WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical zone decentration

  1. Decentration of optical zone center and its impact on visual outcomes following SMILE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Manli; Sun, Yuan; Wang, Danyang; Zhang, Ting; Zhou, Yugui; Zheng, Hua; Liu, Quan

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate decentration from pupil center and corneal vertex normal following femtosecond laser small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. This study evaluated 101 eyes of 101 patients with a spherical equivalent (SE) of -5.30 ± 1.72 diopters (D). Decentration was measured in the pupil-centered group (PC group) by video capture images and in the vertex normal-centered group (VNC group) using the WaveLight Oculyzer II (Alcon). The PC and VNC groups were further divided into 4 subgroups (1 PC, 2 PC and 1 VNC, 2 VNC) based on the displacement of the lenticule center. Uncorrected and corrected distance visual acuities, manifest refraction, and wavefront errors were measured preoperatively, and at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, and 3 and 6 months postoperatively. Regarding efficacy and safety, at 6 months postoperatively, 65, 71, 83, and 53% of eyes had unchanged corrected distance visual acuity in 1 PC, 1 VNC, 2 PC and 2 VNC groups, respectively. Also, 97, 98, 100, and 97% of treated eyes had a postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity 20/20 or better in the subgroups, respectively. In the groups mentioned above, 96, 100, 100, and 95% of eyes, respectively, were within ±0.5 D of the targeted SE. In terms of total higher-order aberrations, the 1 PC group was significantly higher than the 1 VNC group (P = 0.04), whereas the 2 VNC group was significantly higher than the 2 PC group (P = 0.02). Our results demonstrate that better refractive outcomes will be achieved when the lenticule center is closer to the corneal vertex normal.

  2. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...... depends on the actual stand allocation but also on the number of zones and the layout of these. A mathematical model of the problem is proposed, which integrates the stand allocation and the staff scheduling. A heuristic solution method is developed and applied on a real case from British Airways, London...

  3. Presence and use of legislative guidelines for the distribution of decentralized decision making authority in the jimma zone health system, southwest ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woldie, Mirkuzie; Jirra, Challi; Azene, Girma

    2011-08-01

    Decentralization ultimately involves the execution of most health care activities at lower levels of the health system. However, when poorly implemented, decentralization can create confusion about roles and responsibilities. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the presence and use of legislative guidelines depicting the distribution of decentralized authority for decision making in the Jimma Zone health system, Southwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study employing both qualitative and quantitative methods was undertaken from 16(th) January to 15(th) March 2007 in Jimma Zone. Health managers at relevant departments of the Federal Ministry of Health, Oromia Regional Health Bureau (RHB), Jimma Zonal Health Department, 13 Woreda Health Offices of Jimma Zone and the health centers and health posts in these districts were included in the study. Data was collected using interview guides and self administered structured questionnaires prepared for each level of the health system. Tape-recorded qualitative data was transcribed and analyzed using thematic framework approach while SPSS for windows version 12.0.1 was used to analyze the quantitative data obtained. According to the regional guidelines, ensuring achievement of regional health service targets is the responsibility of the RHB. This was clear to 97 (97.9%) of the health managers included in this study. However, almost equivalent proportion of the respondents, 95 (95.9%) agreed that the FMOH should be responsible for this. Similarly, 71 (73.9%) of the health managers knew that approval of health budgets and efforts for local resource generation is the responsibility of the Woreda Administrative Council while the remaining 27.1% were uncertain or disagreed about this regional direction. Such confusions were observed in almost every functional area. Moreover, legislative guidelines were not available in most of the district health offices and health facilities. Legislative guidelines depicting the

  4. Evaluation of optical performance of 4 aspheric toric intraocular lenses using an optical bench system: Influence of pupil size, decentration, and rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Yoo, Young-Sik; Joo, Choun-Ki; Yoon, Geunyoung

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of pupil size, degree of intraocular lens (IOL) decentration, and rotation of 4 aspheric toric IOLs on the image quality. Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. Experimental study. Four aspheric toric intraocular lenses (IOLs)-the Precizon (transitional conic toric IOL), AT Torbi 709M (bitoric IOL), SN6AT4 (posterior toric surface IOL), and ZCT225 (anterior toric surface IOL)-were evaluated using the optical bench metrology system. Measurements included changes in spherical aberrations, relative spherical equivalent (SE), and image quality at different pupil diameters and image quality degradation due to decentration and rotation of the IOLs. Change in relative SE with pupil size in aberration-free toric IOLs (transitional conic toric and bitoric IOLs) was greater than in negatively aspheric toric IOLs (posterior toric surface and anterior toric surface IOLs). In contrast, the aberration-free IOLs showed higher contrast than the negatively aspheric IOLs. When IOLs were decentered by 1.0 mm, the contrast reduction rates at 17.6 cycles per degree for the transitional conic toric IOL, bitoric IOL, posterior toric surface IOL, and anterior toric surface IOL were 5.1%, 3.1%, 12.2%, and 15.8%, respectively. Rotation-induced deterioration of contrast to 0.5 required a much higher rotation for the transitional conic toric IOL than for the other 3 IOLs. The transitional conic toric IOL and bitoric IOL provided superior image quality despite pupil size changes and the presence of decentration. The transitional conic toric IOL demonstrated maximum rotation tolerance compared with the other IOLs. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Incidence and Outcomes of Optical Zone Enlargement and Recentration After Previous Myopic LASIK by Topography-Guided Custom Ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinstein, Dan Z; Archer, Timothy J; Carp, Glenn I; Stuart, Alastair J; Rowe, Elizabeth L; Nesbit, Andrew; Moore, Tara

    2018-02-01

    To report the incidence, visual and refractive outcomes, optical zone enlargement, and recentration using topography-guided CRS-Master TOSCA II software with the MEL 80 excimer laser (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany) after primary myopic laser refractive surgery. Retrospective analysis of 73 eyes (40 patients) with complaints of night vision disturbances due to either a decentration or small optical zone following a primary myopic laser refractive surgery procedure using the MEL 80 laser. Multiple ATLAS topography scans were imported into the CRS-Master software for topography-guided ablation planning. The topography-guided re-treatment procedure was performed as either a LASIK flap lift, a new LASIK flap, a side cut only, or photorefractive keratectomy. Axial curvature maps were analyzed using a fixed grid and set of concentric circles superimposed to measure the topographic optical zone diameter and centration. Follow-up was 12 months. The incidence of use in the population of myopic treatments during the study period was 0.79% (73 of 9,249). The optical zone diameter was increased by 11% from a mean of 5.65 to 6.32 mm, with a maximum change of 2 mm in one case. Topographic decentration was reduced by 64% from a mean of 0.58 to 0.21 mm. There was a 44% reduction in spherical aberration, 53% reduction in coma, and 39% reduction in total higher order aberrations. A subjective improvement in night vision symptoms was reported by 93%. Regarding efficacy, 82% of eyes reached 20/20 and 100% reached 20/32 (preoperative CDVA was 20/20 or better in 90%). Regarding safety, no eyes lost two lines of CDVA and 27% gained one line. Regarding predictability, 71% of re-treatments were within ±0.50 diopters. Topography-guided ablation was effective in enlarging the optical zone, recentering the optical zone, and reducing higher order aberrations. Topography-guided custom ablation appears to be an effective method for re-treatment procedures of symptomatic patients after

  6. Multiple-Zone Diffractive Optic Element for Laser Ranging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis A.

    2011-01-01

    A diffractive optic element (DOE) can be used as a beam splitter to generate multiple laser beams from a single input laser beam. This technology has been recently used in LRO s Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) instrument to generate five laser beams that measure the lunar topography from a 50-km nominal mapping orbit (see figure). An extension of this approach is to use a multiple-zone DOE to allow a laser altimeter instrument to operate over a wider range of distances. In particular, a multiple-zone DOE could be used for applications that require both mapping and landing on a planetary body. In this case, the laser altimeter operating range would need to extend from several hundred kilometers down to a few meters. The innovator was recently involved in an investigation how to modify the LOLA instrument for the OSIRIS asteroid mapping and sample return mission. One approach is to replace the DOE in the LOLA laser beam expander assembly with a multiple-zone DOE that would allow for the simultaneous illumination of the asteroid with mapping and landing laser beams. The proposed OSIRIS multiple-zone DOE would generate the same LOLA five-beam output pattern for high-altitude topographic mapping, but would simultaneously generate a wide divergence angle beam using a small portion of the total laser energy for the approach and landing portion of the mission. Only a few percent of the total laser energy is required for approach and landing operations as the return signal increases as the inverse square of the ranging height. A wide divergence beam could be implemented by making the center of the DOE a diffractive or refractive negative lens. The beam energy and beam divergence characteristics of a multiple-zone DOE could be easily tailored to meet the requirements of other missions that require laser ranging data. Current single-zone DOE lithographic manufacturing techniques could also be used to fabricate a multiple-zone DOE by masking the different DOE zones during

  7. Realization of arbitrarily long focus-depth optical vortices with spiral area-varying zone plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chenglong; Zang, Huaping; Du, Yanli; Tian, Yongzhi; Ji, Ziwen; Zhang, Jing; Fan, Quanping; Wang, Chuanke; Cao, Leifeng; Liang, Erjun

    2018-05-01

    We provide a methodology to realize an optical vortex with arbitrarily long focus-depth. With a technique of varying each zone area of a phase spiral zone plate one can obtain optics capable of generating ultra-long focus-depth optical vortex from a plane wave. The focal property of such optics was analysed using the Fresnel diffraction theory, and an experimental demonstration was performed to verify its effectiveness. Such optics may bring new opportunity and benefits for optical vortex application such as optical manipulation and lithography.

  8. Optical design of soft multifocal contact lens with uniform optical power in center-distance zone with optimized NURBS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-02-05

    This study aims to develop a new optical design method of soft multifocal contact lens (CLs) to obtain uniform optical power in large center-distance zone with optimized Non-Uniform Rational B-spline (NURBS). For the anterior surface profiles of CLs, the NURBS design curves are optimized to match given optical power distributions. Then, the NURBS in the center-distance zones are fitted in the corresponding spherical/aspheric curves for both data points and their centers of curvature to achieve the uniform power. Four cases of soft CLs have been manufactured by casting in shell molds by injection molding and then measured to verify the design specifications. Results of power profiles of these CLs are concord with the given clinical requirements of uniform powers in larger center-distance zone. The developed optical design method has been verified for multifocal CLs design and can be further applied for production of soft multifocal CLs.

  9. Decentralized Software Architecture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khare, Rohit

    2002-01-01

    .... While the term "decentralization" is familiar from political and economic contexts, it has been applied extensively, if indiscriminately, to describe recent trends in software architecture towards...

  10. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  11. Measurements of the parapapillary atrophy zones in en face optical coherence tomography images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuya Miki

    Full Text Available To measure the parapapillary atrophy (PPA area in en face images obtained with swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT, and to evaluate its relationship to glaucoma, myopia, and age in non-highly myopic subjects.Retrospective, cross-sectional study.Fifty eyes of 30 subjects with open-angle glaucoma (G group and forty-three eyes of 26 healthy control subjects (C group. Eyes with high myopia (spherical equivalent refractive error ≤ -8 diopters or axial length ≥ 26.5 mm were excluded.Mean age ± standard deviation was 59.9 ± 12.4 years. The beta zone and the gamma zone PPA areas were measured in en face images reconstructed from three-dimensional SS-OCT images. Relationship between the PPA areas and patient characteristics such as glaucoma, axial length, and age was statistically evaluated using multivariate mixed-effects models.Areas of the beta zone and the gamma zone PPA measured on en face OCT images.Average ± standard deviation area of the beta and the gamma zone was 0.64 ± 0.79 and 0.16 ± 0.30 mm2, respectively. In multivariate models, the gamma zone significantly correlated with axial length (P = 0.001 but not with glaucoma (P = 0.944. In contrast, the beta zone significantly correlated with age (P = 0.0249 and glaucoma (P = 0.014.En face images reconstructed from 3D SS-OCT data facilitated measurements of the beta and the gamma PPA zones even in eyes with optic disc distortion. The OCT-defined beta zone is associated with glaucoma and age, whereas the gamma zone correlated with myopia but not with glaucoma. This study confirmed the clinical usefulness of OCT-based classification of the PPA zones in distinguishing glaucomatous damage of the optic nerve from myopic damage in non-highly myopic eyes.

  12. Organizational decentralization in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, I H Monrad

    2006-01-01

    At present, most hospitals have a department of radiology where images are captured and interpreted. Decentralization is the opposite of centralization and means 'away from the centre'. With a Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS) and broadband communications, transmitting radiology images between sites will be far easier than before. Qualitative interviews of 26 resource persons were performed in Norway. There was a response rate of 90%. Decentralization of radiology interpretations seems less relevant than centralization, but several forms of decentralization have a role to play. The respondents mentioned several advantages, including exploitation of capacity and competence. They also mentioned several disadvantages, including splitting professional communities and reduced contact between radiologists and clinicians. With the new technology decentralization and centralization of image interpretation are important possibilities in organizational change. This will be important for the future of teleradiology.

  13. Decentralization: Another Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robin

    1973-01-01

    This paper attempts to pursue the centralization-decentralization dilemma. A setting for this discussion is provided by noting some of the uses of terminology, followed by a consideration of inherent difficulties in conceptualizing. (Author)

  14. Decentralized portfolio management

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho, Paulo; Tabak, Benjamin Miranda

    2003-01-01

    We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equiva...

  15. Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...

  16. Decentralization and Governance in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holzhacker, Ronald; Wittek, Rafael; Woltjer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    I. Theoretical Reflections on Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society 1. Decentralization and Governance for Sustainable Society in Indonesia Ronald Holzhacker, Rafael Wittek and Johan Woltjer 2. Good Governance Contested: Exploring Human Rights and Sustainability as Normative Goals

  17. [Study on the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in situ keratomileusis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Chen, M; Tian, L; Li, D W; Peng, Y S; Zhang, F F

    2018-01-11

    Objective: To explore the change of optical zone after femtosecond laser assisted laser in sitn keratomileusis(FS-LASIK) so as to provide the reference for measurement and design of clinical optical zone. Methods: This retrospective case series study covers 41 eyes of 24 patients (7 males and 17 females, aged from 18 to 42 years old) with myopia and myopic astigmatism who have received FS-LASIK surgery at Corneal Refractive Department of Qingdao Eye Hospital and completed over 6 months of clinical follow-up. Pentacam system (with the application of 6 corneal topographic map modes including: the pure axial curvature topographic map, the pure tangential curvature topographic map, the axial curvature difference topographic map, the tangential curvature difference topographic map, the postoperative front elevation map and the corneal thickness difference topographic map), combined with transparent concentric software (a system independently developed by Qingdao Eye Hospital) was used to measure the optical zone at 1, 3 and 6 months postoperatively, the optical zone diameters measurement results among different follow-up times in group were analyzed with the repeated measures analysis of variance, and the actual measured values and the theoretical design values of the optical zone were analyzed with independent-samples t-testing. Spearman correlation coefficient ( r(s) ) have been applied to evaluate the relationship between postoperative optical zone measurement values and the potential influencing factors. Results: The optical zone diameters measured by pure axial curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (6.55±0.50)mm, (6.50±0.53)mm and (6.48±0.53)mm respectively. The differences between values are of no statistical significance ( F= 1.60, P= 0.21), the optical zone diameter measured by pure tangential curvature topographic map at 1, 3 and 6 months after FS-LASIK showed (5.44±0.46)mm, (5.46±0.52)mm and (5.44±0.50)mm respectively, the

  18. Decentralized control: An overview

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 1 (2008), s. 87-98 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200750802; GA MŠk(CZ) LA 282 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralized control * large-scale systems * decomposition Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.109, year: 2008

  19. Decentralized control and communication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Papík, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 1 (2012), s. 1-10 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : decentralization * communication * large-scale complex systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.289, year: 2012

  20. The Rhetoric of Decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravitch, Diane

    1974-01-01

    Questions the rationale for and possible consequences of political decentralization of New York City. Suggests that the disadvantages--reduced level of professionalism, increased expense in multiple government operation, "stabilization" of residential segregation, necessity for budget negotiations because of public disclosure of tax…

  1. Decentralized Blended Acquisition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of blending and deblending is reviewed, making use of traditional and dispersed source arrays. The network concept of distributed blended acquisition is introduced. A million-trace robot system is proposed, illustrating that decentralization may bring about a revolution in the way we

  2. Zone-boundary optimization for direct laser writing of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Victor P; Nasyrov, Ruslan K; Shimansky, Ruslan V

    2006-01-01

    Enhancing the diffraction efficiency of continuous-relief diffractive optical elements fabricated by direct laser writing is discussed. A new method of zone-boundary optimization is proposed to correct exposure data only in narrow areas along the boundaries of diffractive zones. The optimization decreases the loss of diffraction efficiency related to convolution of a desired phase profile with a writing-beam intensity distribution. A simplified stepped transition function that describes optimized exposure data near zone boundaries can be made universal for a wide range of zone periods. The approach permits a similar increase in the diffraction efficiency as an individual-pixel optimization but with fewer computation efforts. Computer simulations demonstrated that the zone-boundary optimization for a 6 microm period grating increases the efficiency by 7% and 14.5% for 0.6 microm and 1.65 microm writing-spot diameters, respectively. The diffraction efficiency of as much as 65%-90% for 4-10 microm zone periods was obtained experimentally with this method.

  3. Interlaced zone plate optics for hard X-ray imaging in the 10 nm range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohacsi, Istvan; Vartiainen, Ismo; Rösner, Benedikt; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Guzenko, Vitaliy A.; McNulty, Ian; Winarski, Robert; Holt, Martin V.; David, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Multi-keV X-ray microscopy has been particularly successful in bridging the resolution gap between optical and electron microscopy. However, resolutions below 20 nm are still considered challenging, as high throughput direct imaging methods are limited by the availability of suitable optical elements. In order to bridge this gap, we present a new type of Fresnel zone plate lenses aimed at the sub-20 and the sub-10 nm resolution range. By extending the concept of double-sided zone plate stacking, we demonstrate the doubling of the effective line density and thus the resolution and provide large aperture, singlechip optical devices with 15 and 7 nm smallest zone widths. The detailed characterization of these lenses shows excellent optical properties with focal spots down to 7.8 nm. Beyond wave front characterization, the zone plates also excel in typical imaging scenarios, verifying their resolution close to their diffraction limited optical performance.

  4. MACROECONOMIC IMPACT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Cornelia STOICA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of decentralization has a variety of expressions, but the meaning generally accepted refers to the transfer of authority and responsibility of the public functions from central government to sub-national public entities or even to the private sector. Decentralization process is complex, affecting many aspects of social and economic life and public management, and its design and implementation cover several stages, depending on the cyclical and structural developments of the country. From an economic perspective, decentralization is seen as a means of primary importance in terms of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of public services and macroeconomic stability due to the redistribution of public finances while in a much closer logic of the government policy objectives. But the decentralization process behaves as well some risks, because it involves the implementation of appropriate mechanisms for the establishment of income and expenditure programming at the subnational level, which, if is not correlated with macroeconomic policy imperatives can lead to major imbalances, both financially as in termes of economic and social life. Equally, ensuring the balance of the budget at the local level is imperative to fulfill, this goal imposing a legal framework and specific procedures to size transfers of public funds, targeted or untargeted. Also, public and local authorities have to adopt appropriate laws and regulations such that sub-national public entities can access loans - such as bank loans or debentures from domestic or external market - in terms of a strict monitoring national financial stability. In all aspects of decentralization - political, administrative, financial -, public authorities should develop and implement the most effective mechanisms to coordinate macroeconomic objectives and both sectoral and local interests and establish clear responsibilities - exclusive or shared - for all parties involved in the

  5. Analyzing Von Neumann machines using decentralized symmetries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jie

    2013-10-01

    The artificial intelligence method to e-business is defined not only by the study of fiber-optic cables, but also by the unproven need for vacuum tubes. Given the current status of virtual archetypes, theorists clearly desire the exploration of semaphores, which embodies the compelling principles of cryptoanalysis. We present an algorithm for probabilistic theory (Buck), which we use to disprove that write-back caches can be made decentralized, lossless, and reliable.

  6. Predictability and stability of refraction with increasing optical zone diameter in hyperopic LASIK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa A El-Helw

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Mostafa A El-Helw, Ahmed M EmarahCairo University, Cairo, EgyptObjective: We undertook a prospective nonrandomized study to assess refractive outcome and patient satisfaction with hyperopic laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK using variable optical zone diameters in correction of hyperopia of more than 4.00 diopters.Methods: Fourteen adults (comprising 28 hyperopic eyes underwent hyperopic LASIK correction for hyperopia of more than 4.00 diopters. The sample was divided into two groups. Group 1 included the right eyes of the 14 patients who underwent hyperopic LASIK using a 6.5 mm optical zone diameter. Group 2 comprised the left eyes of the same patients with the only difference being that the optical zone diameter was 6.0 mm.Results: The mean age of the patients was 36.42 ± 5.10 years. Group 1 eyes had a median (range preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA of 0.79 (0.52 and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA of 0.15 (0.08. Group 2 had a median preoperative UCVA of 0.79 (0.60 and BCVA of 0.15 (0.08. The median postoperative UCVA in Group 1 was 0.17 (0.21 and BCVA was 0.15 (0.13. In Group 2, the median postoperative UCVA was 0.30 (0.32 and BCVA was 0.15 (0.26. Group 1 had a median preoperative refraction of +5.37 (1.75 diopters and the median postoperative refraction at one week was −0.23 (1.25 diopters, at three months was +0.75 (0.75 diopters, and at six months was +0.75 (1.00 diopters. Group 2 had a median preoperative refraction of +5.00 (1.75 diopters, and the median postoperative refraction at one week was +0.13 (1.5 diopters, at three months was +1.00 (0.75 diopters and at six months +1.25 (1.25 diopters. The difference was statistically significant between groups 1 and 2. The difference within each group was also significant. Group 1 eyes were stabilizing after the three-month period in contrast with Group 2 in which the refractive changes continued throughout the follow-up period.Conclusion: Larger optical zone diameter in

  7. Decentralized Portfolio Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Miranda Tabak

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available We use a mean-variance model to analyze the problem of decentralized portfolio management. We find the solution for the optimal portfolio allocation for a head trader operating in n different markets, which is called the optimal centralized portfolio. However, as there are many traders specialized in different markets, the solution to the problem of optimal decentralized allocation should be different from the centralized case. In this paper we derive conditions for the solutions to be equivalent. We use multivariate normal returns and a negative exponential function to solve the problem analytically. We generate the equivalence of solutions by assuming that different traders face different interest rates for borrowing and lending. This interest rate is dependent on the ratio of the degrees of risk aversion of the trader and the head trader, on the excess return, and on the correlation between asset returns.

  8. Decentralization in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Gemechu, Mulugeta Debebbe

    2012-01-01

    Ethiopia officially launched the District Level Decentralization Program (DLDP) by the year 2002. The program flagged core objectives such as institutionalizing viable development centers at local levels, deepening devolution of power, enhancing the democratization process through broad-based participatory strategy, promoting good governance and improving service delivery. Since the inception of this program two strategic planning terms (one strategic term is five years) have already elapsed ...

  9. Centralized vs decentralized contests

    OpenAIRE

    Beviá, Carmen; Corchón, Luis C.

    2015-01-01

    We compare two contests, decentralized in which there are several independent contests with non overlapping contestants and centralized in which all contestants fight for a unique prize which is the sum of all prizes in the small contests. We study the relationship between payoffs and efforts between these two contests. The first author acknowledges financial support from ECO2008-04756 (Grupo Consolidado-C), SGR2014-515 and PROMETEO/2013/037. The second author acknowledges financial suppor...

  10. Policy Implementation Decentralization Government in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardin M. Simanjuntak

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization in Indonesia is that reforms not completed and until the current implementation is not maximized or have not been successful. The essence of decentralization is internalising cost and benefit' for the people and how the government closer to the people. That's the most important essence of essence 'decentralization’. However, the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia is still far from the expectations. It is shown that only benefits of decentralization elite and local authorities, decentralization is a neo-liberal octopus, decentralization of public services are lacking in character, decentralization without institutional efficiency, decentralization fosters corruption in the area, and quasi-fiscal decentralization.

  11. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals.

  12. Decentral Smart Grid Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schäfer, Benjamin; Matthiae, Moritz; Timme, Marc; Witthaut, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Stable operation of complex flow and transportation networks requires balanced supply and demand. For the operation of electric power grids—due to their increasing fraction of renewable energy sources—a pressing challenge is to fit the fluctuations in decentralized supply to the distributed and temporally varying demands. To achieve this goal, common smart grid concepts suggest to collect consumer demand data, centrally evaluate them given current supply and send price information back to customers for them to decide about usage. Besides restrictions regarding cyber security, privacy protection and large required investments, it remains unclear how such central smart grid options guarantee overall stability. Here we propose a Decentral Smart Grid Control, where the price is directly linked to the local grid frequency at each customer. The grid frequency provides all necessary information about the current power balance such that it is sufficient to match supply and demand without the need for a centralized IT infrastructure. We analyze the performance and the dynamical stability of the power grid with such a control system. Our results suggest that the proposed Decentral Smart Grid Control is feasible independent of effective measurement delays, if frequencies are averaged over sufficiently large time intervals. (paper)

  13. Influence of the corneal optical zone on the point-spread function of the human eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rol, Pascal O.; Parel, Jean-Marie A.

    1992-08-01

    In refractive surgery, a number of surgical techniques have been developed to correct ametropia (refractive defaults) of the eye by changing the exterior shape of the cornea. Because the air-cornea interface makes up for about two thirds of the refractive power of the eye, a refractive correction can be obtained by a suitable reshaping of the cornea. Postoperatively, it is usually observed that the corneal region consists of two or more zones which are characterized by different optical parameters exhibiting in particular different focal distances. Under normal circumstances, only the central area of the cornea is involved in the formation of the retinal image. However, if part of the light entering the eye through peripheral portions of the cornea with refractive properties different from the central area can pass the pupil, an out-of-focus `ghost' image may be overlaid on the retina causing a blur. In such a case the resolution, and the contrast performance of the eye which is expected from a successful operation, may be reduced. This study is an attempt to quantify the vision blur as a function of the diameter of the central zone, i.e., the optical zone which is of importance for vision.

  14. Decentralized control of complex systems

    CERN Document Server

    Siljak, Dragoslav D

    2011-01-01

    Complex systems require fast control action in response to local input, and perturbations dictate the use of decentralized information and control structures. This much-cited reference book explores the approaches to synthesizing control laws under decentralized information structure constraints.Starting with a graph-theoretic framework for structural modeling of complex systems, the text presents results related to robust stabilization via decentralized state feedback. Subsequent chapters explore optimization, output feedback, the manipulative power of graphs, overlapping decompositions and t

  15. Comparisons Between Histology and Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography of the Periarterial Capillary-Free Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaratnasingam, Chandrakumar; An, Dong; Sakurada, Yoichi; Lee, Cecilia S; Lee, Aaron Y; McAllister, Ian L; Freund, K Bailey; Sarunic, Marinko; Yu, Dao-Yi

    2018-05-01

    To use the capillary-free zone along retinal arteries, a physiologic area of superficial avascularization, as an anatomic paradigm to investigate the reliability of optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for visualizing the deep retinal circulation. Validity analysis and laboratory investigation. Five normal human donor eyes (mean age 69.8 years) were perfusion-labeled with endothelial antibodies and the capillary networks of the perifovea were visualized using confocal scanning laser microscopy. Regions of the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery were imaged using OCTA in 16 normal subjects (age range 24-51 years). Then, 3 × 3-mm scans were acquired using the RTVue XR Avanti (ver. 2016.1.0.26; Optovue, Inc, Fremont, California, USA), PLEX Elite 9000 (ver. 1.5.0.15909; Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin, California, USA), Heidelberg Spectralis OCT2 (Family acquisition module 6.7.21.0; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany), and DRI-OCT Triton (Ver. 1.1.1; Topcon Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Images of the superficial plexus, deep vascular plexus, and a slab containing all vascular plexuses were generated using manufacturer-recommended default settings. Comparisons between histology and OCTA were performed. Histologic analysis revealed that the capillary-free zone along the retinal artery was confined to the plane of the superficial capillary plexus and did not include the intermediate and deep capillary plexuses. Images derived from OCTA instruments demonstrated a prominent capillary-free zone along the retinal artery in slabs of the superficial plexus, deep plexus, and all capillary plexuses. The number of deep retinal capillaries seen in the capillary-free zone was significantly greater on histology than on OCTA (P zone as an anatomic paradigm, we show that the deep vascular beds of the retina are not completely visualized using OCTA. This may be a limitation of current OCTA techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of scattering center of multipath signals using geometric optics and Fresnel zone concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamil Yavuz Kapusuz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a method for determining scattering center (or center of scattering points of a multipath is proposed, provided that the direction of arrival of the multipath is known by the receiver. The method is based on classical electromagnetic wave principles in order to determine scattering center over irregular terrain. Geometrical optics (GO along with Fresnel zone concept is employed, as the receiver, the transmitter positions and irregular terrain data are assumed to be provided. The proposed method could be used at UHF bands, especially, operations of radars and electronic warfare applications.

  17. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Røstad, Anders

    2016-03-31

    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  18. Light comfort zones of mesopelagic acoustic scattering layers in two contrasting optical environments

    KAUST Repository

    Rø stad, Anders; Kaartvedt, Stein; Aksnes, Dag L.

    2016-01-01

    We make a comparison of the mesopelagic sound scattering layers (SLs) in two contrasting optical environments; the clear Red Sea and in murkier coastal waters of Norway (Masfjorden). The depth distributions of the SL in Masfjorden are shallower and narrower than those of the Red Sea. This difference in depth distribution is consistent with the hypothesis that the organisms of the SL distribute according to similar light comfort zones (LCZ) in the two environments. Our study suggest that surface and underwater light measurements ranging more than10 orders of magnitude is required to assess the controlling effects of light on SL structure and dynamics.

