WorldWideScience

Sample records for optically faint x-ray

  1. X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei in the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam wide survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terashima, Yuichi; Suganuma, Makoto; Akiyama, Masayuki; Greene, Jenny E.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Nagao, Tohru; Noda, Hirofumi; Toba, Yoshiki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamashita, Takuji

    2018-01-01

    We construct a sample of X-ray-bright optically faint active galactic nuclei by combining Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam, XMM-Newton, and infrared source catalogs. Fifty-three X-ray sources satisfying i-band magnitude fainter than 23.5 mag and X-ray counts with the EPIC-PN detector larger than 70 are selected from 9.1 deg2, and their spectral energy distributions (SEDs) and X-ray spectra are analyzed. Forty-four objects with an X-ray to i-band flux ratio FX/Fi > 10 are classified as extreme X-ray-to-optical flux sources. Spectral energy distributions of 48 among 53 are represented by templates of type 2 AGNs or star-forming galaxies and show the optical signature of stellar emission from host galaxies in the source rest frame. Infrared/optical SEDs indicate a significant contribution of emission from dust to the infrared fluxes, and that the central AGN is dust obscured. The photometric redshifts determined from the SEDs are in the range of 0.6-2.5. The X-ray spectra are fitted by an absorbed power-law model, and the intrinsic absorption column densities are modest (best-fit log NH = 20.5-23.5 cm-2 in most cases). The absorption-corrected X-ray luminosities are in the range of 6 × 1042-2 × 1045 erg s-1. Twenty objects are classified as type 2 quasars based on X-ray luminsosity and NH. The optical faintness is explained by a combination of redshifts (mostly z > 1.0), strong dust extinction, and in part a large ratio of dust/gas.

  2. Optical spectroscopy of the Be/X-ray binary V850 Centauri/GX 304-1 during faint X-ray periodical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacaria, C.; Kollatschny, W.; Whelan, E.; Santangelo, A.; Klochkov, D.; McBride, V.; Ducci, L.

    2017-07-01

    Context. Be/X-ray binaries (BeXRBs) are the most populous class of high-mass X-ray binaries. Their X-ray duty cycle is tightly related to the optical companion wind activity, which in turn can be studied through dedicated optical spectroscopic observations. Aims: We study optical spectral features of the Be circumstellar disk to test their long-term variability and their relation with the X-ray activity. Special attention has been given to the Hα emission line, one of the best tracers of the disk conditions. Methods: We obtained optical broadband medium resolution spectra from a dedicated campaign with the Anglo-Australian Telescope and the Southern African Large Telescope in 2014-2015. Data span over one entire binary orbit, and cover both X-ray quiescent and moderately active periods. We used Balmer emission lines to follow the evolution of the circumstellar disk. Results: We observe prominent spectral features, like double-peaked Hα and Hβ emission lines. The HαV/R ratio significantly changes over a timescale of about one year. Our observations are consistent with a system observed at a large inclination angle (I ≳ 60°). The derived circumstellar disk size shows that the disk evolves from a configuration that prevents accretion onto the neutron star, to one that allows only moderate accretion. This is in agreement with the contemporary observed X-ray activity. Our results are interpreted within the context of inefficient tidal truncation of the circumstellar disk, as expected for this source's binary configuration. We derived the Hβ-emitting region size, which is equal to about half of the corresponding Hα-emitting disk, and constrain the luminosity class of V850 Cen as III-V, consistent with the previously proposed class.

  3. Searching for faint AGN in the CDFS: an X-ray (Chandra) vs optical variability (HST) comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgantopoulos, I.; Pouliasis, E.; Bonanos, A.; Sokolovsky, K.; Yang, M.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Bellas, I.; Gavras, P.; Spetsieri, Z.

    2017-10-01

    X-ray surveys are believed to be the most efficient way to detect AGN. Recently though, optical variability studies are claimed to probe even fainter AGN. We are presenting results from an HST study aimed to identify Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) through optical variability selection in the CDFS.. This work is part of the 'Hubble Catalogue of Variables'project of ESA that aims to identify variable sources in the Hubble Source Catalogue.' In particular, we used Hubble Space Telescope (HST) z-band images taken over 5 epochs and performed aperture photometry to derive the lightcurves of the sources. Two statistical methods (standard deviation & interquartile range) resulting in a final sample of 175 variable AGN candidates, having removed the artifacts by visual inspection and known stars and supernovae. The fact that the majority of the sources are extended and variable indicates AGN activity. We compare the efficiency of the method by comparing with the 7Ms Chandra detections. Our work shows that the optical variability probes AGN at comparable redshifts but at deeper optical magnitudes. Our candidate AGN (non detected in X-rays) have luminosities of L_x<6×10^{40} erg/sec at z˜0.7 suggesting that these are associated with low luminosity Seyferts and LINERS.

  4. X-ray Counterparts of Infrared Faint Radio Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schartel, Norbert

    2011-10-01

    Infrared Faint Radio Sources (IFRS) are radio sources with extremely faint or even absent infrared emission in deep Spitzer Surveys. Models of their spectral energy distributions, the ratios of radio to infrared flux densities and their steep radio spectra strongly suggest that IFRS are AGN at high redshifts (2IFRS, but if confirmed, the increased AGN numbers at these redshifts will account for the unresolved part of the X-ray background. The identification of X-ray counterparts of IFRS is considered to be the smoking gun for this hypothesis. We propose to observe 8 IFRS using 30ks pointed observations. X-ray detections of IFRS with different ratios of radio-to-infrared fluxes, will constrain the class-specific SED.

  5. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Center for X-Ray Optics; Soft X-Ray Imaging wit Zone Plate Lenses; Biological X-Ray microscopy; Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography for Nanoelectronic Pattern Transfer; Multilayer Reflective Optics; EUV/Soft X-ray Reflectometer; Photoemission Microscopy with Reflective Optics; Spectroscopy with Soft X-Rays; Hard X-Ray Microprobe; Coronary Angiography; and Atomic Scattering Factors

  6. Smart X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michette, A G; Pfauntsch, S J; Sahraei, S; Shand, M; Morrison, G R; Hart, D; Vojnovic, B; Stevenson, T; Parkes, W; Dunare, C; Willingale, R; Feldman, C; Button, T; Zhang, D; Rodriguez-Sanmartin, D; Wang, H

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes reflective adaptive/active optics for applications including studies of biological radiation damage. The optics work on the polycapillary principle, but use arrays of channels in thin silicon. For optimum performance the x-rays should reflect once off a channel wall in each of two successive arrays. This reduces aberrations since then the Abbe sine condition is approximately satisfied. Adaptivity is achieved by flexing the arrays via piezo actuation, providing further aberration reduction and controllable focal length.

  7. Center for X-ray Optics, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-04-01

    This report briefly reviews the following topics: soft-x-ray imaging; reflective optics for hard x-rays; coherent XUV sources; spectroscopy with x-rays; detectors for coronary artery imaging; synchrotron-radiation optics; and support for the advanced light source

  8. Center for X-Ray Optics, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-07-01

    The Center for X-Ray Optics has made substantial progress during the past year on the development of very high resolution x-ray technologies, the generation of coherent radiation at x-ray wavelengths, and, based on these new developments, had embarked on several scientific investigations that would not otherwise have been possible. The investigations covered in this report are topics on x-ray sources, x-ray imaging and applications, soft x-ray spectroscopy, synchrotron radiation, advanced light source and magnet structures for undulators and wigglers

  9. An X-ray view of the very faint black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Méndez, M.; Miller, J. M.; Degenaar, N.

    We report on the X-ray spectral (using XMM-Newton data) and timing behaviour [using XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data] of the very faint X-ray transient and black hole system Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum of this source can be

  10. Center for X-ray Optics (CXRO)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory works to further science and technology using short wavelength optical systems and techniques....

  11. Miniature x-ray point source for alignment and calibration of x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.; Boyle, M.J.; Glaros, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    A miniature x-ray point source of high brightness similar to that of Rovinsky, et al. is described. One version of the x-ray source is used to align the x-ray optics on the Argus and Shiva laser systems. A second version is used to determine the spatial and spectral transmission functions of the x-ray optics. The spatial and spectral characteristics of the x-ray emission from the x-ray point source are described. The physical constraints including size, intensity and thermal limitations, and useful lifetime are discussed. The alignment and calibration techniques for various x-ray optics and detector combinations are described

  12. X-ray optics developments at ESA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, M.; Wille, E.; Wallace, K.

    2013-01-01

    Future high energy astrophysics missions will require high performance novel X-ray optics to explore the Universe beyond the limits of the currently operating Chandra and Newton observatories. Innovative optics technologies are therefore being developed and matured by the European Space Agency (ESA......) in collaboration with research institutions and industry, enabling leading-edge future science missions. Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) [1 to 21] and Slumped Glass Optics (SGO) [22 to 29] are lightweight high performance X-ray optics technologies being developed in Europe, driven by applications in observatory class...... reflective coatings [30 to 35]. In addition, the progress with the X-ray test facilities and associated beam-lines is discussed [36]. © (2013) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  13. Optics for coherent X-ray applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yabashi, Makina, E-mail: yabashi@spring8.or.jp [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Tono, Kensuke [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Mimura, Hidekazu [The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Matsuyama, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Kazuto [Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Takashi; Tanaka, Hitoshi; Tamasaku, Kenji [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Ohashi, Haruhiko; Goto, Shunji [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI), Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Ishikawa, Tetsuya [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Kouto 1-1-1, Sayo, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2014-08-27

    Developments of optics for coherent X-ray applications and their role in diffraction-limited storage rings are described. Developments of X-ray optics for full utilization of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs) are presented. The expected performance of DLSRs is introduced using the design parameters of SPring-8 II. To develop optical elements applicable to manipulation of coherent X-rays, advanced technologies on precise processing and metrology were invented. With propagation-based coherent X-rays at the 1 km beamline of SPring-8, a beryllium window fabricated with the physical-vapour-deposition method was found to have ideal speckle-free properties. The elastic emission machining method was utilized for developing reflective mirrors without distortion of the wavefronts. The method was further applied to production of diffraction-limited focusing mirrors generating the smallest spot size in the sub-10 nm regime. To enable production of ultra-intense nanobeams at DLSRs, a low-vibration cooling system for a high-heat-load monochromator and advanced diagnostic systems to characterize X-ray beam properties precisely were developed. Finally, new experimental schemes for combinative nano-analysis and spectroscopy realised with novel X-ray optics are discussed.

  14. Optics Developments for X-Ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    X-ray optics has revolutionized x-ray astronomy. The degree of background suppression that these afford, have led to a tremendous increase in sensitivity. The current Chandra observatory has the same collecting area (approx. 10(exp 3)sq cm) as the non-imaging UHURU observatory, the first x-ray observatory which launched in 1970, but has 5 orders of magnitude more sensitivity due to its focusing optics. In addition, its 0.5 arcsec angular resolution has revealed a wealth of structure in many cosmic x-ray sources. The Chandra observatory achieved its resolution by using relatively thick pieces of Zerodur glass, which were meticulously figured and polished to form the four-shell nested array. The resulting optical assembly weighed around 1600 kg, and cost approximately $0.5B. The challenge for future x-ray astronomy missions is to greatly increase the collecting area (by one or more orders of magnitude) while maintaining high angular resolution, and all within realistic mass and budget constraints. A review of the current status of US optics for x-ray astronomy will be provided along with the challenges for future developments.

  15. Method for spatially modulating X-ray pulses using MEMS-based X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Daniel; Shenoy, Gopal; Wang, Jin; Walko, Donald A.; Jung, Il-Woong; Mukhopadhyay, Deepkishore

    2015-03-10

    A method and apparatus are provided for spatially modulating X-rays or X-ray pulses using microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) based X-ray optics. A torsionally-oscillating MEMS micromirror and a method of leveraging the grazing-angle reflection property are provided to modulate X-ray pulses with a high-degree of controllability.

  16. X-ray Optics Development at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dharma P.

    2017-01-01

    Development of high resolution focusing telescopes has led to a tremendous leap in sensitivity, revolutionizing observational X-ray astronomy. High sensitivity and high spatial resolution X-ray observations have been possible due to use of grazing incidence optics (paraboloid/hyperboloid) coupled with high spatial resolution and high efficiency detectors/imagers. The best X-ray telescope flown so far is mounted onboard Chandra observatory launched on July 23,1999. The telescope has a spatial resolution of 0.5 arc seconds with compatible imaging instruments in the energy range of 0.1 to 10 keV. The Chandra observatory has been responsible for a large number of discoveries and has provided X-ray insights on a large number of celestial objects including stars, supernova remnants, pulsars, magnetars, black holes, active galactic nuclei, galaxies, clusters and our own solar system.

  17. X-ray pore optic developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Kotska; Bavdaz, Marcos; Collon, Maximilien; Beijersbergen, Marco; Kraft, Stefan; Fairbend, Ray; Séguy, Julien; Blanquer, Pascal; Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk

    2017-11-01

    In support of future x-ray telescopes ESA is developing new optics for the x-ray regime. To date, mass and volume have made x-ray imaging technology prohibitive to planetary remote sensing imaging missions. And although highly successful, the mirror technology used on ESA's XMM-Newton is not sufficient for future, large, x-ray observatories, since physical limits on the mirror packing density mean that aperture size becomes prohibitive. To reduce telescope mass and volume the packing density of mirror shells must be reduced, whilst maintaining alignment and rigidity. Structures can also benefit from a modular optic arrangement. Pore optics are shown to meet these requirements. This paper will discuss two pore optic technologies under development, with examples of results from measurement campaigns on samples. One activity has centred on the use of coated, silicon wafers, patterned with ribs, that are integrated onto a mandrel whose form has been polished to the required shape. The wafers follow the shape precisely, forming pore sizes in the sub-mm region. Individual stacks of mirrors can be manufactured without risk to, or dependency on, each other and aligned in a structure from which they can also be removed without hazard. A breadboard is currently being built to demonstrate this technology. A second activity centres on glass pore optics. However an adaptation of micro channel plate technology to form square pores has resulted in a monolithic material that can be slumped into an optic form. Alignment and coating of two such plates produces an x-ray focusing optic. A breadboard 20cm aperture optic is currently being built.

  18. Ultimate capabilities of soft x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinogradov, A.V.; Zorev, N.N.; Kozhevnikov, I.V.

    1988-01-01

    Nonimaging soft X-ray optics is examined. The ultimate capabilities of a number of X-ray optical components designed for concentration and collimation of radiation from point sources are determined. The applications of X-ray optics are discussed together with the properties of materials in the X-ray range

  19. Neutron and X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Cremer, Jay Theodore

    2013-01-01

    Covering a wide range of topics related to neutron and x-ray optics, this book explores the aspects of neutron and x-ray optics and their associated background and applications in a manner accessible to both lower-level students while retaining the detail necessary to advanced students and researchers. It is a self-contained book with detailed mathematical derivations, background, and physical concepts presented in a linear fashion. A wide variety of sources were consulted and condensed to provide detailed derivations and coverage of the topics of neutron and x-ray optics as well as the background material needed to understand the physical and mathematical reasoning directly related or indirectly related to the theory and practice of neutron and x-ray optics. The book is written in a clear and detailed manner, making it easy to follow for a range of readers from undergraduate and graduate science, engineering, and medicine. It will prove beneficial as a standalone reference or as a complement to textbooks. Su...

  20. X-ray optics for axion helioscopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen; Pivovaroff, Michael J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    2013-01-01

    A method of optimizing grazing incidence x-ray coatings in ground based axion helioscopes is presented. Software has been been developed to find the optimum coating when taking both axion spectrum and Micromegas detector quantum efficiency into account. A comparison of the relative effective area...... of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only....

  1. Symbiotic Stars in X-rays. II. Faint Sources Detected with XMM-Newton and Chandra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, N. E.; Luna, G. J. M.; Pillitteri, I.; Mukai, K.

    2014-01-01

    We report the detection from four symbiotic stars that were not known to be X-ray sources. These four object show a ß-type X-ray spectrum, that is, their spectra can be modeled with an absorbed optically thin thermal emission with temperatures of a few million degrees. Photometric series obtained with the Optical Monitor on board XMM-Newton from V2416 Sgr and NSV 25735 support the proposed scenario where the X-ray emission is produced in a shock-heated region inside the symbiotic nebulae.

  2. X-ray fluorescence imaging with polycapillary X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Tasuku; Yamaguchi, Makoto; Tsuji, Kouichi

    2010-01-01

    X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging is a powerful tool to provide information about the chemical composition and elemental distribution of a specimen. X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images were conventionally obtained by using a μ-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry spectrometer, which requires scanning a sample. Faster X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging would be achieved by eliminating the process of sample scanning. Thus, we developed an X-ray fluorescence spectrometry imaging instrument without sample scanning by using polycapillary X-ray optics, which had energy filter characteristics caused by the energy dependence of the total reflection phenomenon. In the present paper, we show that two independent straight polycapillary X-ray optics could be used as an energy filter of X-rays for X-ray fluorescence. Only low energy X-rays were detected when the angle between the two optical axes was increased slightly. Energy-selective X-ray fluorescence spectrometry images with projection mode were taken by using an X-ray CCD camera equipped with two polycapillary optics. It was shown that Fe Kα (6.40 keV) and Cu Kα (8.04 keV) could be discriminated for Fe and Cu foils.

  3. Marriage of x-ray and optical astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClintock, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    An historical discussion of the relation of x-ray and optical astronomy is given including distances within our galaxy, the optical identification of x-ray sources, the binary x-ray stars, neutron stars and black holes, a program in x-ray astronomy, and future missions

  4. Principles of femtosecond X-ray/optical cross-correlation with X-ray induced transient optical reflectivity in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckert, S., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Beye, M., E-mail: sebastian.eckert@helmholtz-berlin.de, E-mail: martin.beye@helmholtz-berlin.de; Pietzsch, A.; Quevedo, W.; Hantschmann, M. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Ochmann, M.; Huse, N. [Institute for Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg, Germany and Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter, Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ross, M.; Khalil, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Box 351700, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Minitti, M. P.; Turner, J. J.; Moeller, S. P.; Schlotter, W. F.; Dakovski, G. L. [LCLS, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Föhlisch, A. [Institute for Methods and Instrumentation in Synchrotron Radiation Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Str. 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Institut für Physik und Astronomie, Universität Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Str. 24/25, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-02-09

    The discovery of ultrafast X-ray induced optical reflectivity changes enabled the development of X-ray/optical cross correlation techniques at X-ray free electron lasers worldwide. We have now linked through experiment and theory the fundamental excitation and relaxation steps with the transient optical properties in finite solid samples. Therefore, we gain a thorough interpretation and an optimized detection scheme of X-ray induced changes to the refractive index and the X-ray/optical cross correlation response.

  5. Thin Films for X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Raymond

    Focusing x-rays with refraction requires an entire array of lens instead of a single element, each contributing a minute amount of focusing to the system. In contrast to their visible light counterparts, diffractive optics require a certain depth along the optical axis in order to provide sufficient phase shift. Mirrors reflect only at very shallow angles. In order to increase the angle of incidence, contribution from constructive interference within many layers needs to be collected. This requires a multilayer coating. Thin films have become a central ingredient for many x-ray optics due to the ease of which material composition and thickness can be controlled. Chapter 1 starts with a short introduction and survey of the field of x-ray optics. This begins with an explanation of reflective multilayers. Focusing optics are presented next, including mirrors, zone plates, refractive lenses, and multilayer Laue lens (MLL). The strengths and weaknesses of each "species" of optic are briefly discussed, alongside fabrication issues and the ultimate performance for each. Practical considerations on the use of thin-films for x-ray optics fabrication span a wide array of topics including material systems selection and instrumentation design. Sputter deposition is utilized exclusively for the work included herein because this method of thin-film deposition allows a wide array of deposition parameters to be controlled. This chapter also includes a short description of two deposition systems I have designed. Chapter 2 covers a small sampling of some of my work on reflective multilayers, and outlines two of the deposition systems I have designed and built at the Advanced Photon Source. A three-stripe double multilayer monochromator is presented as a case study in order to detail specifications, fabrication, and performance of this prolific breed of x-ray optics. The APS Rotary Deposition System was the first deposition system in the world designed specifically for multilayer

  6. Optical and X-ray studies of Compact X-ray Binaries in NGC 5904

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalotia, Vanshree; Beck-Winchatz, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Due to their high stellar densities, globular cluster systems trigger various dynamical interactions, such as the formation of compact X-ray binaries. Stellar collisional frequencies have been correlated to the number of X-ray sources detected in various clusters and we hope to measure this correlation for NGC 5904. Optical fluxes of sources from archival HST images of NGC 5904 have been measured using a DOLPHOT PSF photometry in the UV, optical and near-infrared. We developed a data analysis pipeline to process the fluxes of tens of thousands of objects using awk, python and DOLPHOT. We plot color magnitude diagrams in different photometric bands in order to identify outliers that could be X-ray binaries, since they do not evolve the same way as singular stars. Aligning previously measured astrometric data for X-ray sources in NGC 5904 from Chandra with archival astrometric data from HST will filter out the outlier objects that are not X-ray producing, and provide a sample of compact binary systems that are responsible for X-ray emission in NGC 5904. Furthermore, previously measured X-ray fluxes of NGC 5904 from Chandra have also been used to measure the X-ray to optical flux ratio and identify the types of compact X-ray binaries responsible for the X-ray emissions in NGC 5904. We gratefully acknowledge the support from the Illinois Space Grant Consortium.

  7. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  8. Extending the methodology of X-ray crystallography to allow X-ray microscopy without X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jianwei; Kirz, Janos; Sayre, David; Charalambous, Pambos

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that the soft X-ray diffraction pattern from a micron-size noncrystalline specimen can be recorded and inverted to form a high-resolution image. The phase problem is overcome by oversampling the diffraction pattern. The image is obtained using an iterative algorithm. The technique provides a method for X-ray microscopy requiring no high-resolution X-ray optical elements or detectors. In the present work, a resolution of approximately 60 nm was obtained, but we believe that considerably higher resolution can be achieved

  9. Laboratory for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-29

    Kearney, "El uso de las pelfculas delgadas en la optica de rayos - x ," Proc. Symposium on the Physics of Superlattices, May 1991, in press. 6. J.M...Bolling Air Force Base ELEMENT NO. NO. NO ACCESSION NO Washin ton, D.C. 20332- //( ~ ~ C 11. TITLE (Incluft Security Claw ffation) [ TLaboratory for X ...three years under contract AFOSR-90-O 140, "Laboratory for X -Ray O.ptics. Duig thspro we concenrae our effrt in two areas: 1) grwth of epitaxial

  10. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  11. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  12. Determining the nature of faint X-ray sources from the ASCA Galactic center survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutovinov, A. A.; Revnivtsev, M. G.; Karasev, D. I.; Shimansky, V. V.; Burenin, R. A.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Vorob'ev, V. S.; Tsygankov, S. S.; Pavlinsky, M. N.

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of the the identification of six objects from the ASCA Galactic center and Galactic plane surveys: AX J173548-3207, AX J173628-3141, AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.4-2856, AX J1740.5-2937, and AX J1743.9-2846. Chandra, XMM-Newton, and XRT/Swift X-ray data have been used to improve the positions of the optical counterparts to these sources. Thereafter, we have carried out a series of spectroscopic observations of the established optical counterparts at the RTT-150 telescope. Analysis of X-ray and optical spectra as well as photometric measurements in a wide wavelength range based on optical and infrared catalogs has allowed the nature of the program sources to be determined. Two X-ray objects have been detected in the error circle of AX J173628-3141: one is a coronally active G star and the other may be a symbiotic star, a red giant with an accreting white dwarf. Three sources (AX J1739.5-2910, AX J1740.5-2937, AX J1743.9-2846) have turned out to be active G-K stars, presumably RS CVn objects, one (AX J1740.4-2856) is an M dwarf, and another one (AX J173548-3207) most likely a low-mass X-ray binary in its low state. The distances and corresponding luminosities of the sources in the soft X-ray band (0.5-10 keV) have been estimated; analysis of deep INTEGRAL Galactic center observations has not revealed a statistically significant flux at energies >20 keV from any of them.

  13. A Test Facility For Astronomical X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, R. A.; Bordas, J.; Christensen, Finn Erland

    1989-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earths atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source which is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions, however the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron Radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area whilst still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes is described below. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  14. X-Ray Optics: Past, Present, and Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy started with a small collimated proportional counter atop a rocket in the early 1960s. It was immediately recognized that focusing X-ray optics would drastically improve both source location accuracy and source detection sensitivity. In the past 5 decades, X-ray astronomy has made significant strides in achieving better angular resolution, large photon collection area, and better spectral and timing resolutions, culminating in the three currently operating X-ray observatories: Chandra, XMM/Newton, and Suzaku. In this talk I will give a brief history of X-ray optics, concentrating on the characteristics of the optics of these three observatories. Then I will discuss current X-ray mirror technologies being developed in several institutions. I will end with a discussion of the optics for the International X-ray Observatory that I have been developing at Goddard Space Flight Center.

  15. Optical, x-ray and microwave diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudisco, S.; Mascali, D.; Altana, C.; Anzalone, A.; Gammino, S.; Musumarra, A.; Musumeci, F.; Scordino, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, F. P. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); IBAM-CNR, Via Biblioteca 4, 95100 Catania (Italy); Tramontana, A. [INFN-LNS Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Via S. Sofia 64, Catania (Italy)

    2013-07-26

    Laser-driven ion acceleration is a new approach for the particles acceleration, which allows obtaining ion beams with unique properties, such as short burst duration, large particle number, small size source size, low transverse emittance. Currently, two main acceleration mechanisms have been identified and investigated: target normal sheath acceleration (TNSA) and radiation pressure acceleration (RPA). Electrons dynamics and energies are strongly coupled to these acceleration mechanisms and they can be investigated with optical and X-ray techniques. The main aim of these studies are the identification of few physical observables that can be directly correlated to the proton emission obtained (in terms of reproducibility and intensity) in operations with different target material and structure and laser-target interaction parameters.

  16. Perfect-crystal x-ray optics to treat x-ray coherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    X-ray diffraction of perfect crystals, which serve as x-ray monochromator and collimator, modifies coherence properties of x-ray beams. From the time-dependent Takagi-Taupin equations that x-ray wavefields obey in crystals, the reflected wavefield is formulated as an integral transform of a general incident wavefield with temporal and spatial inhomogeneity. A reformulation of rocking-curve profiles from the field solution of the Takagi-Taupin equations allows experimental evaluation of the mutual coherence function of x-ray beam. The rigorous relationship of the coherence functions between before and after reflection clarifies how the coherence is transferred by a crystal. These results will be beneficial to developers of beamline optics for the next generation synchrotron sources. (author)

  17. Test facility for astronomical x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Lewis, Robert A.; Bordas, J.

    1990-01-01

    Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has to appro......Grazing incidence x-ray optics for x-ray astronomical applications are used outside the earth's atmosphere. These devices require a large collection aperture and the imaging of an x-ray source that is essentially placed at infinity. The ideal testing system for these optical elements has...... to approximate that encountered under working conditions; however, the testing of these optical elements is notoriously difficult with conventional x-ray generators. Synchrotron radiation (SR) sources are sufficiently brilliant to produce a nearly perfect parallel beam over a large area while still retaining...... a flux considerably higher than that available from conventional x-ray generators. A facility designed for the testing of x-ray optics, particularly in connection with x-ray telescopes, is described. It is proposed that this facility will be accommodated at the Synchrotron Radiation Source...

  18. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  19. An X-ray and optical study of the ultracompact X-ray binary A 1246-58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Bassa, C.G.; Jonker, P.G.; Keek, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Méndez, M.; Markwardt, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Results are discussed of an X-ray and optical observation campaign of the low-mass X-ray binary A 1246-58 performed with instruments on Satellite per Astronomia X ("BeppoSAX"), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission ("XMM-Newton"), the Swift mission, and the Very

  20. Infrared-faint radio sources: a cosmological view. AGN number counts, the cosmic X-ray background and SMBH formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, P.-C.; Middelberg, E.; Ibar, E.

    2011-07-01

    Context. Infrared-faint radio sources (IFRS) are extragalactic emitters clearly detected at radio wavelengths but barely detected or undetected at optical and infrared wavelengths, with 5σ sensitivities as low as 1 μJy. Aims: Spectral energy distribution (hereafter SED) modelling and analyses of their radio properties indicate that IFRS are consistent with a population of (potentially extremely obscured) high-redshift AGN at 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. We demonstrate some astrophysical implications of this population and compare them to predictions from models of galaxy evolution and structure formation. Methods: We compiled a list of IFRS from four deep extragalactic surveys and extrapolated the IFRS number density to a survey-independent value of (30.8 ± 15.0) deg-2. We computed the IFRS contribution to the total number of AGN in the Universe to account for the cosmic X-ray background. By estimating the black hole mass contained in IFRS, we present conclusions for the SMBH mass density in the early universe and compare it to relevant simulations of structure formation after the Big Bang. Results: The number density of AGN derived from the IFRS density was found to be ~310 deg-2, which is equivalent to a SMBH mass density of the order of 103 M⊙ Mpc-3 in the redshift range 3 ≤ z ≤ 6. This produces an X-ray flux of 9 × 10-16 W m-2 deg-2 in the 0.5-2.0 keV band and 3 × 10-15 W m-2 deg-2 in the 2.0-10 keV band, in agreement with the missing unresolved components of the Cosmic X-ray Background. To address SMBH formation after the Big Bang we invoke a scenario involving both halo gas accretion and major mergers.

  1. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi [eds.

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.).

  2. Report of workshop on X-ray and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasu, Keiichiro; Namikawa, Kazumichi

    1994-07-01

    As synchrotron radiation has advanced to high luminance, the possibility of realizing coherent light has heightened, and the nonlinear optical phenomena in soft and hard X-ray regions have become the object of the concern of X-ray researchers, and also the researchers in the fields of quantum electronics and optical properties. This workshop was held on September 21 and 22, 1993 at National Laboratory for High energy Physics. Lectures were given on the generation of second harmonic of X-ray by utilizing dynamic diffraction, X-ray parametric scattering induced by strong laser beam, the resonance enhancement of X-ray inelastic scattering induced by strong visible light, Raman scattering in soft X-ray region, the control of nonlinear optical processes by strong external field; the experiments, though they are fundamental, they have not been carried out; undulator radiation X-ray and X-ray free electron laser, the improvement of the coherence of X-ray laser, superradiance of Frenkel excitor system and the measurement of superhigh speed pulses in X-ray region. The comment from the standpoint of the research on nonlinear optics was given. In this document, the gists of these lectures are collected. (K.I.)

  3. X-ray optics and X-ray microscopes: new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susini, J.

    2004-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of X-rays in 1895 by W. Roentgen, it became rapidly clear that the methods traditionally used in the visible light regime, namely refraction, diffraction and reflection were difficult to apply for X-ray optics. The physical origins of these difficulties are closely linked to the very nature of interaction of X-rays with matter. The small deviation δ of the refractive index of condensed matter from unity makes it difficult to extend refraction-based optics from the optical spectral region to the X-ray region because the refraction angle is proportional to δ. Similarly it is very challenging to extend diffraction-based focusing techniques to X-rays because the diffraction angle scales inversely with wavelength. Finally, the use of reflection-based optics is also limited by the very small critical angle for total reflection. All those fundamental limitations prevented for almost one century, the development of X-ray microscopy whereas electron microscopy became a standard tool. In the past twenty years, interests for X-ray microscopy revived, mainly because of several major advances in X-ray sources and X-ray optics. X-ray microscopy techniques are now emerging as powerful and complementary tools for submicron investigations. Soft X-ray microscopes offer traditionally the possibility to form direct images of thick hydrated biological material in near-native environment, at a spatial resolution well beyond that achievable with visible light microscopy. Natural contrast is available in the soft X-ray region, in the so-called ''water-window'', due to the presence of absorption edges of the major constituents (C,N,O). Recent advances in manufacturing techniques have enlarged the accessible energy range of micro-focussing optics and offer new applications in a broad range of disciplines. X-ray microscopy in the 1 - 30 keV energy range is better suited for fluorescence to map trace elements, tomography for 3D imaging and micro-diffraction. The

  4. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  5. Development of variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Keiichi; Yamashita, Yoshiki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    A novel X-ray Bragg optics is proposed for variable-magnification of an X-ray beam. This X-ray Bragg optics is composed of two magnifiers in a crossed arrangement, and the magnification factor, M, is controlled through the azimuth angle of each magnifier. The basic properties of the X-ray optics such as the magnification factor, image transformation matrix and intrinsic acceptance angle are described based on the dynamical theory of X-ray diffraction. The feasibility of the variable-magnification X-ray Bragg optics was verified at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. For X-ray Bragg magnifiers, Si(220) crystals with an asymmetric angle of 14° were used. The magnification factor was calculated to be tunable between 0.1 and 10.0 at a wavelength of 0.112 nm. At various magnification factors (M ≥ 1.0), X-ray images of a nylon mesh were observed with an air-cooled X-ray CCD camera. Image deformation caused by the optics could be corrected by using a 2 × 2 transformation matrix and bilinear interpolation method. Not only absorption-contrast but also edge-contrast due to Fresnel diffraction was observed in the magnified images.

  6. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boynton, P.E.

    1975-01-01

    The contribution to the recent progress in astronomy made by optical observations is pointed out. The optical properties of X-ray sources help to establish the physical nature of these objects. The current observational evidence on the binary X-ray sources HZ Her/Her X-1 and HDE 226868/Cyg X-1 is reported. (P.J.S.)

  7. X-ray and Optical Explorations of Spiders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.; Al Noori, H.; Torres, R.; Russell, D.; Mclaughlin, M.; Gentile, P.

    2017-10-01

    Black widows and redbacks are binary systems consisting of a millisecond pulsar in a close binary with a companion which is having matter driven off of its surface by the pulsar wind. X-rays due to an intrabinary shock have been observed from many of these systems, as well as orbital variations in the optical emission from the companion due to heating and tidal distortion. We have been systematically studying these systems in radio, optical and X-rays. Here we will present an overview of X-ray and optical studies of these systems, including new XMM-Newton data obtained from several of these systems, along with new optical photometry.

  8. Optical Counterparts for Low-Luminosity X-ray Sources in Omega Centauri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne

    2002-07-01

    We propose to use narrow-band HAlpha imaging with ACS to search for the optical counterparts of low-luminosity X-ray sources {Lx 2 x 10^30 - 5 x 10^32 erg/s} in the globular cluster Omega Centauri. With 9 WFC fields, we will cover the inner two core radii of the cluster, and encompass about 90 of the faint sources we have identified with Chandra. Approximately 30-50 of these sources should be cluster members, the remainder being mostly background galaxies plus a smaller number of foreground stars. This large population of low-Lx cluster X-ray sources is second only to the more than 100 faint sources recently discovered in 47 Tuc with Chandra {Grindlay et al. 2001a}, which have been identified as a mixture of cataclysmic variables, quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries, millisecond pulsars, and coronally active main-sequence binaries. Our Cycle 6 WFPC2 program successfully identified 2 of the 3 then-known faint X-ray sources in the core of Omega Cen using H-alpha imaging. We now propose to expand the areal coverage by a factor of about 18 to encompass the much larger number of sources that have since been discovered with Chandra. The extreme crowding in the central regions of Omega Cen requires the resolution of HST to obtain optical IDs. These identifications are key to making meaningful comparisons between the populations of faint X-ray sources in different clusters, in an effort to understand their origins and role in cluster dynamics.

  9. Laboratory characterization of Woelter x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remington, B.A.; Morales, R.I.

    1994-04-01

    We have conducted an extensive series of characterization measurements of a Woe1ter incidence x-ray microscope. The measurements were carried out on 5% sectors of the Woe1ter x-ray optic in a laboratory utilizing a high brightness, ''point'' x-ray source and fall into two categories. (1) Absolute reflectance measurements as a function of x-ray energy were made with Si(Li) detectors to acquire continuum spectra prior to and after reflecting off the Woe1ter optic. (2) Spatial resolution measurements were made using back-illuminated pinholes or grids imaged onto film or an x-ray CCD camera. The depth of field was mapped out by varying the distance between the Woe1ter optic and the backlit grid

  10. Coherent hard x-ray focusing optics and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, W.B.; Viccaro, P.J.; Chrzas, J.; Lai, B.

    1991-01-01

    Coherent hard x-ray beams with a flux exceeding 10{sup 9} photons/second with a bandwidth of 0.1% will be provided by the undulator at the third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as APS, ESRF, and Spring-8. The availability of such high flux coherent x-ray beams offers excellent opportunities for extending the coherence-based techniques developed in the visible and soft x-ray part of the electromagnetic spectrum to the hard x-rays. These x-ray techniques (e.g., diffraction limited microfocusing, holography, interferometry, phase contrast imaging and signal enhancement), may offer substantial advantages over non-coherence-based x-ray techniques currently used. For example, the signal enhancement technique may be used to enhance an anomalous x-ray or magnetic x-ray scattering signal by several orders of magnitude. Coherent x-rays can be focused to a very small (diffraction-limited) spot size, thus allowing high spatial resolution microprobes to be constructed. The paper will discuss the feasibility of the extension of some coherence-based techniques to the hard x-ray range and the significant progress that has been made in the development of diffraction-limited focusing optics. Specific experimental results for a transmission Fresnel phase zone plate that can focus 8.2 keV x-rays to a spot size of about 2 microns will be briefly discussed. The comparison of measured focusing efficiency of the zone plate with that calculated will be made. Some specific applications of zone plates as coherent x-ray optics will be discussed. 17 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Polycapillary x-ray optics for macromolecular crystallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, S.M.; Gibson, W.M.; Carter, D.C.; Sisk, R.C.; Ho, J.X.

    1996-01-01

    Polycapillary x-ray optics have found potential application in many different fields, including antiscatter and magnification in mammography, radiography, x-ray fluorescence, x-ray lithography, and x-ray diffraction techniques. In x-ray diffraction, an optic is used to collect divergent x-rays from a point source and redirect them into a quasi-parallel, or slightly focused beam. Monolithic polycapillary optics have been developed recently for macromolecular crystallography and have already shown considerable gains in diffracted beam intensity over pinhole collimation. Development is being pursued through a series of simulations and prototype optics. Many improvements have been made over the stage 1 prototype reported previously, which include better control over the manufacturing process, reducing the diameter of the output beam, and addition of a slight focusing at the output of the optic to further increase x-ray flux at the sample. The authors report the characteristics and performance of the stage 1 and stage 2 optics

  12. Optical and X-ray luminosities of expanding nebulae around ultraluminous X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwek, Magdalena; Sądowski, Aleksander; Narayan, Ramesh; Roberts, Timothy P.; Soria, Roberto

    2017-09-01

    We have performed a set of simulations of expanding, spherically symmetric nebulae inflated by winds from accreting black holes in ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We implemented a realistic cooling function to account for free-free and bound-free cooling. For all model parameters we considered, the forward shock in the interstellar medium becomes radiative at a radius ˜100 pc. The emission is primarily in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is about 50 per cent of the total kinetic luminosity of the wind. In contrast, the reverse shock in the wind is adiabatic so long as the terminal outflow velocity of the wind vw ≳ 0.003c. The shocked wind in these models radiates in X-rays, but with a luminosity of only ˜1035 erg s-1. For wind velocities vw ≲ 0.001c, the shocked wind becomes radiative, but it is no longer hot enough to produce X-rays. Instead it emits in optical and UV, and the radiative luminosity is comparable to 100 per cent of the wind kinetic luminosity. We suggest that measuring the optical luminosities and putting limits on the X-ray and radio emission from shock-ionized ULX bubbles may help in estimating the mass outflow rate of the central accretion disc and the velocity of the outflow.

  13. MEASURING X-RAY VARIABILITY IN FAINT/SPARSELY SAMPLED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allevato, V. [Department of Physics, University of Helsinki, Gustaf Haellstroemin katu 2a, FI-00014 Helsinki (Finland); Paolillo, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University Federico II, via Cinthia 6, I-80126 Naples (Italy); Papadakis, I. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, 71003 Heraklion (Greece); Pinto, C. [SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584-CA Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-07-01

    We study the statistical properties of the normalized excess variance of variability process characterized by a ''red-noise'' power spectral density (PSD), as in the case of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We perform Monte Carlo simulations of light curves, assuming both a continuous and a sparse sampling pattern and various signal-to-noise ratios (S/Ns). We show that the normalized excess variance is a biased estimate of the variance even in the case of continuously sampled light curves. The bias depends on the PSD slope and on the sampling pattern, but not on the S/N. We provide a simple formula to account for the bias, which yields unbiased estimates with an accuracy better than 15%. We show that the normalized excess variance estimates based on single light curves (especially for sparse sampling and S/N < 3) are highly uncertain (even if corrected for bias) and we propose instead the use of an ''ensemble estimate'', based on multiple light curves of the same object, or on the use of light curves of many objects. These estimates have symmetric distributions, known errors, and can also be corrected for biases. We use our results to estimate the ability to measure the intrinsic source variability in current data, and show that they could also be useful in the planning of the observing strategy of future surveys such as those provided by X-ray missions studying distant and/or faint AGN populations and, more in general, in the estimation of the variability amplitude of sources that will result from future surveys such as Pan-STARRS and LSST.

  14. X-ray focusing with Wolter microchannel plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Price, G J; Beijersbergen, M W; Fraser, G W; Bavdaz, M; Boutot, J P; Fairbend, R; Flyckt, S O; Peacock, A; Tomaselli, E

    2002-01-01

    Square-pore microchannel plate (MCP) X-ray optics of the 'lobster-eye' geometry have frequently been described in the literature. We have now investigated the use of a radial channel packing geometry which, in the context of an MCP pair slumped to the correct radii of curvature, can form a conic approximation to the Wolter Type I grazing incidence X-ray optic. Such an optic can provide a large effective area with very low mass and may be ideally suited for use in applications such as planetary imaging X-ray fluorescence. We present here the results of X-ray illumination of the first such optic, fabricated by Photonis SAS, France.

  15. Parabolic refractive X-ray lenses: a breakthrough in X-ray optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lengeler, B; Benner, B; Guenzler, T F; Kuhlmann, M; Tümmler, J; Simionovici, A S; Drakopoulos, M; Snigirev, A; Snigireva, I

    2001-01-01

    Refractive X-ray lenses, considered for a long time as unfeasible, have been realized with a rotational parabolic profile at our institute: The main features of the new lenses are: they focus in two directions and are free of spherical aberration. By varying the number of individual lenses in the stack the focal length can be chosen in a typical range from 0.5 to 2 m for photon energies between about 6 and 60 keV. The aperture of the lens is about 1 mm matching the angular divergence of undulator beams at 3d generation synchrotron radiation sources. They cope without problems with the heat load from the white beam of an undulator. Finally, they are easy to align and to operate. Refractive X-ray lenses can be used with hard X-rays in the same way as glass lenses can be used for visible light, if it is take into account that the numerical aperture is small (of the order 10 sup - sup 4). Being high-quality optical elements, the refractive X-ray lenses can be used for generating a focal spot in the mu m range wit...

  16. Study of the optical and x-ray properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    It is now widely believed that photoionization by the central nucleus is primarily responsible for the emission lines observed in quasars. If this view is correct, x-ray wavelength photons from the nucleus could play a role in determining the emission line strengths of the various chemical species present in quasars. Indeed, recent photoionization models predict the enhancement of some emission lines arising from an extended ionized zone heated by soft x-rays. In an attempt to investigate this possibility, a sample of 17 quasars exhibiting a wide range of x-ray to optical luminosities has been observed spectrophotometrically in an effort to correlate their optical spectroscopic features with published x-ray and radio luminosities. Such correlations are known to exist for Seyfert galaxies, but at present it is unclear whether quasars also exhibit these correlations. All of the quasars in this sample have been previously observed with the Einstein Observatory. Strengths of the broad permitted emission lines as well as the narrow forbidden lines are analyzed for correlations with the x-ray strength and the optical strength; also, ratios of lines such as Hβ to [O III] and Fe II to Hβ are considered, as well as high excitation lines such as [Ne V]. Because of the difficulty in obtaining high signal-to-noise data for objects as faint as quasars, resolving this issue may well require many such studies as this one, each contributing a fraction of knowledge to the whole, before the question can adequately be answered

  17. New trends in space x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future. Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface

  18. X-Ray Optics at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Atkins, Carolyn; Broadway, David M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Roche, Jacqueline M.; hide

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) engages in research, development, design, fabrication, coating, assembly, and testing of grazing-incidence optics (primarily) for x-ray telescope systems. Over the past two decades, MSFC has refined processes for electroformed-nickel replication of grazing-incidence optics, in order to produce high-strength, thin-walled, full-cylinder x-ray mirrors. In recent years, MSFC has used this technology to fabricate numerous x-ray mirror assemblies for several flight (balloon, rocket, and satellite) programs. Additionally, MSFC has demonstrated the suitability of this technology for ground-based laboratory applications-namely, x-ray microscopes and cold-neutron microscopes and concentrators. This mature technology enables the production, at moderately low cost, of reasonably lightweight x-ray telescopes with good (15-30 arcsecond) angular resolution. However, achieving arcsecond imaging for a lightweight x-ray telescope likely requires development of other technologies. Accordingly, MSFC is conducting a multi-faceted research program toward enabling cost-effective production of lightweight high-resolution x-ray mirror assemblies. Relevant research topics currently under investigation include differential deposition for post-fabrication figure correction, in-situ monitoring and control of coating stress, and direct fabrication of thin-walled full-cylinder grazing-incidence mirrors.

  19. Active x-ray optics for high resolution space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doel, Peter; Atkins, Carolyn; Brooks, D.; Feldman, Charlotte; Willingale, Richard; Button, Tim; Rodriguez Sanmartin, Daniel; Meggs, Carl; James, Ady; Willis, Graham; Smith, Andy

    2017-11-01

    The Smart X-ray Optics (SXO) Basic Technology project started in April 2006 and will end in October 2010. The aim is to develop new technologies in the field of X-ray focusing, in particular the application of active and adaptive optics. While very major advances have been made in active/adaptive astronomical optics for visible light, little was previously achieved for X-ray optics where the technological challenges differ because of the much shorter wavelengths involved. The field of X-ray astronomy has been characterized by the development and launch of ever larger observatories with the culmination in the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton and NASA's Chandra missions which are currently operational. XMM-Newton uses a multi-nested structure to provide modest angular resolution ( 10 arcsec) but large effective area, while Chandra sacrifices effective area to achieve the optical stability necessary to provide sub-arc second resolution. Currently the European Space Agency (ESA) is engaged in studies of the next generation of X-ray space observatories, with the aim of producing telescopes with increased sensitivity and resolution. To achieve these aims several telescopes have been proposed, for example ESA and NASA's combined International X-ray Observatory (IXO), aimed at spectroscopy, and NASA's Generation-X. In the field of X-ray astronomy sub 0.2 arcsecond resolution with high efficiency would be very exciting. Such resolution is unlikely to be achieved by anything other than an active system. The benefits of a such a high resolution would be important for a range of astrophysics subjects, for example the potential angular resolution offered by active X-ray optics could provide unprecedented structural imaging detail of the Solar Wind bowshock interaction of comets, planets and similar objects and auroral phenomena throughout the Solar system using an observing platform in low Earth orbit. A major aim of the SXO project was to investigate the production of thin

  20. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-01

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope "5"7Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  1. Hard X-ray quantum optics in thin films nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, Johann Friedrich Albert

    2017-05-15

    This thesis describes quantum optical experiments with X-rays with the aim of reaching the strong-coupling regime of light and matter. We make use of the interaction which arises between resonant matter and X-rays in specially designed thin-film nanostructures which form X-ray cavities. Here, the resonant matter are Tantalum atoms and the Iron isotope {sup 57}Fe. Both limit the number of modes available to the resonant atoms for interaction, and enhances the interaction strength. Thus we have managed to observe a number of phenomena well-known in quantum optics, which are the building blocks for sophisticated applications in e.g. metrology. Among these are the strong coupling of light and matter and the concurrent exchange of virtual photons, often called Rabi oscillations. Furthermore we have designed and tested a type of cavity hitherto unused in X-ray optics. Finally, we develop a new method for synchrotron Moessbauer spectroscopy, which not only promises to yield high-resolution spectra, but also enables the retrieval of the phase of the scattered light. The results open new avenues for quantum optical experiments with X-rays, particularly with regards to the ongoing development of high-brilliance X-ray free-electron lasers.

  2. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Dennis [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Padmore, Howard [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lessner, Eliane [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States). Office of Science

    2013-03-27

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today’s X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today’s resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting and

  3. X-ray Optics for BES Light Source Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Dennis; Padmore, Howard; Lessner, Eliane

    2013-01-01

    Each new generation of synchrotron radiation sources has delivered an increase in average brightness 2 to 3 orders of magnitude over the previous generation. The next evolution toward diffraction-limited storage rings will deliver another 3 orders of magnitude increase. For ultrafast experiments, free electron lasers (FELs) deliver 10 orders of magnitude higher peak brightness than storage rings. Our ability to utilize these ultrabright sources, however, is limited by our ability to focus, monochromate, and manipulate these beams with X-ray optics. X-ray optics technology unfortunately lags behind source technology and limits our ability to maximally utilize even today's X-ray sources. With ever more powerful X-ray sources on the horizon, a new generation of X-ray optics must be developed that will allow us to fully utilize these beams of unprecedented brightness. The increasing brightness of X-ray sources will enable a new generation of measurements that could have revolutionary impact across a broad area of science, if optical systems necessary for transporting and analyzing X-rays can be perfected. The high coherent flux will facilitate new science utilizing techniques in imaging, dynamics, and ultrahigh-resolution spectroscopy. For example, zone-plate-based hard X-ray microscopes are presently used to look deeply into materials, but today's resolution and contrast are restricted by limitations of the current lithography used to manufacture nanodiffractive optics. The large penetration length, combined in principle with very high spatial resolution, is an ideal probe of hierarchically ordered mesoscale materials, if zone-plate focusing systems can be improved. Resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) probes a wide range of excitations in materials, from charge-transfer processes to the very soft excitations that cause the collective phenomena in correlated electronic systems. However, although RIXS can probe high-energy excitations, the most exciting

  4. XMM-Newton and Swift spectroscopy of the newly discovered very faint X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.

    2013-01-01

    A growing group of low-mass X-ray binaries are found to be accreting at very faint X-ray luminosities of <1036 erg s−1 (2-10 keV). One such system is the new X-ray transient IGR J17494-3030. We present Swift and XMM-Newton observations obtained during its 2012 discovery outburst. The Swift

  5. PAL-XFEL soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics: First commissioning results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Han; Kim, Minseok; Min, Changi-Ki; Eom, Intae; Nam, Inhyuk; Lee, Heung-Soo; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Hyeong-Do; Jang, Ho Young; Kim, Seonghan; Hwang, Sun-min; Park, Gi-Soo; Park, Jaehun; Koo, Tae-Yeong; Kwon, Soonnam

    2018-05-01

    We report an overview of soft X-ray scientific instruments and X-ray optics at the free electron laser (FEL) of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, with selected first-commissioning results. The FEL exhibited a pulse energy of 200 μJ/pulse, a pulse width of power of 10 500 was achieved. The estimated total time resolution between optical laser and X-ray pulses was <270 fs. A resonant inelastic X-ray scattering spectrometer was set up; its commissioning results are also reported.

  6. High performance X-ray and neutron microfocusing optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Hirsch

    2000-01-01

    The use of extremely small diameter x-ray beams at synchrotron radiation facilities has become an important experimental technique for investigators in many other scientific disciplines. While there have been several different optical elements developed for producing such microbeams, this SBIR project was concerned with one particular device: the tapered-monocapillary optic

  7. Characterization of Scintillating X-ray Optical Fiber Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, Dan; Mihai, Laura; Vâţă, Ion; McCarthy, Denis; O'Keeffe, Sinead; Lewis, Elfed

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a set of tests carried out in order to evaluate the design characteristics and the operating performance of a set of six X-ray extrinsic optical fiber sensors. The extrinsic sensor we developed is intended to be used as a low energy X-ray detector for monitoring radiation levels in radiotherapy, industrial applications and for personnel dosimetry. The reproducibility of the manufacturing process and the characteristics of the sensors were assessed. The sensors dynamic range, linearity, sensitivity, and reproducibility are evaluated through radioluminescence measurements, X-ray fluorescence and X-ray imaging investigations. Their response to the operating conditions of the excitation source was estimated. The effect of the sensors design and implementation, on the collecting efficiency of the radioluminescence signal was measured. The study indicated that the sensors are efficient only in the first 5 mm of the tip, and that a reflective coating can improve their response. Additional tests were done to investigate the concentricity of the sensors tip against the core of the optical fiber guiding the optical signal. The influence of the active material concentration on the sensor response to X-ray was studied. The tests were carried out by measuring the radioluminescence signal with an optical fiber spectrometer and with a Multi-Pixel Photon Counter. PMID:24556676

  8. Theory and optical design of x-ray echo spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shvyd'ko, Yuri

    2017-08-01

    X-ray echo spectroscopy, a space-domain counterpart of neutron spin echo, is a recently proposed inelastic x-ray scattering (IXS) technique. X-ray echo spectroscopy relies on imaging IXS spectra and does not require x-ray monochromatization. Due to this, the echo-type IXS spectrometers are broadband, and thus have a potential to simultaneously provide dramatically increased signal strength, reduced measurement times, and higher resolution compared to the traditional narrow-band scanning-type IXS spectrometers. The theory of x-ray echo spectrometers presented earlier [Yu. Shvyd'ko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 080801 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.080801] is developed here further with a focus on questions of practical importance, which could facilitate optical design and assessment of the feasibility and performance of the echo spectrometers. Among others, the following questions are addressed: spectral resolution, refocusing condition, echo spectrometer tolerances, refocusing condition adjustment, effective beam size on the sample, spectral window of imaging and scanning range, impact of the secondary source size on the spectral resolution, angular dispersive optics, focusing and collimating optics, and detector's spatial resolution. Examples of optical designs and characteristics of echo spectrometers with 1-meV and 0.1-meV resolutions are presented.

  9. Silicon pore optics for the international x-ray observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, E.; Wallace, K.; Bavdaz, M.; Collon, M. J.; Günther, R.; Ackermann, M.; Beijersbergen, M. W.; Riekerink, M. O.; Blom, M.; Lansdorp, B.; de Vreede, L.

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The International X-ray Observatory (IXO) requires a mirror assembly of 3 m2 effective area (at 1.5 keV) and an angular resolution of 5 arcsec. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the manufacturing process ranging from single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration. The performance of the mirror modules is tested using X-ray pencil beams or full X-ray illumination. In 2009, an angular resolution of 9 arcsec was achieved, demonstrating the improvement of the technology compared to 17 arcsec in 2007. Further development activities of Silicon Pore Optics concentrate on ruggedizing the mounting system and performing environmental tests, integrating baffles into the mirror modules and assessing the mass production.

