenebilir enerji kaynaklarının kullanılması gereklidir.Yenilenebilir Enerji Genel Müdürlüğü (YEGM’nin ölçümlerine göre, ülkemiz günde yeryüzüne düşen ortalama 3600 Wh/m2 ‘lik güneş ışınımı ile önemli bir güneş enerjisi kullanım potansiyeline sahiptir. Bu çalışmada ısı kaynağı olarak güneş enerjisini kullanan beta tipi krank hareket mekanizmalı bir Stirling motoru teorik olarak Matlab-Simulink ortamında modellenmiştir. Hazırlanan model, ülkemizdeki farklı bölgeler için, yılın herhangi bir gününde, yatay veya açılı yüzeylere düşen güneş ışınımı değerlerini tahminleyen bir alt model ile desteklenmiştir. Geliştirilen model ile, Stirling motorunun farklı boyutlandırmaları için güç, çalışma frekansı, verim gibi performans özellikleri hesaplanabilmekte, iş gazının da sıcaklık basınç gibi termodinamik özelliklerinin çevrim boyunca değişimi izlenebilmektedir.

  3. Ceramiche romane e tardoantiche delle campagne di ricognizione 2006-2008 del progetto R.I.M.E.M. / Roman and Late Antique pottery from the 2006-2008 field-walking campaigns of the R.I.M.E.M. project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Konestra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Con il presente contributo si presentano le tipologie ceramiche romane e tardoantiche individuate durante le campagne di ricognizione 2006-2008 del progetto R.I.M.E.M. e provenienti da alcune UUTT ritenute significative. Una suddivisione per classi e tipi ha permesso di formulare datazioni più ristrette per le ceramiche fini (ceramica a vernice nera, sigillate, ceramica a pareti sottili e le lucerne, nonché più ampie e basate su confronti regionali o extraregionali per le classi delle ceramiche comuni e da fuoco. L’analisi del suddetto materiale ha permesso di individuare, per alcune produzioni, evidenti raffronti provenienti dalla zona umbro-tirrenica e medio adriatica, nonché regionale, e ampliare l’area di diffusione di alcune classi anche al comprensorio preso in esame dal progetto. The paper presents the typology of Roman and Late roman pottery collected during the 2006-2008 field-walking campaigns of the R.I.M.E.M. project, with particular regard to some of the most significant sites identified. A subdivision in classes and types allowed us to assign narrower dates to fine pottery (black-gloss, various sigillata, thin-walled ware and lamps, while broader dates were assigned, on the basis of regional and extra regional analogies, to the coarse wares. Analyses carried out on the material allowed us to identify, for some productions, comparisons with the Umbrian-Tyrrhenian and mid-Adriatic areas, with a strong presence of regional analogies as well, which enabled us to broaden the distribution of certain classes to the area examined by the project.

  4. Mantenere il ruolo delle biblioteche nel web semantico tramite RDA: Resource Description and Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Tillett

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Catalogare non vuol dire semplicemente costruire un catalogo. Vuol dire far sì che gli utenti accedano tempestivamente alle informazioni pertinenti alle loro esigenze. Il lavoro di identificazione delle risorse raccolte da biblioteche, archivi, musei, dà luogo a ricchi metadati che possono essere riutilizzati per molti scopi ("le attività dell’utente". Ciò comporta la descrizione delle risorse e il mostrare le loro relazioni con persone, famiglie, enti e altre risorse, consentendo così agli utenti di navigare attraverso surrogati delle risorse per ottenere più rapidamente le informazioni di cui hanno bisogno. I metadati costruiti lungo tutto il ciclo di vita di una risorsa sono particolarmente preziosi per molti tipi di utenti: dai creatori delle risorse, agli editori, alle agenzie, ai librai, agli aggregatori di risorse, ai fornitori di sistemi, alle biblioteche, ad altre istituzioni culturali ed agli utenti finali. Il nuovo codice internazionale di catalogazione, RDA: Resource Description e Access, è progettato per soddisfare le attività di base degli utenti producendo metadati ben formati e interconnessi per l'ambiente digitale, dando la possibilità alle biblioteche di rimanere rilevanti nel web semantico. Acknowledge Il testo inglese del saggio è pubblicato in "Serials", November 2011, 24, 3, con il titolo Keeping Libraries Relevant in the Semantic Web with RDA: Resource Description and Access, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1629/24266. Traduzione italiana di Maria Chiara Iorio e Tiziana Possemato, che ringraziano Carlo Bianchini e Mauro Guerrini per la rilettura della traduzione.

  5. Monitoraggio virologico dellíinfluenza in Emilia Romagna nellíinverno 2002-2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Affanni

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Obiettivi: è stata organizzata su base regionale la sorveglianza virologica dell’influenza, al fine di verificare la comparsa e diffusione di virus influenzali nella popolazione ed individuare eventuali nuove varianti.

    Metodi: la sorveglianza si è basata sulle segnalazioni di ILI (influenza like illness da parte di 28 medici sentinella distribuiti in diverse città della regione (Parma, Modena, Ravenna, Bologna, Forlì, Rimini, Piacenza; la raccolta dei campioni, iniziata nella quarantaseiesima settimana del 2002, si è protratta fino alla diciassettesima settimana del 2003. I virus isolati in cellule MDCK (e/o PCR sono stati identificati con reazioni di IEA e quindi inviati all’ ISS per una più precisa caratterizzazione antigenica. Risultati: dai 220 tamponi faringei eseguiti sono stati isolati 49 ceppi virali (pari al 22,3%; di questi 39 sono risultati essere H3N2, 8 H1N1, ed 1 di tipo B; uno dei virus isolati è risultato appartenere al nuovo ceppo H1N2 recentemente isolato in altre aree del mondo. Cinque dei virus isolati provenivano da soggetti vaccinati.

    Conclusioni: per quanto le segnalazioni di ILI siano iniziate precocemente nella stagione, il primo isolamento virale ed il picco di massima circolazione dei virus sono risultati tardivi in Emilia Romagna (rispettivamente: 5° e 10° settimana 2003. L’epidemia influenzale, sia come segnalazioni di ILI sia come isolamenti virali, non ha raggiunto i livelli degli anni precedenti (1,2. Nel corso della stagione hanno circolato, tra gli H3N2, diversi tipi e varianti virali di ceppi antigenicamente correlati ai virus A/New York/55/01 e A/Panama/2007/99. Tranne un caso tutti i virus sono stati isolati in giovani adulti confermando dati provenienti da altre regioni.

  6. MALAYAN FILARIASIS IN THE TRANSMIGRATION SETTLEMENTS OF PARIGI, CENTRAL SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arbain Joesoef M.D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu program dari Rencana Pem­bangunan Nasional Lima tahun adalah pening­katan dan perluasan usaha pertanian, terutama didaerah subur dan berpenduduk tipis di Su­matera, Kalimantan dan Sulawesi yang disertai dengan pelaksanaan usaha transmigrasi kedaerah ini dari daerah berpenduduk padat Jawa, Madu­ra, Bali dan Lombok. Untuk mengetahui keadaan fllariasis di­daerah tersebut pertama ini, maka dalam bulan April 1972 telah diperiksa 240 transmigran dari Bali dan 282 penduduk Sulawesi yang hidup berdampingan dalam dua kampung yang ter­pencil yaitu Tanalanto dan Masi didistrik Parigi, Sulawesi Tengah. Parigi dikenal endemis terhadap fllariasis sedang­kan di Bali dimana transmigran berasal, tidak dilaporkan adanya penyakit ini. Dari hasil penelitian tersebut dapat di-kemukakan : daerah transmigrasi Parigi, Sulawesi Te­ngah adalah endemis terhadap fllariasis yang disebabkan oleh Brugia malayi, pe­riodik nokturna.timbulnya fllariasis diantara transmigran berhubungan erat dengan lamanya mere­ka berada didaerah endemis inibaik pada transmigran maupun pada pen­duduk asli, tidak nyata adanya perbedaan frekwensi penyakit menurut jenis kelamin.(4        Frekwensi penyakit ini pada transmigran terlihat menonjol pada golongan umur 10-49 tahun, sedangkan pada penduduk asli pada semua golongan umur.walaupun keadaan intensitas infeksi dari penyakit ini pada kedua golongan pen­duduk di Tanalanto, hampir sama, namun pada transmigran terdapat dengan micro­filaraemia dan dengan gejala klinis flla­riasis yang lebih ringan dibanding dengan penduduk asli.

  7. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  8. Vertical distribution of trace gas species in the troposphere over the south of West Siberia: comparison of airborne in situ measurements and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belan, Boris D.; Arshinov, Mikhail Yu.; Belov, Vladimir V.; Gridnev, Yurii V.; Davydov, Denis K.; Machida, Toshinobu; Paris, Jean-Daniel; Nédélec, Philippe; Fofonov, Alexander V.

    2014-05-01

    A comparison of the vertical distributions of O3, CO, CO2 and CH4 derived from the airborne in situ measurements and satellite observations over the southern part of West Siberia is presented. In this study we used data of monthly research flights of 'Optik' TU-134 aircraft laboratory carried out from 2012 to 2013 and data retrieved from measurements of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument on-board the MetOp satellite. It was found that differences in ozone mixing ratios between the airborne and satellite data can vary from +3 to +18 ppb at 0.5 km AGL and form -8 to -37 ppb at 7 km AGL, and relative ones ranged from +8 to +30 % and from -12 to -88 %, respectively. Differences in CO concentrations varied from +32 to +103 ppb at 0.5 km height and from -18 to +23 ppb at 3 km. Relative differences were in the range from -4 to +48 % at 0.5 km and from -8 to +20 % at 7 km. The maximal difference in all CH4 profiles reached 150 ppb in the atmospheric boundary layer, and the minimal one was -10 ppb. The average relative difference varied between +2.8 and -0.5 %. The average difference in CO2 concentration lies within ±1.5 ppm, while individual profiles are incommensurable. Maximal and minimal differences during the all flights were observed in the atmospheric boundary layer (+10 and -12 ppm or +2.3 and -3.3%, respectively). In the free troposphere, relative difference decreased down to ±1.0%. This work was funded by Research funds for Global Environmental Monitoring in NIES (Japan), CNRS (France), the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, CEA (France), Presidium of RAS (Program No. 4), Brunch of Geology, Geophysics and Mining Sciences of RAS (Program No. 5), Interdisciplinary integration projects of Siberian Branch of RAS (No. 35, No. 70, No. 131), Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grants No 14-05-00526, 14-05-00590).

  9. Grænser for vækst?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Olesen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Grundlæggende skal alle økonomer – mainstream som ikke mainstream økonomer – anerkende og acceptere, at det økonomiske system er underlagt det økologiske system. Det er det økologiske system, som sætter de endegyldige rammer for, hvorledes det økonomiske system kan udfolde sig. Af denne årsag alene er der grænser for, hvor stor den økonomiske vækst kan blive. På sin vis er dette måske en erkendelse, som det falder lettere for en non-mainstream økonom at acceptere end mere mainstream orienterede økonomer al den stund, at non-mainstream økonomer ofte ser det makroøkonomiske system som et åbent, socialt og over tid foranderligt system. Med et sådant perspektiv er vækst ikke bare vækst – vækstbegrebet skal i en sådan optik forstås mere kvalitativt end blot traditionelt kvantitativt. På den anden side er økonomisk vækst også en determinant til et mere velstående og måske også et mere lykkeligt samfund, sådan som eksempelvis John Maynard Keynes forholdt sig til i et essay, som han skrev i 1930, hvori han forsøgte at spå om sine børnebørns økonomiske muligheder.---All economists – mainstreamer as well as non-mainstreamer – have to accept that the working of the economic system, fundamentally, is governed by the rules of the ecological system. However, a non-mainstream economist who see the economic system as an open, changeable and social system might easier than a mainstreamer accept this fact and understand the limits to continued economic growth – far from all environmental problems can be addressed the right way by an optimizing public pricing policy. However, as Keynes tried to explain in 1930 economic growth could give way to a happier society with a high level of prosperity. As such, economic growth is still very important also to modern macroeconomists.

  10. SINTESIS NANOPARTIKEL PERAK MENGGUNAKAN METODE POLIOL DENGAN AGEN STABILISATOR POLIVINILALKOHOL (PVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOB Apriandanu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Nanopartikel perak merupakan produk berbasis nanoteknologi yang sedang berkembang saat ini dan dapat diaplikasikan sebagai katalis dan detektor sensor optik. Faktor yang dapat mempengaruhi ukuran nanopartikel adalah konsentrasi garam dan agen pereduksi. Nanopartikel perak bersifat tidak stabil. Oleh karena itu, perlu adanya penambahan polivinil alkohol sebagai agen stabilisator dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh rasio mol reduktor EG/Ag+ dan % PVA (b/v dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak terhadap karakteristik produk yang dihasilkan. Nanopartikel perak disintesis dengan metode poliol yaitu melarutkan AgNO3 ke dalam etilen glikol sebagai reduktor dan polivinilalkohol (PVA sebagai stabilisator. Karakterisasi dilakukan menggunakan Spek-trofotometer UV-Vis dan TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope. Analisis terhadap spektra UV-Vis menunjukkan bahwa nanopartikel yang relatif stabil pada pengukuran panjang gelombang maksimum 417 hingga 418 nm adalah nanopartikel yang disintesis menggunakan PVA 3%. Karakterisasi dengan TEM menunjukkan nanopartikel perak yang disintesis berdasarkan rasio mol etilen glikol terhadap Ag+ 50:1 memiliki ukuran terkecil dengan kisaran 10,15–27,56 nm dengan struktur kristal face centered cubic (FCC. Semakin tinggi rasio mol EG /Ag+ dalam sintesis nanopartikel perak, semakin tinggi pula peningkatan absorbansinya.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Silver nanoparticles are nanotechnology based product which can be applied as a catalyst and optic sensor detector. The factors that can effect on nanoparticle size are salt concentration and reductor agent. Silver nanoparticles are unstable material, so polyvinylalcohol needs to be added  as a stabilizer agent in their synthesis. The aims of this research are to

  11. Dampak Sosial Ekonomi dan Peran Pemerintah Daerah dalam Perkembangan Teknologi Pitalebar di Indonesia [Social Economy Impact and Local Government Initiative relating to Broadband Technology Development in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirianto Pradono

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia memiliki aset yang berperan penting bagi pembangunan nasional termasuk sosial dan ekonomi antara lain sumber daya manusia dan industri dalam negeri. TIK khususnya internet pitalebar merupakan salah satu kunci dalam pembangunan sosial ekonomi di suatu negara. Studi ini dilakukan untuk mengetahui sejauh mana dampak pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia terhadap aspek sosial ekonomi masyarakat serta mengidentifikasi apakah langkah yang telah dilakukan pemerintah daerah dalam mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar telah dilakukan secara optimal. Data yang diperoleh melalui penelitian dianalisis menggunakan metode Matthew B Miles dan A Michael Huberman, (2007. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan internet pitalebar di Indonesia meningkat dengan signifikan dan memberikan dampak positif terhadap pertumbuhan sosial ekonomi masyarakat. Namun demikian pemanfaatan internet pitalebar tersebut belum dilakukan secara optimal terutama untuk tujuan yang bersifat produktif. Pemerintah daerah telah melakukan sejumlah langkah strategis untuk mendorong pemanfaatan internet pitalebar di Indonesia seperti penggelaran ducting untuk kabel serat optik, pelatihan bidang TIK, penyediaan akses internet WiFi di fasilitas publik. Namun, langkah yang dilakukan pemerintah daerah perlu lebih diintensifkan guna memperluas penetrasi internet pitalebar untuk peningkatan dan pemerataan pertumbuhan sosial dan ekonomi masyarakat Indonesia.*****Indonesia has invaluable assets which are important to the national development. Those assets need to be managed properly in order to deliver significant contribution to the national development, especially in social and economy aspects. Nowadays, Information and Communication Technology (ICT, especially broadband internet, is one of some key points in social economy development in a country. Both qualitative and quantitative methods are used in this study to capture broadband internet utilization in Indonesia and identify

  12. Volcanic ash from Iceland over Munich: mass concentration retrieved from ground-based remote sensing measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, J.; Gro{ß}, S.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.

    2011-03-01

    Volcanic ash plumes, emitted by the Eyjafjallajökull volcano (Iceland) in spring 2010, were observed by the lidar systems MULIS and POLIS in Maisach (near Munich, Germany), and by a CIMEL Sun photometer and a JenOptik ceilometer in Munich. We retrieve mass concentrations of volcanic ash from the lidar measurements; spectral optical properties, i.e.~extinction coefficients, backscatter coefficients, and linear depolarization ratios, are used as input for an inversion. The inversion algorithm searches for model aerosol ensembles with optical properties that agree with the measured values within their uncertainty ranges. The non-sphericity of ash particles is considered by assuming spheroids. Optical particle properties are calculated using the T-matrix method supplemented by the geometric optics approach. The lidar inversion is applied to observations of the pure volcanic ash plume in the morning of 17 April 2010. We find 1.45 g m-2 for the ratio between the mass concentration and the extinction coefficient at λ = 532 nm, assuming an ash density of 2.6 g cm-3. The uncertainty range for this ratio is from 0.87 g m-2 to 2.32 g m-2. At the peak of the ash concentration over Maisach the extinction coefficient at λ = 532 nm was 0.75 km-1 (1-h-average), which corresponds to a maximum mass concentration of 1.1 mg m-3 (0.65 to 1.8 mg m-3). Model calculations show that particle backscatter at our lidar wavelengths (λ ≤ 1064 nm), and thus the lidar retrieval, is hardly sensitive to large particles (r ≳ 3 μm); large particles, however, may contain significant amounts of mass. Therefore, as an independent cross check of the lidar retrieval and to investigate the presence of large particles in more detail, we model ratios of sky radiances in the aureole of the Sun and compare them to measurements of the CIMEL. These ratios are sensitive to particles up to r ≈ 10 μm. This approach confirms the mass concentrations from the lidar retrieval. We conclude that synergistic

  13. Electron acceleration in the bubble regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Oliver

    2014-02-03

    The bubble regime of laser-wakefield acceleration has been studied over the recent years as an important alternative to classical accelerators. Several models and theories have been published, in particular a theory which provides scaling laws for acceleration parameters such as energy gain and acceleration length. This thesis deals with numerical simulations within the bubble regime, their comparison to these scaling laws and data obtained from experiments, as well as some specific phenomenona. With a comparison of the scaling laws with numerical results a parameter scan was able to show a large parameter space in which simulation and theory agree. An investigation of the limits of this parameter space revealed boundaries to other regimes, especially at very high (a{sub 0} > 100) and very low laser amplitudes (a{sub 0} < 4). Comparing simulation data with data from experiments concerning laser pulse development and electron energies, it was found that experimental results can be adequately reproduced using the Virtual-Laser-Plasma-Laboratory code. In collaboration with the Institut fuer Optik und Quantenelektronik at the Friedrich-Schiller University Jena synchrotron radiation emitted from the inside of the bubble was investigated. A simulation of the movement of the electrons inside the bubble together with time dependent histograms of the emitted radiation helped to prove that the majority of radiation created during a bubble acceleration originates from the inside of the bubble. This radiation can be used to diagnose the amplitude of oscillation of the trapped electrons. During a further study it was proven that the polarisation of synchrotron radiation from a bubble contains information about the exact oscillation direction. This oscillation was successfully controlled by using either a laser pulse with a tilted pulse front or an asymmetric laser pulse. First results of ongoing studies concerning injecting electrons into an existing bubble and a scheme called

  14. Analisis Performansi Konektifitas Pada Jaringan Wireless Broadband di Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OTNIEL TONAPA

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Perkembangan teknologi komunikasi Wireless mengarah ke teknologi yang berbasis jaringan IP (Internet Protocol. Access Point adalah suatu perangkat Wireless Router.  Access point membentuk hot spot, sedangkan Wireless Router mengatur lalu lintas data. Parameter yang diukur pada penelitian ini yaitu Quality of Service (QoS, antara lain pengukuran jitter, delay, dan packet loss yang dihasilkan dalam layanan paket data. Nilai jitter rata-rata sesama pengguna modem ADSL yang terhubung dengan access point pada smartphone bernilai 143.36 ms sedangkan pada laptop berada pada nilai 45.6 ms. Nilai jitter sesama penguna modem GPON, nilai rata-rata pada smartphone bernilai 133.12 ms, sedangkan pada laptop berada pada nilai 45.56 ms. Nilai rata-rata delay sesama pengguna modem ADSL pada smartphone bernilai 99.04 ms, sedangkan pada laptop sebesar 56.33 ms. Nilai rata-rata delay pada sesama pengguna modem GPON pada smartphone adalah 97.96 ms sedangkan pada laptop sebesar 56.15 ms.  Packet loss dari hasil pengujian keduanya memiliki presentase sama yaitu 1%. Kata kunci: Teknologi Digital Subscriber Line, Jaringan Optik Pasif, Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP, Quality of Service (QoS Abstract Wireless communication technology development leading to technologies that network-based IP (Internet Protocol. Access Point Wireless Router is a device. Access point forming a hot spot, while the router manage data traffic. Parameters measured in this research is Quality of Service (QoS. among other things, measuring jitter, delay, and packet loss. resulting in packet data service. Jitter value among ADSL fellow have the average on smartphones 143.36 ms. On laptop average be at 45.6 ms. While jitter value among GPON fellow user have the average on smartphone 133.12 ms. On laptop average be at 45.56 ms. The average value of the delay to ADSL fellow users on smartphones 99.04 ms and on laptop average be at 56.33 ms. While delay value among GPON fellow user

  15. Spatial variability of aerosol and black carbon concentrations in the troposphere of the Russian Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, Valerii S.; Panchenko, Mikhail V.; Paris, Jean D.; Nédéléc, Philippe; Chernov, Dmitry G.; Shmargunov, Vladimir P.