  19. Experimental evidence of zone-center optical phonon softening by accumulating holes in thin Ge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichi Kabuyanagi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the impact of free carriers on the zone-center optical phonon frequency in germanium (Ge. By taking advantage of the Ge-on-insulator structure, we measured the Raman spectroscopy by applying back-gate bias. Phonon softening by accumulating holes in Ge film was clearly observed. This fact strongly suggests that the phonon softening in heavily-doped Ge is mainly attributed to the free carrier effect rather than the dopant atom counterpart. Furthermore, we propose that the free carrier effect on phonon softening is simply understandable from the viewpoint of covalent bonding modification by free carriers.

  20. Decentralized central heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savic, S.; Hudjera, A.

    1994-08-04

    The decentralized central heating is essentially based on new technical solutions for an independent heating unit, which allows up to 20% collectible energy savings and up to 15% savings in built-in-material. These savings are already made possible by the fact that the elements described under point A are thus eliminated from the classical heating. The thus superfluous made elements are replaced by new technical solutions described under point B - technical problem - and point E - patent claim. The technical solutions described in detail under point B and point E form together a technical unit and are essential parts of the invention protected by the patent. (author)

  1. Decentring the Creative Self

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lubart, Todd

    2014-01-01

    to themes depicting the interaction between these different others and the creator. Findings reveal both similarities and differences across the five domains in terms of the specific contribution of others to the creative process. Social interactions play a key formative, regulatory, motivational...... and informational role in relation to creative work. From ‘internalized’ to ‘distant’, other people are an integral part of the equation of creativity calling for a de-centring of the creative self and its re-centring in a social space of actions and interactions....

  2. On Decentralization and Life Satisfaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Dreher, Axel; Fischer, Justina A.V.

    2008-01-01

    We empirically analyze the impact of fiscal and political decentralization on subjective well-being in a cross-section of 60,000 individuals from 66 countries. More spending or revenue decentralization raises well-being while greater local autonomy is beneficial only via government consumption sp...

  3. A contingency approach to decentralization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke, F.; Hulst, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    After decades of centralization, in 1980 the central government of the Netherlands embarked upon an ambitious project to decentralize the administrative system. It proclaimed a series of general decentralization measures that aimed to improve the performance of the administrative system and to boost

  4. En-face imaging of the ellipsoid zone in the retina from optical coherence tomography B-scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, T.; Larkin, S.; Downing, M.; Csaky, K.

    2015-03-01

    It is generally believed that photoreceptor integrity is related to the ellipsoid zone appearance in optical coherence tomography (OCT) B-scans. Algorithms and software were developed for viewing and analyzing the ellipsoid zone. The software performs the following: (a), automated ellipsoid zone isolation in the B-scans, (b), en-face view of the ellipsoid-zone reflectance, (c), alignment and overlay of (b) onto reflectance images of the retina, and (d), alignment and overlay of (c) with microperimetry sensitivity points. Dataset groups were compared from normal and dry age related macular degeneration (DAMD) subjects. Scalar measurements for correlation against condition included the mean and standard deviation of the ellipsoid zone's reflectance. The imageprocessing techniques for automatically finding the ellipsoid zone are based upon a calculation of optical flow which tracks the edges of laminated structures across an image. Statistical significance was shown in T-tests of these measurements with the population pools separated as normal and DAMD subjects. A display of en-face ellipsoid-zone reflectance shows a clear and recognizable difference between any of the normal and DAMD subjects in that they show generally uniform and nonuniform reflectance, respectively, over the region near the macula. Regions surrounding points of low microperimetry (μP) sensitivity have nonregular and lower levels of ellipsoid-zone reflectance nearby. These findings support the idea that the photoreceptor integrity could be affecting both the ellipsoid-zone reflectance and the sensitivity measurements.

  5. Coalition or decentralization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahdiraji, Hannan Amoozad; Govindan, Kannan; Zavadskas, Edmundas Kazimieras

    2014-01-01

    retailers. The Nash equilibrium and definition are used bearing in mind inventory and pricing and marketing cost as decision variables for this matter. This paper studies a three-echelon supply chain network and focuses on the value of integrating a pair of partners in the chain. In the decentralized case......, the supplier sets its own price, the manufacturer points out order quantity, wholesale price and backorder quantity, and the retailer charges the final retail price of the product and marketing product. Though there are multiple players at a single echelon level, each manufacturer supplies only a specific...... to enforce marketing effort any more. Supplier-manufacturer integration brings similar benefits. Under each scenario, all parties involved simultaneously set their strategies. Through a numerical experiment, 17 design cases (through designing experiments) have been developed and the total profit...

  6. The quantitative measurements of foveal avascular zone using optical coherence tomography angiography in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Fariba; Mirshahi, Reza; Bazvand, Fatemeh; Fadakar, Kaveh; Faghihi, Houshang; Sabour, Siamak

    2017-12-01

    To provide normative data of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and thickness. In this cross-sectional study both eyes of each normal subject were scanned with optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) for foveal superficial and deep avascular zone (FAZ) and central foveal thickness (CFT) and parafoveal thickness (PFT). Out of a total of 224 eyes of 112 volunteers with a mean age of 37.03 (12-67) years, the mean superficial FAZ area was 0.27 mm 2 , and deep FAZ area was 0.35 mm 2 ( P  < 0.001), with no difference between both eyes. Females had a larger superficial (0.32 ± 0.11 mm 2 versus 0.23 ± 0.09 mm 2 ) and deep FAZ (0.40 ± 0.14 mm 2 versus 0.31 ± 0.10 mm 2 ) ( P  < 0.001) than males. By multivariate linear regression analysis, in normal eyes, superficial FAZ area varied significantly with the gender, CFT, and deep FAZ. Deep FAZ varied with the gender and CFT. The gender and CFT influence the size of normal superficial and deep FAZ of capillary network.

  7. Signal of microstrip scanning near-field optical microscope in far- and near-field zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yevhenii M; Lapchuk, Anatoliy S

    2016-05-01

    An analytical model of interference between an electromagnetic field of fundamental quasi-TM(EH)00-mode and an electromagnetic field of background radiation at the apex of a near-field probe based on an optical plasmon microstrip line (microstrip probe) has been proposed. The condition of the occurrence of electromagnetic energy reverse flux at the apex of the microstrip probe was obtained. It has been shown that the nature of the interference depends on the length of the probe. Numerical simulation of the sample scanning process was conducted in illumination-reflection and illumination-collection modes. Results of numerical simulation have shown that interference affects the scanning signal in both modes. However, in illumination-collection mode (pure near-field mode), the signal shape and its polarity are practically insensible to probe length change; only signal amplitude (contrast) is slightly changed. However, changing the probe length strongly affects the signal amplitude and shape in the illumination-reflection mode (the signal formed in the far-field zone). Thus, we can conclude that even small background radiation can significantly influence the signal in the far-field zone and has practically no influence on a pure near-field signal.

  8. Decentralized Quasi-Newton Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Mark; Mokhtari, Aryan; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We introduce the decentralized Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (D-BFGS) method as a variation of the BFGS quasi-Newton method for solving decentralized optimization problems. The D-BFGS method is of interest in problems that are not well conditioned, making first order decentralized methods ineffective, and in which second order information is not readily available, making second order decentralized methods impossible. D-BFGS is a fully distributed algorithm in which nodes approximate curvature information of themselves and their neighbors through the satisfaction of a secant condition. We additionally provide a formulation of the algorithm in asynchronous settings. Convergence of D-BFGS is established formally in both the synchronous and asynchronous settings and strong performance advantages relative to first order methods are shown numerically.

  9. Decentralized Bribery and Market Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Popov, Sergey V.

    2012-01-01

    I propose a bribery model that examines decentralized bureaucratic decision-making. There are multiple stable equilibria. High levels of bribery reduce an economy's productivity because corruption suppresses small business, and reduces the total graft, even though the size of an individual bribe might increase. Decentralization prevents movement towards a Pareto-dominant equilibrium. Anticorruption efforts, even temporary ones, might be useful to improve participation, if they lower the bribe...

  10. Sensitive zone parameters and curvature radius evaluation for polymer optical fiber curvature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria

    2018-03-01

    Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are suitable for applications such as curvature sensors, strain, temperature, liquid level, among others. However, for enhancing sensitivity, many polymer optical fiber curvature sensors based on intensity variation require a lateral section. Lateral section length, depth, and surface roughness have great influence on the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis, and linearity. Moreover, the sensor curvature radius increase the stress on the fiber, which leads on variation of the sensor behavior. This paper presents the analysis relating the curvature radius and lateral section length, depth and surface roughness with the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis and linearity for a POF curvature sensor. Results show a strong correlation between the decision parameters behavior and the performance for sensor applications based on intensity variation. Furthermore, there is a trade-off among the sensitive zone length, depth, surface roughness, and curvature radius with the sensor desired performance parameters, which are minimum hysteresis, maximum sensitivity, and maximum linearity. The optimization of these parameters is applied to obtain a sensor with sensitivity of 20.9 mV/°, linearity of 0.9992 and hysteresis below 1%, which represent a better performance of the sensor when compared with the sensor without the optimization.

  11. CLASSIFICATION AND QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF GEOGRAPHIC ATROPHY JUNCTIONAL ZONE USING SPECTRAL DOMAIN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jinfeng; Velaga, Swetha Bindu; Hariri, Amir H; Nittala, Muneeswar Gupta; Sadda, Srinivas

    2017-08-22

    The junctional zone at the border of areas of geographic atrophy (GA) in eyes with nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration is an important target region for future therapeutic strategies. The goal of this study was to perform a detailed classification and quantitative characterization of the junctional zone using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography volume cube scans (Spectralis OCT, 1024 × 37, Automatic Real Time > 9) were obtained from 15 eyes of 11 patients with GA because of nonneovascular age-related macular degeneration. Volume optical coherence tomography data were imported into previously described validated grading software (3D-OCTOR), and manual segmentation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor layers was performed on all B-scans (total of 555). Retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptor defect maps were produced for each case. The borders of the photoreceptor defect area and RPE defect area were delineated individually on separate annotation layers. The two outlines were then superimposed to compare the areas of overlap and nonoverlap. The perimeter of the RPE defect area was calculated by the software in pixels. The superimposed outline of the photoreceptor defect area and the RPE defect area was scrutinized to classify the overlap configuration of the junctional zone into one of three categories: Type 0, exact correspondence between the edge of the RPE defect and photoreceptor defect; Type 1, loss of photoreceptors outside and beyond the edge of the RPE defect; Type 2, preservation of photoreceptors beyond the edge of the RPE defect. The relative proportion of the various border configurations was expressed as a percentage of the perimeter of the RPE defect. Each configuration was then classified into four subgroups according to irregularity of the RPE band and the presence of debris. Fifteen eyes of 11 patients (mean age: 79.3 ± 4.3 years; range: 79-94 years) were

  12. MULTI-ZONE ANTIREFLECTION COATING ON A SUBSTRATE MADE OF OPTICAL ZINC SULPHIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with creation technique for a multi-zone antireflection coating on a substrate made of the optical zinc sulphide ZnS. The coating effectively operates simultaneously in the following spectral ranges: visible region of 450 - 700 nm, in the near infrared region of 1000 - 1100 nm, at the wavelength of 1.55 μm, and in the mid-infrared (IR spectrum of 3 - 5 microns. Reflection coefficient in the range of 450 - 700 nm is not more than 2%, in the range of 1000 - 1100 nm is less than 0.5%, in the range of 1500 - 1700 nm is close to 1.5% and in the range of 3 - 5 μm is equal to 0.6%. Analysis results of the deviation impact in the thickness of layers on the value changing of the energy reflection coefficient in the considered areas are given. Deviation in the thickness of the layer, contiguous with the air, is shown to have the greatest effect on the spectral characteristics of the obtained coating. Refractive index deviation for this layer influences the magnitude of the residual reflection.

  13. Robust Decentralized Formation Flight Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Weihua

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the idea of multiplexed model predictive control (MMPC, this paper introduces a new framework for unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs formation flight and coordination. Formulated using MMPC approach, the whole centralized formation flight system is considered as a linear periodic system with control inputs of each UAV subsystem as its periodic inputs. Divided into decentralized subsystems, the whole formation flight system is guaranteed stable if proper terminal cost and terminal constraints are added to each decentralized MPC formulation of the UAV subsystem. The decentralized robust MPC formulation for each UAV subsystem with bounded input disturbances and model uncertainties is also presented. Furthermore, an obstacle avoidance control scheme for any shape and size of obstacles, including the nonapriorily known ones, is integrated under the unified MPC framework. The results from simulations demonstrate that the proposed framework can successfully achieve robust collision-free formation flights.

  14. Trends in research on forestry decentralization policies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Jens Friis; Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Ribot, Jesse

    2018-01-01

    institutions; studies focusing on power and the role of elites in forestry decentralization, and; studies that historicize and contextualize forestry decentralization as reflective of broader societal phenomena. We argue that these strands reflect disciplinary differences in values, epistemologies, and methods...

  15. Query Optimizations over Decentralized RDF Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim; Mansour, Essam; Ouzzani, Mourad; Aboulnaga, Ashraf; Kalnis, Panos

    2017-01-01

    Applications in life sciences, decentralized social networks, Internet of Things, and statistical linked dataspaces integrate data from multiple decentralized RDF graphs via SPARQL queries. Several approaches have been proposed to optimize query

  16. Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Autonomous Vehicles by John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, Pedram Hovareshti CSHCN TR 2003-8 (ISR TR 2003-14) Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...AND SUBTITLE Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Decentralized Control of Autonomous Vehicles ∗ John S. Baras, Xiaobo Tan, and Pedram

  17. Ubiquitous consultation tool for decentral knowledge workers

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Shirehjini, A.A.; Rühl, C.; Noll, S.

    2003-01-01

    The special issue of this initial study is to examine the current work situation of consulting companies, and to elaborate a concept for supporting decentralized working consultants. The concept addresses significant challenges of decentralized work processes by deploying the Peer-to-Peer methodology to decentralized expert and Knowledge Management, cooperation, and enterprise resource planning.

  18. Statistical mapping of zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange using fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwakanyamale, Kisa; Day-Lewis, Frederick D.; Slater, Lee D.

    2013-01-01

    Fiber-optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) increasingly is used to map zones of focused groundwater/surface-water exchange (GWSWE). Previous studies of GWSWE using FO-DTS involved identification of zones of focused GWSWE based on arbitrary cutoffs of FO-DTS time-series statistics (e.g., variance, cross-correlation between temperature and stage, or spectral power). New approaches are needed to extract more quantitative information from large, complex FO-DTS data sets while concurrently providing an assessment of uncertainty associated with mapping zones of focused GSWSE. Toward this end, we present a strategy combining discriminant analysis (DA) and spectral analysis (SA). We demonstrate the approach using field experimental data from a reach of the Columbia River adjacent to the Hanford 300 Area site. Results of the combined SA/DA approach are shown to be superior to previous results from qualitative interpretation of FO-DTS spectra alone.

  19. Decentralized control: Status and outlook

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2014), s. 71-80 ISSN 1367-5788 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * networked control systems * event-triggered approach Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 2.518, year: 2014

  20. Peer Matcher : Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, Nicolae Vladimir; Voulgaris, Spyros; Bal, Henri; van Halteren, Aart

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents Peer Matcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pair wise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, Peer Matcher

  1. Music Libraries: Centralization versus Decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyper-Rushing, Lois

    2002-01-01

    Considers the decision that branch libraries, music libraries in particular, have struggled with concerning a centralized location in the main library versus a decentralized collection. Reports on a study of the Association of Research Libraries that investigated the location of music libraries, motivation for the location, degrees offered,…

  2. The Two Edge Knife of Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Khoirul Umam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A centralistic government model has become a trend in a number of developing countries, in which the ideosycretic aspect becomes pivotal key in the policy making. The situation constitutes authoritarianism, cronyism, and corruption. To break the impasse, the decentralized system is proposed to make people closer to the public policy making. Decentralization is also convinced to be the solution to create a good governance. But a number of facts in the developing countries demonstrates that decentralization indeed has ignite emerges backfires such as decentralized corruption, parochialism, horizontal conflict, local political instability and others. This article elaborates the theoretical framework on decentralization's ouput as the a double-edge knife. In a simple words, the concept of decentralization does not have a permanent relationship with the creation of good governance and development. Without substantive democracy, decentralization is indeed potential to be a destructive political instrument threating the state's future.

  3. Decentralized neural control application to robotics

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Hernandez, Ramon; Sanchez, Edgar N; Alanis, Alma y; Ruz-Hernandez, Jose A

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a decentralized approach for the identification and control of robotics systems. It also presents recent research in decentralized neural control and includes applications to robotics. Decentralized control is free from difficulties due to complexity in design, debugging, data gathering and storage requirements, making it preferable for interconnected systems. Furthermore, as opposed to the centralized approach, it can be implemented with parallel processors. This approach deals with four decentralized control schemes, which are able to identify the robot dynamics. The training of each neural network is performed on-line using an extended Kalman filter (EKF). The first indirect decentralized control scheme applies the discrete-time block control approach, to formulate a nonlinear sliding manifold. The second direct decentralized neural control scheme is based on the backstepping technique, approximated by a high order neural network. The third control scheme applies a decentralized neural i...

  4. Centralized or decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, H.A. de.

    1975-01-01

    Because of low overall efficiency in electric power generation, it is argued that energy provision based on gas, combined with locally decentralized electricity production, saves for the Netherlands slightly more fossile fuel than nuclear technologies and makes the country independent of uranium resources. The reason the Netherlands persues this approach is that a big part of the energy is finally used for heating in the normal or moderate temperatures

  5. Problems in decentralized data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eder, R.

    1985-04-01

    This paper describes INIS (International Nuclear Information System) which is operated by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in collaboration with 73 Member States and 14 international organizations. INIS is a computerized system for collecting, processing and disseminating nuclear information. The collection and scanning of literature, input preparation and the dissemination of output are completely decentralized, the checking and merging of the information data are centralized. This paper shows the structure, management, processing and problem areas of this system. (Author)

  6. Optical properties of Ni-doped MgGa2O4 single crystals grown by floating zone method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Takenobu; Hughes, Mark; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2010-01-01

    The single crystal growth conditions and spectroscopic characterization of Ni-doped MgGa 2 O 4 with inverse-spinel structure crystal family are described. Single crystals of this material have been grown by floating zone method. Ni-doped MgGa 2 O 4 single crystals have broadband fluorescence in the 1100-1600 nm wavelength range, 1.6 ms room temperature lifetime, 56% quantum efficiency and 1.05x10 -21 cm 2 stimulated emission cross section at the emission peak. This new material is very promising for tunable laser applications covering the important optical communication and eye safe wavelength region.

  7. Optical Benson: Following the Impact of Melt Season Progression Using Landsat and Sentinel 2 - Snow Zone Formation Imaged

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahnestock, M. A.; Shuman, C. A.; Alley, K. E.

    2017-12-01

    Snow pit observations on a glaciologically-focussed surface traverse in Greenland allowed Benson [1962, SIPRE (now CRREL) Research Report 70] to define a series of snow zones based on the extent of post-depositional diagenesis of the snowpack. At high elevations, Benson found fine-grained "dry snow" where melt (at that time) was absent year-round, followed down-elevation by a "percolation zone" where surface melt penetrated the snowpack, then a "wet snow zone" where firn became saturated during the peak of the melt season, and finally "superimposed ice" and "bare ice" zones where refrozen surface melt and glacier ice were exposed in the melt season. These snow zones can be discriminated in winter synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery of the ice sheet (e.g. Fahnestock et al. 2001), but summer melt reduces radar backscatter and makes it difficult to follow the progression of diagenesis beyond the initial indications of surface melting. While some of the impacts of surface melt (especially bands of blue water-saturated firn) are observed from time to time in optical satellite imagery, it has only become possible to map effects of melt over the course of a summer season with the advent of large-data analysis tools such as Google Earth Engine and the inclusion of Landsat and Sentinel-2 data streams in these tools. A map of the maximum extent of this blue saturated zone through the 2016 melt season is shown in the figure. This image is a true color (RGB) composite, but each pixel in the image shows the color of the surface when the "blueness" of the pixel was at a maximum. This means each pixel can be from a different satellite image acquisition than adjacent pixels - but it also means that the maximum extent of the saturated firn (Benson's wet snow zone) is visible. Also visible are percolation, superimposed and bare ice zones. This analysis, using Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager data, was performed using Google Earth Engine to access and analyze the entire melt

  8. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian M.; Le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob Roland

    in the individual worker's wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. Consistent with predictions we find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems. However, the differences across wage-setting systems......This paper studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use a detailed panel data set covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides exogenous variation...

  9. Decentralized or Centralized Systems for Colleges and Universities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydinger, Richard B.; Norris, Donald M.

    1979-01-01

    Arguments for and against decentralization of data management, analysis, and planning systems are presented. It is suggested that technological advances have encouraged decentralization. Caution in this direction is urged and the development of an articulated decentralization program is proposed. (SF)

  10. Sub-100 nm hard X-ray microbeam generation with Fresnel zone plate optics

    CERN Document Server

    Takano, H; Takeuchi, A

    2003-01-01

    A hard X-ray focusing test of a Fresnel zone plate has been performed with a synchrotron radiation source at the undulator beamline 20XU of SPring-8. Fresnel zone plate with a radius of 150 mu m, and an outermost zone width of 100 nm was used for the X-ray focusing device. The 248-m-long beamline provides fully coherent illumination for the focusing device. The focused beam evaluated by the knife-edge-scan method and scanning microscope test using test charts. Nearly diffraction- limited focusing with a size of 120 nm was achieved for the first-order diffraction at 10 keV X-ray. Evaluation for the third order diffraction was also performed at 8 keV X-ray, and a focal size of 50 m has been obtained. (author)

  11. Decentralization in Botswana: the reluctant process | Dipholo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Botswana\\'s decentralization process has always been justified in terms of democracy and development. Consequently, the government has always argued that it is fully committed to decentralization in order to promote popular participation as well as facilitating sustainable rural development. Yet the government does not ...

  12. Decentralized control using compositional analysis techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, F.; van der Schaft, A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Decentralized control strategies aim at achieving a global control target by means of distributed local controllers acting on individual subsystems of the overall plant. In this sense, decentralized control is a dual problem to compositional analysis where a global verification task is decomposed

  13. Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-22

    Policy Recommendations on Decentralization, Local Power and Women's Rights. December 22, 2010. Image. The present document comprises a set of policy recommendations that define a global agenda on gender and decentralization. It emerged from the analysis and experiences shared during the Conference and the ...

  14. Decentralized Decision Making Toward Educational Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, William W.; Johnson, Homer M.

    This monograph provides guidelines to help those school districts considering a more decentralized form of management. The authors discuss the levels at which different types of decisions should be made, describe the changing nature of the educational environment, identify different centralization-decentralization models, and suggest a flexible…

  15. What supervisors want to know about decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissoneau, R; Belton, P

    1991-06-01

    Many organizations in various industries have tended to move away from strict centralization, yet some centralization is still vital to top management. With 19 of the 22 executives interviewed favoring or implementing some form of decentralization, it is probable that traditionally centralized organizations will follow the trend and begin to decentralize their organizational structures. The incentives and advantages of decentralization are too attractive to ignore. Decentralization provides responsibility, clear objectives, accountability for results, and more efficient and effective decision making. However, one must remember that decentralization can be overextended and that centralization is still viable in certain functions. Finding the correct balance between control and autonomy is a key to decentralization. Too much control and too much autonomy are the primary reasons for decentralization failures. In today's changing, competitive environment, structures must be continuously redefined, with the goal of finding an optimal balance between centralization and decentralization. Organizations are cautioned not to seek out and install a single philosopher-king to impose unified direction, but to unify leadership goals, participation, style, and control to develop improved methods of making all responsible leaders of one mind about the organization's needs and goals.

  16. Decentralization or centralization: striking a balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirschel, K M

    1994-09-01

    An Executive Vice President for Nursing can provide the necessary link to meet diverse clinical demands when encountering centralization--decentralization decisions. Centralized communication links hospital departments giving nurses a unified voice. Decentralization acknowledges the need for diversity and achieves the right balance of uniformity through a responsive communications network.

  17. Wage Dispersion and Decentralization of Wage Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; le Maire, Christian Daniel; Munch, Jakob R.

    2013-01-01

    This article studies how decentralization of wage bargaining from sector to firm level influences wage levels and wage dispersion. We use detailed panel data covering a period of decentralization in the Danish labor market. The decentralization process provides variation in the individual worker......'s wage-setting system that facilitates identification of the effects of decentralization. We find a wage premium associated with firm-level bargaining relative to sector-level bargaining and that the return to skills is higher under the more decentralized wage-setting systems. Using quantile regression......, we also find that wages are more dispersed under firm-level bargaining compared to more centralized wage-setting systems....

  18. Wind Farm Decentralized Dynamic Modeling With Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltani, Mohsen; Shakeri, Sayyed Mojtaba; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    2010-01-01

    Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...... local models. The results of this report are especially useful, but not limited, to design a decentralized wind farm controller, since in centralized controller design one can also use the model and update it in a central computing node.......Development of dynamic wind flow models for wind farms is part of the research in European research FP7 project AEOLUS. The objective of this report is to provide decentralized dynamic wind flow models with parameters. The report presents a structure for decentralized flow models with inputs from...

  19. Decentralized Procurement in Light of Strategic Inventories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frimor, Hans; Arya, Anil; Mittendorf, Brian

    2015-01-01

    The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied and conf......The centralization versus decentralization choice is perhaps the quintessential organizational structure decision. In the operations realm, this choice is particularly critical when it comes to the procurement function. Why firms may opt to decentralize procurement has been often studied...... and confirmed to be a multifaceted choice. This paper complements existing studies by detailing the trade-offs in the centralization versus decentralization decision in light of firm's decision to cede procurement choices to its individual devisions can help moderate inventory levels and provide a natural salve...

  20. Decentralized Energy from Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Antizar-Ladislao

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change.

  1. Decentralized energy from waste systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antizar-Ladislao, B.; Turrion-Gomez, J. L.

    2010-01-01

    In the last five years or so, biofuels have been given notable consideration worldwide as an alternative to fossil fuels, due to their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by partial replacement of oil as a transport fuel. The production of biofuels using a sustainable approach, should consider local production of biofuels, obtained from local feedstocks and adapted to the socio-economical and environmental characteristics of the particular region where they are developed. Thus, decentralized energy from waste systems will exploit local biomass to optimize their production and consumption. Waste streams such as agricultural and wood residues, municipal solid waste, vegetable oils, and algae residues can all be integrated in energy from waste systems. An integral optimization of decentralized energy from waste systems should not be based on the optimization of each single process, but the overall optimization of the whole process. This is by obtaining optimal energy and environmental benefits, as well as collateral beneficial co-products such as soil fertilizers which will result in a higher food crop production and carbon dioxide fixation which will abate climate change. (author)

  2. Thermal, spectroscopic and laser properties of Nd3+ in gadolinium scandium gallium garnet crystal produced by optical floating zone method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Wang, Shuxian; Wu, Kui; Wang, Baolin; Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Cai, Huaqiang; Huang, Hui

    2013-12-01

    A neodymium-doped gadolinium scandium gallium garnet (Nd:GSGG) single crystal with dimensions of Φ 5 × 20 mm2 has been grown by means of optical floating zone (OFZ). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) result shows that the as-grown Nd:GSGG crystal possesses a cubic structure with space group Ia3d and a cell parameter of a = 1.2561 nm. Effective elemental segregation coefficients of the Nd:GSGG as-grown crystal were calculated by using X-ray fluorescence (XRF). The thermal properties of the Nd:GSGG crystal were systematically studied by measuring the specific heat, thermal expansion and thermal diffusion coefficient, and the thermal conductivity of this crystal was calculated. The absorption and luminescence spectra of Nd:GSGG were measured at room temperature (RT). By using the Judd-Ofelt (J-O) theory, the theoretical radiative lifetime was calculated and compared with the experimental result. Continuous wave (CW) laser performance was achieved with the Nd:GSGG at the wavelength of 1062 nm when it was pumped by a laser diode (LD). A maximum output power of 0.792 W at 1062 nm was obtained with a slope efficiency of 11.89% under a pump power of 7.36 W, and an optical-optical conversion efficiency of 11.72%.

  3. Dynamic magneto-optical imaging of transport current redistribution and normal zone propagation in YBa2Cu3O7-δ coated conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Honghai; Schwartz, Justin; Davidson, Michael W

    2009-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) coated conductors carry high critical current density with the potential for low cost and thus have a broad range of potential applications. An unresolved issue that could inhibit implementation, however, is a lack of understanding of the current redistribution and normal zone propagation behavior in the event of a thermal disturbance (quench). In this work, we for the first time present the real-time, dynamic observation of magnetic field redistribution during a thermal disturbance via magneto-optical imaging with a high speed, high resolution CCD (charge coupled device) camera. The optical images are converted to a two-dimensional, time-dependent data set that is then analyzed quantitatively. It is found that the normal zone propagates non-uniformly in two dimensions within the YBCO layer. Two stages of normal zone propagation are observed. During the first stage, the normal zone propagates along the conductor length as the current and magnetic field redistribute within the YBCO layer. During the second stage, current sharing with the Cu begins and the magneto-optical image becomes constant. The normal zone propagation velocity at 45 K, I = 50 A (∼50% I c ), is determined as 22.7 mm s -1 using the time-dependent optical light intensity data. (rapid communication)

  4. Microphysical and optical properties of aerosol particles in urban zone during ESCOMPTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, M.; Roger, J. C.; Despiau, S.; Dubovik, O.; Putaud, J. P.