  10. Replicated x-ray optics for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, René; Pína, Ladislav; Inneman, Adolf

    2017-11-01

    We report on the program of design and development of X-ray optics for space applications in the Czech Republic. Having more than 30 years background in X-ray optics development for space applications (for use in astronomical X-ray telescopes onboard spacecrafts, before 1989 mostly for Soviet and East European INTERKOSMOS program), we focus nowadays on novel technologies and approaches, thin shell replicated mirrors, as well as studies of light-weight mirrors based on innovative materials such as ceramics. The collaboration includes teams from the Academy of Sciences, Universities, and industry. We will describe and discuss both the history of the development of Xray optics in the Czech Republic and the developed technologies and approaches (with focus on replication technology) as well as recent activities and developments including our participation on the ESA XEUS mirror technology development based on the Agreement between ESA and Czech Government.

  11. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide (∼0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  12. Optics-free x-ray FEL oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko, V.N.; Hao, Y.; Kayran, D.; Trbojevic, D.

    2011-03-28

    There is a need for an Optics-Free FEL Oscillators (OFFELO) to further the advantages of free-electron lasers and turning them in fully coherent light sources. While SASE (Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission) FELs demonstrated the capability of providing very high gain and short pulses of radiation and scalability to the X-ray range, the spectra of SASE FELs remains rather wide ({approx}0.5%-1%) compared with typical short wavelengths FEL-oscillators (0.01%-0.0003% in OK-4 FEL). Absence of good optics in VUV and X-ray ranges makes traditional oscillator schemes with very high average and peak spectral brightness either very complex or, strictly speaking, impossible. In this paper, we discuss lattice of the X-ray optics-free FEL oscillator and present results of initial computer simulations of the feedback process and the evolution of FEL spectrum in X-ray OFFELO. We also discuss main limiting factors and feasibility of X-ray OFFELO.

  13. Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The use of multilayer optics induced a decisive extension of opportunities in laboratory based X-ray analysis. With the growing number of different applications, more and more dedicated X-ray optics are required, optimized for the spectral range they are intended to be used for. Both the characteristic of the used X-ray source and the design of the multilayer optics finally define the performance of the conditioned incident beam for the application. In any case, qualified spacer and absorber materials have to be selected for the deposition of the multilayer in respect to the designated X-ray wavelength. X-ray optical devices based on uniform multilayers have the advantage of a wide acceptance angle but show chromatic aberrations. This effect can be avoided by synthesizing a multilayer with a lateral thickness gradient. The gradient ensures that any beam of a certain wavelength emitted from an infinite narrow X-ray source impinging the multilayer optics fulfills the Bragg condition. Three different types of curvature of laterally graded multilayer mirrors are used for X-ray analysis experiments: parabolic, elliptic and planar, which result in parallel, focusing and divergent beam conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the X-ray beam characteristics: intensity, monochromasy, divergence, beam width and brilliance can be additionally conditioned by combining one multilayer optics with either a different optic and/or with a crystal monochromator. The deposition of nanometer-multilayers, used as X-ray optical components, result in extraordinary requirements of the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 individual layers with thicknesses in the range between 1 to 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than σ D = 0.1 nm and an interface roughness below σ R = 0.25 nm have to be achieved. Thickness homogeneity Δd/d -8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic

  14. Optical Design for a Survey X-Ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Zhang, William W.; McClelland, Ryan S.

    2014-01-01

    Optical design trades are underway at the Goddard Space Flight Center to define a telescope for an x-ray survey mission. Top-level science objectives of the mission include the study of x-ray transients, surveying and long-term monitoring of compact objects in nearby galaxies, as well as both deep and wide-field x-ray surveys. In this paper we consider Wolter, Wolter-Schwarzschild, and modified Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope designs as basic building blocks for the tightly nested survey telescope. Design principles and dominating aberrations of individual telescopes and nested telescopes are discussed and we compare the off-axis optical performance at 1.0 KeV and 4.0 KeV across a 1.0-degree full field-of-view.

  15. High-Resolution and Lightweight X-ray Optics for the X-Ray Surveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William

    Envisioned in "Enduring Quest, Daring Visions" and under study by NASA as a potential major mission for the 2020s, the X-ray Surveyor mission will likely impose three requirements on its optics: (1) high angular resolution: 0.5 PSF, (2) large effective area: e10,000 cm2 or more, and (3) affordable production cost: $500M. We propose a technology that can meet these requirements by 2020. It will help the X-ray Surveyor secure the endorsement of the coming decadal survey and enable its implementation following WFIRST. The technology comprises four elements: (1) fabrication of lightweight single crystal silicon mirrors, (2) coating these mirrors with iridium to maximize effective area without figure degradation, (3) alignment and bonding of these mirrors to form meta-shells that will be integrated to make a mirror assembly, and (4) systems engineering to ensure that the mirror assembly meet all science performance and spaceflight environmental requirements. This approach grows out of our existing approach based on glass slumping. Using glass slumping technology, we have been able to routinely build and test mirror modules of 10half-power diameter (HPD). While comparable in HPD to XMM-Newtons electroformed nickel mirrors, these mirror modules are 10 times lighter. Likewise, while comparable in weight to Suzakus epoxy-replicated aluminum foil mirrors, these modules have 10 times better HPD. These modules represent the current state of the art of lightweight X-ray optics. Although both successful and mature, the glass slumping technology has reached its limit and cannot achieve sub-arc second HPD. Therefore, we are pursuing the new approach based on polishing single crystal silicon. The new approach will enable the building and testing of mirror modules, called meta-shells, capable of 3HPD by 2018 and 1HPD by 2020, and has the potential to reach diffraction limits ( 0.1) in the 2020s.

  16. Optics for nano-satellite X-ray monitor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, V.; Burrows, D.N.; Prieskorn, Z.; Hudec, René

    Roč. 24, č. 2 ( 2015 ), s. 242-250 ISSN 1392-0049 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : X-ray optics * Schmidt lobster eye telescopes Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.346, year: 2015

  17. Optical studies of massive X-ray binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuiderwijk, E.J.

    1979-01-01

    Photometric and spectroscopic studies of several optical counterparts of massive X-ray binaries are presented. Subjects of study were the binary systems:HD77581/4U0900-40 (Vela X-1), HD153919/4U1700-37, Wray 977/4U1223-62 and Sk160/4U0115-74 (=SMC X-1). (Auth.)

  18. X-ray, optical, and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blumenthal, G.R.; Keel, W.C.; Miller, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined a sample of 26 low-redshift quasars for the relationships between X-ray luminosity and optical spectroscopic features. All quasars were observed with the Einstein Observatory and with the IDS on the Lick 3 meter telescope. We find evidence for correlations between quasar X-ray luminosity and both optical continuum luminosity and Hβ luminosity. In the latter case, there is a smooth relationship connecting quasars, Seyfert 1, and Seyfert 2 galaxies. For the quasars in this sample, there is also a strong correlation between optical continuum luminosity and both the Hβ luminosity and equivalent width. Unlike the case for Seyfert 1 nuclei, there is no evidence for a correlation between X-ray luminosity and either the Hβ/[O III] ratio or the width at zero intensity of the Hβ line. However, we do find some evidence for a weak correlation between α'/sub o/x, the mean continuum spectral index between 5000 A and 2 keV, and Fe II equivalent width, Hβ equivalent width, Hβ line width at zero intensity, and the ratio of Hβ equivalent width to its line width at zero intensity. Overall, we found few strong correlations between optical spectroscopic quanitites and X-ray properties of quasars. Some of the implications of these results for models of quasars and quasar emission line regions are discussed

  19. X-ray excited optical luminescence of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, G.J.

    1979-05-01

    X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) coupled with time resolved spectroscopy was employed to analyze polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in n-alkane solvents at 10 K. A pulsed XEOL system which was designed around minicomputer control of a medical x-ray unit was developed. Computer software which generated variable width x-ray pulses, monitored timing reference pulses, controlled data acquisition, and analyzed data was written. Phosphorescence decay constants of several PAHs were determined. Synthetic mixtures of zone refined PAHs were prepared and time resolved with the pulsed XEOL technique. Analytical results obtained from the five component mixtures of PAHs at the part per million level were tabulated. Systematic improvements and further development of the pulsed XEOL method were considered.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Sample of faint X-ray pulsators (Israel+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. L.; Esposito, P.; Rodriguez Castillo, G. A.; Sidoli, L.

    2018-04-01

    As of 2015 December 31, we extracted about 430000 time series from sources with more than 10 counts (after background subtraction); ~190000 of them have more than 50 counts and their PSDs were searched for significant peaks. At the time of writing, the total number of searched Fourier frequencies was about 4.3x109. After a detailed screening, we obtained a final sample of 41 (42) new X-ray pulsators (signals), which are listed in Table 1. (1 data file).

  1. 13.1 micrometers hard X-ray focusing by a new type monocapillary X-ray optic designed for common laboratory X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuepeng; zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Shang, Hongzhong; Zhang, Fengshou; Liu, Zhiguo; Sun, Tianxi

    2018-04-01

    A new type of monocapillary X-ray optic, called 'two bounces monocapillary X-ray optics' (TBMXO), is proposed for generating a small focal spot with high power-density gain for micro X-ray analysis, using a common laboratory X-ray source. TBMXO is consists of two parts: an ellipsoidal part and a tapered part. Before experimental testing, the TBMXO was simulated by the ray tracing method in MATLAB. The simulated results predicted that the proposed TBMXO would produce a smaller focal spot with higher power-density gain than the ellipsoidal monocapillary X-ray optic (EMXO). In the experiment, the TBMXO performance was tested by both an optical device and a Cu target X-ray tube with focal spot of 100 μm. The results indicated that the TBMXO had a slope error of 57.6 μrad and a 13.1 μm focal spot and a 1360 gain in power density were obtained.

  2. Optical observations of binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles, P.

    1982-01-01

    Here I shall consider only those systems where the compact object is a neutron star (or in a few cases perhaps a black hole). Since van Paradijs (1982) has recently produced an excellent and comprehensive review of optical observations of compact galactic X-ray sources I shall summarise the basic properties of the optical counterparts and discuss a few representative systems in some detail. (orig./WL)

  3. Combined optic system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics for focusing X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xuepeng; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Yi, Longtao; Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Fangzuo; Jiang, Bowen [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2015-12-01

    Two combined optic systems based on polycapillary X-ray optics and single-bounce monocapillary optics (SBMO) were designed for focusing the X-rays from a conventional laboratory X-ray source. One was based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens (PFXRL) and a single-bounce ellipsoidal capillary (SBEC), in which the output focal spot with the size of tens of micrometers of the PFXRL was used as the “virtual” X-ray source for the SBEC. The other system was based on a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) and a single-bounce parabolic capillary (SBPC), in which the PPXRL transformed the divergent X-ray beam from an X-ray source into a quasi-parallel X-ray beam with the divergence of sever milliradians as the incident illumination of the SBPC. The experiment results showed that the combined optic systems based on PFXRL and SBEC with a Mo rotating anode X-ray generator with the focal spot with a diameter of 300 μm could obtain a focal spot with the total gain of 14,300 and focal spot size of 37.4 μm, and the combined optic systems based on PPXRL and SBPC with the same X-ray source mentioned above could acquire a focal spot with the total gain of 580 and focal spot size of 58.3 μm, respectively. The two combined optic systems have potential applications in micro X-ray diffraction, micro X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray absorption near edge structure, full field X-ray microscopes and so on.

  4. Modern Developments in X-Ray and Neutron Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Erko, Alexei; Krist, Thomas; Michette, Alan G

    2008-01-01

    This volume describes modern developments in reflective, refractive and diffractive optics for short wavelength radiation as well as recent theoretical approaches to modelling and ray-tracing the X-ray and neutron optical systems. It is based on the joint research activities of specialists in X-ray and neutron optics from 11 countries, working together under the framework of the European Programme for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST, Action P7) in the period 2002--2006. The chapters are written by leading specialists from European laboratories, universities and large facilities. In addition to new ideas and concepts, the contents provide a large amount of practical information about recently implemented devices and methods.

  5. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on ''High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed ''finite element'' and ''finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance

  6. Silicon pore optics for future x-ray telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska; Shortt, Brian; Collon, Maximilien; Ackermann, Marcelo; Günther, Ramses; Olde Riekerink, Mark; Koelewijn, Arenda; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Erhard, Markus; Kampf, Dirk; Christensen, Finn; Krumrey, Michael; Freyberg, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim

    2017-11-01

    Lightweight X-ray Wolter optics with a high angular resolution will enable the next generation of X-ray telescopes in space. The candidate mission ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics) required a mirror assembly of 1 m2 effective area (at 1 keV) and an angular resolution of 10 arcsec or better. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is being developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor industry. We present the recent upgrades made to the manufacturing processes and equipment, ranging from the manufacture of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration, and results from first vibration tests. The performance of the mirror modules is tested at X-ray facilities that were recently extended to measure optics at a focal distance up to 20 m.

  7. X-ray optical analyses with X-Ray Absorption Package (XRAP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhibi; Kuzay, T.M.; Dejus, R.; Grace, T.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an X-Ray Absorption Package (XRAP) and the theoretical background for this program. XRAP is a computer code developed for analysis of optical elements in synchrotron radiation facilities. Two main issues are to be addressed: (1) generating BM (bending magnet) and ID (insertion device) spectrum and calculating their absorption in media, especially in such structural forms as variable thickness windows/filters and crystals; and (2) providing a finite difference engine for fast but sophisticated thermal and stress analyses for optical elements, such as windows and filters. Radiation cooling, temperature-dependent material properties (such as thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient) etc. are taken into account in the analyses. For very complex geometry, an interface is provided directly to finite element codes such as ANSYS. Some of the present features built into XRAP include: (1) generation of BM and ID spectra; (2) photon absorption analysis of optical elements including filters, windows and mirrors, etc.; (3) heat transfer and thermal stress analyses of windows and filters and their buckling check; (4) user-friendly graphical-interface that is based on the state-of-the-art technology of GUI and X-window systems, which can be easily ported to other computer platforms; (5) postscript file output of either black/white or colored graphics for total/absorbed power, temperature, stress, spectra, etc

  8. Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stanton L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel scintillating optical fiber is presented using a composite micro-structured quartz optical fiber. Scintillating materials are introduced into the multiple inclusions of the fiber. This creates a composite optical fiber having quartz as a cladding with an organic scintillating material core. X-ray detection using these fibers is compared to a collimated cadmium telluride (CdTe) detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. Results show a good correlation between the fiber count rate trend and that of the CdTe detector.

  9. NuSTAR Hard X-ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, Jason E.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2005-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is a small explorer (SMEX) mission currently under an extended Phase A study by NASA. NuSTAR will be the first satellite mission to employ focusing optics in the hard X-ray band (8- 80 keV). Its design eliminates high detector backgrounds, allows...... and production process. We also describe the progress of several components of our independent optics development program that are beginning to reach maturity and could possibly be incorporated into the NuSTAR production scheme. We then present environmental test results that are being conducted in preparation...... of full space qualification of the NuSTAR optics....

  10. The Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility for X-Ray Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai; Christensen, Finn Erland; Hailey, Charles J.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) is a NASA Small Explorer mission that will carry the first focusing hard X-ray (5–80 keV) telescope to orbit. The ground calibration of the optics posed a challenge as the need to suppress finite source distance effects over the full optic...... and the energy range of interest were unique requirements not met by any existing facility. In this paper we present the requirements for the NuSTAR optics ground calibration, and how the Rainwater Memorial Calibration Facility, RaMCaF, is designed to meet the calibration requirements. The nearly 175 m long...

  11. Phase retrieval from coherent soft X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peele, A.G.; Mancuso, A.P.; Tran, C.Q.; Paterson, D.; McNulty, I.; Hayes, J.P.; Nugent, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We have recently probed the coherence of soft X-ray flux from a third generation synchrotron source [D. Paterson, B.E. Allman, P.J. McMahon, J. Lin, N. Moldovan, K.A. Nugent, I. McNulty, C.T. Chantler, C.C. Retsch, T.H.K. Irving, D.C. Mancini, Opt. Commun. 195 (2001) 79; C.Q. Tran, A.G. Peele, D. Paterson, A. Roberts, I. McNulty, K.A. Nugent, Opt. Lett. 30 (2005) 204.]. The 1-2 keV radiation exhibits transverse coherence lengths of 60 μm, which means that coherent optical effects may be observed in reasonably sized objects. We present experimental results demonstrating the creation of a phase singularity in a synchrotron beam by passing the beam through a phase mask at similarly low X-ray energies. This complements our earlier work at higher energies and demonstrates that we can now produce phase singularities across a range of energies where we have tested certain intensity-based phase recovery methods. These methods fail when the field contains phase singularities. We describe the X-ray optical vortex and outline its use as a pathological test object for phase retrieval methods. We also present recent progress towards overcoming the problem of phase retrieval in singular optics

  12. HST/ACS Imaging of Omega Centauri: Optical Counterparts of Chandra X-Ray Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Haggard, Daryl; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Anderson, Jay

    2013-02-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ~10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ~40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  13. X-ray pencil beam facility for optics characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Cibik, Levent; Müller, Peter; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Ackermann, Marcelo; Collon, Maximilien J.

    2010-07-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) has used synchrotron radiation for the characterization of optics and detectors for astrophysical X-ray telescopes for more than 20 years. At a dedicated beamline at BESSY II, a monochromatic pencil beam is used by ESA and cosine Research since the end of 2005 for the characterization of novel silicon pore optics, currently under development for the International X-ray Observatory (IXO). At this beamline, a photon energy of 2.8 keV is selected by a Si channel-cut monochromator. Two apertures at distances of 12.2 m and 30.5 m from the dipole source form a pencil beam with a typical diameter of 100 μm and a divergence below 1". The optics to be investigated is placed in a vacuum chamber on a hexapod, the angular positioning is controlled by means of autocollimators to below 1". The reflected beam is registered at 5 m distance from the optics with a CCD-based camera system. This contribution presents design and performance of the upgrade of this beamline to cope with the updated design for IXO. The distance between optics and detector can now be 20 m. For double reflection from an X-ray Optical Unit (XOU) and incidence angles up to 1.4°, this corresponds to a vertical translation of the camera by 2 m. To achieve high reflectance at this angle even with uncoated silicon, a lower photon energy of 1 keV is available from a pair of W/B4C multilayers. For coated optics, a high energy option can provide a pencil beam of 7.6 keV radiation.

  14. Development Roadmap for an Adjustable X-Ray Optics Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Dan; Brissenden, R.; Bookbinder, J.; Davis, W.; Forman, W.; Freeman, M.; O'Dell, S.; Ramsey, B.; Reid, P.; Romaine, S.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We are developing adjustable X-ray optics to use on a mission such as SMART-X (see posters 38.02, 38.03 and Presentation 30.03). To satisfy the science problems expected to be posed by the next decadal survey, we anticipate requiring effective area greater than 1 square meter and Chandra-like angular resolution: approximately equal to 0.5 inches. To achieve such precise resolution we are developing adjustable mirror technology for X-ray astronomy application. This uses a thin film of piezoelectric material deposited on the back surface of the mirror to correct for figure distortions, including manufacturing errors and deflections due to gravity and thermal effects. We present here a plan to raise this technology from its current Level 2, to Level 6, by 2018.

  15. Quantum Dots Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, Stan; Williams, Phillip; Burke, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing quantum dots scintillation material comprised of zinc sulfide nanocrystals doped with magnesium sulfide are presented. These quantum dots are applied inside the microstructured optical fibers using capillary action. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The results of the fiber light output and associated effects of an acrylate coating and the quantum dot application technique are discussed.

  16. CROSS-CORRELATION BETWEEN X-RAY AND OPTICAL/NEAR-INFRARED BACKGROUND INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell-Wynne, Ketron; Cooray, Asantha [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Xue, Yongquan [CAS Key Laboratory for Researches in Galaxies and Cosmology, Center for Astrophysics, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Luo, Bin [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, 210093 (China); Brandt, William [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, 16802 (United States); Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Angular power spectra of optical and infrared background anisotropies at wavelengths between 0.5 and 5 μ m are a useful probe of faint sources present during reionization, in addition to faint galaxies and diffuse signals at low redshift. The cross-correlation of these fluctuations with backgrounds at other wavelengths can be used to separate some of these signals. A previous study on the cross-correlation between X-ray and Spitzer fluctuations at 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m has been interpreted as evidence for direct collapse black holes present at z  > 12. Here we return to this cross-correlation and study its wavelength dependence from 0.5 to 4.5 μ m using Hubble and Spitzer data in combination with a subset of the 4 Ms Chandra observations in GOODS-S/ECDFS. Our study involves five Hubble bands at 0.6, 0.7, 0.85, 1.25, and 1.6 μ m, and two Spitzer -IRAC bands at 3.6 μ m and 4.5 μ m. We confirm the previously seen cross-correlation between 3.6 μ m (4.5 μ m) and X-rays with 3.7 σ (4.2 σ ) and 2.7 σ (3.7 σ ) detections in the soft [0.5–2] keV and hard [2–8] keV X-ray bands, respectively, at angular scales above 20 arcsec. The cross-correlation of X-rays with Hubble is largely anticorrelated, ranging between the levels of 1.4 σ –3.5 σ for all the Hubble and X-ray bands. This lack of correlation in the shorter optical/NIR bands implies the sources responsible for the cosmic infrared background at 3.6 and 4.5 μ m are at least partly dissimilar to those at 1.6 μ m and shorter.

  17. Sequential x-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM x-ray optics testing beamline at the advanced photon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoupin, Stanislav, E-mail: sstoupin@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Trakhtenberg, Emil; Liu, Zunping; Lang, Keenan; Huang, Xianrong; Wieczorek, Michael; Kasman, Elina; Hammonds, John; Macrander, Albert; Assoufid, Lahsen [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report progress on implementation and commissioning of sequential X-ray diffraction topography at 1-BM Optics Testing Beamline of the Advanced Photon Source to accommodate growing needs of strain characterization in diffractive crystal optics and other semiconductor single crystals. The setup enables evaluation of strain in single crystals in the nearly-nondispersive double-crystal geometry. Si asymmetric collimator crystals of different crystallographic orientations were designed, fabricated and characterized using in-house capabilities. Imaging the exit beam using digital area detectors permits rapid sequential acquisition of X-ray topographs at different angular positions on the rocking curve of a crystal under investigation. Results on sensitivity and spatial resolution are reported based on experiments with high-quality Si and diamond crystals. The new setup complements laboratory-based X-ray topography capabilities of the Optics group at the Advanced Photon Source.

  18. FINDING FOSSIL GROUPS: OPTICAL IDENTIFICATION AND X-RAY CONFIRMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Eric D. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Rykoff, Eli S. [E.O. Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, 1 Cyclotron Rd., Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Dupke, Renato A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Mendes de Oliveira, Claudia; Proctor, Robert N. [Departamento de Astronomia, Instituto de Astronomia, Geofisica e Ciencias Atmosfericas da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao 1226, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-090 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Lopes de Oliveira, Raimundo [Instituto de Fisica de Sao Carlos, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 369, 13560-970 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Garmire, Gordon P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Koester, Benjamin P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); McKay, Timothy A., E-mail: milleric@mit.edu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    We report the discovery of 12 new fossil groups (FGs) of galaxies, systems dominated by a single giant elliptical galaxy and cluster-scale gravitational potential, but lacking the population of bright galaxies typically seen in galaxy clusters. These FGs, selected from the maxBCG optical cluster catalog, were detected in snapshot observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. We detail the highly successful selection method, with an 80% success rate in identifying 12 FGs from our target sample of 15 candidates. For 11 of the systems, we determine the X-ray luminosity, temperature, and hydrostatic mass, which do not deviate significantly from expectations for normal systems, spanning a range typical of rich groups and poor clusters of galaxies. A small number of detected FGs are morphologically irregular, possibly due to past mergers, interaction of the intra-group medium with a central active galactic nucleus (AGN), or superposition of multiple massive halos. Two-thirds of the X-ray-detected FGs exhibit X-ray emission associated with the central brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), although we are unable to distinguish between AGN and extended thermal galaxy emission using the current data. This sample representing a large increase in the number of known FGs, will be invaluable for future planned observations to determine FG temperature, gas density, metal abundance, and mass distributions, and to compare to normal (non-fossil) systems. Finally, the presence of a population of galaxy-poor systems may bias mass function determinations that measure richness from galaxy counts. When used to constrain power spectrum normalization and {Omega}{sub m}, these biased mass functions may in turn bias these results.

  19. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  20. Hybrid lightweight X-ray optics for half arcsecond imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    This proposal is for the development of grazing incidence optics suitable to meet the 0.5 arcsec imaging and 2.3 square meter effective area requirements of the X-ray Surveyor mission concept, currently under study by NASA. Our approach is to combine two promising technologies, as yet individually unproven at the 0.5 arcsec level, into a hybrid mirror approach. The two technologies are thin piezoelectric film adjustable optics under development at SAO and PSU, and differential deposition under development at NASA MSFC. These technologies are complementary: adjustable optics are best suited to fixing low spatial frequency errors due to piezoelectric cell size limitations, and differential deposition is best suited for fixing mid-spatial frequency errors so as to limit the amount of material that must be deposited. Thus, the combination of the two techniques extends the bandwidth of figure errors that can be corrected beyond what it was for either individual technique. Both technologies will be applied to fabricate Wolter-I mirror segment from single thermally formed glass substrates. This work is directed at mirror segments only (not full shells), as we believe segments are the most appropriate for developing the 3 m diameter X-ray Surveyor high resolution mirror. In this program we will extend differential deposition to segment surfaces (from line profiles), investigate the most realistic error bandwidths for each technology, and determine the impacts of one technologys processing steps on the other to find if there is an optimal order to combining the technologies. In addition, we will also conduct a conical/cylindrical mirror metrology "round-robin," to cross-calibrate the different cylindrical metrology to one another as a means of minimizing systematic errors. Finally, we will examine the balancing and compensating of mirror stress due to the various thin films employed (piezoelectric layer, differential deposition, X-ray reflecting layer(s)) with an eye to

  1. Optical properties of X-ray stars. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.

    1984-01-01

    822 observations of X-ray system HZ Her/Her X-1 on Sonneberg sky-patrol-camera plates are interpreted with the following main results: (i) altogether 3 (and possibly 4) active and 3 (possibly 4) inactive states were revealed during the time span 1928 to 1979, (ii) the comparison of individual active-state light curves shows no clear differences, (iii) a very quick transition between active and inactive state JD 243 1313.382-JD 243 1321.403 was observed. Some other studies of the optical data were carried out and are briefly described. (author)

  2. Intra-night optical variability properties of X-ray bright Narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojha, Vineet; Chand, Hum; Gopal-Krishna

    2018-04-01

    We present Intra Night Optical Variability (INOV) study of the 9 Narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy 1) galaxies which are detected in X-ray at more than 3σ level. Our observations cover a total of 9 nights ( 36 hr) with each NLSy 1 monitored for ≥ 3.5 hr in each night. After applying F-test to assess variability status of these sources, we found none of these sources to be variable. Such non-variability nature of X-ray detected NLSy 1 galaxies suggests the lack of jet dominance as far as X-ray emission is concerned. Higher photometric accuracy for these faint sources, achievable with the newly installed ARIES 3.6m DOT will be helpful.

  3. Workshop on high heat load x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    A workshop on High Heat Load X-Ray Optics'' was held at Argonne National Laboratory on August 3--5, 1989. The object of this workshop was to discuss recent advances in the art of cooling x-ray optics subject to high heat loads from synchrotron beams. The cooling of the first optical element in the intense photon beams that will be produced in the next generation of synchrotron sources is recognized as one of the major challenges that must be faced before one will be able to use these very intense beams in future synchrotron experiments. Considerable advances have been made in this art during the last few years, but much work remains to be done before the heating problem can be said to be completely solved. Special emphasis was placed on recent cooling experiments and detailed finite element'' and finite difference'' calculations comparing experiment with theory and extending theory to optimize performance.

  4. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  5. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  6. Diamond x-ray optics: Transparent, resilient, high-resolution, and wavefront preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvyd’ko, Yuri; Blank, Vladimir; Terentyev, Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Diamond features a unique combination of outstanding physical properties perfect for numerous x-ray optics applications, where traditional materials such as silicon fail to perform. In the last two decades, impressive progress has been achieved in synthesizing diamond with high crystalline perfection, in manufacturing efficient, resilient, high-resolution, wavefront-preserving diamond optical components, and in implementing them in cutting-edge x-ray instruments. Diamond optics are essential for tailoring x-rays to the most challenging needs of x-ray research. Furthermore, they are becoming vital for the generation of fully coherent hard x-rays by seeded x-ray free-electron lasers. In this article, we review progress in manufacturing flawless diamond crystal components and their applications in diverse x-ray optical devices, such as x-ray monochromators, beam splitters, high-reflectance backscattering mirrors, lenses, phase plates, diffraction gratings, bent-crystal spectrographs, and windows.

  7. Hard X-ray-induced optical luminescence via biomolecule-directed metal clusters†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratx, Guillem; Sun, Conroy; Sakamoto, Masanori; Ahmad, Moiz; Volotskova, Olga; Ong, Qunxiang; Teranishi, Toshiharu; Harada, Yoshie

    2014-01-01

    Here, we demonstrate that biomolecule-directed metal clusters are applicable in the study of hard X-ray excited optical luminescence, promising a new direction in the development of novel X-ray-activated imaging probes. PMID:24463467

  8. SECCOX, a novel x-ray characterization bench for Bragg crystals and x-rays optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillaud, T.; Manson, M.; Desenne, D.; Goze, B.; Rivet, A.; Derouineau, Ph.

    2007-01-01

    Laser programs require the use of a large number of calibrated x-ray crystals implemented inside spectrometers and microscopes used in diagnostics. In this context, a new apparatus was designed in collaboration with CELIA laboratory, Saint-Gobain Crystals and Detectors and CEA to characterize x-ray Bragg crystals. Station d'Etude et de Caracterisation des Cristaux pour les Optiques X (SECCOX) is based on a micrometric x-ray source and an automated spectrometer equipped with a CCD camera. Properties such as homogeneity, resolution, radius of curvature and reflectivity are measured to guarantee diagnostic performance in laser-plasma physics experiments. We will present the experimental device, techniques and results of the calibration obtained. (authors)

  9. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF THE ULTRALUMINOUS X-RAY SOURCE HOLMBERG IX X-1 AND ITS STELLAR ENVIRONMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grise, F.; Kaaret, P.; Pakull, M. W.; Motch, C.

    2011-01-01

    Holmberg IX X-1 is an archetypal ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX). Here we study the properties of the optical counterpart and of its stellar environment using optical data from SUBARU/Faint Object Camera and Spectrograph, GEMINI/GMOS-N and Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys, as well as simultaneous Chandra X-ray data. The V ∼ 22.6 spectroscopically identified optical counterpart is part of a loose cluster with an age ∼ sun . The counterpart is more luminous than the other stars of the association, suggesting a non-negligible optical contribution from the accretion disk. An observed UV excess also points to non-stellar light similar to X-ray active low-mass X-ray binaries. A broad He II λ4686 emission line identified in the optical spectrum of the ULX further suggests optical light from X-ray reprocessing in the accretion disk. Using stellar evolutionary tracks, we have constrained the mass of the counterpart to be ∼> 10 M sun , even if the accretion disk contributes significantly to the optical luminosity. Comparison of the photometric properties of the counterpart with binary models show that the donor may be more massive, ∼> 25 M sun , with the ULX system likely undergoing case AB mass transfer. Finally, the counterpart exhibits photometric variability of 0.14 mag between two HST observations separated by 50 days which could be due to ellipsoidal variations and/or disk reprocessing of variable X-ray emission.

  10. Recent Progress in Adjustable X-ray Optics for Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul B.; Allured, Ryan; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; McMuldroch, Stuart; Marquez, Vanessa; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Vikhlinin, Alexey; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan; hide

    2014-01-01

    Two adjustable X-ray optics approaches are being developed for thin grazing incidence optics for astronomy. The first approach employs thin film piezoelectric material sputter deposited as a continuous layer on the back of thin, lightweight Wolter-I mirror segments. The piezoelectric material is used to correct mirror figure errors from fabrication, mounting/alignment, and any ground to orbit changes. The goal of this technology is to produce Wolter mirror segment pairs corrected to 0.5 arc sec image resolution. With the combination of high angular resolution and lightweight, this mirror technology is suitable for the Square Meter Arc Second Resolution Telescope for X-rays (SMART-X) mission concept.. The second approach makes use of electrostrictive adjusters and full shell nickel/cobalt electroplated replication mirrors. An array of radial adjusters is used to deform the full shells to correct the lowest order axial and azimuthal errors, improving imaging performance from the 10 - 15 arc sec level to 5 arc sec. We report on recent developments in both technologies. In particular, we discuss the use of insitu strain gauges on the thin piezo film mirrors for use as feedback on piezoelectric adjuster functionality, including their use for on-orbit figure correction. We also report on the first tests of full shell nickel/cobalt mirror correction with radial adjusters.

  11. Optical synchronization system for femtosecond X-ray sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell B [El Cerrito, CA; Holzwarth, Ronald [Munich, DE

    2011-12-13

    Femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses require precise synchronization between 100 meter-10 km separated lasers in a various experiments. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1-10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with various implementations. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz will be lock to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  12. Performances for confocal X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hehe; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stxbeijing@163.com [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Sun, Weiyuan; Li, Yude; Lin, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Weigang; Zhao, Guangcui; Luo, Ping; Pan, Qiuli; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2013-09-21

    The confocal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology based on a polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray lens (PSFXRL) in excitation channel and a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens (PPXRL) with a long input focal distance in detection channel was developed. The output focal spot of the PSFXRL and the input focal spot of the PPXRL were adjusted in confocal configuration, and only the X-rays from the volume overlapped by these foci could be accordingly detected. This confocal configuration was helpful in decreasing background. The convergence of the beam focused by the PSFXRL and divergence of the beam which could be collected by the PPXRL with a long input focal distance were both about 9 mrad at 8 keV. This was helpful in improving the resolution of lattice spacing of this confocal XRD technology. The gain in power density of such PSFXRL and PPXRL was about 120 and 7 at 11 keV, respectively, which was helpful in using the low power source to perform XRD analysis efficiently. The performances of this confocal XRD technology were provided, and some common plastics were analyzed. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal diffraction technology base on polycapillary slightly focusing X-ray optics had wide potential applications.

  13. Three-dimensional phase-contrast X-ray microtomography with scanning–imaging X-ray microscope optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2013-01-01

    A novel three-dimensional X-ray microtomographic micro-imaging system which enables simultaneous measurement of differential phase contrast and absorption contrast has been developed. The optical system consists of a scanning microscope with one-dimensional focusing device and an imaging microscope with one-dimensional objective. A three-dimensional (3D) X-ray tomographic micro-imaging system has been developed. The optical system is based on a scanning–imaging X-ray microscope (SIXM) optics, which is a hybrid system consisting of a scanning microscope optics with a one-dimensional (1D) focusing (line-focusing) device and an imaging microscope optics with a 1D objective. In the SIXM system, each 1D dataset of a two-dimensional (2D) image is recorded independently. An object is illuminated with a line-focused beam. Positional information of the region illuminated by the line-focused beam is recorded with the 1D imaging microscope optics as line-profile data. By scanning the object with the line focus, 2D image data are obtained. In the same manner as for a scanning microscope optics with a multi-pixel detector, imaging modes such as phase contrast and absorption contrast can be arbitrarily configured after the image data acquisition. By combining a tomographic scan method and the SIXM system, quantitative 3D imaging is performed. Results of a feasibility study of the SIXM for 3D imaging are shown

  14. Design of an x-ray telescope optics for XEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Roland; Kampf, Dirk; Wallace, Kotska; Lumb, David; Bavdaz, Marcos; Freyberg, Michael

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray telescope concept for XEUS is based on an innovative high performance and light weight Silicon Pore Optics technology. The XEUS telescope is segmented into 16 radial, thermostable petals providing the rigid optical bench structure of the stand alone XRay High Precision Tandem Optics. A fully representative Form Fit Function (FFF) Model of one petal is currently under development to demonstrate the outstanding lightweight telescope capabilities with high optically effective area. Starting from the envisaged system performance the related tolerance budgets were derived. These petals are made from ceramics, i.e. CeSiC. The structural and thermal performance of the petal shall be reported. The stepwise alignment and integration procedure on petal level shall be described. The functional performance and environmental test verification plan of the Form Fit Function Model and the test set ups are described in this paper. In parallel to the running development activities the programmatic and technical issues wrt. the FM telescope MAIT with currently 1488 Tandem Optics are under investigation. Remote controlled robot supported assembly, simultaneous active alignment and verification testing and decentralised time effective integration procedures shall be illustrated.

  15. Alkali Halide Microstructured Optical Fiber for X-Ray Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaven, S. L.; Wincheski, R. A.; Albin, S.

    2014-01-01

    Microstructured optical fibers containing alkali halide scintillation materials of CsI(Na), CsI(Tl), and NaI(Tl) are presented. The scintillation materials are grown inside the microstructured fibers using a modified Bridgman-Stockbarger technique. The x-ray photon counts of these fibers, with and without an aluminum film coating are compared to the output of a collimated CdTe solid state detector over an energy range from 10 to 40 keV. The photon count results show significant variations in the fiber output based on the materials. The alkali halide fiber output can exceed that of the CdTe detector, dependent upon photon counter efficiency and fiber configuration. The results and associated materials difference are discussed.

  16. Direct comparison of soft x-ray images of organelles with optical fluorescence images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Kado, Masataka; Kishimoto, Maki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Ohba, Toshiyuki; Kaihori, Takeshi; Kawachi, Tetsuya; Tamotsu, Satoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Mikata, Yuji; Shinohara, Kunio

    2011-01-01

    Soft x-ray microscopes operating in the water window region are capable of imaging living hydrated cells. Up to now, we have been able to take some soft x-ray images of living cells by the use of a contact x-ray microscope system with laser produced plasma soft x-ray source. Since the soft x-ray images are different from the optical images obtained with an ordinary microscope, it is very important to identify what is seen in the x-ray images. Hence, we have demonstrated the direct comparison between the images of organelles obtained with a fluorescence microscope and those with a soft x-ray microscope. Comparing the soft x-ray images to the fluorescence images, the fine structures of the organelles could be identified and observed. (author)

  17. HST/ACS IMAGING OF OMEGA CENTAURI: OPTICAL COUNTERPARTS OF CHANDRA X-RAY SOURCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cool, Adrienne M.; Arias, Tersi; Brochmann, Michelle; Dorfman, Jason; Gafford, April; White, Vivian; Haggard, Daryl; Anderson, Jay

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a search for optical counterparts of X-ray sources in and toward the globular cluster Omega Centauri (NGC 5139) using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on the Hubble Space Telescope. The ACS data consist of a mosaic of Wide Field Channel images obtained using F625W, F435W, and F658N filters; with nine pointings we cover the central ∼10' × 10' of the cluster and encompass 109 known Chandra sources. We find promising optical counterparts for 59 of the sources, ∼40 of which are likely to be associated with the cluster. These include 27 candidate cataclysmic variables (CVs), 24 of which are reported here for the first time. Fourteen of the CV candidates are very faint, with absolute magnitudes in the range M 625 =10.4-12.6, making them comparable in brightness to field CVs near the period minimum discovered in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Additional optical counterparts include three BY Dra candidates, a possible blue straggler, and a previously reported quiescent low-mass X-ray binary. We also identify 3 foreground stars and 11 probable active galactic nuclei. Finally, we report the discovery of a group of seven stars whose X-ray properties are suggestive of magnetically active binaries, and whose optical counterparts lie on or very near the metal-rich anomalous giant and subgiant branches in ω Cen. If the apparent association between these seven stars and the RGB/SGB-a stars is real, then the frequency of X-ray sources in this metal-rich population is enhanced by a factor of at least five relative to the other giant and subgiant populations in the cluster. If these stars are not members of the metal-rich population, then they bring the total number of red stragglers (also known as sub-subgiants) that have been identified in ω to Cen 20, the largest number yet known in any globular cluster.

  18. Large-aperture focusing of x rays with micropore optics using dry etching of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Aoki, Tatsuhiko; Morishita, Kohei; Nakajima, Kazuo

    2012-03-01

    Large-aperture focusing of Al K(α) 1.49 keV x-ray photons using micropore optics made from a dry-etched 4 in. (100 mm) silicon wafer is demonstrated. Sidewalls of the micropores are smoothed with high-temperature annealing to work as x-ray mirrors. The wafer is bent to a spherical shape to collect parallel x rays into a focus. Our result supports that this new type of optics allows for the manufacturing of ultralight-weight and high-performance x-ray imaging optics with large apertures at low cost. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  19. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    CERN Document Server

    Kohmura, Y; Awaji, M; Tanaka, T; Hara, T; Goto, S; Ishikawa, T

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper li...

  20. Measurement of X-ray beam emittance using crystal optics at an X-ray undulator beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohmura, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Yoshio; Awaji, Mitsuhiro; Tanaka, Takashi; Hara, Toru; Goto, Shunji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2000-01-01

    We present a method of using crystal optics to measure the emittance of the X-ray source. Two perfect crystals set in (++) configuration work as a high-resolution collimator. The phase-space diagram (i.e. beam cross-section and angular distribution) could be determined without any assumptions on the light source. When the measurement is done at short wavelength radiation from undulator, the electron beam emittance is larger than the diffraction limit of the X-rays. Therefore, the electron beam emittance could be estimated. The measurement was done with the hard X-rays of 18.5 and 55 keV from an undulator beamline, BL 47XU, of SPring-8. The horizontal emittance of the X-ray beam was estimated to be about 7.6 nmrad, close to the designed electron beam emittance of the storage ring (7 nmrad). Some portions of the instrumental functions, such as the scattering by filters and windows along the beamline and the slight bent of the crystal planes of the monochromator, could not be precisely evaluated, but an upper limit for the vertical emittance of the electron beam could be obtained as 0.14 nmrad

  1. Characterization of Beryllium Windows for Coherent X-ray Optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shunji; Yabashi, Makina; Tamasaku, Kenji; Ishikawa, Tetsuya

    2007-01-01

    Beryllium foils fabricated by several processes were characterized using spatially coherent x rays at 1-km beamline of SPring-8. By thickness dependence of bright x-ray spot density due to Fresnel diffraction from several-micron deficiencies, we found that speckles (bright x-ray spots) were due to voids with densities 103-104 mm-3 in powder foils and ingot foils. Compared with powder and ingot foils, a polished physical-vapor-deposited (PVD) beryllium foil gave highly uniform beams with no speckles. The PVD process eliminates the internal voids in principle and the PVD foil is the best for coherent x-ray applications

  2. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  3. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes

  4. Variable-metric diffraction crystals for x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smither, R.K.; Fernandez, P.B.

    1992-01-01

    A variable-metric (VM) crystal is one in which the spacing between the crystalline planes changes with position in the crystal. This variation can be either parallel to the crystalline planes or perpendicular to the crystalline planes of interest and can be produced by either introducing a thermal gradient in the crystal or by growing a crystal made of two or more elements and changing the relative percentages of the two elements as the crystal is grown. A series of experiments were performed in the laboratory to demonstrate the principle of the variable-metric crystal and its potential use in synchrotron beam lines. One of the most useful applications of the VM crystal is to increase the number of photons per unit bandwidth in a diffracted beam without losing any of the overall intensity. In a normal synchrotron beam line that uses a two-crystal monochromator, the bandwidth of the diffracted photon beam is determined by the vertical opening angle of the beam which is typically 0.10--0.30 mrad or 20--60 arcsec. When the VM crystal approach is applied, the bandwidth of the beam can be made as narrow as the rocking curve of the diffracting crystal, which is typically 0.005--0.050 mrad or 1--10 arcsec. Thus a very large increase of photons per unit bandwidth (or per unit energy) can be achieved through the use of VM crystals. When the VM principle is used with bent crystals, new kinds of x-ray optical elements can be generated that can focus and defocus x-ray beams much like simple lenses where the focal length of the lens can be changed to match its application. Thus both large magnifications and large demagnifications can be achieved as well as parallel beams with narrow bandwidths

  5. The Population of Optically Faint GEO Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitzer, Patrick; Barker, Ed; Buckalew, Brent; Burkhardt, Andrew; Cowardin, Heather; Frith, James; Gomez, Juan; Kaleida, Catherine; Lederer, Susan M.; Lee, Chris H.

    2016-01-01

    The 6.5-m Magellan telescope 'Walter Baade' at the Las Campanas Observatory in Chile has been used for spot surveys of the GEO orbital regime to study the population of optically faint GEO debris. The goal is to estimate the size of the population of GEO debris at sizes much smaller than can be studied with 1-meter class telescopes. Despite the small size of the field of view of the Magellan instrument (diameter 0.5-degree), a significant population of objects fainter than R = 19th magnitude have been found with angular rates consistent with circular orbits at GEO. We compare the size of this population with the numbers of GEO objects found at brighter magnitudes by smaller telescopes. The observed detections have a wide range in characteristics starting with those appearing as short uniform streaks. But there are a substantial number of detections with variations in brightness, flashers, during the 5-second exposure. The duration of each of these flashes can be extremely brief: sometimes less than half a second. This is characteristic of a rapidly tumbling object with a quite variable projected size times albedo. If the albedo is of the order of 0.2, then the largest projected size of these objects is around 10-cm. The data in this paper was collected over the last several years using Magellan's IMACS camera in f/2 mode. The analysis shows the brightness bins for the observed GEO population as well as the periodicity of the flashers. All objects presented are correlated with the catalog: the focus of the paper will be on the uncorrelated, optically faint, objects. The goal of this project is to better characterize the faint debris population in GEO that access to a 6.5-m optical telescope in a superb site can provide.

  6. Electroform/Plasma-Spray Laminates for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmer, Melville P.; Graham, Michael; Vaynman, Semyon

    2007-01-01

    Electroform/plasma-spray laminates have shown promise as lightweight, strong, low-thermal-expansion components for xray optics. The basic idea is to exploit both (1) the well-established art of fabrication of optical components by replication and (2) plasma spraying as a means of reinforcing a thin replica optic with one or more backing layer(s) having tailorable thermomechanical properties. In x-ray optics as in other applications, replication reduces the time and cost of fabrication because grinding and polishing can be limited to a few thick masters, from which many lightweight replicas can thereafter be made. The first step in the fabrication of a component of the type in question is to make a replica optic by electroforming a thin layer of nickel on a master. Through proper control of the electroforming process conditions, it is possible to minimize residual stress and, hence, to minimize distortion in the replica. Next, a powder comprising ceramic particles coated with a metal compatible with the electroformed nickel is plasma-sprayed onto the backside of the nickel replica. Then through several repetitions and variations of the preceding steps or perhaps a small compressive stress, alternating layers of electroformed nickel and plasma-sprayed metal-coated ceramic powder are deposited. The thicknesses of the layers and the composition of the metal-coated ceramic powder are chosen to optimize the strength, areal mass density, and toughness of the finished component. An important benefit of using both electroforming and plasma spraying is the possibility of balancing stresses to a minimum level, which could be zero or perhaps a small net compressive stress designed to enhance the function of the component in its intended application.

  7. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short x-ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error. For the sub-100fs range we use an amplitude modulated CW laser at 1GHz to transmit RF phase information, and control the delay through a 100m fiber by observing the retroreflected signal. Initial results show 40fs peak-to-peak error above 10Hz, and 200fs long term drift, mainly due to amplitude sensitivity in the analog mixers. For the sub-10fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes. For attosecond synchronization we propose a stabilized, free space link using bulk lens wavegu...

  8. Coating Thin Mirror Segments for Lightweight X-ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing; Sharpe, Marton V.; Zhang, William; Kolosc, Linette; Hong, Melinda; McClelland, Ryan; Hohl, Bruce R.; Saha, Timo; Mazzarellam, James

    2013-01-01

    Next generations lightweight, high resolution, high throughput optics for x-ray astronomy requires integration of very thin mirror segments into a lightweight telescope housing without distortion. Thin glass substrates with linear dimension of 200 mm and thickness as small as 0.4 mm can now be fabricated to a precision of a few arc-seconds for grazing incidence optics. Subsequent implementation requires a distortion-free deposition of metals such as iridium or platinum. These depositions, however, generally have high coating stresses that cause mirror distortion. In this paper, we discuss the coating stress on these thin glass mirrors and the effort to eliminate their induced distortion. It is shown that balancing the coating distortion either by coating films with tensile and compressive stresses, or on both sides of the mirrors is not sufficient. Heating the mirror in a moderately high temperature turns out to relax the coated films reasonably well to a precision of about a second of arc and therefore provide a practical solution to the coating problem.

  9. Fainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine you’re taking. Alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana can also cause fainting. More serious causes of fainting include seizures and problems with the heart or with the blood vessels leading to the brain. How is fainting diagnosed? Your doctor will probably ...

  10. Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irving, Thomas H.K.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.

    2003-01-01

    A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements

  11. Characterization of X-ray optics by soft X-ray diffractometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biltoft, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have constructed a soft x-ray diffractometer to characterize layered synthetic microstructures (LSMs). The source, sample stage, and counter sections of the diffractometer operate under vacuum. The design differs from most others in two respects: the preamplifier and amplifier that process pulses from the subatmospheric-pressure gas-flow proportional counter are located outside the vacuum chamber and are separated from the proportional counter by approximately 76 cm of shielded cable; in addition, the conventional gear-driven, theta-two-theta diffractometer motion is accomplished with synchronized stepper motors. Characterizations of several LSMs have yielded data on d-spacing (distance between layers of different composition), critical angle, and peak reflectivity. Future work includes incorporation of an improved laser alignment system, in vacuo sample articulation (in addition to the theta-two-theta diffractometer movements), and a higher-flux photon source with a close-coupled fluorescent target carousel. Such a capability will permit multiple-energy diffraction work in a single pumpdown cycle

  12. Optically-ionized plasma recombination x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendt, P.; Eder, D.C.; Wilks, S.C.; Dunning, M.J.; Keane, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Design studies for recombination x-ray lasers based on plasmas ionized by high intensity, short pulse optical lasers are presented. Transient lasing on n = 3 to n = 2 transitions in Lithium-like Neon allows for moderately short wavelengths (≤ 100 angstrom) without requiring ionizing intensities associated with relativistic electron quiver energies. The electron energy distribution following the ionizing pulse affects directly the predicted gains for this resonance transition. Efficiencies of 10 -6 or greater are found for plasma temperatures in the vicinity of 40 eV. Simulation studies of parametric heating phenomena relating to stimulated Raman and Compton scattering are presented. For electron densities less than about 2.5 x 10 20 cm -3 and peak driver intensity of 2 x 10 17 W/cm 2 at 0.25 μm with pulse length of 100 fsec, the amount of electron heating is found to be marginally significant. For Lithium-like Aluminum, the required relativistic ionizing intensity gives excessive electron heating and reduced efficiency, thereby rendering this scheme impractical for generating shorter wavelength lasing (≤ 50 angstrom) in the transient case. Following the transient lasing phase, a slow hydrodynamic expansion into the surrounding cool plasma is accompanied by quasi-static gain on the n = 4 to n = 3 transition in Lithium-like Neon. Parametric heating effects on gain optimization in this regime are also discussed. 18 refs., 6 figs

  13. Single-pulse x-ray diffraction using polycapillary optics for in situ dynamic diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, B. R., E-mail: maddox3@llnl.gov; Akin, M. C., E-mail: akin1@llnl.gov; Teruya, A.; Hunt, D.; Hahn, D.; Cradick, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Morgan, D. V. [National Security Technologies LLC, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Diagnostic use of single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) at pulsed power facilities can be challenging due to factors such as the high flux and brightness requirements for diffraction and the geometric constraints of experimental platforms. By necessity, the x-ray source is usually positioned very close, within a few inches of the sample. On dynamic compression platforms, this puts the x-ray source in the debris field. We coupled x-ray polycapillary optics to a single-shot needle-and-washer x-ray diode source using a laser-based alignment scheme to obtain high-quality x-ray diffraction using a single 16 ns x-ray pulse with the source >1 m from the sample. The system was tested on a Mo sample in reflection geometry using 17 keV x-rays from a Mo anode. We also identified an anode conditioning effect that increased the x-ray intensity by 180%. Quantitative measurements of the x-ray focal spot produced by the polycapillary yielded a total x-ray flux on the sample of 3.3 ± 0.5 × 10{sup 7} molybdenum Kα photons.

  14. Development of improved x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeams. CRADA final report for CRADA Number Y-1294-0283

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, D.A.; Gao, N.; Xiao, Q.F.; Ponomarev, I.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this CRADA was to develop improved glass capillary, x-ray optics for analytical x-ray microbeam applications. X-Ray Optical Systems, Inc. (XOS) designed and fabricated capillary optics and LMES tested those optics for x-ray microanalytical applications using its unique X-Ray Microprobe. Tapered capillaries with 3-microm and 8-microm output openings were fabricated and tested. The tapered capillaries had better spectral quality for x-ray microfluorescence (XRMF) analysis, than non-tapered, straight capillaries that are currently used in the system. X-ray beam count-rates for the tapered capillaries were also greater than the straight capillaries. Two monolithic, polycapillary optics were fabricated and tested. The polycapillary optics produced focal spots of 40 and 100 microm. Beam intensities for the polycapillaries were, respective, 44 and 18 times the intensities found in straight 50-microm and 100-microm capillaries. High-sensitivity scanning will be possible because of the enhanced intensity of the polycapillary optic. LMES and the DP program will benefit from improved capabilities for nondestructive x-ray microanalysis, while XOS will benefit from test results that will enhance the marketability of their products

  15. X-ray optical diagnostic of laser produced plasmas for nuclear fusion and X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butzbach, R.

    2001-07-01

    In the present work, the conception, design and appliance of toroidally bent crystals for the X-ray optical diagnostics of laser produced plasmas is discussed. The first part of this work deals with the development, design and characterization of an X-Ray microscope for the observation of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, which act against the confinement and ignition of the fuel in the inertial confinement fusion process. The aim of the second part of the present work was the diagnostic of the lasing medium for amplified spontaneous emission close to the water window. For this purpose, an one-dimensionally (1-D) imaging X-ray spectrometer based on toroidally bent quartz crystals was developed for the observation of the Ni-like 4f-3d transition of Yb, Hf, Ta, and W ions, which should be related to the amplified 4d-4p emission, since the 4f niveau is very close to the 4d niveau. Thus, the 4f-3d transition can serve as an indicator for the population of the 4d niveau. (orig.)