    2015-11-01

    A cycle of flights of the Optik TU-134 Flying Laboratory of IAO SB RAS over regions of Western Siberia and the Russian Arctic (55.0-74.8°N, 61.3-82.9°E) was carried out on October 15-17 of 2014 within the framework of the YAK-AEROSIB Russian—French Project. The mass concentrations of submicron aerosol and Black Carbon (BC) in the troposphere up to a height of 8.5 km were measured in the flights. The ranges of variability were 0.3-20 μg/m3 for the aerosol concentration and 0.02-1 μg/m3 for the BC concentration. In the subpolar latitudes of 71-74.8°N, the lower levels of aerosol (0.8-6 μg/m3) and BC (0.02-0.3 μg/m3) were observed. The comparison of the results of airborne sensing in 2008 and 2014 has shown that in the Western Subartic the aerosol and BC concentrations in the vertical profiles up to six times exceeded those observed in the Eastern Subarctic (0.3-1 μg/m3 and 10-50 ng/m3). The excess of the mean integral BC concentrations and the aerosol optical depth was, on average, 2-2.5 times (0.16 mg/m2; 0.02). In the region of the Kara Sea at heights of 0.5-2 and 4-6 km, the excess of the aerosol content in the western sector in comparison with the eastern one was, on average, 2 times, while for the black carbon the excess achieved 7 times at heights of 1-2 km (0.25- 0.035 μg/m3). The mean integral concentrations of aerosol and black carbon ˜ 1.3 times exceeded those in the clearer eastern region of the sea (0.31 mg/m2; 0.049). The obtained estimates indicate the decrease of the aerosol and BC concentrations in the subpolar latitudes of the Russian Federation from the west to the east.

  16. Technological Advances Impacting Libraries and Libraries of the Future Kütüphaneleri Etkileyen Teknolojik Yenilikler ve Geleceğin Kütüphaneleri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazan Özenç Uçak

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in libraries which began with the use of computers accelerate with the emergence of new technologies every day. Especially, the widespread use of microcomputers, developments in communication and optic disk technologies, and the use ofartifxcal intelligence and expert systems in libraries have impact upon the library profession. The assortment, quality and speed of library services have increased due to these developments. Along with the technological advances, the organizational structure of , and the management approcah to, libraries changes, too. These ongoing changes bring forth the question of what would happen to the libraries and librarianship of the future. Kütüphanelerde bilgisayarların kullanımı ile başlayan gelişmeler, her geçen gün yeni teknolojilerin ortaya çıkmasıyla giderek büyümektedir, özellikle mikrobilgisayarların geniş kullanım alanı bulması, iletişim teknolojisinin hızlı gelişimi, optik disk teknolojisindeki yenilikler, yapay zeka ve uzman sistemlerden kütüphanecilik alanında yararlanılabilmesi kütüphanecilik mesleğini etkilemektedir. Bu gelişmelere bağlı olarak verilen hizmetlerin çeşidi, niteliği ve hızı artmaktadır. Kütüphanelerin Örgüt yapılarında, yönetim anlayışlarında da değişimler söz konusudur. Bugün yaşanan bu değişimler geleceğin kütüphanelerinin ve kütüphaneciliğinin neolacağı sorularını gündeme getirmektedir.

  17. Transforming growth factor-β1 and TGF-β2 act synergistically in the fibrotic pathway in oral submucous fibrosis: An immunohistochemical observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Viswanath Kamath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSF is a potentially malignant oral disorder which leads to fibrosis of the oral mucosa and has a high rate of malignant transformation. The consumption of various forms of areca nut is causatively linked to the condition. The constituents of areca nut activate several pro-fibrotic cytokines, chiefly transforming growth factor-β1, β2, which leads to an increased deposition and decreased degradation of extracellular matrix and collagen. TGF-β1, β2 probably represent the major pathway in the deposition of collagen fibres in this condition. The present study aims to identify and correlate the expressions of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 immunohistochemically on paraffin sections of various stages of OSF. A comparison was also made between normal oral mucosa and scar tissue and OSF to judge the mode, extent and type of expression of TGF β1, β2. Methods: The expression of TGF-β1 antibody (8A11, NovusBio, USA and TGF-β2 antibody (TB21, NovusBio, USA was detected immunohistochemically on paraffin sections of 58 and 70 cases of OSF respectively, 10 cases of normal oral mucosal tissue and 4 cases of scar tissue. A mapping of the positivity of the two cytokines was done using JenOptik camera and ProReg image analysis software. The results were statistically analysed using one way ANOVA and students "t" test. Results: Expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 was more in OSF as compared with normal oral mucosa, scar/keloid tissue showing highest values. Positivity for both the markers was seen in epithelium, around the blood vessels, in areas of inflammatory infiltrate, fibroblasts and in muscles. TGF-β1 expression was higher and more intense than that of TGF-β2 in all the cases. TGF-β2 was restricted in its expression to submucosal area with minimal involvement of the epithelium and the deeper muscle tissue. Conclusion: TGF-β1 is the most prominent cytokine in the fibrotic pathway and TGF-β2 plays a

  18. Automated aberration compensation in high numerical aperture systems for arbitrary laser modes (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Julian; Waller, Erik H.; von Freymann, Georg

    2017-02-01

    aberration correction," Opt. Express 18(20), 21090-21099 (2010). 4. R. W. Gerchberg and W. O. Saxton, "A practical algorithm for the determination of the phase from image and diffraction plane pictures," Optik 35(2), 237-246 (1972).

  19. SP-FISPACT2001. A computer code for activation and decay calculations for intermediate energies. A connection of FISPACT with MCNPX; SP-FISPACT2001. Una connessione di FISPACT con MCNPX per la codifica computerizzata delle energie intermedie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovich, C. [ENEA, Divisione Sistemi Energetici Ecosostenibili, Centro Ricerche Ezio Clementel, Bologna (Italy)

    2001-07-01

    The calculation of the number of atoms and the activity of materials following nuclear interactions at incident energies up to several GeV is necessary in the design of Accelerator Driven Systems, Radioactive Ion Beam and proton accelerator facilities such as spallation neutron sources. As well as the radioactivity of the materials, this allows the evaluation of the formation of active gaseous elements and the assessment of possible corrosion problems The particle energies involved here are higher than those used in typical nuclear reactors and fusion devices for which many codes already exist. These calculations can be performed by coupling two different computer codes: MCNPX and SP-FISPACT. MCNPX performs Monte Carlo particle transport up to energies of several GeV. SP-FISPACT is a modification of FISPACT, a code designed for fusion applications and able to calculate neutron activation for energies <20 MeV. In such a way it is possible to perform a hybrid calculation in which neutron activation data are used for neutron interactions at energies <20 MeV and intermediate energy physics models for all the other nuclear interactions. [Italian] In fase di design di sistemi ADS (Accelerator Driven Systems), di strutture con acceleratori quali quelli finalizzate alla produzione di fasci di ioni radioattivi o a sorgenti neutroniche di spallazione e' necessario calcolare la composizione e l'attivita' di materiali a seguito di interazioni nucleari con energie fino a qualche GeV. Oltre la radioattivita' dei materiali, questi calcoli permettono di prevedere la formazione di elementi gassosi attivi e possibili problemi di corrosione. Le energie delle particelle qui coinvolte sono piu' alte di quelle usate in tipici reattori nucleari ed in dispositivi finalizzati alla fusione, per i quali sono gia' disponibili diversi codici. Questi tipi di calcoli possono essere eseguiti accoppiando due codici differenti: MCNPX e SP-FISPACT. MCNPX trasporta

  20. Integrare le informazioni sugli eventi avversi secondo la classificazione ICPS dell’OMS: uno studio pilota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizio Di Denia

    2014-05-01

    aziendale strategie di intervento per la riduzione dei rischi, secondo quanto previsto dal Piano Aziendale delle Azioni per la Sicurezza. Limiti. Il modello utilizzato presenta i limiti epidemiologici e metodologici delle fonti utilizzate. Alcune categorie della classe incident type appaiono eccessivamente generiche e trasversali, con conseguente difficoltà di classificazione per alcuni tipi di eventi. Conclusioni.Il sistema ICPS dell’OMS permette di avere un quadro concettuale di riferimento per l’integrazione delle diverse fonti informative, con il quale è possibile confrontare i risultati delle attività relative alla gestione dei rischi sia a livello locale che tra le diverse aziende.

  1. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study with Spanish Accounting Terms Ekwivalent-seleksie in gespesialiseerde e-leksikografie: 'n Gevallestudie met Spaanse rekeningkundige terme.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Fuertes-Olivera

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Interest in specialized lexicography has been propelled both by the development of LSP communication in academic circles and by the consolidation of function-based approaches to lexicography that have identified the existence of several user types, e.g., experts, semi-experts and interested laypersons, and use situations, typically cognitive-oriented and communicative-oriented (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group, accountants and financial experts (secondary user group, as well as students of accountancy and translation, journalists, and interested laypersons (tertiary user group. It addresses the issue as a lexicographical problem and makes comments on the decisions taken by elaborating on three lexicographical principles that take into consideration the nature of lexicography, the technical options the Internet offers, and the defining characteristics of specialized discourse: relevance, proscription and recreation.

    Belangstelling in gespesialiseerde leksikografie is aangevuur deur sowel die ontwikkeling van TSD-kommunikasie in akademiese kringe as die konsolidasie van funksie-gebaseerde benaderings tot leksikografie. Laasgenoemde benadering het die bestaan van verskeie gebruikerstipes, bv. kundiges, semi-kundiges en geïnteresseerde leke, en gebruiksituasies, tipies kognitief-georiënteerde en kommunikatief-goriënteerde situasies, geïdentifiseer (Bergenholtz and Tarp, 2003, 2004. Hierdie artikel volg hierdie ontwikkelings na en wei uit oor die seleksie van Spaanse ekwivalente in 'n spesifieke woordeboekprojek: die Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, 'n

  2. La bellezza aurea. Risposta cerebrale alle sculture classiche e rinascimentali

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    Cinzia Di Dio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Esiste una base biologica oggettiva nell’esperienza del bello nell’arte? Oppure, l’esperienza estetica è interamente soggettiva? Usando la tecnica della risonanza magnetica funzionale, abbiamo affrontato questa domanda presentando a degli osservatori naïve allo studio dell’arte immagini di capolavori di sculture Classiche e Rinascimentali. Utilizzando la proporzione come variabile indipendente, abbiamo creato due gruppi di stimoli: uno composto da immagini di sculture originali; l’altro, da una versione modificata delle stesse immagini. Gli stimoli sono stati presentati in tre condizioni: osservazione, giudizio estetico e giudizio di proporzione. Nella condizione di osservazione, i volontari dovevano osservare le immagini con lo stesso stato mentale che avrebbero avuto se fossero stati in un museo. Nelle altre due condizioni, i volontari dovevano dare un giudizio estetico e di proporzione delle stesse immagini. Sono stati eseguiti due tipi di analisi: uno, che ha contrastato le risposte cerebrali alle sculture canoniche e modificate; ed uno, che messo a contrasto le sculture “esteticamente piacevoli” e quelle “esteticamente non piacevoli”, secondo il giudizio espresso in modo esplicito da ciascun volontario. Il risultato più interessante ha evidenziato, durante l’osservazione delle sculture originali, rispetto a quelle modificate, l’attivazione dell’insula destra e di alcune aree corticali laterali e mediali (il giro occipitale laterale, il precuneo e aree prefrontali. L’attivazione dell’insula era particolarmente evidente durante la condizione di osservazione. Inoltre, si è osservato che, quando i volontari dovevano dare un giudizio estetico esplicito, le immagini giudicate esteticamente piacevoli attivavano selettivamente l’amigdala destra rispetto a quelle giudicate esteticamente non piacevoli. Dati i risultati, abbiamo concluso che, negli osservatori naïve, il senso del bello è mediato da due processi non

  3. Tra poesia, musica, disegno e prosa: il progetto DAP – Dmitrij Aleksandrovič Prigov

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    Alice Bravin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo si sofferma su una delle maggiori figure del panorama culturale russo del Ventesimo secolo, Dmitrij Aleksandrovič Prigov (1940-2007: poeta, scrittore, pittore, grafico, autore di installazioni, performance teatrali e musicali, Prigov rappresenta un artista completo e un autore dalla natura poliedrica per il quale risulta impossibile stabilire gerarchie tra le svariate incarnazioni. La sua produzione artistica si inserisce all’interno di un progetto che include le varie forme sperimentate, il progetto DAP – Dmitrij Aleksandrovič Prigov: in esso tutti i tipi di attività (prosa, poesia, disegno, musica si compenetrano, con la conseguente rottura dei tradizionali confini tra le arti. Dopo aver delineato le caratteristiche essenziali del progetto DAP, si analizzeranno alcuni esempi concreti di applicazione di tali principi, con riferimento alle performance orali, al confine tra poesia, canto e musica. Punto di partenza di queste esibizioni vocali è l’Azbuka (‘Abbecedario’, dove a ciascuna delle trentatré lettere dell’alfabeto russo viene associato ora un suono, ora un elenco di parole, ora una situazione: parola scritta e musica si fondono in una performance unica. This paper focuses on one of the most famous figures of the Russian cultural scene of the Twentieth century: Dmitrij Aleksandrovič Prigov (1940-2007. As poet, writer, painter, graphic designer, author of installations, musical and theatrical performances, Prigov was a total, versatile and extremely productive artist, for whom it is difficult to establish a hierarchy between all his different personifications. His entire artistic production is part of a wide project including different genres and permanently breaking borders between forms of art: the life-long artistic project DAP – Dmitrij Aleksandrovič Prigov.  After having described the characteristics of the project DAP, in this paper I aim to analyze some examples of this combination of

  4. Orso, ghianda e faggiola: produzione trofica e fattori ambientali

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    M. Romano

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available La produzione di ghianda e faggiola è stata monitorata nel 2001 e 2002 nell'area del progetto LIFE tramite griglia di plot (maglia= 500 m distribuiti in maniera sistematica nell'area di studio. In faggeta sono stati campionati 214 plot da settembre a dicembre 2001 e 130 tra ottobre e novembre 2002. Nei querceti sono stati campionati 143 plot da gennaio a marzo 2002 e 143 plot da settembre a dicembre 2002. Nei plot (circolari, Ø= 40 m i frutti sono stati raccolti in 17 stazioni (superficie= 1 m² e sono stati successivamente divisi in 5 tipi in base alla grandezza e condizione del seme. Sia il numero totale di faggiole raccolte (148.1369 vs. 9.412 sia il numero medio di faggiole/plot (692,2 vs. 72,4 è stato maggiore nel 2001 rispetto al 2002. Analogamente, la densità media di faggiole (tipo 1+2 nell'autunno 2001 è stata maggiore di quella del 2002 (26,8 vs. 1,8. La produzione della ghianda di cerro è stata maggiore nel 2002 rispetto al 2001. Nell'inverno 2001/2002 sono state raccolte 5.445 ghiande, mentre nell'autunno 2002 il numero di ghiande raccolte è stato pari a 13.814. Il numero medio di ghiande di cerro totali / plot è stato pari a 57,9 nel 2001/2002 e a 121,2 nel 2002. Le evidenti differenze di produzione di faggiola (0,34 1259 g e ghianda (0,434 - 9,99 g tra i plot sembrano attribuibili alla gestione selvicolturale. Infatti, analisi preliminari hanno evidenziato che i fattori stazionali (quota, esposizione non incidono in misura significativa sulla quantità di frutti prodotti. L'uso dello spazio nell'orso bruno è influenzato dalla disponibilità trofica, che nel periodo autunnale è importante in relazione a svernamento e gravidanza. Poiché, in funzione della disponibilità di faggiola risulta una variazione nell'alimentazione, si raccomandano interventi di monitoraggio della produzione e distribuzione della faggiola e delle fonti trofiche che ad essa si alternano. Così, sarà possibile inquadrare in un contesto territoriale

  5. Analysing English metaphors of the economic crisis

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    Filippo-Enrico Cardini

    2014-07-01

    quelle proposte in ricerche precedenti. In questo senso sono stati individuati complessivamente quaranta differenti generi di metafora. Parallelamente a questa classificazione teorica è stata anche condotta un’analisi quantitativa dei dati nell’intento di individuare i tipi di espressione metaforica usati più frequentemente. I risultati suggeriscono che la crisi economica finanziaria è prevalentemente pensata come qualcosa di negativo riguardante un essere umano, un oggetto e un movimento. In particolare, la metafora più ricorrente sembra essere quella in cui lo stato di crisi economica viene riportato come un oggetto danneggiato o distrutto. I risultati indicano anche che riviste economiche differenti possono variare sensibilmente nella quantità di linguaggio metaforico utilizzato. Parole chiave: metafora; crisi economica; semantica; pragmatica; stili giornalistici.

  6. Konjungtivitis Viral: Diagnosis dan Terapi di Pelayanan Kesehatan Primer

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    Ratna Sitompul

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Konjungtiva adalah membran mukosa tipis transparan yang melapisi bagian anterior bola mata dan bagian dalam palpebral. Konjungtiva berfungsi sebagai salah satu komponen sistem perlindungan mata dari peradangan dan infeksi. Peradangan konjungtiva disebut konjungtivitis dan infeksi virus merupakan etiologi peradangan akut tersering pada konjungtiva. Virus yang menyebabkan konjungtivitis adalah adenovirus, herpes simpleks, herpes zoster, pox virus, myxovirus, paramyxovirus, dan arbovirus. Konjungtivitis sering terjadi bersama atau sesudah infeksi saluran napas dan umumnya terdapat riwayat kontak dengan pasien konjungtivitis viral. Gejala konjungtivitis viral berupa mata merah, sekret mata berair dan dapat disertai pembesaran kelenjar limfe. Gejala konjungtivitis viral biasanya ringan, dapat sembuh sendiri dan tidak disertai penurunan tajam penglihatan sehingga dapat ditatalaksana di pelayanan kesehatan primer. Meskipun demikian, terdapat kasus-kasus yang bersifat mengancam penglihatan sehingga perlu segera dirujuk ke rumah sakit atau dokter spesialis mata. Konjungtivitis viral sangat menular sehingga pasien perlu mendapat edukasi untuk mengurangi kontak langsung dan tidak langsung agar tidak menjadi sumber infeksi bagi lingkungannya. Konjungtivitis viral dapat sembuh sendiri, namun pemberian air mata buatan, antihistamin topikal, atau kompres dingin berguna untuk meredakan gejala. Terapi antiviral tidak diperlukan untuk konjungtivitis virus, kecuali untuk konjungtivitis herpetik. Kata kunci: epidemi, konjungtivitis, virus.     Viral Conjunctivitis: Diagnosis and Therapy in Primary Health Care   Abstract Conjunctivae is a transparent thin mucosal membrane covering the outer anterior eye and inner palpebrae. This structure is vital for eye defense from inflammation and infection. Inflammation occurring on the conjunctivae is called conjunctivitis and virus is one of the most common etiologic agent. Such viruses are adenovirus, herpes simplex virus

  7. Antibacterial Activities of Ankaferd Hemostat (ABS) on Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli and Other Pathogens Significant in Foodborne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koluman, Ahmet; Akar, Nejat; Haznedaroğlu, İbrahim C

    2017-03-01

    Amaç: Ankaferd hemostat (Ankaferd Blood Stopper®, ABS) gamma fibrinojene etki ederek eritroid agregasyonuna neden olan farmakolojik modülasyondur. Topikal endoskopik ABS uygulaması gastrointestinal (Gİ) kanamalarda ve enfekte Gİ yaralarında etkili olmaktadır. Escherichia coli O157:H7, en sık karşılaşılan enterohemorajik Escherichia coli tipi olup sporadik veya salgınlar şeklinde hemorajik kolitin önemli bir etkenidir. Bu çalışmanın amacı ABS ile 6 farklı Shiga Toksijenik Escherichia coli serotipi (O26, O103, O104, O111, O145 ve O157) ve diğer önemli gıda kaynaklı patojenlerden Salmonella, Campylobacter ve Listeria monocytogenes üzerine etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Tüm patojenler hazırlanarak ABS’nin farklı miktarları uygulanmış ve antimikrobiyel etki izlenmiştir. Salmonella canlılığı floresan in situ hibridizasyon tekniği ile izlenmiştir. Bulgular: ABS uygulamalarının sadece Escherichia coli O157 ve non-O157’ler üzerine değil aynı zamanda diğer patojenlerde de logaritmik azalma tetiklediği izlenmiştir. Bu çalışmada ABS ile farklı patojenler üzerine antibakteriyel etki gözlemlenmiştir. Sonuç: Bu çalışma özellikle trombositopenik purpura, hemolitik üremik sendrom ve hemorajik kolit yönünden önemli Escherichia coli O157:H7’nin üzerine ABS’nin antimikrobiyel etkisi olduğunu belirleyen ilk çalışmadır. ABS uygulamalarının kolitis, enfeksiyon ve hemostaz ilişkisi daha ileri seviyede araştırılmalıdır.

  8. SEMI SINTESIS SENYAWA 2,4,6-TRINITROFENILHIDRAZON KALANON DAN UJI AKTIVITAS TERHADAP SEL LEUKIMIA L1210

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    Mochammad Chasani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Kalanon adalah senyawa antikanker yang diisolasi dari Calophyllum biflorum Hends dan Ws. Aktivitas kalanon terhadap sel leukemia L1210 masih rendah yakni dengan niali IC50 = 59,4 ug/mL. Suatu senyawa dikatakan aktif sebagai antikanker jjika memiliki nilai IC50 di bawah 10 ug/mL. Penelitian ini ditujukan untuk mensintesis senyawa turunan kalanon dan diharapkan diperoleh senyawa baru yang mempunyai aktivitas lebih tinggi dibandingkan senyawa asal kalanon. Senyawa turunan kalanon diperoleh melalui reaksi antara kalanon dengan 2,4,6-trinitrofenilhidrazin. Reaksi dilakukan pada suhu 78 oC selama delapan jam. Analisis pendahuluan senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan metode kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan eluen n-heksana dan etil asetat (2:1, v/v. Pemurnian senyawa hasil sintesis menggunakan teknik rekristalisasi dengan pelarut n-heksana dan diklorometan (3:1, v/v. Senyawa hasil sintesis diperoleh dengan Rf = 0,6609 dan rendemen 5,125 % ( b/b serta berupa kristal berwarna coklat. Identifikasi senyawa hasil sintesis dilakukan dengan spektrometer massa dan spektrofotometer IR. Hasil identifikasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa hasil sintesis yang diharapkan telah terbentuk. Data spektrometer massa diperoleh ion molekul M+ = 647 dengan lepasnya molekul H2. Fragmen-fragmen yang terbentuk adalah pada m/e = 504, m/e = 479, m/e = 451, m/e = 429, m/e = 405, m/e = 377, m/e = 341, m/e = 316, m/e = 281, m/e = 253, m/e = 233, m/e = 207, m/e = 177, m/e = 156, m/e = 135, m/e = 96, m/e = 73, dan m/e = 41. Hasil spektrofotometer IR menunjukkan pita serapan pada 1654.8 cm-1 yang merupakan daerah regang ikatan rangkap C=N, pita serapan pada 3000 cm-1 – 3400 cm-1 adalah pita getaran OH fenol dan pita pada 1380 cm-1 menunjukkan rentangan simetri gugus nitro (NO2. Hasil uji sitotoksik terhadap sel leukemia L1210 menghasilkan nilai IC50 sebesr 47.69 μg/ml.