    2003-10-01

    Microphysical and optical properties of the main aerosol species on a peri-urban site have been investigated during the ESCOMPTE experiment. Ammonium sulfate (AS), nitrate (N), black carbon (BC), particulate organic matter (POM), sea salt (SS) and mineral aerosol (D) size distributions have been used, associated with their refractive index, to compute, from the Mie theory, the key radiative aerosol properties as the extinction coefficient Kext, the mass extinction efficiencies σext, the single scattering albedo ω0 and the asymmetry parameter g at the wavelength of 550 nm. Optical computations show that 90% of the light extinction is due to anthropogenic aerosol and only 10% is due to natural aerosol (SS and D). 44±6% of the extinction is due to (AS) and 40±6% to carbonaceous particles (20±4% to BC and 21±4% to POM). Nitrate aerosol has a weak contribution of 5±2%. Computations of the mass extinction efficiencies σext, single scattering albedo ω0 and asymmetry parameter g indicate that the optical properties of the anthropogenic aerosol are often quite different from those yet published and generally used in global models. For example, the (AS) mean specific mass extinction presents a large difference with the value classically adopted at low relative humidity ( h<60%) (2.6±0.5 instead of 6 m 2 g -1 at 550 nm). The optical properties of the total aerosol layer, including all the aerosol species, indicate a mean observed single-scattering albedo ω0=0.85±0.05, leading to an important absorption of the solar radiation and an asymmetry parameter g=0.59±0.05 which are in a reasonably good agreements with the AERONET retrieval of ω0 (=0.86±0.05) and g (=0.64±0.05) at this wavelength.

  5. Bitcoin as a decentralized currency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinić Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bitcoin is the first decentralized peer-to-peer crypto-currency founded in 2009. Its main specificity is the fact that there is no issuer of this currency. On the other hand, the supply of this currency is software-programmed and limited. Among other things, its main features are relatively secure payments, low transaction costs, anonymity, inability of counterfeiting, irreversibility of transactions, but also extremely unstable exchange rate. Despite many advantages, the use of this currency is subject of numerous discussions, as this currency offers the possibility of performing various abuses and criminal activities. The future of this and other currencies in this regard depends on both security and privacy of these currencies, and legal regulation of such payments.

  6. Study of the Effectiveness of OCR for Decentralized Data Capture and Conversion. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, David M.; And Others

    The ERIC network conversion to an OCR (Optical Character Recognition) mode of data entry was studied to analyze the potential effectiveness of OCR data entry for future EPC/s (Editorial Processing Centers). Study results are also applicable to any other system involving decentralized bibliographic data capture and conversion functions. The report…

  7. Intraocular Telescopic System Design: Optical and Visual Simulation in a Human Eye Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Zoulinakis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To design an intraocular telescopic system (ITS for magnifying retinal image and to simulate its optical and visual performance after implantation in a human eye model. Methods. Design and simulation were carried out with a ray-tracing and optical design software. Two different ITS were designed, and their visual performance was simulated using the Liou-Brennan eye model. The difference between the ITS was their lenses’ placement in the eye model and their powers. Ray tracing in both centered and decentered situations was carried out for both ITS while visual Strehl ratio (VSOTF was computed using custom-made MATLAB code. Results. The results show that between 0.4 and 0.8 mm of decentration, the VSOTF does not change much either for far or near target distances. The image projection for these decentrations is in the parafoveal zone, and the quality of the image projected is quite similar. Conclusion. Both systems display similar quality while they differ in size; therefore, the choice between them would need to take into account specific parameters from the patient’s eye. Quality does not change too much between 0.4 and 0.8 mm of decentration for either system which gives flexibility to the clinician to adjust decentration to avoid areas of retinal damage.

  8. Intraocular Telescopic System Design: Optical and Visual Simulation in a Human Eye Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoulinakis, Georgios; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. To design an intraocular telescopic system (ITS) for magnifying retinal image and to simulate its optical and visual performance after implantation in a human eye model. Methods. Design and simulation were carried out with a ray-tracing and optical design software. Two different ITS were designed, and their visual performance was simulated using the Liou-Brennan eye model. The difference between the ITS was their lenses' placement in the eye model and their powers. Ray tracing in both centered and decentered situations was carried out for both ITS while visual Strehl ratio (VSOTF) was computed using custom-made MATLAB code. Results. The results show that between 0.4 and 0.8 mm of decentration, the VSOTF does not change much either for far or near target distances. The image projection for these decentrations is in the parafoveal zone, and the quality of the image projected is quite similar. Conclusion. Both systems display similar quality while they differ in size; therefore, the choice between them would need to take into account specific parameters from the patient's eye. Quality does not change too much between 0.4 and 0.8 mm of decentration for either system which gives flexibility to the clinician to adjust decentration to avoid areas of retinal damage.

  9. Federalism and Decentralization of Education in Argentina. Unintended Consequences of Decentralization of Expenditures in a Federal Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falleti, Tulia G.

    By analyzing the process of decentralization of education in Argentina, this paper complements the existing literature on decentralization and federalism in two ways: (1) it studies the impact of federal institutions on the origins and evolution of decentralization; and (2) it analyzes a case of decentralization of education that, in a way not…

  10. Optical image encryption using fresnel zone plate mask based on fast walsh hadamard transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Mehak; Singh, Hukum

    2018-05-01

    A new symmetric encryption technique using Fresnel Zone Plate (FZP) based on Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform (FWHT) is proposed for security enhancement. In this technique, bits of plain image is randomized by shuffling the bits randomly. The obtained scrambled image is then masked with FZP using symmetric encryption in FWHT domain to obtain final encrypted image. FWHT has been used in the cryptosystem so as to protect image data from the quantization error and for reconstructing the image perfectly. The FZP used in proposed scheme increases the key space and makes it robust to many traditional attacks. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed cryptosystem has been analyzed on the basis of various parameters by simulating on MATLAB 8.1.0 (R2012b). The experimental results are provided to highlight suitability of the proposed cryptosystem and prove that the system is secure.

  11. Decentralization and financial autonomy: a challenge for local public authorities in the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana MANOLE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects the decentralization process currently taking place in the Republic of Moldova. The purpose of the research is to acquaint readers with the fundamental concept of decentralization, with the areas of administrative decentralization, with the forms of manifestation of financial decentralization: fiscal decentralization and budget decentralization. The priorities of the decentralization process are identified.

  12. The aerosol optical properties and PM2.5 components over the world's largest industrial zone in Tangshan, North China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kequan; Ma, Yongjing; Xin, Jinyuan; Liu, Zirui; Ma, Yining; Gao, Dongdong; Wu, Junsong; Zhang, Wenyu; Wang, Yuesi; Shen, Pengke

    2018-03-01

    To achieve an in-depth understanding of the aerosol optical properties in the highly-industrial region of Tangshan, we provided systematic aerosol optical properties analysis in this largest industrial zone for the first time. The aerosol optical datasets (2013.05-2015.04) and chemical component data of PM2.5 (2014-2015) obtained from the Tangshan site of the campaign on atmospheric aerosol research (CARE-China) network were analyzed. The results showed that the Tangshan region was seriously affected by fine-mode industrial aerosols all year, which would promote the accumulation of pollutants and influence the atmospheric circulation through changing the vertical temperature gradient. The annual average aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångstrӧm exponent (α) were 0.80 ± 0.26 and 1.05 ± 0.10, respectively. The aerosol optical properties revealed significant seasonal characteristics. The maximum seasonal average AOD (1.03 ± 0.62) and α (1.12 ± 0.19) accompanied the highest seasonal secondary inorganic aerosol concentrations (SIA: SO42 -, NO3-, NH4+), 53.33 μg/m3, occurred in summer, and this phenomenon was attributed to the photochemical reactions favored by the high temperature and humidity. During the spring, frequent dust events led to the maximum Ca2 + concentration of 6.57 μg/m3 and the lowest seasonal α of 0.98 ± 0.31. Coal was used for generating heat in winter, resulting in the highest levels of pollutant emissions (Cl-, Elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC)). The aerosol type classifications showed that the industrial aerosols were the main controls in the summer and fall, representing 56%-58% of the total aerosols. While for spring and winter, mixed aerosols represented 53%-54% of the total aerosols. Hygroscopic growth effect of aerosols existed all year, which could enhance the negative radiative forcing and eventually cool the earth-atmosphere system. The classification Wing for Tangshan data showed high AOD values (> 0.70) were mainly

  13. Computing for Decentralized Systems (lecture 2)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    With the rise of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies it is becoming apparent the paradigm shift towards decentralized computing. Computer engineers will need to understand this shift when developing systems in the coming years. Transferring value over the Internet is just one of the first working use cases of decentralized systems, but it is expected they will be used for a number of different services such as general purpose computing, data storage, or even new forms of governance. Decentralized systems, however, pose a series of challenges that cannot be addressed with traditional approaches in computing. Not having a central authority implies truth must be agreed upon rather than simply trusted and, so, consensus protocols, cryptographic data structures like the blockchain, and incentive models like mining rewards become critical for the correct behavior of decentralized system. This series of lectures will be a fast track to introduce these fundamental concepts through working examples and pra...

  14. Decentralized Utilitarian Mechanisms for Scheduling Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, R.; Correa, J.; Gkatzelis, V.; Mirrokni, V.; Olver, N.K.

    2015-01-01

    Game Theory and Mechanism Design are by now standard tools for studying and designing massive decentralized systems. Unfortunately, designing mechanisms that induce socially efficient outcomes often requires full information and prohibitively large computational resources. In this work we study

  15. Computing for Decentralized Systems (lecture 1)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    With the rise of Bitcoin, Ethereum, and other cryptocurrencies it is becoming apparent the paradigm shift towards decentralized computing. Computer engineers will need to understand this shift when developing systems in the coming years. Transferring value over the Internet is just one of the first working use cases of decentralized systems, but it is expected they will be used for a number of different services such as general purpose computing, data storage, or even new forms of governance. Decentralized systems, however, pose a series of challenges that cannot be addressed with traditional approaches in computing. Not having a central authority implies truth must be agreed upon rather than simply trusted and, so, consensus protocols, cryptographic data structures like the blockchain, and incentive models like mining rewards become critical for the correct behavior of decentralized system. This series of lectures will be a fast track to introduce these fundamental concepts through working examples and pra...

  16. The effects of fiscal decentralization in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Blerta Dragusha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available “Basically decentralization is a democratic reform which seeks to transfer the political, administrative, financial and planning authority from central to local government. It seeks to develop civic participation, empowerment of local people in decision making process and to promote accountability and reliability: To achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the collection and management of resources and service delivery”1 The interest and curiosity of knowing how our country is doing in this process, still unfinished, served as a motivation forme to treat this topic: fiscal decentralization as a process of giving 'power' to local governments, not only in terms of rights deriving from this process but also on the responsibilities that come with it. Which are the stages before and after decentralization, and how has it affected the process in several key indicators? Is decentralization a good process only, or can any of its effects be seen as an disadvantage?

  17. Decentralization and the local development state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmenegger, Rony Hugo

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the politics of decentralization and state-peasant encounters in rural Oromiya, Ethiopia. Breaking with a centralized past, the incumbent government of the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF) committed itself to a decentralization policy in the early 1990......s and has since then created a number of new sites for state-citizen interactions. In the context of electoral authoritarianism, however, decentralization has been interpreted as a means for the expansion of the party-state at the grass-roots level. Against this backdrop, this article attempts...... between the 2005 and 2010 elections. Based on ethnographic field research, the empirical case presented discloses that decentralization and state-led development serve the expansion of state power into rural areas, but that state authority is simultaneously constituted and undermined in the course...

  18. The Two Edge Knife of Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Umam, Ahmad Khoirul

    2011-01-01

    A centralistic government model has become a trend in a number of developing countries, in which the ideosycretic aspect becomes pivotal key in the policy making. The situation constitutes authoritarianism, cronyism, and corruption. To break the impasse, the decentralized system is proposed to make people closer to the public policy making. Decentralization is also convinced to be the solution to create a good governance. But a number of facts in the developing countries demonstrates that dec...

  19. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that decentralized governance is gendered and technocratic as grassroots women's effective participation is lacking. Second, it shows that the insertion of women in local governance is merely a symbolic politica...

  20. Decentralized energy supply and electricity market structures

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Christoph; Vogel, Philip

    2005-01-01

    Small decentralized power generation units (DG) are politically promoted because of their potential to reduce GHG-emissions and the existing dependency on fossil fuels. A long term goal of this promotion should be the creation of a level playing field for DG and conventional power generation. Due to the impact of DG on the electricity grid infrastructure, future regulation should consider the costs and benefits of the integration of decentralized energy generation units. Without an adequate c...

  1. Decentralized flight trajectory planning of multiple aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Yokoyama, Nobuhiro; 横山 信宏

    2008-01-01

    Conventional decentralized algorithms for optimal trajectory planning tend to require prohibitive computational time as the number of aircraft increases. To overcome this drawback, this paper proposes a novel decentralized trajectory planning algorithm adopting a constraints decoupling approach for parallel optimization. The constraints decoupling approach is formulated as the path constraints of the real-time trajectory optimization problem based on nonlinear programming. Due to the parallel...

  2. Decentralized electricity production. v. 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The first part of the symposium is concerned with market analysis, case studies and prospectives for the decentralized production of electricity in France: cogeneration, heat networks, municipal waste incineration, etc. Financing systems and microeconomical analysis are presented. The second part is devoted to macroeconomical outlooks (France and Europe mainly) on decentralized electricity production (cogeneration, small-scale hydroelectric power plants), to other countries experience (PV systems connected to the grid, cogeneration, etc.) and to price contracts and regulations

  3. Centralized, Decentralized, and Hybrid Purchasing Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bals, Lydia; Turkulainen, Virpi

    This paper addresses one of the focal issues in purchasing and supply management – global sourcing – from an organizational design perspective. In particular, we elaborate the traditional classification of global sourcing organization designs into centralized, decentralized, and hybrid models. We...... organization we can identify organization designs beyond the classical centralization-decentralization continuum. We also provide explanations for the observed organization design at GCC. The study contributes to research on purchasing and supply management as well as research on organization design....

  4. Partially Decentralized Control Architectures for Satellite Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bauer, Frank H.

    2002-01-01

    In a partially decentralized control architecture, more than one but less than all nodes have supervisory capability. This paper describes an approach to choosing the number of supervisors in such au architecture, based on a reliability vs. cost trade. It also considers the implications of these results for the design of navigation systems for satellite formations that could be controlled with a partially decentralized architecture. Using an assumed cost model, analytic and simulation-based results indicate that it may be cheaper to achieve a given overall system reliability with a partially decentralized architecture containing only a few supervisors, than with either fully decentralized or purely centralized architectures. Nominally, the subset of supervisors may act as centralized estimation and control nodes for corresponding subsets of the remaining subordinate nodes, and act as decentralized estimation and control peers with respect to each other. However, in the context of partially decentralized satellite formation control, the absolute positions and velocities of each spacecraft are unique, so that correlations which make estimates using only local information suboptimal only occur through common biases and process noise. Covariance and monte-carlo analysis of a simplified system show that this lack of correlation may allow simplification of the local estimators while preserving the global optimality of the maneuvers commanded by the supervisors.

  5. Hybrid numerical-experimental optical investigation of the contact zone of ultrasonic motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostasevicius, Vytautas; Palevicius, Arvydas; Ragulskis, Minvydas; Janusas, Giedrius; Pilkauskas, Kestutis

    2005-09-01

    Ultrasonic motors have seen application in areas needing compact, efficient, and intermittent motion. Such applications include: camera auto focus lenses, watch motors, compact paper handling, microrobots, medicine and etc.. They are characterized by high torque at low rotational speed, simple mechanical design and good controllability. Compared with electromagnetic actuators, there is no danger of interference due to electromagnetic induction because no magnetic field is used and ultrasonic motors are more quiet since speed-reduction gears are not required. A polarization vector of the piezoceramic element and location of excitation electrodes on its surface determine the resonance modes of the high frequency vibration exciter. In its turn the modes of vibration play a key role in the functionality of ultrasonic motor. There are analyzed two different regimes of operation--when the contact zone of the resonator performs elliptic and unidirectional motions. Though the mechanical characteristics of the ultrasonic motor in both cases are comparable, detailed analysis of the contact surface shows very different wears. Laser holography is used to identify and control the regimes of motion of actuator. Experimental results are compared with computer simulations. Contact surfaces are analyzed by atomic force microscope (AFM) before experiment, after 10 minutes and after 50 minutes of operation.

  6. Reliability of power profiles measured on NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X) and effects of lens decentration for single vision, bifocal and multifocal contact lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eon; Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the repeatability of power profiles measured on NIMO TR1504 (Lambda-X, Belgium) and investigate the effects of lens decentration on the power profiles for single vision (SV), bifocal (BF) and multifocal (MF) contact lenses. Accuracy of the sphere power was evaluated using single vision BK-7 calibration glass lenses of six minus and six plus powers. Three SV and four BF/MF contact lenses - three lenses each, were measured five times to calculate the coefficients of repeatability (COR) of the instrument. The COR was computed for each chord position, lens design, prescription power and operator. One lens from each type was measured with a deliberate decentration up to ±0.5mm in 0.1mm steps. For all lenses, the COR varied across different regions of the half-chord position. In general, SV lenses showed lower COR compared to the BF/MF group lenses. There were no noticeable trends of COR between prescription powers for SV and BF/MF lenses. The shape of the power profiles was not affected when lenses were deliberately decentered for all SV and PureVision MF lenses. However, for Acuvue BF lenses, the peak to trough amplitude of the power profiles flattened up to 1.00D. The COR across the half-chord of the optic zone diameter was mostly within clinical relevance except for the central 0.5mm half-chord position. COR were dependent on the lens type, whereby BF/MF group produced higher COR than SV lenses. The effects of deliberate decentration on the shape of power profiles were pronounced for lenses where the profiles had sharp transitions of power. Copyright © 2015 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. VARIABILITY IN FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AND CAPILLARY DENSITY USING OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY MACHINES IN HEALTHY EYES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrath, George N; Say, Emil Anthony T; Sioufi, Kareem; Ferenczy, Sandor; Samara, Wasim A; Shields, Carol L

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the variability in foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and capillary density measurements on optical coherence tomography angiography using Optovue RTVue XR Avanti (OA) (Optovue) and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000 (ZC) (Carl Zeiss Meditec). In this prospective, comparative case series, parafoveal (3 × 3 mm) optical coherence tomography angiography scans were obtained on healthy volunteers using both the Avanti and Cirrus. The FAZ area and capillary density at the level of both the superficial and deep capillary plexus were measured automatically using the built-in ReVue software (Optovue) with the Avanti as well as manually using ImageJ (National Institutes of Health) with both machines. There were 50 eyes in 25 healthy volunteers included in the analysis. Mean subject age was 33 years and there were 14 women (56%). On optical coherence tomography, mean central macular thickness was significantly greater on OA (259.1 μm) than ZC (257.6 μm, P = 0.0228). On optical coherence tomography angiography, mean superficial and deep plexus FAZ measured 0.2855 mm and 0.3465 mm on Avanti automated (A-A), 0.2739 mm and 0.3637 mm on Avanti manual (A-M), and 0.2657 mm and 0.3993 mm on Cirrus manual (C-M), respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in superficial plexus FAZ measurements between the A-A and A-M (P = 0.4019) or A-A and C-M (P = 0.1336). The A-M measured significantly larger than C-M (P = 0.0396). Deep plexus FAZ measurements were similar on A-A and A-M (P = 0.6299), but both were significantly less compared with C-M (P machine and technique are consistent and reliable between fellow eyes, significant variability exists in FAZ and capillary density measurements among different machines and techniques. Comparison of measurements across machines and techniques should be considered with caution.

  8. Leaf ultraviolet optical properties along a latitudinal gradient in the Arctic-Alpine life zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robberecht, R.; Caldwell, M.M.; Billings, W.D.

    1980-01-01

    Leaf epidermal transmittance of terrestrial solar ultraviolet-B radiation (295 to 320 nm) was examined along a latitudinal gradient of solar uv-B radiation. In high uv-B radiation zones, e.g., equatorial and tropical regions, mean epidermal transmittance for the species examined was less than 2%. At higher latitudes, mean epidermal transmittance exceeded 5%. Although this latitudinal solar uv-B gradient represents more than a seven-fold difference in daily integrated uv-B irradiance, the calculated mean effective uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll of low-latitude species is not substantially different from that of species at higher latitudes. Species in high uv-B radiation environments appear to attenuate this radiation more effectively than those in lower irradiance environments. In most cases, absorption of uv-B in the epidermis is the major parameter effecting low transmittance. Reflectance from glabrous leaves is generally less than 10%. In some species, pubescent or glaucous leaf surfaces can reflect more than 40% of the uv-B radiation incident on a horizontal leaf, although such surface characteristics do not necessarily indicate high uv-B reflectance. Under controlled conditions, epidermal transmittance in Pisum sativum L. decreased in response to uv-B irradiation. The modification of epidermal transmittance, resulting in lower uv-B irradiance at the mesophyll, may represent a mechanism of plant acclimation to uv-B radiation. Such acclimation may have occurred in several wildland species of temperate-latitude origin that have invaded high uv-B irradiance equatorial and tropical regions

  9. Compensating additional optical power in the central zone of a multifocal contact lens forminimization of the shrinkage error of the shell mold in the injection molding process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Lien T; Chen, Chao-Chang A; Lee, Chia-Cheng; Yu, Chia-Wei

    2018-04-20

    This study aims to develop a compensating method to minimize the shrinkage error of the shell mold (SM) in the injection molding (IM) process to obtain uniform optical power in the central optical zone of soft axial symmetric multifocal contact lenses (CL). The Z-shrinkage error along the Z axis or axial axis of the anterior SM corresponding to the anterior surface of a dry contact lens in the IM process can be minimized by optimizing IM process parameters and then by compensating for additional (Add) powers in the central zone of the original lens design. First, the shrinkage error is minimized by optimizing three levels of four IM parameters, including mold temperature, injection velocity, packing pressure, and cooling time in 18 IM simulations based on an orthogonal array L 18 (2 1 ×3 4 ). Then, based on the Z-shrinkage error from IM simulation, three new contact lens designs are obtained by increasing the Add power in the central zone of the original multifocal CL design to compensate for the optical power errors. Results obtained from IM process simulations and the optical simulations show that the new CL design with 0.1 D increasing in Add power has the closest shrinkage profile to the original anterior SM profile with percentage of reduction in absolute Z-shrinkage error of 55% and more uniform power in the central zone than in the other two cases. Moreover, actual experiments of IM of SM for casting soft multifocal CLs have been performed. The final product of wet CLs has been completed for the original design and the new design. Results of the optical performance have verified the improvement of the compensated design of CLs. The feasibility of this compensating method has been proven based on the measurement results of the produced soft multifocal CLs of the new design. Results of this study can be further applied to predict or compensate for the total optical power errors of the soft multifocal CLs.

  10. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  11. Integration of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomekova, A.

    2004-01-01

    The project SustelNet also deals with the possibilities of future development of DG sources. Within the project frame a quite general concept of the so-called 'equal field' for centralized and decentralized production was chosen for the better integration of DG. Its aim was to the achieve demanded level on the market in the future term (by 2020). Looking at the problem in the wider context means, that both forms of the production should be admitted on the market on the same conditions. The result of this project is a regulatory map, which actually serves as a definite regulatory strategy for more effective employment of DG sources. On the basis of the national regulatory strategies a proposition of regulatory map for EU will be launched, including some recommendations for European Commission. A few expert papers (scenario of proceeding, benchmarking, economical tools and criteria) are also output of this project. Five member states of the EU and four entering countries have been involved in this project. The final results of this procedure will be presented from April 2004 on international and national conferences, seminaries, or by means of other ways of publicity

  12. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  13. Dissolved oxygen concentration profiles in the hyporheic zone through the use of a high density fiber optic measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, W. J.; Quick, A. M.; Farrell, T. B.; Benner, S. G.; Feris, K. P.; Tonina, D.

    2013-12-01

    The hyporheic zone (HZ) is a potentially important source of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O); stream processes may account for up to 10% of global anthropogenic N2O emissions. However, mechanistic understanding and predictive quantification of this gas flux is hampered by complex temporally and spatially variable interactions between flow dynamics and biogeochemical processes. Reactive inorganic nitrogen (Nr) is typically present at low concentrations in natural stream waters, but many rural and urban streams suffer from an excess of Nr, typically in the form of ammonium (NH4+) and nitrate (NO3-). These reactive species are either assimilated by living biomass or transformed by microbial processes. The two primary microbial transformations of Nr are nitrification (NH4+ to NO3-) and denitrification (NO3- to N2). Denitrification, which occurs almost exclusively in the anoxic zone of the HZ, permanently removes between 30-70% of all Nr entering streams, other mechanisms may retain nitrogen. The mass transport of reactive species (i.e. O2, NO3- and N2O) by hyporheic flow strongly influences reaction rates, residence times, and subsequent N2O flux. By extension, stream flow and channel morphology presumably control, and may be effective predictors of, N2O generation rates. By recreating the stream processes in the University of Idaho flume, we are able to control the bed morphology, fluxes and residence times through the HZ and concentrations of Nr from exogenous (stream water) and endogenous (organic material in the streambed) sources. For the present experiment, the flume was divided into three streams, each with different morphologies (3, 6 and 9cm dunes) and all using the same source water. Stream water for this first experimental phase had no significant loading of Nr. As such, all reaction products were the result of endogenous sources of Nr. To measure dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations we deployed 120 channels of a novel, fiber-optic optode

  14. ADRES : autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brauner, G.; Einfalt, A.; Leitinger, C.; Tiefgraber, D. [Vienna Univ. of Technology (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The autonomous decentralized regenerative energy systems (ADRES) research project demonstrates that decentralized network independent microgrids are the target power systems of the future. This paper presented a typical structure of a microgrid, demonstrating that all types of generation available can be integrated, from wind and small hydro to photovoltaic, fuel cell, biomass or biogas operated stirling motors and micro turbines. In grid connected operation the balancing energy and reactive power for voltage control will come from the public grid. If there is no interconnection to a superior grid, it will form an autonomous micro grid. In order to reduce peak power demand and base energy, autonomous microgrid technology requires highly efficient appliances. Otherwise large collector design, high storage and balancing generation capacities would be necessary, which would increase costs. End-use energy efficiency was discussed with reference to demand side management (DSM) strategies that match energy demand with actual supply in order to minimize the storage size needed. This paper also discussed network controls that comprise active and reactive power. Decentralized robust algorithms were investigated with reference to black-start ability and congestion management features. It was concluded that the trend to develop small decentralized grids in parallel to existing large systems will improve security of supply and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Decentralized grids will also increase energy efficiency because regenerative energy will be used where it is collected in the form of electricity and heat, thus avoiding transport and the extension of transmission lines. Decentralized energy technology is now becoming more economic by efficient and economic mass production of components. Although decentralized energy technology requires energy automation, computer intelligence is becoming increasingly cost efficient. 2 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Axial Length Variation Impacts on Superficial Retinal Vessel Density and Foveal Avascular Zone Area Measurements Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Danuta M; Gong, Peijun; An, Di; Menghini, Moreno; Hansen, Alex; Mackey, David A; Sampson, David D; Chen, Fred K

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of image magnification correction on superficial retinal vessel density (SRVD) and foveal avascular zone area (FAZA) measurements using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Participants with healthy retinas were recruited for ocular biometry, refraction, and RTVue XR Avanti OCTA imaging with the 3 × 3-mm protocol. The foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA were quantified with custom software before and after correction for magnification error using the Littman and the modified Bennett formulae. Relative changes between corrected and uncorrected SRVD and FAZA were calculated. Forty subjects were enrolled and the median (range) age of the participants was 30 (18-74) years. The mean (range) spherical equivalent refractive error was -1.65 (-8.00 to +4.88) diopters and mean (range) axial length was 24.42 mm (21.27-28.85). Images from 13 eyes were excluded due to poor image quality leaving 67 for analysis. Relative changes in foveal and parafoveal SRVD and FAZA after correction ranged from -20% to +10%, -3% to +2%, and -20% to +51%, respectively. Image size correction in measurements of foveal SRVD and FAZA was greater than 5% in 51% and 74% of eyes, respectively. In contrast, 100% of eyes had less than 5% correction in measurements of parafoveal SRVD. Ocular biometry should be performed with OCTA to correct image magnification error induced by axial length variation. We advise caution when interpreting interocular and interindividual comparisons of SRVD and FAZA derived from OCTA without image size correction.

  16. A Novel Scheme of Fast-frequency Hopping Optical CDMA System with No-hit-zone Sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Jianhua; liu, Ling; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Zhipeng; Xu, Ming

    2013-09-01

    In traditional fast frequency-hopping OCDMA (FFH-OCDMA) system, beat noise and multiple-access interference are the main performance limitations, and complicated power control must be employed to eliminate the near-far effect. In this paper, a novel scheme of FFH-OCDMA with no-hit-zone sequence is proposed, which is named NHZ FFH-OCDMA. In NHZ FFH-OCDMA, the synchronization among users can be controlled within permissible time delay, and the code cross-correlation for different users equals zero. Therefore, near-far effect can be eliminated. Furthermore, beat noise and multiple-access interference also can be removed. Simulation of eight simultaneous users with dada rate 100 Mbit/s is demonstrated, where the fiber link consists of 50 km single-mode fiber, plus 5 km dispersion compensating fiber. Simulation results show that the near-far problem of NHZ FFH-OCDMA can be eliminated, and complicated power control can be removed. Therefore, this scheme is a good candidate for optical access network.