  16. Kinoform optics applied to X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandy, A R; Narayanan, S; Sprung, M; Su, J-D; Evans-Lutterodt, K; Isakovic, A F; Stein, A

    2010-05-01

    Moderate-demagnification higher-order silicon kinoform focusing lenses have been fabricated to facilitate small-angle X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) experiments. The geometric properties of such lenses, their focusing performance and their applicability for XPCS measurements are described. It is concluded that one-dimensional vertical X-ray focusing via silicon kinoform lenses significantly increases the usable coherent flux from third-generation storage-ring light sources for small-angle XPCS experiments.

  17. Soft X-ray imaging by optically stimulated luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfigli, F. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy)], E-mail: bonfigli@frascati.enea.it; Almaviva, S.; Baldacchini, G.; Bollanti, S.; Flora, F.; Lai, A.; Montereali, R.M. [ENEA, C.R. Frascati, Via E. Fermi, 45, 00044 Frascati (Rome) (Italy); Nichelatti, E. [ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Via Anguillarese 301, 00060 S.Maria di Galeria (Rome) (Italy); Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Reale, L. [Universita de L' Aquila e INFN, Dip. di Fisica, Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy); Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI Mendeleevo, Moscow region, 141570 (Russian Federation); Larciprete, R. [ISC-CNR, Sezione Montelibretti, Via Salaria, Km. 29.3, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Gregoratti, L.; Kiskinova, M. [Sincrotrone Trieste, S. S. 14, Km. 163.5, 34012 Basovizza (TS) (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    An innovative X-ray imaging detector based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence from color centers in lithium fluoride is presented. Regular photoluminescent patterns produced on LiF samples by different intense X-ray sources, like synchrotrons, laser plasma sources and a capillary discharge laser have been investigated by a Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope. The use of a LiF-based imaging plate for X-ray microscopy is also discussed showing microradiographies of small animals.

  18. Refractive optics to compensate x-ray mirror shape-errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal; Pape, Ian

    2017-08-01

    Elliptically profiled mirrors operating at glancing angle are frequently used at X-ray synchrotron sources to focus X-rays into sub-micrometer sized spots. Mirror figure error, defined as the height difference function between the actual mirror surface and the ideal elliptical profile, causes a perturbation of the X-ray wavefront for X- rays reflecting from the mirror. This perturbation, when propagated to the focal plane results in an increase in the size of the focused beam. At Diamond Light Source we are developing refractive optics that can be used to locally cancel out the wavefront distortion caused by figure error from nano-focusing elliptical mirrors. These optics could be used to correct existing optical components on synchrotron radiation beamlines in order to give focused X-ray beam sizes approaching the theoretical diffraction limit. We present our latest results showing measurement of the X-ray wavefront error after reflection from X-ray mirrors and the translation of the measured wavefront into a design for refractive optical elements for correction of the X-ray wavefront. We show measurement of the focused beam with and without the corrective optics inserted showing reduction in the size of the focus resulting from the correction to the wavefront.

  19. High-resolution accelerator alignment using x-ray optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingxin Yang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel alignment technique utilizing the x-ray beam of an undulator in conjunction with pinholes and position-sensitive detectors for positioning components of the accelerator, undulator, and beam line in an x-ray free-electron laser. Two retractable pinholes at each end of the undulator define a stable and reproducible x-ray beam axis (XBA. Targets are precisely positioned on the XBA using a pinhole camera technique. Position-sensitive detectors responding to both x-ray and electron beams enable direct transfer of the position setting from the XBA to the electron beam. This system has the potential to deliver superior alignment accuracy (1–3   μm for target pinholes in the transverse directions over a long distance (200 m or longer. It can be used to define the beam axis of the electron-beam–based alignment, enabling high reproducibility of the latter. This x-ray–based concept should complement the electron-beam–based alignment and the existing survey methods to raise the alignment accuracy of long accelerators to an unprecedented level. Further improvement of the transverse accuracy using x-ray zone plates will be discussed. We also propose a concurrent measurement scheme during accelerator operation to allow real-time feedback for transverse position correction.

  20. Hard X-ray Optics Technology Development for Astronomy at the Marshall Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee

    2009-01-01

    Grazing-incidence telescopes based on Wolter 1 geometry have delivered impressive advances in astrophysics at soft-x-ray wavelengths, while the hard xray region remains relatively unexplored at fine angular resolution and high sensitivities. The ability to perform ground-breaking science in the hard-x-ray energy range had been the motivation for technology developments aimed at fabricating low-cost, light-weight, high-quality x-ray mirrors. Grazing-incidence x-ray optics for high-energy astrophysical applications is being developed at MSFC using the electroform-nickel replication process.

  1. Next Generation Astronomical X-ray Optics: High Angular Resolution, Light Weight, and Low Production Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang. W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Blake, P. N.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M. L.; Jones, W. D.; Kolos, L. D.; Mazzarella, J. R.; McClelland, R. S.; hide

    2012-01-01

    X-ray astronomy depends on the availability of telescopes with high resolution and large photon collecting areas. Since x-ray observation can only be carried out above the atmosphere, these telescopes must be necessarily lightweight. Compounding the lightweight requirement is that an x-ray telescope consists of many nested concentric shells, which further require that x-ray mirrors must also be geometrically thin to achieve high packing efficiency. This double lightweight and geometrically thin requirement poses significant technical challenges in fabricating the mirrors and in integrating them into mirror assemblies. This paper reports on the approach, strategy and status of our x-ray optics development program whose objective is to meet these technical challenges at modest cost to enable future x-ray missions, including small Explorer missions in the near term, probe class missions in the medium term, and large flagship missions in the long term.

  2. Measurement of grain size of polycrystalline materials with confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Weiyuan; Liu, Zhiguo [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Sun, Tianxi, E-mail: stx@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Peng, Song [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Ma, Yongzhong [Center for Disease Control and Prevention of Beijing, Beijing 100013 (China); Li, Fangzuo; Sun, Xuepeng; Ding, Xunliang [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Materials Modification of the Ministry of Education, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China)

    2014-11-11

    The confocal energy dispersive micro-X-ray diffraction (EDMXRD) based on polycapillary X-ray optics was used to determine the grain size of polycrystalline materials. The grain size of a metallographic specimen of nickel base alloy was measured by using the confocal EDMXRD. The experimental results demonstrated that the confocal EDMXRD had potential applications in measuring large grain size.

  3. X-ray microbeams based on Kumakhov polycapillary optics and its

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kumakhov polycapillary optics is based on the effective passage of X-ray radiation through bundles of monocapillaries of various configurations. The passage of radiation takes place because of the total external reflection of X-rays from the inner capillary walls. In this work,the basic characteristics of intense quasi-parallel ...

  4. Interferometric and optical tests of water window imaging x ray microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. Barry

    1993-01-01

    Interferometric tests of Schwarzchild X-ray Microscope are performed to evaluate the optical properties and alignment of the components. Photographic measurements of the spatial resolution, focal properties, and vignetting characteristics of the prototype Water Window Imaging X-ray Microscope are made and analyzed.

  5. Optical flare of HDE 245770-A0535+26 during the expected X-ray maximum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslennikov, K.L.

    1986-01-01

    UBV-photometry of the optical component of the X-ray binary HD 245770-A0535+26 was carried out in April 12-18, 1985. The brightness increase (by 0sup(m).25 in the U band) was observed four days before an X-ray maximum of A0535+26 predicted from the 111-day period

  6. Project Title: Radiochemical Analysis by High Sensitivity Dual-Optic Micro X-ray Fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havrilla, George J.; Gao, Ning

    2002-01-01

    A novel dual-optic micro X-ray fluorescence instrument will be developed to do radiochemical analysis of high-level radioactive wastes at DOE sites such as Savannah River Site and Hanford. This concept incorporates new X-ray optical elements such as monolithic polycapillaries and double bent crystals, which focus X-rays. The polycapillary optic can be used to focus X-rays emitted by the X-ray tube thereby increasing the X-ray flux on the sample over 1000 times. Polycapillaries will also be used to collect the X-rays from the excitation site and screen the radiation background from the radioactive species in the specimen. This dual-optic approach significantly reduces the background and increases the analyte signal thereby increasing the sensitivity of the analysis. A doubly bent crystal used as the focusing optic produces focused monochromatic X-ray excitation, which eliminates the bremsstrahlung background from the X-ray source. The coupling of the doubly bent crystal for monochromatic excitation with a polycapillary for signal collection can effectively eliminate the noise background and radiation background from the specimen. The integration of these X-ray optics increases the signal-to-noise and thereby increases the sensitivity of the analysis for low-level analytes. This work will address a key need for radiochemical analysis of high-level waste using a non-destructive, multi-element, and rapid method in a radiation environment. There is significant potential that this instrumentation could be capable of on-line analysis for process waste stream characterization at DOE sites

  7. Differential Deposition for Surface Figure Corrections in Grazing Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian D.; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Broadway, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Differential deposition corrects the low- and mid- spatial-frequency deviations in the axial figure of Wolter-type grazing incidence X-ray optics. Figure deviations is one of the major contributors to the achievable angular resolution. Minimizing figure errors can significantly improve the imaging quality of X-ray optics. Material of varying thickness is selectively deposited, using DC magnetron sputtering, along the length of optic to minimize figure deviations. Custom vacuum chambers are built that can incorporate full-shell and segmented Xray optics. Metrology data of preliminary corrections on a single meridian of full-shell x-ray optics show an improvement of mid-spatial frequencies from 6.7 to 1.8 arc secs HPD. Efforts are in progress to correct a full-shell and segmented optics and to verify angular-resolution improvement with X-ray testing.

  8. Linac Coherent Light Source soft x-ray materials science instrument optical design and monochromator commissioning

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heimann, P.; Krupin, O.; Schlotter, W.F.; Turner, J.; Krzywinski, J.; Sorgenfrei, F.; Messerschmidt, M.; Bernstein, D.; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Hau-Riege, S.; Holmes, M.; Juha, Libor; Kelez, N.; Lüning, J.; Nordlund, D.; Perea, M.F.; Scherz, A.; Soufli, R.; Wurth, W.; Rowen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 9 (2011), 093104/1-093104/8 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ME10046 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : diffraction gratings * light sources * linear accelerators * optical materials * x-ray monochromators * x-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.367, year: 2011

  9. Development and application of variable-magnification x-ray Bragg optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Keiichi, E-mail: keiichi.hirano@kek.jp; Takahashi, Yumiko; Sugiyama, Hiroshi [Institute of Materials Structure Science, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Yamashita, Yoshiki [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A novel x-ray Bragg optics was developed for variable-magnification of an x-ray beam, and was combined with a module of the PILATUS pixel detector. A feasibility test of this optical system was carried out at the vertical-wiggler beamline BL-14B of the Photon Factory. By tuning the magnification factor, we could successfully control the spatial resolution of the optical system between 28 μm and 280 μm. X-ray absorption-contrast images of a leaf were observed at various magnification factors.

  10. Development of a micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics for non-destructive analysis of archaeological objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lin; Ding, Xunliang; Liu, Zhiguo; Pan, Qiuli; Chu, Xuelian

    2007-08-01

    A new micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics has been set up in XOL Lab, BNU, China, in order to be used for analysis of archaeological objects. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to tens of micrometers in diameter that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity. The analytical characteristics and potential of this micro-XRF system in archaeological research are discussed. Some described uses of this instrument include studying Chinese ancient porcelain.

  11. Development of a micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics for non-destructive analysis of archaeological objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing, 100875 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Pan Qiuli; Chu Xuelian [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing, 100875 (China)

    2007-08-15

    A new micro-X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics has been set up in XOL Lab, BNU, China, in order to be used for analysis of archaeological objects. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to tens of micrometers in diameter that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/trace level sensitivity. The analytical characteristics and potential of this micro-XRF system in archaeological research are discussed. Some described uses of this instrument include studying Chinese ancient porcelain.

  12. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tichy, Vladimir; Barbera, Marco; Collura, Alfonso; Hromcik, Martin; Hudec, Rene; Inneman, Adolf; Jakubek, Jan; Marsik, Jiri; Marsikova, Veronika; Pina, Ladislav; Varisco, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    The Lobster eye design for a grazing incidence X-ray optics provides wide field of view of the order of many degrees, for this reason it can be a convenient approach for the construction of space all-sky X-ray monitors. We present preliminary results of tests of prototype lobster eye X-ray optics in quasi parallel beam full imaging mode conducted using the 35 m long X-ray beam-line of INAF-OAPA in Palermo (Italy). X-ray images at the focal plane have been taken with a microchannel plate (MCP) detector at several energy values from 0.3 to 8 keV. The gain, the field of view and the angular resolution have been measured and compared with theoretical values.

  13. A submicron synchrotron X-ray beam generated by capillary optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, P.; Larsson, S.; Rindby, A.; Buttkewitz, A.; Garbe, S.; Gaul, G.; Knoechel, A.; Lechtenberg, F.; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron

    1991-01-01

    A novel capillary optics technique for focusing synchrotron X-ray beams has been applied in an experiment performed at the DORIS storage ring at HASYLAB. This new technqiue, which utilizes the total reflection properties of X-rays inside small capillaries, has recently been applied to generate microbeams of X-rays, with a beam size down to about 10 μm using conventional X-ray tubes. The result from our recent experiment shows that capillary optics can also be used to generate a submicron beam of X-rays from a synchrotron light source. A description of the capillary unit, and the alignment procedure is given. The influence of the thermal load on the device caused by the intense flux of synchrotron radiation will be discussed. Future perspectives of the capillary techniques as applied to synchrotron radiation will be discussed. (orig.)

  14. Fainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... go to the ER. When Desiree asked her school nurse about it the next day, she said Desiree probably fainted because she stayed in the whirlpool too long or the temperature was set too high, affecting her blood pressure. ...

  15. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for X-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a...

  16. Fabrication Technology for X-Ray Optics and Mandrels, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has a cross-project need for large format aspheric x-ray optics, which, demonstrate exceptionally low periodic surface errors. Available technologies to both...

  17. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Zhou, Tunhe; Kashyap, Yogesh; Sawhney, Kawal

    2017-08-01

    To achieve high resolution and sensitivity on the nanometer scale, further development of X-ray optics is required. Although ex-situ metrology provides valuable information about X-ray optics, the ultimate performance of X-ray optics is critically dependent on the exact nature of the working conditions. Therefore, it is equally important to perform in-situ metrology at the optics' operating wavelength (`at-wavelength' metrology) to optimize the performance of X-ray optics and correct and minimize the collective distortions of the upstream beamline optics, e.g. monochromator, windows, etc. Speckle-based technique has been implemented and further improved at Diamond Light Source. We have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach an accuracy of two nanoradians. The recent development of the speckle-based at-wavelength metrology techniques will be presented. Representative examples of the applications of the speckle-based technique will also be given - including optimization of X-ray mirrors and characterization of compound refraction lenses. Such a high-precision metrology technique will be extremely beneficial for the manufacture and in-situ alignment/optimization of X-ray mirrors for next-generation synchrotron beamlines.

  18. Using refractive optics to broaden the focus of an X-ray mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal; Dhamgaye, Vishal

    2017-07-01

    X-ray mirrors are widely used at synchrotron radiation sources for focusing X-rays into focal spots of size less than 1 µm. The ability of the beamline optics to change the size of this spot over a range up to tens of micrometres can be an advantage for many experiments such as X-ray microprobe and X-ray diffraction from micrometre-scale crystals. It is a requirement that the beam size change should be reproducible and it is often essential that the change should be rapid, for example taking less than 1 s, in order to allow high data collection rates at modern X-ray sources. In order to provide a controlled broadening of the focused spot of an X-ray mirror, a series of refractive optical elements have been fabricated and installed immediately before the mirror. By translation, a new refractive element is moved into the X-ray beam allowing a variation in the size of the focal spot in the focusing direction. Measurements using a set of prefabricated refractive structures with a test mirror showed that the focused beam size could be varied from less than 1 µm to over 10 µm for X-rays in the energy range 10-20 keV. As the optics is in-line with the X-ray beam, there is no effect on the centroid position of the focus. Accurate positioning of the refractive optics ensures reproducibility in the focused beam profile and no additional re-alignment of the optics is required.

  19. Capillary Optics as an x-ray Condensing Lens An Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Cappuccio, G

    2000-01-01

    The procedure of capillary lens alignment is described in detail. The theoretical basis of capillary optics is given in the framework of a comparative analysis of monocapillary and polycapillary optics. The results of x-ray $9 distribution scanning behind the capillary lens for various angle planes, together with the tting results, are presented. A qualitative explanation is given for the discrepancy between the expected and observed divergences of x-ray $9 beams transmitted by the capillary lens.

  20. Diffractive-refractive optics: (+,-,-,+) X-ray crystal monochromator with harmonics separation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdý, Jaromír; Mikulík, P.; Oberta, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 299-301 ISSN 0909-0495 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : diffractive-refractive optics * x-ray synchrotron radiation monochromator * x-ray crystal monochromator * harmonics separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.726, year: 2011

  1. Chandra ACIS-S imaging spectroscopy of anomalously faint X-ray emission from Comet 103P/Hartley 2 during the EPOXI encounter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, C. M.; Christian, D. J.; Wolk, S. J.; Dennerl, K.; Bodewits, D.; Combi, M. R.; Lepri, S. T.; Zurbuchen, T. H.; Li, J. Y.; Dello-Russo, N.; Belton, M. J. S.; Knight, M. M.

    2013-02-01

    al. [2010]. Astrophys. J. Suppl. 187, 447-459) as the solar wind became dominated by a less ionized and faster plasma, more typical of outflow from polar coronal hole regions. We postulate that the overall faintness of the comet seen during all visits is due to the unusually well mixed dust and gas content of this hyperactive comet's coma producing Auger electrons rather than X-rays via charge exchange with the solar wind. An alternative possible explanation for the faintness of the comet's X-ray emission, and its unusual high CV and unusually low CVI emission, is that the impinging solar wind was drastically slowed in the inner coma, below 150 km s-1, before charge exchanging with cometary neutrals.

  2. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberta, P.; Áč, V.; Hrdý, J.

    2013-01-01

    Internally cooled X-ray optics, like X-ray monochromators and reflecting X-ray mirrors, play a crucial role in defining a beamlines resolution, degree of coherence and flux. A great effort is invested in the development of these optical components. An important aspect of the functionality of high heat load optics is its cooling and its influence on surface deformation. The authors present a study of two different geometrical cooling approaches. Its influence on beam inhomogeneity due to the strain from the manufacturing process is presented. X-ray topographic images and FWHM measurements are presented. FEA simulations of cooling efficiency and surface deformations were performed. The best achieved results are under an enlargement of 0.4μrad of the measured rocking curve

  3. Optical technologies for extreme-ultraviolet and soft X-ray coherent sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canova, Federico; Poletto, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The book reviews the most recent achievements in optical technologies for XUV and X-ray coherent sources. Particular attention is given to free-electron-laser facilities, but also to other sources available at present, such as synchrotrons, high-order laser harmonics and X-ray lasers. The optical technologies relevant to each type of source are discussed. In addition, the main technologies used for photon handling and conditioning, namely multilayer mirrors, adaptive optics, crystals and gratings are explained. Experiments using coherent light received during the last decades a lot of attention for the X-ray regime. Strong efforts were taken for the realization of almost fully coherent sources, e.g. the free-electron lasers, both as independent sources in the femtosecond and attosecond regimes and as seeding sources for free-electron-lasers and X-ray gas lasers. In parallel to the development of sources, optical technologies for photon handling and conditioning of such coherent and intense X-ray beams advanced. New problems were faced for the realization of optical components of beamlines demanding to manage coherent X-ray photons, e.g. the preservation of coherence and time structure of ultra short pulses.

  4. The histories of capillary optics for x-rays and ion beams in Russia, USA, and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezawa, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the history of X-ray lens and the present situation of ion beam focusing with glass capillaries systems. The basic technology of X-ray lens using glass capillaries was independently developed over 20 years by Prof. Kumakhov in the former Soviet Union and Dr. Soejima in Japan, respectively. In the 1990's, Prof. W.M. Gibson and his coworkers intensively studied X-rays and neutron optics in Albany, NY, USA. X-ray optics with glass capillaries, in these days is well known in the world. This unique technique was fabricated to collimate X-rays. Also, new ion beam analysis technique with glass capillaries systems has been intensively developed by Dr. Nebiki and Prof. Narusawa in Kochi, Japan. These X-rays and ion beams techniques have brought new application for many fields; X-ray detector, X-ray lithography, X-ray astronomy, microdiffraction, medical therapy and biological applications. (author)

  5. Surface slope metrology of highly curved x-ray optics with an interferometric microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Centers, Gary; Polonska, Kateryna S.; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Lacey, Ian; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2017-09-01

    The development of deterministic polishing techniques has given rise to vendors that manufacture high quality threedimensional x-ray optics. The surface metrology on these optics remains a difficult task. For the fabrication, vendors usually use unique surface metrology tools, generally developed on site, that are not available in the optical metrology labs at x-ray facilities. At the Advanced Light Source X-Ray Optics Laboratory, we have developed a rather straightforward interferometric-microscopy-based procedure capable of sub microradian characterization of sagittal slope variation of x-ray optics for two-dimensionally focusing and collimating (such as ellipsoids, paraboloids, etc.). In the paper, we provide the mathematical foundation of the procedure and describe the related instrument calibration. We also present analytical expression describing the ideal surface shape in the sagittal direction of a spheroid specified by the conjugate parameters of the optic's beamline application. The expression is useful when analyzing data obtained with such optics. The high efficiency of the developed measurement and data analysis procedures is demonstrated in results of measurements with a number of x-ray optics with sagittal radius of curvature between 56 mm and 480 mm. We also discuss potential areas of further improvement.

  6. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: Scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K.; Paganin, David M.; Hall, Chris J.

    2011-01-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. -- Research highlights: → It is timely that the concept of Bragg's X-ray microscope be revisited. → Transient gratings can be used for X-ray all-optical information processing. → Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered.

  7. Characterization of a confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics and Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Zhu Guanghua; Li Yude; Wei Xiangjun; Chen Dongliang; Xu Qing; Liu Quanru; Huang Yuying; Lin Xiaoyan; Sun Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    A new confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence (3D micro-XRF) facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics in the detection channel and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the excitation channel is designed. The lateral resolution (l x , l y ) of this confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence facility is 76.3(l x ) and 53.4(l y ) μm respectively, and its depth resolution d z is 77.1 μm at θ = 90 o . A plant sample (twig of B. microphylla) and airborne particles are analyzed

  8. STUDYING FAINT ULTRA-HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM AGN IN GOALS LIRGS WITH SWIFT/BAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koss, Michael; Casey, Caitlin M.; Mushotzky, Richard; Veilleux, Sylvain; Baumgartner, Wayne; Tueller, Jack; Markwardt, Craig

    2013-01-01

    We present the first analysis of the all-sky Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) ultra-hard X-ray (14-195 keV) data for a targeted list of objects. We find that the BAT data can be studied at three-times-fainter limits than in previous blind detection catalogs based on prior knowledge of source positions and using smaller energy ranges for source detection. We determine the active galactic nucleus (AGN) fraction in 134 nearby (z IR /L ☉ > 11.8) detected. The BAT AGN classification shows 97% (37/38) agreement with Chandra and XMM-Newton AGN classification using hardness ratios or detection of an iron Kα line. This confirms our statistical analysis and supports the use of the Swift/BAT all-sky survey to study fainter populations of any category of sources in the ultra-hard X-ray band. BAT AGNs in LIRGs tend to show higher column densities with 40% ± 9% showing 14-195 keV/2-10 keV hardness flux ratios suggestive of high or Compton-thick column densities (log N H > 24 cm –2 ), compared to only 12% ± 5% of non-LIRG BAT AGNs. We also find that using specific energy ranges of the BAT detector can yield additional sources over total band detections with 24% (5/21) of detections in LIRGs at 24-35 keV not detected at 14-195 keV.

  9. Nitridation and contrast of B4C/La interfaces and X-ray multilayer optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsarfati, T.; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Zoethout, E.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2010-01-01

    Chemical diffusion and interlayer formation in thin layers and at interfaces is of increasing influence in nanoscopic devices such as nano-electronics, magneto-optical storage and multilayer X-ray optics. We show that with the nitridation of reactive B4C/La interfaces, both the chemical and optical

  10. Connecting optical and X-ray tracers of galaxy cluster relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Ian D.; Parker, Laura C.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, Julie

    2018-04-01

    Substantial effort has been devoted in determining the ideal proxy for quantifying the morphology of the hot intracluster medium in clusters of galaxies. These proxies, based on X-ray emission, typically require expensive, high-quality X-ray observations making them difficult to apply to large surveys of groups and clusters. Here, we compare optical relaxation proxies with X-ray asymmetries and centroid shifts for a sample of Sloan Digital Sky Survey clusters with high-quality, archival X-ray data from Chandra and XMM-Newton. The three optical relaxation measures considered are the shape of the member-galaxy projected velocity distribution - measured by the Anderson-Darling (AD) statistic, the stellar mass gap between the most-massive and second-most-massive cluster galaxy, and the offset between the most-massive galaxy (MMG) position and the luminosity-weighted cluster centre. The AD statistic and stellar mass gap correlate significantly with X-ray relaxation proxies, with the AD statistic being the stronger correlator. Conversely, we find no evidence for a correlation between X-ray asymmetry or centroid shift and the MMG offset. High-mass clusters (Mhalo > 1014.5 M⊙) in this sample have X-ray asymmetries, centroid shifts, and Anderson-Darling statistics which are systematically larger than for low-mass systems. Finally, considering the dichotomy of Gaussian and non-Gaussian clusters (measured by the AD test), we show that the probability of being a non-Gaussian cluster correlates significantly with X-ray asymmetry but only shows a marginal correlation with centroid shift. These results confirm the shape of the radial velocity distribution as a useful proxy for cluster relaxation, which can then be applied to large redshift surveys lacking extensive X-ray coverage.

  11. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of X-Ray Multilayer Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David

    2015-01-01

    The project objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) position as a world leader in the design of innovative x-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures are absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of x-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever-increasing photon energies (i.e., up to 200 keV or higher), well beyond Chandra's (approx.10 keV) and NuStar's (approx.75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the x-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication, and design of innovative x-ray instrumentation, which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments. To this aim, a magnetron vacuum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film x-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and x-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  12. A Magnetron Sputter Deposition System for the Development of Multilayer X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadway, David; Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail

    2014-01-01

    The proposal objective is to establish the capability to deposit multilayer structures for x-ray, neutron, and EUV optic applications through the development of a magnetron sputtering deposition system. A specific goal of this endeavor is to combine multilayer deposition technology with the replication process in order to enhance the MSFC's position as a world leader in the design of innovative X-ray instrumentation through the development of full shell replicated multilayer optics. The development of multilayer structures is absolutely necessary in order to advance the field of X-ray astronomy by pushing the limit for observing the universe to ever increasing photon energies (i. e. up to 200 keV or higher); well beyond Chandra (approx. 10 keV) and NuStar's (approx. 75 keV) capability. The addition of multilayer technology would significantly enhance the X-ray optics capability at MSFC and allow NASA to maintain its world leadership position in the development, fabrication and design of innovative X-ray instrumentation which would be the first of its kind by combining multilayer technology with the mirror replication process. This marriage of these technologies would allow astronomers to see the universe in a new light by pushing to higher energies that are out of reach with today's instruments.To this aim, a magnetron vacum sputter deposition system for the deposition of novel multilayer thin film X-ray optics is proposed. A significant secondary use of the vacuum deposition system includes the capability to fabricate multilayers for applications in the field of EUV optics for solar physics, neutron optics, and X-ray optics for a broad range of applications including medical imaging.

  13. Tests of lobster eye optics for small space X-ray telescope

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, V.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Hromčík, M.; Hudec, René; Inneman, A.; Jakůbek, J.; Maršík, J.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Varisco, S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 633, č. 1 (2011), S169-S171 ISSN 0168-9002. [International Workshop on Radiation Imaging Detectors /11./. Praha, 29.06.2009-03.07.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-ray optics * X-ray telescope * all-sky monitor Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.207, year: 2011

  14. Nano-fabrication of diffractive optics for soft X-ray and atom beam focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehbein, S.

    2002-01-01

    Nano-structuring processes are described for manufacturing diffractive optics for the condenser-monochromator set-up of the transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) and for the scanning transmission X-ray microscope (STXM) at the BESSY II electron storage ring in Berlin. Furthermore, a process for manufacturing free-standing nickel zone plates for helium atom beam focusing experiments is presented. (author)

  15. X-ray diffraction and imaging with a coherent beam: application to X-ray optical elements and to crystals exhibiting phase inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masiello, F.

    2011-05-01

    The exceptional properties of synchrotron light sources have been exploited in very different disciplines, from archaeology to chemistry, from material science to biology, from medicine to physics. Among these properties it is important to mention the high brilliance, continuum spectrum, high degree of polarization, time structure, small source size and divergence of the beam, the last resulting in a high transversal coherence of the produced radiation. This high transversal coherence of the synchrotron sources has permitted the development of new techniques, e.g. phase contrast imaging, X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and coherent X-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI). This thesis work will consist essentially of three parts. In the first part it will be presented the work done as a member of the X-ray Optics Group of ESRF in the characterization of high quality diamond crystals foreseen as X-ray optical elements. The characterization has been done using different complementary X-ray techniques, such as high resolution diffraction, topography, grazing incidence diffraction, reflectivity and measurements of the coherence preservation using the Talbot effect. In the second part, I will show the result obtained in the study of the temperature behaviours of the domain in periodically poled ferroelectrics crystals. This type of measurements, based on Bragg-Fresnel diffraction, are possible only thanks to the high degree of coherence of the beam. In the third part, I will present the results obtained in the characterization of diamonds foreseen for applications other than X-ray optical elements. (author)

  16. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  17. Grazing Incidence Wavefront Sensing and Verification of X-Ray Optics Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Rohrbach, Scott; Zhang, William W.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of interferometrically measured mirror metrology data and characterization of a telescope wavefront can be powerful tools in understanding of image characteristics of an x-ray optical system. In the development of soft x-ray telescope for the International X-Ray Observatory (IXO), we have developed new approaches to support the telescope development process. Interferometrically measuring the optical components over all relevant spatial frequencies can be used to evaluate and predict the performance of an x-ray telescope. Typically, the mirrors are measured using a mount that minimizes the mount and gravity induced errors. In the assembly and mounting process the shape of the mirror segments can dramatically change. We have developed wavefront sensing techniques suitable for the x-ray optical components to aid us in the characterization and evaluation of these changes. Hartmann sensing of a telescope and its components is a simple method that can be used to evaluate low order mirror surface errors and alignment errors. Phase retrieval techniques can also be used to assess and estimate the low order axial errors of the primary and secondary mirror segments. In this paper we describe the mathematical foundation of our Hartmann and phase retrieval sensing techniques. We show how these techniques can be used in the evaluation and performance prediction process of x-ray telescopes.

  18. X-ray excited optical luminescence, photoluminescence, photostimulated luminescence and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy studies on BaFBr:Eu

    CERN Document Server

    Subramanian, N; Govinda-Rajan, K; Mohammad-Yousuf; Santanu-Bera; Narasimhan, S V

    1997-01-01

    The results of x-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL), photoluminescence (PL), photostimulated luminescence (PSL) and x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the x-ray storage phosphor BaFBr:Eu are presented in this paper. Analyses of XEOL, PL and PSL spectra reveal features corresponding to the transitions from 4f sup 6 td sup 1 to 4f sup 7 configurations in different site symmetries of Eu sup 2 sup +. Increasing x-ray dose is seen to lead to a red shift in the maximum of the PL excitation spectrum for the 391 nm emission. The XEOL and XPS spectra do not show any signature of Eu sup 3 sup + in the samples studied by us, directly raising doubts about the model of Takahashi et al in which Eu sup 2 sup + is expected to ionize to Eu sup 3 sup + upon x-ray irradiation and remain stable until photostimulation. XEOL and PSL experiments with simultaneous x-ray irradiation and He - Ne laser excitation as well as those with sequential x-ray irradiation and laser stimulation bring out the competition betwe...

  19. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  20. Energy dependence measurement of small-type optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter by means of characteristic X-rays induced with general diagnostic X-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takegami, Kazuki; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Okino, Hiroki; Kimoto, Natsumi; Maehata, Itsumi; Kanazawa, Yuki; Okazaki, Tohru; Hashizume, Takuya; Kobayashi, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    For X-ray inspections by way of general X-ray equipment, it is important to measure an entrance-skin dose. Recently, a small optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeter was made commercially available by Landauer, Inc. The dosimeter does not interfere with the medical images; therefore, it is expected to be a convenient detector for measuring personal exposure doses. In an actual clinical situation, it is assumed that X-rays of different energies will be detected by a dosimeter. For evaluation of the exposure dose measured by a dosimeter, it is necessary to know the energy dependence of the dosimeter. Our aim in this study was to measure the energy dependence of the OSL dosimeter experimentally in the diagnostic X-ray region. Metal samples weighing several grams were irradiated and, in this way, characteristic X-rays having energies ranging from 8 to 85 keV were generated. Using these mono-energetic X-rays, the dosimeter was irradiated. Simultaneously, the fluence of the X-rays was determined with a CdTe detector. The energy-dependent efficiency of the dosimeter was derived from the measured value of the dosimeter and the fluence. Moreover, the energy-dependent efficiency was calculated by Monte-Carlo simulation. The efficiency obtained in the experiment was in good agreement with that of the simulation. In conclusion, our proposed method, in which characteristic X-rays are used, is valuable for measurement of the energy dependence of a small OSL dosimeter in the diagnostic X-ray region.

  1. Inspection method of optical fiber preforms by x-ray absorption measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Shibuya, S.; Kuroha, T.

    1980-01-01

    A method for measuring the refractive index distribution of optical fiber preforms has been developed by application of the theory of X-ray radiography. The composition of quartz optical fiber materials is, in most cases, limited to the group of five elements - Ge, P, Si, O and B. Of them, Ge is an essential element to determine the structure of refractive index of an optical fiber and the distribution of its density can be regarded approximately as the distribution of refractive index. On the other hand, the coefficient of low-energy X-ray absorption by the elements depends markedly on their atomic numbers, and Ge has a far larger absorption coefficient than the other four elements. Therefore, analysis of the intensity of X-ray absorbed by optical fiber preforms makes it possible to determine the distribution of Ge density and consequently the distribution of refractive index. (author)

  2. Analysis of nearly simultaneous x-ray and optical observations of active galactic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    Rosemary Hill optical and EINSTEIN X-ray observations of a sample of 36 galactic nuclei (AGN) were reduced and analyzed. Seventy-two x-ray observations of these sources were reduced, nineteen of which yielded spectral information. Of these spectra observations, significant hydrogen column densities above the galactic value were required for nine of the active galactic nuclei. X-ray variability was detected in eight of the eleven sources which were observed more than once by EINSTEIN. Correlations between the x-ray and optical luminosities were investigated using the Jefferys method of least squares. This method allows for errors in both variables. The results indicate a strong correlation between the x-ray and optical luminosities for the entire sample. Division of the sample into groups with similar optical variability characteristics show that the less violently violent variable AGN are more highly correlated than the violently variable blazars. Infrared and radio observations were combined with the x-ray and optical observations of six AGN. These sources were modelled in terms of the synchrotron-self-Compton model. The turnover frequency falls between the infrared and radio data and reliable estimates of this parameter are difficult to estimate. Therefore the results were found as a function of the turnover frequency. Four sources required relativistic bulk motion or beaming. Multifrequency spectra made at different times for one individual source, 0235+164, required different amounts of beaming to satisfy the x-ray observations. Sizes of the emitting regions for the sources modelled ranged from 0.5 parsec to 1.0 parsec

  3. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  4. Ronchi test for characterization of X-ray nanofocusing optics and beamlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlén, Fredrik; Rahomäki, Jussi; Nilsson, Daniel; Seiboth, Frank; Sanz, Claude; Wagner, Ulrich; Rau, Christoph; Schroer, Christian G; Vogt, Ulrich

    2014-09-01

    A Ronchi interferometer for hard X-rays is reported in order to characterize the performance of the nanofocusing optics as well as the beamline stability. Characteristic interference fringes yield qualitative data on present aberrations in the optics. Moreover, the visibility of the fringes on the detector gives information on the degree of spatial coherence in the beamline. This enables the possibility to detect sources of instabilities in the beamline like vibrations of components or temperature drift. Examples are shown for two different nanofocusing hard X-ray optics: a compound refractive lens and a zone plate.

  5. Rapid X-ray and optical variability in the X-ray selected BL Lacertae object IE 1402.3 + 0416

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giommi, P.; Barr, P.; Gioia, I.M.; Maccacaro, T.; Schild, R.; Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge)

    1986-01-01

    Results from X-ray and optical observations of the X-ray-discovered BL Lac object 1E 1402.3 + 0416 are presented, where the X-ray measurements were carried out with the Channel Multiplier Array (CMA) and Medium Energy experiment (ME) detectors on board Exosat. These measurements revealed an intensity decrease by a factor of two on a time scale of a few hours. At maximum flux, the source was significantly greater than at the time of the Einstein Image Proportional Counter (IPC) discovery observation. The 2-6 keV X-ray spectrum was determined by the ME experiment, and IPC, HRI, and CMA data were subsequently compared. The source varied over the years by a factor of five; its brightest state was within the last three years. It is noted that a redshift greater than 0.2 would require that anisotropic emission mechanisms be invoked. 18 references

  6. The application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics in surface topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Guangcui; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo; Yuan, Hao; Li, Yude; Liu, Hehe; Zhao, Weigang; Zhang, Ruixia; Min, Qin; Peng, Song

    2013-01-01

    A confocal micro-X-ray fluorescence (MXRF) technology based on polycapillary X-ray optics was proposed for determining surface topography. This confocal topography method involves elemental sensitivity and can be used to classify the objects according to their elemental composition while obtaining their surface topography. To improve the spatial resolution of this confocal topography technology, the center of the confocal micro-volume was overlapped with the output focal spot of the polycapillary X-ray, focusing the lens in the excitation channel. The input focal spot of the X-ray lens parallel to the detection channel was used to determine the surface position of the sample. The corresponding surface adaptive algorithm was designed to obtain the surface topography. The surface topography of a ceramic chip was obtained. This confocal MXRF surface topography method could find application in the materials sciences

  7. Development of a Wolter Optic X-ray Imager on Z

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fein, Jeffrey R.; Ampleford, David J.; Vogel, Julia K.; Kozioziemski, Bernie; Walton, Christopher C.; Wu, Ming; Ayers, Jay; Ball, Chris J.; Bourdon, Chris J.; Maurer, Andrew; Pivovaroff, Mike; Ramsey, Brian; Romaine, Suzanne

    2017-10-01

    A Wolter optic x-ray imager is being developed for the Z Machine to study the dynamics of warm x-ray sources with energies above 10 keV. The optic is adapted from observational astronomy and uses multilayer-coated, hyperbolic and parabolic x-ray mirrors to form a 2D image with predicted 100- μm resolution over a 5x5-mm field of view. The imager is expected to have several advantages over a simple pinhole camera. In particular, it can form quasi mono-energetic images due to the inherent band-pass nature of the x-ray mirrors from Bragg diffraction. As well, its larger collection solid angle can lead to an overall increase in efficiency for the x-rays in the desirable energy band. We present the design of the imaging system, which is initially optimized to view Mo K-alpha x-rays (17.5 keV). In addition, we will present preliminary measurements of the point-spread function as well as the spectral sensitivity of the instrument. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by NTESS, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. DOE's NNSA under contract DE-NA-0003525.

  8. Development of soft x-ray optical elements at the advanced photon research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishino, Masahiko; Yoda, Osamu; Koike, Masato; Sano, Kazuo; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    We have been developing soft X-ray optical elements such as diffraction gratings and multilayer mirrors to applied to X-ray plasma sources and X-ray lasers and so on. In the field of the development of diffraction gratings, the laminar-type holographic gratings for flat-field spectrographs were found to be very effective in suppressing the higher orders and stray-light level. The fabricated holographic grating has a comparable spectral resolution to the replica commercial grating. In the development of the soft X-ray multilayer mirrors, the improvement of the heat stability of the Mo/Si multilayer was carried out. We have found that the Mo/SiO 2 /Si/SiO 2 multilayer having the SiO 2 layer thicknesses of 0.5 nm at the Si-on-Mo interface and of 1.5 nm at the Mo-on-Si interface has thermally stable structure up to 500degC and maintains high soft X-ray reflectivity after annealing at 400degC. In addition, we have developed an evaluation system capable of measuring the wavelength and angular characteristics of the reflectivity and diffraction efficiency of soft X-ray optical elements. (author)

  9. Nanostructured diffractive optical devices for soft X-ray microscopes

    CERN Document Server

    Hambach, D; Schneider, G

    2001-01-01

    The new transmission X-ray microscope (TXM) installed at the BESSY II electron storage ring uses an off-axis transmission zone plate (OTZ) as diffractive and focusing element of the condenser-monochromator setup. A high resolution micro-zone plate (MZP) forms a magnified image on a CCD-detector. Both, the OTZ with an active area of up to 24 mm sup 2 and the MZP with zone widths as small as 25 nm are generated by a process including electron beam lithography (EBL), dry etching and subsequent electroplating of nickel on top of silicon membrane substrates with about 100-150 nm thickness. The combination of a larger zone width and the usage of nickel zone structures allows to increase the diffraction efficiency of the condenser element at least by a factor of 3 compared to the earlier used KZP7 condenser zone plate in the TXM at BESSY I. Groove diffraction efficiencies of 21.6% and 14.7% were measured for MZP objectives with 40 and 25 nm outermost zone width, respectively.

  10. Characterization of collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Breger, P.; Zeitoun, P.; Le Pape, S.; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Wyart, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 78, - (2004), s. 939-944 ISSN 0946-2171 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) 199900086 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : X-ray lasers * optical-field-ionization * collisional excitation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.215, year: 2004

  11. Two strategies of lowering surface deformations of internally cooled X-ray optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 729, NOV (2013), s. 302-306 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MPO FR-TI1/412 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : internal cooling * X-ray optics * monochromator Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.316, year: 2013

  12. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haase, A.

    1996-01-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves

  13. X-ray optics, a vital aspect of work with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, D.H.

    1986-01-01

    The kind of optical components that have been developed over the centuries to make use of visible light won't work for x-rays. New ways must be found to manipulate the much shorter-wavelength x-ray beams to produce effects similar to those achieved with such familiar devices as mirrors, lenses, prisms, and gratings. This is the province of the field of x-ray optics. One challenge is to design optical elements that can focus, disperse, or reflect beams in the x-ray region of the electromagnetic spectrum, where wavelengths are about a thousand times shorter than those in the region of visible light. A second problem is encountered in using the intense, high-energy x-radiation from a synchrotron: how to make the desired beam accessible to a user who is conducting an experiment in a shielded enclosure many meters away from the synchrotron storage ring. Depending on the application, one might want to pick out a single wavelength from the broad spectrum available from the synchrotron, or isolate a narrow band of wavelengths. Then the beam must be collimated. When samples to be exposed are of millimeter dimension or smaller, it may be desirable to increase the intensity by focusing the x-ray beam horizontally and vertically. All these manipulations are analogous to those done with visible light, but the shape and form of the optical components can be quite different

  14. Advances in thin film diffraction instrumentation by X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haase, A [Rich. Seifert and Co., Analytical X-ray Systems, Ahrensburg (Germany)

    1996-09-01

    The structural characterisation of thin films requires a parallel X-ray beam of high intensity. Parallel beam geometry is commonly used in high resolution and single crystal experiments, but also in the field of X-ray diffraction for polycrystalline material (e.g. in phase, texture and stress analysis). For grazing incidence diffraction (GID), the use of small slits on the primary side and of long soller slits with a flat monochromator on the secondary side is standard. New optical elements have been introduced with polychromatic or monochromatic radiation. By means of different applications the results are compared with those of classical beam optics. X-ray fiber optics utilize total external reflection of X-rays on smooth surfaces. Effects of monochromatization are presented. In many fields of application, fiber optics may replace conventional collimators. The use of primary and secondary channel cut crystals can also produce a high parallel monochromatic X-ray beam. A parabolically bent graded multilayer produces a monochromatic parallel beam of high intensity. Compared with classical Bragg-Brentano (focussing) geometry, excellent results have been obtained, especially for samples with an irregular shape. In combination with a channel cut monochromator there is a substantial gain in intensity leading to an increase of the dynamic intensity range of rocking curves.

  15. Improving Beamline X-ray Optics by Analyzing the Damage to Crystallographic Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zientek, John; Maj, Jozef; Navrotski, Gary; Srajer, George; Harmata, Charles; Maj, Lech; Lazarski, Krzysztof; Mikula, Stanislaw

    2015-01-02

    The mission of the X-ray Characterization Laboratory in the X-ray Science Division (XSD) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) is to support both the users and the Optics Fabrication Facility that produces high performance optics for synchrotron X-ray beamlines. The Topography Test Unit (TTU) in the X-ray Lab has been successfully used to characterize diffracting crystals and test monochromators by quantifying residual surface stresses. This topographic method has also been adapted for testing standard X-ray mirrors, characterizing concave crystal optics and in principle, can be used to visualize residual stresses on any optic made from single crystalline material. The TTU has been instrumental in quantitatively determining crystal mounting stresses which are mechanically induced by positioning, holding, and cooling fixtures. It is this quantitative aspect that makes topography so useful since the requirements and responses for crystal optics and X-ray mirrors are quite different. In the case of monochromator crystals, even small residual or induced stresses, on the order of tens of kPa, can cause detrimental distortions to the perfect crystal rocking curves. Mirrors, on the other hand, are much less sensitive to induced stresses where stresses that are an order of magnitude greater can be tolerated. This is due to the fact that the surface rather than the lattice-spacing determines a mirror’s performance. For the highly sensitive crystal optics, it is essential to measure the in-situ rocking curves using topographs as mounting fixtures are adjusted. In this way, high heat-load monochromator crystals can be successfully mounted with minimum stress. Topographical analysis has been shown to be a highly effective method to visualize and quantify the distribution of stresses, to help identify methods that mitigate stresses, and most notably to improve diffractive crystal optic rocking curves.

  16. Optical/UV-to-X-Ray Echoes from the Tidal Disruption Flare ASASSN-14li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Sadowski, Aleksander; Cenko, S. Bradley; Cannizzo, John K.; Guillochon, James; Stone, Nicholas C.; Velzen, Sjoert van

    2017-01-01

    We carried out the first multi-wavelength (optical/UV and X-ray) photometric reverberation mapping of a tidal disruption flare (TDF) ASASSN-14li. We find that its X-ray variations are correlated with and lag the optical/UV fluctuations by 32 ± 4 days. Based on the direction and the magnitude of the X-ray time lag, we rule out X-ray reprocessing and direct emission from a standard circular thin disk as the dominant source of its optical/UV emission. The lag magnitude also rules out an AGN disk-driven instability as the origin of ASASSN-14li and thus strongly supports the tidal disruption picture for this event and similar objects. We suggest that the majority of the optical/UV emission likely originates from debris stream self-interactions. Perturbations at the self-interaction sites produce optical/UV variability and travel down to the black hole where they modulate the X-rays. The time lag between the optical/UV and the X-rays variations thus correspond to the time taken by these fluctuations to travel from the self-interaction site to close to the black hole. We further discuss these time lags within the context of the three variants of the self-interaction model. High-cadence monitoring observations of future TDFs will be sensitive enough to detect these echoes and would allow us to establish the origin of optical/UV emission in TDFs in general.

  17. Optical/UV-to-X-Ray Echoes from the Tidal Disruption Flare ASASSN-14li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Sadowski, Aleksander [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Cenko, S. Bradley; Cannizzo, John K. [NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guillochon, James [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Stone, Nicholas C. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Velzen, Sjoert van [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-03-10

    We carried out the first multi-wavelength (optical/UV and X-ray) photometric reverberation mapping of a tidal disruption flare (TDF) ASASSN-14li. We find that its X-ray variations are correlated with and lag the optical/UV fluctuations by 32 ± 4 days. Based on the direction and the magnitude of the X-ray time lag, we rule out X-ray reprocessing and direct emission from a standard circular thin disk as the dominant source of its optical/UV emission. The lag magnitude also rules out an AGN disk-driven instability as the origin of ASASSN-14li and thus strongly supports the tidal disruption picture for this event and similar objects. We suggest that the majority of the optical/UV emission likely originates from debris stream self-interactions. Perturbations at the self-interaction sites produce optical/UV variability and travel down to the black hole where they modulate the X-rays. The time lag between the optical/UV and the X-rays variations thus correspond to the time taken by these fluctuations to travel from the self-interaction site to close to the black hole. We further discuss these time lags within the context of the three variants of the self-interaction model. High-cadence monitoring observations of future TDFs will be sensitive enough to detect these echoes and would allow us to establish the origin of optical/UV emission in TDFs in general.

  18. Roles of Thin Film Stress in Making Extremely Lightweight X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray optics typically must be coated with one of the noble metals, gold, platinum, or iridium, to enhance their photon collection area. In general, iridium is preferred to the other two because it generates the highest X-ray reflectivity in the I to 10 keV band. Unfortunately, iridium films typically have also the highest stress that can severely degrade the optical figure of the mirror substrate, resulting in a poorer image quality. In this paper we will report our work in understanding this stress and our method to counterbalance it. In particular we will also report on potential ways of using this stress to improve the substrate's optical figure, turning a bug into a desirable feature. This work is done in the context of developing an enabling technology for the International X-ray Observatory which is a collaborative mission of NASA, ESA, and JAXA, and expected to be launched into an L2 orbit in 2021.

  19. Imaging osteoarthritis in the knee joints using x-ray guided diffuse optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qizhi; Yuan, Zhen; Sobel, Eric S.; Jiang, Huabei

    2010-02-01

    In our previous studies, near-infrared (NIR) diffuse optical tomography (DOT) had been successfully applied to imaging osteoarthritis (OA) in the finger joints where significant difference in optical properties of the joint tissues was evident between healthy and OA finger joints. Here we report for the first time that large joints such as the knee can also be optically imaged especially when DOT is combined with x-ray tomosynthesis where the 3D image of the bones from x-ray is incorporated into the DOT reconstruction as spatial a priori structural information. This study demonstrates that NIR light can image large joints such as the knee in addition to finger joints, which will drastically broaden the clinical utility of our x-ray guided DOT technique for OA diagnosis.

  20. Evaluation of alignment error of micropore X-ray optics caused by hot plastic deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Masaki; Ishi, Daiki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Takeuchi, Kazuma; Terada, Masaru; Fujitani, Maiko; Ishikawa, Kumi; Nakajima, Kazuo; Morishita, Kohei; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Nakamura, Kasumi; Noda, Yusuke

    2018-06-01

    We report on the evaluation and characterization of micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) X-ray optics produced by silicon dry etching and hot plastic deformation. Sidewalls of micropores formed by etching through a silicon wafer are used as X-ray reflecting mirrors. The wafer is deformed into a spherical shape to focus parallel incidence X-rays. We quantitatively evaluated a mirror alignment error using an X-ray pencil beam (Al Kα line at 1.49 keV). The deviation angle caused only by the deformation was estimated from angular shifts of the X-ray focusing point before and after the deformation to be 2.7 ± 0.3 arcmin on average within the optics. This gives an angular resolution of 12.9 ± 1.4 arcmin in half-power diameter (HPD). The surface profile of the deformed optics measured using a NH-3Ns surface profiler (Mitaka Kohki) also indicated that the resolution was 11.4 ± 0.9 arcmin in HPD, suggesting that we can simply evaluate the alignment error caused by the hot plastic deformation.

  1. X-ray heating and the optical light curve of HZ Herculis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrenod, S.C.; Shields, G.A.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss theoretically the optical light curve of HZ Her, the binary companion of the pulsed X-ray source Her X-1. Using model stellar atmospheres, we construct light curves that are in agreement with UBV photometry of HZ Her except for the sharpness of the minimum. Unlike previous authors, we find that heating of the photosphere of HZ Her by the observed X-ray flux is sufficient to explain the amplitude of the light variations in each color, if the X-ray emission persists at HZ Her throughout the 35-day ON-OFF CYCLE. We rule out a corona surrounding HZ Her as the source of the extra light near minimum, and we also rule out a model wherein the extra light is caused by a stellar wind that electron-scatters optical light emitted by the photosphere of the hot side of the star

  2. A set-up of micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on polycapillary X-ray optics and applications for archaeology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Pan Qiuli; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo

    2008-01-01

    The paper concerns in the structures, performances and characteristics and applications for archaeology of a new micro-X-ray fluorescence system based on rotating anode X-ray generator and polycapillary X-ray optics. The polycapillary X-ray optics used here can focus the primary X-ray beam down to some tens of micrometers in diameters that allows for non-destructive and local analysis of sub-mm samples with minor/ trace level sensitivity. In order to prove the potentials of this instrument used in archaeology, a piece of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain produced in Ming Dynasty was analyzed. The results show that intensities of Mn-Kα, Co-Kα are variable in agree with the thick of blue glaze. The correlation analysis indicates the Mn and Co have the best correlations. So, the concentrations or ratios of Mn and Co are crucial to determine the provenance and identify from a fake one of Chinese ancient blue and white porcelain. (authors)

  3. Silicon pore optics for future x-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wille, Eric; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wallace, Kotska

    2017-01-01

    arcsec or better. These specifications can only be achieved with a novel technology like Silicon Pore Optics, which is being developed by ESA together with a consortium of European industry. Silicon Pore Optics are made of commercial Si wafers using process technology adapted from the semiconductor...... industry. We present the recent upgrades made to the manufacturing processes and equipment, ranging from the manufacture of single mirror plates towards complete focusing mirror modules mounted in flight configuration, and results from first vibration tests. The performance of the mirror modules is tested...

  4. X-ray diffraction microscopy based on refractive optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henning Friis; Jakobsen, A. C.; Simons, Hugh

    2017-01-01

    A formalism is presented for dark‐field X‐ray microscopy using refractive optics. The new technique can produce three‐dimensional maps of lattice orientation and axial strain within millimetre‐sized sampling volumes and is particularly suited to in situ studies of materials at hard X‐ray energies....... An objective lens in the diffracted beam magnifies the image and acts as a very efficient filter in reciprocal space, enabling the imaging of individual domains of interest with a resolution of 100 nm. Analytical expressions for optical parameters such as numerical aperture, vignetting, and the resolution...