  9. Use by small mammals of short-rotation plantations in relation to their structure and isolation

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    Marta Giordano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Over the last decades, dramatic changes in agricultural practices have led to important modifications of land-use, as well as landscape structure, and to a general biodiversity loss in agro-ecosystems. During 2008 we investigated the small mammal communities of Short Rotation Forestry (SRF stands in Northern Italy. We live-trapped small mammals, during summer and autumn, in different types of SRF stands and surrounding habitats and compared capture rates. We evaluated the influence on small mammals abundance of the distance between the stands and other habitats offering woody or bushy cover. Our results showed that SRF plantations are widely exploited by small mammals, especially in autumn and that capture rate is the highest in “double-row” stands. The distance from woods or other arboriculture stands was negatively correlated to small mammals abundance. We conclude that SRF plantations can be considered a suitable habitat for small mammals and may work as a “corridor habitat” between fragmented patches of suitable habitats.
    Riassunto Uso degli impianti a turno breve da parte dei micrommamiferi, in relazione alla loro struttura e isolamento Negli ultimi decenni profondi cambiamenti nelle pratiche agricole hanno causato modifiche nella tipologia di uso dei terreni, così come nella struttura del paesaggio, che hanno portato a una generale perdita di biodiversità negli agroecosistemi. Nel corso del 2008 abbiamo studiato le comunità di micromammiferi nelle piantagioni di pioppo per la produzione di biomassa (SRF nel Nord Italia. Con l’uso di live-traps abbiamo effettuato due sessioni di cattura, una estiva e una autunnale, nei diversi tipi di impianto delle SRF e negli ambienti circostanti, per comparare le frequenze di cattura. Abbiamo quindi analizzato l’influenza che la distanza tra i diversi ambienti con copertura arborea ha sull’abbondanza dei micromammiferi

  10. STRATEGIC CHANGE IN PROCUREMENT ORIENTATION IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.E. Kalenga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The South African automotive industry faces increasing challenges for Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs and their suppliers to produce high-quality products at low costs. Items purchased by OEMs from the supply chain typically account for more than seventy percent of the total costs of manufactured automobiles. The strategic significance of the purchasing function is subsequently recognised as a major determinant of competitiveness. From a review of literature, a conceptual model is introduced whereby localisation strategies of OEMs, with respect to their main suppliers, can be optimised for competitive advantage. The findings of a case study of a South African OEM’s localisation strategies are presented. Based on the findings, an improved model is proposed that could be used as a guideline to orientate procurement strategies for optimal performance, so as to guarantee the competitive advantage of local OEMs. It is anticipated that these results will provide a platform of effective strategy development for the South African OEMs.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Verskeie uitdagings, met die klem op vervaardiging van hoë-kwaliteit produkte teen verlaagde koste, word in die gesig gestaar deur beide die Oorspronklike Toerusting Vervaardigers (OTVs en hulle verskaffers in die Suid-Afrikaanse motorindustrie. Items wat OTVs van hul verskaffers verkry verteenwoordig tipies meer as sewentig persent van die totale vervaardigingskoste van motors. Die strategiese implikasie van die aankopingsfunksie word dus erken as belangrike aanwysing van ‘n goeie kompeterende basis. ‘n Konseptuele model word neergelê gebaseer op ‘n oorsig van die literatuur, waardeur die lokaliseringsstrategieë van OTVs, in terme van hulle verskaffers, geoptimiseer kan word as kompeterende voordele. Die bevindinge van ‘n Suid-Afrikaanse OTV, as gevallestudie, se lokaliseringsstrategieë word verder voorgelê. Deur hierdie bevindinge word

  11. Seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik görüntüleri ile histopatolojik alt tipleri arasında korelasyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rukiye Yasak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Seboreik keratoz daha çok yaşlılarda görülen benign karakterli epidermal bir tümördür. Akantotik, hiperkeratotik, irrite, retiküler, klonal tip ve melanoakantoma olmak üzere 6 farklı histopatolojik alt tipi vardır. Dermatoskopi (epiluminans mikroskopi pigmente deri lezyonlarının çıplak göz ile görülemeyen klinik morfolojik özelliklerini gösteren in vivo, non-invaziv bir tekniktir. Bu çalışmadaki amacımız seboreik keratozun dermatoskopik özelliklerinin, histopatolojik alt grupları ile korelasyonu olup olmadığını saptamaktı. Yöntem. Çalışmaya alınan 53 hastanın toplam 80 adet SK lezyonu alındı. Dermatoskopik bulgular tanımlandı. 77 lezyondan insizyonel biyopsi alınırken üç lezyona total rezeksiyon yapıldı ve histopatolojik alt tipler velirlendi. Bulgular. SK alt tipleri; komedon benzeri açıklıklar, mila benzeri kistler, fissür, polimorf damar, ekzofitik papiller, dot/globül ve mavi beyaz yapı açısından değerlendirildiklerinde istatiksel olarak aralarındaki fark önemsiz bulunmuştur (p>0,05. Alt tiplerde sosis parmak hiperkeratotik tip ve irrite tip SK’da, milia-bulut irrite tip SK en fazla gözlenirken (p<0,05, psödostreaks ve psödoretiküler patern en çok retiküler tip SK’da saptanmıştır (p<0,05. Sonuç. Dermatoskopi, seboreik keratoz olgularında histopatolojik alt tiplerin belirlenebilmesine yardımcı bir tanı aracı olarak kullanılabilir.

  12. Isparta Koşullarında Kanola (Brassica napus L. Çeşitlerinin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Baydar

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Kanola (kolza, tohumlarında %40-50 arasında yağ bulunan, oleik asitçe zengin değerli bir yağ bitkisidir. Bu araştırmada; 00 tipi (yağında %2'den az erusik asit ve 1 gram kuru küspesinde 30 μmol'ün altında glukosinolat içeren 15 kanola çeşidinin (Bienvenue, Bristol, Cascade, Colombus, Eurol, Honk, Liborius, Ninetta, Lirawell, Monitta, Quinta, Semu-86/225 Na, Synergy, Tarok ve Westar Isparta koşullarında verim ve kalite özellikleri belirlenmiştir. Tarla denemesi, 2000/2001 yetiştirme sezonunda Süleyman Demirel Üniveristesi Ziraat Fakültesi Tarla Bitkileri Bölümü deneme tarlasında Tesadüf Blokları Deneme Deseni'nde 3 tekerrürlü olarak kurulmuştur. Araştırmada, soxhlet ve GC teknikleri yardımıyla yağ oranları ve yağ asitleri kompozisyonları (palmitik asit, stearik asit, oleik asit, linoleik asit ve linolenik asit saptanmıştır. En yüksek tohum verimi Tarok (287.2 kg/da çeşidinden ve en düşük tohum verimi Bienvenue (218.0 kg/da çeşidinden elde edilmiştir. Kanola çeşitlerinin yağ oranı değerleri %35.4-44.4 arasında değişmiştir. Kanola yağında %5.3-7.0 arasında palmitik asit, %1.0-4.3 arasında stearik asit, %66.6-74.4 arasında oleik asit, %14.1-19.7 linoleik asit ve %1.8-6.0 arasında linolenik asit bulunduğu saptanmıştır. Hiçbir çeşidin yağında erusik asit varlığına rastlanmamıştır.

  13. Book Review, 50 Animali che hanno cambiato il corso della Storia, Eric Chaline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Graziani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Copertina rigida "anticata", brossura cucita, carta di pregio, grafica curata nei minimi dettagli. Rientra senza dubbio nel novero della pubblicistica divulgativa di qualità questo volume uscito in Italia per i tipi di Ricca Editore. Un volume, elegante e classico, che racconta l'evoluzione dell'uomo da cacciatore ad agricoltore/pastore e, più in generale, di come ha preso piede nella storia il nuovo approccio nei confronti del regno animale. "Oltre al ruolo nel commercio e nell'agricoltura" scrive l'autore, "gli animali hanno contribuito in diversi altri modi alla cultura e alla storia dell'uomo. Alcuni come il leone, lo scarabeo sacro, il cobra e l'aquila di mare testa bianca hanno una lunga storia come simboli politici e religiosi. Nel campo della scienza e della medicina, lo studio di animali come il moscerino della frutta, il fringuello e l'iguanodonte è stato determinante per lo sviluppo della nostra conoscenza dell'evoluzione del mondo naturale."Ad ognuno dei 50 animali "che hanno cambiato il corso della Storia" viene dedicato un paragrafo sintetico, ma comunque esaustivo, corredato da foto, illustrazioni, immagini d'epoca e brevi notizie storiche, curiose e al contempo istruttive. Cosa unisce la zanzara al gin tonic? E l'ape alla mandorla? Lo sapevate che Buffalo Bill dove aver cacciato 4.000 bisonti nella sola stagione 1867-1868 divenne uno strenuo difensore della creatura vivente più grande dell'America del Nord? E che il lombrico, oltre alla sua incessante azione di riciclo biologico e minerale, è considerato una vera prelibatezza dai Maori della Nuova Zelanda? E ancora, che durante la seconda guerra mondiale un piccione chiamato G.I. Joe ricevette una medaglia dall'esercito degli Stati Uniti per aver salvato oltre mille persone? Oppure che, in contrasto con le superstizioni occidentali secondo le quali il gatto è di cattivo auspicio, in Giappone i gatti sono considerati dei veri portafortuna e che lo sport del polo ebbe origine

  14. L’INSEGNAMENTO DELLA PRAGMATICA ITALIANA SU LIRA: COME REAGISCONO GLI UTENTI?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Del Bono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nel presente contributo si riportano i risultati di uno studio che coinvolge un gruppo di parlanti non nativi dell’italiano ai quali è stato chiesto di sperimentare alcune delle proposte didattiche presenti sul sito LIRA (Lingua/cultura Italiana in Rete per l’Apprendimento, creato per favorire lo sviluppo e il mantenimento di competenze pragmatico-culturali in italiano L2. I materiali di LIRA sono raggruppati in aree tematiche che coprono un’ampia gamma di argomenti legati agli usi pragmalinguistici e alle norme sociopragmatiche dell’italiano, e sono costruiti a partire dacampioni di parlato spontaneo o semi-spontaneo e da documenti scritti autentici.Gli informanti sono stati invitati ad affrontare alcuni dei percorsi didattici di LIRA e la loro attività è stata monitorata per mezzo di protocolli di indagine introspettiva.I commenti mostrano come, nel complesso, tanto l’uso di input autentico quanto il ricorso a tipi di feedback che aprono al confronto invece di fornire un’unica soluzione corretta stimolino la riflessione e quindi contribuiscano allo sviluppo della consapevolezza sui fenomeni su cui si desidera attirare l’attenzione degli utenti. La scelta di fare affidamento esclusivamente su esempi autentici di uso della lingua consente inoltre di affrontare temi che vengono abitualmente trascurati nell’insegnamento dell’italiano a stranieri e che suscitano invece grande interesse e curiosità negli apprendenti. Teaching italian pragmatics using LIRA: how do users react?In this paper we report the results of a study involving a group of non-native speakers of Italian who were asked to do some of the educational proposals on the LIRA (Language / culture in Italian Network for Learning site, created to encourage the development and maintenance of skills in pragmatic-cultural Italian L2. The LIRA materials are grouped into subject areas that cover a wide range of topics relating to Italian pragma-linguistic use and socio

  15. SINTESA DAN KARAKTERISASI PADUAN ZrNbMoGe UNTUK MATERIAL KELONGSONG BAHAN BAKAR NUKLIR

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    Iman Kuntoro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sintesa paduan ZrNbMoGe untuk material kelongsong dilakukan dengan proses peleburan dan pengerolan panas untuk menghasilkan pelat tipis dengan ketebalan 1,4 mm. Proses peleburan dilakukan dengan melebur unsur pemadu ZrNbMoGe dalam dapur busur listrik dengan komposisi (prosen berat 97,5% Zr, 1% Nb, 1% Mo dan 0,5% Ge. Proses pengerolan panas dilakukan pada temperatur 800 oC dan 850 oC dengan rasio reduksi 5 % untuk tiap langkah. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan kekerasan ingot dan pelat paduan ZrNbMoGe masing-masing sebesar 199 VHR dan 188 VHR, lebih tinggi dibandingkan kekerasan bahan kelongsong Zirkaloi-4. Peningkatan kekerasan diperkirakan terjadi akibat terbentuknya presipitat keras Zr3Ge dalam ingot selama proses peleburan, yang telah diamati dari hasil uji presipitat dengan SEM-EDX dan uji XRD. Hasil uji korosi dalam lingkungan air aqua bidistillate menunjukkan laju korosi yang cukup rendah sebesar 0,0457 MPY, sedangkan hasil uji oksidasi suhu tinggi pada temperatur 800 oC selama 36 jam memberikan pertambahan berat sebesar 0,0959 mg/cm2, mendekati harga pertambahan berat untuk bahan Zirkaloi-4 sebesar 0,1105 mg/cm2. Kata kunci : sintesa, zirkonium, kelongsong, rol.   Synthesis of ZrNbMoGe alloy used for nuclear fuel cladding material was performed by melting and hot rolling processes to produce thin plates of 1.4 mm thickness. The melting process was done by melting the elements of ZrNbMoGe alloy using an arc melting furnace with compositions (weight percentage of 97.5% Zr, 1% Nb, 1% Mo and 0.5% Ge. The hot rolling process was done at temperatures of 800 oC and 850 oC with reduction ratios of 5% for each step. Result of the characterizations showed that the hardness of ingot and plate of ZrNbMoGe alloy were 199 VHR and 188 VHR respectively. These are higher than the hardness of the cladding material of Zircaloi-4. Increasing of hardness was believed due to the formation of hard precipitates of Zr3Ge in the ingot during the melting process

  16. Italiano per Cinesi – Didael. Corso di lingua italiana online.

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    Franca Bosc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} Per gli apprendenti sinofoni la lingua italiana, con la sua complessità e fragilità morfologica, rappresenta  un ostacolo notevole. Il corso  pone attenzione alla lontananza tipologica delle due lingue con schede grammaticali in cinese e, soprattutto, i livelli A1 e A2 hanno una progressione molto controllata per fissare le basi della lingua italiana. Sono disponibili un Glossario, tre diversi tipi di dizionario (il dizionario automatico, il dizionario, visuale e il dizionario fraseologico e approfondimenti culturali. Si tratta di un corso completo che consente di sviluppare le competenze previste  dal Quadro Comune Europeo; il modello formativo è flessible e prevede varie opzioni di erogazione.  Normal 0 14 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabella normale"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman";} For Chinese speakers Italian, in all its complexity and morphological fragility, represents a great obstacle.  This course takes into careful account the distance between the two language types, with grammar fact cards in Chinese and, above all, progression at levels A1 and A2 which is very carefully controlled in order to establish the bases of the Italian language.  A Glossary, three different types of dictionary (an automatic dictionary, a visual dictionary and a dictionary of phrases

  17. Strade, ferrovie e grandi rischi

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    Scira Menoni

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Nell’articolo il rapporto tra sistemi di accessibilità (ferroviaria e stradale e grandi rischi viene affrontato da due diverse prospettive. La prima vede tali sistemi come esposti e vulnerabili a diverse forme di pericolosità naturale; la seconda li considera invece quali potenziali fonti di pericolo, indagando in particolare il trasporto di sostanze pericolose. Per quanto riguarda la prima parte dell’articolo, ovvero l’analisi di vulnerabilità delle infrastrutture di trasporto a diversi agenti naturali, verranno esplicitati i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica, sistemica e organizzativa. A sostegno della modellazione proposta, si fa riferimento sia alla letteratura internazionale sia al metodo sviluppato presso il Politecnico di Milano, nei suoi ultimi sviluppi. Interessa infatti presentare un metodo relativamente semplice da utilizzare a scala vasta per poi scendere nel dettaglio necessario laddove le priorità individuata a grande scala ne indichino la necessità. Tra i fattori di vulnerabilità fisica si indicheranno gli elementi maggiormente critici per diversi tipi di sollecitazione (sismica, vulcanica, alluvionale, etc.; per quanto attiene ai fattori di vulnerabilità sistemica si considerano le interdipendenze tra reti e sistemi (inclusi gli altri servizi a rete; per quanto attiene alla vulnerabilità organizzativa si indicheranno le difficoltà nel produrre un sistema integrato di allertamento, che consenta ad esempio di chiudere tratti di strada quando questi vengano segnalati come imminentemente interessati da un dato evento estremo. Infine si indicheranno i danni che il sistema di accessibilità può subire e le ripercussioni di questi sul territorio di interesse. Nella seconda parte viene trattato un particolare tipo di trasporto, quello delle sostanze pericolose, differenziando opportunamente tra ferroviario e stradale. Il ribaltamento del punto di vista comporta la necessità di identificare in modo puntuale i fattori di

  18. Ritratto di un «mondicino affricano»: testo e immagini in Marocco di De Amicis

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    Silvia Notarfonso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nel 1876, dopo un breve viaggio verso Fez al seguito della legazione diplomatica italiana, Edmondo De Amicis pubblica per i tipi di Treves il reportage Marocco, opera ascrivibile nel novero dei classici dell’orientalismo italiano. Alla prima edizione in volume, fa seguito nel 1879 una nuova pubblicazione dell’opera, fregiata e integrata dalle illustrazioni dei due pittori orientalisti italiani Stefano Ussi e Cesare Biseo. Proprio quest’ultima edizione, ove le incisioni concorrono a dilatare ed enfatizzare la restituzione delle esperienze di viaggio all’immaginazione del lettore, è al centro della presente riflessione: in essa si fondono e si compenetrano organicamente parola scritta e testo iconico, espressioni parallele e complementari dello sguardo dell’artista occidentale sull’Oriente. Questo saggio, dunque, pone in primo luogo l’accento sulla natura del rapporto tra il testo deamicisiano e le incisioni che lo corredano, e in secondo luogo si propone di individuare quel repertorio di topoi e soluzioni già appartenenti alla tradizione letteraria e iconografica dell’orientalismo europeo, dai quali il reportage del De Amicis e le relative illustrazioni risultano fortemente condizionati.   In 1876, after a trip to Fez following the Italian diplomatic mission, Edmondo De Amicis published with Treves the reportage Marocco, an interesting example of Italian Orientalist literature. The second edition was published in 1879 and was supplied with an impressive and refined collection of illustrations by Stefano Ussi and Cesare Biseo, two of the most important orientalist painters in Italy. This edition, where travel experiences are also emphasized and returned to readers’ imagination through the engravings, is the core of the present dissertation. Indeed, iconic and written texts are organically melded together in here, since they are simultaneous and complementary manifestations of the Western artist’s look on the Orient. This

  19. Eğitsel Bilgisayar Oyunlarının Öğrencilerin Matematik Dersine ve Eğitsel Bilgisayar Oyunlarına Yönelik Tutumlarına Etkisi

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    Serkan ÇANKAYA & Ayşen KARAMETE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu araştırmanın amacı, ilköğretim öğrencilerine yönelik matematik dersinin oran-orantı konusuyla ilgili eğitsel bilgisayar oyunları geliştirerek, bu oyunların öğrencilerin matematik dersi ve eğitsel bilgisayar oyunları hakkındaki tutumlarına etkisini incelemektir. Bu amaçla oran-orantı konusu ile ilgili "Orantılı Tetris" ve "Orantılı Palyaço" isminde iki adet oyun geliştirilmiştir. Öğrencilerin matematik dersi ve eğitsel bilgisayar oyunları hakkındaki tutumlarını belirlemek için Likert tipi bir anket kullanılmıştır. Geliştirilen oyunlar ve anket Balıkesir ilindeki iki İlköğretim Okulunda toplam 176 öğrenciye uygulanmıştır. Geliştirilen oyunların, öğrencilerin matematik dersi ve eğitsel bilgisayar oyunlarıyla ilgili tutumlarında anlamlı bir değişikliğe sebep olup olmadığı t testi ile test edilmiştir. Öğrencilerin matematik dersi ve eğitsel bilgisayar oyunlarına yönelik tutumları arasında anlamlı bir ilişkinin olup olmadığı Pearson korelasyon testi ile test edilmiştir. Sonuç olarak, öğrencilerin matematik dersi ve eğitsel bilgisayar oyunlarına olan tutumları pozitif çıkmıştır. Ancak geliştirilen “Orantılı Tetris” ve “Orantılı Palyaço” oyunlarını oynayan öğrencilerin tutumlarında anlamlı bir değişim olmadığı görülmüştür. Anahtar kelimeler: Eğitsel bilgisayar oyunları, dijital oyun tabanlı öğrenme, oran orantı, matematik öğretimi.