  17. Assessment of β-zone peripapillary atrophy by optical coherence tomography and scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seidensticker F

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Florian Seidensticker,1,* Lukas Reznicek,2,* Thomas Mann,2 Irene Hübert,2 Anselm Kampik,2 Michael Ulbig,2 Christoph Hirneiss,2 Aljoscha S Neubauer,2 Marcus Kernt2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany  *These authors have contributed equally to this work Purpose: To assess β-zone peripapillary atrophy (β-PPA using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT, scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO, and fundus autofluorescence (FAF imaging in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma with advanced glaucomatous visual field defects. Methods: A consecutive, prospective series of 82 study eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma were included in this study. All study participants underwent a full ophthalmic examination followed by SD-OCT, wide-field SLO, and FAF imaging of the optic nerve head and the peripapillary region. Results: Eighty-four glaucomatous eyes were included in our prospective study. Correlation analyses for horizontally and vertically obtained β-PPA for all three imaging modalities (color SLO, FAF, and SD-OCT revealed highest correlations between FAF and color SLO (Pearson correlation coefficient: 0.904 [P<0.001] for horizontal β-PPA and 0.786 [P<0.001] for vertical β-PPA. Bland–Altman plotting revealed highest agreements between color SLO and FAF, with −2.1 pixels ±1.96 standard deviation (SD for horizontal β-PPA, SD: 10.5 pixels and 2.4 pixels ±1.96 SD for vertical β-PPA. Conclusion: β-PPA can be assessed using en-face SLO and cross-sectional SD-OCT imaging. Correlation analyses revealed highest correlations between color SLO and FAF imaging, while correlations between SLO and SD-OCT were weak. A more precise structural definition of β-PPA is needed. Keywords: fundus autofluorescence, FAF, OCT, SD-OCT, SLO, glaucomatous optic neuropathy

  18. Sustainability evaluation of decentralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karger, Cornelia R.; Hennings, Wilfried

    2009-01-01

    Decentralized power generation is gaining significance in liberalized electricity markets. An increasing decentralization of power supply is expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the advantages and disadvantages of decentralized electricity generation according to the overall concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a hierarchically structured set of sustainability criteria, four future scenarios for Germany are assessed, all of which describe different concepts of electricity supply in the context of the corresponding social and economic developments. The scenarios are developed in an explorative way according to the scenario method and the sustainability criteria are established by a discursive method with societal actors. The evaluation is carried out by scientific experts. By applying an expanded analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a multicriteria evaluation is conducted that identifies dissent among the experts. The results demonstrate that decentralized electricity generation can contribute to climate protection. The extent to which it simultaneously guarantees security of supply is still a matter of controversy. However, experts agree that technical and economic boundary conditions are of major importance in this field. In the final section, the article discusses the method employed here as well as implications for future decentralized energy supply. (author)

  19. Source Apportionment of PM2.5 Mass and Optical Attenuation Over an Ecologically Sensitive Zone in Central India by Positive Matrix Factorization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmalkar, J.; Raman, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Ambient PM2.5 samples (N=366) were collected over an ecologically sensitive zone (Van Vihar National Park) in Bhopal, Central India for two years (01 January, 2012 to 31 December, 2013). Samples were collected using three co-located Mini-Vol® samplers on Teflon, Nylon, and Quartz filter substrates. The aerosol was then chemically characterized for water-soluble inorganic ions, elements, and carbon fractions (elemental carbon and organic carbon) using ion chromatography, ED-XRF, and thermal-optical EC/OC analyzer, respectively. The optical attenuation (at 370 nm and 800 nm) of PM2.5 aerosols was also determined by optical transmissometry (OT-21). The application of Positive matrix factorization (PMF) to a combination of PM2.5 mass, its ions, elements, carbon fractions, and optical attenuation and its outcomes will be discussed.

  20. Distribution of decentralized renewable energy resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bal, J.L.; Benque, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    The existence of a great number of inhabitants without electricity, living in areas of low population density, with modest energy requirements and low income provides a major potential market for decentralized renewable energy sources. Ademe and EDF in 1993 made two agreements concerning the development of Renewable Energy Sources. The first aims at promoting their decentralized use in France in pertinent cases. The second agreement concerns other countries and has two ambitions: facilitate short-term developments and produce in the longer term a standardised proposal for decentralized energy production using Renewable Energy Sources to a considerable extent. These ideas are explained, and the principles behind the implementation of both Ademe-EDF agreements as well as their future prospects are described. (R.P.)

  1. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and controld esign. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  2. Towards Automatic Decentralized Control Structure Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Bagterp; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2000-01-01

    for decentralized control is determined automatically, and the resulting decentralized control structure is automatically tuned using standard techniques. Dynamic simulation of the resulting process system gives immediate feedback to the process design engineer regarding practical operability of the process......A subtask in integration of design and control of chemical processes is the selection of a control structure. Automating the selection of the control structure enables sequential integration of process and control design. As soon as the process is specified or computed, a structure....... The control structure selection problem is formulated as a special MILP employing cost coefficients which are computed using Parseval's theorem combined with RGA and IMC concepts. This approach enables selection and tuning of large-scale plant-wide decentralized controllers through efficient combination...

  3. Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Decentralization, Local Rights and the Construction of Women's Citizenship : a Comparative Study in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda - Phase II. Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda have adopted new land laws, policies and institutional arrangements to accommodate decentralization of land administration and management.

  4. Centralized vs. decentralized child mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, M S

    1977-09-01

    One of the basic tenets of the Community Mental Health Center movement is that services should be provided in the consumers' community. Various centers across the country have attempted to do this in either a centralized or decentralized fashion. Historically, most health services have been provided centrally, a good example being the traditional general hospital with its centralized medical services. Over the years, some of these services have become decentralized to take the form of local health centers, health maintenance organizations, community clinics, etc, and now various large mental health centers are also being broken down into smaller community units. An example of each type of mental health facility is delineated here.

  5. Decentralizing decision making in modularization strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2011-01-01

    which distorts the economic effects of modularization at the level of the individual product. This has the implication that decisions on modularization can only be made by top management if decision authority and relevant information are to be aligned. To overcome this problem, we suggest a solution...... that aligns the descriptions of the economic consequences of modularization at the project and portfolio level which makes it possible to decentralize decision making while making sure that local goals are congruent with the global ones in order to avoid suboptimal behaviour. Keywords: Modularization......; Accounting; Cost allocation; Decision rule; Decentralization...

  6. Near optimal decentralized H_inf control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, J.; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    It is shown that foir a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinity dimentional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results, a heuri......It is shown that foir a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinity dimentional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results...

  7. Decentralization and Economic Growth per capita in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crucq, Pieter; Hemminga, Hendrik-Jan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the relationship between decentralization and economic growth is investigated. The focus is on decentralization from the national government to the highest substate level in a country, which we define as regional decentralization. Section 2 discusses the different dimensions of

  8. Glaucoma Diagnostic Capabilities of Foveal Avascular Zone Parameters Using Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography According to Visual Field Defect Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junki; Choi, Jaewan; Shin, Joong Won; Lee, Jiyun; Kook, Michael S

    2017-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic ability of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) parameters to discriminate glaucomatous eyes with visual field defects (VFDs) in different locations (central vs. peripheral) from normal eyes. Totally, 125 participants were separated into 3 groups: normal (n=45), glaucoma with peripheral VFD (PVFD, n=45), and glaucoma with central VFD (CVFD, n=35). The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity and parafoveal vessel density were calculated from optical coherence tomography angiography images. The diagnostic ability of the FAZ parameters and other structural parameters was determined according to glaucomatous VFD location. Associations between the FAZ parameters and central visual function were evaluated. A larger FAZ area and longer FAZ perimeter were observed in the CVFD group than in the PVFD and normal groups. The FAZ area, perimeter, and circularity were better in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes [areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC), 0.78 to 0.88] than in differentiating PVFDs from normal eyes (AUC, 0.51 to 0.64). The FAZ perimeter had a similar AUC value to the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer and macular ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer thickness for differentiating eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes (all P>0.05, the DeLong test). The FAZ area was significantly correlated with central visual function (β=-112.7, P=0.035, multivariate linear regression). The FAZ perimeter had good diagnostic capability in differentiating glaucomatous eyes with CVFDs from normal eyes, and may be a potential diagnostic biomarker for detecting glaucomatous patients with CVFDs.

  9. Growth of multiferroic Gd1-xYxMnO3 single crystals by optical floating zone technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarguna, R.M.; Ganesamoorthy, S.; Sridharan, V.; Subramanian, N.

    2014-01-01

    Rare earth manganites RMnO 3 with distorted perovskite structure are excellent multiferroic materials. The discovery of magnetic spin driven ferroelectricity in orthorhombic manganites (TbMnO 3 ) has sparked a surge in research into understanding the fundamental mechanism of multiferroic behavior. These systems fall under the category of type-2 multiferroics, the change of spatially modulated magnetic moment from sinusoidal to cycloidal gives rise to electric polarization. The magnetic structure depends upon the Mn-O-Mn bond angle. GdMnO 3 shows multiferroic properties only in the presence of applied magnetic field. When a magnetic field is applied along the b-axis, GdMnO 3 enters a ferroelectric state with an electric polarisation along the c-axis. By altering the Mn-O-Mn angle it is expected that GdMnO 3 will show multiferroic property even in the absence of magnetic field like TbMnO 3 . To alter the Mn-O-Mn bond angle GdMnO 3 was substituted with Y having lower ionic radius at Gd site. The effect of Y doping at the rare-earth site in GdMnO 3 investigated on polycrystalline samples of Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 demonstrated a magneto-electric coupling in x=0.1-0.4. Single crystals are expected to give much amplified signal in respect of ferroelectric and magnetic properties. In this work we have grown Y substituted Gd 1-x Y x MnO 3 (x = 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4) by optical floating zone technique under different gas atmosphere. Growth rate of 1-2 mm/h yielded crack free crystals. Quality of the crystals was checked using Laue diffraction. Effect of growth rate and atmosphere pressure will be presented in this talk. (author)

  10. Metropolitan Schools: Administrative Decentralization vs. Community Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornstein, Allan C.

    This book is divided into four chapters. The first examines the concepts and issues related to understanding social systems and how the schools can be viewed as a social system. The differences between centralization and decentralization, as well as systems-analysis and management-control approaches are also explored. In the next chapter, we are…

  11. Quotas and Decentralization (Indonesia) | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past decade, the Government of Indonesia has taken steps to enhance the participation of women in public office. One element of the strategy is decentralization, promoted under the slogan, "local autonomy for people empowerment and welfare." Support for gender mainstreaming was proclaimed and in 2003 an ...

  12. Decentralized forest governance in central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran Nam, T.; Burgers, P.P.M.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge in decentralized forest governance in Vietnam is developing a mechanism that would support both reforestation and poverty reduction among people in rural communities. To help address this challenge, Forest Land Allocation (FLA) policies recognize local communities and individuals

  13. Making decentralization work for women in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lakwo, A.

    2009-01-01

    This book is about engendering local governance. It explores the euphoria with which Uganda's decentralization policy took centre stage as a sufficient driver to engender local development responsiveness and accountability. Using a case study of AFARD in Nebbi district, it shows first that

  14. Decentralized Development Planning and Fragmentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the Greater Accra Metropolitan Area (GAMA) as a case study, this paper argues that the proliferation of autonomous local government areas within the context of urban sprawl and other challenges have inhibited metropolitan-wide development planning. Keywords: Decentralization; local government; urban growth; ...

  15. Promoting Research for Policymaking under Decentralization in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Major reforms in governance carried out in Peru during the early 2000s saw the decentralization of functions and resources from the central government in Lima to elected regional governments. Today, regional governments account for the majority of public investment, but show limited capacity to cope with the ...

  16. Decentralized Development Planning and Fragmentation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using the GAMA as a case study, this paper examines the proliferation of .... These spatial definitions give territorial meaning to decentralization as dis- ... Formulated and implemented under a military regime, the Provisional ..... increased to four in 2004 following the creation of new districts in the country, and as part of.

  17. Leadership and the Decentralized Control of Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the literature related to leadership and the decentralized control of schools. It first considers the distinctive goals of public and private agencies, the specific constraints that shape the autonomy of leaders in different sectors, and the ways in which new models of public management are infusing public agencies with…

  18. Decentralized Networked Control of Building Structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Rehák, Branislav; Papík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 11 (2016), s. 871-886 ISSN 1093-9687 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * networked control * building structures Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 5.786, year: 2016

  19. Women's Political Representation and Participation in Decentralized ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Huairou Commission User

    facilitate people's participation in national development through ensuring sound local level politics. • RC evolved into local councils which then led to the implementation of decentralization through the local government act (1997). • This policy has provided opportunities for women to participate in local leadership from.

  20. Decentralized indirect methods for learning automata games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilak, Omkar; Martin, Ryan; Mukhopadhyay, Snehasis

    2011-10-01

    We discuss the application of indirect learning methods in zero-sum and identical payoff learning automata games. We propose a novel decentralized version of the well-known pursuit learning algorithm. Such a decentralized algorithm has significant computational advantages over its centralized counterpart. The theoretical study of such a decentralized algorithm requires the analysis to be carried out in a nonstationary environment. We use a novel bootstrapping argument to prove the convergence of the algorithm. To our knowledge, this is the first time that such analysis has been carried out for zero-sum and identical payoff games. Extensive simulation studies are reported, which demonstrate the proposed algorithm's fast and accurate convergence in a variety of game scenarios. We also introduce the framework of partial communication in the context of identical payoff games of learning automata. In such games, the automata may not communicate with each other or may communicate selectively. This comprehensive framework has the capability to model both centralized and decentralized games discussed in this paper.

  1. Decentralized Reinforcement Learning of robot behaviors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leottau, David L.; Ruiz-del-Solar, Javier; Babuska, R.

    2018-01-01

    A multi-agent methodology is proposed for Decentralized Reinforcement Learning (DRL) of individual behaviors in problems where multi-dimensional action spaces are involved. When using this methodology, sub-tasks are learned in parallel by individual agents working toward a common goal. In

  2. Critical Systems Thinking on Decentralization: the Corporate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article calls for the devolution of power by large organizations to their subsidiaries or subordinate units – mainly Strategic Business Units (SBUs). It proposes more decentralized models of management and outlines a new theory taking a critical systems thinking approach. Corporations are advised to attack and ...

  3. Strategies for organizing training: centralized or decentralized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanous, L.E.

    1979-01-01

    STudies were conducted in the Detroit Edison Company for the purpose of determining effectiveness of training. A systems approach from the corporate perspective was found to be needed and worthwhile. At the conclusion of these studies a decision was made to move in the direction of a centralized vs decentralized organizational strategy for training

  4. Decentralization and Living Conditions in the EU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.S. de; Goymen, K.; Sazak, O.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of decentralization on living conditions in core cities in the European Union. It uses data from the Urban Audit to investigate whether the level of local expenditures relative to central government expenditures has an impact on the subjective appreciation of

  5. Satellite Power System (SPS) centralization/decentralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naisbitt, J.

    1978-01-01

    The decentralization of government in the United States of America is described and its effect on the solution of energy problems is given. The human response to the introduction of new technologies is considered as well as the behavioral aspects of multiple options.

  6. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasmi, Zakaria; Norrdine, Abdelmoumen; Blankenbach, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS), thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs) and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters. PMID:26690145

  7. Towards a Decentralized Magnetic Indoor Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Kasmi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized magnetic indoor localization is a sophisticated method for processing sampled magnetic data directly on a mobile station (MS, thereby decreasing or even avoiding the need for communication with the base station. In contrast to central-oriented positioning systems, which transmit raw data to a base station, decentralized indoor localization pushes application-level knowledge into the MS. A decentralized position solution has thus a strong feasibility to increase energy efficiency and to prolong the lifetime of the MS. In this article, we present a complete architecture and an implementation for a decentralized positioning system. Furthermore, we introduce a technique for the synchronization of the observed magnetic field on the MS with the artificially-generated magnetic field from the coils. Based on real-time clocks (RTCs and a preemptive operating system, this method allows a stand-alone control of the coils and a proper assignment of the measured magnetic fields on the MS. A stand-alone control and synchronization of the coils and the MS have an exceptional potential to implement a positioning system without the need for wired or wireless communication and enable a deployment of applications for rescue scenarios, like localization of miners or firefighters.

  8. Decentralized data fusion with inverse covariance intersection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noack, B.; Sijs, J.; Reinhardt, M.; Hanebeck, U.D.

    2017-01-01

    In distributed and decentralized state estimation systems, fusion methods are employed to systematically combine multiple estimates of the state into a single, more accurate estimate. An often encountered problem in the fusion process relates to unknown common information that is shared by the

  9. Decentralization Fails Women in Sudan | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-11-05

    Nov 5, 2010 ... In Sudan, decentralization is a process that has occurred over time and is ... In northern Sudan, some women travel three days to reach the nearest hospital. ... Accord stipulate that basic education is free, “in real life, it is not.”.

  10. PeerMatcher: Decentralized Partnership Formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bozdog, N.V.; Voulgaris, S.; Bal, H.E.; van Halteren, A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents PeerMatcher, a fully decentralized algorithm solving the k-clique matching problem. The aim of k-clique matching is to cluster a set of nodes having pairwise weights into k-size groups of maximal total weight. Since solving the problem requires exponential time, PeerMatcher

  11. Performance Analysis of the Decentralized Eigendecomposition and ESPRIT Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suleiman, Wassim; Pesavento, Marius; Zoubir, Abdelhak M.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we consider performance analysis of the decentralized power method for the eigendecomposition of the sample covariance matrix based on the averaging consensus protocol. An analytical expression of the second order statistics of the eigenvectors obtained from the decentralized power method which is required for computing the mean square error (MSE) of subspace-based estimators is presented. We show that the decentralized power method is not an asymptotically consistent estimator of the eigenvectors of the true measurement covariance matrix unless the averaging consensus protocol is carried out over an infinitely large number of iterations. Moreover, we introduce the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm which yields fully decentralized direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimates. Based on the performance analysis of the decentralized power method, we derive an analytical expression of the MSE of DOA estimators using the decentralized ESPRIT algorithm. The validity of our asymptotic results is demonstrated by simulations.

  12. Decentralization of Health System in Islamic Republic of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MJ Kabir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization is the process of dispersing decision-making closer to the point of peripheral area, service or action. Basically decentralized governance, if properly planned and implemented, offers important opportunities for enhanced human development. The studies about this issue in different countries show that most of the decentralizations have been implemented in European countries and in comparison, the Middle East countries have been utilized lower degrees of the decentralization process. In fact, decentralization in the health system is a policy pursued for a variety of purposes including; increase in service delivery effectiveness and equity, improving efficiency and quality, fairness of financial contribution and planning for choosing the most appropriate interventions for the health priorities in peripheral regions. To implement decentralized governance, there is a spectrum of different choices that the government should regulate their degrees. Providing an appropriate atmosphere for decentralization is essential, otherwise lack of planning and achievement can result in complications for the system.

  13. Growth, mechanical, and magnetic study of SmFeO{sub 3} single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babu, P. Ramesh [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhaumik, Indranil [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India); Ganesamoorthy, S. [Material Science Group, IGCAR, Kalpakkam, Tamil Nadu (India); Kalainathan, S., E-mail: kalainathan@yahoo.com [Centre for Crystal Growth, VIT University, Vellore, Tamil Nadu (India); Bhatt, R.; Karnal, A.K.; Gupta, P.K. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, RRCAT, Indore (India)

    2016-08-15

    Single crystals of Samarium orthoferrite (SmFeO{sub 3}) have been grown by the optical floating zone technique. The growth parameters to yield good quality crystals are 5 mm/h for pulling and 30–40 rpm for rotation. The mechanical behavior of the grown crystal has been investigated. Rosette pattern has been observed around the indentation and the microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. For load higher than 1.96 N there is a transition from palmqvist to median crack due to plastic deformation of the crystal. The hardness parameters like fracture toughness, brittleness index, and yield strength have also been calculated for palmqvist and median cracks occurring on the crystal surface. The magnetic investigations revealed that a magnetic transition in the range of 300–180 K. Above 180 K, the magnetization decreases as Sm and Fe sublattices have opposite spins. At high temperature, two anomalies are observed, one due to near spin reorientation (T{sub SR} = 480 K) and the other is AFM to paramagnetic transitions (T{sub N} = 670 K). The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state of the SmFeO{sub 3} crystals. Bloch parameter (3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}) has also been evaluated. - Highlights: • SmFeO{sub 3} single crystals have been grown by OFZ technique in air. • The microhardness has been found to decreases non-linearly with the applied load. • At 472 K, spin reorientation occurs in Fe sublattice. • The M–H curves exhibit a shape change with temperature due to the emergence and enlargement of multi-domain state. • Bloch 3/2-law holds good for SmFeO{sub 3} (B-parameter as 3.28 × 10{sup −5} K{sup −3/2}).

  14. (DeCentralization of the Global Informational Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Möller

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Centralization and decentralization are key concepts in debates that focus on the (antidemocratic character of digital societies. Centralization is understood as the control over communication and data flows, and decentralization as giving it (back to users. Communication and media research focuses on centralization put forward by dominant digital media platforms, such as Facebook and Google, and governments. Decentralization is investigated regarding its potential in civil society, i.e., hacktivism, (encryption technologies, and grass-root technology movements. As content-based media companies increasingly engage with technology, they move into the focus of critical media studies. Moreover, as formerly nationally oriented companies now compete with global media platforms, they share several interests with civil society decentralization agents. Based on 26 qualitative interviews with leading media managers, we investigate (decentralization strategies applied by content-oriented media companies. Theoretically, this perspective on media companies as agents of (decentralization expands (decentralization research beyond traditional democratic stakeholders by considering economic actors within the “global informational ecosystem” (Birkinbine, Gómez, & Wasko, 2017. We provide a three-dimensional framework to empirically investigate (decentralization. From critical media studies, we borrow the (decentralization of data and infrastructures, from media business research, the (decentralization of content distribution.

  15. Centralization vs. Decentralization in Medical School Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Helen

    1966-01-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed. PMID:5945568

  16. Asynchronous decentralized method for interconnected electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Anni; Joo, Sung-Kwan; Song, Kyung-Bin; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Kisung

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an asynchronous decentralized method to solve the optimization problem of interconnected electricity markets. The proposed method decomposes the optimization problem of combined electricity markets into individual optimization problems. The impact of neighboring markets' information is included in the objective function of the individual market optimization problem by the standard Lagrangian relaxation method. Most decentralized optimization methods use synchronous models of communication to exchange updated market information among markets during the iterative process. In this paper, however, the solutions of the individual optimization problems are coordinated through an asynchronous communication model until they converge to the global optimal solution of combined markets. Numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed asynchronous method over the existing synchronous methods. (author)

  17. Centralization vs. decentralization in medical school libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, H

    1966-07-01

    Does the medical school library in the United States operate more commonly under the university library or the medical school administration? University-connected medical school libraries were asked to indicate (a) the source of their budgets, whether from the central library or the medical school, and (b) the responsibility for their acquisitions and cataloging. Returns received from sixtyeight of the seventy eligible institutions showed decentralization to be much the most common: 71 percent of the libraries are funded by their medical schools; 79 percent are responsible for their own acquisitions and processing. The factor most often associated with centralization of both budget and operation is public ownership. Decentralization is associated with service to one or two rather than three or more professional schools. Location of the medical school in a different city from the university is highly favorable to autonomy. Other factors associated with these trends are discussed.

  18. On the Feasibility of Decentralized Derivatives Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Eskandari, Shayan; Clark, Jeremy; Sundaresan, Vignesh; Adham, Moe

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present Velocity, a decentralized market deployed on Ethereum for trading a custom type of derivative option. To enable the smart contract to work, we also implement a price fetching tool called PriceGeth. We present this as a case study, noting challenges in development of the system that might be of independent interest to whose working on smart contract implementations. We also apply recent academic results on the security of the Solidity smart contract language in valida...

  19. Quantifying risk for decentralized offensive cyber operations

    OpenAIRE

    Klipstein, Michael S.

    2017-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Includes supplementary material. Reissued 7 Sep 2017 with corrections to committee titles. Computer networks and the amount of information stored within government computer networks have become ubiquitous. With the possible decentralization of authorities to conduct offensive cyber operations, leaders and their respective staffs of organizations below the national level cannot adequately assess risks and consequences of these ope...

  20. Decentralized robust control design using LMI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Krokavec

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with application of decentralized controllers for large-scale systems with subsystems interaction and system matrices uncertainties. The desired stability of the whole system is guaranteed while at the same time the tolerable bounds in the uncertainties due to structural changes are maximized. The design approach is based on the linear matrix inequalities (LMI techniques adaptation for stabilizing controller design.

  1. The effects of fiscal decentralization in Albania

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Blerta Dragusha; Dr.Sc. Elez Osmani

    2012-01-01

    “Basically decentralization is a democratic reform which seeks to transfer the political, administrative, financial and planning authority from central to local government. It seeks to develop civic participation, empowerment of local people in decision making process and to promote accountability and reliability: To achieve efficiency and effectiveness in the collection and management of resources and service delivery”1 The interest and curiosity of knowing how our country is doing in th...

  2. Environmental aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Renewable energy sources are the focus of considerable interest because they do not place future generations at risk; the development of cogeneration has been favorably received on the whole because it uses energy that would otherwise be lost. Difficulties are sometimes encountered in the development of small-scale hydroelectric facilities (older facilities negative aspects, over production impression in France, etc.). Environmental protection regulations do not distinguish between centralized and decentralized electricity production, but between large and small production facilities

  3. Witnet: A Decentralized Oracle Network Protocol

    OpenAIRE

    de Pedro, Adán Sánchez; Levi, Daniele; Cuende, Luis Iván

    2017-01-01

    Witnet is a decentralized oracle network (DON) that connects smart contracts to the outer world. Generally speaking, it allows any piece of software to retrieve the contents published at any web address at a certain point in time, with complete and verifiable proof of its integrity and without blindly trusting any third party. Witnet runs on a blockchain with a native protocol token (called Wit), which miners-called witnesses-earn by retrieving, attesting and delivering web contents for clien...

  4. Query Optimizations over Decentralized RDF Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Abdelaziz, Ibrahim

    2017-05-18

    Applications in life sciences, decentralized social networks, Internet of Things, and statistical linked dataspaces integrate data from multiple decentralized RDF graphs via SPARQL queries. Several approaches have been proposed to optimize query processing over a small number of heterogeneous data sources by utilizing schema information. In the case of schema similarity and interlinks among sources, these approaches cause unnecessary data retrieval and communication, leading to poor scalability and response time. This paper addresses these limitations and presents Lusail, a system for scalable and efficient SPARQL query processing over decentralized graphs. Lusail achieves scalability and low query response time through various optimizations at compile and run times. At compile time, we use a novel locality-aware query decomposition technique that maximizes the number of query triple patterns sent together to a source based on the actual location of the instances satisfying these triple patterns. At run time, we use selectivity-awareness and parallel query execution to reduce network latency and to increase parallelism by delaying the execution of subqueries expected to return large results. We evaluate Lusail using real and synthetic benchmarks, with data sizes up to billions of triples on an in-house cluster and a public cloud. We show that Lusail outperforms state-of-the-art systems by orders of magnitude in terms of scalability and response time.

  5. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  6. EFFECT OF FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION ON CAPITAL EXPENDITURE, GROWTH, AND WELFARE

    OpenAIRE

    Badrudin, Rudy

    2013-01-01

    This research analyzes the influence of fiscal decentralization on capital expenditure, economic growth, and social welfare of 29 regencies and 6 cities in Central Java Province based on the data of year 2004 to 2008. The method used to analyze the hypotheses is the Partial Least Square. The results showes that fiscal decentralization has no significant effect on capital expenditure; fiscal decentralization has significant effect on economic growth and social welfare; capital expenditure has ...

  7. Comparison of centralized and decentralized energy supply systems

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Thomas; Fahl, Ulrich; Voß, Alfred

    1991-01-01

    Communal energy programs are often embedded in a conception of a decentralized energy supply system where electricity is produced by a number of smaller power plants. For a comprehensive survey the question arises whether these decentralized systems are more advantageous than centralized systems with regard to the criterions energy consumption, safety of supply, environmental compatibility and economy. In the following, after a definition of the term "decentralized", the present structure of ...

  8. (De)centralization of the global informational ecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Möller, Johanna; Rimscha, M. Bjørn von

    2017-01-01

    Centralization and decentralization are key concepts in debates that focus on the (anti)democratic character of digital societies. Centralization is understood as the control over communication and data flows, and decentralization as giving it (back) to users. Communication and media research focuses on centralization put forward by dominant digital media platforms, such as Facebook and Google, and governments. Decentralization is investigated regarding its potential in civil society, i.e., h...

  9. Centralized vs. de-centralized multinationals and taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs – here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax manipulation instrument –, we show that (de-)centralized decisions are more profitable when tax differentials are (small) large. Keywords: Centralized vs. de-centralized decisions, taxes, MNEs. ...

  10. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  11. Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter

    In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....

  12. Macroeconomic aspects of decentralized electricity production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    1991-01-01

    The development of decentralized electricity production should be viewed first and foremost as a means of adapting production resources to meet the needs of the users between 1995 and 1997. Consumer production and cogeneration are not, however, simply stopgap solutions operating on the fringe of electricity production. These methods serve to highlight a problem that has already been raised in the past: the real advantages and disadvantages of centralized systems managed by companies that exercise a virtual monopoly in either the public or private sector

  13. Automatic Decentralized Clustering for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Chih-Yu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a decentralized algorithm for organizing an ad hoc sensor network into clusters. Each sensor uses a random waiting timer and local criteria to determine whether to form a new cluster or to join a current cluster. The algorithm operates without a centralized controller, it operates asynchronously, and does not require that the location of the sensors be known a priori. Simplified models are used to estimate the number of clusters formed, and the energy requirements of the algorithm are investigated. The performance of the algorithm is described analytically and via simulation.

  14. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  15. Decentralization : Local Partnerships for Health Services in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    However, the national decentralization program is having a hard time getting on track. In the face of day-to-day difficulties Zenü Network, a nongovernmental organization, would like to make a contribution to this social project. The Network would like to demonstrate that civil society can work with decentralized government ...