  5. Revisiting Bragg's X-ray microscope: scatter based optical transient grating detection of pulsed ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Paganin, David M; Hall, Chris J

    2011-06-01

    Transient optical gratings for detecting ultrafast signals are routine for temporally resolved photochemical investigations. Many processes can contribute to the formation of such gratings; we indicate use of optically scattering centres that can be formed with highly variable latencies in different materials and devices using ionising radiation. Coherent light scattered by these centres can form the short-wavelength-to-optical-wavelength, incoherent-to-coherent basis of a Bragg X-ray microscope, with inherent scope for optical phasing. Depending on the dynamics of the medium chosen, the way is open to both ultrafast pulsed and integrating measurements. For experiments employing brief pulses, we discuss high-dynamic-range short-wavelength diffraction measurements with real-time optical reconstructions. Applications to optical real-time X-ray phase-retrieval are considered. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical and x-ray alignment approaches for off-plane reflection gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allured, Ryan; Donovan, Benjamin D.; DeRoo, Casey T.; Marlowe, Hannah R.; McEntaffer, Randall L.; Tutt, James H.; Cheimets, Peter N.; Hertz, Edward; Smith, Randall K.; Burwitz, Vadim; Hartner, Gisela; Menz, Benedikt

    2015-09-01

    Off-plane reflection gratings offer the potential for high-resolution, high-throughput X-ray spectroscopy on future missions. Typically, the gratings are placed in the path of a converging beam from an X-ray telescope. In the off-plane reflection grating case, these gratings must be co-aligned such that their diffracted spectra overlap at the focal plane. Misalignments degrade spectral resolution and effective area. In-situ X-ray alignment of a pair of off-plane reflection gratings in the path of a silicon pore optics module has been performed at the MPE PANTER beamline in Germany. However, in-situ X-ray alignment may not be feasible when assembling all of the gratings required for a satellite mission. In that event, optical methods must be developed to achieve spectral alignment. We have developed an alignment approach utilizing a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and diffraction of an ultraviolet laser. We are fabricating the necessary hardware, and will be taking a prototype grating module to an X-ray beamline for performance testing following assembly and alignment.

  7. Optical and x-ray survey of s-type Markarian galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutter, D.J.; Mufson, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    We report here the results of a study of 23 compact, lineless Markarian galaxies using broadband optical photometry and x-ray satellite observations. Our photometry shows that the sample can be broken into four groups. In one group (Mrk 180, 421, and 501) are composite objects in which a BL Lacertae object is embedded in an elliptical galaxy. For this group, we present the results of multiepoch x-ray observations using the HEAO-1 and -2 satellites. In addition, we use our photometry to decompose the optical emission into nonthermal and galactic components. In the second group are objects showing a small ultraviolet excess relative to normal galaxies. The x-ray survey indicates that the x-ray luminosity of objects in group 2 is much lower than those in group 1. This suggests that there is an intrinsic difference between objects in groups 1 and 2. The third and fourth groups are objects whose colors are indistinguishable from those of normal field galaxies and those of galactic stars, respectively. No x-ray emission was detected from objects in either of these groups

  8. X-ray Pulse Length Characterization using the Surface Magneto Optic Kerr Effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krejcik, P.; SLAC

    2006-01-01

    It will be challenging to measure the temporal profile of the hard X-ray SASE beam independently from the electron beam in the LCLS and other 4th generation light sources. A fast interaction mechanism is needed that can be probed by an ultrafast laser pulse in a pump-probe experiment. It is proposed to exploit the rotation in polarization of light reflected from a thin magnetized film, known as the surface magneto optic Kerr effect (SMOKE), to witness the absorption of the x-ray pulse in the thin film. The change in spin orbit coupling induced by the x-ray pulse occurs on the subfemtosecond time scale and changes the polarization of the probe beam. The limitation to the technique lies with the bandwidth of the probe laser pulse and how short the optical pulse can be made. The SMOKE mechanism will be described and the choices of materials for use with 1.5 (angstrom) x-rays. A schematic description of the pump-probe geometry for x-ray diagnosis is also described

  9. Focusing Optics for High-Energy X-ray Diffraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinert, U.; Schulze, C.; Honkimäki, V.

    1998-01-01

    Novel focusing optical devices have been developed for synchrotron radiation in the energy range 40-100 keV. Firstly, a narrow-band-pass focusing energy-tuneable fixed-exit monochromator was constructed by combining meridionally bent Laue and Bragg crystals. Dispersion compensation was applied...

  10. OTELO SURVEY: DEEP BVRI BROADBAND PHOTOMETRY OF THE GROTH STRIP. II. OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF X-RAY EMITTERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez GarcIa, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Castaneda, H.; Lorenzo, M. Fernandez; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Alfaro, E.; Gallego, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Gonzalez, J. J.

    2009-01-01

    The Groth field is one of the sky regions that will be targeted by the OSIRIS Tunable Filter Emission Line Object survey in the optical 820 nm and 920 nm atmospheric windows. In the present paper, public Chandra X-ray data with total exposure time of 200 ks are analyzed and combined with optical broadband data of the Groth field, in order to study a set of optical structural parameters of the X-ray emitters and its relation with X-ray properties. To this aim, we processed the raw, public X-ray data using the Chandra Interactive Analysis of Observations, and determined and analyzed different structural parameters, in order to produce a morphological classification of X-ray sources. We present the morphology of 340 X-ray emitters with optical counterpart detected. Objects have been classified by X-ray type using a diagnostic diagram relating X-ray-to-optical ratio (X/O) to hardness ratio. We did not find any clear correlation between X-ray and morphological types. We analyzed the angular clustering of X-ray sources with optical counterpart using two-point correlation functions. A significant positive angular clustering was obtained from a preliminary analysis of four subsamples of the X-ray sources catalog. The clustering signal of the optically extended counterparts is similar to that of strongly clustered populations like red and very red galaxies, suggesting that the environment plays an important role in active galactic nuclei phenomena. Finally, we combined optical structural parameters with other X-ray and optical properties, and we confirmed an anticorrelation between the X/O ratio and the Abraham concentration index, which might suggest that early-type galaxies have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  11. Correct interpretation of diffraction properties of quartz crystals for X-ray optics applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Xian-Rong; Gog, Thomas; Kim, Jungho; Kasman, Elina; Said, Ayman H.; Casa, Diego M.; Wieczorek, Michael; Hönnicke, Marcelo G.; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2018-02-01

    Quartz has hundreds of strong Bragg reflections that may offer a great number of choices for making fixed-angle X-ray analyzers and polarizers at virtually any hard X-ray energies with selectable resolution. However, quartz crystals, unlike silicon and germanium, are chiral and may thus appear in two different forms of handedness that are mirror images. Furthermore, because of the threefold rotational symmetry along thecaxis, the {h1h2h3L} and {h2h1h3L} Bragg reflections may have quite different Darwin bandwidth, reflectivity and angular acceptance, although they have the same Bragg angle. The design of X-ray optics from quartz crystals therefore requires unambiguous determination of the orientation, handedness and polarity of the crystals. The Laue method and single-axis diffraction technique can provide such information, but the variety of conventions used in the literature to describe quartz structures has caused widespread confusion. The current studies give detailed guidelines for design and fabrication of quartz X-ray optics, with special emphasis on the correct interpretation of Laue patterns in terms of the crystallography and diffraction properties of quartz. Meanwhile, the quartz crystals examined were confirmed by X-ray topography to have acceptably low densities of dislocations and other defects, which is the foundation for developing high-resolution quartz-based X-ray optics.

  12. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system BaXY (X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 65; Issue 2. X-ray excited optical luminescence studies on the system Ba (, =F, Cl, Br, I) ... India; Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Republic of China ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational ...

  13. Measurement of picometre non-linearity in an optical grating encoder using x-ray interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Cross, Nigel

    2003-01-01

    X-ray interferometry has been used to characterize the non-linearity in an optical encoder displacement measuring system. Traceable measurements of the non-linearity have been made and an estimation of the uncertainty associated with the measurements is given. Cyclic errors with a magnitude of up to 50 pm and periodicity of the encoder system (128 nm) have been recorded.

  14. Short-period AM CVn systems as optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, G.; Yungelson, L.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.

    2004-01-01

    We model the population of AM CVn systems in the Galaxy and discuss the detectability of these systems with optical, X-ray and gravitational-wave detectors. We concentrate on the short-period (P < 1500 s) systems, some of which are expected to be in a phase of direct-impact accretion. Using a

  15. Spectral tailoring of nanoscale EUV and soft x-ray multilayer optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Qiushi; Medvedev, Viacheslav; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2017-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray (XUV) multilayer optics have experienced significant development over the past few years, particularly on controlling the spectral characteristics of light for advanced applications like EUV photolithography, space observation, and accelerator- or lab-based XUV

  16. Observation of the X-ray magneto-optical voigt effect

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mertins, H. Ch.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Kuneš, Jan; Gaupp, A.; Abramsohn, D.; Schäfers, F.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2001), s. 047401-1-047401-4 ISSN 0031-9007 Grant - others:-(DE) ERB FMG ECT /980105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:A02/98:Z1-010-914 Keywords : x-ray magneto-optical Voigt effect Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 6.668, year: 2001

  17. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 μm, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu Kα. At higher energies such as Ag Kα, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection

  18. Production of Coherent xuv and soft-x-ray light using a transverse optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kincaid, B.M.; Freeman, R.R.

    1984-01-01

    This section describes the theory of the production of coherent xuv radiation and soft x rays using a transverse optical klystron (TOK). A TOK uses a high-power laser in conjunction with an undulator magnet to produce laserlike output of xuv radiation from a relativistic electron beam. 16 references, 5 figures

  19. Microscopy of biological sample through advanced diffractive optics from visible to X-ray wavelength regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Cojoc, Dan; Emiliani, Valentina; Cabrini, Stefano; Coppey-Moisan, Maite; Ferrari, Enrico; Garbin, Valeria; Altissimo, Matteo

    2004-11-01

    The aim of this report is to demonstrate a unified version of microscopy through the use of advanced diffractive optics. The unified scheme derives from the technical possibility of realizing front wave engineering in a wide range of electromagnetic spectrum. The unified treatment is realized through the design and nanofabrication of phase diffractive elements (PDE) through which wave front beam shaping is obtained. In particular, we will show applications, by using biological samples, ranging from micromanipulation using optical tweezers to X-ray differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy combined with X-ray fluorescence. We report some details on the design and physical implementation of diffractive elements that besides focusing also perform other optical functions: beam splitting, beam intensity, and phase redistribution or mode conversion. Laser beam splitting is used for multiple trapping and independent manipulation of micro-beads surrounding a cell as an array of tweezers and for arraying and sorting microscopic size biological samples. Another application is the Gauss to Laguerre-Gauss mode conversion, which allows for trapping and transfering orbital angular momentum of light to micro-particles immersed in a fluid. These experiments are performed in an inverted optical microscope coupled with an infrared laser beam and a spatial light modulator for diffractive optics implementation. High-resolution optics, fabricated by means of e-beam lithography, are demonstrated to control the intensity and the phase of the sheared beams in x-ray DIC microscopy. DIC experiments with phase objects reveal a dramatic increase in image contrast compared to bright-field x-ray microscopy. Besides the topographic information, fluorescence allows detection of certain chemical elements (Cl, P, Sc, K) in the same setup, by changing the photon energy of the x-ray beam. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Improving X-ray Optics Through Differential Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Atkins, Carolyn; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; Gaskin, Jessica A.; O'Dell, Steve; Weisskopf, Martin; Zhang, William; Romaine, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    The differential deposition technique can in theory correct shell figures to approximate arcsecond value. We have received APRA funding and are building two custom system to demonstrate the technique on full shell and segmented optics. We hope to be able to demonstrate < 5 arcsec performance in < 2 years. To go beyond this, (arcsecond level) is very difficult to judge as we have not yet discovered the problems. May necessitate in-situ metrology, stress reduction investigations, correcting for gravity effects, correcting for temperature effects. Some of this will become obvious in early parts of the investigation.

  1. Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yang, Zhen; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-12-10

    To develop x-ray mirrors for micropore optics, smooth silicon (111) sidewalls obtained after anisotropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer were studied. A sample device with 19 microm wide (111) sidewalls was fabricated using a 220 microm thick silicon (110) wafer and potassium hydroxide solution. For what we believe to be the first time, x-ray reflection on the (111) sidewalls was detected in the angular response measurement. Compared to ray-tracing simulations, the surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to be 3-5 nm, which is consistent with the atomic force microscope and the surface profiler measurements.

  2. Study on optical properties of ceramics scintillator for X-ray CT equipment. (Pt. 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Ryouhei; Tsukuda, Yasuo; Nitanda, Humio

    1993-01-01

    The scintillator elements in X-ray CT equipment of the third generation type require high uniformity of distribution of light output as well as quality response characteristic. Parameters responsible for the distribution of light output were studied using the Monte Carlo method. Although the scattering coefficient was neglected, close agreement was obtained between calculated and experimental results. Calculated results indicated that relative output drop at both ends decreased with increasing optical absorption coefficient and was constant for X-ray absorption factor. (author)

  3. Development of a Direct Fabrication Technique for Full-Shell X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Kolodziejczak, J. K.; Griffith, C.; Roche, J.; Smith, W. S.; Kester, T.; Atkins, C.; Arnold, W.; Ramsey, B.

    2016-01-01

    Future astrophysical missions will require fabrication technology capable of producing high angular resolution x-ray optics. A full-shell direct fabrication approach using modern robotic polishing machines has the potential for producing high resolution, light-weight and affordable x-ray mirrors that can be nested to produce large collecting area. This approach to mirror fabrication, based on the use of the metal substrates coated with nickel phosphorous alloy, is being pursued at MSFC. The design of the polishing fixtures for the direct fabrication, the surface figure metrology techniques used and the results of the polishing experiments are presented.

  4. Micropore x-ray optics using anisotropic wet etching of (110) silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Hoshino, Akio; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Yang Zhen; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2006-01-01

    To develop x-ray mirrors for micropore optics, smooth silicon (111)sidewalls obtained after anisotropic wet etching of a silicon (110) wafer were studied. A sample device with 19 μm wide (111) sidewalls was fabricated using a 220 μm thick silicon (110) wafer and potassium hydroxide solution. For what we believe to be the first time,x-ray reflection on the (111) sidewalls was detected in the angular response measurement. Compared to ray-tracing simulations, the surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to be 3-5 nm, which is consistent with the atomic force microscope and the surface profiler measurements

  5. The early X-ray afterglows of optically bright and dark Gamma-Ray Bursts

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yi-Qing

    2006-01-01

    A systematical study on the early X-ray afterglows of both optically bright and dark gamma-ray bursts (B-GRBs and D-GRBs) observed by Swift has been presented. Our sample includes 25 GRBs. Among them 13 are B-GRBs and 12 are D-GRBs. Our results show that the distributions of the X-ray afterglow fluxes ($F_{X}$), the gamma-ray fluxes ($S_{\\gamma}$), and the ratio ($R_{\\gamma, X}$) for both the D-GRBs and B-GRBs are similar. The differences of these distributions for the two kinds of GRBs shoul...

  6. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays

  7. X-ray and optical study of seven clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maccagni, D; Tarenghi, M [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Milan (Italy). Lab. di Fisica Cosmica e Tecnologie Relative; Cooke, B A; Maccacaro, T; Pye, J P; Ricketts, M J [Leicester Univ. (UK). X-Ray Astronomy Group; Chincarini, G [Oklahoma Univ., Norman (USA). Dept. of Physics; Bologna Univ. (Italy). Istituto di Astronomia)

    1978-01-01

    In this paper we present observations of seven clusters of galaxies associated with X-ray sources detected by the Sky Survey Instrument (SSI) of the University of Leicester on the satellite Ariel V. Three are new X-ray sources and there are four new identifications with clusters of galaxies. All error boxes have an area less than about 1/3 square degree. All clusters have been classified according to the Rood and Sastry and the Bautz and Morgan systems. The new optical material obtained at the 4 m telescope of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory has been used to give the morphological description of some of the clusters.

  8. X-ray fluorescence analysis and optical emission spectrometry of an roman mirror from Tomis, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belc, M.; Bogoi, M.; Ionescu, D.; Guita, D.; Caiteanu, S.; Caiteanu, D.

    2000-01-01

    The miscellaneous population of Roman Empire, their diverse cultural tradition, their ability to assimilate the roman civilization spirits, had determined a permanent reassessment superimposed upon the roman contribution. Analysis was undertaken using optical emission spectrometry and non-destructive X-ray fluorescence. X-ray fluorescence analysis is a well-established method and is often used in archaeometry and other work dealing with valuable objects pertaining to the history of art and civilization. Roman mirror analysed has been found not to be made of speculum (a high tin bronze). (authors)

  9. X-ray image processing software for computing object size and object location coordinates from acquired optical and x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, Akash; Tiwari, Shyam Sunder; Tiwari, Railesha; Panday, Lokesh; Panday, Jeet; Suri, Nitin

    2004-01-01

    X-ray and Visible image data processing software has been developed in Visual Basic for real time online and offline image information processing for NDT and Medical Applications. Software computes two dimension image size parameters from its sharp boundary lines by raster scanning the image contrast data. Code accepts bit map image data and hunts for multiple tumors of different sizes that may be present in the image definition and then computes size of each tumor and locates its approximate center for registering its location coordinates. Presence of foreign metal and glass balls industrial product such as chocolate and other food items imaged out using x-ray imaging technique are detected by the software and their size and position co-ordinates are computed by the software. Paper discusses ways and means to compute size and coordinated of air bubble like objects present in the x-ray and optical images and their multiple existences in image of interest. (author)

  10. Development of contamination-free x-ray optics for next-generation light sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, Haruhiko, E-mail: hohashi@spring8.or.jp; Senba, Yasunori; Yumoto, Hirokatsu; Koyama, Takahisa; Miura, Takanori; Kishimoto, Hikaru [JASRI / SPring-8, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 JAPAN (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    We studied typical forms of contamination on X-ray mirrors that cause degradation of beam quality, investigated techniques to remove the contaminants, and propose methods to eliminate the sources of the contamination. The total amount of carbon-containing substances on various materials in the vicinity of a mirror was measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and thermal desorption spectroscopy. It was found that cleanliness and ultra-high vacuum techniques are required to produce the contamination-free surfaces that are essential for the propagation of high-quality X-ray beams. The reduction of carbonaceous residue adsorbed on the surfaces, and absorbed into the bulk, of the materials in the vicinity of the mirrors is a key step toward achieving contamination-free X-ray optics.

  11. Optimizing Monocapillary Optics for Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction, Fluorescence Imaging, and Spectroscopy Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Kazimirov, Alexander; Gillilan, Richard; Cornaby, Sterling; Woll, Arthur; Zha, Chang-Sheng; Huang Rong

    2007-01-01

    A number of synchrotron x-ray applications such as powder diffraction in diamond anvil cells, microbeam protein crystallography, x-ray fluorescence imaging, etc. can benefit from using hollow glass monocapillary optics to improve the flux per square micron on a sample. We currently draw glass tubing into the desired elliptical shape so that only one-bounce under total reflection conditions is needed to bring the x-ray beam to a focus at a 25 to 50 mm distance beyond the capillary tip. For modest focal spot sizes of 10 to 20 microns, we can increase the intensity per square micron by factors of 10 to 1000. We show some of the results obtained at CHESS and Hasylab with capillaries focusing 5 to 40 keV radiation, their properties, and how even better the experimental results could be if more ideal capillaries were fabricated in the future

  12. Preliminary investigation of changes in x-ray multilayer optics subjected to high radiation flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hockaday, M.P.; Blake, R.L.; Grosso, J.S.; Selph, M.M.; Klein, M.M.; Matuska, W. Jr.; Palmer, M.A.; Liefeld, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    A variety of metal multilayers was exposed to high x-ray flux using Sandia National Laboratories' PROTO II machine in the gas puff mode. Fluxes incident on the multilayers above 700 MW/cm 2 in total radiation, in nominal 20 ns pulses, were realized. The neon hydrogen- and helium-like resonance lines were used to probe the x-ray reflectivity properties of the multilayers as they underwent change of state during the heating pulse. A fluorescer-fiber optic-streak camera system was used to monitor the changes in x-ray reflectivity as a function of time and irradiance. Preliminary results are presented for a W/C multilayer. Work in progress to model the experiment is discussed. 13 refs., 4 figs

  13. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  14. X-ray verification of an optically-aligned off-plane grating module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Benjamin; McEntaffer, Randall; Tutt, James; DeRoo, Casey; Allured, Ryan; Gaskin, Jessica; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery

    2017-08-01

    The next generation of X-ray spectrometer missions are baselined to have order-of-magnitude improvements in both spectral resolving power and effective area when compared to existing X-ray spectrometer missions. Off-plane X-ray reflection gratings are capable of achieving high resolution and high diffraction efficiencies over the entire X-ray bandpass, making them an ideal technology to implement on these future missions. To achieve the high effective area desired while maintaining high spectral resolution, many off-plane gratings must be precisely aligned such that their diffraction arcs overlap at the focal plane. Methods are under development to align a number of these gratings into a grating module using optical metrology techniques in support of the Off-plane Grating Rocket Experiment (OGRE), a suborbital rocket payload scheduled to launch in late 2018. X-ray testing was performed on an aligned grating module at the Straylight Test Facility (SLTF) at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to assess the current alignment methodology and its ability to meet the desired performance of OGRE. We report on the results from the test campaign at MSFC, as well as plans for future development.

  15. Correlation methods in optical metrology with state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Centers, Gary; Gevorkyan, Gevork S.; Lacey, Ian; Smith, Brian V.

    2018-01-01

    The development of fully coherent free electron lasers and diffraction limited storage ring x-ray sources has brought to focus the need for higher performing x-ray optics with unprecedented tolerances for surface slope and height errors and roughness. For example, the proposed beamlines for the future upgraded Advance Light Source, ALS-U, require optical elements characterized by a residual slope error of optics with a length of up to one meter. However, the current performance of x-ray optical fabrication and metrology generally falls short of these requirements. The major limitation comes from the lack of reliable and efficient surface metrology with required accuracy and with reasonably high measurement rate, suitable for integration into the modern deterministic surface figuring processes. The major problems of current surface metrology relate to the inherent instrumental temporal drifts, systematic errors, and/or an unacceptably high cost, as in the case of interferometry with computer-generated holograms as a reference. In this paper, we discuss the experimental methods and approaches based on correlation analysis to the acquisition and processing of metrology data developed at the ALS X-Ray Optical Laboratory (XROL). Using an example of surface topography measurements of a state-of-the-art x-ray mirror performed at the XROL, we demonstrate the efficiency of combining the developed experimental correlation methods to the advanced optimal scanning strategy (AOSS) technique. This allows a significant improvement in the accuracy and capacity of the measurements via suppression of the instrumental low frequency noise, temporal drift, and systematic error in a single measurement run. Practically speaking, implementation of the AOSS technique leads to an increase of the measurement accuracy, as well as the capacity of ex situ metrology by a factor of about four. The developed method is general and applicable to a broad spectrum of high accuracy measurements.

  16. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) SMEX Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, S.; Shih, A. Y.; Krucker, S.; Glesener, L.; Saint-Hilaire, P.; Caspi, A.; Allred, J. C.; Battaglia, M.; Chen, B.; Drake, J. F.; Gary, D. E.; Goetz, K.; Gburek, S.; Grefenstette, B.; Hannah, I. G.; Holman, G.; Hudson, H. S.; Inglis, A. R.; Ireland, J.; Ishikawa, S. N.; Klimchuk, J. A.; Kontar, E.; Kowalski, A. F.; Massone, A. M.; Piana, M.; Ramsey, B.; Schwartz, R.; Steslicki, M.; Turin, P.; Ryan, D.; Warmuth, A.; Veronig, A.; Vilmer, N.; White, S. M.; Woods, T. N.

    2017-12-01

    We present FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager), a Small Explorer (SMEX) Heliophysics mission that is currently undergoing a Phase A concept study. FOXSI will provide a revolutionary new perspective on energy release and particle acceleration on the Sun. FOXSI is a direct imaging X-ray spectrometer with higher dynamic range and better than 10x the sensitivity of previous instruments. Flown on a 3-axis-stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit, FOXSI uses high-angular-resolution grazing-incidence focusing optics combined with state-of-the-art pixelated solid-state detectors to provide direct imaging of solar hard X-rays for the first time. FOXSI is composed of a pair of x-ray telescopes with a 14-meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom. Making use of a filter-wheel and high-rate-capable solid-state detectors, FOXSI will be able to observe the largest flares without saturation while still maintaining the sensitivity to detect x-ray emission from weak flares, escaping electrons, and hot active regions. This mission concept is made possible by past experience with similar instruments on two FOXSI sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014, and on the HEROES balloon flight in 2013. FOXSI's hard X-ray imager has a field of view of 9 arcminutes and an angular resolution of better than 8 arcsec; it will cover the energy range from 3 up to 50-70 keV with a spectral resolution of better than 1 keV; and it will have sub-second temporal resolution.

  17. X-RAYS SEPARATOR: FORWARD STEP IN TECHNOLOGY OF OPTICAL SEPARATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Potrakhov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Presently the X-ray separation is used not only for research program, but it is also elaborated and applied for different sectors of economy. The seeds as biological objects that possess the complicated microstructure are very difficult to be exanimated by x-ray technology. The application of x-rays and further elaboration of optical  separators, principle  of action, basic specifications, way of their use and their efficiency was shown in the article. The x-ray separator may distinguish all hidden seed defects as it was described by a programmer, where owing to the use of the optical separating block in visual range it is possible to add some more details as a shape, brightness and a color of object surface being exanimated. The elaboration of such separation equipment is scientifically hard work requiring time and expenses. Last year researchers of ‘LETI’ developed the working model of industrial x-ray separator for examination of grains and nuts in different crops. This model was made on the basis of photoseparator F-5 manufactured at OAO ‘Voronezhselmash’. The instrument state and its mechanism operation are highlighted on monitor. In the regime of processing (separation and examination of each controlled batch, the passport is produced with  following  information on identification  code,  time of material receiving, time of test passed, number of grains or seeds tested. The code of receiver of material is given to each of established characteristics when working the regime of separation, determination of number of objects with characteristics tested and number of unidentified objects. The application of x-ray separators constructed on the basis of photoseparator F-5 enables to carry out the complex estimation on seed quality and separation in only instrument with the development of electronic protocol with many characteristics.

  18. Affordable and Lightweight High-Resolution X-ray Optics for Astronomical Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. W.; Biskach, M. P.; Bly, V. T.; Carter, J. M.; Chan, K. W.; Gaskin, J. A.; Hong, M.; Hohl, B. R.; Jones, W. D.; Kolodziejczak, J. J.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray astronomical missions require x-ray mirror assemblies that provide both high angular resolution and large photon collecting area. In addition, as x-ray astronomy undertakes more sensitive sky surveys, a large field of view is becoming increasingly important as well. Since implementation of these requirements must be carried out in broad political and economical contexts, any technology that meets these performance requirements must also be financially affordable and can be implemented on a reasonable schedule. In this paper we report on progress of an x-ray optics development program that has been designed to address all of these requirements. The program adopts the segmented optical design, thereby is capable of making both small and large mirror assemblies for missions of any size. This program has five technical elements: (1) fabrication of mirror substrates, (2) coating, (3) alignment, (4) bonding, and (5) mirror module systems engineering and testing. In the past year we have made progress in each of these five areas, advancing the angular resolution of mirror modules from 10.8 arc-seconds half-power diameter reported (HPD) a year ago to 8.3 arc-seconds now. These mirror modules have been subjected to and passed all environmental tests, including vibration, acoustic, and thermal vacuum. As such this technology is ready for implementing a mission that requires a 10-arc-second mirror assembly. Further development in the next two years would make it ready for a mission requiring a 5-arc-second mirror assembly. We expect that, by the end of this decade, this technology would enable the x-ray astrophysical community to compete effectively for a major x-ray mission in the 2020s that would require one or more 1-arc-second mirror assemblies for imaging, spectroscopic, timing, and survey studies.

  19. Full Field X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging Using Micro Pore Optics for Planetary Surface Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Blake, D. F.; Gailhanou, M.; Walter, P.; Schyns, E.; Marchis, F.; Thompson, K.; Bristow, T.

    2016-01-01

    Many planetary surface processes leave evidence as small features in the sub-millimetre scale. Current planetary X-ray fluorescence spectrometers lack the spatial resolution to analyse such small features as they only provide global analyses of areas greater than 100 mm(exp 2). A micro-XRF spectrometer will be deployed on the NASA Mars 2020 rover to analyse spots as small as 120m. When using its line-scanning capacity combined to perpendicular scanning by the rover arm, elemental maps can be generated. We present a new instrument that provides full-field XRF imaging, alleviating the need for precise positioning and scanning mechanisms. The Mapping X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer - "Map-X" - will allow elemental imaging with approximately 100µm spatial resolution and simultaneously provide elemental chemistry at the scale where many relict physical, chemical and biological features can be imaged in ancient rocks. The arm-mounted Map-X instrument is placed directly on the surface of an object and held in a fixed position during measurements. A 25x25 mm(exp 2) surface area is uniformly illuminated with X-rays or alpha-particles and gamma-rays. A novel Micro Pore Optic focusses a fraction of the emitted X-ray fluorescence onto a CCD operated at a few frames per second. On board processing allows measuring the energy and coordinates of each X-ray photon collected. Large sets of frames are reduced into 2d histograms used to compute higher level data products such as elemental maps and XRF spectra from selected regions of interest. XRF spectra are processed on the ground to further determine quantitative elemental compositions. The instrument development will be presented with an emphasis on the characterization and modelling of the X-ray focussing Micro Pore Optic. An outlook on possible alternative XRF imaging applications will be discussed.

  20. Characterization of X-ray Lobster Optics with a Hybrid CMOS sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Tanmoy; Falcone, Abraham; Burrows, David N.; Bray, Evan; McQuaide, Maria; Kern, Matthew; Wages, Mitchell; Hull, Samuel; Inneman, Adolf; Hudec, Rene; Stehlikova, Veronika

    2018-01-01

    X-ray lobster optics provide a unique way to focus X-rays onto a small focal plane imager with wide field of view imaging. Such an instrument with angular resolution of a few arcminutes can be used to study GRB afterglows, as well as the variability and spectroscopic characteristics for various astrophysical objects. At Penn State University, we have characterized a lobster optic with an H1RG X-Ray hybrid CMOS detector (100 μm thick Silicon with 18 μm pixel size). The light-weight compact lobster optic with a 25 cm focal length provides two dimensional imaging with ~25 cm2 effective area at 2 keV. We utilize a 47 meter long X-ray beam line at Penn state University to do our experiments where we characterize the overall effective area of the instrument at 1.5 - 8 keV for both on-axis and off-axis angles. In this presentation, we will describe the characterization test stand and methods, as well as the detailed results. While this is simply a proof-of-concept experiment, such an instrument with significant collecting area can be explored for future rocket or CubeSat experiments.

  1. Experiment and application of soft x-ray grazing incidence optical scattering phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shuyan; Li, Cheng; Zhang, Yang; Su, Liping; Geng, Tao; Li, Kun

    2017-08-01

    For short wavelength imaging systems,surface scattering effects is one of important factors degrading imaging performance. Study of non-intuitive surface scatter effects resulting from practical optical fabrication tolerances is a necessary work for optical performance evaluation of high resolution short wavelength imaging systems. In this paper, Soft X-ray optical scattering distribution is measured by a soft X-ray reflectometer installed by my lab, for different sample mirrors、wavelength and grazing angle. Then aim at space solar telescope, combining these scattered light distributions, and surface scattering numerical model of grazing incidence imaging system, PSF and encircled energy of optical system of space solar telescope are computed. We can conclude that surface scattering severely degrade imaging performance of grazing incidence systems through analysis and computation.

  2. Experimental characterization of X-ray transverse coherence in the presence of beam transport optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chubar, O.; Fluerasu, A.; Chu, Y.S.

    2013-01-01

    A simple Boron fiber based interference scheme [1] and other similar schemes are currently routinely used for X-ray coherence estimation at 3rd generation synchrotron radiation sources. If such a scheme is applied after a perfect monochromator and without any focusing / transport optics...... in the optical path, the interpretation of the measured interference pattern is relatively straightforward and can be done in terms of the basic parameters of the source [2]. However, if the interference scheme is used after some focusing optics, e.g. close to the X-ray beam waist, the visibility of fringes can...... be significantly affected by the new shape of the focused beam phase-space. At the same time, optical element imperfections still have a negative impact on the transverse coherence. In such situations, which are frequently encountered in experiments at beamlines, the quantitative interpretation of a measured...

  3. Bent crystal X-ray optics for the diagnosis and applications of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loetzsch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis discussed several aspects of X-ray optics based on bent crystals and a number of applications of these optics. First, a deeper insight into the reflection properties of elastically bent perfect crystal optics was gained by the consideration of all deformation effects. It was shown that the reflection properties depend on the lateral position on the crystal, an effect that was not addressed before, neither experimentally nor theoretically. To investigate this effect, an apparatus for the measurement of Bragg angles of bent crystals with high angular resolution was built. It was measured that the lattice plane distances of two-dimensionally bent crystals vary laterally by up to 10 -4 . This effect has to be considered in high resolution X-ray spectroscopy and imaging with these bent crystals. It can explain discrepancies in theoretical and experimental spectrometer resolution with spherically bent crystals. Besides these principal investigations, in this thesis a number of X-ray optics were presented that demonstrate the application potential of bent crystal optics. This includes two optics that are used in the field of applications of laser-produced plasmas as high repeating hard X-ray sources. It was shown that an X-ray spectrometer based on full cylinder rings of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is capable to record the rather weak single shot pulses from a high repeating 1 er-plasma X-ray source. This is possible due to the high collection efficiency of the instrument of up to 5.10 -4 . Furthermore, X-ray optics based on toroidally bent crystals that make it possible to spectrally select a bandwidth of ∝1 eV and focus the ultrashort X-ray pulses from such a laser-plasma source, were designed, prepared and characterized. It was shown that these bent crystals provide the calculated integrated reflectivity, the predicted bandwidth and focus to spot sizes smaller than 60 μm. A novel application of toroidally bent crystals was pointed out: a

  4. Results of the first simultaneous X-ray, optical, and radio campaign on the blazar PKS 1622-297

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Crain, J. Adam; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.

    Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the blazar PKS 1622-297 were obtained during a three-week campaign in 2006 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, and optical telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  5. Demonstration of soft x-ray amplification by optical-field-induced ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midorikawa, Katsumi; Nagata, Yutaka; Kubodera, Shoichi; Obara, Minoru; Tashiro, Hideo; Toyoda, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    We have demonstrated the amplification of the 13.5-nm Lyman-α transition in hydrogen-like Li + ions, using a novel optical-field-induced ionization. A small-signal gain coefficient of 20 cm -1 was obtained. The use of preformed Li + plasma as an initial laser medium plays important roles for the production of suitable plasma conditions for an optical-field-induced ionization x-ray laser. (author)

  6. Effects of Temperature and X-rays on Plastic Scintillating Fiber and Infrared Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bongsoo; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Yoo, Wook Jae

    2015-05-11

    In this study, we have studied the effects of temperature and X-ray energy variations on the light output signals from two different fiber-optic sensors, a fiber-optic dosimeter (FOD) based on a BCF-12 as a plastic scintillating fiber (PSF) and a fiber-optic thermometer (FOT) using a silver halide optical fiber as an infrared optical fiber (IR fiber). During X-ray beam irradiation, the scintillating light and IR signals were measured simultaneously using a dosimeter probe of the FOD and a thermometer probe of the FOT. The probes were placed in a beaker with water on the center of a hotplate, under variation of the tube potential of a digital radiography system or the temperature of the water in the beaker. From the experimental results, in the case of the PSF, the scintillator light output at the given tube potential decreased as the temperature increased in the temperature range from 25 to 60 °C. We demonstrated that commonly used BCF-12 has a significant temperature dependence of -0.263 ± 0.028%/°C in the clinical temperature range. Next, in the case of the IR fiber, the intensity of the IR signal was almost uniform at each temperature regardless of the tube potential range from 50 to 150 kVp. Therefore, we also demonstrated that the X-ray beam with an energy range used in diagnostic radiology does not affect the IR signals transmitted via a silver halide optical fiber.

  7. Modeling the focusing efficiency of lobster-eye optics for image shifting depending on the soft x-ray wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Luning; Li, Wei; Wu, Mingxuan; Su, Yun; Guo, Chongling; Ruan, Ningjuan; Yang, Bingxin; Yan, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Lobster-eye optics is widely applied to space x-ray detection missions and x-ray security checks for its wide field of view and low weight. This paper presents a theoretical model to obtain spatial distribution of focusing efficiency based on lobster-eye optics in a soft x-ray wavelength. The calculations reveal the competition mechanism of contributions to the focusing efficiency between the geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and the reflectivity of the iridium film. In addition, the focusing efficiency image depending on x-ray wavelengths further explains the influence of different geometrical parameters of lobster-eye optics and different soft x-ray wavelengths on focusing efficiency. These results could be beneficial to optimize parameters of lobster-eye optics in order to realize maximum focusing efficiency.

  8. Anisotropic elasticity of silicon and its application to the modelling of X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Lin; Barrett, Raymond; Cloetens, Peter; Detlefs, Carsten; Sanchez del Rio, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Anisotropic elasticity of single-crystal silicon, applications to modelling of a bent X-ray mirror, and thermal deformation of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystal are presented. The crystal lattice of single-crystal silicon gives rise to anisotropic elasticity. The stiffness and compliance coefficient matrix depend on crystal orientation and, consequently, Young’s modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio as well. Computer codes (in Matlab and Python) have been developed to calculate these anisotropic elasticity parameters for a silicon crystal in any orientation. These codes facilitate the evaluation of these anisotropy effects in silicon for applications such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems and X-ray optics. For mechanically bent X-ray optics, it is shown that the silicon crystal orientation is an important factor which may significantly influence the optics design and manufacturing phase. Choosing the appropriate crystal orientation can both lead to improved performance whilst lowering mechanical bending stresses. The thermal deformation of the crystal depends on Poisson’s ratio. For an isotropic constant Poisson’s ratio, ν, the thermal deformation (RMS slope) is proportional to (1 + ν). For a cubic anisotropic material, the thermal deformation of the X-ray optics can be approximately simulated by using the average of ν 12 and ν 13 as an effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio, where the direction 1 is normal to the optic surface, and the directions 2 and 3 are two normal orthogonal directions parallel to the optical surface. This average is independent of the direction in the optical surface (the crystal plane) for Si(100), Si(110) and Si(111). Using the effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio for these orientations leads to an error in thermal deformation smaller than 5.5%

  9. Anisotropic elasticity of silicon and its application to the modelling of X-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lin, E-mail: zhang@esrf.fr; Barrett, Raymond; Cloetens, Peter; Detlefs, Carsten; Sanchez del Rio, Manuel [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, BP 220, 38043 Grenoble (France)

    2014-04-04

    Anisotropic elasticity of single-crystal silicon, applications to modelling of a bent X-ray mirror, and thermal deformation of a liquid-nitrogen-cooled monochromator crystal are presented. The crystal lattice of single-crystal silicon gives rise to anisotropic elasticity. The stiffness and compliance coefficient matrix depend on crystal orientation and, consequently, Young’s modulus, the shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio as well. Computer codes (in Matlab and Python) have been developed to calculate these anisotropic elasticity parameters for a silicon crystal in any orientation. These codes facilitate the evaluation of these anisotropy effects in silicon for applications such as microelectronics, microelectromechanical systems and X-ray optics. For mechanically bent X-ray optics, it is shown that the silicon crystal orientation is an important factor which may significantly influence the optics design and manufacturing phase. Choosing the appropriate crystal orientation can both lead to improved performance whilst lowering mechanical bending stresses. The thermal deformation of the crystal depends on Poisson’s ratio. For an isotropic constant Poisson’s ratio, ν, the thermal deformation (RMS slope) is proportional to (1 + ν). For a cubic anisotropic material, the thermal deformation of the X-ray optics can be approximately simulated by using the average of ν{sub 12} and ν{sub 13} as an effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio, where the direction 1 is normal to the optic surface, and the directions 2 and 3 are two normal orthogonal directions parallel to the optical surface. This average is independent of the direction in the optical surface (the crystal plane) for Si(100), Si(110) and Si(111). Using the effective isotropic Poisson’s ratio for these orientations leads to an error in thermal deformation smaller than 5.5%.

  10. X-ray topographic studies of organic and non-linear optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halfpenny, P. J.; Sherwood, J. N.; Simpson, G. S.

    1997-01-01

    The flexible and non-destructive nature of X-ray topography is ideally suited to the study of large single crystals for both fundamental research and technological applications as well as the optimisation of crystal growth processes. Three examples are discussed, illustrating the application of X-ray topographic methods to non-linear optical (NLO) crystals. Synchrotron radiation section topography has been applied to the examination of large organic crystals. X-ray topography has been used to examine growth defects and the quality of crystals of m-nitroaniline (mNA) grown by the Bridgeman method. These studies allow evaluation of growth parameters together with their influence on defect density and show that in the case of mNA, remarkably low defect densities can be achieved under optimum growth conditions. Double-crystal reflection topography, with synchrotron radiation has been used to image defects intersecting the (011) faces of the inorganic NLO material potassium titanyl phosphate (KTP). X-ray images have been combined with optical microscopy and interferometry to provide valuable information on the crystal growth process

  11. X-ray quantum optics with Moessbauer nuclei in thin-film cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeg, Kilian Peter

    2014-12-09

    In this thesis thin-film cavities with embedded Moessbauer nuclei probed by near-resonant X-ray light are studied from a quantum optical perspective. A theoretical framework is developed and compact expressions for the observables are derived for the linear excitation regime, which is encountered in current experiments. Even advanced cavity layouts can be modeled in excellent agreement with the results of previous experiments and semi-classical approaches. In the absence of magnetic hyperfine splitting, the spectral response of the system is found to be formed by tunable Fano profiles. An experimental implementation of this line shape control allows to extract spectroscopic signatures with high precision and to reconstruct the phase of the nuclear transition in good agreement with the theoretical predictions. The alignment of medium magnetization and polarization control of the X-rays enable to engineer advanced quantum optical level schemes, in which vacuum induced coherence effects are predicted and successfully demonstrated in an experiment. Furthermore, it is shown that group velocity control for x-ray pulses can be achieved in the cavity. A scheme for its observation is proposed and then employed to experimentally confirm sub-luminal X-ray propagation. Finally, non-linear effects, which could become accessible with future light sources, are explored and a non-linear line shape control mechanism is discussed.

  12. A beam intensity monitor for the evaluation beamline for soft x-ray optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imazono, Takashi; Moriya, Naoji; Harada, Yoshihisa; Sano, Kazuo; Koike, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation Beamline for Soft X-Ray Optical Elements (BL-11) at the SR Center of Ritsumeikan University has been operated to measure the wavelength and angular characteristics of soft x-ray optical components in a wavelength range of 0.65-25 nm using a reflecto-diffractometer (RD). The beam intensity monitor that has been equipped in BL-11 has observed the signal of the zero-th order light. For the purpose of more accurate evaluation of the performance of optical components, a new beam intensity monitor to measure the intensity of the first order light from the monochromator in BL-11 has been developed and installed in just front of RD. The strong positive correlation between the signal of the beam monitor and a detector equipped in the RD is shown. It is successful that the beam intensity of the first order light can be monitored in real time.

  13. FIRST IMAGES FROM THE FOCUSING OPTICS X-RAY SOLAR IMAGER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krucker, Säm; Glesener, Lindsay; Turin, Paul; McBride, Stephen; Glaser, David; Fermin, Jose; Lin, Robert [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Christe, Steven [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka (Japan); Ramsey, Brian; Gubarev, Mikhail; Kilaru, Kiranmayee [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL (United States); Takahashi, Tadayuki; Watanabe, Shin; Saito, Shinya [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS)/JAXA, Sagamihara (Japan); Tajima, Hiroyasu [Solar-Terrestial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Tanaka, Takaaki [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); White, Stephen [Air Force Research Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload flew for the first time on 2012 November 2, producing the first focused images of the Sun above 5 keV. To enable hard X-ray (HXR) imaging spectroscopy via direct focusing, FOXSI makes use of grazing-incidence replicated optics combined with fine-pitch solid-state detectors. On its first flight, FOXSI observed several targets that included active regions, the quiet Sun, and a GOES-class B2.7 microflare. This Letter provides an introduction to the FOXSI instrument and presents its first solar image. These data demonstrate the superiority in sensitivity and dynamic range that is achievable with a direct HXR imager with respect to previous, indirect imaging methods, and illustrate the technological readiness for a spaceborne mission to observe HXRs from solar flares via direct focusing optics.

  14. Comparison of exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipriyanov, A. A.; Melnikov, A. R.; Stass, D. V.; Doktorov, A. B.

    2017-09-01

    Exciplex generation under optical and X-ray excitation in identical conditions is experimentally compared using a specially chosen model donor-acceptor system, anthracene (electron acceptor) and N,N-dimethylaniline (electron donor) in non-polar solution, and the results are analyzed and interpreted based on analytically calculated luminescence quantum yields. Calculations are performed on the basis of kinetic equations for multistage schemes of bulk exciplex production reaction under optical excitation and combination of bulk and geminate reactions of radical ion pairs under X-ray excitation. These results explain the earlier experimentally found difference in the ratio of the quantum yields of exciplexes and excited electron acceptors (exciplex generation efficiency) and the corresponding change in the exciplex generation efficiency under X-irradiation as compared to the reaction under optical excitation.

  15. Soft X-ray excited optical luminescence from functional organic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sham, T.K., E-mail: tsham@uwo.ca

    2015-10-01

    Highlights: • Many functional organic materials convert X-ray energy into visible light. • The X-ray induced luminescence (XEOL) across an absorption edge can be site and excitation channel specific. • XEOL is composition, morphology, size and crystallinity dependent. • XEOL using the time structure of a synchrotron can reveal the decay and energy transfer dynamics of the sample. • The combined use of XEOL and XAS in the analysis of functional organic materials is illustrated. - Abstract: This brief report reviews some of the recent findings in the study of synchrotron based X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from representative organic light emitting device (OLED) and related functional organic materials. The systems of interest include Alq{sub 3}, aluminium tris(8-hydroxylquinoline); Ru(bipy){sub 3}{sup 2+}, tris-(2,2-bipyridine) ruthenium(II); Ir(bpy){sub 3}, tris(2-phenyl-bipyridine)iridium; PVK (poly(N-vinylcarbazole)) and [Au{sub 2}(dppe)(bipy)]{sup 2+}, a Au(I) polymer containing 1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane and the 4,40-bipyridyl ligands, as well as TBPe (2,5,8,11-tetra-tert-butylperylene) polyhedral crystals and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and FITC-labelled proteins. It is shown that tunable and pulsed X-rays from synchrotron light sources enable the detailed tracking of the optical properties of organic functional materials by monitoring the luminescence in both the energy and time domain as the excitation energy is scanned across an element-specific absorption edge. The use of XEOL and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in materials analysis is illustrated.

  16. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Ageron, M.; Al Samarai, I.; Aubert, J.-J.; Albert, A.; André, M.; Anton, G.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.

    2016-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert

  17. Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; André, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bou-Cabo, M.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Dekeyser, I.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Dumas, A.; Eberl, T.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Fehn, K.; Felis, I.; Fermani, P.; Folger, F.; Fusco, L. A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Geißelsöder, S.; Geyer, K.; Giordano, V.; Gleixner, A.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A. J.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Herrero, A.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; James, C. W.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lambard, G.; Lattuada, D.; Lefèvre, D.; Leonora, E.; Loucatos, S.; Mangano, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, S.; Mathieu, A.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Mueller, C.; Neff, M.; Nezri, E.; Păvălaš, G. E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Richter, R.; Roensch, K.; Rostovtsev, A.; Saldaña, M.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schmid, J.; Schnabel, J.; Schulte, S.; Schüssler, F.; Seitz, T.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Steijger, J. J. M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Trovato, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Tönnis, C.; Turpin, D.; Vallage, B.; Vallée, C.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vecchi, M.; Visser, E.; Vivolo, D.; Wagner, S.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Le Van Suu, A.; Akerlof, C.; Zheng, W.; Evans, P.; Gehrels, N.; Kennea, J.; Osborne, J. P.; Coward, D. M.

    2016-02-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or X-ray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  18. A review of recent work in sub-nanometre displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peggs, G N; Yacoot, A

    2002-05-15

    This paper reviews recent work in the field of displacement measurement using optical and X-ray interferometry at the sub-nanometre level of accuracy. The major sources of uncertainty in optical interferometry are discussed and a selection of recent designs of ultra-precise, optical-interferometer-based, displacement measuring transducers presented. The use of X-ray interferometry and its combination with optical interferometry is discussed.

  19. X-ray optics developments at the APS for third-generation synchrotron radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, D.M.

    1996-09-01

    High brilliance third-generation synchrotron radiation sources simultaneously provide both a need and an opportunity for the development of new x-ray optical components. The high power and power densities of the x-ray beams produced by insertion devices have forced researchers to consider novel, and what may seem like exotic, approaches to the mitigation of thermal distortions that can dilute the beam brilliance delivered to the experiment or next optical component. Once the power has been filtered by such high heat load optical elements, specialized components can be employed that take advantage of the high degree of brilliance. This presentation reviews the performance of optical components that have been designed, fabricated, and tested at the Advanced Photon Source, starting with high heat load components and followed by examples of several specialized devices such as a milli-eV resolution (in-line) monochromator, a high energy x-ray phase retarder, and a phase zone plate with submicron focusing capability

  20. X-ray and optical substructures of the DAFT/FADA survey clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guennou, L.; Durret, F.; Adami, C.; Lima Neto, G. B.

    2013-04-01

    We have undertaken the DAFT/FADA survey with the double aim of setting constraints on dark energy based on weak lensing tomography and of obtaining homogeneous and high quality data for a sample of 91 massive clusters in the redshift range 0.4-0.9 for which there were HST archive data. We have analysed the XMM-Newton data available for 42 of these clusters to derive their X-ray temperatures and luminosities and search for substructures. Out of these, a spatial analysis was possible for 30 clusters, but only 23 had deep enough X-ray data for a really robust analysis. This study was coupled with a dynamical analysis for the 26 clusters having at least 30 spectroscopic galaxy redshifts in the cluster range. Altogether, the X-ray sample of 23 clusters and the optical sample of 26 clusters have 14 clusters in common. We present preliminary results on the coupled X-ray and dynamical analyses of these 14 clusters.

  1. Design and development of the multilayer optics for the new hard x-ray mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Basso, S.; Citterio, O.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Civitani, M.; Raimondi, L.; Sironi, G.; Cotroneo, V.; Negri, B.; Parodi, Giancarlo; Martelli, F.; Borghi, G.; Orlandi, A.; Vernani, D.; Valsecchi, G.; Binda, R.; Romaine, S.; Gorenstein, P.; Attinà, P.

    2017-11-01

    The New Hard X-ray Mission (NHXM) project will be operated by 2017 and is currently undergoing a Phase B study, under the coordination of the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The project is being proposed by an international team in the context of the ESA Call CV M3 as a Small Mission program, with a large Italian participation. It is based on 4 hard X-ray optics modules, each formed by 60 evenly spaced multilayer coated Wolter I mirror shells. An extensible bench is used to reach the 10 m focal length. The Wolter I monolithic substrates with multilayer coating are produced in NiCo by electroforming replication. Three of the mirror modules will host in the focal plane a hybrid a detector system (a soft X-ray Si DEPFET array plus a high energy CdTe detector). The detector of the fourth telescope will be a photoelectric polarimeter with imaging capabilities, operating from 2 up to 35 keV. The total on axis effective area of the three telescopes at 1 keV and 30 kev is of 1500 cm2 and 350 cm2 respectively, with an angular resolution of 20 arcsec HEW at 30 keV. In this paper we report on the design and development of the multilayer coated X-ray mirrors based on NiCo shells.

  2. ON THE ANTICORRELATION BETWEEN GALAXY LIGHT CONCENTRATION AND X-RAY-TO-OPTICAL FLUX RATIO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povic, M.; Perez Garcia, A. M.; Bongiovanni, A.; Fernandez Lorenzo, M.; Lara-Lopez, M. A.; Sanchez-Portal, M.; Cepa, J.; Gonzalez-Serrano, J. I.; Alfaro, E. J.

    2009-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) play an important role in many aspects of modern cosmology, and of particular interest is the issue of the interplay between AGNs and their host galaxy. Using X-ray and optical data sets, we have explored the properties of a large sample of AGNs in the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey field, and studied their evolution in relation with the evolution of their host galaxy. We present here an anticorrelation between X-ray-to-optical flux (X/O) ratio and galaxy light concentration (C), which has been found for the first time and might suggest that early-type galaxies, having poor matter supply to feed the AGN activity, have lower Eddington rates than those of late-type galaxies.

  3. Development of hard X-ray dark-field microscope using full-field optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Hidekazu; Azuma, Hiroaki; Shimomura, Sho; Tsuji, Takuya; Tsusaka, Yoshiyuki; Kagoshima, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    We develop a dark-field X-ray microscope using full-field optics based on a synchrotron beamline. Our setup consists of a condenser system and a microscope objective with an angular acceptance larger than that of the condenser. The condenser system is moved downstream from its regular position such that the focus of the condenser is behind the objective. The dark-field microscope optics are configured by excluding the converging beam from the condenser at the focal point. The image properties of the system are evaluated by observing and calculating a Siemens star test chart with 10 keV X-rays. Our setup allows easy switching to bright-field imaging. (author)

  4. New challenges in ray tracing simulations of X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Río, M Sánchez del

    2013-01-01

    The construction of new synchrotron sources and the refurbishment and upgrade of existing ones has boosted in the last years the interest in X-ray optics simulations for beamline design and optimization. In the last years we conducted a full renewal of the well established SHADOW ray tracing code, ending with a modular version SHADOW3 interfaced to multiple programming languages (C, C++, IDL, Python). Some of the new features of SHADOW3 are presented. From the physics point of view, SHADOW3 has been upgraded for dealing with lens systems. X-ray partial coherence applications demand an extension of traditional ray tracing methods into a hybrid ray-tracing wave-optics approach. The software development is essential for fulfilling the requests of the ESRF Upgrade Programme, and some examples of calculations are also presented.

  5. Optics for protein microcrystallography using synchrotron and laboratory X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varghese, J.N.; Van Donkelaar, A.; Balaic, D.X.; Barnea, Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: For protein crystallography, a highly-intense focused beam overcomes a serious constraint in current biological research: the inability of many protein molecules to form crystals larger than a few tens of microns in size. High structure-resolution X-ray diffraction analysis of microcrystals is currently only being studied at synchrotron X-ray sources. We shall examine how this is being carried out, and also report the development of a novel tapered glass monocapillary toroidal-mirror optic, which achieves a high-intensity, low-divergence focused beam from a rotating-anode Xray generator. We have used this optic, which demonstrates an ∼28x intensity gain at the beam focus to solve the structure of a plant exoglucanse/inhibtor complex microcrystal to 2.8 Angstroms, with volume equivalent to a 30-micron-edge cube

  6. XOP: A graphical user interface for spectral calculations and x-ray optics utilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dejus, R.J.; Sanchez del Rio, M.