  20. Breve guida didattica e metodologica all'elaborazione di una tesina e alla lettura di un testo di studio

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    Fernando Cipriani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Non ci occuperemo di didattica di una determinata disciplina in senso stretto ma di metodologia di studio, di lettura critica di un testo sociologico in vista della formazione dello studente e del suo obiettivo globale finale: la redazione di una tesina, primo passo verso la tesi. Inoltre siamo convinti che non ci può essere una buona formazione dell’insegnante senza una buona formazione a monte, quella dello studente ch’egli è stato, e che si conclude con la discussione della tesi, intesa come la conclusione di un lungo processo  cognitivo, di un tirocinio sistematico e accurato che inizia sui libri di studio.       Qui non diamo la bibliografia sul modo di redigere una tesi, per la vastità bibliografica sull'argomento (che generalmente lo studente ricava da Internet, a partire dal libro magistrale di Umberto Eco (Come si fa una tesi di laurea, “Tascabili” Bompiani, Milano, 1977 poiché non è nostra intenzione vagliare quanto scritto in materia, ma fornire per mancanza di tempo e di spazio un'introduzione al problema, un minimo contributo di poche pagine nel campo empirico, piuttosto che nel campo teorico, in quanto già ampiamente sfruttato dalla retorica classica dell'argomentazione, su cui da Aristotele in poi molto è stato detto e scritto.    Come abbozzare innanzi tutto alcuni punti di un lavoro che, per quanto non ancora del tutto definito, si va delineando nella nostra mente come alcune linee di base, programmatiche e concrete, mirate a definire i momenti di un’ulteriore riflessione dello studente? Poco importa per ora la successione degli argomenti ma è necessario fornire i punti salienti di questo nostro intervento mediante un breve sommario non ancora articolato, proprio come faremmo per elaborare una tesina.     Ricerca bibliografica: soggetto, autori e sigle; progettazione di un piano di lavoro: indice, capitoli e sottocapitoli. – Scheda di lettura, scheda critica di un libro per la recensione; tipi e

  1. La nozione di Analiticità e di conoscenza A Priori

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    Maria Teresa Bradascio

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Le nozioni di analiticità e di conoscenza a priori continuano ad essere impiegate nella filosofia contemporanea nonostante siano state oggetto di critiche e dibattiti per dimostrarne l’inutilità. Le domande alle quali si è cercato – e si cerca tuttora – di dare una risposta sono: quali tipi di proposizioni possono essere giustificate e conosciute a priori? Che rapporto c’è tra l’analiticità e l’a priori? Il mio intento è offrire un’analisi della nozione di analiticità presente in Frege e in Quine utilizzando come riferimento, rispettivamente, “I fondamenti dell’aritmetica” (1884 e l’articolo “Due Dogmi dell’Empirismo” (1953. Nell’opera di Frege si trova una prima riformulazione della coppia di nozioni ereditate dalla tradizione kantiana e leibniziana: per Leibniz una verità di ragione, sviluppando semplicemente il contenuto di una proposizione che già conosciamo, non amplia le nostre conoscenze, e dunque è analitica; mentre una verità di fatto amplia le nostre conoscenze, aggiungendo qualcosa che non avremmo potuto scoprire contemplando solamente i concetti e i loro rapporti logici. Le proposizioni logiche, aritmetiche e certe verità concettuali – quelle ottenute mediante definizione nominale – sono considerate proposizioni analitiche. Per Kant, invece, sia le proposizioni aritmetiche sia quelle geometriche ampliano la nostra conoscenza e sono sintetiche. L’obiettivo di Frege è mostrare l’errore della concezione kantiana dell’analiticità: l’incremento conoscitivo ottenibile dalle proposizioni aritmetiche non è in opposizione al loro carattere analitico. Egli, infatti, legando il carattere analitico o sintetico di un enunciato al tipo di giustificazione che possiamo portare a sostegno della sua asserzione, non definisce l’analiticità come una caratteristica evidente del significato di un enunciato. Nel caso degli enunciati dell’aritmetica la loro giustificazione consiste nella loro

  2. Mythe et violence : Georges Sorel dans les manifestes du Futurisme italien

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    Serge Milan

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de revenir sur la filiation idéologique largement établie entre certains écrits de Georges Sorel, et notamment ses Réflexions sur la violence publiées en 1909, et les manifestes du Futurisme italien, la première avant-garde pluridisciplinaire européenne s'étant constituée autour d'un projet à la fois esthétique, politique et anthropologique. En particulier, il s'agit de revenir sur les emprunts idéologiques de Filippo Tommaso Marinetti aux écrits de Sorel dans des manifestes d'importance tels que 1915 En cette année futuriste ou Par-delà le Communisme (1919, et de revenir également sur le type d'intertextualité établi par ces textes au sein de la prose d'idée.In this article, we will touch upon the ideological filiation introduced by some of Georges Sorel writings – and in particular Réflexions sur la violence published in 1909 – and the manifests of italian Futurism, the first european multidisciplinary avant-garde project to include an aesthetic, political and anthropological view. In particular, we will examine Sorel's ideological influence on Filippo Tommaso Marinetti's 1915 In quest'anno futurista and Al di là del Comunismo, and we will look back on the intertextuality produced in those texts inside the prose of ideas.Quest'articolo propone di rivisitare la filiazione ideologica già stabilita tra gli scritti di Georges Sorel, e più precisamente le sue Réflexions sur la violence publicate nel 1909, ed i manifesti del Futurismo italiano, prima avanguardia europea strutturatasi in un progetto tanto estetico e politico quanto più generalmente antropologico. In particolare, sono sottolineati i prestiti sorelliani a Filippo Tommaso Marinetti in manifesti quali 1915 In quest'anno futurista o Al di là del Comunismo, ed i tipi di intertestualità stabiliti da questi testi all'interno della prosa di idee.

  3. Aritmetiche e alchimie di suoni. Severino Boezio e Luciano Berio

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    Markus Ophälders

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Luciano Berio apre il suo testamento poetico, Un ricordo al futuro, con un esplicito rinvio alla tripartizione della musica operata da Boezio e durante la discussione di specifiche tematiche della musica contemporanea vi torna a più riprese. Il presente lavoro intende indagare i motivi per un tale coinvolgimento dell’autore medievale nella ricerca poetica ed estetica di uno dei più importanti rappresentanti del mondo musicale novecentesco nonché il modo in cui la teoria di Boezio viene attualizzata da Berio. Si scoprirà che i problemi della musica del Novecento richiedono una profonda riflessione filosofica la quale però non può limitarsi alla sola componente teoretica e astratta, se non vuole perdere di vista la musica, e che non può limitarsi alle sole pratiche musicali se non vuole rinunciare alla propria autocoscienza. In questo senso Berio reinterpreta i tre tipi di musica, mundana, humana ed intrumentalis nella concezione boeziana per confrontarsi non solo con il grande problema del rapporto tra teoria e pratica musicale, ma anche per discutere specifiche tematiche musicali del Novecento.   Luciano Berio begins his poetical testament, Remembering the future, with an explicit link to the three types of music conceived by Boezio and during the discussion of specific themes of contemporary music he returns on this item several times. The present work intends to investigate the motivation of a similar confrontation with this medieval philosopher within the poetic and aesthetic research of one of the most important representatives of nineteenth century music; on the other hand the intention is to make clear in which way he proceeds by actualizing Boezio’s theory. It will become clear that the problems of nineteenth century music necessitate a profound philosophical reflection, which can not be limited to its mere theoretical and abstract component, if it doesn’t want to miss music in itself and, on the other hand, it can not be

  4. THE ROOTS OF UNDERSTANDING AUTHORITY WITHIN THE BEKTASHI ANECDOTE STYLE FIKRALARDA BEKTAŞÎ TİPİNE ATFEDİLEN İKTİDAR ALGISININ KÖKENLERİ

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    Metin ARIKAN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available *ÖZETThe Bektashi anecdotes have been developed in relation to the traditional Turkish/Anatolian Bektashi religious order. The jokes/stories and anecdotes of the Bektashi continue to exemplify the people’s critical voice in Turkey. While many of the anecdotes of the Bektashi are from the period of the Ottoman Empire we seek to go deeper into this religious order and understand the factors that created their anecdotes/stories and jokes. Our intent is to study how the religious order itself was created. We shall understand the Bektashi culture by discussing how the Bektashi speak in the first person with God and how they appear relaxed regarding religion (as opposed to the general populace of Sunni Turks. We shall also study the Bektashi’s playful posturing with political authority Anadolu Türklüğünün kendi iç dinamikleri bağlamında oluşturduğu bir tip olan ‘Bektaşî’ fıkra tipi, tarihimizin farklı dönemlerinden bugüne dek geçerliliğini korumayı başaran sitemleri, itirazları, naif nükteleri ile halkın eleştirel sesi olma özelliğini hâlâ sürdürmektedir. Genel olarak Bektaşî fıkraları Osmanlı klasik dönemine işaret eder gibi algılansa da, biz bu fıkraların teşekkülüne zemin hazırlayan etkenleri daha erken bir aşamaya, tarikatın teşekkül sürecine inerek değerlendirmek istiyoruz. Böylelikle siyasal otoriteyle gerilimli, çoğu kez ona karşı alaycı, dinsel açıdan amelî manada genel toplum yapısından farklı bir görünüm arz eden; hatta bazen yaradan ile de senli benli konuşan Bektaşi tipini oluşturan şartları anlamaya yaklaşacağımız kanaatindeyiz.

  5. Isolasi Dan Identifikasi Terpenoid dari Fraksi n-Butanol Herba Lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz

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    Maria Dewi Astuti

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Telah dilakukan penelitian yang bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi senyawa kimia yang diisolasi dari fraksi n-butanol ekstrak metanol herba lampasau (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. Ekstrak metanol diperoleh secara maserasi dan difraksinasi berturut-turut denganpetroleum eter, etil asetat, dan n-butanol. Fraksi n­-butanol difraksinasidengan kromatografi kolom dengan fase diam silika gel dihasilkan fraksi A, B, C, dan D. Fraksi B dimurnikan dengan kromatografi lapis tipis preparatif pada silika geldihasilkan isolat B1. Isolat B1 berupa padatan tidak berwarna danberfluoresensi putih di bawah lampu UV 366 nm. Panjang gelombang maksimum pada spektra UV  isolat B1 adalah 225 nm dan 272.5 nm yang menunjukkan adanya ikatan rangkap tak terkonjugasi. Spektra IR isolat B1 menunjukkan adanya gugus C=C, –OH, C=O lakton, –CO, C–H ulur, dan C–H tekuk. Spektra 1H-NMR isolat B1 menunjukkan sinyal proton pada ikatan rangkap, proton –OH, proton pada –CH2 yang terikat atom oksigen, serta proton gugus metil –CH3. Berdasarkan data spektra UV, IR, dan 1H-NMR maka isolat B1 disarankan sebagai turunan senyawa triterpenoid hopan-lakton. Kata kunci : diplazium esculentum Swartz, fraksi n-butanol, triterpenoid hopan-lakton  Abstract The research  aims to identify chemical compounds isolated fromn-butanol fraction methanol extract of lampasau herbs (Diplazium esculentum Swartz. The methanol extract was obtained by maceration and fractioned by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, andn-butanol. N-butanol fraction was fractionated using column chromatography on silica gel produced fractions A, B, C, and D. Fraction B was purified by preparative thin layer chromatography on silica gel produced isolate B1. Isolate B1was colorless solid and has white fluorescent under UV lamp 366 nm. The maximum wavelength on UV spectra of B1 are 225 nm and 272,5 nm indicates the unconjugated double bond. IR spectra of B1 showed the vibration of C=C, –OH, C=O lactone, –CO, C

  6. Morphological identification of the Soprano Pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pygmaeus Leach, 1825 in Croatia.

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    Igor Pavlinić

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After the discovery of two different phonic types within the common pipistrelle (Pipistrellus pipistrellus, mtDNA analysis confirmed the existence of two separate species named as common pipistrelle (P. pipistrellus and soprano pipistrelle (P. pygmaeus. The discrimination of these two cryptic species using external characters and measures has proved to be somewhat problematic. We examined two colonies of soprano pipistrelle from Donji Miholjac, Croatia. As a result, only two characters proved to be of help for field identification: wing venation (89% of cases and penis morphology and colour for males. The difference in length between the 2nd and 3rd phalanxes of the 3rd finger should be discarded as diagnostic trait between P. pipistrellus and P. pygmaeus in Croatia. Riassunto Identificazione su basi morfologiche del pipistrello pigmeo (Pipistrellus pygmeaus, Leach, 1825 in Croazia. A seguito della descrizione di due differenti "tipi fonici" nel pipistrello nano (Pipistrellus pipistrellus e della successiva conferma su basi genetiche dell'esistenza di due specie distinte, designate come pipistrello nano (P. pipistrellus e pipistrello pigmeo (P. pygmaeus, la distinzione delle due specie in base a caratteristiche morfologiche esterne si è dimostrata un problema di difficile soluzione. Sulla base delle caratteristiche distintive e delle differenze biometriche proposte da altri Autori, sono state esaminate due colonie di pipistrello pigmeo a Donji Miholjac, in Croazia. I risultati ottenuti evidenziano che, tra tutti i potenziali caratteri sinora proposti, solo due risultano utili per un'identificazione diretta sul campo: la venatura delle ali, risultata utile alla discriminazione nell'89% degli esemplari analizzati, e la colorazione e morfologia del pene nei maschi. La

  7. Akut spinal kord yaralanması sonrasi erken cerrahi dekompresyonun korpus kavernozum ve motor fonksiyon üzerine olan etkilerinin araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okay Bulut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Akut spinal kord yaralanması sonrasi erken cerrahi dekompresyonun korpus kavernozum ve motor fonksiyon üzerine olan etkilerinin araştırılması. Yöntem. Yirmi bir adet 9-12 aylık Yeni Zelanda tipi, erişkin erkek tavşan kullanıldı. Denekler kontrol grubu (n=5, laminektomi grubu (n=6, 15 saniye kompresyon grubu (n=5 ve 60 sn kompresyon grubu (n=5 olmak üzere 4 gruba ayrıldı. Laminektomi grubuna sadece laminektomi işlemi yapıldı. Kompresyon gruplarına 60 g kapama gücü olan anevrizma klipsi ile 15 ve 60 saniye kompresyon uygulandı. 1, 3, 5 ve 7. günler Modifiye Tarlov skoru ile motor değerlendirme yapıldı. 7 gün sonunda bütün denekler sakrifiye edilerek spinal kordlarından histopatolojik çalışma ile beraber izole korpus kavernozum dokularından in vitro organ banyosunda kasılma ve gevşeme yanıtları incelendi. Bulgular. Modifiye Tarlov skoruna bakıldığında gruplar arası fark anlamlı bulundu (p0,05. Her 4 grupta da pD2 değerleri benzerdi (p>0,05. Sonuç. Akut spinal kord yaralanmasında erken cerrahi dekompresyonun etkinliğini araştırdığımız bu model ile spinal kord yaralanmasında seksüel disfonksiyonunun tedavisinde kullanılması düşünülen ilaçların in vitro ortamda ayrıntılı olarak araştırılması mümkün olabilir. Akut spinal kord yaralanmasında erken cerrahi dekompresyon motor iyileşme yönünden faydalı olabilir ve korpus kavernozum fonksiyonları açısından olumlu etkiler yapabilir. Ayrıca, akut spinal kord yaralanması geçiren hastalarda erektil disfonksiyon fosfodiesteraz tip V inhibitörleri ile çözülebilir.

  8. PENGARUH KETEBALAN SUBSTRAT PADA FERMENTASI TEMPE TERHADAP KADAR VITAMIN B1 (THE INFLUENCE OF SUBSTRATE THICKNESS DURING TEMPE FERMENTATION ON VITAMINS B1 LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fifi Retiaty

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The level of vitamin B1 in tempe could be increased by modifying the surface of substrate during soybean fermentation. This research aimed to know the influence of substrate thickness during soybean fermentation into tempe to the levels of vitamin B1. The design of this research was completed randomized design with two replication. Vitamin B1 content was analyzed on raw soybeans, boiled soybeans, and tempe using spectrophotometer methods. The substrate thicknesses examined were 0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00cm. Vitamin B1 level on raw soybean was 0.7436 mg percent and on boiled soybean was 0.4898 mg percent, while in tempe with substrate thickness  0.25 cm, 0.50 cm and 1.00 cm, the vitamin B1 contents were 1.1413, 0.9044, and 0.7130 mg percent respectively. The thickness of tempe substrate affected on vitamin B1 content. A thinner substrate resulted on higher vitamin B1 level. Keywords: fermentation, tempe, vitamin B1   ABSTRAK Kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dapat ditingkatkan dengan memodifikasi permukaan dari substrat dalam fermentasi kedelai. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh ketebalan substrat pada fermentasi kedelai menjadi tempe terhadap kadar vitamin B1. Disain penelitian ini adalah Rancangan Acak Lengkap dengan dua kali ulangan. Kadar vitamin B1 dianalisis pada kedelai mentah, kedelai rebus, dan tempe dengan menggunakan metode spektrofotometri. Ketebalan substrat yang diteliti adalah 0.25 cm, 0,50 cm, 1,00 cm. Kadar vitamin B1 pada  kedelai mentah adalah 0,7436 mg persen dan pada kedelai rebus adalah 0.4898 mg persen. Sedangkan kadar vitamin B1 pada tempe dengan ketebalan 0,25, 0,5 dan 1 cm secara berturut-turut adalah 1,1413 mg persen , 0,9044 mg persen dan 0,7130 mg persen. Ketebalan substar tempe berpengaruh pada kandungan vitamin B1. Semakin tipis substrat, akan menghasilkan vitamin B1 yang semakin tinggi. [Penel Gizi Makan 2012, 35(2: 182-188]   Kata Kunci: fermentasi, tempe, vitamin B1

  9. Uji Unjuk Kerja dan Durability 5000 Km Mobil Bensin 1497 Cc Berbahan Bakar Campuran Bensin-Bioetanol

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    Pasca Hariyadi Winanda

    2017-01-01

    visualisasi ruang bakar pemakaian bahan bakar E5, E10 dan E15 menghasilkan pengotoran relatif lebih tipis dibandingkan bahan bakar premium. Secara akeseluruhan penambahan bioetanol sampai 15% tidak mengalami perubahan pada kondisi operasional mesin.

  10. Gastric paraganglioma: a case report and a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruiti, Vincenzo; Mazzeo, Francesca; Rossitto, Maurizio; Foti, Agata; Macrì, Antonio; Cucinotta, Eugenio

    2014-12-29

    I paragangliomi sono tumori neuroendocrini derivati dalla cresta neurale, provenienti dai paragangli, organi neuroendocrini dispersi e caratterizzati da cellule producenti catecolamine e peptidi. Presentano un’incidenza annuale stimata in 1 / 100.000, rappresentando il 10% dei tumori secernenti catecolamine. Riportiamo il caso di un uomo di 76 anni giunto alla nostra osservazione per la presenza di una lesione polipoide di 4 cm, vegetativaulcerata, tra il corpo e dell’antro gastrico rilevata durante una gastroscopia per la comparsa di anemia. Il paziente è stato sottoposto a gastrectomia subtotale con omentectomia e anastomosi gastrodigiunale. L’esame istologico ha rivelato un carcinoma gastrico polipoide ulcerato con cellule scarsamente aderenti con infiltrazione della parete gastrica muscolare e incidentalmente è stata identificata una lesione della parete gastrica posteriore incidentale che si rilevava essre un paraganglioma con la positività alle indagini di immunocitochimica per NSE e negatività per CD117, S100, CD34 e SMA. Con il termine di feocromocitoma si indica esclusivamente i tumori derivanti dalla midollare del surrene, mentre il paraganglioma extra-surrenalico suggerisce tumori delle cellule cromaffini con altre posizioni. La localizzazione gastrica o perigastrica, come nel nostro caso, è molto rara per queste neoplasie, e in letteratura vi sono solo pochi case report. La predisposizione genetica si osserva nel 30% di questi tumori e può essere responsabile della malattia ereditaria caratterizzata da differenze nella distribuzione del tumore, nella produzione di catecolamine, nel rischio di metastasi, e nell’associazione con altri tipi di tumori. In conclusione, nei pazienti con sintomi di tumore secernente cromaffini o in pazienti con una storia familiare di feocromocitoma-paraganglioma, che portano mutazioni e sottoposti a screening per il tumore asintomatico, la prima indagine diagnostica è determinare i livelli di metanefrina

  11. The Double Love Commandment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francois P. Viljoen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Gospel of Matthew was written during a period of dispute between the Matthean community and their fellow Jews, with the Pharisees playing a leading role. The Matthean community was heir to the same scriptures as its opponents. They continued to have a firm commitment to the Torah, but they developed a distinctive understanding of it based on Jesus’ teaching. The formation of this community is investigated in this article, considering the Mediterranean perspectives of group-oriented societies prevalent in the first century. Such a group provided a sense of self and an interactive support system, where love functioned to bind the group together. The subordinates showed their undivided loyalty towards their superiors because of the favours they received from them, whilst they supported and cared for other members within the group as they care for themselves. Reading the double love commandment of Matthew 22:34−40 from this perspective reveals significant aspects of the community’s identity with regard to their commitment to God and their view of their neighbours.Die Dubbele Liefdesgebod. Die Matteusevangelie is gedurende ’n periode van konfliktussen die Matteusgemeenskap en mede-Jode geskryf met die Fariseërs in ’n leidende rol. Die Matteusgemeenskap het van dieselfde geskrifte as hulle opponente gebruik gemaak. Hulle was steeds aan die Torah lojaal, maar het ’n unieke interpretasie daarvan gehuldig, gebaseer op die onderrig van Jesus. In hierdie artikel word die vorming van die Matteusgemeenskap ondersoek met inagneming van die Mediterreense beskouing van die groepgeoriënteerde gemeenskappe wat tipies van die eerste eeu was. So ’n groep het aan individue ’n bewustheid van eie waarde verskaf te midde van ’n interaktiewe ondersteuningsisteem waarin liefde as samebindende faktor gefunksioneer het. Ondergeskiktes het onverdeelde lojaliteit teenoor hulle meerderes betoon vanweë die gunste wat hulle van die meerderes geniet het

  12. Stress indotto dalla guida di autoveicoli: studio di parametri psicofisiologici

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vivoli

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    La guida di un autoveicolo, specie in condizioni di intenso traffico o di cattive condizioni meteoclimatiche, è considerata uno dei principali fattori stressanti della vita odierna. Durante la guida si possono infatti osservare significative risposte simpatoadrenergiche e cardiovascolari con la comparsa anche di episodi coronarici. Tali risposte presentano un’ampia variabilità interindividuale in quanto sono influenzate da vari fattori (stile di vita, personalità etc..

    In questa rassegna, vengono presentati i principali risultati degli studi da noi condotti sulle risposte psicofisiologiche indotte dalla guida di diversi tipi di autoveicoli. In conducenti di autobus urbani è stato registrato un sensibile aumento del tasso urinario di adrenalina durante il turno lavorativo rispetto alla stessa fascia oraria di un giorno di riposo. Tale risposta adrenergica era esaltata dall’abitudine tabagica e dall’assunzione di caffè e bevande alcoliche. In soggetti che alla guida di camion coprono lunghe distanze, i più elevati tassi urinari di catecolamine e i più alti livelli di frequenza cardiaca sono stati registrati quando la guida era particolarmente stressante per la presenza di nebbia o di intenso traffico. In soggetti che partecipano, a livello amatoriale, a manifestazioni agonistiche di velocità su pista, abbiamo osservato che durante la gara, rispetto al periodo pre-gara, l’escrezione urinaria di catecolamine aumenta in misura molto rilevante. Analogamente a quanto osservato in autisti di camion, l’attivazione del sistema adrenergico è risultata direttamente associata ai livelli di ansietà. Dall’elettrocardiogramma dinamico è emerso che durante la gara la frequenza cardiaca raggiunge un valore medio di 163.5±7.4 battiti/min. (range: 146,180 battiti/min..