  16. Decentralized Budgeting: Getting the Most Out of Disbursements of Funds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    1995-01-01

    Decentralizing educational budgets allows the disbursement of funds aimed at maximizing student development. Three strategies for decentralizing budgets are program budgeting, which eliminates line-item budgeting and allows administrators to address questions regarding the relative value of educational programs; zero-based budgeting, which allows…

  17. A Review of Characteristics and Experiences of Decentralization of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwinjuma, Juma Saidi; Kadir, Suhaida bte Abd.; Hamzah, Azimi; Basri, Ramli

    2015-01-01

    This paper scrutinizes decentralization of education with reference to some countries around the world. We consider discussion on decentralization to be complex, critical and broad question in the contemporary education planning, administration and politics of education reforms. Even though the debate on and implementation of decentralization…

  18. Decentralization : Local Partnerships for Health Services in the ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Cameroon, like most other sub-Saharan African countries, has adopted laws devolving various responsibilities to local administrations. In the local political discourse, decentralization is seen as bringing essential services closer to the users, especially those in greatest need. However, the national decentralization program ...

  19. Decentralization: A panacea for functional education and national ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralization of power from the federal government to state and local governments is the way to go, especially in the management of our education system. Education can be best delivered at the state and local government levels. Decentralization of educational management in Nigeria will encourage creativity and ...

  20. On Deciding How to Decide: To Centralize or Decentralize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle

    Issues concerning whether to centralize or decentralize decision-making are addressed, with applications for colleges. Centralization/decentralization (C/D) must be analyzed with reference to a particular decision. Three components of C/D are locus of authority, breadth of participation, and relative contribution by the decision-maker's staff. C/D…

  1. Centralization Versus Decentralization: A Location Analysis Approach for Librarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishko, Robert; Raffel, Jeffrey

    One of the questions that seems to perplex many university and special librarians is whether to move in the direction of centralizing or decentralizing the library's collections and facilities. Presented is a theoretical approach, employing location theory, to the library centralization-decentralization question. Location theory allows the analyst…

  2. Decentralized energy studies: compendium of international studies and research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallace, C.

    1980-03-01

    The purpose of the compendium is to provide information about research activities in decentralized energy systems to researchers, government officials, and interested citizens. The compendium lists and briefly describes a number of studies in other industrialized nations that involve decentralized energy systems. A contact person is given for each of the activities listed so that interested readers can obtain more information.

  3. Decentralized Consistency Checking in Cross-organizational Workflows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wombacher, Andreas

    Service Oriented Architectures facilitate loosely coupled composed services, which are established in a decentralized way. One challenge for such composed services is to guarantee consistency, i.e., deadlock-freeness. This paper presents a decentralized approach to consistency checking, which

  4. Centralization vs. Decentralization: A Location Analysis Approach for Librarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Jeffrey; Shishko, Robert

    1972-01-01

    An application of location theory to the question of centralized versus decentralized library facilities for a university, with relevance for special libraries is presented. The analysis provides models for a single library, for two or more libraries, or for decentralized facilities. (6 references) (Author/NH)

  5. Energy saving technologies of the decentralized ventilation of buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurov, R. Sh; Rafalskaya, T. A.

    2017-11-01

    The growing aspiration to energy saving and efficiency of energy leads to necessity to build tight enough buildings. As a result of this the quantity of infiltration air appears insufficient for realization of necessary air exchange in. One of decisions of the given problem is development and application for ventilation of premises of the decentralized forced-air and exhaust systems (DFAES) with recuperative or regenerative heat-exchangers. For an estimation of efficiency of DFAES following basic parameters have been certain: factor of energy saving; factor of efficiency of energy; factor of a heat transfer; factor of an effective utilization of a surface of heat exchange. Were estimated temperature of forced air; actual speed of an air jet on an entrance in a served zone; actual noise level; the charge of external air. Tests of DFAES were spent in natural conditions at which DFAES influenced all set of factors both an external climate, and an internal microclimate of a premise, and also the arrangement on a wind side or behind wind side of a building, influence of surrounding building, fluctuation of temperature of external air is considered. Proceeding from results and the analysis of the lead researches recommendations have been developed for development and manufacture of new sample of DFAES.

  6. Satellite observation of bio-optical indicators related to North-Western Black Sea coastal zone changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria

    Satellite remote sensing provides a means for locating, identifying and mapping certain coastal zone features and assessing of spatio-temporal changes.The Romanian coastal zone of the Black Sea is a mosaic of complex, interacting ecosystems, exposed to dramatic changes due to natural and anthropogenic causes (increase in the nutrient and pollutant load of rivers input, industrial and municipal wastewater pollution along the coast, and dumping on the open sea). This study focuses on the assessment of coastal zone land cover changes based on the fusion of satellite remote sensing data.The evaluation of coastal zone landscapes is based upon different sub-functions which refer to landscape features such as water, soil, land-use, buildings, groundwater, biotope types. Mixed pixels result when the sensor's instantaneous field-of-view includes more than one land cover class on the ground. Based on different satellite data (Landsat TM, ETM, SAR ERS, IKONOS, Quickbird, and MODIS) was performed object recognition for North-Western Black Sea coastal zone. Preliminary results show significant coastline position changes of North Western Black Sea during the period of 1987-2007 and urban growth of Constantza town. Also the change in the position of the coastline is examined and linked to the urban expansion in order to determine if the changes are natural or anthropogenic. A distinction is made between landfill/sedimentation processes on the one hand and dredging/erosion processes on the other. Waves play an important role for shoreline configuration. Wave pattern could induce erosion and sedimentation. A quasi-linear model was used to model the rate of shoreline change. The vectors of shoreline were used to compare with wave spectra model in order to examine the accuracy of the coastal erosion model. The shoreline rate modeled from vectors data of SAR ERS-1 has a good correlation with a quasi-linear model. Wave refraction patterns are a good index for shoreline erosion. A coast

  7. Decentralization and Participatory Rural Development: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of the developing nations are still struggling for efficient use of their resources. In order to overcome physical and administrative constraints of the development, it is necessary to transfer the power from the central government to local authorities. Distribution of power from improves the management of resources and community participation which is considered key to sustainable development. Advocates of decentralization argue that decentralized government is source to improve community participation in rural development. Decentralized government is considered more responsive towards local needs and development of poor peoples. There are many obstacles to expand the citizen participation in rural areas. There are many approaches for participatory development but all have to face the same challenges. Current paper highlights the literature about Decentralization and participatory rural development. Concept and modalities of Decentralization, dimensions of participation, types of rural participation and obstacles to participation are also the part of this paper.

  8. Towards stacked zone plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, S; Rehbein, S; Guttman, P; Heim, S; Schneider, G

    2009-01-01

    Fresnel zone plates are the key optical elements for soft and hard x-ray microscopy. For short exposure times and minimum radiation load of the specimen the diffraction efficiency of the zone plate objectives has to be maximized. As the efficiency strongly depends on the height of the diffracting zone structures the achievable aspect ratio of the nanostructures determines these limits. To reach aspect ratios ≥ 20:1 for high efficient optics we propose to superimpose zone plates on top of each other. With this multiplication approach the final aspect ratio is only limited by the number of stacked zone plate layers. For the stack process several nanostructuring process steps have to be developed and/or improved. Our results show for the first time two layers of zone plates stacked on top of each other.

  9. Fusion-supported decentralized nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jassby, D.L.

    1979-04-01

    A decentralized nuclear energy system is proposed comprising mass-produced pressurized water reactors in the size range 10 to 300 MW (thermal), to be used for the production of process heat, space heat, and electricity in applications where petroleum and natural gas are presently used. Special attention is given to maximizing the refueling interval with no interim batch shuffling in order to minimize fuel transport, reactor downtime, and opportunity for fissile diversion. These objectives demand a substantial fissile enrichment (7 to 15%). The preferred fissile fuel is U-233, which offers an order of magnitude savings in ore requirements (compared with U-235 fuel), and whose higher conversion ratio in thermal reactors serves to extend the period of useful reactivity and relieve demand on the fissile breeding plants (compared with Pu-239 fuel). Application of the neutral-beam-driven tokamak fusion-neutron source to a U-233 breeding pilot plant is examined. This scheme can be extended in part to a decentralized fusion energy system, wherein remotely located large fusion reactors supply excess tritium to a distributed system of relatively small nonbreeding D-T reactors

  10. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN FOVEAL AVASCULAR ZONE AREA, VESSEL DENSITY, AND CYSTOID CHANGES IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY, AN OPTICAL COHERENCE TOMOGRAPHY ANGIOGRAPHY STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarassoly, Kia; Miraftabi, Arezoo; Soltan Sanjari, Mostafa; Parvaresh, Mohammad Mehdi

    2017-06-29

    To measure the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) areas and vessel densities of patients with diabetic retinopathy and to study their relationship with diabetic cystoid changes and retinal thickness. Prospective case series of 51 eyes of 31 patients with diabetic retinopathy. The eyes were grouped based on the presence or absence of cystoid edema and evaluated using optical coherence tomography angiography. The FAZ areas and vessel density were compared. The FAZ area at the superficial capillary plexus level was equal between the eyes with and without cystoid edema. Vessel density did not differ as well. There was no correlation with retinal thickness. In eyes with cystoid changes, FAZ area changes at the deep capillary plexus level were difficult to interpret. The FAZ area and vessel density at the superficial capillary plexus level are reproducible and independent of the presence of cystoid edema.

  11. Growth, and magnetic study of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystal grown by optical floating zone technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Anhua; Zhao, Xiangyang; Man, Peiwen; Su, Liangbi; Kalashnikova, A. M.; Pisarev, R. V.

    2018-03-01

    Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were successfully grown by optical floating zone method; high quality samples with various orientations were manufactured. Based on these samples, Magnetic property of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 single crystals were investigated systemically by means of the temperature dependence of magnetization. It indicated that compositional variations not only alter the spin reorientation temperature, but also the compensation temperature of the orthoferrites. Unlike single rare earth orthoferrites, the reversal transition temperature point of Sm0.4Er0.6FeO3 increases as magnetic field increases, which is positive for designing novel spin switching or magnetic sensor device.

  12. Analysis for corruption and decentralization (Case study: earlier decentralization era in Indonesia)

    OpenAIRE

    Haryanto, Joko Tri; Astuti S.A., Esther Sri

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, relationship between decentralization of government activities and the extent of rent extraction by private parties is an important element in the recent debate on institutional design. The topic of corruption was actively, openly and debated in Indonesia by government, its development partners, and a broadly based group of political and civil society leaders are engaged in meetings and exchange on a daily basis. In the ongoing debate on corruption a lot of attention is pai...

  13. Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2012-01-01

    Both centralized and decentralized wastewater systems have distinct engineering, financial and societal benefits. This paper presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems and an evaluation of the environmental impacts associated with two currently operating systems in California, one centralized and one decentralized. A comparison of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and criteria air pollutants from the systems shows that the scale economies of the centralized plant help lower the environmental burden to less than a fifth of that of the decentralized utility for the same volume treated. The energy and emission burdens of the decentralized plant are reduced when accounting for high-yield wastewater reuse if it supplants an energy-intensive water supply like a desalination one. The centralized facility also reduces greenhouse gases by flaring methane generated during the treatment process, while methane is directly emitted from the decentralized system. The results are compelling enough to indicate that the life-cycle environmental impacts of decentralized designs should be carefully evaluated as part of the design process. (letter)

  14. Quantifying the Evolution of Melt Ponds in the Marginal Ice Zone Using High Resolution Optical Imagery and Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, M.; Pinales, J. C.; Graber, H. C.; Wilkinson, J.; Lund, B.

    2016-02-01

    Melt ponds on sea ice play a significant and complex role on the thermodynamics in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ). Ponding reduces the sea ice's ability to reflect sunlight, and in consequence, exacerbates the albedo positive feedback cycle. In order to understand how melt ponds work and their effect on the heat uptake of sea ice, we must quantify ponds through their seasonal evolution first. A semi-supervised neural network three-class learning scheme using a gradient descent with momentum and adaptive learning rate backpropagation function is applied to classify melt ponds/melt areas in the Beaufort Sea region. The network uses high resolution panchromatic satellite images from the MEDEA program, which are collocated with autonomous platform arrays from the Marginal Ice Zone Program, including ice mass-balance buoys, arctic weather stations and wave buoys. The goal of the study is to capture the spatial variation of melt onset and freeze-up of the ponds within the MIZ, and gather ponding statistics such as size and concentration. The innovation of this work comes from training the neural network as the melt ponds evolve over time; making the machine learning algorithm time-dependent, which has not been previously done. We will achieve this by analyzing the image histograms through quantification of the minima and maxima intensity changes as well as linking textural variation information of the imagery. We will compare the evolution of the melt ponds against several different array sites on the sea ice to explore if there are spatial differences among the separated platforms in the MIZ.

  15. Decentralized Coordinated Control Strategy of Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan

    as grid voltage/frequency regulation. In order to enhance the reliability of overall islanded Microgrid operation, basic functions of coordinated control which taking into account the state of charge (SoC) limitation and power availability of renewable energy sources is implemented in a distributed level...... control strategies in this thesis, in order to promote the decentralization of the overall system. Especially the consensus algorithm based secondary level is investigated in the thesis in order to simplify the communication configuration which only flood information through the neighboring units......Facing the challenges brought by the traditional large power system concerning the environmental and economic issues, along recent years distributed generation is considered as an alternative solution to provide clean energy in a local manner. In this context, Microgrid which performing as a local...

  16. Vanuatu, the country of rural decentralized electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maigne, Y.; Molli, L.

    1998-01-01

    The status of decentralized rural electrification in Vanuatu was presented. Vanuatu is a sparsely populated rural country in the south Pacific. The country includes 92 populated islands spread over 1,000 kilometers in the south Pacific, halfway between Fiji and Australia. The low population density and the tremendous distances between the different islands have made local electrical networks a necessity in Vanuatu. Apart from the two principal urban centres, Vanuatu does not have a centralized electrical distribution network. In the early 1990s the government initiated a program to provide independent power sources to the isolated communities. Photovoltaic cells are used to power most telecommunications services. Solar cells are also used to provide power to important community buildings such as the schools or nursing stations on the remote islands. Two small hydroelectric generating stations of 600 kW were also installed with the help of the German government

  17. Fundamentals of the administrative decentralization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Lupăncescu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Public administration, as an activity carried out by the administrative authorities, can be achieved through several forms of organization. In this sense, centralization, deconcentration and decentralization, together with its corollary, local autonomy, constitute in organizational regimes of an administrative nature, more or less democratic, and with characteristics that vary according to the degree of dependence between the authorities of the public administration institutions at the central level and local public administration authorities.There is no single form of organization that incorporates the characteristics of a particular regime. The complex expectations of modern society have led to the blending of features of different forms of organization in order to create a balance of activity within the public administration, in order to exercise the functions of executive power for the benefit of citizens, not by conferring unlimited autonomy but by considering the fundamental principle of legality.

  18. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  19. Centralized vs decentralized lunar power system study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Kenneth; Harty, Richard B.; Perronne, Gerald E.

    1991-09-01

    Three power-system options are considered with respect to utilization on a lunar base: the fully centralized option, the fully decentralized option, and a hybrid comprising features of the first two options. Power source, power conditioning, and power transmission are considered separately, and each architecture option is examined with ac and dc distribution, high and low voltage transmission, and buried and suspended cables. Assessments are made on the basis of mass, technological complexity, cost, reliability, and installation complexity, however, a preferred power-system architecture is not proposed. Preferred options include transmission based on ac, transmission voltages of 2000-7000 V with buried high-voltage lines and suspended low-voltage lines. Assessments of the total cost associated with the installations are required to determine the most suitable power system.

  20. Influence of cardiac decentralization on cardioprotection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G Kingma

    Full Text Available The role of cardiac nerves on development of myocardial tissue injury after acute coronary occlusion remains controversial. We investigated whether acute cardiac decentralization (surgical modulates coronary flow reserve and myocardial protection in preconditioned dogs subject to ischemia-reperfusion. Experiments were conducted on four groups of anesthetised, open-chest dogs (n = 32: 1- controls (CTR, intact cardiac nerves, 2- ischemic preconditioning (PC; 4 cycles of 5-min IR, 3- cardiac decentralization (CD and 4- CD+PC; all dogs underwent 60-min coronary occlusion and 180-min reperfusion. Coronary blood flow and reactive hyperemic responses were assessed using a blood volume flow probe. Infarct size (tetrazolium staining was related to anatomic area at risk and coronary collateral blood flow (microspheres in the anatomic area at risk. Post-ischemic reactive hyperemia and repayment-to-debt ratio responses were significantly reduced for all experimental groups; however, arterial perfusion pressure was not affected. Infarct size was reduced in CD dogs (18.6 ± 4.3; p = 0.001, data are mean ± 1 SD compared to 25.2 ± 5.5% in CTR dogs and was less in PC dogs as expected (13.5 ± 3.2 vs. 25.2 ± 5.5%; p = 0.001; after acute CD, PC protection was conserved (11.6 ± 3.4 vs. 18.6 ± 4.3%; p = 0.02. In conclusion, our findings provide strong evidence that myocardial protection against ischemic injury can be preserved independent of extrinsic cardiac nerve inputs.

  1. Responsiveness and flexibility in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kristian Rasmus; Bilberg, Arne; Hadar, Ronen

    Today’s supply chains are not capable of managing the instabilities that is the case in the market. Instead, there is a need to develop supply chains that are capable of adapting to changes. Through a case study of LEGO, the authors suggest a possible solution: a decentralized supply chain serving...... independent and self-sufficient local factories. The decentralized supply chain is provided with materials, parts and pre-assembled elements from local suppliers and supplies the local market in return. Keywords: Decentralize, Responsiveness, Flexibility...

  2. Analysis and design of robust decentralized controllers for nonlinear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwald, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    Decentralized control strategies for nonlinear systems are achieved via feedback linearization techniques. New results on optimization and parameter robustness of non-linear systems are also developed. In addition, parametric uncertainty in large-scale systems is handled by sensitivity analysis and optimal control methods in a completely decentralized framework. This idea is applied to alleviate uncertainty in friction parameters for the gimbal joints on Space Station Freedom. As an example of decentralized nonlinear control, singular perturbation methods and distributed vibration damping are merged into a control strategy for a two-link flexible manipulator.

  3. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, and constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond water abatement. Inste...

  4. Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Electrical Load Survey and Forecast for a Decentralized Hybrid Power System at Elebu, Kwara State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... The paper reports the results of electrical load demand and forecast for Elebu rural community ...

  5. Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution: A Valid Tenet of Airpower

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santicola, Henry J

    2005-01-01

    ...) and Effects-Based Operations (EBO). This paper examines the history of the concept of centralized control/decentralized execution from the advent of modern warfare through Operation Enduring Freedom...

  6. Decentralization, Interdependence and Performance Measurement System Design : Sequences and Priorities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abernethy, M.; Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of decentralization and performance measurement choices in multidivisional firms.We extend the research on the economics of organizational design choices by examining the impact of two important determinants of those choices, namely, subunit interdependencies and

  7. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-01-01

    and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group

  8. Decentralized Consistent Network Updates in SDN with ez-Segway

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang; Chiesa, Marco; Canini, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and black-holes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes

  9. Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralized Planning for Pre-Conflict and Post-Conflict Management in the Bawku Municipal ... institutional arrangements for conflict monitoring and evaluation. Such processes are 'sine qua non' to pre-conflict and post-conflict prevention.

  10. 8-8-08 International Conference on Decentralization, local power ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    hallas

    2008-08-08

    Aug 8, 2008 ... The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) in collaboration ... To set an agenda on decentralization/ local governance that ... researchers, representatives of multilateral and bilateral agencies, media and others.

  11. Remembering the Future of Centralized Control-Decentralized Execution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sheets, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    ... concepts which should drive system development. To realize the significance of the USAF C2 tenet of "centralized control-decentralized execution," one must understand how C2 is executed, in contingency theaters of operation...

  12. Papers by the Decentralized Wastewater Management MOU Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four position papers for state, local, and tribal government officials and interested stakeholders. These papers include information on the uses and benefits of decentralized wastewater treatment and examples of its effective use.

  13. DECENTRALIZATION IN THE SYSTEM OF NATIONAL ECONOMY MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stepaniuk Nataliia

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Article deals with the investigation of the theoretical approaches to the notion of decentralization in the system of management of the national economy. Purpose. It has been found that for the effective functioning of the state it is necessary to achieve a rational relationship between centralization and decentralization, change the role, responsibility and powers for local self-government and executive authority. Results. t is substantiated that most of the scientific works are devoted to the study of the issue of decentralization of power, the implementation of reform of public finances, the transfer of power to the place as a guarantee of the development of the national economy. It is emphasized that the main idea of decentralization is to transfer competence to local government to address local needs issues. Consequently, decentralization is closely linked to the organization of public administration, promotes the building of effective relations between state authorities and local government. The main advantages of decentralization are: simplified management on the local area, establishing closer connection with civil society, increasing transparency of managerial decisions and raising the level of responsibility to the territorial community. Considered organizational and legal aspects of introduction of decentralization in Ukraine. It is noted that the course on decentralization outlines both prospects and implementation problems. Among the main risks of decentralization are the inconsistencies of the development of separate territorial units and strategic goals, the loss of state mobility, reduction of workplaces of the state apparatus, risks of complication of coordination between levels of management. Conclusions. It has been determined that for efficiency and effectiveness of the reform decentralization principles are necessary for wide introduction in the administrative, political, budgetary, financial and social spheres

  14. Corruption and government spending : The role of decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Korneliussen, Kristine

    2009-01-01

    This thesis points to a possible weakness of the empirical literature on corruption and government spending. That corruption affects the composition of government spending, and in particular that it affects education and health spending adversely, seems to be empirically well established. However, there exist additional literature closely related to corruption and government spending, treating(i) a relationship between corruption and decentralization, and (ii) a relationship between decentral...

  15. Emergent Semantics Interoperability in Large-Scale Decentralized Information Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cudré-Mauroux, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Peer-to-peer systems are evolving with new information-system architectures, leading to the idea that the principles of decentralization and self-organization will offer new approaches in informatics, especially for systems that scale with the number of users or for which central authorities do not prevail. This book describes a new way of building global agreements (semantic interoperability) based only on decentralized, self-organizing interactions.

  16. Decentralization and Distribution Primary Education Access in Indonesia 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Benita, Novinaz

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines decentralisation and distribution of access to primary school in Indonesia. Data come from Indonesia National Socio Economic Survey 2014, and statistic reports from Ministry of education, Ministry Of Finance, and General Election Commision. Descriptive statistic is used to describe spatial distribution of decentralization in primary education system and distribution of primary education access. The results show there are districts disparities in decentralization of primary...

  17. Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    REPORT Jealousy Graphs: Structure and Complexity of Decentralized Stable Matching 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: The stable matching...Franceschetti 858-822-2284 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) Standard Form 298 (Rev 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 - Jealousy Graphs: Structure and...market. Using this structure, we are able to provide a ner analysis of the complexity of a subclass of decentralized matching markets. Jealousy

  18. Computational State Transfer: An Architectural Style for Decentralized Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlick, Michael Martin

    2016-01-01

    A decentralized system is a distributed system that operates under multiple, distinct spheres of authority in which collaboration among the principals is characterized by mutual distrust. Now commonplace, decentralized systems appear in a number of disparate domains: commerce, logistics, medicine, software development, manufacturing, and financial trading to name but a few. These systems of systems face two overlapping demands: security and safety to protect against errors, omissions and thre...

  19. Corruption, accountability, and decentralization: theory and evidence from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Goodspeed, Timothy J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the fundamental tenets of fiscal federalism is that, absent various sorts of externalities, decentralized governments that rely on own-source revenues should be more fiscally efficient than decentralized governments that rely on grant financing. The argument relies in part on the idea that sub-national governments, being closer to the people, are more accountable to its citizens. Accountability to citizens is also important in understanding the presence of corruption in government. Thi...

  20. Decentralized investment management: evidence from the pension fund industry

    OpenAIRE

    Blake, David; Timmermann, Allan; Tonks, Ian; Wermers, Russ

    2010-01-01

    The past few decades have seen amajor shift from centralized to decentralized investment management by pension fund sponsors, despite the increased coordination problems that this brings. Using a unique, proprietary dataset of pension sponsors and managers, we identify two secular decentralization trends: sponsors switched (i) from generalist (balanced) to specialist managers across asset classes and (ii) from single to multiple competing managers within each asset class. We study the effe...

  1. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  2. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  3. Subsidiarity in Principle: Decentralization of Water Resources Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Stoa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The subsidiarity principle of water resources management suggests that water management and service delivery should take place at the lowest appropriate governance level. The principle is attractive for several reasons, primarily because: 1 the governance level can be reduced to reflect environmental characteristics, such as the hydrological borders of a watershed that would otherwise cross administrative boundaries; 2 decentralization promotes community and stakeholder engagement when decision-making is localized; 3 inefficiencies are reduced by eliminating reliance on central government bureaucracies and budgetary constraints; and 4 laws and institutions can be adapted to reflect localized conditions at a scale where integrated natural resources management and climate change adaptation is more focused. Accordingly, the principle of subsidiarity has been welcomed by many states committed to decentralized governance, integrated water resources management, and/or civic participation. However, applications of decentralization have not been uniform, and in some cases have produced frustrating outcomes for states and water resources. Successful decentralization strategies are heavily dependent on dedicated financial resources and human resource capacity. This article explores the nexus between the principle of subsidiarity and the enabling environment, in the hope of articulating factors likely to contribute to, or detract from, the success of decentralized water resources management. Case studies from Haiti, Rwanda, and the United States’ Florida Water Management Districts provide examples of the varied stages of decentralization.

  4. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN ALBANIA: EFFECTS OF TERRITORIAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE REFORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola KAPIDANI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The principle of decentralization is a fundamental principle for the establishment and operation of local government. It refers to the process of redistributing the authority and responsibility for certain functions from central government to local government units. In many countries, particularly in developing countries, fiscal decentralization and local governance issues are addressed as highly important to the economic development. According to Stigler (1957, fiscal decentralization brings government closer to the people and a representative government works best when it is closer to the people. Albania is still undergoing the process of decentralization in all aspects: political, economic, fiscal and administrative. Decentralization process is essential to sustainable economic growth and efficient allocation of resources to meet the needs of citizens. Albania has a fragmented system of local government with a very large number of local government units that have neither sufficient fiscal or human capacity to provide public services at a reasonable level (World Bank. However, recent administrative and territorial reform is expected to have a significant impact in many issues related to local autonomy and revenue management. This paper is focused on the progress of fiscal decentralization process in Albania, stating key issues and ongoing challenges for an improved system. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of recent territorial reform, identifying problems and opportunities to be addressed in the future.

  5. Rethinking Decentralization in Education in terms of Administrative Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Papadopoulou

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The general purpose of this study is to thoroughly examine decentralization in education according to the literature and previous research, and to discuss the applicability of educational decentralization practices in Turkey. The literature was reviewed for the study and findings reported. It has been observed that decentralization in education practices were realized in many countries after the 1980’s. It is obvious that the educational system in Turkey has difficulty in meeting the needs, and encounters many problems due to its present centralist state. Educational decentralization can provide effective solutions for stakeholder engagement, educational financing and for problems in decision making and operation within the education system. However, the present state of local governments, the legal framework, geographical, cultural and social features indicate that Turkey’s conditions are not ready for decentralization in education. A decentralization model realized in the long run according to Turkey’s conditions, and as a result of a social consensus, can help resolve the problems of the Turkish education system.

  6. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION IN THE DRC: EVIDENCE OFREVENUE ASSIGNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Kithatu-Kiwekete

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The rationalefor central government to devolve resources for service provisionhas been debated in decentralization literature. Decentralization enhancesdemocracy,encouragesparticipation in local development initiativesandpromotes local political accountability.This discourse has been complemented bythe implementation of fiscal decentralization to increase the ability of sub-nationalgovernment in financing municipal service delivery. Fiscal decentralization hasoften been adopted by African statessince the onset ofthe New PublicManagement erain an effortto improvethe standard ofgovernance. The concernis that African states have taken minimal steps to adopt fiscal devolution thatpromotes revenue assignment which in turn limits sub-nationalgovernments’ability to generate own source revenues.This article examines the revenue assignment function of fiscal decentralization inthe Democratic Republic of Congo(DRCinthelight of decentralizationconcerns that have been raised by civil society, as the country charts its course todemocracy. The article is a desktop study that will consider documents andpoliciesin theDRCon thenational, provincialand locallevel as far asstaterevenue sourcesare concerned. Revenue assignment should enable DRC’sprovinces and local authoritiestogeneratesignificantrevenueindependently.However, post-conflict reconstruction and development efforts in the Great Lakesregion and in the DRC have largely isolated decentralization which wouldotherwise entrench local fiscalautonomy infinancing for local services anddevelopment. The article concludes that revenue generation for local authoritiesandtheprovinces in the DRC is still very centralised by the national government.Thearticleproposes policy recommendations that will be useful for the country toensurethatdecentralization effortsinclude fiscal devolution toenhance thefinancing for local development initiatives.

  7. Experimental quantification of solute transport through the vadose zone under dynamic boundary conditions with dye tracers and optical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremer, Clemens; Neuweiler, Insa

    2017-04-01

    transport through the material interface which differs between the stationary (unilateral) and dynamic cases (bilateral). This qualitative observation is confirmed by breakthrough curves for dynamic experiments which generally show the trend of faster initial breakthrough and increased tailing when compared to stationary infiltration results. Literature Cremer, C.J.M., I. Neuweiler, M. Bechtold, J. Vanderborght (2016): Solute Transport in Heterogeneous Soil with Time-Dependent Boundary Conditions, Vadose Zone Journal 15 (6) DOI: 10.2136/vzj2015.11.0144

  8. Security for decentralized health information systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleumer, G

    1994-02-01

    Health care information systems must reflect at least two basic characteristics of the health care community: the increasing mobility of patients and the personal liability of everyone giving medical treatment. Open distributed information systems bear the potential to reflect these requirements. But the market for open information systems and operating systems hardly provides secure products today. This 'missing link' is approached by the prototype SECURE Talk that provides secure transmission and archiving of files on top of an existing operating system. Its services may be utilized by existing medical applications. SECURE Talk demonstrates secure communication utilizing only standard hardware. Its message is that cryptography (and in particular asymmetric cryptography) is practical for many medical applications even if implemented in software. All mechanisms are software implemented in order to be executable on standard-hardware. One can investigate more or less decentralized forms of public key management and the performance of many different cryptographic mechanisms. That of, e.g. hybrid encryption and decryption (RSA+DES-PCBC) is about 300 kbit/s. That of signing and verifying is approximately the same using RSA with a DES hash function. The internal speed, without disk accesses etc., is about 1.1 Mbit/s. (Apple Quadra 950 (MC 68040, 33 MHz, RAM: 20 MB, 80 ns. Length of RSA modulus is 512 bit).