    1996-01-01

    A graphical user interface, using the Interactive Data Language (IDL) widget toolkit, for calculation of spectral properties of synchrotron radiation sources and for interaction of x-rays with optical elements has been developed. The interface runs presently on three different computer architectures under the Unix operating system endash the Sun-OS, the HP-UX, and the DEC-Unix operating systems. The point-and-click interface is used as a driver program for a variety of codes from different authors written in different computer languages. The execution of codes for calculating synchrotron radiation from undulators, wigglers, and bending magnets is summarized. The computation of optical properties of materials and the x-ray diffraction profiles from crystals in different geometries are also discussed. The interface largely simplifies the use of these codes and may be used without prior knowledge of how to run a particular program. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  7. Empirical electro-optical and x-ray performance evaluation of CMOS active pixels sensor for low dose, high resolution x-ray medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanitis, C. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.; Royle, G.; Blue, A.; Liang, H. X.; Clark, A.; Prydderch, M.; Turchetta, R.; Speller, R.

    2007-01-01

    Monolithic complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensors with high performance have gained attention in the last few years in many scientific and space applications. In order to evaluate the increasing capabilities of this technology, in particular where low dose high resolution x-ray medical imaging is required, critical electro-optical and physical x-ray performance evaluation was determined. The electro-optical performance includes read noise, full well capacity, interacting quantum efficiency, and pixels cross talk. The x-ray performance, including x-ray sensitivity, modulation transfer function, noise power spectrum, and detection quantum efficiency, has been evaluated in the mammographic energy range. The sensor is a 525x525 standard three transistor CMOS active pixel sensor array with more than 75% fill factor and 25x25 μm pixel pitch. Reading at 10 f/s, it is found that the sensor has 114 electrons total additive noise, 10 5 electrons full well capacity with shot noise limited operation, and 34% interacting quantum efficiency at 530 nm. Two different structured CsI:Tl phosphors with thickness 95 and 115 μm, respectively, have been optically coupled via a fiber optic plate to the array resulting in two different system configurations. The sensitivity of the two different system configurations was 43 and 47 electrons per x-ray incident on the sensor. The MTF at 10% of the two different system configurations was 9.5 and 9 cycles/mm with detective quantum efficiency of 0.45 and 0.48, respectively, close to zero frequency at ∼0.44 μC/kg (1.72 mR) detector entrance exposure. The detector was quantum limited at low spatial frequencies and its performance was comparable with high resolution a:Si and charge coupled device based x-ray imagers. The detector also demonstrates almost an order of magnitude lower noise than active matrix flat panel imagers. The results suggest that CMOS active pixel sensors when coupled to structured CsI:Tl can

  8. A guide to radiation protection in the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bines, W.P.

    1986-01-01

    A booklet has been produced by a Working Group convened by the Health and Safety Executive to provide practical guidance for all who might be involved in work with X-ray optics equipment, such as designers, manufacturers, users, maintenance workers, inspectors, radiation protection advisers and supervisors. The particular radiation protection aspects described include those in connection with enclosure design and inspection, inter locks, tube shields, shutters and cover plates, administrative controls, monitoring and repair and maintenance of equipment. (UK)

  9. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  10. A QUASAR CATALOG WITH SIMULTANEOUS UV, OPTICAL, AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS BY SWIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Grupe, Dirk; Koch, Scott; Gelbord, Jonathan; Schneider, Donald P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Porterfield, Blair L.; Vanden Berk, Daniel; Wesolowski, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    We have compiled a catalog of optically selected quasars with simultaneous observations in UV/optical and X-ray bands by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer. Objects in this catalog are identified by matching the Swift pointings with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog. The final catalog contains 843 objects, among which 637 have both Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations and 354 of which are detected by both instruments. The overall X-ray detection rate is ∼60% which rises to ∼85% among sources with at least 10 ks of XRT exposure time. We construct the time-averaged spectral energy distribution (SED) for each of the 354 quasars using UVOT photometric measurements and XRT spectra. From model fits to these SEDs, we find that the big blue bump contributes about ∼0.3 dex to the quasar luminosity. We re-visit the α ox -L 2500Å relation by selecting a clean sample with only Type 1 radio-quiet quasars; the dispersion of this relation is reduced by at least 15% compared with studies that use non-simultaneous UV/optical and X-ray data. We only found a weak correlation between L bol /L Edd and α UV . We do not find significant correlations between α x and α ox , α ox and α UV , and α x and log L(0.3-10 keV). The correlations between α UV and α x , α ox and α x , α ox and α UV , L bol /L Edd and α x , and L bol /L Edd and α ox are stronger among low-redshift quasars, indicating that these correlations are likely driven by the changes of SED shape with accretion state.

  11. A CORRELATED STUDY OF OPTICAL AND X-RAY AFTERGLOWS OF GRBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Liang; Ryde, Felix [Department of Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Wu, Xue-Feng [Chinese Center for Antarctic Astronomy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Huang, Yong-Feng; Tang, Qing-Wen; Geng, Jin-Jun [Department of Astronomy, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, Jiangsu (China); Wang, Xiang-Gao; Liang, En-Wei [GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanjing 530004 (China); Liang, Yun-Feng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Wang, Yu [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universit di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Wei, Jian-Yan [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100012 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: fryde@kth.se, E-mail: liang.li@fysik.su.se [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2015-05-20

    We study an extensive sample of 87 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) for which there are well-sampled and simultaneous optical and X-ray light curves. We extract the cleanest possible signal of the afterglow component and compare the temporal behaviors of the X-ray light curve, observed by Swift XRT, and optical data, observed by UVOT and ground-based telescopes for each individual burst. Overall we find that 62% of the GRBs are consistent with the standard afterglow model. When more advanced modeling is invoked, up to 91% of the bursts in our sample may be consistent with the external-shock model. A large fraction of these bursts are consistent with occurring in a constant interstellar density medium (61%) while only 39% of them occur in a wind-like medium. Only nine cases have afterglow light curves that exactly match the standard fireball model prediction, having a single power-law decay in both energy bands that are observed during their entire duration. In particular, for the bursts with chromatic behavior, additional model assumptions must be made over limited segments of the light curves in order for these bursts to fully agree with the external-shock model. Interestingly, for 54% of the X-ray and 40% of the optical band observations, the end of the shallow decay (t{sup ∼−0.5}) period coincides with the jet-break (t{sup ∼−p}) time, causing an abrupt change in decay slope. The fraction of the burst that is consistent with the external-shock model is independent of the observational epochs in the rest frame of GRBs. Moreover, no cases can be explained by the cooling frequency crossing the X-ray or optical band.

  12. Sputter deposition of PZT piezoelectric films on thin glass substrates for adjustable x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Rudeger H T; Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N; Reid, Paul B; Schwartz, Daniel A; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2013-05-10

    Piezoelectric PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) (PZT) thin films deposited on thin glass substrates have been proposed for adjustable optics in future x-ray telescopes. The light weight of these x-ray optics enables large collecting areas, while the capability to correct mirror figure errors with the PZT thin film will allow much higher imaging resolution than possible with conventional lightweight optics. However, the low strain temperature and flexible nature of the thin glass complicate the use of chemical-solution deposition due to warping of the substrate at typical crystallization temperatures for the PZT. RF magnetron sputtering enabled preparation of PZT films with thicknesses up to 3 μm on Schott D263 glass substrates with much less deformation. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated that the films crystallized with the perovskite phase and showed no indication of secondary phases. Films with 1 cm(2) electrodes exhibited relative permittivity values near 1100 and loss tangents below 0.05. In addition, the remanent polarization was 26 μC/cm(2) with coercive fields of 33 kV/cm. The transverse piezoelectric coefficient was as high as -6.1±0.6 C/m(2). To assess influence functions for the x-ray optics application, the piezoelectrically induced deflection of individual cells was measured and compared with finite-element-analysis calculations. The good agreement between the results suggests that actuation of PZT thin films can control mirror figure errors to a precision of about 5 nm, allowing sub-arcsecond imaging.

  13. Progress in optical-field-ionization soft x-ray lasers at LOA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mocek, Tomáš; Sebban, S.; Bettaibi, I.; Zeitoun, P.; Faivre, G.; Cros, B.; Maynard, G.; Butler, A.; McKenna, C.M.; Spence, D.J.; Gonsavles, A.J.; Hooker, S.M.; Vorontsov, V.; Hallou, S.; Fajardo, M.; Kazamias, S.; Le Pape, S.; Mercere, P.; Morlens, A.S.; Valentin, C.; Balcou, P.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 23, - (2005), s. 351-356 ISSN 0263-0346 Grant - others:EU(XE) HPRI-1999-CT-00086; EU(XE) HPMF-CT-2002-01554 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : collisional excitation * femtosecond * guiding * high harmonic amplification * x-ray laser Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.590, year: 2005

  14. The optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745-26

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz-Darias, T.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Russell, D.M.; Guziy, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Casares, J.; Armas Padilla, M.; Charles, P.A.; Fender, R.P.; Belloni, T.M.; Lewis, F.; Motta, S.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Mundell, C.G.; Sánchez-Ramirez, R.; Thöne, C.C.

    2013-01-01

    We present a 30-day monitoring campaign of the optical counterpart of the bright X-ray transient Swift J1745−26, starting only 19 min after the discovery of the source. We observe the system peaking at i′ ∼ 17.6 on day six (MJD 561 92) to then decay at a rate of ∼0.04 mag d−1. We show that the

  15. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation: lecture 4. Soft x-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-04-01

    The history and present techniques of soft x-ray imaging are reviewed briefly. The physics of x-ray imaging is described, including the temporal and spatial coherence of x-ray sources. Particular technologies described are: contact x-ray microscopy, zone plate imaging, scanned image zone plate microscopy, scanned image reflection microscopy, and soft x-ray holography and diffraction

  16. Compensation of X-ray mirror shape-errors using refractive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawhney, Kawal, E-mail: Kawal.sawhney@diamond.ac.uk; Laundy, David; Pape, Ian [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Dhamgaye, Vishal [Indus Synchrotrons Utilisation Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452012 (India)

    2016-08-01

    Focusing of X-rays to nanometre scale focal spots requires high precision X-ray optics. For nano-focusing mirrors, height errors in the mirror surface retard or advance the X-ray wavefront and after propagation to the focal plane, this distortion of the wavefront causes blurring of the focus resulting in a limit on the spatial resolution. We describe here the implementation of a method for correcting the wavefront that is applied before a focusing mirror using custom-designed refracting structures which locally cancel out the wavefront distortion from the mirror. We demonstrate in measurements on a synchrotron radiation beamline a reduction in the size of the focal spot of a characterized test mirror by a factor of greater than 10 times. This technique could be used to correct existing synchrotron beamline focusing and nanofocusing optics providing a highly stable wavefront with low distortion for obtaining smaller focus sizes. This method could also correct multilayer or focusing crystal optics allowing larger numerical apertures to be used in order to reduce the diffraction limited focal spot size.

  17. X-ray magneto-optic KERR effect studies of spring magnet heterostructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J. B.; Kim, S.-K.; Fullerton, E. E.; Jiang, J. S.; Bader, S. D.

    2000-11-01

    The complex 3-dimensional magnetization reversal behavior of Sin-Co/Fe exchange spring films is used to test the sensitivity of different resonant soft x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) measurements to changes in longitudinal and transverse moments within the SOIIFe layer and to changes in these moments in depth within the Fe layer. As in the visible MOKE, changes in longitudinal and net transverse moments are resolved by measuring both Kerr rotation and intensity loops in the near the Fe 2p core resonance. These x-ray MOKE signals measured using linear incident polarization are more directly interpreted in terms of longitudinal and transverse moments than are the same signals measured using elliptical polarization. Varying photon energy near the Fe L3line is shown to be an effective means of resolving distinctly different reversal behavior at the top and bottom of the 20 nm thick Fe layer resulting from the strong exchange coupling at the Sin-Co/Fe interface. Measured x-ray MOKE spectra and signals are in qualitative agreement with those calculated using standard magneto-optical formalisms incorporating interference between different layers and measured helicity-dependent magneto-optical constants for Fe.

  18. Soft-x-ray magneto-optical Kerr effect and element-specific hysteresis measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortright, J.B.; Rice, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Interest in the utilization of x-ray magneto-optical properties to provide element-specific magnetic information, combined with recent development of tunable linear polarizers for spectroscopic polarization measurement, have led the authors to the study of magneto-optical rotation (MOR) near core levels of magnetic atoms in magnetic multilayer and alloy films. Their initial observation of Faraday rotation (in transmission) demonstrated that for Fe MOR is easily measured and is larger at its L{sub 3} resonance than in the near-visible spectral regions. This work also demonstrated that the spectroscopic behavior of the MOR signal in transmission, resulting from the differential reaction of left- and right-circular components of a linearly polarized beam, is related to the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD), or differential absorption, as expected by a Kramers-Kronig transformation. Thus MCD measurements using circular polarization and MOR measurements using linear polarization can provide complementary, and in some cases equivalent, information. On beamline 6.3.2 the authors have begun to investigate soft x-ray MOR in the reflection geometry, the x-ray magneto-optic Kerr effect (XMOKE). Early measurements have demonstrated the ability to measure element-specific hysteresis loops and large rotations compared to analogous near-visible measurements. The authors are investigating the spectral dependence of the XMOKE signal, and have initiated systematic materials studies of sputter-deposited films of Fe, Fe{sub x}Cr{sub 1{minus}x} alloys, and Fe/Cr multilayers.

  19. New x-ray optical system for fluorescence beamline at Hasylab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkenberg, G.; Tschentscher, T.

    2000-01-01

    Beamline L at HASYLAB/DESY is actually dedicated to micro x-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) experiments using the white beam from a bending magnet of the storage ring DORIS III. To extend the applicability of beamline L to other x-ray fluorescence techniques, such as synchrotron radiation total reflection x-ray fluorescence (SR-TXRF) and micro x-ray absorption near edge structures in fluorescence mode (μ-XANES), new x-ray optics have been designed and are under installation at the moment. The suitability of beamline L for SR-TXRF experiments has been shown previously in a number of studies using temporary setups for beam monochromatization and collimation. The new optical system comprises a slit system, a pair of x-ray mirrors for focussing, collimation and high energy cut-off (12 keV and 30 keV), a double multilayer monochromator for broad bandpass applications (TXRF) and a double perfect-crystal monochromator for spectroscopy (XANES, speciation). The multilayer monochromator will utilize a pair of NiC with a spacing of 4.0 nm for the energy range 2-10 keV and a second pair of WB 4 C with a spacing of 3.0 nm for the range 4-30 keV. To extend the energy range for broad bandpass applications to higher photon energies SiGe gradient crystals are foreseen (ΔE/E ∼ 10 -3 ). For the perfect-crystal monochromator we have chosen a pair of Ge 111 crystals for the energy range 2-10 keV and Si 111 crystals for 7-90 keV. To enable the use of low photon energies down to 2 keV the monochromator vessel is sealed to the ring vacuum by a 25 μm thick carbon window. The mirrors and monochromators deflect the beam vertically and can be moved out of the beam independently. Fixed exit geometry permits the illumination of the same sample spot with different wavelength and energy bands. All optical elements accept the full vertical beam opening in order to enable both vertical and horizontal geometries for sample and detector. (author)

  20. Adaptive grazing incidence optics for the next generation of x-ray observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillie, C.; Pearson, D.; Plinta, A.; Metro, B.; Lintz, E.; Shropshire, D.; Danner, R.

    2010-09-01

    Advances in X-ray astronomy require high spatial resolution and large collecting area. Unfortunately, X-ray telescopes with grazing incidence mirrors require hundreds of concentric mirror pairs to obtain the necessary collecting area, and these mirrors must be thin shells packed tightly together... They must also be light enough to be placed in orbit with existing launch vehicles, and able to be fabricated by the thousands for an affordable cost. The current state of the art in X-ray observatories is represented by NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory with 0.5 arc-second resolution, but only 400 cm2 of collecting area, and by ESA's XMM-Newton observatory with 4,300 cm2 of collecting area but only 15 arc-second resolution. The joint NASA/ESA/JAXA International X-ray Observatory (IXO), with {15,000 cm2 of collecting area and 5 arc-second resolution which is currently in the early study phase, is pushing the limits of passive mirror technology. The Generation-X mission is one of the Advanced Strategic Mission Concepts that NASA is considering for development in the post-2020 period. As currently conceived, Gen-X would be a follow-on to IXO with a collecting area >= 50 m2, a 60-m focal length and 0.1 arc-second spatial resolution. Gen-X would be launched in {2030 with a heavy lift Launch Vehicle to an L2 orbit. Active figure control will be necessary to meet the challenging requirements of the Gen-X optics. In this paper we present our adaptive grazing incidence mirror design and the results from laboratory tests of a prototype mirror.

  1. Automated X-ray and Optical Analysis of the Virtual Observatory and Grid Computing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptak, A.; Krughoff, S.; Connolly, A.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing a system to combine the Web Enabled Source Identification with X-Matching (WESIX) web service, which emphasizes source detection on optical images,with the XAssist program that automates the analysis of X-ray data. XAssist is continuously processing archival X-ray data in several pipelines. We have established a workflow in which FITS images and/or (in the case of X ray data) an X-ray field can be input to WESIX. Intelligent services return available data (if requested fields have been processed) or submit job requests to a queue to be performed asynchronously. These services will be available via web services (for non-interactive use by Virtual Observatory portals and applications) and through web applications (written in the Django web application framework). We are adding web services for specific XAssist functionality such as determining .the exposure and limiting flux for a given position on the sky and extracting spectra and images for a given region. We are improving the queuing system in XAssist to allow for "watch lists" to be specified by users, and when X-ray fields in a user's watch list become publicly available they will be automatically added to the queue. XAssist is being expanded to be used as a survey planning 1001 when coupled with simulation software, including functionality for NuStar, eRosita, IXO, and the Wide Field Xray Telescope (WFXT), as part of an end to end simulation/analysis system. We are also investigating the possibility of a dedicated iPhone/iPad app for querying pipeline data, requesting processing, and administrative job control.

  2. Characterization of the Optical and X-ray Properties of the Northwestern Wisps in the Crab Nebula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, M. C.; Bucciantini, N.; Idec, W.; Nillson, K.; Schweizer, T.; Tennant, A. F.; Zanin, R.

    2013-01-01

    We have studied the wisps to the northwest of the Crab pulsar as part of a multi-wavelength campaign in the visible and in X-rays. Optical observations were obtained using the Nordic Optical Telescope in La Palma and X-ray observations were made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The observing campaign took place from October 2010 until September 2012. About once per year we observe wisps forming and peeling off from (or near) the region commonly associated with the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We find that the exact locations of the northwestern wisps in the optical and in X-rays are similar but not coincident, with X-ray wisps preferentially located closer to the pulsar. This suggests that the optical and X-ray wisps are not produced by the same particle distribution. It is also interesting to note that the optical and radio wisps are also separated from each other (Bietenholz et al. 2004). Our measurements and their implications are interpreted in terms of a Doppler-boosted ring model that has its origin in MHD modeling. While the Doppler boosting factors inferred from the X-ray wisps are consistent with current MHD simulations of PWNe, the optical boosting factors are not, and typically exceed values from MHD simulations by about a factor of 4.

  3. Storage of laser pulses in a Fabry-Perot optical cavity for high flux x-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takezawa, K.; Honda, Y.; Sasao, N.; Araki, S.; Higashi, Y.; Taniguchi, T.; Urakawa, J.; Nomura, M.; Sakai, H.

    2004-01-01

    We have a plan to produce a high flux x-ray for medical use by using a Fabry-Perot optical cavity in which the lower pulses from a mode-locked laser are stored and enhanced. In this plan, the X-ray is produced from the Compton scattering of electrons in a storage ring with the laser light in the optical cavity. In order to increase X-ray flux, high power laser light is necessary. We show the enhancement of the laser power from the model locked laser with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity. (author)

  4. Thermally and optically stimulated luminescence correlated processes in X-ray irradiated KCl:Eu2+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernov, V.; Melendrez Ao, R.; Piters, T.M.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of optical bleaching on thermoluminescence (TL) and thermal bleaching on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) outputs in X-ray irradiated KCl : Eu 2+ have been investigated. The X-ray induced glow curves reveal three main peaks located at 370, 410 and 470 K. Illumination with 560 nm light leads to a drastic change of the TL glow curve. The 470 K peak is destroyed during bleaching. The other peaks initially increase in intensity and only after sufficiently long bleaching begin to decrease. After long-time bleaching, the TL peaks in X-ray irradiated crystals look like the TL peaks found in UV irradiated crystals. The effect of thermal bleaching on OSL is also very pronounced. The temperature dependencies show a step-by-step decrease of the OSL intensity correlated with the positions of the TL peaks. The result obtained shows that centers responsible for the TL peaks participate in OSL, but this participation seems not to be direct and is complicated by processes accompanying the F center bleaching

  5. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Deming; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je

    2016-01-01

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  6. Mechanical design of thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shu, Deming, E-mail: shu@aps.anl.gov; Shvyd’ko, Yuri V.; Stoupin, Stanislav; Kim, Kwang-Je [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439, U.S.A (United States)

    2016-07-27

    A new thin-film diamond crystal mounting apparatus has been designed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) for coherence preservation hard x-ray optics with optimized thermal contact and minimized crystal strain. This novel mechanical design can be applied to new development in the field of: x-ray optics cavities for hard x-ray free-electron laser oscillators (XFELOs), self-seeding monochromators for hard x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) with high average thermal loading, high heat load diamond crystal monochromators and beam-sharing/beam-split-and-delay devices for XFEL facilities and future upgraded high-brightness coherent x-ray source in the MBA lattice configuration at the APS.

  7. PREFACE: 22nd International Congress on X-Ray Optics and Microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenberg, Gerald; Schroer, Christian G.

    2014-04-01

    ICXOM22 The 22nd edition of the International Congress on X-ray Optics and Microanalysis (ICXOM 22) was held from 2-6 September 2013, in Hamburg, Germany. The congress was organized by scientists from DESY in collaboration with TU Dresden and Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, who also formed the scientific advisory board. The congress was hosted in the historical lecture hall building of the University of Hamburg located in the city center. ICXOM22 was attended by about 210 registered participants, including 67 students, and was open for listeners. The attendance was split between 26 countries (Germany 120, rest of Europe 57, America 20, Asia 8, Australia 6). The ICXOM series is a forum for the discussion of new developments in instrumentation, methods and applications in the fields of micro- and nano-analysis by means of X-ray beams. Following the trend of the last 10 years, the conference focusses more and more on synchrotron radiation rather than X-ray laboratory sources. Besides micro-beam X-ray fluorescence and absorption spectroscopy, different methods based on diffraction and full-field imaging were covered. Newly introduced to the ICXOM series was scanning coherent X-ray diffraction imaging, which was shown to evolve into a mature method for the imaging of nanostructures, defects and strain fields. New developments on fast X-ray detectors were discussed (Lambda, Maia) and advances in X-ray optics — like the generation of a sub 5nm point focus by Multilayer Zone plates — were presented. Talks on micro- and nano-analysis applications were distributed in special sessions on bio-imaging, Earth and environmental sciences, and Cultural heritage. The congress featured nine keynote and ten plenary talks, 56 talks in 14 parallel sessions and about 120 posters in three afternoon sessions. Seventeen commercial exhibitors exposed related X-ray instrumentation products, and two luncheon seminars on detector electronics were given. This allowed us to keep the student

  8. Electronic structure and optical properties of CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures from X-ray absorption near edge structure, X-ray excited optical luminescence, and density functional theory investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, M. W. [DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron), FS-PEX, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Yiu, Y. M., E-mail: yyiu@uwo.ca; Sham, T. K. [Department of Chemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A5B7 (Canada); Ward, M. J. [Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS), Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Liu, L. [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Soochow University-Western University Center for Synchrotron Radiation Research, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu, 215123 (China); Hu, Y. [Canadian Light Source, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N2V3 (Canada); Zapien, J. A. [Center Of Super-Diamond and Advanced Films (COSDAF) and Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR (China); Liu, Yingkai [Institute of Physics and Electronic Information, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming, Yunnan, 650500 (China)

    2014-11-21

    The electronic structure and optical properties of a series of iso-electronic and iso-structural CdS{sub x}Se{sub 1−x} solid solution nanostructures have been investigated using X-ray absorption near edge structure, extended X-ray absorption fine structure, and X-ray excited optical luminescence at various absorption edges of Cd, S, and Se. It is found that the system exhibits compositions, with variable local structure in-between that of CdS and CdSe accompanied by tunable optical band gap between that of CdS and CdSe. Theoretical calculation using density functional theory has been carried out to elucidate the observations. It is also found that luminescence induced by X-ray excitation shows new optical channels not observed previously with laser excitation. The implications of these observations are discussed.

  9. SHADOW3: a new version of the synchrotron X-ray optics modelling package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel, E-mail: srio@esrf.eu [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Canestrari, Niccolo [CNRS, Grenoble (France); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, 6 Jules Horowitz, 38000 Grenoble (France); Jiang, Fan; Cerrina, Franco [Boston University, 8 St Mary’s Street, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    SHADOW3, a new version of the X-ray tracing code SHADOW, is introduced. A new version of the popular X-ray tracing code SHADOW is presented. An important step has been made in restructuring the code following new computer engineering standards, ending with a modular Fortran 2003 structure and an application programming interface (API). The new code has been designed to be compatible with the original file-oriented SHADOW philosophy, but simplifying the compilation, installation and use. In addition, users can now become programmers using the newly designed SHADOW3 API for creating scripts, macros and programs; being able to deal with optical system optimization, image simulation, and also low transmission calculations requiring a large number of rays (>10{sup 6}). Plans for future development and questions on how to accomplish them are also discussed.

  10. Far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry of X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, J.T.; Bowyer, S.; Grewing, M.; California Univ., Berkeley; Tuebingen Universitaet, West Germany)

    1986-01-01

    Five X-ray selected Seyfert galaxies were examined via near-simultaneous far-ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometry in an effort to test models for excitation of emission lines by X-ray and ultraviolet continuum photoionization. The observed Ly-alpha/H-beta ratio in the present sample averages 22, with an increase found toward the high-velocity wings of the H lines in the spectrum of at least one of the Seyfert I nuclei. It is suggested that Seyfert galaxies with the most high-velocity gas exhibit the highest Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios at all velocities in the line profiles, and that sometimes this ratio may be highest for the highest velocity material in the broad-line clouds. Since broad-lined objects are least affected by Ly-alpha trapping effects, they have Ly-alpha/H-beta ratios much closer to those predicted by early photoionization calculations. 21 references

  11. 'Optical' soft x-ray arrays for fluctuation diagnostics in magnetic fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L.F.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, L.; Johnson, D.; Majeski, R.

    2004-01-01

    We are developing large pixel count, fast (≥100 kHz) and continuously sampling soft x-ray (SXR) array for the diagnosis of magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) and turbulent fluctuations in magnetic fusion energy plasmas. The arrays are based on efficient scintillators, high thoughput multiclad fiber optics, and multichannel light amplification and integration. Compared to conventional x-ray diode arrays, such systems can provide vastly increased spatial coverage, and access to difficult locations with small neutron noise and damage. An eight-channel array has been built using columnar CsI:Tl as an SXR converter and a multianode photomultiplier tube as photoamplifier. The overall system efficiency is measured using laboratory SXR sources, while the time response and signal-to-noise performance have been evaluated by recording MHD activity from the spherical tori (ST) Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade and National Spherical Torus Experiment, both at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

  12. SHADOW3: a new version of the synchrotron X-ray optics modelling package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Canestrari, Niccolo; Jiang, Fan; Cerrina, Franco

    2011-01-01

    SHADOW3, a new version of the X-ray tracing code SHADOW, is introduced. A new version of the popular X-ray tracing code SHADOW is presented. An important step has been made in restructuring the code following new computer engineering standards, ending with a modular Fortran 2003 structure and an application programming interface (API). The new code has been designed to be compatible with the original file-oriented SHADOW philosophy, but simplifying the compilation, installation and use. In addition, users can now become programmers using the newly designed SHADOW3 API for creating scripts, macros and programs; being able to deal with optical system optimization, image simulation, and also low transmission calculations requiring a large number of rays (>10 6 ). Plans for future development and questions on how to accomplish them are also discussed

  13. X-ray-sensitive storage phosphors with the optically stable luminescent centres

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, G B; Zvezdova, N P; Kochubey, D I; Sedova, Y G; Kochubey, D I; Kulipanov, G N; Lyakh, V V; Pindyurin, V F

    2000-01-01

    NaCl, KCl, KBr and LiF crystals doped by In, Tl, Ni, Pd and Ca were investigated as X-ray-sensitive materials. Influence of the way of doping of an impurity and growing of a crystal on such parameters of a material as: sensitivity to ionising radiation; radiative, optical and thermal stability of the image, obtained after an irradiation is investigated. As a result of the work, media for recording of the X-ray images are developed. These allow to reproduce the images in a mode of a photoluminescence. Spatial resolution and the dynamic range of registration of the developed materials concede to similar parameters of commercial storage luminophores like 'Image Plates' based on BaFBr : La. At the same time, as distinct from 'Image Plates', the developed radiophotoluminophores allow a long storage and multiple readout of the information recorded.

  14. X-ray instrumentation in astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuhlane, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of a conference devoted to x-ray instrumentation in astronomy. Special sections are: AXAF X-Ray Optical Systems; Specialized X-Ray Systems; X-Ray Optical Systems I; X-Ray Optical Systems II; Gas Filled X-Ray Detectors II; The NASA Advanced X-Ray Astrophysics Facility; X-Ray and EUV Spectrometers; Microchannel Plates; and Solid State Detectors

  15. Mounting and Alignment of Full-Shell Replicated X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Arnold, William; Kester, Thomas; Ramsey, Brian; Smithers, Martin

    2007-01-01

    We are developing grazing-incidence x-ray optics for astronomy. The optics are full-cylinder mirror shells fabricated using electroformed-nickel replication off super-polished mandrels. For space-based applications where weight is at a premium, very-thin-walled, light-weight mirrors are required. Such shells have been fabricated at MSFC with greater than 15 arcsec resolution. The challenge, however, is to preserve this resolution during mounting and assembly. We present here a status report on a mounting and alignment system currently under development at Marshall Space Flight Center to meet this challenge.

  16. The research of the style of angel lobster eye x-ray optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, HuaQi; Liu, YuJiao; Zhang, ShaoWei; Hou, LinBao; Li, XingLong

    2018-01-01

    This paper has developed the theory research of wide field Angel lobster eye X-ray optical system based on the principle of entirely incidence. Combine the configuration characteristic of lobster eye, recommend the conclusion of beam of light focus on the half of radius whether point or parallel light. Designed the microchannel through the principle of real ray trace and got the relationship among different parameters about it using numerical value emulation. Got pixels and illumination pictures validated the wide field focus characteristic of Angel lobster eye by simulating the optical system.

  17. Optical and X-Ray Early Follow-Up of ANTARES Neutrino Alerts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian-Martinez, S.; Ageron, M.; Albert, A.; Samarai, I. Al; Andre, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Marti, J.; hide

    2016-01-01

    High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrinosource has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifyinga neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROTand ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or Xraycounterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations areanalysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with X-ray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analyzed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.

  18. An appraisal of current regulations and recommendations in relation to proposals for the use of X-ray optics equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherley, E.G.

    1984-01-01

    Current regulatory requirements for the use of x-ray optics equipment in factories are compared with the 19-year-old Guidance Notes for their use in research and teaching establishments. The difficulties in drafting new legislation to cater for both areas of use are discussed and the proposed regulations and approved code of practice having a direct bearing on x-ray optics equipment are reviewed. Comment is made concerning the proposed Health and Safety Executive document, ''Radiation Safety in the use of X-ray Optics Equipment, which will give practical advice and guidance on cost effective methods of achieving the regulatory objectives. The costs involved are unlikely to be significant for the majority of users and implementation of the proposed legislation should not restrict the use of x-ray optics equipment. (author)

  19. The relationship between wave and geometrical optics models of coded aperture type x-ray phase contrast imaging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Ignatyev, Konstantin; Speller, Robert D; Olivo, Alessandro

    2010-03-01

    X-ray phase contrast imaging is a very promising technique which may lead to significant advancements in medical imaging. One of the impediments to the clinical implementation of the technique is the general requirement to have an x-ray source of high coherence. The radiation physics group at UCL is currently developing an x-ray phase contrast imaging technique which works with laboratory x-ray sources. Validation of the system requires extensive modelling of relatively large samples of tissue. To aid this, we have undertaken a study of when geometrical optics may be employed to model the system in order to avoid the need to perform a computationally expensive wave optics calculation. In this paper, we derive the relationship between the geometrical and wave optics model for our system imaging an infinite cylinder. From this model we are able to draw conclusions regarding the general applicability of the geometrical optics approximation.

  20. Ultraviolet and optical observations of the HDE 245770/A0535+26 system during an X-ray flare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannelli, F.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.; Giangrande, A.; Persi, P.; Bartolini, C.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.

    1981-01-01

    We present high and low dispersion UV spectra of HDE 245770, which is the optical counterpart of the recurrent transient X-ray pulsar A0535+26, during a decay of an X-ray flare. UBV photometric measurements and medium dispersion optical spectra were simultaneously obtained. The energy distribution of the star in the 12-10 micron range is compared with the models of Kurucz and Poeckert and Marlborough. In this phase, HDE 245770 does not show evaluable variations with respect to the quiescent X-ray phase. (orig.)

  1. X-ray tests of microfocusing mono-capillary optic for protein crystallography

    CERN Document Server

    Bilderback, D H

    2001-01-01

    A single, borosilicate-glass capillary was drawn into a 30.5 cm long elliptical shape. The inside diameter was 0.40 mm at the large base end and 0.13 mm at the tip. With 12 keV X-rays from the CHESS D1 bending magnet, the single-bounce capillary produced a focus of better than 18 mu m in diameter (FHWM) at a 3 cm distance from the capillary tip. A flux gain of 110 in the focus position was observed along with a total flux in the spot of 4x10 sup 1 sup 0 X-rays/s (conditions: 5.3 GeV, 182 mA, 1.5% bandwidth multilayer, 12 keV X-rays). A measurement of the far field focus ring diameter yielded a divergence of 3.8 mrad, in good agreement with the 4 mrad design of the optic for protein crystallography. Using a small 25 mu m square beam, we measured the local reflectivity to be greater than 95% and the inner slope errors of the capillary to average about +-150 mu rad, both from raw and elliptically shaped tubing. Our conclusion is that more perfect starting tubing (i.e. one with lower slope errors) is needed to ma...

  2. Response of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters subjected to X-rays in diagnostic energy range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musa, Y; Hashim, S; Karim, M K A; Ang, W C; Salehhon, N; Bakar, K A

    2017-01-01

    The use of optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) for dosimetry applications has recently increased considerably due to availability of commercial OSL dosimeters (nanoDots) for clinical use. The OSL dosimeter has a great potential to be used in clinical dosimetry because of its prevailing advantages in both handling and application. However, utilising nanoDot OSLDs for dose measurement in diagnostic radiology can only be guaranteed when the performance and characteristics of the dosimeters are apposite. In the present work, we examined the response of commercially available nanoDot OSLD (Al 2 O 3 :C) subjected to X-rays in general radiography. The nanoDots response with respect to reproducibility, dose linearity and signal depletion were analysed using microStar reader (Landauer, Inc., Glenwood, IL). Irradiations were performed free-in-air using 70, 80 and 120 kV tube voltages and tube currents ranging from 10 – 100 mAs. The results showed that the nanoDots exhibit good linearity and reproducibility when subjected to diagnostic X-rays, with coefficient of variations (CV) ranging between 2.3% to 3.5% representing a good reproducibility. The results also indicated average of 1% signal reduction per readout. Hence, the nanoDots showed a promising potential for dose measurement in general X-ray procedure. (paper)

  3. 3D characterization of thin glass x-ray mirrors via optical profilometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Citterio, O.; Conconi, P.; Spiga, D.; Pareschi, G.; Proserpio, L.

    2010-09-01

    In this paper we present the "Characterization Universal Profilometer" (CUP), a new metrological instrument developed at the Brera Observatory for the 3D surface figure mapping of X-ray segmented mirrors. The CUP working principle is based on the measure of the the distance between the surface under test from a rigid reference dish. This approach is made possible by the coupled use of two sensors, the CHRocodile® optical device and the SIOS triple beam interferometer, mounted onto a proper system of x-y-z stage of translators. In this paper we describe the working principle of the new instrument. We will also present the results of the commissioning performed for a CUP breadboard developed at the Brera Observatory. The CUP offers the possibility to perform an high accuracy metrology of thin glass segments produced via hot slumping, to be used in future segmented X-ray mirrors like those foreseen aboard IXO or other projects that will make use of active X-ray mirrors.

  4. Fast optical and X-ray variability in the UCXB 4U0614+09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, P. J.; Charles, P. A.; Muhli, P.

    2011-09-01

    We present results from several years of fast optical photometry of 4U0614+091 (V1055 Orionis), a candidate ultracompact X-ray binary most likely consisting of a neutron star and a degenerate secondary. We find evidence for strong accretion-driven variability at all epochs, which manifests itself as red noise. This flickering produces transient peaks in the observed power spectrum in the 15-65 min period range. Only in one of our 12 optical data sets can we see evidence for a period that cannot be reproduced using the red noise model. This period of 51 min coincides with the strongest period detected by Shahbaz et al. and can thus be taken as the prime candidate for the orbital period of the system. Furthermore, we find some tentative evidence for the X-ray versus optical flux anticorrelation discovered by Machin et al. using our data together with the all-sky X-ray monitoring data from RXTE/All Sky Monitor. We propose that the complex time series behaviour of 4U0614+09 is a result of drastic changes in the accretion disc geometry/structure on time-scales from hours to days. Finally, we want to draw attention to the interpretation of moderately strong peaks in the power spectra of especially accreting sources. Many of such 'periods' can probably be attributed to the presence of red noise (i.e. correlated events) in the data. Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma jointly by Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden, in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias. Uses results provided by the ASM/RXTE teams at MIT and at the RXTE SOF and GOF at NASA's GSFC.

  5. Development study of the X-ray scattering properties of a group of optically polished flat samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froechtenigt, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    A group of twelve optically polished flat samples were used to study the scattering of X-rays. The X-ray beam reflected from the twelve optical flat samples was analyzed by means of a long vacuum system of special design for these tests. The scattering measurements were made at 8.34A and 0.92 deg angle of incidence. The results for ten of the samples are comparable, the two exceptions being the fire polished samples.

  6. Soft X-ray imaging of thick carbon-based materials using the normal incidence multilayer optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artyukov, I A; Feschenko, R M; Vinogradov, A V; Bugayev, Ye A; Devizenko, O Y; Kondratenko, V V; Kasyanov, Yu S; Hatano, T; Yamamoto, M; Saveliev, S V

    2010-10-01

    The high transparency of carbon-containing materials in the spectral region of "carbon window" (lambda approximately 4.5-5nm) introduces new opportunities for various soft X-ray microscopy applications. The development of efficient multilayer coated X-ray optics operating at the wavelengths of about 4.5nm has stimulated a series of our imaging experiments to study thick biological and synthetic objects. Our experimental set-up consisted of a laser plasma X-ray source generated with the 2nd harmonics of Nd-glass laser, scandium-based thin-film filters, Co/C multilayer mirror and X-ray film UF-4. All soft X-ray images were produced with a single nanosecond exposure and demonstrated appropriate absorption contrast and detector-limited spatial resolution. A special attention was paid to the 3D imaging of thick low-density foam materials to be used in design of laser fusion targets.

  7. Extending the possibilities in phase space analysis of synchrotron radiation x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Claudio; Smilgies, Detlef-Matthias; Riekel, Christian; Gatta, Gilles; Daly, Peter

    2008-08-01

    A simple analytical approach to phase space analysis of the performance of x-ray optical setups (beamlines) combining several elements in position-angle-wavelength space is presented. The mathematical description of a large class of optical elements commonly used on synchrotron beamlines has been reviewed and extended with respect to the existing literature and is reported in a revised form. Novel features are introduced, in particular, the possibility to account for imperfections on mirror surfaces and to incorporate nanofocusing devices like refractive lenses in advanced beamline setups using the same analytical framework. Phase space analysis results of the simulation of an undulator beamline with focusing optics at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility compare favorably with results obtained by geometric ray-tracing methods and, more importantly, with experimental measurements. This approach has been implemented into a simple and easy-to-use program toolkit for optical calculations based on the Mathematica software package.

  8. The puzzling afterglow of GRB 050721: a rebrightening seen in the optical but not in the X-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, L. A.; Romano, P.; Testa, V.; D'Elia, V.; Guetta, D.; Torii, K.; Malesani, D.

    2007-01-01

    We present here the analysis of the early and late multiwavelength afterglow emission, as observed by Swift a small robotic telescope, and the VLT. We compare early observations with late afterglow observations obtained with Swift and the VLT and we observe an intense rebrightening in the optical band at about one day after the burst which is not present in the X-ray band. The lack of detection in X-ray of such a strong rebrightening at lower energies may be described with a variable external density profile. In such a scenario, the combined X-ray and optical observations allow us to derive that the matter density located at ∼ 1017 cm from the burst is about a factor of 10 higher than in the inner region. This is the first time in which a rebrightening has been observed in the optical afterglow of a GRB that is clearly absent in the X-ray afterglow

  9. Malnutrition and myelin structure: an X-ray scattering study of rat sciatic and optic nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, V.; Vargas, R.; Marquez, G.; Vonasek, E.; Mateu, L.; Luzzati, V.; Borges, J.

    2000-01-01

    Taking advantage of the fast and accurate X-ray scattering techniques recently developed in our laboratory, we tackled the study of the structural alterations induced in myelin by malnutrition. Our work was performed on sciatic and optic nerves dissected from rats fed with either a normal or a low-protein caloric diet, as a function of age (from birth to 60 days). By way of electrophysiological controls we also measured (on the sciatic nerves) the height and velocity of the compound action potential. Malnutrition was found to decrease the amount of myelin and to impair the packing order of the membranes in the sheaths. (orig.)

  10. A QUASAR CATALOG WITH SIMULTANEOUS UV, OPTICAL, AND X-RAY OBSERVATIONS BY SWIFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Jian; Grupe, Dirk; Koch, Scott; Gelbord, Jonathan; Schneider, Donald P.; Gronwall, Caryl; Porterfield, Blair L. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Vanden Berk, Daniel; Wesolowski, Sarah, E-mail: jwu@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Saint Vincent College, 300 Fraser Purchase Road, Latrobe, PA 15650 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We have compiled a catalog of optically selected quasars with simultaneous observations in UV/optical and X-ray bands by the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer. Objects in this catalog are identified by matching the Swift pointings with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog. The final catalog contains 843 objects, among which 637 have both Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) and X-Ray Telescope (XRT) observations and 354 of which are detected by both instruments. The overall X-ray detection rate is {approx}60% which rises to {approx}85% among sources with at least 10 ks of XRT exposure time. We construct the time-averaged spectral energy distribution (SED) for each of the 354 quasars using UVOT photometric measurements and XRT spectra. From model fits to these SEDs, we find that the big blue bump contributes about {approx}0.3 dex to the quasar luminosity. We re-visit the {alpha}{sub ox}-L{sub 2500A} relation by selecting a clean sample with only Type 1 radio-quiet quasars; the dispersion of this relation is reduced by at least 15% compared with studies that use non-simultaneous UV/optical and X-ray data. We only found a weak correlation between L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub UV}. We do not find significant correlations between {alpha}{sub x} and {alpha}{sub ox}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub UV}, and {alpha}{sub x} and log L(0.3-10 keV). The correlations between {alpha}{sub UV} and {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub x}, {alpha}{sub ox} and {alpha}{sub UV}, L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub x}, and L{sub bol}/L{sub Edd} and {alpha}{sub ox} are stronger among low-redshift quasars, indicating that these correlations are likely driven by the changes of SED shape with accretion state.

  11. X-ray laser studies using plasmas created by optical field ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krushelnick, K.M.; Tighe, W.; Suckewer, S.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray laser experiments involving the creation of fast recombining plasmas by optical field ionization of preformed targets were conducted. A nonlinear increase in the intensity of the 13.5nm Lyman-α line in Li III with the length of the target plasma was observed but only for distances less than the laser confocal parameter and for low plasma electron temperatures. Multiphoton pumping of resonant atomic transitions was also examined and the process of multiphoton ionization of FIII was found to be more probable than multiphoton excitation

  12. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the case of very low emittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  13. Optical and x-ray imaging of electron beams using synchrotron emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilke, M.D.

    1994-01-01

    In the case of very low eniittance electron and positron storage ring beams, it is impossible to make intrusive measurements of beam properties without increasing the emittance and possibly disrupting the beam. In cases where electron or positron beams have high average power densities (such as free electron laser linacs), intrusive probes such as wires and optical transition radiation screens or Cherenkov emitting screens can be easily damaged or destroyed. The optical and x-ray emissions from the bends in the storage rings and often from linac bending magnets can be used to image the beam profile to obtain emittance information about the beam. The techniques, advantages and limitations of using both optical and x-ray synchrotron emission to measure beam properties are discussed and the possibility of single bunch imaging is considered. The properties of suitable imagers and converters such as phosphors are described. Examples of previous, existing and planned applications are given where available, including a pinhole imaging system currently being designed for the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory

  14. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-01-01

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3±2.5nmrms to 5.7±0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  15. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riveros, Raul E; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3+/-2.5nmrms to 5.7+/-0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  16. Development of an alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process for microelectromechanical systems micropore x-ray optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riveros, Raul E.; Yamaguchi, Hitomi; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Takagi, Utako; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Kato, Fumiki; Sugiyama, Susumu; Yamasaki, Noriko; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2010-06-20

    X-ray astronomy research is often limited by the size, weight, complexity, and cost of functioning x-ray optics. Micropore optics promises an economical alternative to traditional (e.g., glass or foil) x-ray optics; however, many manufacturing difficulties prevent micropore optics from being a viable solution. Ezoe et al. introduced microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) micropore optics having curvilinear micropores in 2008. Made by either deep reactive ion etching or x-ray lithography, electroforming, and molding (LIGA), MEMS micropore optics suffer from high micropore sidewall roughness (10-30nmrms) which, by current standards, cannot be improved. In this research, a new alternating magnetic-field-assisted finishing process was developed using a mixture of ferrofluid and microscale abrasive slurry. A machine was built, and a set of working process parameters including alternating frequency, abrasive size, and polishing time was selected. A polishing experiment on a LIGA-fabricated MEMS micropore optic was performed, and a change in micropore sidewall roughness of 9.3{+-}2.5nmrms to 5.7{+-}0.7nmrms was measured. An improvement in x-ray reflectance was also seen. This research shows the feasibility and confirms the effects of this new polishing process on MEMS micropore optics.

  17. Design and development of the SIMBOL-X hard x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareschi, G.; Attinà, P.; Basso, S.; Borghi, G.; Burkert, W.; Buzzi, R.; Citterio, O.; Civitani, M.; Conconi, P.; Cotroneo, V.; Cusumano, G.; Dell'Orto, E.; Freyberg, M.; Hartner, G. D.; Gorenstein, P.; Mattaini, E.; Mazzoleni, F.; Parodi, G.; Romaine, S.; Spiga, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Valtolina, R.; Valsecchi, G.; Vernani, D.

    2008-07-01

    The SIMBOL-X formation-flight X-ray mission will be operated by ASI and CNES in 2014, with a large participation of the French and Italian high energy astrophysics scientific community. Also German and US Institutions are contributing in the implementation of the scientific payload. Thanks to the formation-flight architecture, it will be possible to operate a long (20 m) focal length grazing incidence mirror module, formed by 100 confocal multilayer-coated Wolter I shells. This system will allow us to focus X-rays over a very broad energy band, from 0.5 keV up to 80 keV and beyond, with more than two orders of magnitude improvement in angular resolution (20 arcsec HEW) and sensitivity (0.5 µCrab on axis @30 keV) compared to non focusing detectors used so far. The X-ray mirrors will be realized by Ni electroforming replication, already successfully used for BeppoSAX, XMM-Newton, and JET-X/SWIFT; the thickness trend will be about two times less than for XMM, in order to save mass. Multilayer reflecting coatings will be implemented, in order to improve the reflectivity beyond 10 keV and to increase the field of view 812 arcmin at 30 keV). In this paper, the SIMBOL-X optics design, technology and implementation challenges will be discussed; it will be also reported on recent results obtained in the context of the SIMBOL-X optics development activities.

  18. The nature of 50 Palermo Swift-BAT hard X-ray objects through optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, A. F.; Masetti, N.; Minniti, D.; Jiménez-Bailón, E.; Chavushyan, V.; Hau, G.; McBride, V. A.; Bassani, L.; Bazzano, A.; Bird, A. J.; Galaz, G.; Gavignaud, I.; Landi, R.; Malizia, A.; Morelli, L.; Palazzi, E.; Patiño-Álvarez, V.; Stephen, J. B.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-06-01

    We present the nature of 50 hard X-ray emitting objects unveiled through an optical spectroscopy campaign performed at seven telescopes in the northern and southern hemispheres. These objects were detected with the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) instrument onboard the Swift satellite and listed as of unidentified nature in the 54-month Palermo BAT catalogue. In detail, 45 sources in our sample are identified as active galactic nuclei of which, 27 are classified as type 1 (with broad and narrow emission lines) and 18 are classified as type 2 (with only narrow emission lines). Among the broad-line emission objects, one is a type 1 high-redshift quasi-stellar object, and among the narrow-line emission objects, one is a starburst galaxy, one is a X-ray bright optically normal galaxy, and one is a low ionization nuclear emission line region. We report 30 new redshift measurements, 13 confirmations and 2 more accurate redshift values. The remaining five objects are galactic sources: three are Cataclismic Variables, one is a X-ray Binary probably with a low mass secondary star, and one is an active star. Based on observations obtained from the following observatories: Cerro Tololo Interamerican Observatory (Chile); Astronomical Observatory of Bologna in Loiano (Italy); Observatorio Astronómico Nacional (San Pedro Mártir, Mexico); Radcliffe telescope of the South African Astronomical Observatory (Sutherland, South Africa); Sloan Digital Sky Survey; Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (Canary Islands, Spain) and New Technology Telescope (NTT) of La Silla Observatory, Chile.

  19. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2007-12-01

    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website http://goldberg.lbl.gov/MetrologyWorkshop07/. Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  20. Correlated X-ray/UV/optical emission and short-term variability in a Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-03-01

    We present a detailed multifrequency analysis of an intense monitoring programme of Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4593 over a duration of nearly for a month with Swift observatory. We used 185 pointings to study the variability in six ultraviolet/optical and two soft (0.3-1.5 keV) and hard X-ray (1.5-10 keV) bands. The amplitude of the observed variability is found to decrease from high energy to low energy (X-ray to optical) bands. Count-count plots of ultraviolet/optical bands with hard X-rays clearly suggest the presence of a mixture of two major components: (i) highly variable component such as hard X-ray emission, and (ii) slowly varying disc-like component. The variations observed in the ultraviolet/optical emission are strongly correlated with the hard X-ray band. Cross-correlation analysis provides the lags for the longer wavelengths compared to the hard X-rays. Such lags clearly suggest that the changes in the ultraviolet/optical bands follow the variations in the hard X-ray band. This implies that the observed variation in longer wavelengths is due to X-ray reprocessing. Though, the measured lag spectrum (lag versus wavelength) is well described by λ4/3 as expected from the standard disc model, the observed lags are found to be longer than the predicted values from standard disc model. This implies that the actual size of the disc of NGC 4593 is larger than the estimated size of standard thin disc as reported in active galactic nuclei such as NGC 5548 and Fairall 9.

  1. AGNs with discordant optical and X-ray classification are not a physical family: diverse origin in two AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordovás-Pascual, I.; Mateos, S.; Carrera, F. J.; Wiersema, K.; Barcons, X.; Braito, V.; Caccianiga, A.; Del Moro, A.; Della Ceca, R.; Severgnini, P.

    2017-07-01

    Approximately 3-17 per cent of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) without detected rest-frame UV/optical broad emission lines (type-2 AGN) do not show absorption in X-rays. The physical origin behind the apparently discordant optical/X-ray properties is not fully understood. Our study aims at providing insight into this issue by conducting a detailed analysis of the nuclear dust extinction and X-ray absorption properties of two AGNs with low X-ray absorption and with high optical extinction, for which a rich set of high-quality spectroscopic data is available from XMM-Newton archive data in X-rays and XSHOOTER proprietary data at UV-to-NIR wavelengths. In order to unveil the apparent mismatch, we have determined the AV/NH and both the supermassive black hole and the host galaxy masses. We find that the mismatch is caused in one case by an abnormally high dust-to-gas ratio that makes the UV/optical emission to appear more obscured than in the X-rays. For the other object, we find that the dust-to-gas ratio is similar to the Galactic one but the AGN is hosted by a very massive galaxy so that the broad emission lines and the nuclear continuum are swamped by the star light and difficult to detect.

  2. Studies of nanostructures using time-resolved x-ray excited optical luminescence*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, R.A.; Shenoy, G.K.; Smita, S.; Burda, C.; Sham, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text:The scientific community is currently investing a great deal of effort into understanding the physics and chemistry of nanoscale structures. Synchrotron radiation techniques are being used to study the physical, electronic, and magnetic structure of nanosystems, albeit at a relatively large size (greater than 30 nm). A major challenge facing researchers is finding methods that can probe structures of the smallest scale (less than 10 nm). Optical luminescence has been shown to be directly sensitive to structures in this size range due to quantum confinement phenomena. X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) provides the capability to chemically map the sites responsible for producing low-energy (1-6 eV) fluorescence. By taking advantage of the time structure of the x-ray pulses at the Advanced Photon Source (70 ps wide, 153 ns separation), it also possible to determine the dynamic behavior of the states involved in the luminescence. In this paper we will present results of time-resolved XEOL experiments on various nanostructures including porous silicon, silicon nanowires, and CdSe nanodots

  3. The Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager Small Explorer Concept Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert Y.; Dennis, Brian R.; Glesener, Lindsay; Krucker, Sam; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian

    2016-05-01

    We present the FOXSI (Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager) small explorer (SMEX) concept, a mission dedicated to studying particle acceleration and energy release on the Sun. FOXSI is designed as a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft in low-Earth orbit making use of state-of-the-art grazing incidence focusing optics combined withpixelated solid-state detectors, allowing for direct imaging of solar X-rays. The current design being studied features multiple telescopes with a 14 meter focal length enabled by a deployable boom.FOXSI will observe the Sun in the 3-100 keV energy range. The FOXSI imaging concept has already been tested on two sounding rocket flights, in 2012 and 2014 and on the HEROES balloon payload flight in 2013. FOXSI will image the Sun with an angular resolution of 5'', a spectral resolution of 0.5 keV, and sub-second temporal resolution. FOXSI is a direct imaging spectrometer with high dynamic range and sensitivity and will provide a brand-new perspective on energy release on the Sun. We describe the mission and its science objectives.