    Un significativo peggioramento della percezione visiva stereoscopica, con potenziale ricaduta negativa sulla performance dei guidatori, è stato osservato in

  13. Dinamik üretim sistemleri için kanban sayısının belirlenmesi: Bütünleşik bir yöntem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Uzun Araz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tam zamanında üretim sistemleri (TZÜ, işletmelerin doğru zamanda, müşterinin istediği miktarda üretim yapmalarına olanak sağlayan, böylelikle stoklarını azaltmaya teşvik eden bir yönetim felsefesidir. TZÜ felsefesinin en önemli parçası, malzeme hareketlerini gerçekleştirmek için kullanılan kanban sistemleridir. Kanban sistemlerinde, iş istasyonlarında kullanılacak kanban sayılarının belirlenmesi en temel problem olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Kullanılacak kanban sayıları üretim sisteminin performansı üzerinde etkilidir. Bu çalışmanın temel amacı, Kanban sistemlerinde, kart sayılarının dinamik belirlenebilmesi için kullanılabilecek bir yöntem geliştirmektir. Önerilen yöntemin temelinde, üretim sisteminin anlık veri alınarak izlenmesi ve sistem durum değişkenlerinde meydana gelen farklılıkların dikkate alınarak Kanban sayılarının yeniden düzenlemesi yatmaktadır. Bu amaçla yapılan çalışmada benzetim, yapay sinir ağları ve Mamdani tipi bulanık çıkarsama sistemleri entegre edilerek bütünleşik bir dinamik kanban sayıları belirleme yöntemi geliştirilmiştir. Önerilen yöntem, benzetim ortamımda modellenen hipotetik bir üretim sistemine uygulanmıştır. Elde edilen sonuçlar, önerilen yöntemin verimliliğini ve etkinliğini göstermiştir.

  14. Decision making information systems and data base management; Applicazioni dei sistemi di supporto alle decisioni manageriali in un ente fortemente decentrato. Sviluppo di un prototipo per la valutazione di nuovi progetti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minelle, F. [Rome, Univ. `La Sapienza` (Italy). Fac. di Scienze Matematiche, Fisiche e Naturali; Di Marco, R.A. [ENEA, Rome (Italy). Funzione Centrale Informatica; Belli, A.

    1997-01-01

    In these years Information Technology has been used in activities that require an intelligent intervention. In this context take placing Decision Support Systems, since they use Information Technology to support users in decision processes, that is problems of logical level greater then problems normally treated by traditional information systems. The purpose of this work is to describe Decision Support Systems specifying what they are, their functionally and structure, identifying, furthermore, user types referred to and interaction modality between them; and to present a prototype of these systems. From a preliminary analyses phase of ENEA being and its Information Systems to understand which topics can be supported by systems of this type, it deals with one of these topics: weighing of new project, finding parameters, or key quantity, that affect and determine decisions. It describes, then, models, conceived form parameters, that permit to the user, through a simple representation of results, to evaluates advantages and disadvantages of a new project. From models, analyses of data necessary to models and from requisites of simplicity and use fullness of user interface, it has been carried out a prototype. For this purpose it has been followed the Sprague and Carlson model that provides a data base, a Model Base and a Software System. [Italiano] In questi anni si sta assistendo ad un utilizzo dell`informatica in attivita` che richiedono un intervento `intelligente`. In tale contesto si collocano i Sistemi di Supporto alle Decisioni, poiche` utilizzano le tecnologie informatiche per supportare l`utente in processi decisionali, quindi problemi di livello logico piu` elevato di quelli trattati dai tradizionali sistemi informativi. Il presente lavoro ha lo scopo di descrivere i Sistemi di Supporto alle Decisioni specificando cosa sono, le loro funzionalita` e la loro struttura, individuando, inoltre, i tipi di utenti a cui sono rivolti e le modalita` di interazione

  15. Pengaruh Laju Alir Inlet Reaktor MSL terhadap Reduksi BOD, COD, TSS, dan Minyak/Lemak Limbah Cair Industri Minyak Goreng

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    Salmariza Sy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted by treating edible oil industry wastewater used Multi Soil Layering (MSL method. The MSL reactor was built from a 200x120x200 cm concrete basin. Andisol soil was mixed with sawdust and fine charcoal at each ratio 5:1:1 based on dry weight as an impermeable layer. The flow rate variations were 250, 500, 1000, and 1500 L/m2.day. The observed pollutant parameters were BOD, COD, TSS, oil/fat, and pH. The results showed that MSL reactor was effective to decrease the pollutant content of edible oil industry wastewater. The reactor could reduce concentration of effluent parameters below standard except for oil/fat parameters at high flow rates. In the effluent was found BOD 0.66-14.22 mg/L, COD 5-69 mg/L, TSS 9-26 mg/L, and oil/fat 2-9 mg/L. The flow rate had an effect on reduction efficiency of BOD, COD, TSS, and oil/fat but did not effect pH as all flow rate could raise pH 6.37-6.95 became pH 6.99-7.24. The lower the flow rate the higher the reduction efficiency. The reduction efficiency at flow rates 250 and 1500 L/m2 days for BOD were 99% and 86%, COD were 96% and 71%, TSS were 88% and 77%, and oil/fat were 80% and 60%.ABSTRAK  Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan mengolah air limbah industri minyak goreng menggunakan metoda Multi Soil Layering (MSL. Reaktor MSL dibuat dari beton berbentuk bak ukuran 200x120x200 cm. Tanah andisol dicampur dengan serbuk gergaji dan arang halus pada rasio masing-masing 5:1:1 berdasarkan berat kering sebagai penyusun lapisan impermeable. Variasi laju alir yaitu 250, 500, 1000, dan 1500 L/m2.hari. Parameter pencemar yang dianalisis meliputi BOD, COD, TSS, minyak/lemak, dan pH. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa reaktor MSL sangat efektif untuk menurunkan kandungan zat pencemar limbah cair industri minyak goreng. Reaktor dapat mereduksi konsentrasi parameter outlet sampai dibawah baku mutu yang distandarkan kecuali untuk parameter miyak/lemak pada perlakuan laju alir tinggi. Pada effluen

  16. DAMPAK PEMBANGUNAN HUTAN TANAMAN INDUSTRI Acacia crassicarpa DI LAHAN GAMBUT TERHADAP TINGKAT KEMATANGAN DAN LAJU PENURUNAN PERMUKAAN TANAH (The Impact of Development of Industrial Plantation Forest Acacia crassicarpa in Peatland Towards the Maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunita Lisnawati

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pembangunan hutan tanaman di lahan gambut tidak terlepas dari sorotan isu negatif lingkungan terkait dengan penurunan kedalaman muka air tanah, sehingga terjadi perubahan ekosistem asli. Kegiatan reklamasi lahan untuk HTI Acacia crassicarpa dalam jangka panjang disinyalir akan menimbulkan dampak negatif terhadap perubahan karakteristik tanah gambutnya seperti tingkat kematangan dan laju penurunan permukaan tanah gambut (subsiden. Kajian mengenai dampak pembangunan HTI di lahan gambut terhadap tingkat kematangan dan laju subsiden perlu dilakukan untuk memberikan informasi mengenai kondisi exsisting daya dukung lahannya. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi tingkat kematangan gambut baik secara vertikal (berdasarkan kedalaman gambut maupun secara horizontal (berdasarkan jarak dari bibir kanal dan mengetahui laju subsiden sebagai dampak dari reklamasi lahan gambut menjadi HTI A. crassicarpa. Penelitian dilakukan di PT AA, Distrik Rasau Kuning, Kabupaten Siak, Riau. Plot penelitian ditempatkan dalam satu transek sepanjang 100 m yang dibuat tegak lurus dengan kanal tersier, terdapat 12 plot dan dalam satu transek terdapat 3 titik pengamatan sehingga total titik pengamatan adalah 36 titik. Parameter yang diamati adalah dinamika kedalaman muka air tanah, nilai kadar serat tanah gambut dan laju subsiden. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dampak perubahan kedalaman muka air tanah gambut di lokasi penelitian hanya mempengaruhi tingkat kematangan gambut pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m, sedangkan jarak kanal tersier sebesar 125 m tidak berpengaruh secara nyata terhadap tingkat kematangan gambut. Pada kedalaman kurang dari 2 m tingkat kematangan gambut lebih tinggi dibandingkan dengan lapisan di bawahnya. Pembangunan HTI A. crassicarpa di lokasi penelitian menyebabkan laju subsiden sebesar rata-rata 5,5 cm/tahun.  ABSTRACT The establishment of forest on peat areas is insepatable from the glare of the negative environmental issues associated

  17. MODEL PERPINDAHAN MASSA PADA EKSTRAKSI SAPONIN BIJI TEH DENGAN PELARUT ISOPROPIL ALKHOHOL 50% DENGAN PENGONTAKAN SECARA DISPERSI MENGGUNAKAN ANALISIS DIMENSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Prasetyo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia merupakan salah satu penghasil teh terbesar di dunia. Menurut data dari Deptan 2010, dengan luas lahan sebesar 127712 ha, Indonesia dapat menghasilkan produktivitas teh sebesar 153971 ton/tahun. Namun sayangnya, selama ini pemanfaatan tanaman teh di Indonesia masih terbatas pada pucuk daunnya saja. Bagian tanaman teh yang memiliki kandungan potensial namun belum dimanfaatkan adalah  biji teh, mengandung 26% saponin, 20-60% minyak dan 11% protein. Saponin merupakan salah satu komponen bioaktif yang telah dimanfaatkan sebagai insektisida pembasmi hama pada tambak udang, bahan baku industri deterjen, shampoo, minuman bir, pembentuk busa pada pemadam kebakaran, dan dapat dimanfaatkan pula sebagai pupuk organik. Pada penelitian ini, saponin biji teh diperoleh melalui ekstraksi biji teh pasca pengepresan menggunakan pelarut IPA 50% secara batch di dalam sebuah ekstraktor berkapasitas 2 L. Pengontakan solvent dengan biji teh dilakukan secara dispersi. Pada penelitian ini, rasio massa pelarut terhadap massa umpan diset 20:1; temperatur divariasikan 25-60 oC, kecepatan pengadukan 100-400 rpm, serta ukuran biji teh divariasikan -40+50 mesh s.d -100+200 mesh. Ekstraksi dilakukan hingga tercapai kesetimbangan. Ekstrak yang diperoleh dipekatkan menggunakan rotavapor vakum pada temperatur di bawah 40oC. Ekstrak pekat saponin kasar yang didapat dimurnikan dengan penambahan eter, etanol dan petroleum eter secara bertahap sehingga diperoleh endapan saponin murni yang kemudian dikeringkan menggunakan tray drier pada temperatur 40oC. Pada penelitian ini, model perpindahan massa sederhana dikembangkan untuk menggambarkan proses ekstraksi padat-cair saponin biji teh. Berdasarkan hasil analisis dimensi diperoleh hubungan antara koefisien perpindahan massa volumetrik (kLa pada lapisan antar fasa padat-cair dengan variabel-variabel ekstraksi yang dinyatakan dalam persamaan bilangan tak berdimensi dengan ralat rata-rata 3,7904 %.DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS FOR MASS

  18. FORMULASI MIKROEMULSI MINYAK DALAM AIR (O/W YANG STABIL MENGGUNAKAN KOMBINASI TIGA SURFAKTAN NON IONIK DENGAN NILAI HLB RENDAH, TINGGI DAN SEDANG Stable O/W Microemulsion Formulation Using Combination of Three Nonionic Surfactants with Low, High and Med

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sih Yuwanti

    2012-05-01

    menghasilkan mik- roemulsi minyak dalam air yang stabil menggunakan kombinasi tiga surfaktan non ionik dengan nilai HLB rendah, tinggi dan sedang; dan mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan nilai HLB sedang dalam formulasi mikroemulsi minyak da- lam air. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang pertama disiapkan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (80 %:10 %:10 % dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan 1:3, 1:3,5 dan 1:4. Kelompok mikroemulsi yang kedua disiap- kan dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80, Span 80 dan Span 40 (90 %:5 %:5 % dan variasi proporsi VCO:surfaktan1:4, 1:4,5 dan 1:5. Uji stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan disimpan pada suhu kamar, dioven 105 0C selama 5 jam dan disentrifuge 2300 g selama 15 menit. Pengamatan stabilitas mikroemulsi dilakukan dengan mengukur absorbansi mikroemulsi pada λ 502 nm yang dikonversi menjadi persen turbiditas. Untuk mengetahui peran surfaktan dengan HLB sedang maka dibuat mikroemulsi tanpa surfaktan HLB sedang, dan juga dibuat mikroemulsi dengan variasi rasio surfaktan  HLB rendah dan sedang yaitu 1:1, 2:1 dan 1:2. Mikroemulsi paling stabil diperoleh dari formula dengan proporsi VCO:surfaktan:air = 4:20:76 dengan kombinasi surfaktan Tween 80:Span 80:Span 40 = 90:3,33:6,67. Pe- nambahan surfaktan HLB sedang pada formulasi mikroemulsi minyak dalam air lebih menstabilkan mikroemulsi yang dihasilkan. Surfaktan HLB sedang menjembatani fase minyak dan air dengan lapisan surfaktan sehingga meningkatkan interaksi surfaktan-air dan surfaktan-minyak, transisi antara fase minyak dan fase air menjadi lebih halus dan mikro- emulsi menjadi lebih stabil.

  19. Tax Law Enforcement Sebagai Upaya Optimalisasi Penerimaan Pajak Negara Ditinjau Melalui Tingkat Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catur Martian Fajar

    2016-03-01

    mengalami peningkatan. Selama kurun waktu tersebut, 105 kasus telah dinyatakan lengkap oleh kejaksaan (P-21 dan 85 di antaranya telah divonis di pengadilan dengan total putusan denda pidana berkisar Rp. 4,36 triliun. Pada tahun 2008 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 10.682.099, pada tahun 2009 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 15.911.576, pada tahun 2010 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 19.112.590, pada tahun 2011 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 22.319.073, dan pada tahun 2012 jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar sebanyak 24.812.569. Dapat diketahui bahwa jumlah wajib pajak terdaftar pada setiap tahunnya mengalami kenaikan. Selama 4 tahun terakhir (2010-2013 terjadi peningkatan jumlah penyampaian SPT Tahunan PPh walaupun secara persentase rasio kepatuhan terjadi penurunan di tahun 2011 dan 2012 dibandingkan dengan tahun 2010. Realisasi penerimaan pajak masih jauh dari optimal. Dalam hal ini pemerintah perlu melakukan kontrol yang memadai dalam pemerataan terhadap daerah dan seluruh lapisan masyarakat demi meningkatkan dan menggali potensi pajak yang seharusnya masih dapat diterima oleh masyarakat   Kata Kunci :    Tax Law Enforcement, Kepatuhan Wajib Pajak, Penerimaan Pajak

  20. BIODIESEL DARI CAMPURAN LEMAK SAPI (Beef Tallow DAN MINYAK SAWIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wara Dyah Pita Rengga

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cadangan minyak bumi semakin menipis, sehingga dicari bahan bakar alternatif, salah satunya adalah biodiesel. Minyak nabati terutama minyak sawit merupakan bahan baku edible sedangkan lemak sapi merupakan bahan baku non-edible dengan biaya rendah dan memiliki ketersediaan tinggi pada produksi sapi. Pemanfaatan lemak sapi yang belum maksimal dapat digunakan bersama minyak sawit untuk menghasilkan biodiesel. Lemak sapi dicairkan supaya menjadi minyak sapi. Bahan baku minyak sapi dan minyak sawit dicampur dengan perban-dingan 3:1. Campuran minyak ditransesterifikasi dengan metanol dengan perbandingan molar (1:6 dan katalis NaOH. Proses dilakukan selama 90 menit pada suhu ±65°C. Hasil proses transesterifikasi adalah metil ester dan gliserol. Metil ester pada lapisan atas dipisahkan dari gliserol kemudian dilakukan pencucian. Metil ester atau biodiesel selanjutnya diuji angka asam, viskositas, densitas, dan analisis menggunakan GC-MS. Yield biodiesel yang dihasilkan dari campuran minyak sapi dan minyak sawit adalah 76%, angka asam 0,67124 mg-KOH/g, densitas 857,76 kg/cm³, dan viskositas 3,0074 mm2/s. Kesemua parameter tersebut sesuai dengan standart mutu SNI biodiesel. Kandungan metil ester dari minyak sawit dan lemak sapi adalah metiloleat dan metil palmitat. The availability of the fossil fuel is decreasing; hence the finding of an alternative fuels is very important. One of those alternative fuels is biodiesel. Vegetable oil, especially palm oil is the edible raw material, while the beef tallow is the non-edible raw material with low cost production and the availability is huge in the cattle production. The beef tallow mixed with palm oil can be used as raw material for producing biodiesel. Firstly, the beef tallow was melted into beef oil. The raw materials of beef tallow and palm oil were mixed with the composition ratio of 3:1. The resulted mixed-oil was transesterificated by adding methanol with molar ratio of 1:6 and NaOH as

  1. PENGGUNAAN SILVER DIAMINA FLUORIDA (SDF 38% SEBAGAI Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT PADA ANAK-ANAK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendrawati Lendrawati

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKaries merupakan masalah kesehatan gigi yang banyak diderita oleh anak-anak seluruh dunia terutama negara berkembang termasuk Indonesia. Kerusakan gigi pada anak-anak terjadi lebih cepat dibandingkan orang dewasa karena gigi yang baru erupsi masih dalam proses maturasi dan proses mineralisasi belum sempurna. Tubuli dentin anak anak yang masih lebar menyebabkan pembentukan jaringan sklerotik tidak sempurna dan buffer saliva masih kurang sehingga aktivitas proteolitik menjadi lebih banyak di dalam mulut. Fluor merupakan zat mineral yang digunakan sebagai bahan yang efektif mencegah terjadinya karies gigi dapat membuat lapisan email tahan terhadap kerusakan yang disebabkan pelarutan email oleh zat asam. Strategi pencegahan karies lebih efektif sejak diperkenalkannya silver diamina fluoride (SDF yang merupakan cairan tidak berwarna mengandung ion fluoride yang digunakan untuk memacu terjadinya proses remineralisasi hidoksiapatit mineral gigi. Penggunaan SDF ini merupakan metoda Arresting Caries Treatment (ACT. SDF menggabungkan efek penguatan gigi dari natrium fluoride (NaF dan efek nitrat perak.Konsentrasi efektif solusi SDF 38% (44.800 ion fluoride ppm digunakan untuk menghambat perkembangan karies pada gigi sulung anak-anak, terutama anak-anak yang sulit untuk dilakukan perawatan. SDF sederhana, mudah dalam mengaplikasikan dan biaya pemakaian lebih murah. SDF merupakan bahan yang tepat untuk digunakan untuk mengatasi masalah kesehatan gigi masyarakat terutama pada anak-anak.Kata Kunci : karies gigi, silver diamine fluoride, Arresting Caries Treatment, topikalAbstractDental caries is a health problem that affects many children all over the world, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Tooth decay in children occurs more rapidly than adults because the new tooth eruption is still in the process of maturation and mineralization process is not perfect. Dentin tubules of children is still wide lead sclerotic tissue formation

  2. Ulkus Aftosa Kompleks Manifestasi Penyakit Crohn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Esti Chrismawaty

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Latar Belakang: Ulkus aftosa kompleks mengacu pada ulkus mulut kronis berkaitan dengan gangguan sistemik. Kondisi tersebut, selain menimbulkan rasa sakit dan gangguan fungsi, dapat memperburuk kualitas hidup penderitanya. Tujuan: penulisan ini bertujuan untuk melaporkan keterkaitan antara ulkus aftosa kompleks dengan gangguan gastrointestinal, yaitu penyakit crohn. Kasus dan penanganannya: laki-laki 73 tahun mengeluhkan nyeri mulut sejak 3 bulan lalu, yang disertai dengan perut sebah, kembung dan terkadang nyeri ringan disertai dengan sakit kepala. Saat pemeriksaan, tampak adanya ulkus dengan dasar bergranuler, tepi sedikit meninggi dan tertutup lapisan putih pada mukosa lipatan mukobukal, pipi, dasar mulut dan palatum. Permukaan mukosa bibir dan pipi memberikan gambaran seperti batu bata (cobblestoning. Mengacu pada gejala dan temuan klinis, ditegakkan diagnosis kerja ulkus aftosa kompleks manifestasi gangguan gastrointestinal, susprk penyakit crohn. Terapi awal berupa kombinasi spiramycin-metronidazole, methyl-prednisolone, parasetamol dan larutan kumur perhidrol. Satu minggu kemudian, tampak adanya perbaikan lesi dan aktifitas fungsional. Berdasarkan pemerikasaan dari poli penyakit dalam Rumah Sakit Umum Sardjito (RSS, pasien mendapatkan medikasi lanzoprazole, ulsidex dan enzyplex. Terapi lanjutan berupa methyl-prednisolone dengan dosis tapering, anti jamur topical nistatin untuk mencegah infeksi ikutan dan larutan kumur yeng mengandung Benzydamine HCI untuk mengurangi nyeri. Kesimpulan: Ulkus mulut manifestasi penyakit Chohn mempunyai karakteristik unik dan dapat dibedakan dari ulkus mulut kronis lainnya. Dalam penegakan diagnosis ulkus aftosa kompleks, identifikasi etiologi gangguan sistemik yang tepat akan sangat membantu dalam menetapkan perawatan lesi mulut yang sesuai.   Background: complex aphthous refers to chronic oral ulceration, which is related to systemic diseases. This condition can cause oral discomfort, alter the normal oral

  3. Titanium - ceramic restoration: How to improve the binding between titanium and ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry Laksono

    2011-03-01

    keramik pada titanium. Tujuan: Memberikan informasi tentang cara meningkatkan kekuatan perlekatan antara keramik dengan titanium. Tinjauan: Titanium mempunyai 2 struktur kristal, struktur close-packed hexagonal (α diatas 880°C dan struktur bodycentered cubic (β dibawah 883°C. Masalah utama adalah pelepasan gas oksigen yang menghasilkan lapisan titanium kaya oksigen yang tebal disebut α-case yang menghalangi perlekatan keramik pada titanium dan koefisien ekspansi panas dari bahan ultra-low fusing ceramic yang berbeda dengan titanium. Berbagai cara telah dikembangkan untuk mendapatkan perlekatan keramik pada titanium seperti teknik pembuatan, pemakaian bahan ultra-low fusing titanium ceramic, bahan bonding dan protokol untuk perlekatan bahan keramik pada titanium. Kesimpulan: Titanium dan logam campur titanium, berdasarkan sifat-sifat mekanik dan kimiawinya dapat dipakai untuk pembuatan restorasi keramik taut logam, tetapi pemilihan teknik pembuatan, bahan keramik, ketrampilan peteknik gigi dan mengikuti protokol untuk mendapatkan perlekatan keramik pada titanium dengan benar diperlukan untuk meningkatkan kekuatan perlekatan antara keramik dan titanium.