  9. Platform Architecture for Decentralized Positioning Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria Kasmi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A platform architecture for positioning systems is essential for the realization of a flexible localization system, which interacts with other systems and supports various positioning technologies and algorithms. The decentralized processing of a position enables pushing the application-level knowledge into a mobile station and avoids the communication with a central unit such as a server or a base station. In addition, the calculation of the position on low-cost and resource-constrained devices presents a challenge due to the limited computing, storage capacity, as well as power supply. Therefore, we propose a platform architecture that enables the design of a system with the reusability of the components, extensibility (e.g., with other positioning technologies and interoperability. Furthermore, the position is computed on a low-cost device such as a microcontroller, which simultaneously performs additional tasks such as data collecting or preprocessing based on an operating system. The platform architecture is designed, implemented and evaluated on the basis of two positioning systems: a field strength system and a time of arrival-based positioning system.

  10. Decentralized provenance-aware publishing with nanopublications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Kuhn

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Publication and archival of scientific results is still commonly considered the responsability of classical publishing companies. Classical forms of publishing, however, which center around printed narrative articles, no longer seem well-suited in the digital age. In particular, there exist currently no efficient, reliable, and agreed-upon methods for publishing scientific datasets, which have become increasingly important for science. In this article, we propose to design scientific data publishing as a web-based bottom-up process, without top-down control of central authorities such as publishing companies. Based on a novel combination of existing concepts and technologies, we present a server network to decentrally store and archive data in the form of nanopublications, an RDF-based format to represent scientific data. We show how this approach allows researchers to publish, retrieve, verify, and recombine datasets of nanopublications in a reliable and trustworthy manner, and we argue that this architecture could be used as a low-level data publication layer to serve the Semantic Web in general. Our evaluation of the current network shows that this system is efficient and reliable.

  11. First measurements of ambient aerosol over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India: Relationships between PM2.5 mass, its optical properties, and meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunder Raman, Ramya; Kumar, Samresh

    2016-04-15

    PM2.5 mass and its optical properties were measured over an ecologically sensitive zone in Central India between January and December, 2012. Meteorological parameters including temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, wind direction, and barometric pressure were also monitored. During the study period, the PM2.5 (fine PM) concentration ranged between 3.2μgm(-3) and 193.9μgm(-3) with a median concentration of 31.4μgm(-3). The attenuation coefficients, βATN at 370nm, 550nm, and 880nm had median values of 104.5Mm(-1), 79.2Mm(-1), and 59.8Mm(-1), respectively. Further, the dry scattering coefficient, βSCAT at 550nm had a median value of 17.1Mm(-1) while the absorption coefficient βABS at 550nm had a median value of 61.2Mm(-1). The relationship between fine PM mass and attenuation coefficients showed pronounced seasonality. Scattering, absorption, and attenuation coefficient at different wavelengths were all well correlated with fine PM mass only during the post-monsoon season (October, November, and December). The highest correlation (r(2)=0.81) was between fine PM mass and βSCAT at 550nm during post-monsoon season. During this season, the mass scattering efficiency (σSCAT) was 1.44m(2)g(-1). Thus, monitoring optical properties all year round, as a surrogate for fine PM mass was found unsuitable for the study location. In order to assess the relationships between fine PM mass and its optical properties and meteorological parameters, multiple linear regression (MLR) models were fitted for each season, with fine PM mass as the dependent variable. Such a model fitted for the post-monsoon season explained over 88% of the variability in fine PM mass. However, the MLR models were able to explain only 31 and 32% of the variability in fine PM during pre-monsoon (March, April, and May) and monsoon (June, July, August, and September) seasons, respectively. During the winter (January and February) season, the MLR model explained 54% of the PM2.5 variability. Copyright

  12. Decentralized data systems - results and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parr, V.B.; McCullough, L.D.; Tashjian, B.M.; Shirley, R.D.

    1982-05-01

    A Decentralized Data Systems (DDS) is defined as a utility, industry, or regulatory agency data system dealing with power plant performance. DDSs in use or planned for use on an industry, regional, or utility basis have not been studied in sufficient detail to identify methods of coordinating them with the Information System for Generation Availability (ISGA), which is under development. A survey of utility, industry, and regulatory agency DDSs was made by Southwest Research Institute. Information was gathered on twelve utility data systems, two industry data systems, two regulatory agency data systems and one government-owned utility data system. The objectives of this study are to identify existing DDSs that are potential candidates for integration into the ISGA, and to identify methods by which that integration can be accomplished. A matrix of the data elements and formats was prepared for the data systems, which allowed comparison to determine which DDSs were potential candidates for integration into the ISGA. Utility data systems emphasize outage data collection. A composite of GADS, NPRDS, and piece-part data from Utah Power and Light encompass nearly all data elements identified in the survey. Of the computer system configurations considered as potentially viable for ISGA, integrated, centralized, interfaced, and distributed, the authors believe the centralized system for data retrieval is the least expensive to implement, and the most acceptable to the users. An in-depth study of ISGA hadware/software options is the subject of another EPRI contract. The information and system configuration overviews presented in this report will support that effort

  13. Centralization or decentralization of facial structures in Korean young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Ja-Young; Kim, Jeong-Nam; Shin, Kang-Jae; Kim, Soon-Heum; Choi, Hyun-Gon; Jeon, Hyun-Soo; Koh, Ki-Seok; Song, Wu-Chul

    2013-05-01

    It is well known that facial beauty is dictated by facial type, and harmony between the eyes, nose, and mouth. Furthermore, facial impression is judged according to the overall facial contour and the relationship between the facial structures. The aims of the present study were to determine the optimal criteria for the assessment of gathering or separation of the facial structures and to define standardized ratios for centralization or decentralization of the facial structures.Four different lengths were measured, and 2 indexes were calculated from standardized photographs of 551 volunteers. Centralization and decentralization were assessed using the width index (interpupillary distance / facial width) and height index (eyes-mouth distance / facial height). The mean ranges of the width index and height index were 42.0 to 45.0 and 36.0 to 39.0, respectively. The width index did not differ with sex, but males had more decentralized faces, and females had more centralized faces, vertically. The incidence rate of decentralized faces among the men was 30.3%, and that of centralized faces among the women was 25.2%.The mean ranges in width and height indexes have been determined in a Korean population. Faces with width and height index scores under and over the median ranges are determined to be "centralized" and "decentralized," respectively.

  14. Turbidity retrieval and monitoring of Danube Delta waters using multi-sensor optical remote sensing data: An integrated view from the delta plain lakes to the western-northwestern Black Sea coastal zone

    OpenAIRE

    Guttler, Fabio; Niculescu, Simona; Gohin, Francis

    2013-01-01

    Based on multi-sensor optical remote sensing techniques, more than 80 medium and high spatial resolution satellite images were used for studying the turbidity patterns of Danube Delta waters. During a selected 4-year temporal coverage (2006 to 2009), the turbidity gradients were simultaneously analyzed in the delta plain lakes and in the Black Sea western-northwestern coastal zone. Two distinct, but complementary, methodologies for retrieving turbidity were employed, one for the lakes and the...

  15. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  16. A Retrospective Analysis of the Development of Fiscal Decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekova Nataliia Yu.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The study forms the theoretical basis for the implementation of fiscal decentralization in Ukraine on the basis of determining the correspondence between the evolution of scientific approaches to the formation of an effective model of public administration and the degree of power centralization at a particular stage of the development of society. The views of thinkers of the ancient states of Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, China, Rome, Greece are generalized, and the priority of centralized public administration without segregation of centralization forms is determined. The degree of centralization in the period of development of feudal states is characterized. The scientific views of representatives of the neoinstitutional direction of economic thought are analyzed in detail, and the stages of the formation of decentralization, in particular fiscal, as a separate theory, are defined. The stages of and the corresponding organizational and legislative documents for the implementation of decentralization in Ukraine are outlined, and its results are characterized.

  17. FISCAL DECENTRALIZATION DETERMINANTS AND LOCAL ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN EU COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Florentina GAVRILUŢĂ (VATAMANU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to assess the impact of fiscal decentralization on local (regional development in the EU Member States while controlling for macroeconomic and local autonomy specific factors. Using a panel data approach with dynamic effects, we examined the implications of fiscal decentralization on local development across European Union countries over the 1990-2004 period. The novelty of the study is emphasized by including in the analysis a variable which tests local fiscal discipline, more exactly, Fiscal Rule Strength Index for local level of government. Our findings suggest that prosperity of regions, measured in GDP growth depends on variables such as characteristics of decentralization undertaken by each country or local fiscal discipline, confirming our primary hypothesis. This supports the view that recently implemented reforms aiming to enforce fiscal discipline following-up the Fiscal Compact strengthened the local budgetary framework and restrained, therefore, the local discretionary power to act towards development.

  18. The Bases of Federalism and Decentralization in Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ornelas

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This essay uses the Weberian-type ideal to define the conceptual bases of federalism and the decentralization of education. Classic federalism, ficticious federalism (corporativism, the origins and the indigenous version of the new federalism are discussed. We conclude that Mexican constitutional federalism is baroque and ambiguous. Based on theory and the experiences of various countries, bureaucratic centralism and its main characteristics are defined. As a contrast, a typology of educational decentralization is developed. Taken into account are its political, judicial and administrative definitions; a distinction is made between delegation and decentralization. It is argued that with the signing of the Agreement for the Modernization of Basic Education, the Mexican government sought to increase its legitimacy without losing control of education.

  19. Decentralized Economic Dispatch Scheme With Online Power Reserve for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nutkani, I. U.; Loh, Poh Chiang; Wang, P.

    2017-01-01

    Decentralized economic operation schemes have several advantages when compared with the traditional centralized management system for microgrids. Specifically, decentralized schemes are more flexible, less computationally intensive, and easier to implement without relying on communication...... costs, their power ratings, and other necessary constraints, before deciding the DG dispatch priorities and droop characteristics. The proposed scheme also allows online power reserve to be set and regulated within the microgrid. This, together with the generation cost saved, has been verified...... infrastructure. Economic operation of existing decentralized schemes is also usually achieved by either tuning the droop characteristics of distributed generators (DGs) or prioritizing their dispatch order. For the latter, an earlier scheme has tried to prioritize the DG dispatch based on their no...

  20. Decentralized Interleaving of Paralleled Dc-Dc Buck Converters: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Brian B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rodriguez, Miguel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sinha, Mohit [University of Minnesota; Dhople, Sairaj [University of Minnesota; Poon, Jason [University of California at Berkeley

    2017-09-01

    We present a decentralized control strategy that yields switch interleaving among parallel connected dc-dc buck converters without communication. The proposed method is based on the digital implementation of the dynamics of a nonlinear oscillator circuit as the controller. Each controller is fully decentralized, i.e., it only requires the locally measured output current to synthesize the pulse width modulation (PWM) carrier waveform. By virtue of the intrinsic electrical coupling between converters, the nonlinear oscillator-based controllers converge to an interleaved state with uniform phase-spacing across PWM carriers. To the knowledge of the authors, this work represents the first fully decentralized strategy for switch interleaving of paralleled dc-dc buck converters.

  1. The Dynamics of Decentralization Arrangements in Indonesia Constitutional System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haposan Siallagan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Local autonomy has long been implemented in Indonesia and has been experiencing a number of phases within governmental system. This writing is intended to fathom the dynamics of decentralization arrangement indeed. The discussion it-self shows that according to the substances in a number of decentralization policy which had/has been issued, the dynamics of local autonomy arrangements (as regulated in many decentralization policies are inclining to be captured in a broad meaning, which is frequently known as a broadest local autonomy. Through local autonomy mechanism, local governments are given a flexibility in order to manage and administer their own domestic household. In order to maximize the implementation of widest local autonomy, local government has to be pushed to be well prepared in handling many local governmental tasks. Such preparations are related to human resources capacity, the competences in running the tasks, and financial management capacity.

  2. Decentralized Optimization for a Novel Control Structure of HVAC System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqiang Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A decentralized control structure is introduced into the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC system to solve the high maintenance and labor cost problem in actual engineering. Based on this new control system, a decentralized optimization method is presented for sensor fault repair and optimal group control of HVAC equipment. Convergence property of the novel method is theoretically analyzed considering both convex and nonconvex systems with constraints. In this decentralized control system, traditional device is fitted with a control chip such that it becomes a smart device. The smart device can communicate and operate collaboratively with the other devices to accomplish some designated tasks. The effectiveness of the presented method is verified by simulations and hardware tests.

  3. Retinal Capillary Network and Foveal Avascular Zone in Eyes with Vein Occlusion and Fellow Eyes Analyzed With Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhi, Mehreen; Filho, Marco A Bonini; Louzada, Ricardo N; Kuehlewein, Laura; de Carlo, Talisa E; Baumal, Caroline R; Witkin, Andre J; Sadda, Srinivas R; Sarraf, David; Reichel, Elias; Duker, Jay S; Waheed, Nadia K

    2016-07-01

    To evaluate the perifoveolar retinal capillary network at different depths and to quantify the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) in eyes with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) compared with their fellow eyes and healthy controls using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). We prospectively recruited 23 patients with RVO including 15 eyes with central RVO (CRVO) and 8 eyes with branch RVO (BRVO), their fellow eyes, and 8 age-matched healthy controls (8 eyes) for imaging on prototype OCTA software within RTVue-XR Avanti. The 3 × 3 mm and 6 × 6 mm en face angiograms of superficial and deep retinal capillary plexuses were segmented. Perifoveolar retinal capillary network was analyzed and FAZ was quantified. Decrease in vascular perfusion at the deep plexus was observed in all eyes with CRVO (8/8, 100%) and BRVO (6/6, 100%) without cystoid macular edema, and in 8 of 15 (53%) and 2 of 8 (25%) of the fellow eyes, respectively. Vascular tortuosity was observed in 13 of 15 (87%) CRVO and 5 of 8 (63%) BRVO eyes. Collaterals were seen in 10 of 15 (67%) CRVO and 5 of 8 (63%) BRVO eyes. Mean FAZ area was larger in eyes with RVO than their fellow eyes (1.13 ± 0.25 mm2 versus 0.58 ± 0.28 mm2; P = 0.007) and controls (1.13 ± 0.25 mm2 versus 0.30 ± 0.09 mm2; P network and is able to quantify the FAZ in RVO. Longitudinal studies may be considered to evaluate the clinical utility of OCTA in RVO and other retinal vascular diseases.

  4. Actively heated high-resolution fiber-optic-distributed temperature sensing to quantify streambed flow dynamics in zones of strong groundwater upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Martin A.; Buckley, Sean F.; Bagtzoglou, Amvrossios C.; Werkema, Dale D.; Lane, John W.

    2016-01-01

    Zones of strong groundwater upwelling to streams enhance thermal stability and moderate thermal extremes, which is particularly important to aquatic ecosystems in a warming climate. Passive thermal tracer methods used to quantify vertical upwelling rates rely on downward conduction of surface temperature signals. However, moderate to high groundwater flux rates (>−1.5 m d−1) restrict downward propagation of diurnal temperature signals, and therefore the applicability of several passive thermal methods. Active streambed heating from within high-resolution fiber-optic temperature sensors (A-HRTS) has the potential to define multidimensional fluid-flux patterns below the extinction depth of surface thermal signals, allowing better quantification and separation of local and regional groundwater discharge. To demonstrate this concept, nine A-HRTS were emplaced vertically into the streambed in a grid with ∼0.40 m lateral spacing at a stream with strong upward vertical flux in Mashpee, Massachusetts, USA. Long-term (8–9 h) heating events were performed to confirm the dominance of vertical flow to the 0.6 m depth, well below the extinction of ambient diurnal signals. To quantify vertical flux, short-term heating events (28 min) were performed at each A-HRTS, and heat-pulse decay over vertical profiles was numerically modeled in radial two dimension (2-D) using SUTRA. Modeled flux values are similar to those obtained with seepage meters, Darcy methods, and analytical modeling of shallow diurnal signals. We also observed repeatable differential heating patterns along the length of vertically oriented sensors that may indicate sediment layering and hyporheic exchange superimposed on regional groundwater discharge.

  5. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, Ciprian; Deliu, C.; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    2009-01-01

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  6. A set of decentralized PID controllers for an n – link robot manipulator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The solution of decentralized tracking control problem for robot manipulator is slightly comp- lex since we .... Figure 1 shows decentralized control scheme for the ith joint of system (10). ...... Automatic Control 49(11): 2081–2084. Gahinet P ...

  7. Enforcement and Environmental Quality in a Decentralized Emission Trading System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Amato, Alessio (Univ. of Rome, ' Tor Vergata' , Rome (Italy)); Valentini, Edilio (Univ. G. D' Annunzio di Chieti-Pescara, DEST, Fac. di Economia, Pescara (Italy))

    2008-07-01

    This paper addresses the issue of whether the powers of monitoring compliance and allocating allowances under emissions trading within an economic union should be centralized or delegated to single states. To this end, we develop a two stage game played by two governments choosing allowances and monitoring effort to achieve full compliance, and their respective polluting industries. We show that cost advantage in favor of national states is not sufficient to justify decentralization. Nevertheless, cost differential in monitoring violations can imply lower emissions and greater welfare under a decentralized institutional setting than under a centralized one

  8. Staffing, qualification and organization for centralized and decentralized training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holyoak, R.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper covers an extensive area. First a brief history of the training at Commonwealth Edison is presented so that the reader can get some idea of why some of the problems mentioned exist. Next is a discussion of the centralized and decentralized Commonwealth Edison production training organization. A brief review of the development of the Instructor Qualification Program and the training of instructors follows. Finally, a review of the problems and some solutions related to managing a centralized/decentralized training system is included

  9. Decentralization for National development in Nigeria from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    National development of a multicultural setting requires a decentralized appropriation of diverse contributions of various constituent subsets. Improvement of multicultural settings calls for social negotiation and economic merger, and compression of individual resources of the various units to enhance egalitarian level of ...

  10. DECENTRALIZATION OF MUNICIPAL SERVICES – LEARNING BY DOING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Elena NICOLESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Public services decentralization is a major concern for policy makers when it comes to identifying the optimum model for reorganizing these services, in light of the 3Es of the organizational performance. The field experiences show that this process is different both from one state to another, and depending on the targeted activity sector, out of which the local transport service is distinguished as an ‘institutional orphan’. Taking into account one of the smart-cities’ recognition criteria, the urban mobility, the paper aims at substantiating that, despite the specific incrementalism of the public services decentralization, having a negative impact upon the services’ efficiency, in the case of local transport service, recognizing the right to mobility and the need to ensuring the environment for exercising this right, impels the ‘bureaucratic apparatus’ to accelerate and consolidate the decentralization of this service. Therefore, the paper puts forward a case study on the impact of decentralization upon the local public transport service of Bucharest municipality.

  11. Decentralization of operating reactor licensing reviews: NRR Pilot Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannon, J.N.

    1984-07-01

    This report, which has incorporated comments received from the Commission and ACRS, describes the program for decentralization of selected operating reactor licensing technical review activities. The 2-year pilot program will be reviewed to verify that safety is enhanced as anticipated by the incorporation of prescribed management techniques and application of resources. If the program fails to operate as designed, it will be terminated

  12. Integrating Collaborative and Decentralized Models to Support Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Jorge Luis Victória; Barbosa, Débora Nice Ferrari; Rigo, Sandro José; de Oliveira, Jezer Machado; Rabello, Solon Andrade, Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The application of ubiquitous technologies in the improvement of education strategies is called Ubiquitous Learning. This article proposes the integration between two models dedicated to support ubiquitous learning environments, called Global and CoolEdu. CoolEdu is a generic collaboration model for decentralized environments. Global is an…

  13. Beyond the Diversity Crisis Model: Decentralized Diversity Planning and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Damon A.

    2008-01-01

    This article critiques the diversity crises model of diversity planning in higher education and presents a decentralized diversity planning model. The model is based on interviews with the nation's leading diversity officers, a review of the literature and the authors own experiences leading diversity change initiatives in higher education. The…

  14. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, ... four models of decentralized solid waste management in low-income urban ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  15. Dynamical Orders of Decentralized H-infinity Controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    1996-01-01

    The problem of decentralized control is addressed, i.e. theproblem of designing a controller where each control input is allowedto use only some of the measurements. It is shown that such problemsthere does not always exist a sequence of controllers of bounded orderwhich obtains near optimal cont...

  16. Dynamical orders of decentralized H-infinity controllers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    The problem of decentralized control is addressed, i.e. the problem of designing a controller where each control input is allowed to use only some of the measurements. It is shown that, for such problems, there does not always exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near-op...

  17. Contesting sharia : state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huda, Yasrul

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how Sharia, commonly called Perda Sharia (Sharia by-law) in Indonesia, was legislated on the provincial, regional and municipal level in West Sumatra. This process began after the government started a decentralization policy in 2000. Although the law of local autonomy prescribes

  18. A simulation model of a coordinated decentralized linear supply chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashayeri, Jalal; Cannella, S.; Lopez Campos, M.; Miranda, P.A.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation-based study of a coordinated, decentralized linear supply chain (SC) system. In the proposed model, any supply tier considers its successors as part of its inventory system and generates replenishment orders on the basis of its partners’ operational information. We

  19. Decentralized Heat Supply – Alternative to Centralized One

    OpenAIRE

    V. I. Nazarov; L. A. Tarasevich; А. L. Burov

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents a concrete example that shows comparative characteristics of decentralized and centralized heat supply. It has been shown in the paper that selection of this or that variant of heat supply significantly depends on losses in heat supply networks.

  20. On the efficiency of decentralized exchange with resale possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes, Ebbe; Tranæs, Torben

    1999-01-01

    . If resale is possible and transaction costs are negligible, we would nevertheless expect an efficient allocation to result from decentralized exchange. This paper suggests that this depends on the nature of the commodity; while the allocation of a durable good will be efficient, the allocation...

  1. Decentralized Receding Horizon Control and Coordination of Autonomous Vehicle Formations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keviczky, T.; Borelli, F.; Fregene, K.; Godbole, D.; Bals, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a novel methodology for high-level control and coordination of autonomous vehicle teams and its demonstration on high-fidelity models of the organic air vehicle developed at Honeywell Laboratories. The scheme employs decentralized receding horizon controllers

  2. Spectrum Allocation for Decentralized Transmission Strategies: Properties of Nash Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter von Wrycza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of two transmit-receive pairs coexisting in the same area and communicating using the same portion of the spectrum is analyzed from a game theoretic perspective. Each pair utilizes a decentralized iterative water-filling scheme to greedily maximize the individual rate. We study the dynamics of such a game and find properties of the resulting Nash equilibria. The region of achievable operating points is characterized for both low- and high-interference systems, and the dependence on the various system parameters is explicitly shown. We derive the region of possible signal space partitioning for the iterative water-filling scheme and show how the individual utility functions can be modified to alter its range. Utilizing global system knowledge, we design a modified game encouraging better operating points in terms of sum rate compared to those obtained using the iterative water-filling algorithm and show how such a game can be imitated in a decentralized noncooperative setting. Although we restrict the analysis to a two player game, analogous concepts can be used to design decentralized algorithms for scenarios with more players. The performance of the modified decentralized game is evaluated and compared to the iterative water-filling algorithm by numerical simulations.

  3. Users' perspectives on decentralized rural water services in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the impact of decentralization reforms on improving access to domestic water supply in the rural districts of Kondoa and Kongwa, Tanzania, using a users' and a gender perspective. The article addresses the question whether and to what extent the delivery of gender-sensitive

  4. Independence and Collaboration; Why We Should Decentralize Writing Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise Z.

    1986-01-01

    Notes the inevitable tensions that arise between centripetal writing centers and centrifugal writing across the curriculum programs. Examines the tutoring program at an eastern university as an example of a decentralized writing center that resists pressures to assume a uniform composition pedagogy and coordinates its work with many parts of the…

  5. Reaction Diffusion and Chemotaxis for Decentralized Gathering on FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Girau

    2009-01-01

    and rapid simulations of the complex dynamics of this reaction-diffusion model. Then we describe the FPGA implementation of the environment together with the agents, to study the major challenges that must be solved when designing a fast embedded implementation of the decentralized gathering model. We analyze the results according to the different goals of these hardware implementations.

  6. The Relationship Between Traffic Stability and Capacity for Decentralized Airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sunil, E.; Maas, J.B.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.; Tra, M.A.P.

    2016-01-01

    The work that is presented in this paper is part of an ongoing study on the relationship between structure and capacity of decentralized airspace concepts. In this paper, the effect of traffic stability, which considers the occurrence of conflict chain reactions as a result of conflict resolution

  7. Strategic Alignment: Recruiting Students in a Highly Decentralized Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Richard

    2016-01-01

    All enrollment managers face some level of challenge related to decentralized decision making and operations. Policies and practices can vary considerably by academic area, creating administrative complexity, restricting the scope and speed of institutional initiatives, and limiting potential efficiencies. Central attempts to standardize or…

  8. A Logic for Auditing Accountability in Decentralized Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corin, R.J.; Etalle, Sandro; den Hartog, Jeremy; Lenzini, Gabriele; Staicu, I.

    We propose a language that allows agents to distribute data with usage policies in a decentralized architecture. In our framework, the compliance with usage policies is not enforced. However, agents may be audited by an authority at an arbitrary moment in time. We design a logic that allows audited

  9. Centralization and Decentralization of Schools' Physical Facilities Management in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikoya, Peter O.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This research aims to examine the difference in the availability, adequacy and functionality of physical facilities in centralized and decentralized schools districts, with a view to making appropriate recommendations to stakeholders on the reform programmes in the Nigerian education sector. Design/methodology/approach: Principals,…

  10. Decentralized Heat Supply – Alternative to Centralized One

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Nazarov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concrete example that shows comparative characteristics of decentralized and centralized heat supply. It has been shown in the paper that selection of this or that variant of heat supply significantly depends on losses in heat supply networks.

  11. Centralized vs. De-centralized Multinationals and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Schjelderup, Guttorm

    2005-01-01

    The paper examines how country tax differences affect a multinational enterprise's choice to centralize or de-centralize its decision structure. Within a simple model that emphasizes the multiple conflicting roles of transfer prices in MNEs - here, as a strategic pre-commitment device and a tax...

  12. Decentralized School vs. Centralized School. Investigation No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paseur, C. Herbert

    A report is presented of a comparative investigation of a decentralized and a centralized school facility. Comparative data are provided regarding costs of the facilities, amount of educational area provided by the facilities, and types of educational areas provided. Evaluative comments are included regarding cost savings versus educational…

  13. The influence of decentralization on effectiveness of extension ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Against the background of frequent organisational changes and restructuring, often based on impulsive decisions rather than structured feasibility studies or evaluations, this article examines the influence of decentralization on the performance of an extension organization. Based on a survey of 353 respondents from ...

  14. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taner Cevik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand.

  15. A Hybrid OFDM-TDM Architecture with Decentralized Dynamic Bandwidth Allocation for PONs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Taner

    2013-01-01

    One of the major challenges of passive optical networks is to achieve a fair arbitration mechanism that will prevent possible collisions from occurring at the upstream channel when multiple users attempt to access the common fiber at the same time. Therefore, in this study we mainly focus on fair bandwidth allocation among users, and present a hybrid Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed/Time Division Multiplexed architecture with a dynamic bandwidth allocation scheme that provides satisfying service qualities to the users depending on their varying bandwidth requirements. Unnecessary delays in centralized schemes occurring during bandwidth assignment stage are eliminated by utilizing a decentralized approach. Instead of sending bandwidth demands to the optical line terminal (OLT) which is the only competent authority, each optical network unit (ONU) runs the same bandwidth demand determination algorithm. ONUs inform each other via signaling channel about the status of their queues. This information is fed to the bandwidth determination algorithm which is run by each ONU in a distributed manner. Furthermore, Light Load Penalty, which is a phenomenon in optical communications, is mitigated by limiting the amount of bandwidth that an ONU can demand. PMID:24194684

  16. Decentralization as a Cause of Spatial Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasarovic Ema Alihodzic

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available City represents an incomplete dynamic process prone to the expansion with a causal link between urban expansion and socio-spatial segregation. The socio-spatial distribution in the city is mostly related to the increased social polarization and inequality. There is a clear connection between divided society and divided city: if society is divided, urban space must be divided. It is the question of the relations between the social inequalities on one hand, and spatial segregation on the other. In the last 10 years, Podgorica is the city that shows alarming statistic values when it comes to demographic trends and the influx of the residents from the northern municipalities, which necessarily causes the city sprawl. Past experiences show that city is unevenly expanding, creating new functions and zones expressed by socio-spatial differences. The beginning of this process lies in modernist conception of the city, by which city was mostly developed, while the current functional organization is based on the same concept. With the first urban plans, which carried similarproblems mentioned in previous section, Podgorica was divided into three clearly differentiated zones: Stara Varoš, Nova Varoš and Novi grad, which became a platform for hierarchical divisions within the space, reflecting them in the society.