  4. X-ray bang-time and fusion reaction history at ∼ ps resolution using RadOptic detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernon, S.P.; Lowry, M.E.; Baker, K.L.; Bennett, C.V.; Celeste, J.R.; Cerjan, C.; Haynes, S.; Hernandez, V.J.; Hsing, W.W.; London, R.A.; Moran, B.; von Wittenau, A.S.; Steele, P.T.; Stewart, R.E.

    2012-01-01

    We report recent progress in the development of RadOptic detectors, radiation to optical converters, that rely upon x-ray absorption induced modulation of the optical refractive index of a semiconductor sensor medium to amplitude modulate an optical probe beam. The sensor temporal response is determined by the dynamics of the electron-hole pair creation and subsequent relaxation in the sensor medium. Response times of a few ps have been demonstrated in a series of experiments conducted at the LLNL Jupiter Laser Facility. This technology will enable x-ray bang-time and fusion burn-history measurements with ∼ ps resolution.

  5. Meta-shell Approach for Constructing Lightweight and High Resolution X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Ryan S.

    2016-01-01

    Lightweight and high resolution optics are needed for future space-based x-ray telescopes to achieve advances in high-energy astrophysics. Past missions such as Chandra and XMM-Newton have achieved excellent angular resolution using a full shell mirror approach. Other missions such as Suzaku and NuSTAR have achieved lightweight mirrors using a segmented approach. This paper describes a new approach, called meta-shells, which combines the fabrication advantages of segmented optics with the alignment advantages of full shell optics. Meta-shells are built by layering overlapping mirror segments onto a central structural shell. The resulting optic has the stiffness and rotational symmetry of a full shell, but with an order of magnitude greater collecting area. Several meta-shells so constructed can be integrated into a large x-ray mirror assembly by proven methods used for Chandra and XMM-Newton. The mirror segments are mounted to the meta-shell using a novel four point semi-kinematic mount. The four point mount deterministically locates the segment in its most performance sensitive degrees of freedom. Extensive analysis has been performed to demonstrate the feasibility of the four point mount and meta-shell approach. A mathematical model of a meta-shell constructed with mirror segments bonded at four points and subject to launch loads has been developed to determine the optimal design parameters, namely bond size, mirror segment span, and number of layers per meta-shell. The parameters of an example 1.3 m diameter mirror assembly are given including the predicted effective area. To verify the mathematical model and support opto-mechanical analysis, a detailed finite element model of a meta-shell was created. Finite element analysis predicts low gravity distortion and low thermal distortion. Recent results are discussed including Structural Thermal Optical Performance (STOP) analysis as well as vibration and shock testing of prototype meta-shells.

  6. Spectral tailoring of nanoscale EUV and soft x-ray multilayer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiushi; Medvedev, Viacheslav; van de Kruijs, Robbert; Yakshin, Andrey; Louis, Eric; Bijkerk, Fred

    2017-03-01

    Extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray (XUV) multilayer optics have experienced significant development over the past few years, particularly on controlling the spectral characteristics of light for advanced applications like EUV photolithography, space observation, and accelerator- or lab-based XUV experiments. Both planar and three dimensional multilayer structures have been developed to tailor the spectral response in a wide wavelength range. For the planar multilayer optics, different layered schemes are explored. Stacks of periodic multilayers and capping layers are demonstrated to achieve multi-channel reflection or suppression of the reflective properties. Aperiodic multilayer structures enable broadband reflection both in angles and wavelengths, with the possibility of polarization control. The broad wavelength band multilayer is also used to shape attosecond pulses for the study of ultrafast phenomena. Narrowband multilayer monochromators are delivered to bridge the resolution gap between crystals and regular multilayers. High spectral purity multilayers with innovated anti-reflection structures are shown to select spectrally clean XUV radiation from broadband X-ray sources, especially the plasma sources for EUV lithography. Significant progress is also made in the three dimensional multilayer optics, i.e., combining micro- and nanostructures with multilayers, in order to provide new freedom to tune the spectral response. Several kinds of multilayer gratings, including multilayer coated gratings, sliced multilayer gratings, and lamellar multilayer gratings are being pursued for high resolution and high efficiency XUV spectrometers/monochromators, with their advantages and disadvantages, respectively. Multilayer diffraction optics are also developed for spectral purity enhancement. New structures like gratings, zone plates, and pyramids that obtain full suppression of the unwanted radiation and high XUV reflectance are reviewed. Based on the present achievement

  7. GRB 071112C: A CASE STUDY OF DIFFERENT MECHANISMS IN X-RAY AND OPTICAL TEMPORAL EVOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, K. Y.; Tung, Y. H.; Lin, H. M.; Wang, S. Y.; Lehner, M. J.; Wang, J. H.; Wen, C. Y. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Urata, Y.; Ip, W. H. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Xin, L. P.; Qiu, Y.; Wei, J. [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yoshida, M. [Hiroshima Astrophysical Science Center, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Zheng, W.; Akerlof, C. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Bianco, F. B. [Department of Physics, University of California Santa Barbara, Mail Code 9530, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-9530 (United States); Kawai, N. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-21-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551 (Japan); Kuroda, D. [Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232 (Japan); Marshall, S. L. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, 2575 Sand Hill Road, MS 29, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Schwamb, M. E. [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208121, New Haven, CT 06520-8121 (United States); and others

    2012-03-20

    We present a study on GRB 071112C X-ray and optical light curves. In these two wavelength ranges, we have found different temporal properties. The R-band light curve showed an initial rise followed by a single power-law decay, while the X-ray light curve was described by a single power-law decay plus a flare-like feature. Our analysis shows that the observed temporal evolution cannot be described by the external shock model in which the X-ray and optical emission are produced by the same emission mechanism. No significant color changes in multi-band light curves and a reasonable value of the initial Lorentz factor ({Gamma}{sub 0} = 275 {+-} 20) in a uniform interstellar medium support the afterglow onset scenario as the correct interpretation for the early R band rise. The result suggests that the optical flux is dominated by afterglow. Our further investigations show that the X-ray flux could be created by an additional feature related to energy injection and X-ray afterglow. Different theoretical interpretations indicate the additional feature in X-ray can be explained by either late internal dissipation or local inverse-Compton scattering in the external shock.

  8. Achromatic nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror optics for hard X-ray nanofocusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenjun; Ice, Gene E.; Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu, Chian; Shi, Bing; Khachatryan, Ruben; Qian, Jun; Zschack, Paul; Tischler, Jonathan Z.; Choi, J.-Y.

    2011-01-01

    A nested Kirkpatrick–Baez mirror pair has been designed, fabricated and tested for achromatic nanofocusing synchrotron hard X-rays. The prototype system achieved a FWHM focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions. The first test of nanoscale-focusing Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) mirrors in the nested (or Montel) configuration used at a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline is reported. The two mirrors are both 40 mm long and coated with Pt to produce a focal length of 60 mm at 3 mrad incident angle, and collect up to a 120 µm by 120 µm incident X-ray beam with maximum angular acceptance of 2 mrad and a broad bandwidth of energies up to 30 keV. In an initial test a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions was achieved with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. The nested mirror geometry, with two mirrors mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, is significantly more compact and provides higher demagnification than the traditional sequential KB mirror arrangement. Ultimately, nested mirrors can focus larger divergence to improve the diffraction limit of achromatic optics. A major challenge with the fabrication of the required mirrors is the need for near-perfect mirror surfaces near the edge of at least one of the mirrors. Special polishing procedures and surface profile coating were used to preserve the mirror surface quality at the reflecting edge. Further developments aimed at achieving diffraction-limited focusing below 50 nm are underway

  9. Complex optical/UV and X-ray variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Main; Dewangan, Gulab C.; Kembhavi, Ajit K.; Misra, Ranjeev; Naik, Sachindra

    2018-01-01

    We present detailed broad-band UV/optical to X-ray spectral variability of the Seyfert 1 galaxy 1H 0419-577 using six XMM-Newton observations performed during 2002-2003. These observations covered a large amplitude variability event in which the soft X-ray (0.3-2 keV) count rate increased by a factor of ∼4 in six months. The X-ray spectra during the variability are well described by a model consisting of a primary power law, blurred and distant reflection. The 2-10 keV power-law flux varied by a factor of ∼7 while the 0.3-2 keV soft X-ray excess flux derived from the blurred reflection component varied only by a factor of ∼2. The variability event was also observed in the optical and UV bands but the variability amplitudes were only at the 6-10 per cent level. The variations in the optical and UV bands appear to follow the variations in the X-ray band. During the rising phase, the optical bands appear to lag behind the UV band but during the declining phase, the optical bands appear to lead the UV band. Such behaviour is not expected in the reprocessing models where the optical/UV emission is the result of reprocessing of X-ray emission in the accretion disc. The delayed contribution of the broad emission lines in the UV band or the changes in the accretion disc/corona geometry combined with X-ray reprocessing may give rise to the observed behaviour of the variations.

  10. Pulsed x-ray induced attenuation measurements of single mode optical fibers and coupler materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johan, A.; Charre, P.

    1994-01-01

    Pulsed X-ray induced transient radiation attenuation measurements of single mode optical fibers have been performed versus total dose, light wavelength, optical power and fiber coil diameter in order to determine the behavior of parameters sensitive to ionizing radiation. The results did not show any photobleaching phenomenon and the attenuation was found independent of the spool diameter. As expected, transient attenuation was lower for higher wave-lengths. The recovery took place in the millisecond range and was independent of total dose, light wavelength and optical power. In optical modules and devices a large range of behaviors was observed according to coupler material i.e., Corning coupler showed a small peak attenuation that remained more than one day later; on the other hand LiTaO 3 material experienced an order of magnitude higher peak attenuation and a recovery in the millisecond range. For applications with optical fibers and integrated optics devices the authors showed that in many cases the optical fiber (length above 100 m) is the most sensitive device in a transient ionizing radiation field

  11. Investigation of solar flares in X-ray and optical spectral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurt, V.; Kurochka, L.N.; Zenchenko, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    Measurements of hard X h radiation of 180 solar flares carried out on board of the space probes Venera-13,-14, were compared with measurements of optical and thermal X t radiation. Values of total energy release during a flare in these regions are calculated, and correlation analysis is carried out. The bond correlations found have shown that total energy of fast electrons, caused X h -flare in the flare pulse phase, and thermal energy at the end of a pulse phase are practically connected with each othesr functionally. Quantitative connection between a flare ball in H α -line and the most probable energy values, being in different radiation regions calculated in the scope of generally accepted models, is established. The total energy of an optical (cold) part of the flare, radiation energy in X-ray region and the energy introduced to the flare volume by energy particles are shown to be compared between each other

  12. Lobster eye X-ray optics: Data processing from two 1D modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentvich, O.; Urban, M.; Stehlikova, V.; Sieger, L.; Hudec, R.

    2017-07-01

    The X-ray imaging is usually done by Wolter I telescopes. They are suitable for imaging of a small part of the sky, not for all-sky monitoring. This monitoring could be done by a Lobster eye optics which can theoretically have a field of view up to 360 deg. All sky monitoring system enables a quick identification of source and its direction. This paper describes the possibility of using two independent one-dimensional Lobster Eye modules for this purpose instead of Wolter I and their post-processing into an 2D image. This arrangement allows scanning with less energy loss compared to Wolter I or two-dimensional Lobster Eye optics. It is most suitable especially for very weak sources.

  13. In-situ reactive of x-ray optics by glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, E.D.; Garrett, R.F.

    1987-01-01

    We have developed a method of in-situ reactive glow discharge cleaning of x-ray optical surfaces which is capable of complete removal of carbon contamination. Our work is the first to successfully clean an entire optical system in-situ and characterize its performance at short wavelengths (as low as 10 /angstrom/). The apparatus required is quite simple and can easily be fitted to most existing UHV (ultra high vacuum) mirror boxes of monochromators. The advantages of this technique over previously available methods include dramatic improvements in instrument performance and reductions in down time since the whole process typically takes a few days. This paper will briefly describe our results and detail the experimental considerations for application of the technique on different monochromator geometries. Possible improvements and extensions of the technique are also discussed

  14. A Search for Millisecond-pulsar Radio Emission from the Faint Quiescent Soft X-Ray Transient 1H 1905+000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhailov, K.; Van Leeuwen, J. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, P.O. Box 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jonker, P. G., E-mail: K.Mikhailov@uva.nl [SRON, the Netherlands Institute for Space Research, Sorbonnelaan 2, 3584 CA, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2017-05-01

    Transitional millisecond pulsars (tMSPs) switch between an accretion-powered state without radio pulsations and a rotation-powered state with radio pulsations. In the former state, tMSPs are X-ray bright, while in the latter state, they are X-ray dim. Soft X-ray transients (SXTs) undergo similar switches in X-ray, between “high” states with bright X-ray outbursts and “low” states of quiescence. The upper limit on the quiescent X-ray luminosity of SXT 1H 1905+000 suggests that its luminosity might be similar to that of the known tMSPs. A detection of radio pulsations would link SXTs more strongly with tMSPs; and thus, e.g., put stricter constraints on tMSP transitional timescales through the connection with the well-known SXT periods of quiescence. A nondetection allows us, based on the telescope sensitivity, to estimate how likely these sources are to pulsate in radio. Over a 10-year span, 2006–2015, we carried out targeted radio observations at 400/800 MHz with Arecibo, and searched for radio pulsations from the quiescent SXT 1H 1905+000. None of the observations have revealed radio pulsations from the targeted SXT. For a 1 ms pulsar, our flux density upper limit is 10.3 μ Jy. At an assumed distance of 10 kpc this translates to a pseudo-luminosity upper limit of 1.0 mJy kpc{sup 2}, which makes our search complete to ∼85% of the known MSP population. Given the high sensitivity, and the generally large beaming fraction of millisecond pulsars, we conclude that SXT 1H 1905+000 is unlikely to emit in radio as a tMSP.

  15. Takagi-Taupin description of x-ray dynamical diffraction from diffractive optics with large numerical aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Hanfei; Maser, Joerg; Macrander, Albert; Shen Qun; Vogt, Stefan; Stephenson, G. Brian; Kang, Hyon Chol

    2007-01-01

    We present a formalism of x-ray dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics with large numerical aperture and high aspect ratio, in an analogy to the Takagi-Taupin equations [Acta Crystallogr. 15, 1311 (1962); Bull. Soc. Fr. Mineral. Crystallogr. 87, 469 (1964)] for strained single crystals. We derive a set of basic equations for dynamical diffraction from volume diffractive optics, which enable us to study the focusing property of these optics with various grating profiles. We study volume diffractive optics that satisfy the Bragg condition to various degrees, namely, flat, tilted, and wedged geometries, and derive the curved geometries required for ultimate focusing. We show that the curved geometries satisfy both the Bragg condition everywhere and phase requirement for point focusing and effectively focus hard x rays to a scale close to the wavelength. Our calculations were made for an x-ray wavelength of 0.064 nm (19.5 keV)

  16. Carbon-based Fresnel optics for hard x-ray astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braig, Christoph; Zizak, Ivo

    2018-03-10

    We investigate the potential of large-scale diffractive-refractive normal-incidence transmission lenses for the development of space-based hard x-ray telescopes with an angular resolution in the range of (10 -6 -10 -3 )  arcsec over a field of view that is restricted by the available detector size. Coherently stepped achromatic lenses with diameters up to 5 m for compact apertures and 13 m in the case of segmentation provide an access to spectrally resolved imaging within keV-wide bands around the design energy between 10 and 30 keV. Within an integration time of 10 6   s, a photon-limited 5σ sensitivity down to (10 -9 -10 -7 )  s -1  cm -2  keV -1 can be achieved depending on the specific design. An appropriate fabrication strategy, feasible nowadays with micro-optical technologies, is considered and relies on the availability of high-purity carbon or polymer membranes. X-ray fluorescence measurements of various commercially available carbon-based materials prove for most of them the existence of a virtually negligible contamination by critical trace elements such as transition metals on the ppm level.

  17. Electromagnetic diagnostics of ECR-Ion Sources plasmas: optical/X-ray imaging and spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Mazzaglia, M.; Romano, F. P.; Leone, F.; Musumarra, A.; Naselli, E.; Reitano, R.; Torrisi, G.; Celona, L.; Cosentino, L. G.; Giarrusso, M.; Gammino, S.

    2017-12-01

    Magnetoplasmas in ECR-Ion Sources are excited from gaseous elements or vapours by microwaves in the range 2.45-28 GHz via Electron Cyclotron Resonance. A B-minimum, magnetohydrodynamic stable configuration is used for trapping the plasma. The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times are typically ne= 1011-1013 cm-3, 01 eVSilicon Drift detectors with high energy resolution of 125 eV at 5.9 keV have been used for the characterization of plasma emission at 02X-ray pin-hole camera technique has allowed space resolved X-ray spectroscopy with a spatial resolution down to 30 μm and an energy resolution down to 140 eV at 5.9 keV . In parallel, imaging in the optical range and spectroscopic measurements have been carried out. Relative abundances of H/H2 atoms/molecules in the plasmas have been measured for different values of neutral pressure, microwave power and magnetic field profile (they are critical for high-power proton sources).

  18. Calculated efficiencies of three-material low stress coatings for diffractive x-ray transmission optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubec, Adam; Braun, Stefan; Gawlitza, Peter; Menzel, Maik; Leson, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Diffractive X-ray optical elements made by thin film coating techniques such as multilayer Laue lenses (MLL) and multilayer zone plates (MZP) are promising approaches to achieve resolutions in hard X-ray microscopy applications of less than 10 nm. The challenge is to make a lens with a large numerical aperture on the one hand and a decent working distance on the other hand. One of the limiting factors with the coated structures is the internal stress in the films, which can lead to significant bending of the substrate and various types of unwanted diffraction effects. Several approaches have been discussed to overcome this challenge. One of these is a three-material combination such as Mo/MoSi_2/Si, where four single layers per period are deposited. Mo and Si represent the absorber and spacer in this case while MoSi_2 forms a diffusion barrier; in addition the thicknesses of absorber and spacer are chosen to minimize residual stress of the overall coating. Here the diffraction efficiency as well as the profile of the beam in the focal plane are discussed in order to find a tradeoff between lowest residual stress and best diffraction properties.

  19. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Yidong, E-mail: yidongyang@med.miami.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Miami School of Medicine, Miami, Florida 33136 (United States); Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 (United States); Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I. [Laboratory for Computational Sensing and Robotics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Patterson, Michael S. [Juravinski Cancer Centre and Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S4K1 (Canada)

    2015-04-15

    .0% difference between simulated and measured signal. The calibration of the entire system was confirmed through the CBCT and BLT reconstruction of a bioluminescence source placed inside a tissue-simulating optical phantom. Using a spatial region constraint, the source position was reconstructed with less than 1 mm error and the source strength reconstructed with less than 24% error. Conclusions: A practical and systematic method has been developed to calibrate an integrated x-ray and optical tomography imaging system, including the respective CBCT and optical tomography system calibration and the geometrical calibration of the entire system. The method can be modified and adopted to calibrate CBCT and optical tomography systems that are operated independently or hybrid x-ray and optical tomography imaging systems.

  20. Systematic calibration of an integrated x-ray and optical tomography system for preclinical radiation research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yidong; Wang, Ken Kang-Hsin; Wong, John W.; Eslami, Sohrab; Iordachita, Iulian I.; Patterson, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    .0% difference between simulated and measured signal. The calibration of the entire system was confirmed through the CBCT and BLT reconstruction of a bioluminescence source placed inside a tissue-simulating optical phantom. Using a spatial region constraint, the source position was reconstructed with less than 1 mm error and the source strength reconstructed with less than 24% error. Conclusions: A practical and systematic method has been developed to calibrate an integrated x-ray and optical tomography imaging system, including the respective CBCT and optical tomography system calibration and the geometrical calibration of the entire system. The method can be modified and adopted to calibrate CBCT and optical tomography systems that are operated independently or hybrid x-ray and optical tomography imaging systems

  1. Adjustable Grazing Incidence X-ray Optics with 0.5 Arc Second Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Paul

    We seek to develop adjustable grazing incidence optics for x-ray astronomy. The goal of this development is thin, lightweight mirrors with angular resolution of 0.5 arc seconds, comparable to the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The new mirror design consists of thin segments of a Wolter-I grazing incidence mirror, with piezo-electric material deposited directly on the back surface of the mirror. Depositing a pattern of independently addressable electrodes on top of the piezoelectric material produces an array of independent piezo cells. Energizing a particular cell introduces a localized deformation in the mirror without the need for a reaction structure. By applying the appropriate voltage to the piezo cells, it is possible to correct mirror figure errors that result from mirror fabrication, gravity release, mounting, and thermal effects. Because the thin mirrors segments are lightweight, they can be densely nested to produce collecting area thirty times that of Chandra, on an affordably priced mission. This Supporting Technology program is a follow-on to an existing APRA program. In the existing program we demonstrated the first successful deposition of piezoelectric material on thermally formed glass substrates. We showed that the localized deformations produced by the piezo cells match finite element predictions, and the piezo cell adjustment range meets requirements necessary to achieve the desired figure correction. We have also shown through simulation that representative mirror figure errors can be corrected via modeled influence functions to achieve 0.5 arc sec imaging performance. This provides a firm foundation on which to develop further the technology. We will continue to optimize the deposition of thin piezoelectric films onto thermally formed glass and electroplated metal mirror segments to improve yield and manufacturability. We will deposit piezoelectric material onto conical mirror segments and demonstrate figure correction in agreement with prediction

  2. Laboratory-based recording of holographic fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy using polycapillary optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, K.M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korecki, P., E-mail: pawel.korecki@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holographic fine structures in X-ray absorption recorded using a tabletop setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Setup based on polycapillary collimating optics and an HOPG crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of element sensitivity by detection of X-ray fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential of laboratory-based experiments for heavily doped crystals and thin films. - Abstract: A tabletop setup composed of a collimating polycapillary optics and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator (HOPG) was characterized and used for recording two-dimensional maps of X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA). XAA originates from interference of X-rays directly inside the sample. Depending on experimental conditions, fine structures in XAA can be interpreted in terms of X-ray holograms or X-ray standing waves and can be used for an element selective atomic-resolved structural analysis. The implementation of polycapillary optics resulted in a two-order of magnitude gain in the radiant intensity (photons/s/solid angle) as compared to a system without optics and enabled efficient recording of XAA with a resolution of 0.15 Degree-Sign for Mo K{alpha} radiation. Element sensitivity was demonstrated by acquisition of distinct XAA signals for Ga and As atoms in a GaAs (1 1 1) wafer by using X-ray fluorescence as a secondary signal. These results indicate the possibility of performing laboratory-based XAA experiments for heavily doped single crystals or thin films. So far, because of the weak holographic modulation of XAA, such experiments could be only performed using synchrotron radiation.

  3. The influence of brazing materials on the strain formation of intenally water-cooled x-ray optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Kittler, Martin; Áč, V.; Hrdý, Jaromír; Iragashi, N.; Scheinost, A.C.; Uchida, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 22, Mar (2015), 342-347 ISSN 0909-0495 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : X-ray optics * high heat load * internal cooling * crystal bonding Subject RIV: BH - Optics , Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.736, year: 2014

  4. Investigation of multilayer X-ray optics for 6 keV to 20 keV energy range

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Oberta, Peter; Platonov, Y.; Flechsig, U.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 5 (2012), s. 675-681 ISSN 0909-0495 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : X-ray optics * multilayer * energy resolution Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.186, year: 2012 http://journals.iucr.org/s/issues/2012/05/00/issconts.html

  5. The origin of luminescence from di[4-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)phenyl]sulfone (DAPSF), a blue light emitter: an X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaohong; Sham, Tsun-Kong; Hu, Yongfeng; Sun, Xuhui

    2016-03-07

    The electronic structure and optical properties of di[4-(4-diphenylaminophenyl)phenyl]sulfone (denoted as DAPSF), a highly efficient fluorophor, have been investigated using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy at excitation energies across the C, N, O K-edges and the sulfur K-edge. The results indicate that the blue luminescence is mainly related to the sulfur functional group.

  6. Spectral evolution of soft x-ray emission from optically thin, high electron temperature platinum plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki Hara

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The soft x-ray spectra of heavy element plasmas are frequently dominated by unresolved transition array (UTA emission. We describe the spectral evolution of an intense UTA under optically thin conditions in platinum plasmas. The UTA was observed to have a peak wavelength around 4.6 nm at line-of-sight averaged electron temperatures less than 1.4 keV at electron densities of (2.5–7.5 × 1013 cm−3. The UTA spectral structure was due to emission from 4d–4f transitions in highly charged ions with average charge states of q = 20–40. A numerical simulation successfully reproduced the observed spectral behavior.

  7. Saturation and kinetic issues for optical-field-ionized plasma x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, D.C.; Amendt, P.; Rosen, M.D.; Nash, J.K.; Wilks, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Lasing between excited states and the ground state following optical-field ionization is studied. Saturation of an x-ray laser when the lower lasing level is a ground state of a H-like or Li-like ion is discussed. Efficiencies of 10 -5 to 10 -4 are calculated for the 3d 5/2 --2p 3/2 transition at 98 Angstrom in Li-like Ne. The assumption that the fine-structure levels are populated according to their statistical weights is shown to be justified through comparisons with calculations using a detailed atomic model. The effect of saturation by a given fine-structure transition on the populations of the fine-structure levels is analyzed. 4 refs., 2 figs

  8. Characterization of the optical grade synthetic quartz by X-ray topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Marcos S.; Suzuki, Carlos K.; Iwasaki, Fumiko

    1996-01-01

    The first initiative to develop a technology to grow the optical grade synthetic quartz in our country has been conducted by the UNICAMP - JICA - ABC Crystals collaboration. This research shows that the solid inclusions concentrations is practically inexistent, less than 0.03 incl/cm 3 , what satisfy the international standard requirements. On the other hand, the characterization studies by X-ray topography enabled us to estimate the dislocation line density of order of 1200 lines/cm 2 . This value is higher than to the usual international standard requirements. From this study, we obtained a full knowledge of defects origin, where the optimization process could be done by using seeds with superior quality. (author)

  9. Combine TV-L1 model with guided image filtering for wide and faint ring artifacts correction of in-line x-ray phase contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Dongjiang; Qu, Gangrong; Hu, Chunhong; Zhao, Yuqing; Chen, Xiaodong

    2018-01-01

    In practice, mis-calibrated detector pixels give rise to wide and faint ring artifacts in the reconstruction image of the In-line phase-contrast computed tomography (IL-PC-CT). Ring artifacts correction is essential in IL-PC-CT. In this study, a novel method of wide and faint ring artifacts correction was presented based on combining TV-L1 model with guided image filtering (GIF) in the reconstruction image domain. The new correction method includes two main steps namely, the GIF step and the TV-L1 step. To validate the performance of this method, simulation data and real experimental synchrotron data are provided. The results demonstrate that TV-L1 model with GIF step can effectively correct the wide and faint ring artifacts for IL-PC-CT.

  10. Calibration of hard x-ray (15 - 50 keV) optics at the MPE test facility PANTER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuninger, Heinrich; Burkert, Wolfgang; Hartner, Gisela D.; Citterio, Oberto; Ghigo, Mauro; Mazzoleni, Francesco; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele

    2004-02-01

    The Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik (MPE) in Garching, Germany, operates the large X-ray beam line facility PANTER for testing astronomical systems. At PANTER a number of telescopes like EXOSAT, ROSAT, SAX, JET-X, ABRIXAS, XMM and SWIFT operating in the soft energy range (0.02 - 15 keV) have been successfully calibrated. In the present paper we report on an important upgrade recently implemented that enables the calibration of hard X-ray optics (from 15 up to 50 keV). Currently hard X-ray optics based on single and multilayer coating are being developed for several future X-ray missions. The hard X-ray calibrations at PANTER are carried out by a high energy source based on an electron gun and several anodes, able to cover the energy range from 4.5 up to 50 keV. It provides fluxes up to 104 counts/sec/cm2 at the instrument chamber with a stability better than 1%. As detector a pn-CCD camera operating between 0.2 and 50 keV and a collecting area of 36 cm2 is used. Taking into account the high energy resolution of the CCD (145 eV at 6 keV), a very easy way to operate the facility in hard X-ray is in energy-dispersive mode (i.e. with a broad-band beam). A double crystal monochromator is also available providing energies up to 20 keV. In this paper we present the first results obtained by using PANTER for hard X-ray characterizations, performed on prototype multilayer optics developed by the Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (OAB), Milano, Italy, and the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), Cambridge, MA, USA.

  11. Curved crystal x-ray optics for monochromatic imaging with a clinical source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingölbali, Ayhan; MacDonald, C A

    2009-04-01

    Monochromatic x-ray imaging has been shown to increase contrast and reduce dose relative to conventional broadband imaging. However, clinical sources with very narrow energy bandwidth tend to have limited intensity and field of view. In this study, focused fan beam monochromatic radiation was obtained using doubly curved monochromator crystals. While these optics have been in use for microanalysis at synchrotron facilities for some time, this work is the first investigation of the potential application of curved crystal optics to clinical sources for medical imaging. The optics could be used with a variety of clinical sources for monochromatic slot scan imaging. The intensity was assessed and the resolution of the focused beam was measured using a knife-edge technique. A simulation model was developed and comparisons to the measured resolution were performed to verify the accuracy of the simulation to predict resolution for different conventional sources. A simple geometrical calculation was also developed. The measured, simulated, and calculated resolutions agreed well. Adequate resolution and intensity for mammography were predicted for appropriate source/optic combinations.

  12. Investigation of HF-plasma-treated soft x-ray optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggenstein, F.; Krivenkov, M.; Rudolph, I.; Sertsu, M. G.; Sokolov, A.; Varykhalov, A.; Wolf, J.; Zeschke, T.; Schäfers, F.

    2017-09-01

    The contamination of optical elements (mirrors and gratings) with carbon still is an issue when using soft x-ray synchrotron radiation. With an in-house developed HF-plasma treatment we are able to decontaminate our optics in-situ from carbon very efficiently. The cleaning device, a simple Al-antenna, is mounted in situ inside the mirror- and grating vacuum chambers. A systematic study of the HF-plasma cleaning efficiency was performed acquired with in-situ and exsitu methods for monitoring: An atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) were used before and after the cleaning process to determine the surface morphology and roughness. Reflectivity angular scans using the reflectometer at the BESSY-II Metrology Station [1-3] allowed to estimate the thickness of the remaining Clayer after different cleaning steps and thereby helped us to determine the etching rate. Reflection spectra measurements in the range of 200 eV - 900 eV show the complete removal of Carbon from the optics without contaminating it with any other elements due to the plasma treatment. The data show that the plasma process improves the reflectivity and reduces the roughness of the surface. In addition to that, the region of the optical surface where the carbon has been removed becomes passivated.

  13. X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) of Calcium L3,2 Edges of Various Calcium Compounds and X-Ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) Studies of Luminescent Calcium Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, J. Y. Peter; Zhou Xingtai; Sham, T.-K.; Heigl, Franziskus; Regier, Tom; Blyth, Robert

    2007-01-01

    X-ray absorption at calcium L3,2 edges of various calcium compounds were measured using a high resolution Spherical Grating Monochromator (SGM) at the Canadian Light Source (CLS). We observe that each compound has its unique fine structure of L3,2 edges. This uniqueness is due to differences in local structure of compounds. We also performed (X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence) XEOL of selected luminescent calcium compounds to investigate their optical properties. XEOL is a photon-in-photon-out technique in which the optical luminescence that is excited by tunable x-rays from a synchrotron light source is monitored. Depending on excitation energy of the x-ray, relative intensities of luminescence peaks vary. Recent findings of the results will be presented here

  14. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swadling, G. F.; Ross, J. S.; Datte, P.; Moody, J.; Divol, L.; Jones, O.; Landen, O. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause “blanking” (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm{sup −2}. This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of “blanking” effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate “blanking.” Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10{sup 19} cm{sup −2} Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  15. Design calculations for a xenon plasma x-ray shield to protect the NIF optical Thomson scattering diagnostic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swadling, G F; Ross, J S; Datte, P; Moody, J; Divol, L; Jones, O; Landen, O

    2016-11-01

    An Optical Thomson Scattering (OTS) diagnostic is currently being developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This diagnostic is designed to make measurements of the hohlraum plasma parameters, such as the electron temperature and the density, during inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments. NIF ICF experiments present a very challenging environment for optical measurements; by their very nature, hohlraums produce intense soft x-ray emission, which can cause "blanking" (radiation induced opacity) of the radiation facing optical components. The soft x-ray fluence at the surface of the OTS blast shield, 60 cm from the hohlraum, is estimated to be ∼8 J cm -2 . This is significantly above the expected threshold for the onset of "blanking" effects. A novel xenon plasma x-ray shield is proposed to protect the blast shield from x-rays and mitigate "blanking." Estimates suggest that an areal density of 10 19 cm -2 Xe atoms will be sufficient to absorb 99.5% of the soft x-ray flux. Two potential designs for this shield are presented.

  16. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry–Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry–Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed. (paper)

  17. Picometre displacement measurements using a differential Fabry-Perot optical interferometer and an x-ray interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Mehmet; Hamid, Ramiz; Kuetgens, Ulrich; Yacoot, Andrew

    2012-08-01

    X-ray interferometry is emerging as an important tool for dimensional nanometrology both for sub-nanometre measurement and displacement. It has been used to verify the performance of the next generation of displacement measuring optical interferometers within the European Metrology Research Programme project NANOTRACE. Within this project a more detailed set of comparison measurements between the x-ray interferometer and a dual channel Fabry-Perot optical interferometer (DFPI) have been made to demonstrate the capabilities of both instruments for picometre displacement metrology. The results show good agreement between the two instruments, although some minor differences of less than 5 pm have been observed.

  18. Recent results and future plans for a 45 actuator adaptive x-ray optics experiment at the advanced light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brejnholt, Nicolai F., E-mail: brejnholt1@llnl.gov; Poyneer, Lisa A.; Hill, Randal M.; Pardini, Tommaso; Hagler, Lisle; Jackson, Jessie; Jeon, Jae; McCarville, Thomas J.; Palmer, David W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Celestre, Richard [Advanced Light Source - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California (United States); Brooks, Audrey D. [Northrop Grumman - AOA Xinetics Inc., Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States)

    2016-07-27

    We report on the current status of the Adaptive X-ray Optics project run by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). LLNL is collaborating with the Advanced Light Source (ALS) to demonstrate a near real-time adaptive X-ray optic. To this end, a custom-built 45 cm long deformable mirror has been installed at ALS beamline 5.3.1 (end station 2) for a two-year period that started in September 2014. We will outline general aspects of the instrument, present results from a recent experimental campaign and touch on future plans for the project.

  19. In Situ Identification of Mineral Resources with an X-Ray-Optical "Hands-Lens" Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, J.; Koppel, L.; Bratton, C.; Metzger, E.; Hecht, M.

    1999-09-01

    The recognition of material resources on a planetary surface requires exploration strategies not dissimilar to those employed by early field geologists who searched for ore deposits primarily from surface clues. In order to determine the location of mineral ores or other materials, it will be necessary to characterize host terranes at regional or subregional scales. This requires geographically broad surveys in which statistically significant numbers of samples are rapidly scanned from a roving platform. To enable broad-scale, yet power-conservative planetary-surface exploration, we are developing an instrument that combines x-ray diffractometry (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF), and optical capabilities; the instrument can be deployed at the end of a rover's robotic arm, without the need for sample capture or preparation. The instrument provides XRD data for identification of mineral species and lithological types; diffractometry of minerals is conducted by ascertaining the characteristic lattice parameters or "d-spacings" of mineral compounds. D-spacings of 1.4 to 25 angstroms can be determined to include the large molecular structures of hydrated minerals such as clays. The XRF data will identify elements ranging from carbon (Atomic Number = 6) to elements as heavy as barium (Atomic Number = 56). While a sample is being x-rayed, the instrument simultaneously acquires an optical image of the sample surface at magnifications from lx to at least 50x (200x being feasible, depending on the sample surface). We believe that imaging the sample is extremely important as corroborative sample-identification data (the need for this capability having been illustrated by the experience of the Pathfinder rover). Very few geologists would rely on instrument data for sample identification without having seen the sample. Visual inspection provides critical recognition data such as texture, crystallinity, granularity, porosity, vesicularity, color, lustre, opacity, and

  20. Optical and near-infrared imaging of faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snellen, IAG; Schilizzi, RT; de Bruyn, AG; Miley, GK; Rottgering, HJA; McMahon, RG; Fournon, IP

    1998-01-01

    A sample of 47 faint Gigahertz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources selected from the Westerbork Northern Sky Survey (WENSS) has been imaged in the optical and near-infrared, resulting in an identification fraction of 87 per cent. The R - I and R - K colours of the faint optical counterparts are as

  1. Effect of the phosphor screen optics on the Swank noise performance in indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, C H; Moon, M-K; Kam, S; Han, J C; Yun, S; Youn, H; Kim, H K; Jeon, H

    2014-01-01

    The optics between the scintillators and photodiode arrays of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging systems requires careful design because it can be a cause of secondary quantum sink, which reduces the detective quantum efficiency at high spatial frequencies. The aim of this study was the investigation of the effect of the optical properties of granular phosphor screens — including optical coupling materials and passivation layers in photodiode arrays — on the imaging performance of indirect-conversion x-ray imaging detectors using the Monte Carlo technique. In the Monte Carlo simulations, various design parameters were considered, such as the refractive index of the optical coupler and the passivation layer, the reflection coefficient at the screen backing, and the thickness of the optical coupler. We developed a model that describes the optical pulse-height distributions based on the depth-dependent collection efficiency obtained from the simulations. We used the model to calculate the optical Swank noise. A loss in the number of collected optical photons was inevitable owing to the introduction of intermediate optics and mismatches in the optical design parameters. However, the collection efficiency marginally affected the optical Swank factor performance. The results and methodology of this study will facilitate better designs and optimization of indirect-conversion x-ray detectors

  2. An x-ray microprobe using focussing optics with a synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, A.C.; Underwood, J.H.; Wu, Y.; Giauque, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An x-ray microprobe can be used to produce maps of the concentration of elements in a sample. Synchrotron radiation provides x-ray beams with enough intensity and collimation to make possible elemental images with femtogram sensitivity. The use of focussing x-ray mirrors made from synthetic multilayers with a synchrotron x-ray beam allows beam spot sizes of less than 10 μm /times/ 10 μm to be produced. Since minimal sample preparation is required and a vacuum environment is not necessary, there will be a wide variety of applications for such microprobes. 8 refs., 6 figs

  3. Integrated X-ray testing of the electro-optical breadboard model for the XMM reflection grating spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bixler, J.V.; Craig, W.; Decker, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Aarts, H.; Boggende, T. den; Brinkman, A.C. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Utrecht (Netherlands); Burkert, W.; Brauninger, H. [Max-Planck Institute fur Extraterrestische Physik, Testanlage (Germany); Branduardi-Raymont, G. [Univ. College London (United Kingdom); Dubbeldam, L. [Space Research Organization Netherlands, Leiden (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-07-12

    X-ray calibration of the Electro-Optical Breadboard Model (EOBB) of the XXM Reflection Grating Spectrometer has been carried out at the Panter test facility in Germany. The EOBB prototype optics consisted of a four-shell grazing incidence mirror module followed by an array of eight reflection gratings. The dispersed x-rays were detected by an array of three CCDs. Line profile and efficiency measurements where made at several energies, orders, and geometric configurations for individual gratings and for the grating array as a whole. The x-ray measurements verified that the grating mounting method would meet the stringent tolerances necessary for the flight instrument. Post EOBB metrology of the individual gratings and their mountings confirmed the precision of the grating boxes fabrication. Examination of the individual grating surface`s at micron resolution revealed the cause of anomalously wide line profiles to be scattering due to the crazing of the replica`s surface.

  4. Glass capillary optics for making x-ray beams of 0.1 to 50 microns diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilderback, Donald H.; Fontes, Ernest

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated a unique computerized glass puller that can make parabolic or elliptically tapered glass capillaries for microbeam x-ray experiments from hollow glass tubing. We have produced optics that work in a single-bounce imaging mode or in a multi-bounce condensing mode. The imaging-mode capillaries have been used to create 20 to 50 micron diameter x-ray beams at 12 keV that are quite useful for imaging diffraction patterns from tiny bundles of carbon and Kevlar fibers. The condensing-mode capillaries are useful for creating submicron diameter beams and show great promise in x-ray fluorescence applications with femtogram sensitivity for patterned Er and Ti dopants diffused into an optically-active lithium niobate wafer

  5. High-z X-ray Obscured Quasars in Galaxies with Extreme Mid-IR/Optical Colors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Grappioni, C.

    2009-05-01

    Extreme Optical/Mid-IR color cuts have been used to uncover a population of dust-enshrouded, mid-IR luminous galaxies at high redshifts. Several lines of evidence point towards the presence of an heavily absorbed, possibly Compton-thick quasar at the heart of these systems. Nonetheless, the X-ray spectral properties of these intriguing sources still remain largely unexplored. Here we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of a large sample of 44 extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs) with F24 μm/FR>2000 and F24 μm>1.3 mJy selected from a 6 deg2 region in the SWIRE fields. The application of our selection criteria to a wide area survey has been capable of unveiling a population of X-ray luminous, absorbed z>1 quasars which is mostly missed in the traditional optical/X-ray surveys performed so far. Advances in the understanding of the X-ray properties of these recently-discovered sources by Simbol-X observations will be also discussed.

  6. Testing the deep-crustal heating model using quiescent neutron-star very-faint X-ray transients and the possibility of partially accreted crusts in accreting neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnands, R.; Degenaar, N.; Page, D.

    2013-07-01

    It is assumed that accreting neutron stars in low-mass X-ray binaries are heated due to the compression of the existing crust by the freshly accreted matter which gives rise to a variety of nuclear reactions in the crust. It has been shown that most of the energy is released deep in the crust by pycnonuclear reactions involving low-Z elements (the deep-crustal heating scenario). In this paper we discuss if neutron stars in the so-called very-faint X-ray transients (VFXTs; those transients have outburst peak 2-10 keV X-ray luminosities short-term (less than a few tens of thousands of years) and the one throughout their lifetime. The latter is particularly important because it can be so low that the neutron stars might not have accreted enough matter to become massive enough that enhanced core cooling processes become active. Therefore, they could be relatively warm compared to other systems for which such enhanced cooling processes have been inferred. However, the amount of matter can also not be too low because then the crust might not have been replaced significantly by accreted matter and thus a hybrid crust of partly accreted and partly original, albeit further compressed matter, might be present. This would inhibit the full range of pycnonuclear reactions to occur and therefore possibly decrease the amount of heat deposited in the crust. More detailed calculations of the heating and cooling properties of such hybrid crusts have to be performed to be conclusive. Furthermore, better understanding is needed about how a hybrid crust affects other properties such as the thermal conductivity. A potentially interesting way to observe the effects of a hybrid crust on the heating and cooling of an accreting neutron star is to observe the crust cooling of such a neutron star after a prolonged (years to decades) accretion episode and compare the results with similar studies performed for neutron stars with a fully accreted crust. We also show that some individual neutron

  7. SWIFT J1749.4-2807 : X-ray decay, refined position and optical observation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.J.; Russell, D. M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.; Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Linares, M.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.; Soleri, P.; Lewis, F.; Kong, A. K. H.

    We analyzed seven, target ID 31686, Swift follow-up observations of the neutron-star X-ray transient Swfit J1749.4-2807 (Wijnands et al. 2009) currently in outburst and which was found to be an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar (ATel #2565). The observations span from April 11 to April 20.

  8. Pt thermal atomic layer deposition for silicon x-ray micropore optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Kazuma; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Ishikawa, Kumi; Numazawa, Masaki; Terada, Masaru; Ishi, Daiki; Fujitani, Maiko; Sowa, Mark J; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa

    2018-04-20

    We fabricated a silicon micropore optic using deep reactive ion etching and coated by Pt with atomic layer deposition (ALD). We confirmed that a metal/metal oxide bilayer of Al 2 O 3 ∼10  nm and Pt ∼20  nm was successfully deposited on the micropores whose width and depth are 20 μm and 300 μm, respectively. An increase of surface roughness of sidewalls of the micropores was observed with a transmission electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. X-ray reflectivity with an Al Kα line at 1.49 keV before and after the deposition was measured and compared to ray-tracing simulations. The surface roughness of the sidewalls was estimated to increase from 1.6±0.2  nm rms to 2.2±0.2  nm rms. This result is consistent with the microscope measurements. Post annealing of the Pt-coated optic at 1000°C for 2 h showed a sign of reduced surface roughness and better angular resolution. To reduce the surface roughness, possible methods such as the annealing after deposition and a plasma-enhanced ALD are discussed.

  9. Confocal total reflection X-ray fluorescence technology based on an elliptical monocapillary and a parallel polycapillary X-ray optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Wang, Yabing; Sun, Tianxi; Sun, Xuepeng; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhiguo; Li, Yufei; Zhang, Fengshou

    2018-07-01

    A total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) spectrometer based on an elliptical monocapillary X-ray lens (MXRL) and a parallel polycapillary X-ray lens (PPXRL) was designed. This TXRF instrument has micro focal spot, low divergence and high intensity of incident X-ray beam. The diameter of the focal spot of MXRL was 16.5 µm, and the divergence of the incident X-ray beam was 3.4 mrad. We applied this TXRF instrument to the micro analysis of a single-layer film containing Ni deposited on a Si substrate by metal vapor vacuum arc ion source. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of ion-optics system for x-ray quasi-monochromatic source on the basis of electrostatic accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. O. Vershynskyi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion-optics system with two doublets of electrostatic quadrupole lenses for X-ray quasimonochromatic source was selected. Two variants of lens excitation for stigmatic focusing with two and four independent power supplies are considered. It is shown that using of four independent power supplies leads to improvement of focused ion beam parameters at converter.

  11. Design and performance of coded aperture optical elements for the CESR-TA x-ray beam size monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, J.P.; Chatterjee, A.; Conolly, C.; Edwards, E.; Ehrlichman, M.P. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Flanagan, J.W. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); Department of Accelerator Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI), Tsukuba (Japan); Fontes, E. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Heltsley, B.K., E-mail: bkh2@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Lyndaker, A.; Peterson, D.P.; Rider, N.T.; Rubin, D.L.; Seeley, R.; Shanks, J. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-12-11

    We describe the design and performance of optical elements for an x-ray beam size monitor (xBSM), a device measuring e{sup +} and e{sup −} beam sizes in the CESR-TA storage ring. The device can measure vertical beam sizes of 10–100μm on a turn-by-turn, bunch-by-bunch basis at e{sup ±} beam energies of ∼2–5GeV. x-rays produced by a hard-bend magnet pass through a single- or multiple-slit (coded aperture) optical element onto a detector. The coded aperture slit pattern and thickness of masking material forming that pattern can both be tuned for optimal resolving power. We describe several such optical elements and show how well predictions of simple models track measured performances. - Highlights: • We characterize optical element performance of an e{sup ±} x-ray beam size monitor. • We standardize beam size resolving power measurements to reference conditions. • Standardized resolving power measurements compare favorably to model predictions. • Key model features include simulation of photon-counting statistics and image fitting. • Results validate a coded aperture design optimized for the x-ray spectrum encountered.

  12. THE RELATION OF OPTICAL/ULTRAVIOLET AND X-RAY EMISSION IN LOW-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Yadi

    2011-01-01

    We study the relation of optical/UV and X-ray emission in the low luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs), using a sample of 49 sources including 28 local Seyfert galaxies and 21 low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions with optical/UV spectral luminosity at wavelength λ = 2500 A, 23.0 ≤ log L ν(2500A) (erg s -1 Hz -1 ) ≤ 27.7, and X-ray spectral luminosity at 2 keV, 20.5 ≤ log L ν(2keV) ≤ 25.3. Strong correlations are found between the X-ray luminosity and the optical/UV-to-X-ray index, α ox , with the optical/UV luminosity, with slopes very similar to the findings for the luminous AGNs in previous works. The correlation between α ox and L ν(2keV) is very weak, as is that found for the luminous AGNs in the majority of previous similar works. We also study the relation between α ox and the Eddington ratio L bol /L Edd for our sample and find a significant anti-correlation for the sources with L bol /L Edd ∼ -3 , which is opposite to the correlation between the two variables for the luminous AGNs. Using the advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF) model, we roughly reproduce this anti-correlationship for the two variables for the LLAGNs. This result strongly supports the ADAF as a candidate for the accretion mode in LLAGNs.

  13. Simultaneous X-ray, ultraviolet, and optical observations of the BL Lacertae object PKS 2155-304

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treves, A.; Morini, M.; Chiappetti, L.; Fabian, A.; Falomo, R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of observations at optical, UV, and X-ray frequencies of PKS 2155-304, one of the brightest BL Lac objects is reported. Spectral fits given for various epochs show that the medium energy data are well fitted by single power laws plus absorption, with energy index between 1.5 and 2. Marginal evidence for an absorption edge at about 7 keV is found, as is evidence for some spectral depression at about 1 keV. This may be modeled with an edge at 660 + or - 26 eV with optical depth tau = 1.8 + or - 0.2. Energy distributions on several occasions are reconstructed, and the optical, UV, and X-ray intensities are found to be correlated in all cases but one. The variability amplitudes decrease and the time scales increase with decreasing frequency. These results indicate a synchrotron origin for the X-rays and distinct but connected emission regions for the X-ray, UV, and optical bands. 46 refs

  14. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  15. Demonstration of a Ni-like Kr optical-field-ionization collisional soft x-ray laser at 32.8 nm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebban, S.; Mocek, Tomáš; Ros, D.; Upcraft, L.; Balcou, P.; Haroutunian, R.; Grillon, G.; Rus, Bedřich; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.; Valentin, C.; Rouseau, J. P.; Notebaert, L.; Pittman, M.; Hulin, D.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 25 (2002), s. 253901-1 - 253901-4 ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : x-ray lasers * laser plasma * x-ray spectroscopy * x-ray optics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 7.323, year: 2002

  16. Angular dependence of optical fibre thermoluminescent dosimeters irradiated using kilo- and megavoltage X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradi, F.; Ung, N.M.; Mahdiraji, G.A.; Khandaker, M.U.; Entezam, A.; See, M.H.; Taib, N.A.; Amin, Y.M.; Bradley, D.A.

    2017-01-01

    Prior investigation of the suitability of optical fibres as thermoluminescent dosimeters for diagnostic and therapeutic radiation beams has not included detailed study of the effect of beam angulation. Present study of such response has made use of optical fibre of cylindrical shape, exposed to 30 kVp photons from an X-ray tube and a 6 MV photon beam from a linear accelerator. The effect of the irradiation medium was also studied, comparing response free-in-air against on-surface and in-depth irradiations through use of solid-water™ phantom. Standard optical fibre (ø =125 µm) shows non-uniform response to beams delivered at different incident angles. Monte Carlo simulation provided support for the experimental results, also obtaining absorbed dose in the fibres. The results of free-in-air condition simulated with mono-energy beam show angle-independent response for photons within the energy range 100–500 keV, while dependency has been observed for beam energies of <100 keV and >500 keV. Experimentally, the angular dependency up to 35% is observed in 30 kVp free-in-air, while in 6 MeV beam, this is reduced to 20%, 10%, and 3% in free-in-air, on phantom surface, and in-depth conditions, respectively. The observations have been justified by considering the range of secondary electrons in the dosimeter and the effect of scattered radiation. - Highlights: • Irradiated free-in-air standard optical fibre dosimeters show significant angular dependence. • The dependency varies for photon energies obtained at kVp and MV potentials. • The irradiation medium influences the angular dependence. • With MeV beam irradiations under CPE conditions the angular dependence decreases to 3%.

  17. X-ray-excited optical luminescence of protein crystals: a new tool for studying radiation damage during diffraction data collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Robin L; Yorke, Briony A; Pearson, Arwen R

    2012-05-01

    During X-ray irradiation protein crystals radiate energy in the form of small amounts of visible light. This is known as X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL). The XEOL of several proteins and their constituent amino acids has been characterized using the microspectrophotometers at the Swiss Light Source and Diamond Light Source. XEOL arises primarily from aromatic amino acids, but the effects of local environment and quenching within a crystal mean that the XEOL spectrum of a crystal is not the simple sum of the spectra of its constituent parts. Upon repeated exposure to X-rays XEOL spectra decay non-uniformly, suggesting that XEOL is sensitive to site-specific radiation damage. However, rates of XEOL decay were found not to correlate to decays in diffracting power, making XEOL of limited use as a metric for radiation damage to protein crystals. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  18. Initial idea to use optical flats for x-ray fluorescence analysis and recent applications to diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horiuchi, T.

    1993-01-01

    Described in this work is the initial idea of using an optical flat for X-ray fluorescence analysis based upon studies of anomalous surface reflection (ASR). To develop total-reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF) as one of the most powerful tools for microchemical analysis, various experiments such as the micro-determinations of uranium in sea-water, iron in human blood and rare earth elements in hot spring-water were attempted. Furthermore, the physically interesting experiment on Compton scattering under total-reflection conditions was conducted. Recent applications of the total-reflection phenomenon to diffraction studies, i.e. total-reflection X-ray diffraction (TXRD), are also presented. (author)

  19. The Einstein database of IPC x-ray observations of optically selected and radio-selected quasars, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.; Tananbaum, Harvey; Worrall, D. M.; Avni, Yoram; Oey, M. S.; Flanagan, Joan

    1994-01-01

    We present the first volume of the Einstein quasar database. The database includes estimates of the X-ray count rates, fluxes, and luminosities for 514 quasars and Seyfert 1 galaxies observed with the Imaging Proportional Counter (IPC) aboard the Einstein Observatory. All were previously known optically selected or radio-selected objects, and most were the targets of the X-ray observations. The X-ray properties of the Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) have been derived by reanalyzing the IPC data in a systematic manner to provide a uniform database for general use by the astronomical community. We use the database to extend earlier quasar luminosity studies which were made using only a subset of the currently available data. The database can be accessed on internet via the SAO Einstein on-line system ('Einline') and is available in ASCII format on magnetic tape and DOS diskette.