  4. Perawatan Kandidiasis Pseuodomembran Akut dan Mukositis Oral pada Penderita Kanker Nasofaring yang Menerima Khemoterapi dan Radioterapi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Supriatno

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Latar belakang: Terapi radiasi merupakan metode primer perawatan pasien kanker leher dan kepala. Perubahan funsional dan kerusakan jaringan oral menyebabkan timbulnya mukositia oral yang diikuti dengan kandidiasis oral. Tujuan: Melaporkan efek samping perawatan khemoterapi dan radioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring yang terjadi di rongga mulut berupa kandidiasis pseudomembran akut dan mukositis oral serta penatalaksanaannya. Kasus: Seorang laki-laki, 69 tahun, datang ke Bagian Gigi dan Mulut RSUP Dr. Sardjito, atas rujukan dari instalasi Penyakit Dalam., RSUP Dr. Sardjito, dengan keluhan sakit untuk menelan makanan dan mulutnya banyak bercak-bercak putih. Keluhan dirasakan satu minggu setelah dilakukan khemoterapi ke-3 dan radioterapi ke-9. Pasien didiagnosa kanker nasofaring (NPC dengan klasifikasi T2N3M0. Pemeriksaan klinik menunjukkan adanya lapisan putih pada mukosa lidah, pipi, palatum, dan mukosa bibir. Seluruh mukosa mulut berwarna merah tua dan terdapat anguler cheilitis di kedua sudut bibir. Pasien diklasifikasikan menderita mukositis oral derajat 1. Penatalaksanaan: Menghilangkan jaringan nekrotik dan debris dengan berkumur larutan perhidrol 3% dan pemberian medikasi termasuk tablet nistatin 500.000 IU, betadin kumur, dan larutan perhidrol 3% selama 1 minggu. Saat reevaluasi, pasien sudah dapat menelan dan makan yang sedikit keras tanpa ada rasa sakit lagi. Pemeriksaan klinis didapatkan bercak putih di lidah, palatum, pipi dan bibir sudah tidak ada. Warna mukosa oral telah normal, OHI dan kondisi umum baik dalam 1 minggu pasca perawatan. Kesimpulan: Perawatan kandidiasis dan mukositis oral akibat kemoradioterapi pada pasien kanker nasofaring telah berhasil dan kondisi oral membaik. Pasien dapat mengunyah dan menelan makanan tanpa ada rasa sakit, dan hasil pengobatan yang diberikan pada pasien sesuai dengan harapan operator.   Background: Radiation therapy remains the primary method of treatment for patients with head and neck

  5. Pulpal inflammation after vital tooth bleaching with 38% hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ardiny Andriani

    2012-06-01

    subjek sehat yang akan melakukan pencabutan gigi untuk perawatan ortodontik. Seluruh subjek telah menandatangani informed consent. Hidrogen peroksida 38% diaplikasikan pada permukaan bukal gigi kelompok perlakuan. Gigi kemudian dicabut 1 jam, 5, 8, dan 15 hari setelah aplikasi H2O2 38%. Seluruh spesimen kemudian ditanam dalam parafin, dipotong secara serial dan diwarnai dengan Hematoxillin Eosin. Pengamatan preparat histologis dilakukan dengan menggunakan mikroskop cahaya. Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini menunjukkan gangguan pada lapisan odontoblas dan peradangan pada jaringan pulpa di bawah daerah aplikasi H2O2. Jumlah PMN meningkat secara signifikan (p<0,05 1 jam setelah aplikasi H2O2 38% sedangkan jumlah makrofag meningkat secara signifikan 5 hari setelah aplikasi hidrogen peroksida 38%. Infiltrasi PMN dan makrofag paling banyak ditemukan 5 hari setelah aplikasi dan menurun secara bertahap 5 dan 8 hari setelah aplikasi H2O2 38%. Kesimpulan: Aplikasi H2O2 38% sebagai bahan pemutih gigi vital dapat menginduksi inflamasi akut pada pulpa gigi manusia, namun, inflamasi akan mereda 8 hari setelah aplikasi.

  6. Separasi Aliran Tiga Dimensi pada Kaskade Kompressor Aksial dengan Sudu Berbeda Kelengkungan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman Sasongko

    2008-01-01

    and inclined manometer. Computational Fluid Dynamics was employed to modeling and analyzing the velocity vector with setting parameter of 3d-dp, segregated, RNG k-ε. By using those methods, the authors capable to visualize flow separation inside blade passage and cascade output. In the cascade configuration, blade camber with fixed load angle has a significant role for the development of three dimensional flow separation (horse shoe vortex appears in front of the leading edge. This phenomenon was started by the appearance of forward saddle point. This forward saddle point will move if the camber angle is changed. The increasing camber angle from θ = 32.5o to θ = 42.5o shifted the forward saddle point and changed three dimension separation line width. For blade airfoil 9C7/42,5C50, the position of forward saddle point is far away in front of leading edge but almost in line with blade chord line. On the other hand for blade cascade with 9C7/32,5C50, the position of forward saddle point is much closer to the leading edge but far below the blade chord line. The upper shifting of the forward saddle point for blade with higher camber also pushed the low pressure area on the upper side zone further back. It also pushed the high pressure area on lower side in the same direction as the one on the upper side. This phenomenon subsequently increasing the intensity of cross passage flow at the back side of blade passage and curl flow at the trailing edge. This increasing intensity of the secondary flow near hub junction will ultimately increase the blockage effect and total pressure losses. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Pada kompresor aksial, fenomena aliran sekunder tiga dimensi yang sangat rumit terjadi pada interaksi antara lapisan batas sudu dengan lapisan batas hub/casing. Akibat yang ditimbulkan fenomena ini adalah terpengaruhnya karakteristik medan aliran di daerah interaksi tersebut yang pada akhirnya berkaitan dengan efek penyumbatan (blockage effect serta kerugian

  7. WORDS WITH REGARD TO HOUSING IN DEDE QORQUT STORIES AND ON OVERVIEW TO CO-OCCURENCE OF THIS WORDS DEDE KORKUT HİKÂYELERİNDE BARINMA İLE İLGİLİ SÖZLER VE BU SÖZLERİN BİRLİKTELİK KULLANIMLARI ÜZERİNE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeter TORUN

    2011-09-01

    ğerlendirilmiştir. Hikâyelerdeki barınma kavram alanıyla ilgili sözcükleri göçebe ve yerleşik düzenle ilgili olmasına göre iki grupta ele alınmıştır. İncelemenin sonucunda Oğuzların yaşam biçimlerine paralel olarak göçebe düzenle ilgili sözcüklerin, yerleşik düzene göre daha çok olduğu görülmüştür. Tespit edilen sözcüklerde, çadır tipi evlerle ilgili adların, sıfatlarla olan birliktelik kullanımlarında renk sıfatlarının ağırlıkta olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca çadır tipi evlerin kurulduğu yerlerin anlatımında da renk bildiren sıfatlar sıkça kullanılmıştır. Göçebe düzenle ilgili adların fiillerle olan birliktelik kullanımlarında dik- ve kur- fiilinin yaygın kullanımı göze çarpmaktadır, yerleşik düzenle ilgili adlarda ise yap- fiilinin kullanıldığı görülmektedir.

  8. Mehmed Enisî Yalkı’nın Alman Ruhu Adlı Seyahatnamesine İmgebilimsel Bir Yaklaşım An Imagologist Approach To Mehmet Enisi Yalkı's Travelbook

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    Yılmaz DAŞCIOĞLU

    2012-12-01

    , Cumhuriyetle birlikte sistematik hale getirilen batı tipi Türk kimliğinin inşasında önemli bir görev üstlendiğini söylemek yanlış olmayacaktır. Bu çalışmada, II. Meşrutiyet’in ilanı ile birlikte büyük bir artış gösteren yurt dışı seyahatnamelerinden birisi imgebilimsel yöntemle incelenmektedir. Meşrutiyet dönemi isimlerinden gazeteci-yazar Mehmed Enisî Yalkı’nın, henüz Latin alfabesine aktarılmayan Alman Ruhu adlı seyahatnamesinde yeni bir ulusun, batı tipi Türk’ün inşası için teklif ettiği Alman/Almanya modeli çeşitli imgeler aracılığıyla çözümlenmektedir. Bütün bir seyahatname boyunca “Alman gibi çalış”, “Alman gibi metin ol”, “Alman gibi ruhunu kuvvetlendir”, “Alman gibi adalete hizmet et” nidalarının bir arka fon olarak çınlaması, Almanya’nın model alınmasının teklif edilmesinin açık işaretleridir. Çalışmanın sonunda, Tanzimat’tan Cumhuriyet’e kadar uzanan yeni bir ulusun inşası bunalımını yaşayan Osmanlı aydınının, seyahatnameyi bir edebi tür gibi kullanmaktan çok, toplumu eğitmek, ona yön vermek, ona alternatif yaşam ve kültür sunmak kaygısıyla kaleme aldığı tespit edilmektedir.

  9. Scale-up of two-phase flow in heterogeneous chalk. Matrix properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This investigation presents scale-up of a detailed heterogeneous geostatistical model to a full field reservoir simulation model, considering both single and two-phase flow properties. The model represents a typical low permeability Danish North Sea chalk reservoir and includes capillary pressure and saturation end-point variations. Two new up-scaling methods has been investigated, all based on fine scale simulation on a cross section of the geomodel. The first methods assumes piston style behaviour and a coupled viscosity is introduced into the basic Darcy`s equations. The second method is a modification of the JBN method traditionally applied in analysing results from core flooding experiments, which emerged as the most successful and therefore also the recommended method. 1. In addition to the up scaling work we review the Equivalent Radius Method for capillary pressure normalisation with explicit derivation of type functions for Maastrichtian and Danian chalk types. Implementation of the Equivalent Radiuo Method in the COSI reservoir simulator by an optikal set of key-words. There are six specific results from this work: 1. The equivalent radius method is robust to changes of scale and yields model initialisations by initial and irreducible water saturations on a full field simulation scale that agree well with values derived from averaging on a fine-scale. 2. The residual oil saturations are strongly scale dependent and the description of the residual oil as a function of the irreducible water is not applicable on a full field scale and will lead to an overestimation of the residual oil present in the reservoir. The effective residual oil saturations on a full field-scale must be considered functions of the effective initial water saturations, in order to take into account fine-scale variations in the oil/water contacts. 3. The effective permeability as calculated by statistical averages does not differ seriously from results obtained by fine-grid numerical

  10. PENENTUAN INDEKS BIAS KACA TBZP TERDEDAH ION Nd3+ DENGAN METODE SUDUT BREWSTER

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    A Pramuda

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak __________________________________________________________________________________________ Kaca tellurite merupakan material yang sangat menjanjikan untuk aplikasi laser dan optika non linear. Pengukuran indeks bias merupakan salah satu bagian dari penentuan sifat fisik optik yang penting untuk mengestimasi sifat-sifat laser kaca. Penelitian ini bertujuan menentukan dan menganalisis indeks bias kaca berbasis tellurite TBZP Terdedah ion Nd3+ yang telah berhasil difabrikasi dengan teknik melt quenching dengan komposisi 55TeO2-2Bi2O3-(38-x ZnO-5PbO-xNd2O3(% mol(x=0,5; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5. Indeks bias kaca diukur dengan metode sudut brewster pada mode tranverse magnetic (TM.  Pada mode TM dapat ditentukan besar sudut brewster dan nilai reflektansi minimum kaca. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kaca TBZP terdedah ion Nd3+ yang telah berhasil dipabrikasi memiliki indeks bias kaca yang tergolong tinggi meningkat dari 1,825 ke 2,081 seiring meningkatnya konsentrasi modifier Nd2O3 dari 0,5 % mol ke 2,5 % mol. Penambahan kation pada jaringan struktur kaca memberikan pengaruh pada struktur kaca dan mengarah ke perubahan lokal dari distribusi ikatan Bridging Oxygen (BO dan Non Bridging Oxygen (NBO. Penambahan konsentrasi Nd3+ menyebabkan terjadinya peningkatan pada nilai parameter sifat fisik lain seperti massa molar, massa jenis, volume molar, dan molar refraction.   Abstract __________________________________________________________________________________________ Tellurite glass is a promising material for laser applications and non-linear optics. The measurement of the refractive index is a part of the  physical properties determination that is important for estimating the optical properties of glass laser. This research determined and analyzed the refractive index of tellurite-based glass TBZP dopedNd3+fabricated by melt quenching technique with composition 55TeO2-2Bi2O3-(38-x ZnO-5PbO-xNd2O3(mol%(x=0,5; 1; 1,5; 2; 2,5. The refractive index of glass

  11. Yeni Tanılı Diyabetes Mellitus Hastalarında Peripapiller Retina Sinir Lifi Tabakası Ve Subfoveal Koroid Kalınlığının Spektralis OCT İle Değerlendirilmesi

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    Muhammed Şahin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaç: Bu çalışmada amacımız, yeni tanı alan ve her­hangi bir diyabetik retinopati (DR bulgusu olmayan tip 2 diyabetes mellituslu (DM olgularla sağlıklı bireylerin peri­papiller retina sinir lifi tabakası (pRSLT ve koroid tabaka­sı kalınlıklarını karşılaştırmaktır. Yöntemler: Çalışmaya Endokrin polikliniğinden yeni tanı almış ve DR’si olmayan DM’li hastalar ile sağlıklı kontrol grubu dahil edildi. Olguların Spectral-Domain optik kohe­rens tomografi (spektralis OKT cihazı ile EDI modunda (enhanced depth imaging- artırılmış derinlik görüntüleme­si horizontal düzlemde taraması yapıldı. Alınan görün­tülerden fovea merkezinden, fovea merkezine 1000 μm temporal ve nazalden koroid kalınlıkları ölçümü yapıldı. Ayrıca aynı cihazla pRSLT kalınlık ölçümü yapıldı. Bulgular: Çalışmaya DR’si olmayan 28 yeni tanılı DM hastasının 28 gözü ile 28 kontrol grubunun 28 gözü da­hil edildi. Yaş, cinsiyet, sferik ekivalan, düzeltilmiş en iyi görme keskinliği, göz içi basıncı ve aksiyel uzunluk de­ğerlerinde gruplar arasında anlamlı farklılık saptanmadı. Subfoveal ve temporal alanda koroid kalınlığının yeni ta­nılı DM grubunda kontrol grubuna göre daha ince olduğu saptandı (sırasıyla p=0,04, p=0,006. pRNFL analizinde ise averaj, nazal ve temporal süperior kadranlar yeni tanılı DM grubunda kontrol grubuna göre anlamlı olarak daha ince bulundu. Diğer pRNFL kadranlarında anlamlı bir fark saptanmadı. Sonuç: Çalışmamızın verileri değerlendirildiğinde yeni tanılı DM’li hastalarda DR bulguları olmaksızın koroid ta­bakasında incelmenin yanında pRSLT’de bazı incelmele­rin (özellikle averaj, nazal ve temporal süperior kadranlar­da olabileceğini söylemek mümkün görünmektedir.

  12. EFFECT OF Nb ELEMENT CONTENT IN U-Zr ALLOY ON HARDNESS, MICROSTRUCTURE AND PHASE FORMATION

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    Masrukan Masrukan

    2015-07-01

    yang stabil dan memperbaiki ketahanan korosi. Mula-mula dibuat paduan U-Zr-Nb pada variasi Nb 2%, 5% dan 8% dengan cara melebur di dalam tungku peleburan busur listrik yang berpendingin air dan dalam media gas argon. Paduan U-Zr-Nb yang terbentuk dipotong-potong untuk dikenai beberapa pengujian, diantaranya uji mekanik (kekerasan, mikrostrutur, dan fasa yang terbentuk. Pengujian kekerasan dilakukan dengan menggunakan peralatan uji kekerasan Vickers, mikrostruktur dengan menggunakan mikroskop optik, dan fasa dengan menggunakan XRD. Hasil pengujian kekerasan menunjukkan bahwa penambahan Nb pada paduan U-Zr dari 2% menjadi 5% mengakibatkan kenaikan kekerasan, tetapi kemudian kekerasan turun pada penambahan di atas 5% Nb. Pengamatan mikrostruktur yang terbentuk memperlihatkan bahwa pada penambahan unsur Nb sebesar dari 2% menjadi 5% maka terbentuk butir dari kasar menjadi halus. Dilihat dari pembentukan fasa, terjadi perubahan yakni dari αU dan γU pada 2% Nb menjadi fasa αU, γU dan δ1 (UZr2 pada 5% Nb dan 8% Nb. Perubahan fasa tersebut juga diikuti dengan perubahan prosentase fasa yaitu pada 2% Nb, dimana fase αU yang semula 40% mengalami kenaikan menjadi 81% pada 5% Nb dan selanjutnya turun menjadi 3,9% pada 8% Nb. Untuk fasa γU terjadi penurunan yang semula 59% menjadi 14% pada 5% Nb dan selanjutnya naik menjadi 32 % pada 8% .

  13. Progressionsmodel: Entreprenørskabs- og innovationsundervisning

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    Nicolai Nybye

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager afsæt i en forståelse af entreprenørskab, som en praksisform, hvor muligheder og idéer omsættes til enten økonomisk, kulturel eller social værdi. Denne forståelse kædes sammen med behovet for, at elever og studerende lærer at agere i forskellige omverdenssammenhænge og her kan skabe værdi. Artiklen peger på behovet for at kunne operationalisere tilgangen til entreprenørskab i form af eksplicitte undervisningsdimensioner og læringsmål. Artiklen præsenterer således en progressionsforståelse, der giver en teoretisk optik på den sammenhængende udvikling af læringsmål for elever og studerendes entreprenørskabs- og innovationsviden og kompetencer igennem uddannelsesforløbet, og den peger på en forståelse, der indlejrer entreprenørskab i kernefagligheder og i de studerendes deltagelse i erfaringsskabende processer. Artiklen er skrevet med udgangspunkt i Fonden for Entreprenørskab – Young Enterprise, der understøttes af de fire ministerier, der danner det nationale Partnerskab for Uddannelse i Entreprenørskab. Artiklen har i foråret 2013 været i høring hos en række lærere, undervisere og forskere i det danske uddannelsessystem inden offentliggørelsen i sommeren 2013.     This article is based on the premise that entrepreneurship encompasses a combination of business, cultural and social attributes. We use this understanding in a ‘Progression Model’ considering ways in which students may be educated in entrepreneurship, in line with the requirements of the government-backed Danish Foundation for entrepreneurship – Young Enterprise initiative. The aim of the initiative is to teach students how to convert ideas and opportunities into value. The article uses the broad understanding of entrepreneurship outlined above as a conceptual frame to define learning dimensions and outcomes for entrepreneurial knowledge and competences that students may be expected to acquire during their education. It is

  14. Bağlam temelli öğrenme ile lise fizik derslerinde kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konular [Daily life subjects that can be used with context based learning in high school physics lessons

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    Ali ÇETİN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı bağlam temelli öğrenme sırasında kullanılabilecek günlük hayattan konuların belirlenmesi, bu konuların sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırmasının yapılmasıdır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Veri analizinde içerik analizi, yüzde ve frekans analizi gibi betimsel analizler kullanılmıştır. Bilgiler belirli kriterlere göre kategoriler halinde gruplandırılmış ve sayısal, yüzdesel ve oransal olarak görülme sıklığı ortaya konmuştur. Çalışmaya Ankara il sınırları içerisindeki bir okulun 9., 10. ve 11. sınıflarında okuyan 94 öğrenci katılmıştır ve günlük hayata ilişkin fizik konularında ayrı ayrı birer poster hazırlamaları istenmiştir. Toplanan posterler konu başlıklarına, sınıf seviyelerine ve cinsiyetlere göre sınıflandırılarak alt kategoriler oluşturulmuştur. Her alt kategoride hazırlanan poster sayıları kullanılarak, öğrencilerin bu alt başlığa olan ilgileri ortaya konmuştur. Başlıklar kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoride fizik dersindeki sekiz konu başlığı (mekanik, elektrik, uçan cisimler, astronomi ve uzay, gökyüzü, modern fizik, optik, dalgalar ortaya çıkmıştır. Sınıf seviyeleri kullanılarak oluşturulan alt kategoriye göre 9. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla gökyüzü, 10. sınıf öğrencilerinin en fazla astronomi ve uzay konularına ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Cinsiyete göre yapılan sınıflandırmada ise 9. sınıflarda sadece erkek öğrencilerin uçan cisimler konusunu seçtiği, mekanik, astronomi ve uzay konularında erkeklerin ilgilerinin kızlara göre daha yüksek olduğu, dalgalar konusunda ise kızların erkeklerden daha çok ilgi duydukları ortaya çıkmıştır. Çalışmanın sonuç kısmında ortaöğretim fizik programı ile öğrencilerin fizik derslerinde görmek istedikleri konuların benzerlik ve farklılıkları karşılaştırılmıştır.