  17. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Decentralization in Zambia: resource allocation and district performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, Thomas; Chitah, Mukosha Bona; Bowser, Diana

    2003-12-01

    Zambia implemented an ambitious process of health sector decentralization in the mid 1990s. This article presents an assessment of the degree of decentralization, called 'decision space', that was allowed to districts in Zambia, and an analysis of data on districts available at the national level to assess allocation choices made by local authorities and some indicators of the performance of the health systems under decentralization. The Zambian officials in health districts had a moderate range of choice over expenditures, user fees, contracting, targeting and governance. Their choices were quite limited over salaries and allowances and they did not have control over additional major sources of revenue, like local taxes. The study found that the formula for allocation of government funding which was based on population size and hospital beds resulted in relatively equal per capita expenditures among districts. Decentralization allowed the districts to make decisions on internal allocation of resources and on user fee levels and expenditures. General guidelines for the allocation of resources established a maximum and minimum percentage to be allocated to district offices, hospitals, health centres and communities. Districts tended to exceed the maximum for district offices, but the large urban districts and those without public district hospitals were not even reaching the minimum for hospital allocations. Wealthier and urban districts were more successful in raising revenue through user fees, although the proportion of total expenditures that came from user fees was low. An analysis of available indicators of performance, such as the utilization of health services, immunization coverage and family planning activities, found little variation during the period 1995-98 except for a decline in immunization coverage, which may have also been affected by changes in donor funding. These findings suggest that decentralization may not have had either a positive or

  19. U-Form vs. M-Form: How to Understand Decision Autonomy Under Healthcare Decentralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, Arturo Vargas

    2016-01-01

    For more than three decades healthcare decentralization has been promoted in developing countries as a way of improving the financing and delivery of public healthcare. Decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization would determine the role and scope of responsibility of local authorities. Jalal Mohammed, Nicola North, and Toni Ashton analyze decision autonomy within decentralized services in Fiji. They conclude that the narrow decision space allowed to local entities might have limited the benefits of decentralization on users and providers. To discuss the costs and benefits of healthcare decentralization this paper uses the U-form and M-form typology to further illustrate the role of decision autonomy under healthcare decentralization. This paper argues that when evaluating healthcare decentralization, it is important to determine whether the benefits from decentralization are greater than its costs. The U-form and M-form framework is proposed as a useful typology to evaluate different types of institutional arrangements under healthcare decentralization. Under this model, the more decentralized organizational form (M-form) is superior if the benefits from flexibility exceed the costs of duplication and the more centralized organizational form (U-form) is superior if the savings from economies of scale outweigh the costly decision-making process from the center to the regions. Budgetary and financial autonomy and effective mechanisms to maintain local governments accountable for their spending behavior are key decision autonomy variables that could sway the cost-benefit analysis of healthcare decentralization. PMID:27694684

  20. Least-cost network evaluation of centralized and decentralized contributions to global electrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, Todd; Thomas, Valerie M.

    2012-01-01

    The choice between centralized and decentralized electricity generation is examined for 150 countries as a function of population distribution, electricity consumption, transmission cost, and the cost difference between decentralized and centralized electricity generation. A network algorithm is developed to find the shortest centralized transmission network that spans a given fraction of the population in a country. The least-cost combination of centralized and decentralized electricity that serves the country is determined. Case studies of Botswana, Uganda, and Bangladesh illustrate situations that are more and less suited for decentralized electrification. Specific maps for centralized and decentralized generation are presented to show how the least-cost option varies with the relative costs of centralized and decentralized generation and transmission cost. Centralized and decentralized fractions are calculated for 150 countries. For most of the world's population, centralized electricity is the least-cost option. For a number of countries, particularly in Africa, substantial populations and regions may be most cost-effectively served by decentralized electricity. - Highlights: ► Centralized and decentralized electrification are compared for 150 countries. ► A cost-optimized network algorithm finds the least-cost electrification system. ► Least-cost infrastructures combine centralized and decentralized portions. ► For most people, centralized electricity is cheapest option. ► In much of Africa, decentralized electricity may be cheaper than centralized.

  1. Tilt, Decentration, and Internal Higher-Order Aberrations of Sutured Posterior-Chamber Intraocular Lenses in Patients with Open Globe Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjia Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the tilt, decentration, and internal higher-order aberrations (HOAs of sutured posterior-chamber intraocular lenses (IOLs in patients with open globe injuries. Methods. 46 consecutive patients (47 eyes who underwent transsclerally sutured IOL implantation were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Nineteen eyes had a history of open globe injury. The tilt and decentration of the IOLs and the visual quality were measured 1 month after surgery. Results. The horizontal tilt and decentration of the IOLs in the open-globe-injury group were significantly higher than those in the control group (both P<0.05. In the open-globe-injury group, the horizontal decentration was significantly greater in the limbus-sclera-involved group (n=11 than in the only-cornea-involved group (n=8, P=0.040. The internal coma, 3rd-order, and total HOA values at pupil sizes of 4 mm (P=0.006 and 6 mm (P=0.013 were significantly higher in the open-globe-injury group than in the controls. Consequently, the optical quality data for the modulation transfer function and the Strehl ratio (all P<0.05 were significantly poorer in the open-globe-injury group. Conclusions. Open globe injuries damage the structural integrity of the eyeball, resulting in more-misaligned sutured IOLs and poorer visual quality.

  2. Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse epibulbar extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as uveitis masquerade syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasić, D M; Stanković, Z; Terzić, T; Kovacević, D; Koturović, Z; Marković, V

    2010-09-01

    To report a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse extraocular episcleral extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as longstanding uveitis masquerade syndrome. Interventional case reports with histopathological correlation. We describe a 80-year-old male patient with a 3-year history of chronic recurrent hypertensive (pan) uveitis associated with ocular pain, unresponsive to topical and systemic anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antibiotic/antiviral and antiglaucomatous therapy. Because the eye was not salvageable with conservative treatment, enucleation of blind and painful eye was performed. Findings from histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination of the enucleated eye showed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uveal tract with massive epibulbar extension and optic nerve and meningeal penetration. During almost 3 years of clinical course and 6 months after the enucleation, there were no systemic manifestations of lymphoma, and patient has not required subsequent treatment. Primary lymphoproliferative lesions of the uvea, comprising the iris, ciliary body and choroid are very rare, associated with epibulbar extension extremely and with optic nerve and menigeal penetration exceptionally. Despite its rarity, primary lymphoma of the uvea should be included in the differential diagnosis particularly in older patients with longstanding recurrent uveitis.

  3. Numerical analysis of residual stresses in preforms of stress applying part for PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fibers in view of technological imperfections of the doped zone geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trufanov, Aleksandr N.; Trufanov, Nikolay A.; Semenov, Nikita V.

    2016-09-01

    The experimental data analysis of the stress applying rod section geometry for the PANDA-type polarization maintaining optical fiber has been performed. The dependencies of the change in the radial dimensions of the preform and the doping boundary on the angular coordinate have been obtained. The original algorithm of experimental data statistic analysis, which enables determination of the specimens' characteristic form of section, has been described. The influence of actual doped zone geometry on the residual stress fields formed during the stress rod preform fabrication has been investigated. It has been established that the deviation of the boundary between pure silica and the doped zone from the circular shape results in dissymmetry and local concentrations of the residual stress fields along the section, which can cause preforms destruction at high degrees of doping. The observed geometry deviations of up to 10% lead to the increase of the maximum stress intensity value by over 20%.

  4. Analysis of Decentralized Control for Absorption Cycle Heat Pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Kasper; Just Nielsen, Rene; Nielsen, Kirsten Mølgaard

    2015-01-01

    Email Print Request Permissions This paper investigates decentralized control structures for absorption cycle heat pumps and a dynamic nonlinear model of a single-effect LiBr-water absorption system is used as case study. The model has four controllable inputs, which can be used to stabilize...... the operation of the heat pump under different load conditions. Different feasible input-output pairings are analyzed by computation of relative gain array matrices and scaled condition numbers, which indicate the best pairing choice and the potential of each input-output set. Further, it is possible...... to minimize the effect of cross couplings and improve stability with the right pairing of input and output. Simulation of selected candidate input-output pairings demonstrate that decentralized control can provide stable operation of the heat pump....

  5. Distributed and decentralized control architectures for converter-interfaced microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragicevic, Tomislav; Wu, Dan; Shafiee, Qobad

    2017-01-01

    This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods and info......This paper gives a summary on recently available technologies for decentralized and distributed control of microgrids. They can be classified into two general categories: 1) power line communication based architectures and 2) multi-agent based architectures. The essential control methods...... and information sharing algorithms applied in these architectures are reviewed and examined in a hierarchical manner, in order to point out benefits they will bring to future microgrid applications. The paper is concluded with a summary on existing methods and a discussion on future development trends....

  6. Model-Based Design of Tree WSNs for Decentralized Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Tantawy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The classical decentralized detection problem of finding the optimal decision rules at the sensor and fusion center, as well as variants that introduce physical channel impairments have been studied extensively in the literature. The deployment of WSNs in decentralized detection applications brings new challenges to the field. Protocols for different communication layers have to be co-designed to optimize the detection performance. In this paper, we consider the communication network design problem for a tree WSN. We pursue a system-level approach where a complete model for the system is developed that captures the interactions between different layers, as well as different sensor quality measures. For network optimization, we propose a hierarchical optimization algorithm that lends itself to the tree structure, requiring only local network information. The proposed design approach shows superior performance over several contentionless and contention-based network design approaches.

  7. Coordination in the Decentralized Assembly System with Dual Supply Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Guan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates a decentralized assembly system that consists of one assembler and two independent suppliers; wherein one supplier is perfectly reliable for the production, while the other generates yield uncertainty. Facing the random market demand, the assembler has to order the components from one supplier in advance and meanwhile requires the other supplier to deliver the components under VMI mode. We construct a Nash game between the supplier and the assembler so as to derive their equilibrium procurement/production strategies. The results show that the channel’s performance is highly undermined by the decentralization between players and also the combination of two supply modes. Compared to the centralized system, we propose an advance payment contract to perfectly coordinate the supply chain performance. The numerical examples indicate some management implications on the supply mode comparison and sensitivity analysis.

  8. Decentralized stabilization of semi-active vibrating structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisarski, Dominik

    2018-02-01

    A novel method of decentralized structural vibration control is presented. The control is assumed to be realized by a semi-active device. The objective is to stabilize a vibrating system with the optimal rates of decrease of the energy. The controller relies on an easily implemented decentralized switched state-feedback control law. It uses a set of communication channels to exchange the state information between the neighboring subcontrollers. The performance of the designed method is validated by means of numerical experiments performed for a double cantilever system equipped with a set of elastomers with controlled viscoelastic properties. In terms of the assumed objectives, the proposed control strategy significantly outperforms the passive damping cases and is competitive with a standard centralized control. The presented methodology can be applied to a class of bilinear control systems concerned with smart structural elements.

  9. Incentivizing Decentralized Sanitation: The Role of Discount Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Alison; Blackhurst, Michael; Garland, Jay L; Lawler, Desmond F

    2016-06-21

    In adoption decisions for decentralized sanitation technologies, two decision makers are involved: the public utility and the individual homeowner. Standard life cycle cost is calculated from the perspective of the utility, which uses a market-based discount rate in these calculations. However, both decision-makers must be considered, including their differing perceptions of the time trade-offs inherent in a stream of costs and benefits. This study uses the discount rate as a proxy for these perceptions and decision-maker preferences. The results in two case studies emphasize the dependence on location of such analyses. Falmouth, Massachusetts, appears to be a good candidate for incentivizing decentralized sanitation while the Allegheny County Sanitary Authority service area in Pennsylvania appears to have no need for similar incentives. This method can be applied to any two-party decision in which the parties are expected to have different discount rates.

  10. Decentralized energy planning and consensus in energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilbanks, T. J.

    1980-05-02

    This paper explores the following three propositions and their relationships: (1) that, in our pluralistic policymaking environment, we cannot solve our nation's energy problems unless we can reach agreement among a diverse group of interested parties about specific actions; (2) that, short of a manifest emergency, such a consensus is difficult to reach unless the scale of the decision-making unit is relatively small; and therefore (3) that one of the keys to an effective energy policy in the United states is to rely heavily on local and regional energy planning and decision-making. First, the paper reviews our problem of irresolution and its roots, and it summaries the policy options for resolving it. Then it explores one of those options, decentralized planning, in a little more detail. Finally, it offers some speculations about the viability of a decentralized approach to energy planninng.

  11. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  12. Decentralized safety concept for closed-loop controlled intensive care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Jan; Brendle, Christian; Stollenwerk, André; Schweigler, Martin; Kowalewski, Stefan; Janisch, Thorsten; Rossaint, Rolf; Leonhardt, Steffen; Walter, Marian; Kopp, Rüdger

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a decentralized safety concept for networked intensive care setups, for which a decentralized network of sensors and actuators is realized by embedded microcontroller nodes. It is evaluated for up to eleven medical devices in a setup for automated acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) therapy. In this contribution we highlight a blood pump supervision as exemplary safety measure, which allows a reliable bubble detection in an extracorporeal blood circulation. The approach is validated with data of animal experiments including 35 bubbles with a size between 0.05 and 0.3 ml. All 18 bubbles with a size down to 0.15 ml are successfully detected. By using hidden Markov models (HMMs) as statistical method the number of necessary sensors can be reduced by two pressure sensors.

  13. REFORMING OF LAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM UNDER AUTHORITY OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorosh O.S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problems related to the reform of land management from the beginning of the land reform ill the presentine. This need has arisen due to making another attempt to reorganize the structure of the land structures. With the launch of the land reform established the State Committee of Ukraine for Land Resources in 1992. To speed up land reform and land privatization in 2001 formed the administrative bodies of the State Committee for Land Resources of Ukraine. In order to improve the system of state land management in 2011 created the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine, which was reorganized in 2014 into the State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre. Over the years, in order to "optimize" the system of central executive body, content of this body has not been changed and constantly was changing its name and subordination, namely: the State Committee for Land Resources - Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine, the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine - Ministry of Agrarian policy and Food of Ukraine, State Service of Ukraine of geodesy, cartography and cadastre - Ministry of regional development, construction and housing. On the basis of analysis concerning the powers of the central executive authorities, local authorities found that the newly farmed Service State Land Cadastre das not contribute to the effectiveness of the administration, especially at the national level, as these features ave not provided by "Regulations on State Land Cadastre " and other regulations. In addition, the local level detected removal of local government in matters of land relations. In conclusion, proposed system based redistribution of powers on the level of central executive bodies and local authorities to reform the system of land management with regard to decentralized processes in Ukraine. It is advisable to restore central authority for land reform and regulation of land relations to the

  14. Six hospitals describe decentralization, cost containment, and downsizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, L A; Battle, C E; Schilling, R M; Nall, C M

    1999-01-01

    Decentralization, cost containment, and downsizing continue in full force as healthcare organizations continue to adapt to constant economic change. Hospitals are forced to take a second and third look at how health care is managed in order to survive. Six Northwest Florida hospitals were surveyed in an effort to explore current changes within the healthcare delivery system. This article provides both managers and staff with an overview of recent healthcare changes in an area of the country with implications for staff development.

  15. A peer-to-peer platform for decentralized logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Gallay, Olivier; Korpela, Kari; Tapio, Niemi; Nurminen, Jukka K.; Kersten, Wolfgang; Blecker, Thorsten; Ringle, Christian M.

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel platform for decentralized logistics, the aim of which is to magnify and accelerate the impact offered by the integration of the most recent advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to multi-modal freight operations. The essence of our peer-to-peer (P2P) framework distributes the management of the logistics operations to the multiple actors according to their available computational resources. As a result, this new approach prevents the dominant playe...

  16. DARC: Next generation decentralized control framework for robot applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Morten; Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents DARC, a next generation control framework for robot applications. It is designed to be equally powerful in prototyping research projects and for building serious commercial robots running on low powered embedded hardware, thus closing the gab between research and industry....... It incorporates several new techniques such as a decentralized peer-to-peer architecture, transparent network distribution of the control system, and automatic run-time supervision to guarantee robustness....

  17. The commercialization of decentralized energy systems (DES) in the Philippines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, J.Y.; Navarro, L.B.; Abito, G.; Lim, B.P.

    1992-01-01

    PNOC-ERDC is implementing the project ''Commercialization of Decentralized Energy Systems or DES'' with assistance from the European Community. The project hopes to promote the utilization of DES technologies by providing financial and technical assistance to enterpreneurs engaged in the manufacture and/or distribution of DES technologies. At present, the DES project has provided loans totalling P17.9 million to 6 entrepreneurs. Technologies supported include photovoltaics, biogas and agricultural waste-fired dryers. (auth.). 2 tabs

  18. Innovative Development of Regions: the Role of Decentralization of Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Moiseevich Buchvald

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on economic, legal and other preconditions of innovative development of the Russian economy. As one of the ways the author suggests the strengthening of sub-federal public governance level. The paper emphasizes that initiatives in the sphere of public governance decentralization should be supported with more precise legal specification of public policies on innovation, expansion of regional and local budgets, and stimulating inter-budgetary relations

  19. Decentralized Services Orchestration Using Intelligent Mobile Agents with Deadline Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães , Alex; Lung , Lau Cheuk; Rech , Luciana

    2010-01-01

    International audience; The necessity for better performance drives service orchestration towards decentralization. There is a recent approach where the integrator - that traditionally centralizes all corporative services and business logics - remains as a repository of interface services, but now lacks to know all business logics and business workflows. There are several techniques using this recent approach, including hybrid solutions, peer-to-peer solutions and trigger-based mechanisms. A ...

  20. Contesting sharia: state law, decentralization and Minangkabau custom

    OpenAIRE

    Huda, Yasrul

    2013-01-01

    This book explains how Sharia, commonly called Perda Sharia (Sharia by-law) in Indonesia, was legislated on the provincial, regional and municipal level in West Sumatra. This process began after the government started a decentralization policy in 2000. Although the law of local autonomy prescribes that religious matters are excluded from the authority of local government, the legislation of Sharia by local authorities is justified by the argument that Sharia, in addition to Minangkabau custom...

  1. Impacts of Decentralization on Environmental Management in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soparatana Jarusombat

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the process, institutional and legal framework within which the environmental management operates in Thailand. It specifically focuses on the decentralization within central and local government’s role in environmental management. The methods of this research use literature review. The aim of the paper is to examine how interface between the central and local loci of power have affected pieces of legislation relating to management of the environment by central and local government in Thailand.

  2. Subsecond Tsunamis and Delays in Decentralized Electronic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro D. Manrique

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Driven by technological advances and economic gain, society’s electronic systems are becoming larger, faster, more decentralized and autonomous, and yet with increasing global reach. A prime example are the networks of financial markets which—in contrast to popular perception—are largely all-electronic and decentralized with no top-down real-time controller. This prototypical system generates complex subsecond dynamics that emerge from a decentralized network comprising heterogeneous hardware and software components, communications links, and a diverse ecology of trading algorithms that operate and compete within this all-electronics environment. Indeed, these same technological and economic drivers are likely to generate a similarly competitive all-electronic ecology in a variety of future cyberphysical domains such as e-commerce, defense and the transportation system, including the likely appearance of large numbers of autonomous vehicles on the streets of many cities. Hence there is an urgent need to deepen our understanding of stability, safety and security across a wide range of ultrafast, large, decentralized all-electronic systems—in short, society will eventually need to understand what extreme behaviors can occur, why, and what might be the impact of both intentional and unintentional system perturbations. Here we set out a framework for addressing this issue, using a generic model of heterogeneous, adaptive, autonomous components where each has a realistic limit on the amount of information and processing power available to it. We focus on the specific impact of delayed information, possibly through an accidental shift in the latency of information transmission, or an intentional attack from the outside. While much remains to be done in terms of developing formal mathematical results for this system, our preliminary results indicate the type of impact that can occur and the structure of a mathematical theory which may

  3. Presidentialism, Decentralization, and Distributive Politics in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Felipe Nunes dos

    2015-01-01

    My dissertation focuses on how presidents allocate discretionary funds to localities. I study national leaders who often face a dilemma about how to allocate limited distributional resources to their greatest political advantage. I argue that the president's resource allocation strategy depends on the level of decentralization in a country. Presidents wish to allocate resources to their supporters in the electorate, and in centralized countries, they can do so directly, without any interferen...

  4. Blockchain technology and decentralized governance: Is the state still necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcella Atzori

    2017-01-01

    The core technology of Bitcoin, the blockchain, has recently emerged as a disruptive innovation with a wide range of applications, potentially able to redesign our interactions in business, politics and society at large. Although scholarly interest in this subject is growing, a comprehensive analysis of blockchain applications from a political perspective is severely lacking to date. This paper aims to fill this gap and it discusses the key points of blockchain-based decentralized governance,...

  5. Centralized versus decentralized taxation of mobile polluting firms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanguay, Georges A.; Marceau, Nicolas

    2001-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation

  6. Decentralized vs. centralized economic coordination of resource allocation in grids

    OpenAIRE

    Eymann, Torsten; Reinicke, Michael; Ardáiz Villanueva, Óscar; Artigas Vidal, Pau; Díaz de Cerio Ripalda, Luis Manuel; Freitag, Fèlix; Meseguer Pallarès, Roc; Navarro Moldes, Leandro; Royo Vallés, María Dolores; Sanjeevan, Kanapathipillai

    2003-01-01

    Application layer networks are software architectures that allow the provisioning of services requiring a huge amount of resources by connecting large numbers of individual computers, like in Grid or Peer-to-Peer computing. Controlling the resource allocation in those networks is nearly impossible using a centralized arbitrator. The network simulation project CATNET will evaluate a decentralized mechanism for resource allocation, which is based on the economic paradigm of th...

  7. Design of a decentralized detection of interacting LTI systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamanth Shankar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a large homogeneous collection of LTI systems is considered. The collection of systems considered here draws inspiration from platoons of vehicles, and the considered interactions amongst systems in the collection are banded and lower triangular, mimicking the typical “look-ahead” nature of interactions in a platoon of vehicles. A fault in a system propagates to other systems in the collection via such interactions.

  8. Decentralization Challenges for Management of Cultural Patrimony in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.C. Carlos Leonel Escudero-Sánchez

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Latin America  the new  decentralization policies in  the forms of government  challenging  institutional  processes  and management  practices.  In the context of  Ecuador  responds to  a constitutional  mandate expressed in  the reformulation of  the powers of the  municipal  autonomous governments. Consequently, the main  purpose of the article  is to present  the main  principles  expressed  in the  protection, evaluation and dissemination of cultural heritage.  Therefore  the  exercise of autonomy  and decentralization  is governed  by the principles  of solidarity, subsidiarity,  territorial equity, integration and participation.  Hence,  the main results  are  part of  the systematization of  such  socio-economic, institutional, governance  and participation, legal and financial  management of cultural heritage contexts.Keywords: decentralization, cultural heritage, cultural management, citizen participation.

  9. Decentralization, healthcare access, and inequality in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winchester, Margaret S; King, Brian

    2018-04-27

    Healthcare access and utilization remain key challenges in the Global South. South Africa represents this given that more than twenty years after the advent of democratic elections, the national government continues to confront historical systems of spatial manipulation that generated inequities in healthcare access. While the country has made significant advancements, governmental agencies have mirrored international strategies of healthcare decentralization and focused on local provision of primary care to increase healthcare access. In this paper, we show the significance of place in shaping access and health experiences for rural populations. Using data from a structured household survey, focus group discussions, qualitative interviews, and clinic data conducted in northeast South Africa from 2013 to 2016, we argue that decentralization fails to resolve the uneven landscapes of healthcare in the contemporary period. This is evidenced by the continued variability across the study area in terms of government-sponsored healthcare, and constraints in the clinics in terms of staffing, privacy, and patient loads, all of which challenge the access-related assumptions of healthcare decentralization. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Decentralized DC Microgrid Monitoring and Optimization via Primary Control Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angjelichinoski, Marko; Scaglione, Anna; Popovski, Petar; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2018-06-01

    We treat the emerging power systems with direct current (DC) MicroGrids, characterized with high penetration of power electronic converters. We rely on the power electronics to propose a decentralized solution for autonomous learning of and adaptation to the operating conditions of the DC Mirogrids; the goal is to eliminate the need to rely on an external communication system for such purpose. The solution works within the primary droop control loops and uses only local bus voltage measurements. Each controller is able to estimate (i) the generation capacities of power sources, (ii) the load demands, and (iii) the conductances of the distribution lines. To define a well-conditioned estimation problem, we employ decentralized strategy where the primary droop controllers temporarily switch between operating points in a coordinated manner, following amplitude-modulated training sequences. We study the use of the estimator in a decentralized solution of the Optimal Economic Dispatch problem. The evaluations confirm the usefulness of the proposed solution for autonomous MicroGrid operation.

  11. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  12. Game-Based Virtual Worlds as Decentralized Virtual Activity Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scacchi, Walt

    There is widespread interest in the development and use of decentralized systems and virtual world environments as possible new places for engaging in collaborative work activities. Similarly, there is widespread interest in stimulating new technological innovations that enable people to come together through social networking, file/media sharing, and networked multi-player computer game play. A decentralized virtual activity system (DVAS) is a networked computer supported work/play system whose elements and social activities can be both virtual and decentralized (Scacchi et al. 2008b). Massively multi-player online games (MMOGs) such as World of Warcraft and online virtual worlds such as Second Life are each popular examples of a DVAS. Furthermore, these systems are beginning to be used for research, deve-lopment, and education activities in different science, technology, and engineering domains (Bainbridge 2007, Bohannon et al. 2009; Rieber 2005; Scacchi and Adams 2007; Shaffer 2006), which are also of interest here. This chapter explores two case studies of DVASs developed at the University of California at Irvine that employ game-based virtual worlds to support collaborative work/play activities in different settings. The settings include those that model and simulate practical or imaginative physical worlds in different domains of science, technology, or engineering through alternative virtual worlds where players/workers engage in different kinds of quests or quest-like workflows (Jakobsson 2006).

  13. Coordinating decentralized optimization of truck and shovel mining operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, R.; Fraser Forbes, J. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; San Yip, W. [Suncor Energy, Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Canada's oil sands contain the largest known reserve of oil in the world. Oil sands mining uses 3 functional processes, ore hauling, overburden removal and mechanical maintenance. The industry relies mainly on truck-and-shovel technology in its open-pit mining operations which contributes greatly to the overall mining operation cost. Coordination between operating units is crucial for achieving an enterprise-wide optimal operation level. Some of the challenges facing the industry include multiple or conflicting objectives such as minimizing the use of raw materials and energy while maximizing production. The large sets of constraints that define the feasible domain pose as challenge, as does the uncertainty in system parameters. One solution lies in assigning truck resources to various activities. This fully decentralized approach would treat the optimization of ore production, waste removal and equipment maintenance independently. It was emphasized that mine-wide optimal operation can only be achieved by coordinating ore hauling and overburden removal processes. For that reason, this presentation proposed a coordination approach for a decentralized optimization system. The approach is based on the Dantzig-Wolfe decomposition and auction-based methods that have been previously used to decompose large-scale optimization problems. The treatment of discrete variables and coordinator design was described and the method was illustrated with a simple truck and shovel mining simulation study. The approach can be applied to a wide range of applications such as coordinating decentralized optimal control systems and scheduling. 16 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. DQM: Decentralized Quadratically Approximated Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtari, Aryan; Shi, Wei; Ling, Qing; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This paper considers decentralized consensus optimization problems where nodes of a network have access to different summands of a global objective function. Nodes cooperate to minimize the global objective by exchanging information with neighbors only. A decentralized version of the alternating directions method of multipliers (DADMM) is a common method for solving this category of problems. DADMM exhibits linear convergence rate to the optimal objective but its implementation requires solving a convex optimization problem at each iteration. This can be computationally costly and may result in large overall convergence times. The decentralized quadratically approximated ADMM algorithm (DQM), which minimizes a quadratic approximation of the objective function that DADMM minimizes at each iteration, is proposed here. The consequent reduction in computational time is shown to have minimal effect on convergence properties. Convergence still proceeds at a linear rate with a guaranteed constant that is asymptotically equivalent to the DADMM linear convergence rate constant. Numerical results demonstrate advantages of DQM relative to DADMM and other alternatives in a logistic regression problem.

  15. Blockchain technology and decentralized governance: Is the state still necessary?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Atzori

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The core technology of Bitcoin, the blockchain, has recently emerged as a disruptive innovation with a wide range of applications, potentially able to redesign our interactions in business, politics and society at large. Although scholarly interest in this subject is growing, a comprehensive analysis of blockchain applications from a political perspective is severely lacking to date. This paper aims to fill this gap and it discusses the key points of blockchain-based decentralized governance, which challenges to varying degrees the traditional mechanisms of State authority, citizenship and democracy. In particular, the paper verifies to which extent blockchain and decentralized platforms can be considered as hyper-political tools, capable to manage social interactions on large scale and dismiss traditional central authorities. The analysis highlights risks related to a dominant position of private powers in distributed ecosystems, which may lead to a general disempowerment of citizens and to the emergence of a stateless global society. While technological utopians urge the demise of any centralized institution, this paper advocates the role of the State as a necessary central point of coordination in society, showing that decentralization through algorithm-based consensus is an organizational theory, not a stand-alone political theory.

  16. Design of a decentralized detection of interacting LTI systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Shamanth

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the problem of designing a decentralized detection filter for a large homogeneous collection of LTI systems is considered. The collection of systems considered here draws inspiration from platoons of vehicles, and the considered interactions amongst systems in the collection are banded and lower triangular, mimicking the typical “look-ahead” nature of interactions in a platoon of vehicles. A fault in a system propagates to other systems in the collection via such interactions. The decentralized detection filter for the collection is composed of interacting detection filters, one for each system. The feasibility of communicating the state estimates to other systems in the collection is assumed here. An important concern is the propagation of state estimation errors. In order that the state estimation errors not amplify as they propagate, a ℋ ∞ constraint on the state estimation error propagation dynamics is imposed. A sufficient condition for constructing a decentralized detection filter for the collection is presented. An example is provided to illustrate the design procedure.

  17. Economic analysis of centralized vs. decentralized electronic data capture in multi-center clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Anita; Nahm, Meredith; Barnett, M Edwina; Conde, Jose G; Dent, Andrew; Fadiel, Ahmed; Perry, Theresa; Tolk, Chris; Tcheng, James E; Eisenstein, Eric L

    2011-01-01

    New data management models are emerging in multi-center clinical studies. We evaluated the incremental costs associated with decentralized vs. centralized models. We developed clinical research network economic models to evaluate three data management models: centralized, decentralized with local software, and decentralized with shared database. Descriptive information from three clinical research studies served as inputs for these models. The primary outcome was total data management costs. Secondary outcomes included: data management costs for sites, local data centers, and central coordinating centers. Both decentralized models were more costly than the centralized model for each clinical research study: the decentralized with local software model was the most expensive. Decreasing the number of local data centers and case book pages reduced cost differentials between models. Decentralized vs. centralized data management in multi-center clinical research studies is associated with increases in data management costs.