  20. Upsurge of X-ray astronomy 230-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Instruments are described used for X-ray astronomy, namely X-ray detectors and X-ray telescopes. Unlike telescopes, the detectors do not comprise X-ray optics. A survey is given of the results obtained in solar and stellar X-ray astronomy and hypotheses are submitted on the origin of X radiation in the interstellar space. (J.B.)

  1. Optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements as a means of monitoring corrosion layers on copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowsett, Mark G; Adriaens, Annemie; Jones, Gareth K C; Poolton, Nigel; Fiddy, Steven; Nikitenko, Sergé

    2008-11-15

    XANES and EXAFS information is conventionally measured in transmission through the energy-dependent absorption of X-rays or by observing X-ray fluorescence, but secondary fluorescence processes, such as the emission of electrons and optical photons (e.g., 200-1000 nm), can also be used as a carrier of the XAS signatures, providing complementary information such as improved surface specificity. Where the near-visible photons have a shorter range in a material, the data will be more surface specific. Moreover, optical radiation may escape more readily than X-rays through liquid in an environmental cell. Here, we describe a first test of optically detected X-ray absorption spectroscopy (ODXAS) for monitoring electrochemical treatments on copper-based alloys, for example, heritage metals. Artificially made corrosion products deposited on a copper substrate were analyzed in air and in a 1% (w/v) sodium sesquicarbonate solution to simulate typical conservation methods for copper-based objects recovered from marine environments. The measurements were made on stations 7.1 and 9.2 MF (SRS Daresbury, UK) using the mobile luminescence end station (MoLES), supplemented by XAS measurements taken on DUBBLE (BM26 A) at the ESRF. The ODXAS spectra usually contain fine structure similar to that of XAS spectra measured in X-ray fluorescence. Importantly, for the compounds examined, the ODXAS is significantly more surface specific, and >98% characteristic of thin surface layers of 0.5-1.5-microm thickness in cases where X-ray measurements are dominated by the substrate. However, EXAFS and XANES from broadband optical measurements are superimposed on a high background due to other optical emission modes. This produces statistical fluctuations up to double what would be expected from normal counting statistics because the data retain the absolute statistical fluctuation in the original raw count, while losing up to 70% of their magnitude when background is removed. The problem may be

  2. X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) and its application to porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.A.

    1998-09-01

    X-ray Excited Optical Luminescence (XEOL) is investigated as a local structural probe of the light-emitting sites in porous silicon. A detailed microscopic model of the XEOL process in porous silicon is proposed. A central aspect of the technique is an assessment of the spatial separation between the primary photoionisation event and subsequent optical radiative recombination. By constructing a Monte Carlo simulation of hot electron propagation in silicon using both elastic and inelastic scattering cross-sections, the mean minimum range of luminescence excitation can be calculated. This range is estimated as 546±1A for the silicon K-edge (∼ 1839eV), but is reduced to 8.9±0.1A for the silicon L 2,3 -edge (∼ 99eV). From known porous silicon properties, it is concluded that this mean minimum range is comparable to the actual range of excitation. Hence, more localised structural information may be obtained from L 2,3 -edge XEOL measurements. This important difference between the two spectra has been neglected in previous studies. Simultaneous measurements of the XEOL and total electron yield (TEY) x-ray absorption spectra (XAS) have been conducted at both the silicon K-edge and L 2,3 -edge for various porous silicon samples and related materials. Measurements have been conducted at the Si K-edge on a rapid thermally oxidised (RTO) porous silicon sample. XEOL spectra yield two distinct luminescence bands in the visible region. From multi-bunch wavelength-selective XEOL measurements, it is concluded that there are blue luminescent defective silica sites together with a red luminescent site originating from silicon-like material. The spectral time decay curve under pulsed x-ray excitation gives two distinct decay components; one fast in the range of a few nanoseconds and the other slow in the range of microseconds. Time-resolved XEOL measurements in single-bunch mode show that the fast band mirrors the blue wavelength XEOL whereas the slow band correlates with the

  3. Mass estimates from optical-light curves for binary X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avni, Y.

    1978-01-01

    The small amplitude variations with orbital phase of the optical light from X-ray binaries are caused by the changing geometrical aspect of the primary as seen by a fixed observer. The shape and the amplitude of the light curve depends on the stellar masses and on the orbital elements. The light curve can, therefore, be used to determine, or set limits on, the parameters of the binary system. A self-consistent procedure for the calculation of the light curve can be formulated if the primary is formulated if the primary is uniformly rotating at an angular velocity equal to the angular velocity of its orbital revolution in a circular orbit, and if the primary is in a hydrostatic and radiative equilibrium in the co-rotating frame. When the primary is further approximated to be centrally condensed, the above set of assumptions is called the standard picture. The standard picture is described, its validity discussed and its application to various systems reviewed. (C.F.)

  4. The X-ray reflectivity of the AXAF VETA-I optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, E.; Chartas, G.; Graessle, D.; Hughes, J. P.; Van Speybroeck, L.; Zhao, Ping; Weisskopf, M. C.; Elsner, R. F.; O'Dell, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    The study measures the X-ray reflectivity of the AXAF VETA-I optic and compares it with theoretical predictions. Measurements made at energies of 0.28, 0.9, 1.5, 2.1, and 2.3 keV are compared with predictions based on ray trace calculations. Results on the variation of the reflectivity with energy as well as the absolute value of the reflectivity are presented. A synchrotron reflectivity measurement with a high-energy resolution over the range 0.26 to 1.8 keV on a flat Zerodur sample is also reported. Evidence is found for contamination of the flat by a thin layer of carbon on the surface, and the possibility of alteration of the surface composition of the VETA-I mirror, perhaps by the polishing technique. The overall agreement between the measured and calculated effective area of VETA-I is between 2.6 and 10 percent. Measurements at individual energies deviate from the best-fitting calculation to 0.3 to 0.8 percent, averaging 0.6 percent at energies below the high energy cutoff of the mirror reflectivity, and are as high as 20.7 percent at the cutoff.

  5. Optical spectroscopic characterization of amorphous germanium carbide materials obtained by X-Ray Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Antoniotti

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amorphous germanium carbides have been prepared by X-ray activated Chemical Vapor Deposition from germane/allene systems. The allene percentage and irradiation time (total dose were correlated to the composition, the structural features, and the optical coefficients of the films, as studied by IR and UV-VIS spectroscopic techniques. The materials composition is found to change depending on both the allene percentage in the mixture and the irradiation time. IR spectroscopy results indicate that the solids consist of randomly bound networks of carbon and germanium atoms with hydrogen atoms terminating all the dangling bonds. Moreover, the elemental analysis results, the absence of both unsaturated bonds and CH3 groups into the solids and the absence of allene autocondensation reactions products, indicate that polymerization reactions leading to mixed species, containing Ge-C bonds, are favored. Eopt values around 3.5 eV have been found in most of the cases, and are correlated with C sp3-bonding configuration. The B1/2 value, related to the order degree, has been found to be dependent on solid composition, atoms distribution in the material and hydrogenation degree of carbon atoms.

  6. Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for X-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhanshan; Cheng Xinbin; Zhu Jingtao; Huang Qiushi; Zhang Zhong; Chen Lingyan

    2011-01-01

    Design, fabrication and characterization of aperiodic tungsten/carbon (W/C) multi-layer mirror were studied. W/C multi-layer was designed as a broad-angle reflective supermirror for Cu-Kα line (λ = 0.154 nm) in the grazing incident angular range (0.9-1.1 deg.) using simulated annealing algorithm. To deposit the W/C depth-graded multi-layer mirror accurately, we introduce an effective layer growth rate as a function of layer thickness. This method greatly improves the reflectivity curve compared to the conventional multi-layer mirror prepared with constant growth rate. The deposited multi-layer mirror exhibits an average reflectivity of 19% over the grazing incident angle range of 0.88-1.08 deg. which mainly coincides with the designed value. Furthermore, the physical mechanisms were discussed and the re-sputtering process of light-atom layers is accounted for the modification of layer thicknesses which leads to the effective growth rates. Using this calibration method, the aperiodic multi-layer mirrors can be better fabricated for X-ray optics.

  7. In-flight PSF calibration of the NuSTAR hard X-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Westergaard, Niels J.

    2014-01-01

    We present results of the point spread function (PSF) calibration of the hard X-ray optics of the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Immediately post-launch, NuSTAR has observed bright point sources such as Cyg X-1, Vela X-1, and Her X-1 for the PSF calibration. We use the point source...... observations taken at several off-axis angles together with a ray-trace model to characterize the in-orbit angular response, and find that the ray-trace model alone does not fit the observed event distributions and applying empirical corrections to the ray-trace model improves the fit significantly. We...... describe the corrections applied to the ray-trace model and show that the uncertainties in the enclosed energy fraction (EEF) of the new PSF model is less than or similar to 3 for extraction apertures of R greater than or similar to 60" with no significant energy dependence. We also show that the PSF...

  8. Ultra-high resolution water window x ray microscope optics design and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L.; Wang, C.

    1993-01-01

    This project has been focused on the design and analysis of an ultra-high resolution water window soft-x-ray microscope. These activities have been accomplished by completing two tasks contained in the statement of work of this contract. The new results from this work confirm: (1) that in order to achieve resolutions greater than three times the wavelength of the incident radiation, it will be necessary to use spherical mirror surfaces and to use graded multilayer coatings on the secondary in order to accommodate the large variations of the angle of incidence over the secondary when operating the microscope at numerical apertures of 0.35 or greater; (2) that surface contour errors will have a significant effect on the optical performance of the microscope and must be controlled to a peak-to-valley variation of 50-100 A and a frequency of 8 periods over the surface of a mirror; and (3) that tolerance analysis of the spherical Schwarzschild microscope has been shown that the water window operations will require 2-3 times tighter tolerances to achieve a similar performance of operations with 130 A radiation. These results have been included in a manuscript included in the appendix.

  9. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsuka, Shinji, E-mail: ohsuka@crl.hpk.co.jp [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); The Graduate School for the Creation of New Photonics Industries, 1955-1 Kurematsu-cho, Nishi-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 431-1202 (Japan); Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Nakano, Tomoyasu [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 5000 Hirakuchi, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-8601 (Japan); Ray-Focus Co. Ltd., 6009 Shinpara, Hamakita-ku, Hamamatsu-City, 434-0003 (Japan); Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  10. Laboratory-size three-dimensional x-ray microscope with Wolter type I mirror optics and an electron-impact water window x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsuka, Shinji; Ohba, Akira; Onoda, Shinobu; Nakamoto, Katsuhiro; Nakano, Tomoyasu; Miyoshi, Motosuke; Soda, Keita; Hamakubo, Takao

    2014-09-01

    We constructed a laboratory-size three-dimensional water window x-ray microscope that combines wide-field transmission x-ray microscopy with tomographic reconstruction techniques, and observed bio-medical samples to evaluate its applicability to life science research fields. It consists of a condenser and an objective grazing incidence Wolter type I mirror, an electron-impact type oxygen Kα x-ray source, and a back-illuminated CCD for x-ray imaging. A spatial resolution limit of around 1.0 line pairs per micrometer was obtained for two-dimensional transmission images, and 1-μm scale three-dimensional fine structures were resolved.

  11. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  12. Determination of the size of X-ray tube focal spots: direct digitalization vs optical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furquim, Tania A.C.; Yanikian, Denise; Costa, Paulo R.

    1996-01-01

    A comparative study between standard techniques for evaluation of X-ray tubes focal spots and a newer one which uses digital resources for image acquisition is presented. Results from measurements by using both methods are presented

  13. Integrated Spacecraft Navigation and Communication Using Radio, Optical, and X-rays, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program proposes to design and evaluate novel technology of X-ray navigation for augmentation and increased capability of high data-rate spacecraft...

  14. High heat load x-ray optics research and development at the Advanced Photon Source -- An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Wah-Keat; Mills, D.M.

    1993-09-01

    Insertion devices at third generation synchrotron radiation sources such as the APS are capable of producing x-ray beams with total power in excess of 7 kilowatts or power densities of 150 watts/mm 2 at a typical location of the optical components. Optical elements subjected to these types of heat fluxes will suffer considerably unless carefully designed to withstand these unprecedented power loadings. At the Advanced Photon Source (APS), we have an aggressive R ampersand D program aimed at investigating possible methods to mitigate thermal distortions. The approaches being studied include, improved heat exchangers, use of liquid gallium and liquid nitrogen as coolants, novel crystal geometries, power filtering, and replacement of silicon with diamond for crystal monochromators. This paper will provide an overview of the high heat load x-ray optics program at the APS

  15. The Intrinsically X-Ray-weak Quasar PHL 1811. II. Optical and UV Spectra and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Casebeer, Darrin

    2007-11-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the unusually bright (mb=14.4), luminous (MB=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line quasar PHL 1811. The first paper reported that PHL 1811 is intrinsically X-ray-weak and presented a spectral energy distribution (SED). Here we present HST STIS optical and UV spectra, and ground-based optical spectra. The optical and UV line emission is very unusual. There is no evidence for forbidden or semiforbidden lines. The near-UV spectrum is dominated by very strong Fe II and Fe III, and unusual low-ionization lines such as Na I D and Ca II H and K are observed. High-ionization lines are very weak; C IV has an equivalent width of 6.6 Å, a factor of ~5 smaller than measured from quasar composite spectra. An unusual feature near 1200 Å can be deblended in terms of Lyα, N V, Si II, and C III* using the blueshifted C IV profile as a template. Photoionization modeling shows that the unusual line emission can be explained qualitatively by the unusually soft SED. Principally, a low gas temperature results in inefficient emission of collisionally excited lines, including the semiforbidden lines generally used as density diagnostics. The emission resembles that of high-density gas; in both cases this is a consequence of inefficient cooling. PHL 1811 is very unusual, but we note that quasar surveys may be biased against finding similar objects. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal 9181. Based on observations obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  16. The final optical identification content of the Einstein deep x-ray field in Pavo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, J. I.; Gilmozzi, R.

    1997-07-01

    The optical identification of all sources revealed in the final analysis of the Einstein deep field observations in Pavo has been completed to the viable limits accessible to spectroscopy. This work combined with previously published data results in the identification of 16 AGN's with the real possibility of 3 further such identifications, while a further 2 probably are spurious. Another AGN is identified in an IPC exposure just outside the boundary of the four HRI exposures. One elliptical galaxy (or cluster) and one dMe star complete the tally. In a log N-log S plot the point represented by these 16-19 AGN's falls precisely on the extension of the line defined by the EMSS data, and somewhat below the line defined by the more recent deep field ROSAT data. It extends to fainter sensitivities than the previously published work from the Einstein observations of the same field. It is consistent with the more recently published data for Pavo obtained with ROSAT even though this latter reaches a slightly fainter sensitivity. This identification work therefore sets a firm lower limit to the AGN content of the X-ray identifications in Pavo. By virtue of having selected in this survey intrinsically fainter-than-average AGN's it has been possible to show, by combination with data for higher luminosity quasars, that a correlation exists between the luminosities and (B-V) colours extending over a luminosity range of 6 magnitudes. This sequence coincides with the sequence obtained by plotting data for all AGN's in the same redshift range taken from the Veron and Veron catalogue. It is argued that the magnitude of this effect cannot be explained by the translation of various strong emission lines through the band-passes of the relevant filters. It may be explained by the influence of host galaxies.

  17. Spectroscopic confirmation of the optical identification of X-ray sources used to determine accurate positions for the anomalous X-ray pulsars 1E 2259+58.6 and 4U 0142+61

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Berg, M.; Verbunt, F.

    2001-03-01

    Optical spectra show that two proposed counterparts for X-ray sources detected near 1E 2259+58.6 are late G stars, and a proposed counterpart for a source near 4U 0142+61 is a dMe star. The X-ray luminosities are as expected for such stars. We thus confirm the optical identification of the three X-ray objects, and thereby the correctness of the accurate positions for 1E 2259+58.6 and 4U 0142+61 based on them. Based on observations made with the William Herschel Telescope operated on the island of La Palma by the Isaac Newton Group in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias.

  18. Multiwavelength Observations of the 2002 Outburst of GX 339-4: Two Patterns of X-Ray-Optical/Near-Infrared Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; Buxton, Michelle; Markoff, Sera; Bailyn, Charles D.; Nespoli, Elisa; Belloni, Tomaso

    2005-05-01

    We report on quasi-simultaneous Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer and optical/near-infrared (NIR) observations of the black hole candidate X-ray transient GX 339-4. Our observations were made over a time span of more than 8 months in 2002 and cover the initial rise and transition from a hard to a soft spectral state in X-rays. Two distinct patterns of correlated X-ray-optical/NIR behavior were found. During the hard state, the optical/NIR and X-ray fluxes correlated well, with a NIR versus X-ray flux power-law slope similar to that of the correlation found between X-ray and radio fluxes in previous studies of GX 339-4 and other black hole binaries. As the source went through an intermediate state, the optical/NIR fluxes decreased rapidly, and once it had entered the spectrally soft state, the optical/NIR spectrum of GX 339-4 was much bluer, and the ratio of X-ray to NIR flux was higher by a factor of more than 10 compared to the hard state. In the spectrally soft state, changes in the NIR preceded those in the soft X-rays by more than 2 weeks, indicating a disk origin of the NIR emission and providing a measure of the viscous timescale. A sudden onset of NIR flaring of ~0.5 mag on a timescale of 1 day was also observed during this period. We present spectral energy distributions, including radio data, and discuss possible sources for the optical/NIR emission. We conclude that, in the hard state, this emission probably originates in the optically thin part of a jet and that in none of the X-ray states is X-ray reprocessing the dominant source of optical/NIR emission. Finally, comparing the light curves from the all-sky monitor (ASM) and Proportional Counter Array (PCA) instruments, we find that the X-ray/NIR delay depends critically on the sensitivity of the X-ray detector, with the delay inferred from the PCA (if present at all) being a factor of 3-6 times shorter than the delay inferred from the ASM; this may be important in interpreting previously reported X-ray-optical

  19. Calibration of the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) Hard X-ray Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gaskin, Jessica; Christe, Steven; Shih, Albert; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Doug; Kilaru, Kiranmayee; Elsner, Ron; Kolodziejczak, Jeff; Ramsey, Brian

    2014-01-01

    On September 21-22, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) hard X-ray telescope, flew as a balloon payload from Ft. Sumner, N.M. HEROES observed the Sun, the black hole binary GRS 1915+105, and the Crab Nebula during its 27 hour flight. In this paper we describe laboratory calibration measurements of the HEROES detectors using line and continuum sources, applications of these measurements to define channel to energy (gain) corrections for observed events and to define detector response matrices. We characterize the HEROES X-ray grazing incidence optics using measurements taken in the Stray-Light (SLF) Facility in Huntsville, AL, and using ray traces.

  20. Performance dependence of hybrid x-ray computed tomography/fluorescence molecular tomography on the optical forward problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Damon; Schulz, Ralf; Brooks, Dana; Miller, Eric; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2009-04-01

    Hybrid imaging systems combining x-ray computed tomography (CT) and fluorescence tomography can improve fluorescence imaging performance by incorporating anatomical x-ray CT information into the optical inversion problem. While the use of image priors has been investigated in the past, little is known about the optimal use of forward photon propagation models in hybrid optical systems. In this paper, we explore the impact on reconstruction accuracy of the use of propagation models of varying complexity, specifically in the context of these hybrid imaging systems where significant structural information is known a priori. Our results demonstrate that the use of generically known parameters provides near optimal performance, even when parameter mismatch remains.

  1. X-ray optics in new instruments for astro- and astroparticle physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Anders Clemen

    Discovering new phenomena in physics require ever larger and more advanced instruments in order to detect either fundamental particles or energetic events in the universe. This thesis describes the work done on three separate X-ray telescopes, one for astrophysics and two for astroparticle physics...... and qualified for long term stability and reflectivity performance. A Cr sublayer under an Ir/B4C coating was seen to mitigate the film stress; additionally, Ir coatings were found to show a smoothening effect when deposited onto a rough Cr surface. The coating production upscaling to 210,000 SPO substrates...... coated over a two year period is discussed and a multi chamber solution is described. An X-ray telescope for the CAST helioscope at CERN was designed, optimised, produced and installed in order to improve the sensitivity of the helioscope. The installed telescope focuses X-rays, converted from axions...

  2. Detailed EXOSAT and optical observations of the intermediate polar 3A0729+103: discovery of two medium energy X-ray emission regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHardy, I.M.; Pye, J.P.; Fairall, A.P.; Menzies, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    EXOSAT observations of the intermediate polar cataclysmic variable 3A0729+103 reveal a strong orbital modulation, with the 2-4KeV X-rays being significantly more modulated than the 4-6keV X-rays, indicative of photoelectric absorption. The 913 second modulation which is very prominent in the optical light curve, is weakly detected in the medium-energy X-ray light curve, confirming that it represents the white dwarf spin period. These observations are well explained by a combination of two sources of medium-energy X-ray emission. The presence of two emission regions is also clearly seen in the optical spectroscopy, particularly in the intensity of the He II4686 line which has two peaks during the orbit. The authors identify the two optical emission regions with the two X-ray emission regions. (author)

  3. Summary of radiation-induced transient absorption and recovery in fiber optic waveguides. [Pulsed electrons and x-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skoog, C.D.

    1976-11-01

    The absorption induced in fiber optic waveguides by pulsed electron and X-ray radiation has been measured as a function of optical wavelength from 450 to 950 nm, irradiation temperature from -54 to 71/sup 0/C, and dose from 1 to 500 krads. The fibers studied are Ge-doped silica core fibers (Corning Low Loss), ''pure'' vitreous silica core fibers (Schott, Bell Laboratories, Fiberoptic Cable Corp., and Valtec Fiberoptics), polymethyl-methacrylate core fibers (DuPont CROFON and PFX), and polystyrene core fibers (International Fiber Optics and Polyoptics). Models that have been developed to account for the observed absorption recovery are also summarized.

  4. The use of x-ray interferometry to investigate the linearity of the NPL Differential Plane Mirror Optical Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yacoot, Andrew; Downs, Michael J.

    2000-08-01

    The x-ray interferometer from the combined optical and x-ray interferometer (COXI) facility at NPL has been used to investigate the performance of the NPL Jamin Differential Plane Mirror Interferometer when it is fitted with stabilized and unstabilized lasers. This Jamin interferometer employs a common path design using a double pass configuration and one fringe is realized by a displacement of 158 nm between its two plane mirror retroreflectors. Displacements over ranges of several optical fringes were measured simultaneously using the COXI x-ray interferometer and the Jamin interferometer and the results were compared. In order to realize the highest measurement accuracy from the Jamin interferometer, the air paths were shielded to prevent effects from air turbulence and electrical signals generated by the photodetectors were analysed and corrected using an optimizing routine in order to subdivide the optical fringes accurately. When an unstabilized laser was used the maximum peak-to-peak difference between the two interferometers was 80 pm, compared with 20 pm when the stabilized laser was used.

  5. Quantitative assessment of radiation-induced lung changes by computerized optical densitometry of routine chest x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentzen, Soeren M.; Skoczylas, Jerzy Z.; Overgaard, Marie; Overgaard, Jens; Nielsen, Ole G.; Madsen, Erik Hjoellund

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a quantitative assay of radiological lung changes after postmastectomy radiotherapy applicable for analysis of routine chest x-rays. Methods and Materials: The assay relies on measurement of the optical density of chest x-rays by means of a standard personal computer-controlled film densitometer used for scanning dosimetry films. Density profiles were recorded at 1 mm steps along two reference lines in each lung. The crossing between the clavicula and the first rib in the x-ray projection was used as an easily identifiable anatomical landmark and was used to establish two parallel cranio-caudal reference lines separated by 20 mm. The starting point for recording optical densities was 5 mm below a line perpendicular to the reference lines and tangent to the top of the lung. Data were stored in a computer file for subsequent processing. The optical film densities in the apex of the lungs were converted into equivalent absorber thickness (EAT). To minimize the dependency on technical factors, the unirradiated lung was used as a control. Lung density changes were quantified by the relative change in EAT (REAT), which was evaluated as the difference between the summed EATs along the reference lines in the two lungs, corrected for any pretreatment difference in lung density, and taken as a percentage of the pretreatment EAT value of the lung. Results: Four different tests were carried out to investigate the reproducibility and validity of the proposed assay. (a) An anthropomorphic phantom was used to test the relationship between REAT and the layer of plastic absorber placed in front of one lung. A linear relationship was found with a correlation coefficient of 0.9993. (b) A series of 10 repeat measurements of the same arbitrarily chosen x-ray showed a mean REAT value of 9.8%, with a standard deviation of 0.21%. (c) Forty-three chest x-rays exposed on the same day were available from the clinical series. These were treated as double determinations of

  6. Evaluation of an X-ray-excited optical microscope for chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbe, Pieter-Jan; Dowsett, Mark; Hand, Matthew; Grayburn, Rosie; Thompson, Paul; Bras, Wim; Adriaens, Annemie

    2014-12-02

    The application of a modular system for the nondestructive chemical imaging of metal and other surfaces is described using heritage metals as an example. The custom-built X-ray-excited optical luminescence (XEOL) microscope, XEOM 1, images the chemical state and short-range atomic order of the top 200 nm of both amorphous and crystalline surfaces. A broad X-ray beam is used to illuminate large areas (up to 4 mm(2)) of the sample, and the resulting XEOL emission is collected simultaneously for each pixel by a charge-coupled device sensor to form an image. The input X-ray energy is incremented across a range typical for the X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and an image collected for each increment. The use of large-footprint beams combined with parallel detection allows the power density to be kept low and facilitates complete nondestructive XANES mapping on a reasonable time scale. In this study the microscope was evaluated by imaging copper surfaces with well-defined patterns of different corrosion products (cuprite Cu2O and nantokite CuCl). The images obtained show chemical contrast, and filtering the XEOL light allowed different corrosion products to be imaged separately. Absorption spectra extracted from software-selected regions of interest exhibit characteristic XANES fingerprints for the compounds present. Moreover, when the X-ray absorption edge positions were extracted from each spectrum, an oxidation state map of the sample could be compiled. The results show that this method allows one to obtain nondestructive and noninvasive information at the micrometer scale while using full-field imaging.

  7. Optical afterburner for an x-ray free electron laser as a tool for pump-probe experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. L. Saldin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme for two-color operation of an x-ray self-amplified spontaneous emission free electron laser (SASE FEL. The scheme is based on an intrinsic feature of such a device: chaotic modulations of electron beam energy and energy spread on the scale of FEL coherence length are converted into large density modulations on the same scale with the help of a dispersion section, installed behind the x-ray undulator. Powerful radiation is then generated with the help of a dedicated radiator (like an undulator that selects a narrow spectral line, or one can simply use, for instance, broadband edge radiation. A typical radiation wavelength can be as short as a FEL coherence length, and can be redshifted by increasing the dispersion section strength. In practice it means the wavelength ranges from vacuum ultraviolet to infrared. The long-wavelength radiation pulse is naturally synchronized with the x-ray pulse and can be either directly used in pump-probe experiments or cross correlated with a high-power pulse from a conventional laser system. In this way experimenters overcome jitter problems and can perform pump-probe experiments with femtosecond resolution. Additional possibilities like on-line monitoring of x-ray pulse duration (making “optical replica” of an x-ray pulse are also discussed in the paper. The proposed scheme is very simple, cheap, and robust, and therefore can be easily realized in facilities like FLASH, European XFEL, LCLS, and SCSS.

  8. Development of thermally formed glass optics for astronomical hard X-ray telescopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.; Jimenez-Garate, M.

    2000-01-01

    The next major observational advance in hard X-ray/soft gamma-ray astrophysics will come with the implementation of telescopes capable of focusing 10-200 keV radiation. Focusing allows high signal-to-noise imaging and spectroscopic observations of many sources in this band for the first time...

  9. X-ray microbeams based on Kumakhov polycapillary optics and its ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    because of the total external reflection of X-rays from the inner capillary walls .... of the area of apertures and walls, and losses on internal reflections. All these factors as a whole are considered in experimentally received transmission factor Tr.

  10. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    We fabricated x-ray mirrors for hard x-ray (greater than or equal to 10 keV) telescopes using multilayer coatings and an improved epoxy-replicated aluminum foil (ERAF) nonvacuum technology. The ERAF optics have similar to1 arcmin axial figure half-power diameter (HPD) and passed environmental...... telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  11. PROBING X-RAY ABSORPTION AND OPTICAL EXTINCTION IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM USING CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF SUPERNOVA REMNANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foight, Dillon R.; Slane, Patrick O. [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Güver, Tolga [Istanbul University, Science Faculty, Department of Astronomy and Space Sciences, Beyazıt, 34119, Istanbul (Turkey); Özel, Feryal [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2016-07-20

    We present a comprehensive study of interstellar X-ray extinction using the extensive Chandra supernova remnant (SNR) archive and use our results to refine the empirical relation between the hydrogen column density and optical extinction. In our analysis, we make use of the large, uniform data sample to assess various systematic uncertainties in the measurement of the interstellar X-ray absorption. Specifically, we address systematic uncertainties that originate from (i) the emission models used to fit SNR spectra; (ii) the spatial variations within individual remnants; (iii) the physical conditions of the remnant such as composition, temperature, and non-equilibrium regions; and (iv) the model used for the absorption of X-rays in the interstellar medium. Using a Bayesian framework to quantify these systematic uncertainties, and combining the resulting hydrogen column density measurements with the measurements of optical extinction toward the same remnants, we find the empirical relation N {sub H} = (2.87 ± 0.12) × 10{sup 21} A {sub V} cm{sup 2}, which is significantly higher than the previous measurements.

  12. WavePropaGator: interactive framework for X-ray free-electron laser optics design and simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samoylova, Liubov; Buzmakov, Alexey; Chubar, Oleg; Sinn, Harald

    2016-08-01

    This article describes the WavePropaGator ( WPG ) package, a new interactive software framework for coherent and partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations. The package has been developed at European XFEL for users at the existing and emerging free-electron laser (FEL) facilities, as well as at the third-generation synchrotron sources and future diffraction-limited storage rings. The WPG addresses the needs of beamline scientists and user groups to facilitate the design, optimization and improvement of X-ray optics to meet their experimental requirements. The package uses the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop ( SRW ) C/C++ library and its Python binding for numerical wavefront propagation simulations. The framework runs reliably under Linux, Microsoft Windows 7 and Apple Mac OS X and is distributed under an open-source license. The available tools allow for varying source parameters and optics layouts and visualizing the results interactively. The wavefront history structure can be used for tracking changes in every particular wavefront during propagation. The batch propagation mode enables processing of multiple wavefronts in workflow mode. The paper presents a general description of the package and gives some recent application examples, including modeling of full X-ray FEL beamlines and start-to-end simulation of experiments.

  13. THE STRUCTURE OF THE X-RAY AND OPTICAL EMITTING REGIONS OF THE LENSED QUASAR Q 2237+0305

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.; Blackburne, J. A.; Chen, B.; Dai, X.; Chartas, G.

    2013-01-01

    We use gravitational microlensing to determine the size of the X-ray and optical emission regions of the quadruple lens system Q 2237+0305. The optical half-light radius, log(R 1/2,V /cm) = 16.41 ± 0.18 (at λ rest = 2018 Å), is significantly larger than the observed soft, log(R 1/2,soft /cm)=15.76 +0.41 -0.34 (1.1-3.5 keV in the rest frame), and hard, log(R 1/2,hard /cm)=15.46 +0.34 -0.29 (3.5-21.5 keV in the rest frame), band X-ray emission. There is weak evidence that the hard component is more compact than the soft, with log(R 1/2,soft /R 1/2,hard )≅0.30 +0.53 -0.45 . This wavelength-dependent structure agrees with recent results found in other lens systems using microlensing techniques, and favors geometries in which the corona is concentrated near the inner edge of the accretion disk. While the available measurements are limited, the size of the X-ray emission region appears to be roughly proportional to the mass of the central black hole.

  14. X-Ray Observations of Optically Selected, Radio-quiet Quasars. I. The ASCA Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, I. M.; Turner, T. J.; Yaqoob, T.; Netzer, H.; Laor, A.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Nandra, K.; Takahashi, T.

    2000-03-01

    We present the result of 27 ASCA observations of 26 radio-quiet quasars (RQQs) from the Palomar-Green (PG) survey. The sample is not statistically complete, but it is reasonably representative of RQQs in the PG survey. For many of the sources, the ASCA data are presented here for the first time. All the RQQs were detected except for two objects, both of which contain broad absorption lines in the optical band. We find the variability characteristics of the sources to be consistent with Seyfert 1 galaxies. A power law offers an acceptable description of the time-averaged spectra in the 2-10 keV (quasar frame) band for all but one data set. The best-fitting values of the photon index vary from object to object over the range 1.5~=2 and dispersion σ(Γ2-10)~=0.25. The distribution of Γ2-10 is therefore similar to that observed in other RQ active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and seems to be unrelated to X-ray luminosity. No single model adequately describes the full 0.6-10 keV (observed frame) continuum of all the RQQs. Approximately 50% of the sources can be adequately described by a single power law or by a power law with only very subtle deviations. All but one of the remaining data sets were found to have convex spectra (flattening as one moves to higher energies). The exception is PG 1411+442, in which a substantial column density (NH,z~2x1023 cm-2) obscures ~98% of the continuum. We find only five (maybe six) of 14 objects with z<~0.25 to have ``soft excesses'' at energies <~1 keV, but we find no universal shape for these spectral components. The spectrum of PG 1244+026 contains a rather narrow emission feature centered at an energy ~1 keV (quasar frame). The detection rate of absorption due to ionized material in these RQQs is lower than that seen in Seyfert 1 galaxies. In part, this may be due to selection effects. However, when detected, the absorbers in the RQQs exhibit a similar range of column density and ionization parameter as Seyfert 1 galaxies. We find

  15. Evaluation of the soft x-ray reflectivity of micropore optics using anisotropic wet etching of silicon wafers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Yamasaki, Noriko Y; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shirata, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2010-02-20

    The x-ray reflectivity of an ultralightweight and low-cost x-ray optic using anisotropic wet etching of Si (110) wafers is evaluated at two energies, C K(alpha)0.28 keV and Al K(alpha)1.49 keV. The obtained reflectivities at both energies are not represented by a simple planar mirror model considering surface roughness. Hence, an geometrical occultation effect due to step structures upon the etched mirror surface is taken into account. Then, the reflectivities are represented by the theoretical model. The estimated surface roughness at C K(alpha) (approximately 6 nm rms) is significantly larger than approximately 1 nm at Al K(alpha). This can be explained by different coherent lengths at two energies.

  16. Evaluation of the soft x-ray reflectivity of micropore optics using anisotropic wet etching of silicon wafers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Koshiishi, Masaki; Mita, Makoto; Maeda, Yoshitomo; Yamasaki, Noriko Y.; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Shirata, Takayuki; Hayashi, Takayuki; Takano, Takayuki; Maeda, Ryutaro

    2010-02-20

    The x-ray reflectivity of an ultralightweight and low-cost x-ray optic using anisotropic wet etching of Si (110) wafers is evaluated at two energies, C K{alpha}0.28 keV and Al K{alpha}1.49 keV. The obtained reflectivities at both energies are not represented by a simple planar mirror model considering surface roughness. Hence, an geometrical occultation effect due to step structures upon the etched mirror surface is taken into account. Then, the reflectivities are represented by the theoretical model. The estimated surface roughness at C K{alpha} ({approx}6 nm rms) is significantly larger than {approx}1 nm at Al K{alpha}. This can be explained by different coherent lengths at two energies.

  17. Geometrical and wave-optical effects on the performance of a bent-crystal dispersive X-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, J.P.; Amboage, M.; Hayama, S.; Diaz-Moreno, S.

    2010-01-01

    The X-ray focusing properties of a bent single crystal diffracting in Bragg geometry are discussed. First, it is assumed that a polychromatic point source is focused to a point image. The elliptical arc that the crystal must trace and the aberrations caused by bending the crystal cylindrically are derived from the ray paths. For a source of finite size, the magnification is found to vary over the crystal's length, so that rays of different wavelength produce images of different size. More realistic treatments of penetration and diffraction are performed with spherical monochromatic incident waves, using Takagi-Taupin calculations to create the diffracted wave and the Fresnel integral to trace the diffracted wave's evolution. Such 'wave-optical' calculations on a symmetric Si (1 1 1) crystal with 7 keV X-rays predict beam sizes different from those found in ray traces. Optimal sample and detector placement therefore requires wave effects to be considered.

  18. Ronchi test for characterization of nanofocusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Daniel; Uhlén, Fredrik; Holmberg, Anders; Hertz, Hans M; Schropp, Andreas; Patommel, Jens; Hoppe, Robert; Seiboth, Frank; Meier, Vivienne; Schroer, Christian G; Galtier, Eric; Nagler, Bob; Lee, Hae Ja; Vogt, Ulrich

    2012-12-15

    We demonstrate the use of the classical Ronchi test to characterize aberrations in focusing optics at a hard x-ray free-electron laser. A grating is placed close to the focus and the interference between the different orders after the grating is observed in the far field. Any aberrations in the beam or the optics will distort the interference fringes. The method is simple to implement and can provide single-shot information about the focusing quality. We used the Ronchi test to measure the aberrations in a nanofocusing Fresnel zone plate at the Linac Coherent Light Source at 8.194 keV.

  19. THE X-RAY PROPERTIES OF THE OPTICALLY BRIGHTEST MINI-BAL QUASARS FROM THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jianfeng; Brandt, W. N.; Comins, M. L.; Garmire, Gordon P.; Schneider, Donald P.; Gibson, Robert R.; Shemmer, Ohad

    2010-01-01

    We have compiled a sample of 14 of the optically brightest radio-quiet quasars (m i ≤ 17.5 and z ≥ 1.9) in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 quasar catalog that have C IV mini-broad absorption lines (mini-BALs) present in their spectra. X-ray data for 12 of the objects were obtained via a Chandra snapshot survey using ACIS-S, while data for the other two quasars were obtained from archival XMM-Newton observations. Joint X-ray spectral analysis shows that the mini-BAL quasars have a similar average power-law photon index (Γ ∼ 1.9) and level of intrinsic absorption (N H ∼ 21 cm -2 ) as non-BMB (neither BAL nor mini-BAL) quasars. Mini-BAL quasars are more similar to non-BMB quasars than to BAL quasars in their distribution of relative X-ray brightness (assessed with Δα ox ). Relative colors indicate mild dust reddening in the optical spectra of mini-BAL quasars. Significant correlations between Δα ox and UV absorption properties are confirmed for a sample of 56 sources combining mini-BAL and BAL quasars with high signal-to-noise ratio rest-frame UV spectra, which generally supports models in which X-ray absorption is important in enabling driving of the UV absorption-line wind. We also propose alternative parameterizations of the UV absorption properties of mini-BAL and BAL quasars, which may better describe the broad absorption troughs in some respects.

  20. Optical calibration protocol for an x-ray and optical multimodality tomography system dedicated to small-animal examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, Anabela; Leabad, Mehdi; Driol, Clemence; Bordy, Thomas; Debourdeau, Mathieu; Dinten, Jean-Marc; Peltie, Philippe; Rizo, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    A small-animal multimodality tomography system dedicated to the coregistration of fluorescence optical signal and x-ray measurements has been developed in our laboratory. The purpose of such a system is to offer the possibility of getting in vivo anatomical and functional information simultaneously. Moreover, anatomical measurements can be used as a regularization factor to achieve more accurate reconstructions of the biodistribution of fluorochromes and to speed up treatment. A dedicated acquisition protocol has been established, and the methodology of the reconstruction of the three-dimensional distribution of the biomarkers under cylindrical geometry consistent with classic computed tomography has been implemented. A phantom study was conducted to evaluate and to fix the parameters for the coregistration. These test experiments were reproduced by considering anesthetized mice that had thin glass tubes containing fluorochromes inserted into their esophagus. The instrument is also used for an in vivo biological study conducted on mice with lung tumors, tagged with near-infrared optical probes (targeting probes such as Transferin-AlexaFluor750)

  1. Tests of Imaging with Lobster-Eye X-Ray Optics and MEDIPIX2 Detector

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tichý, V.; Švéda, L.; Maršík, J.; Jakůbek, J.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Hudec, René; Hromčík, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3-4 (2009), s. 369-373 ISSN 1392-0049. [INTEGRAL/BART workshop 2009. Karlovy Vary, 26.03.2009-29.03.2009] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; GA Mšk(CZ) ME09028; GA ČR(CZ) GA102/08/0186; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX01220701; Mšk(CZ) 1M0567 Program:GA; IA; 1M Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : X-rays * X-rays telescopes * space vehicles Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2009

  2. Lightweight and High-Resolution Single Crystal Silicon Optics for X-ray Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, William W.; Biskach, Michael P.; Chan, Kai-Wing; Mazzarella, James R.; McClelland, Ryan S.; Riveros, Raul E.; Saha, Timo T.; Solly, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe an approach to building mirror assemblies for next generation X-ray telescopes. It incorporates knowledge and lessons learned from building existing telescopes, including Chandra, XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and NuSTAR, as well as from our direct experience of the last 15 years developing mirror technology for the Constellation-X and International X-ray Observatory mission concepts. This approach combines single crystal silicon and precision polishing, thus has the potential of achieving the highest possible angular resolution with the least possible mass. Moreover, it is simple, consisting of several technical elements that can be developed independently in parallel. Lastly, it is highly amenable to mass production, therefore enabling the making of telescopes of very large photon collecting areas.

  3. Soft X-ray images of the solar corona using normal incidence optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruner, M. E.; Haisch, B. M.; Brown, W. A.; Acton, L. W.; Underwood, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    A solar coronal loop system has been photographed in soft X-rays using a normal incidence telescope based on multilayer mirror technology. The telescope consisted of a spherical objective mirror of 4 cm aperture and 1 m focal length, a film cassette, and a focal plane shutter. A metallized thin plastic film filter was used to exclude visible light. The objective mirror was covered with a multilayer coating consisting of alternating layers of tungsten and carbon whose combined thicknesses satisfied the Bragg diffraction condition for 44 A radiation. The image was recorded during a rocket flight on October 25, 1985 and was dominated by emission lines arising from the Si XII spectrum. The rocket also carried a high resolution soft X-ray spectrograph that confirmed the presence of Si XII line radiation in the source. This image represents the first successful use of multilayer technology for astrophysical observations.

  4. X-ray study of a test quadrant of the SODART telescopes using the expanded beam x-ray optics facility at the Daresbury synchrotron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1994-01-01

    The imaging properties of a test model of the SODART telescopes have been studied using an expanded beam X-ray facility at the Daresbury synchrotron. The encircled power and the point spread function at three energies 6.627 keV, 8.837 keV and 11.046 keV have been measured using 1D and 2D position...

  5. Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsi, Istvan; Vartiainen, Ismo; Rösner, Benedikt; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; McNulty, Ian; Winarski, Robert; Holt, Martin V.; David, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, singlechip optical devices with 15 and 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.

  6. single crystal growth, x-ray structure analysis, optical band gap

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... Hg...Hgand Cl...Cl interactions are stabilizing the structures in 3D pattern. UV-vis absorption spectra illustrate the change in opticalband gap from 3.01eVto 3.42eV on replacing the metal halide group.Raman and Hyper-Raman tensors calculations were performed based on single crystal X-ray data and the ...

  7. Attempt at interpreting some optical absorption bands in X-ray irradiated fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, Yves

    1959-01-01

    According to the results of one of our experiments, the 575 mμ absorption band of fluorine irradiated with X-Rays seams due to F - ion vacancies. Our goal has been to find a color centers model in fluorine colored in various conditions. Reprint of a paper published in Comptes rendus des seances de l'Academie des Sciences, t. 248, p. 2318-2320, sitting of Aril 20, 1959 [fr

  8. Design and construction of a computerized optical densitometer for X-ray films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicuna V, H.G.; Picon C, C.; Zaharia B, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Radiotherapy Departments, where it is disposed of radiation units, these require of a control quality of their parameters as: dose in depth, real size, symmetry and levelling of the radiation field. In order to fulfil above it was designed and built a totally automated system for scanning and analysing the X-ray films or plates, which serve to have the parameter information to be measured. (Author)

  9. Diffractive-refractive optics: (+,-,-,+) X-ray crystal monochromator with harmonics separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdý, Jaromír; Mikulík, Petr; Oberta, Peter

    2011-03-01

    A new kind of two channel-cut crystals X-ray monochromator in dispersive (+,-,-,+) position which spatially separates harmonics is proposed. The diffracting surfaces are oriented so that the diffraction is inclined. Owing to refraction the diffracted beam is sagittally deviated. The deviation depends on wavelength and is much higher for the first harmonics than for higher harmonics. This leads to spatial harmonics separation. The idea is supported by ray-tracing simulation.

  10. Variable magnification with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jach, T.; Bakulin, A. S.; Durbin, S. M.; Pedulla, J.; Macrander, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distinction between the operation of a short focal length x-ray microscope forming a real image with a laboratory source (convergent illumination) and with a highly collimated intense beam from a synchrotron light source (Kohler illumination). We demonstrate the distinction with a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope consisting of short focal length multilayer mirrors operating at an energy of 8 keV. In add...

  11. AN X-RAY AND OPTICAL LIGHT CURVE MODEL OF THE ECLIPSING SYMBIOTIC BINARY SMC3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Mariko; Hachisu, Izumi; Mikołajewska, Joanna

    2013-01-01

    Some binary evolution scenarios for Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) include long-period binaries that evolve to symbiotic supersoft X-ray sources in their late stage of evolution. However, symbiotic stars with steady hydrogen burning on the white dwarf's (WD) surface are very rare, and the X-ray characteristics are not well known. SMC3 is one such rare example and a key object for understanding the evolution of symbiotic stars to SNe Ia. SMC3 is an eclipsing symbiotic binary, consisting of a massive WD and red giant (RG), with an orbital period of 4.5 years in the Small Magellanic Cloud. The long-term V light curve variations are reproduced as orbital variations in the irradiated RG, whose atmosphere fills its Roche lobe, thus supporting the idea that the RG supplies matter to the WD at rates high enough to maintain steady hydrogen burning on the WD. We also present an eclipse model in which an X-ray-emitting region around the WD is almost totally occulted by the RG swelling over the Roche lobe on the trailing side, although it is always partly obscured by a long spiral tail of neutral hydrogen surrounding the binary in the orbital plane.

  12. Soft x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, D.L.; Rosen, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    One of the elusive dreams of laser physicists has been the development of an x-ray laser. After 25 years of waiting, the x-ray laser has at last entered the scientific scene, although those now in operation are still laboratory prototypes. They produce soft x rays down to about five nanometers. X-ray lasers retain the usual characteristics of their optical counterparts: a very tight beam, spatial and temporal coherence, and extreme brightness. Present x-ray lasers are nearly 100 times brighter that the next most powerful x-ray source in the world: the electron synchrotron. Although Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is widely known for its hard-x-ray laser program which has potential applications in the Strategic Defense Initiative, the soft x-ray lasers have no direct military applications. These lasers, and the scientific tools that result from their development, may one day have a place in the design and diagnosis of both laser fusion and hard x-ray lasers. The soft x-ray lasers now in operation at the LLNL have shown great promise but are still in the primitive state. Once x-ray lasers become reliable, efficient, and economical, they will have several important applications. Chief among them might be the creation of holograms of microscopic biological structures too small to be investigated with visible light. 5 figs

  13. X-Ray and Optical Observations of the Unique Binary System HD 49798/RX J0648.0-4418

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mereghetti, S.; La Palombara, N.; Tiengo, A.; Pizzolato, F.; Esposito, P.; Woudt, P. A.; Israel, G. L.; Stella, L.

    2011-08-01

    We report the results of XMM-Newton observations of HD 49798/RX J0648.0-4418, the only known X-ray binary consisting of a hot sub-dwarf and a white dwarf. The white dwarf rotates very rapidly (P = 13.2 s) and has a dynamically measured mass of 1.28 ± 0.05 M sun. Its X-ray emission consists of a strongly pulsed, soft component, well fit by a blackbody with kT BB ~ 40 eV, accounting for most of the luminosity, and a fainter hard power-law component (photon index ~1.6). A luminosity of ~1032 erg s-1 is produced by accretion onto the white dwarf of the helium-rich matter from the wind of the companion, which is one of the few hot sub-dwarfs showing evidence of mass loss. A search for optical pulsations at the South African Astronomical Observatory 1.9 m telescope gave negative results. X-rays were also detected during the white dwarf eclipse. This emission, with luminosity 2 × 1030 erg s-1, can be attributed to HD 49798 and represents the first detection of a hot sub-dwarf star in the X-ray band. HD 49798/RX J0648.0-4418 is a post-common-envelope binary which most likely originated from a pair of stars with masses ~8-10 M sun. After the current He-burning phase, HD 49798 will expand and reach the Roche lobe, causing a higher accretion rate onto the white dwarf which can reach the Chandrasekhar limit. Considering the fast spin of the white dwarf, this could lead to the formation of a millisecond pulsar. Alternatively, this system could be a Type Ia supernova progenitor with the appealing characteristic of a short time delay, being the descendent of relatively massive stars.

  14. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head in mouse fetuses caused by simultaneous irradiation of x-rays and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Shoichiro; Yuguchi, Shuji; Majima, Akio.

    1981-01-01

    Eye abnormalities in mouse fetuses caused by irradiation of X-rays alone, or simultaneous irradiation of X-rays and ultrasound on day 7 of gestation were histologically studied on day 18 of gestation. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head were examined in the present experiment, and the following results were obtained: 1. Developmental abnormalities of the optic nerve head associated with developmental abnormalities of the vitreous were detected in 4 fetuses (5 eyes). In all cases, excessive mesenchymal tissue of components of the primary vitreous was found from the optic nerve head to the vitreous cavity. It was impossible to distinguish between the neuroectodermal tissue of Bergmeister's papilla and the mesodermal tissue of components of the primary vitreous. 2. In 3 fetuses (4 eyes), the fetal fissure involving the optic nerve head was open. At the peripapillary region, the inner layer of the optic cup was everted and hyperplastic. The inner neuroblastic layer of the everted portion contacted the outer coat of the eyeball, directly. In these cases, the optic nerve entrance was very wide. 3. The relation between the congenital optic nerve head anomalies encountered clinically and those observed experimentally in the mouse fetuses was discussed. It was considered that the pathogenesis of congenital optic nerve head anomalies consists of the malformation of the primitive epithelial papilla, the faulty closure of the proximal end of the fetal fissure, the anomalies of Bergmeister's papilla, the anomalies of the hyaloid system, or the abnormal differentiation and growth of the neuroectodermal cells of the optic cup. (author)

  15. Optical spectrum of the HDE 245770 and X-ray flares of the transient sources A 0535+26

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aab, O.Eh.

    1985-01-01

    Investigation results are presented for the optical component of the transient X-ray source A 0535+26, the Be star HDE 245770. The investigation is based on the spectrograms with dispersions 9, 14 and 28 A/mm obtained during three years with the 6-meter telescope. A list of lines and their parameters within the range lambdalambda 3450-7000 A is given. Variability of the spectrum for the three years and a violent change in the spectrum in January 1981 are noted

  16. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of β-BaB2O4 optical surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atuchin, V.V.; Kesler, V.G.; Kokh, A.E.; Pokrovsky, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study has been performed for (0 0 1) BaB 2 O 4 . The crystal surface has been polished mechanically and cleaned by chemical etching. In XPS observation, depth profiling has been produced by sputtering with Ar + 3 keV ions. Photoelectron binding energies of original element core levels and valence band have been measured as a function of sputtering time. The persistence of binding energies of barium and boron core levels and valence band structure has been found. For O 1 s core level the formation of new spectral components with lower binding energies has been revealed

  17. Multiple mode x-ray ptychography using a lens and a fixed diffuser optic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Peng; Batey, Darren J; Rodenburg, John M; Edo, Tega B; Parsons, Aaron D; Rau, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    We employ a novel combination of a Fresnel lens and a diffuser for x-ray ptychography. The setup uses increased flux by enlarging the width of the coherence-defining slits upstream of the experimental station. In the reconstruction algorithm, modal decomposition is used to account for the resulting partial coherence in the beam. We show that if the object has sparse feactures and large areas of flat contrast, the diffuser facilitates a better reconstruction and the extra diversity in the data also allows cleaner separation of the constituent modes in the illumination. The setup also allows a quick, real-time measure of the beam coherence. (paper)

  18. ART-XC/SRG: Status of the X-ray Optics Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, M.; Ramsey, B.; Elsner, R.; O'Dell, S.; Kolodziejczak, J.; McCracken, J.; Zavlin, V.; Swartz, D.; Kilaru, K.; Atkins, C.; hide

    2014-01-01

    The Astronomical Roentgen Telescope (ART) instrument is a hard-x-ray instrument with energy response up to 30 keV that is to be launched on board of the Spectrum Roentgen Gamma (SRG) Mission. The instrument consists of seven identical mirror modules coupled with seven CdTe strip focal-plane detectors. The mirror modules are being developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC.) Each module has approximately 65 sq. cm effective area and an on-axis angular resolution of 30 arcseconds half power diameter (HPD) at 8 keV. The current status of the mirror module development and testing will be presented.

  19. Infrared emission from four Be stars optical counterparts of galactic X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persi, P.; Ferrari-Toniolo, M.

    1982-01-01

    Preliminary results of our infrared observations from 2.3 up to 10 and 20 microns of the Be-X-ray stars X Per, γ Cas and HDE 245770, indicate the presence of an ionized circumstellar disk with an electron density law of the type nsub(e) proportional to rsup(-3.5). X Per and γ Cas show besides, variable infrared excess at 10μ suggesting variability in the stellar wind. LS I+65 0 010 presents an anomalous infrared energy distribution for a Be star. (Auth.)

  20. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S. [Department of Astronomy, The Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Gupta, A. [Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 191 West Woodruff Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Page, K.; Goad, M. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Krongold, Y. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Cuidad de Mexico (Mexico); Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, 25 Park Place, Suite 605, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Barth, A. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Bigley, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Borman, G. A. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, P/O Nauchny, Crimea 298409 (Russian Federation); Boroson, T. A. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Bottorff, M. C. [Fountainwood Observatory, Department of Physics FJS 149, Southwestern University, 1011 East University Avenue, Georgetown, TX 78626 (United States); Brandt, W. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Eberly College of Science, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Breeveld, A. A. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-09-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  1. Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project. VII. Understanding the Ultraviolet Anomaly in NGC 5548 with X-Ray Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, S.; Pogge, R. W.; Adams, S. M.; Beatty, T. G.; Bisogni, S.; Gupta, A.; Page, K.; Goad, M. R.; Krongold, Y.; Anderson, M. D.; Bazhaw, C.; Bentz, M. C.; Arévalo, P.; Barth, A. J.; Bigley, A.; Borman, G. A.; Boroson, T. A.; Bottorff, M. C.; Brandt, W. N.; Breeveld, A. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became decorrelated during the second half of the six-month-long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with the Swift data. Our preferred model of the soft excess is emission from an optically thick, warm Comptonizing corona, the effective optical depth of which increases during the anomaly. This model simultaneously explains all three observations: the UV emission-line flux decrease, the soft-excess increase, and the emission-line anomaly.