  15. Gambaran Slide Malaria Berdasarkan Sediaan Darah dari Kepulauan Siberut Mentawai Periode Oktober 2011 – Januari 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline Sacharissa Firdaus

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakMalaria adalah penyakit penting yang saat ini telah menjadi masalah kesehatan dunia dan endemik di 105 negara salah satunya Indonesia. Indonesia memiliki banyak kepulauan yang tersebar salah satunya yaitu Kepulauan Mentawai. Kepulauan Mentawai merupakan daerah endemi malaria yang terdiri atas 4 pulau salah satunya yaitu Kepulauan Siberut Mentawai. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui Insiden kejadian malaria di Kepulauan Siberut Mentawai periode Oktober 2012 – Januari 2012. Desain penelitian yaitu deskriptif dan observational. Sediaan darah yang berasal dari Puskesmas Muara Siberut Kepulauan Siberut Mentawai dikirim ke Laboratorium Parasitologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas untuk diperiksa. Penelitian dilakukan dengan cara pemeriksaan secara mikroskopik sediaan darah tebal dan tipis dari sampel darah tepi yang telah dipulas dengan pewarnaan Giemsa untuk mengetahui berapa insiden kejadian malaria, distribusi malaria menurut jenis kelamin, distribusi malaria menurut jenis plasmodium dan Parasite Count. Seluruh Sediaan darah berjumlah 106 sediaan darah dan 32 diantaranya positif malaria. Berdasarkan jenis kelamin ditemukan pada perempuan 17 sediaan darah dan laki-laki sebanyak 15 sediaan darah. jenis Plasmodium yang ditemukan adalah Plasmodium falciparum sebanyak 20 sediaan darah dan Plasmodium vivax sebanyak 12 sediaan darah. Menurut parasite count 14 sediaan darah diantaranya merupakan infeksi ringan dan 6 sediaan darah lainnya merupakan infeksi berat. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah (1 kejadian positif malaria ditemukan sebanyak 30,2%, (2 Insiden kejadian malaria lebih tinggi pada perempuan dibandingkan laki-laki, (3 Hanya ditemukan jenis Plasmodium falciparum dan Plasmodium vivax pada penelitian, (4 Derajat infeksi ringan kejadiannya lebih tinggi dibandingkan infeksi berat.Kata kunci: Malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Parasit countAbstractMalaria is an important disease that has become a global

  16. Deteksi Pengimbasan Ketahanan Pisang terhadap Penyakit Layu Fusarium dengan Asam Fusarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christanti Sumardiyono

    2015-07-01

    tilosis yaitu pertumbuhan sel dalam jaringan xilem. Pengimbasan ketahanan diharapkan dapat menjadi salah satu cara pengendalian penyakit layu fusarium. Penelitian sebelumnya menunjukkan penambahan asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan dapat mengimbas ketahanan bibit pisang terhadap penyakit layu fusarium. Asam salisilat adalah salah satu signal ketahanan yang akan meningkat kandungannya bila terjadi peningkatan ketahanan akibat pengimbasan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeteksi hasil pengimbasan ketahanan pisang dengan asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan. Tanaman telah ditanam di lapangan yang terinfeksi berat oleh Foc. Intensitas penyakit di lapang diamati dengan menghitung persentase daun menguning dan atau layu. Intensitas kerusakan akar diamati dengan pembuatan irisan tipis dan pengamatan tilosis dengan cara skoring. Analisis asam salisilat dalam akar dilakukan dengan metode analisis senyawa fenol menggunakan HPLC. Hasil penelitian tanaman dari bibit yang diimbas dengan 1,165 ppm asam fusarat dalam kultur jaringan menunjukkan peningkatan ketahanan di lapang. Intensitas tilosis lebih rendah pada tanaman yang diimbas ketahanannya dibandingkan yang tidak diimbas. Asam salisilat dalam tanaman yang diimbas ketahannnya denga asam fusarat 9,32 ppm terdeteksi pada konsentrasi yang sangat rendah yaitu 2 ppb, dengan ketahanan moderat. Pada tanaman hasil pengimbasan yang menunjukkan kriteria tahan asam salisilat tidak terdeteksi, namun terdeteksi tiga puncak senyawa fenol yang belum teridentifikasi. Intensitas tilosis pada tanaman yang diimbas ketahanannya tidak menunjukkan penurunan dibandingkan dengan tanaman yang tidak diperlakukan. Penelitian ini perlu dilanjutkan dengan sampel yang lebih banyak. Identifikasi jenis senyawa fenol perlu dilakukan dalam penelitian lanjutan.

  17. Distorsioni strutturali della regolamentazione prudenziale delle banche (Structural distortions in prudential regulation of banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A livello nazionale, la regolamentazione finanziaria basata su divieti, cioè la cosiddetta regolamentazione strutturale, veniva accusata di produrre rilevanti distorsioni. Il grado di concorrenza ne risultava limitato, favorendo inefficienze di tutti i tipi; la cultura del rischio ne risultava indebolita; ampi poteri discrezionali erano usati dalle autorità nazionali per distorcere i meccanismi di mercato e la proprietà pubblica distorceva la concorrenza e favoriva pratiche clientelari.Una nuova comune cultura regolamentativa è quindi emersa, basata sulla libera concorrenza interna al settore bancario e per il sistema finanziario nel suo complesso. Essa richiede l’eliminazione di stretti limiti all’operatività bancaria, l’abbandono del principio di specializzazione tra attività di banca commerciale e attività finanziaria non bancaria, l’affermazione della proprietà privata, l’assoggettamento delle banche a una più forte disciplina di mercato, anche con riguardo alla loro corporate governance. Le regole di Basilea producono distorsioni non meno serie di quelle attribuite alla precedente regolamentazione strutturale. La concorrenza eccessiva non è meno dannosa di un basso grado di concorrenza, l’impostazione del level playing field aiuta la grande dimensione e pratiche di too big to fail, i capital crunches producono seri effetti sull’economia, mentre i costi di regolamentazione assorbono importanti quote delle risorse delle banche minori. È materia di ulteriore ricerca verificare se la nuova impostazione di regolamentazione abbia anche favorito un aumento nella quota del reddito nazionale assorbito dal sistema finanziario senza aver prodotto una migliore distribuzione dei rischi e un proporzionale aumento in quella che James Tobin (1984 ha definito efficienza di piena assicurazione.   At the national level, financial regulation based on prohibitions, the so-called structural rules, was accused of producing significant

  18. Distorsioni strutturali della regolamentazione prudenziale delle banche (Structural distortions in prudential regulation of banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A livello nazionale, la regolamentazione finanziaria basata su divieti, cioè la cosiddetta regolamentazione strutturale, veniva accusata di produrre rilevanti distorsioni. Il grado di concorrenza ne risultava limitato, favorendo inefficienze di tutti i tipi; la cultura del rischio ne risultava indebolita; ampi poteri discrezionali erano usati dalle autorità nazionali per distorcere i meccanismi di mercato e la proprietà pubblica distorceva la concorrenza e favoriva pratiche clientelari.Una nuova comune cultura regolamentativa è quindi emersa, basata sulla libera concorrenza interna al settore bancario e per il sistema finanziario nel suo complesso. Essa richiede l’eliminazione di stretti limiti all’operatività bancaria, l’abbandono del principio di specializzazione tra attività di banca commerciale e attività finanziaria non bancaria, l’affermazione della proprietà privata, l’assoggettamento delle banche a una più forte disciplina di mercato, anche con riguardo alla loro corporate governance.Le regole di Basilea producono distorsioni non meno serie di quelle attribuite alla precedente regolamentazione strutturale. La concorrenza eccessiva non è meno dannosa di un basso grado di concorrenza, l’impostazione del level playing field aiuta la grande dimensione e pratiche di too big to fail, i capital crunches producono seri effetti sull’economia, mentre i costi di regolamentazione assorbono importanti quote delle risorse delle banche minori. È materia di ulteriore ricerca verificare se la nuova impostazione di regolamentazione abbia anche favorito un aumento nella quota del reddito nazionale assorbito dal sistema finanziario senza aver prodotto una migliore distribuzione dei rischi e un proporzionale aumento in quella che James Tobin (1984 ha definito efficienza di piena assicurazione.   At the national level, financial regulation based on prohibitions, the so-called structural rules, was accused of producing significant

  19. Orman Yolu Güzergahlarının Sismik Zemin Etüdü Metodu ile Belirlenmesi Üzerine Bir Çalışma

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    Ersin DURSUN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada, ekonomik, çevresel ve zamansal açıdan doğru orman yolu güzergahlarının tespitinde sismik jeofizik yönteminin kullanılması araştırılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında 2007 yılında Trabzon Orman İşletme Müdürlüğü, Düzköy Orman İşletme Şefliği sınırları içerisinde inşa edilen 81 kod nolu orman yolu güzergahı incelenmiştir. Çalışma alanındaki ölçümler 2008 yılının Mayıs ve Aralık ayları arasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. B tipi tali orman yolu standardında olan 81 kod nolu orman yolu toplam 5+200 km uzunluğunda olup ortalama eğimi %5'dir. Ölçümler, yolun kazı şevi tarafında, yol eksenine 10 m uzaklıkta ve yola paralel şekilde 12 kanallı Geometrics Smartseis 12 model sismik kayıtçı aleti ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmada; P dalga hızı (Vp, S dalga hızı (Vs, yoğunluk (d (gr/cm3, kayma modülü (μ (kg/cm2, elastisite modülü (Ed (kg/cm2, bulk modülü (Kd (kg/cm2, poisson oranı (a, zemin taşıma gücü (qu (kg/cm2 ve zemin emniyet gerilmesi (qs (kg/cm2 parametreleri tespit edilmiştir. Yapılan incelemeler sonucunda, 81 kod nolu orman yol güzergahının tabakalı bir yapıda olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tabakalar, yol zemininden derine doğru 1. tabaka, 2. tabaka ve 3. tabaka olarak isimlendirilmiştir. 1. tabakanın 3-8 m kalınlığında ve çok ayrışmış kayaçtan, 2. tabakanın ortalama 1 m kalınlığında ve ayrışmış kayaçtan, 3. tabakanın ise sağlam kayaçtan oluştuğu belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın sonucunda güzergahta patlatma gerektirme, sıvılaşma, oturma, göçme, şişme ve kayma gibi risklerin söz konusu olmadığı tespit edilmiştir.

  20. Novità procedurali riguardanti la Rota Romana: le facoltà speciali

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    Joaquín Llobell

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Il contributo, accettato dal Direttore, riproduce la Relazione al “V Corso di aggiornamento in diritto matrimoniale e processuale canonico” della Facoltà di Diritto Canonico della Pontificia Università della Santa Croce (Roma, 16-20 settembre 2013, ed è destinato alla pubblicazione negli Atti del Corso, per i tipi della Edusc, Roma.SOMMARIO: 1. Premessa – 2. La facoltà speciale n. I: «Le sentenze rotali che dichiarano la nullità del matrimonio siano esecutive, senza che occorra una seconda decisione conforme»: 2.1. La prima facoltà speciale vieta l’appello contro la sentenza rotale che dichiara per la prima volta la nullità del matrimonio?; 2.2. Il diritto di appello alla Rota Romana e le fattispecie in cui la Rota può emettere una prima sentenza “pro nullitate matrimonii”; 2.3. Cenni minimi sulle conseguenze della prima facoltà speciale sulla delibazione della prima sentenza a favore della nullità del matrimonio – 3. La facoltà speciale n. II: «Dinanzi alla Rota Romana non è possibile proporre ricorso per la N.C.P. [“nova causae propositio”], dopo che una delle parti ha contratto un nuovo matrimonio canonico» – 4. La facoltà speciale n. III: «Non si dà appello contro le decisioni rotali in materia di nullità di sentenze o di decreti» – 5. La facoltà speciale n. IV: «Il Decano della Rota Romana ha la potestà di dispensare per grave causa dalle Norme Rotali in materia processuale», con particolare riferimento alla modifica dei turni giudicanti per affidare le cause a collegi “videntibus septem iudicibus” – 6. La facoltà speciale n. V: «Siano avvertiti gli Avvocati Rotali circa il grave obbligo di curare con sollecitudine lo svolgimento delle cause loro affidate, sia di fiducia che d’ufficio, così che il processo davanti alla Rota Romana non ecceda la durata di un anno e mezzo» – 7. Brevissime conclusioni – Appendice (Testo delle facoltà speciali della Rota Romana, 11 febbraio 2013

  1. A Comparison of Event Framing in Old Japanese and Old Chinese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao LI

    2011-12-01

    pomočjo glagolov. Skozi ves proces preoblikovanja kitajskega jezika je raba inkorporiranih samostalnikov za izražanje sledi in predglagolov za izražanje načina nazadovala; ostali členki so služili za izražanje dogodkov povezanih z gibanjem. Vse to je prispevalo k mnenju, da je sodobna kitajščina jezik, ki temelji na uokvirjanju s pomočjo satelitov. Nasprotno pa so se glagolska dopolnila pojavila in igrala glavno vlogo v dogodkih, ki niso povezani z gibanjem. V okviru stare japonščine so bili opaženi vsi trije tipi uokvirjanja. Sled se povrhu izraža s pomočjo treh sredstev: predpon, pomožnih glagolov in sestavljenih glagolov. Ti razločni vzorci uokvirjanja dogodkov, tako znotraj enega jezika kot medjezikovno, temeljijo na raznolikosti leksikalnih sredstev za uokvirjanje dogodkov, tako tistih, ki so povezani z gibanjem, kot tistih, ki niso, ter na prednostnem redu pri izboru različnih leksikalnih sredstev za kodiranje dogodkov.

  2. The photoluminescence of the molecule Alq{sub 3} stabilized by phenols; La fotoluminescenza della molecola Alq{sub 3} stabilizzata con i fenoli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldacchini, G.; Montereali, R. M.; Pace, A. [ENEA, Div. Fisica Applicata, Centro Ricerche Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy); Gagliardi, S. [Enea guest, Rome (Italy); Baldacchini, T. [Boston College, Dept. of Chemistry, Chestnut Hill, MA (United States); Pode, R. B. [Nagpur University, Dept. of Physics, Nagpur (India)

    2001-07-01

    ben noti dispositivi inorganici semiconduttori LED. Tra questi nuovi composti, un ruolo preminente e' occupato dalla molecola metalchelata Alq{sub 3}, che possiede una efficiente banda di emissione nella regione spettrale del verde ed e' facilmente maneggiabile. Pero' i dispositivi realizzati con questo composto ed altri similari, malgrado le numerose precauzioni adottate, posseggono una emivita (tempo necessario per dimezzare l'intensita' dell'emissione) di circa 5000 h, che e' considerata ancora troppo breve per una loro applicazione pratica pervasiva. In questo lavoro si sono eseguiti alcuni studi di base su semplici per determinare la causa primaria della degradazione della molecola Alq{sub 3} e quindi della sua fotoluminescenza. Essa e' stata attribuita ad un fenomeno di auto-ossidazione al quale partecipa in modo determinante l'ossigeno atmosferico. Sono state fatte delle esperienze per verificare la possibilita' di bloccare in parte questo processo naturale e si e' scoperto che la molecola di BHT agisce come si attendeva. Infatti essa appartiene alla grande famiglia dei composti fenolici, i quali sono ben noti nel mondo della chimica organica per la loro forte azione antiossidante. In conclusione, l'utilizzo del composto BHT e, per estensione, di altri tipi di fenoli ed anche di altri appropriati composti organici, e' efficace nell'aumentare la emivita della fotoluminescenza di film sottili di spessore nanometrico di Alq{sub 3} e quindi anche dei dispositivi OLED realizzati con composti molecolari o polimerici. Questo risultato e' di grande rilievo nel mondo della foto- ed elettroluminescenza sia per i suoi aspetti fondamentali che applicativi.

  3. Bat species richness and activity over an elevation gradient in mediterranean shrublands of Crete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Georgiakakis

    2010-08-01

    attività dei chirotteri è stato investigato in siti di macchia mediterranea mediante rilevatori ultrasonori nella regione centrale dell’isola di Creta (Grecia. In primavera ed autunno 2007 e 2008, abbiamo registrato i segnali di ecolocalizzazione lungo 15 transetti egualmente distribuiti in tre fasce altitudinali (500, 1000 e 1500 m s.l.m.. I segnali registrati in “time expansion” sono stati successivamente identificati mediante funzioni discriminanti quadratiche.
    Delle 13 specie registrate, Hypsugo savii, Pipistrellus kuhlii e Tadarida teniotis sono risultate le più comuni e abbondanti. Nella fascia altitudinale più bassa abbiamo registrato 13 specie, 7 in quella intermedia e 8 nei siti a 1500 m s.l.m. La ricchezza specifica, il numero di passaggi delle specie più frequenti, così come il numero totale di passaggi non sono risultati significativamente influenzati dalla quota. In primavera, sia la ricchezza specifica sia l’attività sono risultate maggiori che in autunno, sebbene le corrispondenti differenze di temperatura non fossero significative.
    L’elevata variabilità nell’attività dei chirotteri e nel numero di specie tra siti entro ciascuna fascia altitudinale si spiega probabilmente con la presenza di altri tipi di habitat nelle immediate circostanze dei siti investigati; anche la presenza e la localizzazione di rifugi può avere una influenza su tale variazione. Suggeriamo che la capacità dei chirotteri di spostarsi regolarmente lungo il gradiente altitudinale debba essere considerata negli studi che analizzano l’influenza della quota sulla diversità e abbondanza della chirotterofauna. Anche la natura geologica dell’area di studio, influendo sulla disponibilità di siti di alimentazione e rifugio, pu&og

  4. Guidelines for the feasibility study of reintroduction of the otter Lutra lutra in Italy: the project of the Ticino Valley (North-Western Italy

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    Claudio Prigioni

    1995-12-01

    nei tessuti dei pesci non eccedono i limiti di accettabilità proposti dalla Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze degli Stati Uniti per i pesci predati da carnivori. La qualità biologica delle acque, valutata mediante l'indice biotico E.B.I. (Extended Biotic Index, è risultata abbastanza buona per l'intero corso del Ticino. Anche la disponibilità delle risorse ittiche sembra essere idonea a soddisfare le esigenze alimentari della lontra. I dati relativi alla qualità biologica delle acque e alla disponibilità di risorse trofiche evidenziano una situazione più favorevole di quella riscontrata in fiumi dell'Italia centro-meridionale dove la specie è stabilmente presente. L'idoneità ambientale per la lontra della valle del Ticino è stata valutata attraverso la definizione di un indice che tiene conto della disponibilità dei diversi tipi di ambienti, favorevoli e sfavorevoli alla specie, e della loro relativa importanza per la sopravvivenza del mustelide. La valle è stata suddivisa in 1114 unità territoriali di 1 km² ciascuna, in cui sono state misurate 26 differenti categorie ambientali. I1 16,7% e il 38,1% del territorio mostrano rispettivamente valori di idoneità medio-alti e bassi. Circa 80 km del corso del Ticino sono interessati da una buona continuità di ambienti favorevoli alla specie. Lo studio di fattibilità della reintroduzione della lontra evidenzia che non esistono controindicazioni tali da sconsigliare l'intervento, che, comunque, dovrebbe essere supportato da una politica di corretta gestione e riqualificazione degli ambienti fluviali.

  5. Die Christelike hoop – ’n Bybelse eskatologiese belydenis? Deel 1: Bybelse getuienis − ’n verhaal van hoop?

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    Jan A. du Rand

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Hierdie artikel is die eerste van twee artikels om die vraag te beantwoord of die gebruik van die bybelse hoop beskou kan word as die primêre belydenis om die bybelse eskatologiese boodskap van Christelike hoop te verduidelik. Dit is nie slegs ’n bybelse belydenis nie, maar beïnvloed ook reformatoriese teologiese nadenke oor die saak van eskatologiese hoop op subtiele wyse. Indien dit aangetoon kan word, moet die teologiese klem in die reformatoriese belydenis vir ’n Christen se hede en toekoms daarvolgens beskryf word. In die bespreking van eskatologiese hoop volgens tipies bybelse gebruike, kom ’n basiese vraag na vore: Wat is die wesenlike eindbestemming van die Christen? Is dit die geskape wêreld in God of God in die geskape wêreld? Terwyl die bybelse begrip hoop semanties en eksegeties nagespeur word, kom die verhouding tussen God en sy verganklike skepping, soos ons dit ken, op ’n nuwe wyse ter sprake. ’n Tipiese kenmerk van die huidige Westerse beskawing, oor die algemeen beskou, is die onverbiddelike strewe na ontwikkeling ongeag die koste. Dit geskied egter nie vir Christene sonder die belydenis van hoop nie. Selfs teologiese publikasies oorbeklemtoon die hede deur die beslissende betekenis van God se toekoms vir sy eie te relativeer. Die eksegetiese vertrekpunt van hierdie artikel is die verstaan van die Christelike eskatologiese hoop volgens Romeine 5:1−5. Met so ’n kragtige Pauliniese vertrekpunt word die tendense van eskatologiese hoop volgens die Ou en Nuwe Testament nagegaan om aan die navorser ’n bybelse basis te voorsien waarop die teologiese bespreking kan voortbou.The Christian hope – a biblical eschatological confession? Part 1: Biblical witness − a narrative of hope? This is the first of two related articles to answer the question whether the usage of biblical hope can be regarded as the ultimate confession in explaining the biblical eschatological message of Christian hope. It is not only a biblical

  6. Commento delle scelte delle forme verbali nei cloze degli studenti di Italianistica e di Traduzione: (identificazione dei punti critici e confronto tra i gruppi

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    Mirjam Premrl

    2009-12-01

    con il condizionale composto. Si è scoperto, però, che la criticità di uno stesso fenomeno varia in dipendenza dalla sua riconoscibilità nel co- e contesto. I risultati hanno inoltre confermato - eccetto che per un gruppo - il miglioramento della prestazione con il progredire degli studi. Al tempo stesso si è potuta notare l'importanza dell'insegnamento esplicito e dell'osservazione attiva degli usi delle forme verbali, dato che né le preconoscenze, acquisite spesso in modo informale e utili soprattutto nella ricostruzione del mondo testuale, né l'esperienza relativa alla composizione di testi possono eliminare l'influsso dell'interferenza. Data la presenza implicita della madrelingua nella produzione linguistica del discente in un'altra lingua straniera, l'autrice propone delle attività in classe che prendano come spunto i testi in madrelingua. Per superare le difficoltà di applicazione delle nozioni teoriche ai casi pratici gli studenti dovrebbero essere esposti ancora di più alla lettura e all'analisi dei vari tipi testo in lingua straniera. Gli studenti dovrebbero essere inoltre incitati a un processo consapevole di ricostruzione del mondo testuale.