  2. The problem of dating quartz 2: Synchrotron generated X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) from quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.E.; Finch, A.A.; Robinson, R.A.J.; Taylor, R.P.; Mosselmans, J.F.W.

    2011-01-01

    The luminescence emission of quartz is used in optically stimulated luminescence dating (OSL), however the precise origins of the emission are unclear. A suite of quartz samples were analysed using X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL). Radiation dose effects were observed whereby the UV emissions (3.8 and 3.4 eV) were depleted to the benefit of the red emission (1.9-2.0 eV). Samples were excited at ∼7 keV. Understanding why some quartz emit light more brightly than others will increase the efficiency and precision of OSL analyses. - Highlights: → The X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL) emission of quartz is explored. → The XEOL of quartz of different provenances varies. → Radiation dosing causes UV emissions to deplete to the benefit of red emissions. → The 3.8 and 3.4 eV emissions deplete at the same rate. → The quartz luminescence emission exhibits anisotropic effects.

  3. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Setti, G.

    1980-01-01

    This book contains the lectures, and the most important seminars held at the NATO meeting on X-Ray astronomy in Erice, July 1979. The meeting was an opportune forum to discuss the results of the first 8-months of operation of the X-ray satellite, HEAO-2 (Einstein Observatory) which was launched at the end of 1978. Besides surveying these results, the meeting covered extragalactic astronomy, including the relevant observations obtained in other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum (ultra-violet, optical, infrared and radio). The discussion on galactic X-ray sources essentially covered classical binaries, globular clusters and bursters and its significance to extragalactic sources and to high energy astrophysics was borne in mind. (orig.)

  4. X-Ray, EUV, UV and Optical Emissivities of Astrophysical Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; West, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This grant primarily covered the development of the thermal X-ray emission model code called APEC, which is meant to replace the Raymond and Smith (1977) code. The new code contains far more spectral lines and a great deal of updated atomic data. The code is now available (http://hea-www.harvard.edu/APEC), though new atomic data is still being added, particularly at longer wavelengths. While initial development of the code was funded by this grant, current work is carried on by N. Brickhouse, R. Smith and D. Liedahl under separate funding. Over the last five years, the grant has provided salary support for N. Brickhouse, R. Smith, a summer student (L. McAllister), an SAO predoctoral fellow (A. Vasquez), and visits by T. Kallman, D. Liedahl, P. Ghavamian, J.M. Laming, J. Li, P. Okeke, and M. Martos. In addition to the code development, the grant supported investigations into X-ray and UV spectral diagnostics as applied to shock waves in the ISM, accreting black holes and white dwarfs, and stellar coronae. Many of these efforts are continuing. Closely related work on the shock waves and coronal mass ejections in the solar corona has grown out of the efforts supported by the grant.

  5. Development of multilayer optics for X-ray broadband spectrometry of plasma emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emprin, Benoit

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of the research on inertial confinement fusion, the 'Commissariat a l'energie atomique et aux energies alternatives' has studied and implemented an absolute calibrated time-Resolved broadband soft x-Ray spectrometer, called 'Diagnostic de Mesure du rayonnement X'. This diagnostic, composed of 20 measurement channels, measures the emitted radiant power from a laser created plasma in the range from 50 eV to 20 keV. We have developed additional measurement channels to obtain redundancy and an improvement in measurement accuracy. The principle of these new channels is based on an original concept to obtain spectral bounded flat-Responses. Two channels have been developed for the 2 - 4 keV and 4 - 6 keV spectral ranges, using aperiodic multilayer mirrors made at the 'Laboratoire Charles Fabry' with Cr/Sc and Ni/W/SiC/W layers respectively. These mirrors were characterized at synchrotron radiation facilities and integrated into the spectrometer. The two new channels were used during laser-Plasma experimental campaigns at the OMEGA laser facility in Rochester (USA). This allowed us to determine directly the radiant power with only one measurement within a certain spectral band, and with a better precision when compared with using standard channels. The results, in good agreement with the standard measurement channels, allowed us to validate the use of aperiodic multilayer mirrors for X-Ray broadband spectrometry. (author) [fr

  6. Optical Photometry and X-Ray Monitoring of the ``Cool Algol'' BD +05°706: Determination of the Physical Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Guillermo; Mader, Jeff A.; Marschall, Laurence A.; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Duffy, Alaine S.

    2003-06-01

    We present new photometric observations in the BVRI bands of the double-lined eclipsing binary BD +05°706 conducted over three observing seasons, as well as new X-ray observations obtained with ROSAT covering a full orbital cycle (P=18.9 days). A detailed light-curve analysis of the optical data shows the system to be semidetached, confirming indications from an earlier analysis by Torres et al. (published in 1998), with the less massive and cooler star filling its Roche lobe. The system is a member of the rare class of cool Algol systems, which are different from the ``classical'' Algol systems in that the mass-gaining component is also a late-type star rather than a B- or A-type star. By combining the new photometry with a reanalysis of the spectroscopic observations reported by Torres et al., we derive accurate absolute masses for the components of M1=2.633+/-0.028 Msolar and M2=0.5412+/-0.0093 Msolar, radii of R1=7.55+/-0.20 Rsolar and R2=11.02+/-0.21 Rsolar, as well as effective temperatures of 5000+/-100 and 4640+/-150 K, for the primary and secondary, respectively. There are obvious signs of activity (spottedness) in the optical light curve of the binary. Our X-ray light curve clearly shows the primary eclipse but not the secondary eclipse, suggesting that the primary star is the dominant source of the activity in the system. The depth and duration of the eclipse allow us to infer some of the properties of the X-ray-emitting region around that star.

  7. Computer-Controlled Cylindrical Polishing Process for Development of Grazing Incidence Optics for Hard X-Ray Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Gufran Sayeed; Gubarev, Mikhail; Speegle, Chet; Ramsey, Brian

    2010-01-01

    The presentation includes grazing incidence X-ray optics, motivation and challenges, mid spatial frequency generation in cylindrical polishing, design considerations for polishing lap, simulation studies and experimental results, future scope, and summary. Topics include current status of replication optics technology, cylindrical polishing process using large size polishing lap, non-conformance of polishin lap to the optics, development of software and polishing machine, deterministic prediction of polishing, polishing experiment under optimum conditions, and polishing experiment based on known error profile. Future plans include determination of non-uniformity in the polishing lap compliance, development of a polishing sequence based on a known error profile of the specimen, software for generating a mandrel polishing sequence, design an development of a flexible polishing lap, and computer controlled localized polishing process.

  8. Skull x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - head; X-ray - skull; Skull radiography; Head x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  9. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  10. An X-ray and infrared survey of the Lynds 1228 cloud core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Stephen L. [CASA, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0389 (United States); Rebull, Luisa [Spitzer Science Center/Caltech, M/S 220-6, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Güdel, Manuel, E-mail: stephen.skinner@colorado.edu, E-mail: rebull@ipac.caltech.edu, E-mail: manuel.guedel@univie.ac.at [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstr. 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-04-01

    The nearby Lynds 1228 (L1228) dark cloud at a distance of ∼200 pc is known to harbor several young stars including the driving sources of the giant HH 199 and HH 200 Herbig-Haro (HH) outflows. L1228 has previously been studied at optical, infrared, and radio wavelengths but not in X-rays. We present results of a sensitive 37 ks Chandra ACIS-I X-ray observation of the L1228 core region. Chandra detected 60 X-ray sources, most of which are faint (<40 counts) and non-variable. Infrared counterparts were identified for 53 of the 60 X-ray sources using archival data from the Two Micron All-Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Object classes were assigned using mid-IR colors for those objects with complete photometry, most of which were found to have colors consistent with extragalactic background sources. Seven young stellar object candidates were identified including the class I protostar HH 200-IRS which was detected as a faint hard X-ray source. No X-ray emission was detected from the luminous protostar HH 199-IRS. We summarize the X-ray and infrared properties of the detected sources and provide IR spectral energy distribution modeling of high-interest objects including the protostars driving the HH outflows.

  11. Iridium-coated micropore x-ray optics using dry etching of a silicon wafer and atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Tomohiro; Ezoe, Yuichiro; Moriyama, Teppei; Mitsuishi, Ikuyuki; Kakiuchi, Takuya; Ohashi, Takaya; Mitsuda, Kazuhisa; Putkonen, Matti

    2013-08-20

    To enhance x-ray reflectivity of silicon micropore optics using dry etching of silicon (111) wafers, iridium coating is tested by use of atomic layer deposition. An iridium layer is successfully formed on sidewalls of tiny micropores with a pore width of 20 μm and depth of 300 μm. The film thickness is ∼20  nm. An enhanced x-ray reflectivity compared to that of silicon is confirmed at Ti Kα 4.51 keV, for what we believe to be the first time, with this type of optics. Some discrepancies from a theoretical reflectivity curve of iridium-coated silicon are noticed at small incident angles <1.3°. When a geometrical shadowing effect due to occultation by a ridge existing on the sidewalls is taken into account, the observed reflectivity becomes well represented by the modified theoretical curve. An estimated surface micro roughness of ∼1  nm rms is consistent with atomic force microscope measurements of the sidewalls.

  12. Eleven years of monitoring the Seyfert 1 Mrk 335 with Swift: Characterizing the X-ray and UV/optical variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, L. C.; Blue, D. M.; Grupe, D.; Komossa, S.; Wilkins, D. R.

    2018-05-01

    The narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy (NLS1) Mrk 335 has been continuously monitored with Swift since May 2007 when it fell into a long-lasting, X-ray low-flux interval. Results from the nearly 11 years of monitoring are presented here. Structure functions are used to measure the UV-optical and X-ray power spectra. The X-ray structure function measured between 10 - 100 days is consistent with the flat, low-frequency part of the power spectrum measured previously in Mrk 335. The UV-optical structure functions of Mrk 335 are comparable with those of other Seyfert 1 galaxies and of Mrk 335 itself when it was in a normal bright state. There is no indication that the current X-ray low-flux state is attributed to changes in the accretion disc structure of Mrk 335. The characteristic timescales measured in the structure functions can be attributed to thermal (for the UV) and dynamic (for the optical) timescales in a standard accretion disc. The high-quality UVW2 (˜1800 Å in the source frame) structure function appears to have two breaks and two different slopes between 10 - 160 days. Correlations between the X-ray and other bands are not highly significant when considering the entire 11-year light curves, but more significant behaviour is present when considering segments of the light curves. A correlation between the X-ray and UVW2 in 2014 (Year-8) may be predominately caused by an giant X-ray flare that was interpreted as jet-like emission. In 2008 (Year-2), possible lags between the UVW2 emission and other UV-optical waveband may be consistent with reprocessing of X-ray or UV emission in the accretion disc.

  13. Investigation of cavitating flows by X-ray and optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutier-Delgosha, Olivier; Fuzier, Sylvie; Khlifa, Ilyass; Fezzaa, Kamel

    2015-11-01

    Hydrodynamic cavitation is the partial vaporization of high speed liquid flows. The turbulent, compressible and unsteady character of these flows makes their study unusually complex and challenging. Instabilities generated by the occurrence of cavitation have been investigated in the last years in the LML laboratory by various non-intrusive measurements including X-ray imaging (to obtain the fields of void fraction and velocity in both phases), and PIV with fluorescent particles (to obtain the velocity fields in both phases). It has been shown that cavitation is characterized by significant slip velocities between liquid and vapor, especially in the re-entrant jet area and the cavity wake. This results suggests some possible improvements in the numerical models currently used for CFD of cavitating flows. Professor at Arts et Metiers ParisTech, Director of the LML laboratory.

  14. Thermal casting of polymers in centrifuge for producing X-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Randy M [Livermore, CA; Decker, Todd A [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-27

    An optic is produced by the steps of placing a polymer inside a rotateable cylindrical chamber, the rotateable cylindrical chamber having an outside wall, rotating the cylindrical chamber, heating the rotating chamber forcing the polymer to the outside wall of the cylindrical chamber, allowing the rotateable cylindrical chamber to cool while rotating producing an optic substrate with a substrate surface, sizing the optic substrate, and coating the substrate surface of the optic substrate to produce the optic with an optic surface.

  15. The intermediate polar GK Persei: An unstable relation of the X-ray and the optical intensities in a series of outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2015-03-01

    Context. GK Per is an intermediate polar that has been displaying dwarf nova outbursts since the middle of the twentieth century. Aims: I analyzed a series of such outbursts in the optical and X-ray bands. I pay attention to the relation of intensities of the optical and X-ray emissions, and its reproducibility in a series of these consecutive outbursts. Methods: This analysis uses the data from the BAT/Swift, ASM/RXTE, AAVSO, and AFOEV databases. It investigates the relation of the time evolution of the profiles of outbursts in the individual bands (hard X-ray, medium/hard X-ray, and optical). Results: This analysis shows that the X-ray intensity steeply rises only in the start of the optical outburst and steeply declines only when the optical outburst comes to its end. However, the 1.5-50 keV band intensity saturates and balances on a plateau during the outburst. (The longer the outburst, the longer its plateau.) The peak X-ray intensities of this series display a significantly narrower range than the optical ones (a factor of about two versus a factor of about eight). This implies a discrepancy between the mass flow through the disk and the production of the X-ray emission via bremsstrahlung at the polar caps of the white dwarf. This discrepancy is the largest in the time of the peak optical intensity when the whole disk (or at least its inner part) is in the hot state and the flow of matter through the disk is the greatest. This study shows that a series of outbursts constitutes more general properties of this discrepancy. I argue that the saturation of the X-ray luminosity in outburst cannot be caused by a dominant increase in X-ray absorption. In the interpretation, large structural changes of the accreting regions at the magnetic poles of the white dwarf occur during the outburst. A buried shock proposed by some authors for polars is also promising for explaining the X-ray light curves of outbursts of GK Per. This research made use of the BAT/Swift, ASM

  16. X-ray optics for 50-100 keV undulator radiation using crystals and refractive lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shastri, S. D.; Mashayekhi, A.; Cremer, J. T.; Piestrup, M. A.

    2003-01-01

    Compound refractive lenses (CRLs) are effective for collimating or focusing high-energy x-ray beams (50 - 100 keV) and can be used in conjunction with crystal optics in a variety of configurations, as demonstrated at the 1-ID undulator beamline of the Advanced Photon Source. As a primary example, this article describes the quadrupling of the output flux when a collimating CRL, composed of cylindrical holes in aluminum, is inserted in between two successive monochromators -- a modest energy resolution premonochromator followed by a high-resolution monochromator. The premonochromator is a cryogenically cooled, divergence-preserving, bent double-Laue Si(111) crystal device delivering an energy width ΔE/E ∼ 10 -3 , sufficient for most experiments. The high-resolution monochromator is a four-reflection, flat Si(111) crystal system resembling two channel-cuts in a dispersive arrangement, reducing the bandwidth to ΔE/E -4 , as required for some applications. Tests with 67 keV and 81 keV photon energies show that the high-resolution monochromator, having a narrow angular acceptance of a few erad, exhibits, a four-fold throughput enhancement due to the insertion of a CRL which reduces the premonochromatized beam's vertical divergence from 29 erad to a few erad. The ability to focus high-energy x-rays with CRLs having long focal lengths (tens of meters) is also shown by creating a line focus of 70 - 90 μ m beam height in the beamline end-station with both the modest-energy-resolution and high-energy- resolution monochromatic x-rays

  17. Geant4 simulations of soft proton scattering in X-ray optics. A tentative validation using laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Valentina; Mineo, Teresa; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Dondero, Paolo; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Lei, Fan; Lotti, Simone; Macculi, Claudio; Mantero, Alfonso

    2017-12-01

    Low energy protons (process responsible for the grazing angle scattering processes is mandatory to evaluate the impact of such events on the performance (e.g. observation time, sensitivity) of future X-ray telescopes as the ESA ATHENA mission. The Remizovich model describes particles reflected by solids at glancing angles in terms of the Boltzmann transport equation using the diffuse approximation and the model of continuous slowing down in energy. For the first time this solution, in the approximation of no energy losses, is implemented, verified, and qualitatively validated on top of the Geant4 release 10.2, with the possibility to add a constant energy loss to each interaction. This implementation is verified by comparing the simulated proton distribution to both the theoretical probability distribution and with independent ray-tracing simulations. Both the new scattering physics and the Coulomb scattering already built in the official Geant4 distribution are used to reproduce the latest experimental results on grazing angle proton scattering. At 250 keV multiple scattering delivers large proton angles and it is not consistent with the observation. Among the tested models, the single scattering seems to better reproduce the scattering efficiency at the three energies but energy loss obtained at small scattering angles is significantly lower than the experimental values. In general, the energy losses obtained in the experiment are higher than what obtained by the simulation. The experimental data are not completely representative of the soft proton scattering experienced by current X-ray telescopes because of the lack of measurements at low energies (distribution at the exit of X-ray optics.

  18. Methodological challenges of optical tweezers-based X-ray fluorescence imaging of biological model organisms at synchrotron facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; Bauters, Stephen; De Rijcke, Maarten; Deruytter, David; Janssen, Colin; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo

    2015-07-01

    Recently, a radically new synchrotron radiation-based elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural in vivo state was introduced. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time at ESRF-ID13. The optical manipulation possibilities and limitations of biological model organisms, the OT setup developments for XRF imaging and the confocal XRF-related challenges are reported. In general, the applicability of the OT-based setup is extended with the aim of introducing the OT XRF methodology in all research fields where highly sensitive in vivo multi-elemental analysis is of relevance at the (sub)micrometre spatial resolution level.

  19. X-Ray and optical study of low core density globular clusters NGC6144 and E3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lan, S.-H.; Kong, A.K.H.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Lewin, W.H.G.; Bassa, C.G.; Anderson, S.F.; Pooley, D.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the Chandra X-ray Observatory and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of two low coredensity globular clusters, NGC6144 and E3. By comparing the number of X-ray sources inside the half-mass radius to those outside, we found six X-ray sources within the half-mass radius of NGC6144,

  20. Technique charts for EC film: direct optical measurements to account for the effects of X-ray scatter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munro, Peter; Jordan, Kevin; Lewis, Craig; Heerema, Tim

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a method of measuring technique charts for enhanced contrast (EC) film, to demonstrate how X-ray scatter changes the response of EC film, and to generate technique charts for general use. Methods and Materials: We have developed a 'digital cassette' - consisting of a metal plate/phosphor screen, a light guide, a photodiode sensor, and an electrometer - that can be used to measure the light generated in the phosphor screen of the film cassette. In turn, these measurements can be used to generate technique charts for EC film. The digital cassette has been used to measure technique charts for 4-MV and 6-MV X-ray beams for a variety of different phantom thicknesses, field sizes, and phantom-to-cassette air gaps. Results and Discussion: We have observed that the signals generated in an ionization chamber located 9.4 cm behind a 30-cm-thick water-equivalent phantom increase by a factor of 1.9 when the field size is increased from 4x4 cm 2 to 40x40 cm 2 when irradiated by a 6-MV X-ray beam. However, the change in EC film response is a factor of 3.5 under the same conditions. Irradiations to optimally expose the EC film predicted by the digital cassette differ by up to 82% compared to those predicted by ion chamber measurements. Nevertheless, the technique charts measured using the digital cassette predict the response of the EC film to ±0.2 optical density. The overresponse of the EC film is most likely due to low-energy scattered photons, which interact with the high atomic number (Z=64) phosphor screen of the enhanced contrast localization cassette. Therefore, simple solutions, such as placing a high atomic number material above the enhanced contrast localization cassette, can reduce this contribution by scattered photons to the signal generated in the cassettes. Conclusions: We have developed a digital cassette that can make more accurate measurements of the technique charts for EC films. Our measurements show that under some conditions, X-ray

  1. Aplanatic telescopes based on Schwarzschild optical configuration: from grazing incidence Wolter-like x-ray optics to Cherenkov two-mirror normal incidence telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sironi, Giorgia

    2017-09-01

    At the beginning of XX century Karl Schwarzschild defined a method to design large-field aplanatic telescopes based on the use of two aspheric mirrors. The approach was then refined by Couder (1926) who, in order to correct for the astigmatic aberration, introduced a curvature of the focal plane. By the way, the realization of normal-incidence telescopes implementing the Schwarzschild aplanatic configuration has been historically limited by the lack of technological solutions to manufacture and test aspheric mirrors. On the other hand, the Schwarzschild solution was recovered for the realization of coma-free X-ray grazing incidence optics. Wolter-like grazing incidence systems are indeed free of spherical aberration, but still suffer from coma and higher order aberrations degrading the imaging capability for off-axis sources. The application of the Schwarzschild's solution to X-ray optics allowed Wolter to define an optical system that exactly obeys the Abbe sine condition, eliminating coma completely. Therefore these systems are named Wolter-Schwarzschild telescopes and have been used to implement wide-field X-ray telescopes like the ROSAT WFC and the SOHO X-ray telescope. Starting from this approach, a new class of X-ray optical system was proposed by Burrows, Burg and Giacconi assuming polynomials numerically optimized to get a flat field of view response and applied by Conconi to the wide field x-ray telescope (WFXT) design. The Schwarzschild-Couder solution has been recently re-discovered for the application to normal-incidence Cherenkov telescopes, thanks to the suggestion by Vassiliev and collaborators. The Italian Institute for Astrophysics (INAF) realized the first Cherenkov telescope based on the polynomial variation of the Schwarzschild configuration (the so-called ASTRI telescope). Its optical qualification was successfully completed in 2016, demonstrating the suitability of the Schwarzschild-like configuration for the Cherenkov astronomy requirements

  2. Simultaneous X-ray, UV, and Optical Variations in lambda ERI (B2e)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. A.; Murakami, T.; Anandarao, B.

    1996-12-01

    We have carried out a simultaneous observing campaign on the prototypical Be star lambda Eri using ground stations and ROSAT, ASCA, IUE, and Voyager spacecrafts during the week of February-March 1995; a smaller campaign was carried out the following September. In late February lambda Eri showed extraordinary disk-wind activity. ROSAT/HRI monitoring disclosed no large flares such as ROSAT observed in 1991 in lambda Eri. Possible low amplitude fluctuations in the 1995 data occurred at the same time with unusual activity in Hα , HeI lambda 6678, HeII lambda 1640, CIII, and the CIV doublet. The helium line activity suggests that mass ejection occurred at the base of the wind. The strong CIII and CIV lines implies that shock interactions originated in the wind flow. It is not clear that the X-ray fluctuations are directly related to the increases in wind line absorption. Within hours of the mild X-ray flux variations found by ROSAT on February 28, the Voyager UVS observed a ``ringing" that decayed over three 3-hr. cycles. The amplitude of these fluctuations was large (50%) at lambda lambda 950-1100, decreased rapidly with wavelength, and faded to nondetection above lambda 1300. Various considerations indicate that these continuum variations were not due to an instrument pathology in the UVS. Rather, they appear to be due to a time-dependent flux deficit in the lambda lambda 1250 during the minima of these cycles. We outline a scenario in which dense plasma over the star's surface is alternately heated and cooled quasi-periodically to produce the flux changes. Additional examples of this new phenomenon are needed. Amateur astronomers can make a significant contribution to the understanding of flickering in Be star light curves during their outburst phases. We also draw attention to an increase in the emission of the Hα line that occurred at about the same time the FUV ringing started. This increased emission hints that ~ 50,000K plasma near the star's surface can

  3. Radiation dose measurements of an on-board imager X-ray unit using optically-stimulated luminescence dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Leon; Haque, Mamoon; Hill, Robin; Morales, Johnny

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is now widely used to image radiotherapy patients prior to treatment for the purpose of accurate patient setup. However each CBCT image delivered to a patient increases the total radiation dose that they receive. The measurement of the dose delivered from the CBCT images is not readily performed in the clinic. In this study, we have used commercially available optically stimulated luminescence (OSLD) dosimeters to measure the dose delivered by the Varian OBI on a radiotherapy linear accelerator. Calibration of the OSLDs was achieved by using a therapeutic X-ray unit. The dose delivered by a head CBCT scan was found to be 3.2 ± 0.3 mGy which is similar in magnitude to the dose of a head computed tomography (CT) scan. The results of this study suggest that the radiation hazard associated with CBCT is of a similar nature to that of conventional CT scans. We have also demonstrated that the OSLDs are suitable for these low X-ray dose measurements.

  4. First-principles X-ray absorption dose calculation for time-dependent mass and optical density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Rubinstein, Boris; Melo, Lis G A; Hitchcock, Adam P

    2018-05-01

    A dose integral of time-dependent X-ray absorption under conditions of variable photon energy and changing sample mass is derived from first principles starting with the Beer-Lambert (BL) absorption model. For a given photon energy the BL dose integral D(e, t) reduces to the product of an effective time integral T(t) and a dose rate R(e). Two approximations of the time-dependent optical density, i.e. exponential A(t) = c + aexp(-bt) for first-order kinetics and hyperbolic A(t) = c + a/(b + t) for second-order kinetics, were considered for BL dose evaluation. For both models three methods of evaluating the effective time integral are considered: analytical integration, approximation by a function, and calculation of the asymptotic behaviour at large times. Data for poly(methyl methacrylate) and perfluorosulfonic acid polymers measured by scanning transmission soft X-ray microscopy were used to test the BL dose calculation. It was found that a previous method to calculate time-dependent dose underestimates the dose in mass loss situations, depending on the applied exposure time. All these methods here show that the BL dose is proportional to the exposure time D(e, t) ≃ K(e)t.

  5. Assessment of natural enamel lesions with optical coherence tomography in comparison with microfocus x-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espigares, Jorge; Sadr, Alireza; Hamba, Hidenori; Shimada, Yasushi; Otsuki, Masayuki; Tagami, Junji; Sumi, Yasunori

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. A technology to characterize early enamel lesions is needed in dentistry. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method that provides high-resolution cross-sectional images. The aim of this study is to compare OCT with microfocus x-ray computed tomography (μCT) for assessment of natural enamel lesions in vitro. Ten human teeth with visible white spot-like changes on the enamel smooth surface and no cavitation (ICDAS code 2) were subjected to imaging by μCT (SMX-100CT, Shimadzu) and 1300-nm swept-source OCT (Dental SS-OCT, Panasonic Health Care). In μCT, the lesions appeared as radiolucent dark areas, while in SS-OCT, they appeared as areas of increased signal intensity beneath the surface. An SS-OCT attenuation coefficient based on Beer–Lambert law could discriminate lesions from sound enamel. Lesion depth ranged from 175 to 606  μm in SS-OCT. A correlation between μCT and SS-OCT was found regarding lesion depth (R=0.81, p<0.001) and also surface layer thickness (R=0.76, p<0.005). The images obtained clinically in real time using the dental SS-OCT system are suitable for the assessment of natural subsurface lesions and their surface layer, providing comparable images to a laboratory high-resolution μCT without the use of x-ray. PMID:26158079

  6. New x-ray parallel beam facility XPBF 2.0 for the characterization of silicon pore optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krumrey, Michael; Müller, Peter; Cibik, Levent; Collon, Max; Barrière, Nicolas; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric

    2016-07-01

    A new X-ray parallel beam facility (XPBF 2.0) has been installed in the laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt at the synchrotron radiation facility BESSY II in Berlin to characterize silicon pore optics (SPOs) for the future X-ray observatory ATHENA. As the existing XPBF which is operated since 2005, the new beamline provides a pencil beam of very low divergence, a vacuum chamber with a hexapod system for accurate positioning of the SPO to be investigated, and a vertically movable CCD-based camera system to register the direct and the reflected beam. In contrast to the existing beamline, a multilayer-coated toroidal mirror is used for beam monochromatization at 1.6 keV and collimation, enabling the use of beam sizes between about 100 μm and at least 5 mm. Thus the quality of individual pores as well as the focusing properties of large groups of pores can be investigated. The new beamline also features increased travel ranges for the hexapod to cope with larger SPOs and a sample to detector distance of 12 m corresponding to the envisaged focal length of ATHENA.

  7. Optical eclipses and precessional effects in the X-ray binary system HD 77581=4U 0900-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khruzina, T.S.; Cherepashchuk, A.M.

    1982-01-01

    The longperiod (P=93.3sup(d)) variability of the amplitude and shape of the optical light curves of the X-ray binary HD 77581 has been discovered from the analysis of all published photometric data. The 93.3-day period is presumably the period of the forced precession of the rotational axis of the optical star. It is shown that the system HD 77581 appears to be an eclipsing binary in the optical range with the amplitude of the ellipsoidal variability approximately 0sup(m).04 and the depth of the eclipse reaching approximately 0sup(m).04. The eclipses are caused by the gaseous streams and the accreting structure, the orientation of which in the binary system is varying with the precession period of the optical star. The estimates of the parameters of the system are obtained. It is shown that the parameter of the Roche Lobe filling for the optical star is μ < 1. The mass of the neutron star is Msub(x)=(1.6+-0.3) Msub(Sun), where Msub(Sun) is the solar mass. The forced precession of the optical star is connected with the non-perpendicularity of its rotational axis to the orbit plane of the binary system. This non-perpendicularity may be a result of supernova explosion in a close binary system

  8. Optical properties of boron carbide near the boron K edge evaluated by soft-x-ray reflectometry from a Ru/B4C multilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ksenzov, Dmitriy; Panzner, Tobias; Schlemper, Christoph; Morawe, Christian; Pietsch, Ullrich

    2009-12-10

    Soft-x-ray Bragg reflection from two Ru/B4C multilayers with 10 and 63 periods was used for independent determination of both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index n = 1 -{delta} + i{beta} close to the boron K edge ({approx}188 eV). Prior to soft x-ray measurements, the structural parameters of the multilayers were determined by x-ray reflectometry using hard x rays. For the 63-period sample, the optical properties based on the predictions made for elemental boron major deviations were found close to the K edge of boron for the 10-period sample explained by chemical bonding of boron to B4C and various boron oxides.

  9. Optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopy in lead doped lithium fluoride crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somma, F; Aloe, P; D' Acapito, F; Montereali, R M; Polosan, S; Secu, M; Vincenti, M A, E-mail: somma@fis.uniroma3.it

    2010-11-15

    LiF:Pb doped crystals were successfully grown by Kyropoulos method, starting with drying powders. The presence of Pb{sup 2+} ions in the LiF crystals were evidenced by the absorption band at 278 nm and by 375 nm photoluminescence. The presence of some other Pb structures with oxygen compounds in the as made samples was evidenced, decreasing after some annealing procedures. The local environment and valence state of Pb in LiF were studied by X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy at the Pb L{sub III} and L{sub I} edges. XANES data reveal that Pb is present as Pb{sup 2+} whereas EXAFS data show that it is incorporated in the crystal and not forming PbF{sub 2} precipitates. Identical spectra are obtained for samples as prepared and after thermal annealing up to 650 deg. C demonstrating the stability of the incorporation site. Also the concentration of Pb in the crystal has no effect on the location site of the metal as the same spectrum is obtained for specimens with different dopant concentrations.

  10. Synthesis, X-ray Structure, Optical, and Electrochemical Properties of a White-Light-Emitting Molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Wei Hu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A new white-light-emitting molecule (1 was synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 crystallizes in the orthorhombic space group Pnma, with a = 12.6814(6, b = 7.0824(4, c = 17.4628(9 Å, α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 90°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by weak intermolecular C-H···O hydrogen bonds, forming an infinite chain along [100], generating a C(10 motif. Compound 1 possesses an intramolecular six-membered-ring hydrogen bond, from which excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT takes place from the phenolic proton to the carbonyl oxygen, resulting in a tautomer that is in equilibrium with the normal species, exhibiting a dual emission that covers almost all of the visible spectrum and consequently generates white light. It exhibits one irreversible one-electron oxidation and two irreversible one-electron reductions in dichloromethane at modest potentials. Furthermore, the geometric structures, frontier molecular orbitals (MOs, and the potential energy curves (PECs for 1 in the ground and the first singlet excited state were fully rationalized by density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent DFT calculations. The results demonstrate that the forward and backward ESIPT may happen on a similar timescale, enabling the excited-state equilibrium to be established.

  11. Comparison Of Optical, UV, X-ray, And Gamma-ray Variations Of Selected Blazars In 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Santina; Marscher, A. P.; Jorstad, S. G.; Walker, G.

    2012-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of several gamma-ray bright blazars. We combine optical data obtained at Maria Mitchell Observatory on Nantucket Island with space- and ground-based observations carried out with a variety of instruments. These include a number of other optical telescopes, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope at photon energies of 0.1-200 GeV, the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer at 2.4-10 keV, and the Swift satellite at 0.3-10 keV plus optical and UV wavelengths. Three of the observed blazars proved to be particularly active - BL Lac, 3C 279, and PKS 1510-089. BL Lac was of special interest, varying greatly in optical brightness from night to night. In addition, as reported by the VERITAS group, it exhibited a remarkable, short-lived flare at TeV gamma-ray energies on one of the nights. We cross-correlate the variations in the different wavebands in an effort to guide theoretical interpretations of the optical and high-energy emission from blazars. This project was supported by NSF/REU grant AST-0851892 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association. The research at Boston University was supported in part by NSF grants AST-0907893, and by NASA through Fermi grants NNX08AV65G and NNX11AQ03G.

  12. Candidate isolated neutron stars and other optically blank x-ray fields identified from the rosat all-sky and sloan digital sky surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agueros, Marcel A.; Anderson, Scott F.; /Washington U., Seattle, Astron. Dept.; Margon, Bruce; /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci.; Haberl, Frank; Voges, Wolfgang; /Garching,; Annis, James; /Fermilab; Schneider, Donald P.; /Penn State U., Astron. Astrophys.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; /Apache Point Observ.

    2005-11-01

    Only seven radio-quiet isolated neutron stars (INSs) emitting thermal X rays are known, a sample that has yet to definitively address such fundamental issues as the equation of state of degenerate neutron matter. We describe a selection algorithm based on a cross-correlation of the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) that identifies X-ray error circles devoid of plausible optical counterparts to the SDSS g {approx} 22 magnitudes limit. We quantitatively characterize these error circles as optically blank; they may host INSs or other similarly exotic X-ray sources such as radio-quiet BL Lacs, obscured AGN, etc. Our search is an order of magnitude more selective than previous searches for optically blank RASS error circles, and excludes the 99.9% of error circles that contain more common X-ray-emitting subclasses. We find 11 candidates, nine of which are new. While our search is designed to find the best INS candidates and not to produce a complete list of INSs in the RASS, it is reassuring that our number of candidates is consistent with predictions from INS population models. Further X-ray observations will obtain pinpoint positions and determine whether these sources are entirely optically blank at g {approx} 22, supporting the presence of likely isolated neutron stars and perhaps enabling detailed follow-up studies of neutron star physics.

  13. X-ray fluorescence spectrometric and optical emission spectographic analysis of thoria in thoriated copper metal powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandola, L.C.; Khanna, P.P.

    1984-01-01

    Two methods, one using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometric technique and another using optical emission spectrographic (OES) technique are described for the determination of thoria in the concentration range 0.5-10% in thoriated copper metal powder. The precision of XRF method is superior to OES method but when sample quantity is very small, the OES method is useful. For XRF method, 500 mg sample is mixed with boric acid binding material and converted to a tablet for analysis. For OES method, only 200 mg sample is needed which is glued to the flat ends of two graphite electrodes for excitation by AC arc. The precision obtained in XRF is better than +-1% and in OES it is +-23%. (author)

  14. X-ray and optical study on point defect formation and interaction under irradiation adn doping of KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braude, I S; Rogozyanskaya, L M [AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kharkov. Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst. Nizkikh Temperatur

    1978-08-01

    Optical and X-ray diffuse scattering methods have been applied to investigate structural changes, taking place in KCl crystals during irradiation with ..gamma..-quanta and doping with barium. It is shown that ..gamma..-irradiation of ''pure'' and doped KCl crystals mainly leads to formation of F-centers and spherical vacancy complexes. F-center concentration in irradiated addition crystals (3x10/sup -6/) has turned out to be 25% lower, than in irradiated pure ones (4x10/sup -6/), which is connected with interaction of radiation and addition defects. The type of defects, causing assymetry in the distribution of diffuse scattering has been determined. Appearance of scattering ability modulation over direction < 100 > during irradiation of KCl pure crystals has been found. Critical radius of spherical complexes formed during irradiation has been estimated, it appeared to be 2.5 a, where a is a lattice period.

  15. Optical studies of X-ray sources with the MASCOT - a charge-coupled device /CCD/-based astronomical instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricker, G.R.; Bautz, M.W.; Dewey, D.; Meyer, S.S.

    1981-01-01

    The performance levels achieved by the MASCOT (MIT Astronomical Spectrometer/Camera for Optical Telescopes) on the 1.3-m telescope at the McGraw-Hill observatory in March 1981 are discussed along with preliminary data obtained in searches for optical counterparts to four 'empty-field' X-ray sources. In the W band (4000-7000 A), the MASCOT achieved a sky-limited sensitivity of +24.4 mag per sq arcsec in an 1800 s integration. The ability to flatten pictures to a level consistent with (sky + source) photon statistics and readout noise was demonstrated. For the four sources observed, an optical counterpart was established for one source (1413+13) based on positional coincidence (better than 1.8 arcsec), four possible candidates were detected in the error box of another source (1009 35) and upper sensitivity limits were established for optical counterparts in the error boxes for the other two sources (0920+39 and 0931-11)

  16. Adjustment of a goniometer for X-rays optics calibration in the spectral range 1.5-20 KeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legistre, S.

    1992-10-01

    The aim of this memoir is the adjustment of a (θ, 2θ) goniometer coupled to X-rays source to calibrate mirrors (single layers like C, Ni, Au, etc... and multilayers like C/W, Si/W, etc...) in the spectral range 1.5 - 20 keV. For each kind of tested optics the adjustment of the goniometer include the procedure alignment of the different components (X-ray source, collimation slits, optics, detectors) and the first reflectivity measurements. Those measurements are compared those realized at LURE, using synchrotron radiation provided by SUPER ACO storage ring, and to a theoretical simulation

  17. Technology Development for Ultra-High-Resolution X-ray Optics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Readiness of the fabrication method is needed to justify future NASA astrophysics & heliophysics Missions.We propose to develop a novel optics fabrication method...

  18. Development of refractive X-ray focusing optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alianelli, L.; Sawhney, K. J. S.; Loader, I. M.; Jenkins, D. W. K.; Stevens, R.; Snigirev, A.; Snigireva, I.

    2007-09-01

    The Diamond Optics & Metrology Group and the collaborators at the STFC Central Microstructure Facility have initiated a program for the design and fabrication of in-line micro- and nano-focusing optics for synchrotron radiation beamlines. The first type of optics fabricated is a kinoform lens in silicon on the same model proposed by K. Evans- Lutterodt et al [Opt. Expr. 11 (2003) 919.]. The fabrication utilised ultra high resolution electron beam lithographic patterning of an electron sensitive SU8 polymer and deep reactive ion etching of silicon. The first test of the focusing properties was performed at the ESRF BM5 optics beamline. In this paper we present details on the design and fabrication, and discuss the test results.

  19. X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enema. What you can expect During the X-ray X-rays are performed at doctors' offices, dentists' offices, ... as those using a contrast medium. Your child's X-ray Restraints or other techniques may be used to ...

  20. Abdominal x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdominal film; X-ray - abdomen; Flat plate; KUB x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored and regulated to provide the minimum amount of radiation exposure needed to produce the image. Most ...

  1. Chest X-Ray

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... talk with you about chest radiography also known as chest x-rays. Chest x-rays are the ... treatment for a variety of lung conditions such as pneumonia, emphysema and cancer. A chest x-ray ...

  2. EXPLORING THE DIVERSITY OF GROUPS AT 0.1 < z < 0.8 WITH X-RAY AND OPTICALLY SELECTED SAMPLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connelly, J. L. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wilman, David J.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Saglia, Roberto [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, P.O. Box 1312, Giessenbachstr., D-85741 Garching (Germany); Hou, Annie; Parker, Laura C.; Henderson, Robert D. E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON L8S4M1 (Canada); Mulchaey, John S. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); McGee, Sean L.; Balogh, Michael L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bower, Richard G. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-10

    We present the global group properties of two samples of galaxy groups containing 39 high-quality X-ray-selected systems and 38 optically (spectroscopically) selected systems in coincident spatial regions at 0.12 < z < 0.79. The total mass range of the combined sample is {approx}(10{sup 12}-5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} M{sub Sun }. Only nine optical systems are associable with X-ray systems. We discuss the confusion inherent in the matching of both galaxies to extended X-ray emission and of X-ray emission to already identified optical systems. Extensive spectroscopy has been obtained and the resultant redshift catalog and group membership are provided here. X-ray, dynamical, and total stellar masses of the groups are also derived and presented. We explore the effects of utilizing different centers and applying three different kinds of radial cut to our systems: a constant cut of 1 Mpc and two r{sub 200} cuts, one based on the velocity dispersion of the system and the other on the X-ray emission. We find that an X-ray-based r{sub 200} results in less scatter in scaling relations and less dynamical complexity as evidenced by results of the Anderson-Darling and Dressler-Schectman tests, indicating that this radius tends to isolate the virialized part of the system. The constant and velocity dispersion based cuts can overestimate membership and can work to inflate velocity dispersion and dynamical and stellar mass. We find L{sub X} -{sigma} and M{sub stellar}-L{sub X} scaling relations for X-ray and optically selected systems are not dissimilar. The mean fraction of mass found in stars, excluding intracluster light, for our systems is {approx}0.014 with a logarithmic standard deviation of 0.398 dex. We also define and investigate a sample of groups which are X-ray underluminous given the total group stellar mass. For these systems the fraction of stellar mass contributed by the most massive galaxy is typically lower than that found for the total population of

  3. X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacconi, R.; Gursky, H.

    1974-01-01

    This text contains ten chapters and three appendices. Following an introduction, chapters two through five deal with observational techniques, mechanisms for the production of x rays in a cosmic setting, the x-ray sky and solar x-ray emission. Chapters six through ten include compact x-ray sources, supernova remnants, the interstellar medium, extragalactic x-ray sources and the cosmic x-ray background. Interactions of x rays with matter, units and conversion factors and a catalog of x-ray sources comprise the three appendices. (U.S.)

  4. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  5. The Optical/UV Excess of X-Ray-dim Isolated Neutron Stars. I. Bremsstrahlung Emission from a Strangeon Star Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Weiyang; Lu, Jiguang; Men, Yunpeng; Xu, Renxin [School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Tong, Hao [Xinjiang Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Urumqi 830011 (China); Ge, Mingyu [Key Laboratory for Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li, Zhaosheng, E-mail: r.x.xu@pku.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan 411105 (China)

    2017-03-01

    X-ray-dim isolated neutron stars (XDINSs) are characterized by Planckian spectra in X-ray bands, but show optical/ultraviolet (UV) excesses: the factors by which the measured photometry exceeds those extrapolated from X-ray spectra. To solve this problem, a radiative model of bremsstrahlung emission from a plasma atmosphere is established in the regime of a strangeon star. A strangeon star atmosphere could simply be regarded as the upper layer of a normal neutron star. This plasma atmosphere, formed and maintained by the interstellar-medium-accreted matter due to the so-called strangeness barrier, is supposed to be of two temperatures. All seven XDINS spectra could be well fitted by the radiative model, from optical/UV to X-ray bands. The fitted radiation radii of XDINSs are from 7 to 13 km, while the modeled electron temperatures are between 50 and 250 eV, except RX J0806.4–4123, with a radiation radius of ∼3.5 km, indicating that this source could be a low-mass strangeon star candidate. This strangeon star model could further be tested by soft X-ray polarimetry, such as the Lightweight Asymmetry and Magnetism Probe, which is expected to be operational on China’s space station around 2020.

  6. X-ray astronomy 2000: Wide field X-ray monitoring with lobster-eye telescopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inneman, A.; Hudec, R.; Pina, L.; Gorenstein, P.

    2001-01-01

    The recently available first prototypes of innovative very wide field X-ray telescopes of Lobster-Eye type confirm the feasibility to develop such flight instruments in a near future. These devices are expected to allow very wide field (more than 1000 square degrees) monitoring of the sky in X-rays (up to 10 keV and perhaps even more) with faint limits. We will discuss the recent status of the development of very wide field X-ray telescopes as well as related scientific questions including expected major contributions such as monitoring and study of X-ray afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts

  7. NuSTAR hard x-ray optics design and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koglin, J. E.; An, H.; Blaedel, K. L.

    2009-01-01

    surpassing the largest observatories in this band by orders of magnitude. This advance will allow NuSTAR to test theories of how heavy elements are born, discover collapsed stars and black holes on all scales and explore the most extreme physical environments. We will present an overview of the NuSTAR optics...

  8. X-ray scanning of overhead aurorae from rockets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcus, J.R.; Goldberg, R.A.

    1981-01-01

    Two Nike Tomahawk rocket payloads were launched into energetic auroral events to investigate their structure and effects on the atmosphere. The instrument complement included X-ray scintillation detectors with energy discrimination in four ranges to measure the deposition of bremsstrahlung produced X-rays within the stratosphere and mesosphere. For this purpose, each instrument was designed for wide angle viewing; however, properties of the rocket motion have permitted coarse observation of distinct spatial X-ray structure. The detectors were mounted at a 45 0 angle with respect to the payload axis to permit scanning of the upper hemisphere, with rocket spin rates near 5 c/s during the upleg portion of each flight. Here, atmospheric shielding reduced energetic particle contamination effects to insignificant values below 65 to 75 km. Iterative computer techniques were used to reconstruct X-ray source maps at 100 km, taking atmospheric absorption effects into account. Payload 18.178 was launched on 21 September (0302 LMT) into an aurora observed to have two distinct azimuthal regions of optical brightness. Payload 18.179 (23 September, 0147 LMT) was launched into an aurora of more diffuse character. The presence of a two component spectrum is indicated for each event with the hard component originating in the more diffuse, optically faint regions. (author)

  9. Production of coherent XUV and soft x-rays using a transverse optical klystron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, R.R.; Kincaid, B.J.

    1984-01-01

    An optical klystron is a device in which a relativistic electron beam produces coherent electromagnetic radiation by interacting with an external laser beam in an undulator magnetic field. Such a device represents the relativistic generalization of the microwave klystron. The device is called transverse optical klystron (TOK), because the energy exchange between the electrons and the light in this case is due to the transverse electric field of the laser. The generation of coherent light by the TOK can be considered as a three step process, including energy modulation, compaction or bunching, and radiation. In the present paper, a description is provided of the general physical principles underlying the operation of each of the three sections of the TOK, taking into account the modulator, the compactor, and the radiator. 14 references

  10. Investigations of collisionally pumped optical field ionization soft x-ray lasers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebban, S.; Upcraft, L. M.; Balcou, P.; Pittman, M.; Haroutunian, R.; Grillon, G.; Valentin, C.; Rousse, A.; Rousseau, J. P.; Notebaert, L.; Hulin, D.; Mocek, Tomáš; Rus, Bedřich; Ros, D.; Klisnick, A.; Carillon, A.; Jamelot, G.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2003), s. 195-202 ISSN 0740-3224 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A100; GA AV ČR IAA1010014 Grant - others:HPRI(XE) CT-1999-000053 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : femtosecond-pulse-driven * gases * recombination * amplification * generation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.122, year: 2003

  11. X-ray optics simulation and beamline design for the APS upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xianbo; Reininger, Ruben; Harder, Ross; Haeffner, Dean

    2017-08-01

    The upgrade of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to a Multi-Bend Achromat (MBA) will increase the brightness of the APS by between two and three orders of magnitude. The APS upgrade (APS-U) project includes a list of feature beamlines that will take full advantage of the new machine. Many of the existing beamlines will be also upgraded to profit from this significant machine enhancement. Optics simulations are essential in the design and optimization of these new and existing beamlines. In this contribution, the simulation tools used and developed at APS, ranging from analytical to numerical methods, are summarized. Three general optical layouts are compared in terms of their coherence control and focusing capabilities. The concept of zoom optics, where two sets of focusing elements (e.g., CRLs and KB mirrors) are used to provide variable beam sizes at a fixed focal plane, is optimized analytically. The effects of figure errors on the vertical spot size and on the local coherence along the vertical direction of the optimized design are investigated.

  12. A Catalog of Candidate Intermediate-Luminosity X-Ray Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Ptak, A. F.

    2002-11-01

    ROSAT, and now Chandra, X-ray images allow studies of extranuclear X-ray point sources in galaxies other than our own. X-ray observations of normal galaxies with ROSAT and Chandra have revealed that off-nuclear, compact, intermediate-luminosity (LX[2-10keV]>=1039.0 ergs s-1) X-ray objects (IXOs, a.k.a. ULXs [ultraluminous X-ray sources]) are quite common. Here we present a catalog and finding charts for 87 IXOs in 54 galaxies, derived from all of the ROSAT HRI imaging data for galaxies with cz<=5000 km s-1 from the Third Reference Catalog of Bright Galaxies. We have defined the cutoff LX for IXOs so that it is well above the Eddington luminosity of a 1.4 Msolar black hole (1038.3 ergs s-1), so as not to confuse IXOs with ``normal'' black hole X-ray binaries. This catalog is intended to provide a baseline for follow-up work with Chandra and XMM-Newton, and with space- and ground-based survey work at wavelengths other than X-ray. We demonstrate that elliptical galaxies with IXOs have a larger number of IXOs per galaxy than nonelliptical galaxies with IXOs and note that they are not likely to be merely high-mass X-ray binaries with beamed X-ray emission, as may be the case for IXOs in starburst galaxies. Approximately half of the IXOs with multiple observations show X-ray variability, and many (19) of the IXOs have faint optical counterparts in DSS optical B-band images. Follow-up observations of these objects should be helpful in identifying their nature.

  13. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  14. OPTICAL STUDIES OF 13 HARD X-RAY SELECTED CATACLYSMIC BINARIES FROM THE SWIFT-BAT SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halpern, Jules P.; Thorstensen, John R.

    2015-01-01

    From a set of 13 cataclysmic binaries that were discovered in the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) survey, we conducted time-resolved optical spectroscopy and/or time-series photometry of 11, with the goal of measuring their orbital periods and searching for spin periods. Seven of the objects in this study are new optical identifications. Orbital periods are found for seven targets, ranging from 81 minutes to 20.4 hr. PBC J0706.7+0327 is an AM Herculis star (polar) based on its emission-line variations and large amplitude photometric modulation on the same period. Swift J2341.0+7645 may be a polar, although the evidence here is less secure. Coherent pulsations are detected from two objects, Swift J0503.7−2819 (975 s) and Swift J0614.0+1709 (1412 s and 1530 s, spin and beat periods, respectively), indicating that they are probable intermediate polars (DQ Herculis stars). For two other stars, longer spin periods are tentatively suggested. We also present the discovery of a 2.00 hr X-ray modulation from RX J2015.6+3711, possibly a contributor to Swift J2015.9+3715, and likely a polar

  15. A tool to separate optical/infrared disc and jet emission in X-ray transient outbursts: the colour-magnitude diagrams of XTE J1550-564

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Russell, D.M.; Maitra, D.; Dunn, R.J.H.; Fender, R.P.

    2011-01-01

    It is now established that thermal disc emission and non-thermal jet emission can both play a role at optical/infrared (OIR) wavelengths in X-ray transients. The spectra of the jet and disc components differ, as do their dependence on mass accretion properties. Here we demonstrate that the OIR

  16. Feasibility of using a high power CO2 laser as an alternative source to test high heat load x-ray optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, P.B.

    1993-01-01

    To determine the feasibility of using the CO 2 laser at LAL as an alternative heat source for x-ray optics tests, we have studied the absorption of the 10.6-micron laser light in silicon for two different dopant concentrations, using the resistivity as a predictor for the absorption length. We describe the results from these tests in this report

  17. X-ray or UV-ray imaging sensor utilizing optically stimulated luminescence phenomenon in Eu-doped KCl phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanto, Hidehito; Murayama, Kazuhiko; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Shin-ichi; Makamura, Shouichi; Takeuchi, Nozomu.

    1993-01-01

    An intense OSL with a peak at about 420 [nm] has been observed by stimulating an X-ray or UV-ray irradiated KCl: Eu crystal with F-band light whose wavelength is about 560 [um]. A possible excitation and emission mechanisms for the 420 [um] OSL peak X-ray or UV-ray irradiated sample is proposed. It is found that the OSL intensity is proportional to the X-ray absorbed dose or UV-ray irradiation dose. It is also found that X-ray or UV-ray irradiated KCl; Eu exhibited excellent fading characteristics. These results strongly suggest that the KCl: Eu is one of the most attractive candidates for two-dimensional X-ray or UV-ray imaging sensor utilizing the OSL phenomenon. (J.P.N.)

  18. Active Figure Control Effects on Mounting Strategy for X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Atkins, Carolyn; Roche, Jacqueline M.; ODell, Stephen L.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2014-01-01

    As part of ongoing development efforts at MSFC, we have begun to investigate mounting strategies for highly nested xray optics in both full-shell and segmented configurations. The analytical infrastructure for this effort also lends itself to investigation of active strategies. We expect that a consequence of active figure control on relatively thin substrates is that errors are propagated to the edges, where they might affect the effective precision of the mounting points. Based upon modeling, we describe parametrically, the conditions under which active mounts are preferred over fixed ones, and the effect of active figure corrections on the required number, locations, and kinematic characteristics of mounting points.

  19. Optical Observation of Low Mass X-Ray Binary J1753.4-0126

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Aurelio; Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, E. L.

    2011-10-01

    We conducted optical observations of the black hole candidate J1753.4-0126 with the 82 inch (2.1 m) Otto Struve Telescope at the McDonald Observatory. A total of 20 nights of data were collected from May 2010 through June 2011. Data was reduced using the Interactive Reduction and Analysis Facility (IRAF). We present the resulting light curves. We discuss our progress in this analysis, which uses a phase dispersion minimization code in order to find periodicity. This research is supported by a National Science Foundation Partnership in Astronomy and Astrophysics Research and Education (PAARE) grant to the University of Texas at El Paso.

  20. High efficiency spectro graphs for the EUV and soft x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cash, W.

    1983-01-01

    A basic need of modern UV and x-ray astronomy is the capability to perform high resolution spectroscopy of faint stars. The use of modern grazing incidence optics can be coupled to high blaze angle reflection gratings used in the conical diffraction mount to offer a versatile, efficient approach to the design problem. The authors discuss two designs of interest: an echelle spectrograph for use longward of 100 A, and an Objective Reflection Grating Spectrograph for use in the soft x-rays. General design considerations and measurements of grating efficiencies are also presented