  7. HIDROLISIS ENZIMATIS STEARIN SAWIT MENJADI MONOGLISERIDA OLEH LIPASE DARI Rhizomucor miehei DAN PANKREAS (Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Palm Stearin to Produce Monoglyceride by Lipase from Rhizomucor miehei and Pancreatic

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    Steivie Karaouw

    2013-06-01

    lipase dari R. miehei dan 37oC untuk lipase pankreas. Hasil hidrolisis dianalisis dengan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT menggunakan larutan pengembang petroleum eter:dietil eter:asam asetat = 60:40:1 pada pelat silica gel F254 plat aluminiun 20×20 cm. Lipase R. miehei dan lipase pankreas memiliki pH optimum 6,5 dan aktivitasnya masing-masing 332,25 unit/g enzim amobil dan 228,04 unit/g bubuk enzim. Proporsi fraksi monogliserida tertinggi  diperoleh pada penggunaan lipase dari R. miehei dengan rasio substrat:buffer fosfat 10:1 dalam waktu 18 jam yakni sebesar 21,59 %, sedangkan penggunaan lipase pankreas menghasilkan fraksi monogliserida tertinggi dalam waktu inkubasi 42 jam pada rasio substrat buffer fosfat 10:4 menghasilkan 40,45%. Kata kunci: Hidrolisis, stearin sawit, monogliserida, lipase, Rhizomucor miehei, pankreas

  8. Stone or Sound. Memory and Monuments in Contemporary Public Art

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    Gaia Salvatori

    2015-12-01

    "anti-monumenti" o "contro-monumenti", minano le forme tradizionali della commemorazione. Negli anni Sessanta la tradizione monumentale ha iniziato a perdere la sua essenziale autoreferenzialità a seguito di molta produzione artistica che, pur con finalità commemorative, è andata, anche negli anni Settanta, oltre i confini della stabilità, universalità e della retorica. Nello stesso periodo è riconoscibile anche il sorgere di sforzi teorici volti a cogliere il cambiamento in atto, soprattutto in merito al rapporto tra "documento" e "monumento". È  stato, tuttavia, lo sviluppo fra anni ‘80 e ‘90 dell'arte pubblica (dall’opera site specific a un’arte per e nell'interesse pubblico, che ha coinvolto anche lo statuto dei monumenti intesi come ibridi trans-disciplinari e artefatti, talvolta contingenti e deperibili, aventi tuttavia funzione documentaria e artistica. Sono stati, quindi, selezionati esempi di rilevanti mostre recenti e di casi specifici di monumenti/memoriali, nell’ambito dell’arte pubblica contemporanea, dove le esperienze collettive e individuali finiscono per intersecarsi. Si tratta di opere che implementano la critica dei monumenti tradizionali e cercano di fornire alternative coinvolgendo diversi tipi di pubblico. In epoca post-monumentale tali esempi si muovono tra poli opposti, come presenza e assenza, persistenza e temporalità, materialità e immaterialità e dimostrano quanto, nonostante tutto, si possa parlare ancora di monumenti ogni qualvolta l’intervento artistico riesca a cogliere ed incarnare, in qualunque forma e materia, la contingenza storica.

  9. Evre IV küçük hücreli dışı akciğer kanserli hastaların sağkalımını etkileyen faktörler

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    Turgut Kaçan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Bu çalışmada evre IV küçük hücreli dışı akciğer kanserli hastalarda tedavi öncesi prognostik faktörlerin sağkalım üzerine etkilerinin incelenmesi amaçlandı. Yöntem. Bu çalışma 2006-2011 tarihleri arasında merkezimize tedavi edilen evre IV küçük hücreli dışı akciğer kanserli 113 hastanın dosyalarının retrospektif incelenmesi ile yapıldı. Hastalara ait demografik, klinik ve histopatolojik veriler hasta dosya ve hastane kayıtları incelenerek elde edildi. Kontrole gelmemiş hastalar sağkalım analizi için, izin alınarak kimlik sorgulama sisteminde sorgulandı. Analiz için sıklık testleri, Mann-Whitney U testi ve Kaplan-Meier analizi kullanıldı. Bulgular. Yüzü (%88 erkek, 13'ü (%12 kadın toplam 113 hastanın verisi analiz edildi. Ortanca yaş 62 (37-82 idi. Sigara kullanımı 90 (%80 hastada, aile hikayesi 27 (%24 hastada, komorbidite 40 (%35 hastada mevcuttu. Histopatolojik alt tip olarak 24 (%21 hasta epidermoid, 30 (%27 hasta adenokarsinom, 3 (%2 hasta nöroendokrin alt tipine sahipti. Ellialtı (%50 hastanın ise histopatolojik alt tipi belirlenememişti. En sık rastalanan Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Perfromance Statusu ECOG 1 idi. En sık metastaz yerleri beyin (%35, kemik (%32, karaciğer (%21 ve karşı akciğer (%18 idi. Hastaların 83'üne (%73 kemoterapi uygulanırken 30'una (%27 destek tedavisi verildi. Analjezik kullanımı 84 (%74 hastada var iken palyatif radyoterapi 69 (%61 hastaya uygulandı. Ortanca takip 8 ay (1-47, ortanca sağkalım 8 ay idi. Bir yıllık genel sağkalım %35 olarak tespit edildi. Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Perfromance Statusu (p<0,001, kemoterapi uygulaması (p<0,001, tedavide cisplatin (p<0,001 ve docetaxel (p=0,043 kullanımı, laktik dehidrogenaz yüksekliği (p=0,007 sağkalımı belirleyen prognostik faktörlerdi. Kemoterapi uygulaması (p<0,001 ve laktik dehidrogenaz yüksekliği (p=0,004 ise bağımsız prognostik faktörlerdi. Sonu

  10. SATIŞ ELEMANI PERFORMANS DEĞERLEMESİNDE BİR ÖNERİ: ÜÇGENSEL PERFORMANS DEĞERLEME YÖNTEMİ

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    Banu DİNÇER

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A PROPOSAL ON SALESPERSON PERFORMANCE EVALUATION: A TRIANGULAR PERFORMANCE EVALUATION METHODAbstract: This research proposes a performance evaluation method based on relationship among the salesperson, the organization and the customers through 4 types of performance.The method is developed by a qualitative research realized via interviews with department managers of 39 firms. The interviewees describe the salesperson performance by the contribution to the quantitative targets set by the management for the period and confirm the accuracy of the separate and complementary interfaces of the performance triangle. Quantitative criteria are primal but qualitative criteria are not negligible and have a complementary role. Consequently, the presented method is suitable and acceptable. Salesperson performance can be determined within the triangle shaped by 3 interfaces and measured by qualitative and quantitative criteria covering 4 types of performance. Keywords: Sales Force, Salesperson, Sales Performance. SATIŞ ELEMANI PERFORMANS DEĞERLEMESİNDE BİR ÖNERİ: ÜÇGENSEL PERFORMANS DEĞERLEME YÖNTEMİÖzet: Bu araştırma satış elemanının kendisi, satış organizasyonu ve müşteriler ile ilişkileri üzerine kurulu bir bakış açısı ile 4 performans tipi üzerinden bir performans değerleme yöntemi önermektedir. Bu yöntem daha sonra 39 firmanın ilgili bölüm müdürleri ile gerçekleştirilen yüzyüze görüşmeler ışığında nitel bir araştırma ile geliştirilmiştir. Görüşme yapılan kişiler satış elemanı performansını yönetimin dönem için belirlediği nicel hedeflere yaptığı katkı olarak tanımlamaktadır ve performans üçgeninin ayrı ve birbirini tamamlayıcı arayüzlerinin doğruluğunu teyid etmektedirler. Nicel kriterler esastır fakat nitel kriterler ihmal edilemez ve tamamlayıcı bir role sahiptirler.Sonuç olarak, önerilen yöntem, uygun ve kabul edilebilir bir yöntemdir. Satış eleman

  11. A STUDY ON COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION IN MALARIA CONTROL : I. FIRST YEAR PRE-CONTROL SURVEY OF MALARIA IN BERAKIT VILLAGE, RIAU PROVINCE, SUMATRA

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    Pribadi W.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Survai malariometrik dan sosiobudaya telah dilakukan di 5 RT, RK I dan 2 RT, RK II di Berakit, Propinsi Riau, Sumatra dalam bulan Mei/Juni 1982 dan Oktober/November 1982. Jumlah penduduk yang diperiksa adalah 586 orang dan penelitian sosial dilakukan dengan cara wawancara dengan 150 orang kepala keluarga desa Berakit. Dengan kuesioner dan observasi dapat dikumpulkan data-data mengenai keadaan ekonomi dan pendidikan, serta kegiatan masyarakat, dampak malaria terhadap ke­hidupan sehari-hari, parameter untuk pendidikan kesehatan dan fasilitasnya. Survai malariometrik dilakukan dengan pengambilan darah dengan cara menusuk jari tangan untuk dibuat sediaan darah tebal dan tipis yang kemudian dipulas dengan Giemsa. Pemeriksaan limpa dilakukan menurut cara Hackett (1944. Di samping itu darah juga diambil untuk pemeriksaan kadar hemoglobin yang diukur secara spektrofotometrik. Hasil survai sosiologis menunjukkan bahwa penduduk desa Berakit sadar adanya penyakit malaria dan dalam batas-batas tertentu juga mengetahui sebab dan cara pencegahannya. Dari segi etnik, 49% dari penduduk desa ini berasal dari suku Melayu, 21% dari suku Bugis, 12% dari keturunan Cina, 9% dari suku Jawa, sisanya dari suku-suku lain di Indonesia. Keadaan pendidikan menunjukkan 68% dari penduduk tamat sekolah dasar, 2% sempat melanjutkan sekolah yang lebih tinggi dan sisanya masih buta huruf atau putus sekolah. Keadaan ekonomi menggambarkan bahwa penduduk desa ini hidup dari hasil pertanian kelapa di samping mata pencaharian tambahan lain. Di desa ini juga terdapat in­frastruktur untuk kegiatan masyarakat dan komunikasi audiovisual melalui radio dan televisi yang dipunyai oleh penduduk desa ini. Fasilitas kesehatan di desa Berakit belum digunakan sebagaimana yang diharapkan tetapi penduduk menyadari akan kegunaan fasilitas tersebut. Pada bulan Juni 1982 pemeriksaan limpa dilakukan pada 323 orang penduduk yang digolong­kan menurut 3 golongan umur (1 tahun; 2 — 9 tahun; dan 14

  12. Antemortem tooth loss in the Ablanganis Early Iron Age skeletons, Van - TurkeyAblanganis Erken Demir Çağ iskeletlerinde antemortem diş kaybı, Van - Türkiye

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    Hakan Yılmaz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Necropolis Ablanganis is located 25 km north of Van city center, in Van F Type Prison field. The nearest residential area to Necropolis is the village, located about 2.5 km. away, in the north central, Yumrutepe that is connected to Van (Derleş. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence rate of antemortem tooth loss date in the Early Iron Age from Ablanganis human tooth. Study material consists of 19 individuals’ maxilla and mandible, of which 405 were teeth and tooth socket. The age distribution by sex examined 19 members: 7 female individual age classes are young adults (20-35 age, 11 male individuals again in the age classes are young adults (20-35 age and 1 adult male individual in the age classes is middle adult (35-50. The mean age at death is estimated at 20-50 years. The Examining adult individual permanent tooth and tooth socket were observed to antemortem tooth loss at the rate of 6.42%.  The rates of antemortem tooth loss observed for males 7.75% and 4.08% for female. The probable cause of tooth loss seen in the Ablanganis teeth may be associated with lifestyle, diet and periodontal disease.   Özet Ablanganis Nekropolü, Van il merkezinin 25 km. kuzeyindeki Van F Tipi Cezaevi sahasında yer almaktadır. Nekropole en yakın yerleşim alanı, yaklaşık 2.5 km. kuzeyinde bulunan ve Van il merkezine bağlı Yumrutepe (Derleşin  köyüdür. Bu çalışmanın amacı, Erken Demir Çağ’a tarihlendirilen Ablanganis iskeletlerine ait dişlerde gözlenen antemortem diş kayıplarının dağılım oranının değerlendirilmesidir. Çalışmanın materyali, toplam 19 bireye ait 405 adet diş ve diş soketidir.  Cinsiyete göre 19 bireyin yaş dağılımına bakıldığında 7 kadın birey genç erişkin (20–35 yaş, 11 erkek birey yine genç erişkin (20–35 yaş ve 1 erkek birey orta yaş grubundadır. İncelenen bireylerin ölüm yaşı 20–50 yaş aralığındadır. Söz konusu erişkin bireylerin daimî diş ve di

  13. ÖĞRETMEN ADAYLARININ İDEAL OKUR ALGILARI/THE IDEAL READER PERCEPTION OF PRE-SERVICE TEACHERS

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    Mustafa TÜRKYILMAZ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature theories presented till the last quarter of 20th century has carried out criticism by considering either text, writer or the period of the writer has grown up. On the other hand; theories such as reader response theories, reception theory, feminist criticism place the reader in the center of the criticism. Accordingly, it is necessary to work on concept of reader and to define perception of participants about ideal reader. The current study is conducted to determine pre-service teachers’ ideas and evaluation of “ideal reader”. In the study, it is emphasized by the participants that ideal reader is anyone who comprehend, interpret and criticize the text. Moreover, ideal reader was perceived as receptor, trainee by participants; that’s why, he was likened to an obese, library, consumer in a market. Nevertheless, friends and family members were referred as ideal readers, especially teachers. Furthermore, it can be said that participants have pragmatist perspective about reading and they read for pleasure and information. Yirminci yüzyılın son çeyreğine kadar ortaya konan edebi eleştiri kuramları, ya metni ya yazarı ya da yazarın içinde yetiştiği dönemi dikkate alarak eleştiriyi gerçekleştirmiştir. Öte yandan okur merkezli eleştiri kuramları, alımlama estetiği, feminist eleştiri, izlenimci eleştiri gibi kuramlar okuru eleştirinin merkezine almışlardır. Bu bağlamda okur kavramı üzerinde durmak ve ideal okur alımlamasını belirlemek gerekmektedir. Bu araştırma, öğretmen adaylarının “ideal okur” kavramı üzerine düşüncelerini, değerlendirmelerini belirlemek için gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırmada ideal okurun okuduğunu anlayan, yorumlayan ve okuduklarına eleştirel bakan bir okur tipi olduğu katılımcılar tarafından öne çıkarılmıştır. Ayrıca ideal okur bir alıcı, öğrenici olarak algılanmış bu doğrultuda ideal okur obeze, kütüphaneye, marketteki m

  14. Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia: study of hepatic vascular alterations with multi-detector row helical CT and reconstruction programs; Telangiectasia emorragica ereditaria: TC multidetettore multifasica e programmi di ricostruzione nello studio delle alterazioni vascolari epatiche

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memeo, Maurizio; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Scaldapane, Arnaldo; Rotondo, Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). DiMIMP Sezione di Diagnostica per Immagini; Suppressa, Patrizia; Cirulli, Anna; Sabba' , Carlo [Policlinico Universitario, Bari (Italy). Centro Interdipartimentale per lo studio dell' HHT

    2005-02-01

    studio multifasico del fegato con TCMD in 105 pazienti con il sospetto clinico della malattia. Il ritardo delle scansioni e' stato determinato con un bolus test di mdc. L'indagine e' stata eseguita con tecnica trifasica (doppia fase arteriosa ed una fase venosa). Le immagini ottenute sono state riprocessate per ottenere ricostruzioni multiplanari di tipo angiografico. Le alterazioni ricercate sono state: presenza di shunts, disordini perfusivi, lesioni vascolari (telangiectasie e larghe masse vascolari confluenti), segni indiretti di ipertensione portale e varianti anatomiche vascolari. Risultati: Sono state trovate alterazioni vascolari epatiche in 78/100 casi (67/89 pazienti affetti da TEE ed in 11/16 pazienti con sospetto clinico). La diagnosi di TEE e' stata esclusa in 5 pazienti. Sessantotto/100 pazienti affetti da TEE presentavano alterazini vascolari intraepatiche: shunts arterioportali in 40/78 (51,2%), shunts arteriosistemici in 16/78 (20,5%) ed entrambi i tipi di shunt in 22/78 (28,3%). In 46/78 (58,9%) pazienti sono stati evidenziati disordini perfusivi intraparenchimali. Sono state trovate telangiectasie in 50/78 (64,1%) pazienti, larghe masse vascolari confluenti (LMVC) in 20/78 (64,1%) pazienti, segni indiretti di ipertensione portale in 46/78 (58,9%) casi e varianti anatomiche della vascolarizzazione arteriosa epatica in 38/100 casi (38%). Conclusioni: La TCDM multifasica ed i nuovi software di ricostruzione consentono il riconoscimento e la caratterizzazione delle complesse alterazioni vascolari epatiche tipiche della TEE.

  15. Isolation of endophyic bacteria from purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds.

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    Tri Widayat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. merupakan tanaman obat langka yang berkhasiat sebagai afrodisiak. Tanaman yang mengandung kumarin tersebut berinteraksi dengan bakteri endofi t. Senyawa kumarin dalam industri dimanfaatkan untuk bahan aditif makanan dan parfum. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendapatkan bakteri endofi t dari tanaman purwoceng, menganalisis kemampuan tumbuh bakteri endofi t dalam medium yang mengandung kumarin, dan pengaruh bakteri tersebut terhadap jumlah kumarin dalam medium pertumbuhan.Metode: Isolasi bakteri endofi t dilakukan secara langsung dari akar dan daun purwoceng. Seleksi bakteri endofi t penghasil kumarin dilakukan berdasarkan kemampuan bertahan hidup pada medium cair ammoniumsalt sugar (ASS yang mengandung infusa herba purwoceng. Pengaruh bakteri terhadap jumlah kumarin di dalam medium pertumbuhan diuji melalui percobaan kultivasi isolat bakteri terpilih pada medium yang sama. Jumlah kumarin dalam kultur dideteksi menggunakan teknik kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT.Hasil: Sembilan isolat bakteri endofi t yang berhasil diisolasi dari akar dan daun tanaman purwoceng mampu bertahan hidup pada medium basal yang diberi infusa herba purwoceng dengan waktu generasi (g 2,7-5,07jam dan kecepatan pertumbuhan spesifi k (μ 0,14-0,26/jam. Kultivasi isolat terpilih menunjukkan bahwa BAP5 menghasilkan senyawa dengan Rf 0,27 yang diduga sebagai turunan kumarin. Bakteri BAP5 mampu tumbuh dengan jumlah kumarin 1072 arbitrary unit (AU dalam medium.Kesimpulan: Bakteri endofi t dapat diisolasi dari tanaman purwoceng dan secara in vitro mampu mempertahankan jumlah kumarin yang terkandung di dalam medium. (Health Science Indones 2012;1:31-6Kata kunci: bakteri endofi t, purwoceng, Pimpinella alpina Kds, kumarinAbstractBackground: Purwoceng (Pimpinella alpina Kds. is a medicinal plant species used as aphrodisiac. Like any other plants, the coumarin containing plant probably interacts with endophytic bacteria. Coumarin

  16. SLAP lesion of the shoulder. MRI evaluation; La lesione antero-posteriore del labbro glenoideo superiore della spalla. Valutazione con Risonanza Magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barile, A.; Sabatini, M.; Maffey, M.V.; Di Cesare, E.; Masciocchi, C. [L' Aquila Univ., L' Aquila (Italy). Cattedra di Radiologia

    2000-09-01

    di lesione antero-posteriore del cercine glenoideo superiore, sono stati valutati retrospettivamente. L'esame RM e' stato condotto con apparecchio da 0,2 tesla permanente e bobina dedicata, utilizzando sequenze SE T1 e GE T2 pesate secondo piani prevalentemente coronali-obliqui e con spessori dello strato di 4 mm. In 8 casi l'indagine e' stata completata con l'iniezione intraarticolare di mdc, mentre solo 28 pazienti sono stati sottoposti a intervento chirurgico (artrotomico in 7 casi e artroscopico in 21). La RM ha individuato complessivamente: 5 irregolarita' del cercine superiore a livello della sua porzione inserzionale glenoidea (lesione di tipo I); 6 disinserzioni del cercine nella sua porzione superiore (tipo II); 9 casi di rottura del cercine superiore a manico di secchio con interessamento della porzione inserzionale del capo lungo del bicipite (tipo III); 8 casi di rottura del cercine superiore che si prolunga nello spessore del tendine del capo lungo del bicipite (tipo IV). Il controllo chirurgico successivo ha sempre confermato le lesioni associate, mentre ha escluso la lesione del cercine glenoideo superiore in 3 pazienti. In altri 4 casi il riscontro operatorio ha permesso di classificare in maniera diversa rispetto alla RM il grado della lesione. I risultati dimostrano che la RM puo' offrire un valido contributo nella diagnosi dei tipi III e IV di lesione del cercine glenoideo superiore fornendo spesso decisive informazioni sulla presenza di eventuale malattia associata, specie della cuffia dei rotatori, elementi di sicuro valore nella corretta pianificazione dell'approccio terapeutico.

  17. Peracetic acid as disinfectant of municipal wastewaters; L'acido peracetico nella disinfezione dei reflui urbani

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Funari, E. [Istituto Superiore di Sanita' , Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Reparto di Medicina Ambientale, Rome (Italy); Lopez, A. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto di Ricerca sulle Acque, Reparto di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Acque, Bari (Italy)

    2000-09-01

    altri settori tra cui quello alimentare, e' dovuto, diversamente da quanto si verifica con l'uso di altri disinfettanti, alla dichiarata assenza di sottoprodotti pericolosi ed al conseguente mancato aumento di tossicita' dei reflui trattati. Tuttavia, nonostante tali premesse, nel settore dei reflui urbani l'impiego dell'acido peracetico stenta ad affermarsi sia per fattori economici che per la prevedibile diffidenza verso un prodotto relativamente nuovo che cosi' <> la limitata conoscenza, specie se comparata con quella relativa al cloro, della sua reale efficacia germicida nei confronti dei diversi tipi di microrganismi patogeni (batteri, virus, parassiti), delle sue proprieta' eco-tossicologiche, delle sue prestazioni come disinfettante in impianti in piena scala. Il presente lavoro oltre a fornire un'ampia raccolta di riferimenti bibliografici, esamina i dati disponibili sul PAA con particolare riferimento: all'efficacia disinfettante nei confronti dei diversi microrganismi patogeni; alla formazione e tossicita' di sottoprodotti di disinfezione; all'impatto ambientale associato allo scarico di reflui trattati con PAA nei corpi idrici; alle condizioni operative adottate in impianti di dimensioni signficative.

  18. APPLICATION OF LASER ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING TO PRODUCE DIES FOR ALUMINIUM HIGH PRESSURE DIE-CASTING#

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.V.T. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    vergelyking van die verskillende LLV insetsels met mekaar, is hulle werkverrigting ook vergelyk met komponente wat in standaard warmwerkstaal vervaardig is. In die HDMG proses is die gietmatrys uniek aan elke komponent wat gevorm word. Die matrysholtes word veral aan uiterste toestande onderwerp, soos sikliese temperatuur-verskille, veroorsaak deur die blootstelling aan gesmolte aluminium by meer as 650°C, direk gevolg deur afkoeling in watergebaseerde smeermiddel by temperature van tipies 25°C. Buiten sikliese verhitting, word die matrysholtes ook tydens die inspuit van gesmolte aluminium in die holtes blootgestel aan drukke hoër as 1500 MPa. Hierdie toepassing van LLV stel dus uiters hoë uitdagings aan die tegnologie. Die resultate van hierdie studie het bevestig dat die metale wat in sommige van die gekose LLV tegnologieë gebruik word, wel voldoen aan die besondere vereistes van die huidige toepassing, en dat die gebruik hiervan kan lei tot beduidende tyd- en kostebesparing tydens produk- of prosesontwikkeling. Gebaseer op hierdie bevindings word ’n aantal aanbevelings gemaak vir gebruikers wat sou belangstel in die toepassing van LLV vir die vervaard