  18. Parapapillary atrophy: histological gamma zone and delta zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jost B Jonas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To examine histomorphometrically the parapapillary region in human eyes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The histomorphometric study included 65 human globes (axial length:21-37 mm. On anterior-posterior histological sections, we measured the distance Bruch's membrane end (BME-optic nerve margin ("Gamma zone", BME-retinal pigment epithelium (RPE ("Beta zone", BME-beginning of non-occluded choriocapillaris, and BME-beginning of photoreceptor layer. "Delta zone" was defined as part of gamma zone in which blood vessels of at least 50 µm diameter were not present over a length of >300 µm. Beta zone (mean length:0.35±0.52 mm was significantly (P = 0.01 larger in the glaucoma group than in the non-glaucomatous group. It was not significantly (P = 0.28 associated with axial length. Beta zone was significantly (P = 0.004 larger than the region with occluded choriocapillaris. Gamma zone (mean length:0.63±1.25 mm was associated with axial length (P50 µm diameter within gamma zone was present only in highly axially elongated globes and was not related with glaucoma. Beta zone (Bruch's membrane without RPE was correlated with glaucoma but not with globe elongation. Since the region with occluded choriocapillaris was smaller than beta zone, complete loss of RPE may have occurred before complete choriocapillaris closure.

  19. (De)Centralization of Public Procurement at the Local Level in the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Boštjan BREZOVNIK; Žan Jan OPLOTNIK; Borut VOJINOVIĆ

    2015-01-01

    The so-called decentralization of public procurement in EU Member States is accepted as the most suitable design of the public procurement system, often justifi ed by greater economic effi ciency and by the possibility of boosting the development of small and medium-sized enterprises, which act on the public procurement market as providers of goods, services and works. Despite the existence of highly decentralized public procurement systems which refl ect the decentralization of administrativ...

  20. A Mixed Method Research for Finding a Model of Administrative Decentralization

    OpenAIRE

    Tahereh Feizy; Alireza Moghali; Masuod Geramipoor; Reza Zare

    2015-01-01

    One of the critical issues of administrative decentralization in translating theory into practice is understanding its meaning. An important method to identify administrative decentralization is to address how it can be planned and implemented, and what are its implications, and how it would overcome challenges. The purpose of this study is finding a model for analyzing and evaluating administrative decentralization, so a mixed method research was used to explore and confirm the model of Admi...

  1. Decentralization – the way of democratization and modernization of the Republic of Moldova

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iurie ŢAP

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization as a way of organizing a state represents the path to its democratization and effectiveness. Furthermore, territorial decentralization establishes the relations between state and local communities, and in order to be efficient some fundamental theoretic conditions should be respected, guidelines followed and two great balances achieved. Generally, an appropriate decentralization can be a catalyst for development and a remedy to overcome internal crises.

  2. Decentralized energy policy turnaround. Opportunities and challenges; Dezentrale Energiewende. Chancen und Herausforderungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiselt, Juergen

    2012-07-01

    This book supplies a comprehensive inventory of an already beginning decentralized energy policy turnaround. The potentials of an effective energy policy turnaround are described by means of present structures, technologies and scientifically proven results. The book presents new technologies and effective concepts in order to replace the centralised energy supply by decentralized structures. The reduction of expenses and energy-autonomous systems up to the zero-tariff heating are the main impulses for the utilization of decentralized forms of energy.

  3. The interplay between decentralization and privacy: the case of blockchain technologies

    OpenAIRE

    De Filippi , Primavera

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Decentralized architectures are gaining popularity as a way to protect one's privacy against the ubiquitous surveillance of states and corporations. Yet, in spite of the obvious benefits they provide when it comes to data sovereignty, decentralized architectures also present certain characteristics that—if not properly accounted for—might ultimately impinge upon users' privacy. While they are capable of preserving the confidentiality of data, decentralized architecture...

  4. DECENTRALIZATION OF PUBLIC AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyudmila Pron’ko

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to examine the purpose of a modern system of local government in Ukraine, scientific analysis of the feasibility and benefits of implemented reforms for decentralization and subsidiary of local authorities, decentralization of public power and public control, and the need to strengthen the political status of local governments. Methodology. The methodological base for research on decentralization and local government reforms to strengthen the political status of local government and decentralization of public power is the Constitution of Ukraine, Laws of Ukraine, Decrees of the President of Ukraine, as well as publications on these issues of domestic and foreign authors. As a result (Results study determined that according to Article 5 of the Law of Ukraine “On local government in Ukraine” The elements of local government are: local community; Village, town, city council; Village, town, city mayor; executive bodies of village, town and city councils; district (in the city Council, created in cities with district division by the decision of the territorial community, or city council; district and regional councils, which represent common interests of territorial communities of villages, towns and cities; BSP; system of government in Ukraine is not fulfilling the role assigned to it, because there is twofold subordination and uncertainty powers of representative and executive bodies. Today there is a three-level administrative division: basic level (village, town or city, district level and level area. There is a local government council and executive body (all the decisions and programs approved by the Regional Council performed by RSA, those public authorities. Thus there is a need for continued reform of local government on the principles of decentralization and subsidiary principle because they are building the foundation of the state; One of the hallmarks of a modern democratic society has become political

  5. Decentralized Gauss-Newton method for nonlinear least squares on wide area network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lanchao; Ling, Qing; Han, Zhu

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a decentralized approach of Gauss-Newton (GN) method for nonlinear least squares (NLLS) on wide area network (WAN). In a multi-agent system, a centralized GN for NLLS requires the global GN Hessian matrix available at a central computing unit, which may incur large communication overhead. In the proposed decentralized alternative, each agent only needs local GN Hessian matrix to update iterates with the cooperation of neighbors. The detail formulation of decentralized NLLS on WAN is given, and the iteration at each agent is defined. The convergence property of the decentralized approach is analyzed, and numerical results validate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  6. Multichannel imager for littoral zone characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joe; Sofianos, James; Boucher, Cynthia; Gilbert, Gary

    2010-04-01

    This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.

  7. THE DECENTRALIZATION PROCESS IN ROMANIA HAS BEEN AFFECTED BY THE FINANCIAL CRISIS OR NOT; ARGUMENTS IN FAVOR OR AGAINST DECENTRALIZATION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLIVIA MANOLE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Typically, the decentralization process is extremely complicated and involves many challenges, if we were to take into account local conflicts, the interests of the central government and the complexity of simultaneous decentralization in administrative, political and economic plan. The financial crisis has added another dimension to the complexity of this phenomenon, misbalancing the economy and creating a fiscal pressure both at central and local level. In this context it rises the problem whether the management of the financial crisis can be better realised within a decentralized system or whether it may lay pressure on the return to the centralized government form.

  8. Decentralized Formation Flying Control in a Multiple-Team Hierarchy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Joseph .; Thomas, Stephanie J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the prototype of a system that addresses these objectives-a decentralized guidance and control system that is distributed across spacecraft using a multiple-team framework. The objective is to divide large clusters into teams of manageable size, so that the communication and computational demands driven by N decentralized units are related to the number of satellites in a team rather than the entire cluster. The system is designed to provide a high-level of autonomy, to support clusters with large numbers of satellites, to enable the number of spacecraft in the cluster to change post-launch, and to provide for on-orbit software modification. The distributed guidance and control system will be implemented in an object-oriented style using MANTA (Messaging Architecture for Networking and Threaded Applications). In this architecture, tasks may be remotely added, removed or replaced post-launch to increase mission flexibility and robustness. This built-in adaptability will allow software modifications to be made on-orbit in a robust manner. The prototype system, which is implemented in MATLAB, emulates the object-oriented and message-passing features of the MANTA software. In this paper, the multiple-team organization of the cluster is described, and the modular software architecture is presented. The relative dynamics in eccentric reference orbits is reviewed, and families of periodic, relative trajectories are identified, expressed as sets of static geometric parameters. The guidance law design is presented, and an example reconfiguration scenario is used to illustrate the distributed process of assigning geometric goals to the cluster. Next, a decentralized maneuver planning approach is presented that utilizes linear-programming methods to enact reconfiguration and coarse formation keeping maneuvers. Finally, a method for performing online collision avoidance is discussed, and an example is provided to gauge its performance.

  9. Decentralizing provision of mental health care in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Neil; Suveendran, Thirupathy; de Silva, Chithramalee

    2017-04-01

    In the past, mental health services in Sri Lanka were limited to tertiary-care institutions, resulting in a large treatment gap. Starting in 2000, significant efforts have been made to reconfigure service provision and to integrate mental health services with primary health care. This approach was supported by significant political commitment to establishing island-wide decentralized mental health care in the wake of the 2004 tsunami. Various initiatives were consolidated in The mental health policy of Sri Lanka 2005-2015, which called for implementation of a comprehensive community-based, decentralized service structure. The main objectives of the policy were to provide mental health services of good quality at primary, secondary and tertiary levels; to ensure the active involvement of communities, families and service users; to make mental health services culturally appropriate and evidence based; and to protect the human rights and dignity of all people with mental health disorders. Significant improvements have been made and new cadres of mental health workers have been introduced. Trained medical officers (mental health) now provide outpatient care, domiciliary care, mental health promotion in schools, and community mental health education. Community psychiatric nurses have also been trained and deployed to supervise treatment adherence in the home and provide mental health education to patients, their family members and the wider community. A total of 4367 mental health volunteers are supporting care and raising mental health literacy in the community. Despite these important achievements, more improvements are needed to provide more timely intervention, combat myths and stigma, and further decentralize care provision. These, and other challenges, will be targeted in the new mental health policy for 2017-2026.

  10. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  11. Centralization and decentralization in energy systems and associated risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, W.; Schinner, F.; Kromp, W. [Vienna Univ., Institute of Risk Research, IRR (Austria)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: the concept of centralization/decentralization is - considering its widespread use - surprisingly ill-defined. Within the SERF-program (Socio Economic Research on Fusion) an attempt is made to clarify the complex issue of centralization/decentralization and to analyze its expected interaction with electricity production system in the case of nuclear fusion. Fusion research at the time is a multinational, highly centralized undertaking. As a result of this, and due to the expected large energy production units, it is generally expected that fusion will be embedded in a highly centralized, international energy supply system. The degree of centralization of an energy supply system, however, is believed to have for reaching consequences on the stability of the system, and beyond that, on decision making processes in energy policy, as well as democratic structures on the national or even international level. Internationalization might require control instruments that do not exist so far. Amongst other reservations, it is the possibly unwanted consequences of such a highly centralized, international energy supply system that limit acceptance of the fusion technology in the public. Therefore, centralization and decentralization trends of energy supply systems over the years are being looked at, to study their influence on the political and social systems (and vice-versa). In a first step, an attempt is made to classify centralization. Careful analyses and evaluation of available literature revealed a broad spectrum of different forms and degrees of centralization. Various parameters describing energy production and distribution are used. A differentiation of centralization on a technical and on an organizational level seems necessary, although they are not fully independent of each other. Beyond this, the choice of parameters must depend on the questions to be addressed. A new approach defining different levels and degrees of

  12. Health policy in Denmark: leaving the decentralized welfare path?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrangbaek, Karsten; Christiansen, Terkel

    2005-01-01

    In this article, we investigate developments in Danish health care policy. After a short presentation of its historical roots, we focus on the decades after the administrative reform of 1970, which shaped the current decentralized public health care system. Theories of path dependency and institutional inertia are used to explain the relative stability in the overall structure, and theories of policy process and reform are used to discuss gradual changes within the overall framework. Although comprehensive reforms have not taken place in Denmark, many gradual changes may pave the way for more radical changes in the future. The political climate currently seems to be more favorable toward structural reform than in the past.

  13. Centralized versus Decentralized Taxation of Mobile Polluting Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Georges A. Tanguay; Nicolas Marceau

    2000-01-01

    We consider a world in which a mobile polluting firm must locate in one of two regions. The regions differ in two dimensions: their marginal cost of pollution and the production cost of the firm. It is shown that under incomplete information on regional marginal costs of pollution, fiscal competition may lead to the sub-optimal location of the firm. We also show that under incomplete information, a sub-optimal location is less likely under centralized than under decentralized taxation. Nous é...

  14. Decentralized control and filtering in interconnected dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, Magdi S

    2011-01-01

    Based on the many approaches available for dealing with large-scale systems (LSS), Decentralized Control and Filtering in Interconnected Dynamical Systems supplies a rigorous framework for studying the analysis, stability, and control problems of LSS. Providing an overall assessment of LSS theories, it addresses model order reduction, parametric uncertainties, time delays, and control estimator gain perturbations. Taking readers on a guided tour through LSS, the book examines recent trends and approaches and reviews past methods and results from a contemporary perspective. It traces the progre

  15. Hierarchy and decentralization of I/C-systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherschmidt, F.

    1982-01-01

    The technological process of a nuclear power plant is subdivided into approx. 300 systems, 200 of which are provided with I and C equipment. By means of a functional decentralization, a hierarchical structure i.e. by creation of subsystems as small as possible, the organization of the entire plant becomes highly transparent. The control room facilities are arranged according these organizational aspects. This principles offer the following advantages: - design, manufacture, erection, commissioning can be carried out in steps and independent - the degree of automation can be selected individually for each functional group - fault and disturbances stay limited to small sectional areas. (orig.)

  16. Semi-decentralized Strategies in Structural Vibration Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Palacios-Quiñonero

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the main ideas involved in the design of overlapping and multi-overlapping controllers via the Inclusion Principle are discussed and illustrated in the context of the Structural Vibration Control of tall buildings under seismic excitation. A detailed theoretical background on the Inclusion Principle and the design of overlapping controllers is provided. Overlapping and multi-overlapping LQR controllers are designed for a simplified five-story building model. Numerical simulations are conducted to asses the performance of the proposed semi-decentralized controllers with positive results.

  17. A decentralized square root information filter/smoother

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierman, G. J.; Belzer, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    A number of developments has recently led to a considerable interest in the decentralization of linear least squares estimators. The developments are partly related to the impending emergence of VLSI technology, the realization of parallel processing, and the need for algorithmic ways to speed the solution of dynamically decoupled, high dimensional estimation problems. A new method is presented for combining Square Root Information Filters (SRIF) estimates obtained from independent data sets. The new method involves an orthogonal transformation, and an information matrix filter 'homework' problem discussed by Schweppe (1973) is generalized. The employed SRIF orthogonal transformation methodology has been described by Bierman (1977).

  18. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    OpenAIRE

    AnaLouise Keating; Kimberly Merenda

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories) into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1) A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream fe...

  19. Decentralization Policies for Supply Chain Investments under Asymmetric Information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agrell, Per Joakim; Bogetoft, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Supply chains need specific investments for improved performance in terms of lead-time, cost, and quality. We study the contractual choice of a coordinator to either centralize or delegate the investment decision in a three-stage chain. The analysis derives closed-form results for the economic...... performance of three decentralized contracting schemes under asymmetric information on investment cost, as well as the optimal full revelation results. The results show that the observed practice of tier-1 delegated investments leads to relatively poor performance because of underinvestment. We illustrate...

  20. Targeting heat recovery and reuse in industrial zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Milana M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the usage of fossil fuels in industrial sectors by meeting the requirements of production processes, new heat integration and heat recovery approaches are developed. The goal of this study is to develop an approach to increase energy efficiency of an industrial zone by recovering and reusing waste heat via indirect heat integration. Industrial zones usually consist of multiple independent plants, where each plant is supplied by an independent utility system, as a decentralized system. In this study, a new approach is developed to target minimum energy requirements where an industrial zone would be supplied by a centralized utility system instead of decentralized utility system. The approach assumes that all process plants in an industrial zone are linked through the central utility system. This method is formulated as a linear programming problem (LP. Moreover, the proposed method may be used for decision making related to energy integration strategy of an industrial zone. In addition, the proposed method was applied on a case study. The results revealed that saving of fossil fuel could be achieved. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. OI172063

  1. Institutional arrangements for decentralized water and health services delivery in rural Tanzania: differences and constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.; Niehof, A.; Termeer, C.J.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving public services although opinion is divided on the link between decentralization and service delivery. This article reviews recent literature and research

  2. A set of decentralized PID controllers for an n–link robot manipulator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A class of stabilizing decentralized proportional integral derivative (PID) controllers for an -link robot manipulator system is proposed. The range of decentralized PID controller parameters for an -link robot manipulator is obtained using Kharitonov theorem and stability boundary equations. Basically, the proposed design ...

  3. Decentralized control of discrete-time linear time invariant systems with input saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deliu, C.; Deliu, Ciprian; Malek, Babak; Roy, Sandip; Saberi, Ali; Stoorvogel, Antonie Arij

    We study decentralized stabilization of discrete-time linear time invariant (LTI) systems subject to actuator saturation, using LTI controllers. The requirement of stabilization under both saturation constraints and decentralization impose obvious necessary conditions on the open-loop plant, namely

  4. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6–12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL’s location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  5. Research on calculation of the IOL tilt and decentration based on surface fitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentration) and the scanned angle, at which a piece of AS-OCT image was taken by the instrument, the IOL tilt and decentration were calculated. IOL tilt angle and decentration of each subject were given. Moreover, the horizontal and vertical tilt was also obtained. Accordingly, the possible errors of IOL tilt and decentration existed in the method employed by AS-OCT instrument. Based on 6-12 pieces of AS-OCT images at different directions, the tilt angle and decentration values were shown, respectively. The method of the surface fitting to the IOL surface can accurately analyze the IOL's location, and six pieces of AS-OCT images at three pairs symmetrical directions are enough to get tilt angle and decentration value of IOL more precisely.

  6. Centralization and Decentralization: An International Viewpoint on an American Dilemma. A Special CASEA Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, William G.

    This report outlines the history of the centralization-decentralization dilemma in the goverance of organizations, discusses two types of centralization-decentralization continua, and suggests further research. The first type of continuum discussed -- the traditional American -- refers to decisionmaking in the areas of public debate and partisan…

  7. The Paradox of Decentralizing Schools: Lessons from Business, Government, and the Catholic Church.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jerome T.

    1989-01-01

    By the year 2000, school decentralization could become another unfortunate, ineffectual pendulum swing. According to this article, a dynamic, ever-changing system of decentralization and centralization balances the benefits of local administrative autonomy with the pursuit of unified goals and helps each leadership level understand its…

  8. A comparison of decentralized, distributed, and centralized vibro-acoustic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frampton, Kenneth D; Baumann, Oliver N; Gardonio, Paolo

    2010-11-01

    Direct velocity feedback control of structures is well known to increase structural damping and thus reduce vibration. In multi-channel systems the way in which the velocity signals are used to inform the actuators ranges from decentralized control, through distributed or clustered control to fully centralized control. The objective of distributed controllers is to exploit the anticipated performance advantage of the centralized control while maintaining the scalability, ease of implementation, and robustness of decentralized control. However, and in seeming contradiction, some investigations have concluded that decentralized control performs as well as distributed and centralized control, while other results have indicated that distributed control has significant performance advantages over decentralized control. The purpose of this work is to explain this seeming contradiction in results, to explore the effectiveness of decentralized, distributed, and centralized vibro-acoustic control, and to expand the concept of distributed control to include the distribution of the optimization process and the cost function employed.

  9. Decentralized substations for low-temperature district heating with no Legionella risk, and low return temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    . From the results, realizing LTDH by the decentralized substation unit, 30% of the annual distribution heat loss inside the building can be saved compared to a conventional system with medium-temperature district heating. Replacing the bypass pipe with an in-line supply pipe and a heat pump...... with domestic hot water (DHW) circulation. In this study, a system with decentralized substations was analysed as a solution to this problem. Furthermore, a modification for the decentralized substation system were proposed in order to reduce the average return temperature. Models of conventional system...... with medium-temperature district heating, decentralized substation system with LTDH, and innovative decentralized substation system with LTDH were built based on the information of a case building. The annual distribution heat loss and the operating costs of the three scenarios were calculated and compared...

  10. Decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the study of the decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback vibration control for piezoelectric smart structures. A smart panel with collocated piezoelectric actuators and velocity sensors is modeled using a finite element method, and then the size of the model is reduced in the state space using the modal Hankel singular value. The necessary and sufficient conditions of decentralized guaranteed cost static output feedback control for the reduced system have been presented. The decentralized and centralized static output feedback matrices can be obtained from solving two linear matrix inequalities. A comparison between centralized control and decentralized control is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness in suppressing vibration of a smart panel. Numerical results show that when the system is subjected to initial displacement or white noise disturbance, the decentralized and centralized controls are both very effective and the control results are very close

  11. The political economy of decentralization of health and social services in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalikis, G

    1989-01-01

    A trend to decentralization in Canada's 'welfare state' has received support from the Left and from the Right. Some social critics of the Left expect decentralization to result in holistic services adjusted to local needs. Others, moreover, feel we are in the dawn of a new epoch in which major economic transformations are to bring about, through new class alliances and conflict, decentralization of power and a better quality of life in communities. These assumptions and their theoretical pitfalls are discussed here following an historical overview of the centralization/decentralization issue in Canadian social policy. It is argued that recent proposals of decentralization are a continuation of reactionary tendencies to constrain social expenditures, but not a path to better quality of life.

  12. [Analysis of the healthcare service decentralization process in Côte d'Ivoire].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, B D; Coulibaly, S S

    2014-01-01

    The decentralization of healthcare services is becoming increasingly important in strategies of public sector management. This concept is analyzed from various points of view, including legal, economic, political, and sociological. Several typologies have been proposed in the literature to analyze this decentralization process, which can take different forms ranging from simple deconcentration to more elaborate devolution. In some instances, decentralization can be analyzed by the degree of autonomy given to local authorities. This article applies these typologies to analyze the healthcare system decentralization process in Cote d'Ivoire. Special attention is paid to the new forms of community healthcare organizations. These decentralized structures enjoy a kind of autonomy, with characteristics closer to those of devolution. The model might serve as an example for population involvement in defining and managing healthcare problems in Cote d'Ivoire. We end with proposals for the improvement of the process.

  13. Convergent Double Auction Mechanism for a Prosumers’ Decentralized Smart Grid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadahiro Taniguchi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a novel automated double auction mechanism called convergent linear function submission-based double-auction (CLFS-DA for a prosumers’ decentralized smart grid. The target decentralized smart grid is a regional electricity network that consists of many prosumers that have a battery and a renewable energy-based generator, such as photovoltaic cells. In the proposed double-auction mechanism, each intelligent software agent representing each prosumer submits linear demand and supply functions to an automated regional electricity market where they are registered. It is proven that the CLFS-DA mechanism is guaranteed to obtain one of the global optimal price profiles in addition to it achieving an exact balance between demand and supply, even through the learning period. The proof of convergence is provided on the basis of the theory of LFS-DA, which gives a clear bridge between a function submission-based double auction and a dual decomposition (DD-based real-time pricing procedure. The performance of the proposed mechanism is demonstrated numerically through a simulation experiment.

  14. Multihop Data Delivery Virtualization for Green Decentralized IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized communication technologies (i.e., ad hoc networks provide more opportunities for emerging wireless Internet of Things (IoT due to the flexibility and expandability of distributed architecture. However, the performance degradation of wireless communications with the increase of the number of hops becomes the main obstacle in the development of decentralized wireless IoT systems. The main challenges come from the difficulty in designing a resource and energy efficient multihop communication protocol. Transmission control protocol (TCP, the most frequently used transport layer protocol for achieving reliable end-to-end communications, cannot achieve a satisfactory result in multihop wireless scenarios as it uses end-to-end acknowledgment which could not work well in a lossy scenario. In this paper, we propose a multihop data delivery virtualization approach which uses multiple one-hop reliable transmissions to perform multihop data transmissions. Since the proposed protocol utilizes hop-by-hop acknowledgment instead of end-to-end feedback, the congestion window size at each TCP sender node is not affected by the number of hops between the source node and the destination node. The proposed protocol can provide a significantly higher throughput and shorter transmission time as compared to the end-to-end approach. We conduct real-world experiments as well as computer simulations to show the performance gain from our proposed protocol.

  15. Spatial optimization for decentralized non-potable water reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavvada, Olga; Nelson, Kara L.; Horvath, Arpad

    2018-06-01

    Decentralization has the potential to reduce the scale of the piped distribution network needed to enable non-potable water reuse (NPR) in urban areas by producing recycled water closer to its point of use. However, tradeoffs exist between the economies of scale of treatment facilities and the size of the conveyance infrastructure, including energy for upgradient distribution of recycled water. To adequately capture the impacts from distribution pipes and pumping requirements, site-specific conditions must be accounted for. In this study, a generalized framework (a heuristic modeling approach using geospatial algorithms) is developed that estimates the financial cost, the energy use, and the greenhouse gas emissions associated with NPR (for toilet flushing) as a function of scale of treatment and conveyance networks with the goal of determining the optimal degree of decentralization. A decision-support platform is developed to assess and visualize NPR system designs considering topography, economies of scale, and building size. The platform can be used for scenario development to explore the optimal system size based on the layout of current or new buildings. The model also promotes technology innovation by facilitating the systems-level comparison of options to lower costs, improve energy efficiency, and lower greenhouse gas emissions.

  16. Federalism and decentralization: impact on international and Brazilian health policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Valéria Rodrigues; de Vasconcelos, Cipriano Maia; Lima, Kenio Costa

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the implications of decentralization in the light of international and Brazilian federalism, and its effects on public health policy. In a comparative analysis among countries, the authors find there is no single model; rather, each country has a unique structure of institutions and norms that have important implications for the operation of its health system. Brazil shares some similarities with other countries that have adopted a decentralized system and is assuming features ever closer to U.S. federalism, with a complex web of relationships. The degree of inequality among Brazilian municipalities and states, along with the budgetary imbalances caused by the minimal levels of resource utilization, undermines Brazil's constitutional principles and, consequently, its federalism. To ensure the constitutional mandate in Brazil, it is essential, as in other countries, to create a stable source of funds and increase the volume and efficiency of spending. Also important are investing in the training of managers, improving information systems, strengthening the principles of autonomy and interdependence, and defining patterns of cooperation within the federation.

  17. Decentralized Hypothesis Testing in Energy Harvesting Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarighati, Alla; Gross, James; Jalden, Joakim

    2017-09-01

    We consider the problem of decentralized hypothesis testing in a network of energy harvesting sensors, where sensors make noisy observations of a phenomenon and send quantized information about the phenomenon towards a fusion center. The fusion center makes a decision about the present hypothesis using the aggregate received data during a time interval. We explicitly consider a scenario under which the messages are sent through parallel access channels towards the fusion center. To avoid limited lifetime issues, we assume each sensor is capable of harvesting all the energy it needs for the communication from the environment. Each sensor has an energy buffer (battery) to save its harvested energy for use in other time intervals. Our key contribution is to formulate the problem of decentralized detection in a sensor network with energy harvesting devices. Our analysis is based on a queuing-theoretic model for the battery and we propose a sensor decision design method by considering long term energy management at the sensors. We show how the performance of the system changes for different battery capacities. We then numerically show how our findings can be used in the design of sensor networks with energy harvesting sensors.

  18. The indicators of energy security of decentralized heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vitalyevna Bykova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the new additional indicators of energy security with the purpose to include decentralized heating sector is developed in the work. The structure of the housing stock of the country is analyzed, which includes different types of central heating boilers and CHP, individual gas or electric heating and stove heating.The analysis of the existing thermal supply (per unit area and per capita living for each sector is carried out. It is found that heat consumed in the residential sector with central heating from CHP and boilers is significantly higher of heat consumed in other sectors. The missing amount of heat energy, which can be produced in two ways, is calculated. Part of the deficit heat can be produced at existing sources that are not loaded enough to the nominal parameters at the moment. The second part can be obtained from small new sources (for inhabited localities that do not have a centralized heat supply infrastructure. New indicators complement the system of indicators to be used to analyze and monitoring the level of Moldova's energy security. They allowed including decentralized heat supply sector, which is not reflected in the official statistics. At the same, the calculation methodology has been improved and the overall integral indicator of the energy security level, which was even more crisis than previously thought.

  19. The material politics of waste disposal - decentralization and integrated systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Harvey

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article and the previous «Convergence and divergence between the local and regional state around solid waste management. An unresolved problem in the Sacred Valley» from Teresa Tupayachi are published as complementary accounts on the management of solid waste in the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco. Penelope Harvey and Teresa Tupayachi worked together on this theme. The present article explores how discontinuities across diverse instances of the state are experienced and understood. Drawing from an ethnographic study of the Vilcanota Valley in Cusco, the article looks at the material politics of waste disposal in neoliberal times. Faced with the problem of how to dispose of solid waste, people from Cusco experience a lack of institutional responsibility and call for a stronger state presence. The article describes the efforts by technical experts to design integrated waste management systems that maximise the potential for re-cycling, minimise toxic contamination, and turn ‘rubbish’ into the altogether more economically lively category of ‘solid waste’. However while the financialization of waste might appear to offer an indisputable public good, efforts to instigate a viable waste disposal business in a decentralizing political space elicit deep social tensions and contradictions. The social discontinuities that decentralization supports disrupt ambitions for integrated solutions as local actors resist top-down models and look not just for alternative solutions, but alternative ways of framing the problem of urban waste, and by extension their relationship to the state.

  20. Centralization and Decentralization of Public Policy in a Complex Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria ROSARIA ALFANO

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The public economic literature of the past century is characterized by a traditional paradigm that ascribes little attention to the spatial dimension. However, contemporary globalization requires that researchers and economists expand their perspectives to consider space conceptualization. What is required in the 21st century is a richer and more realistic framework that broadens existing concepts of socio-economic analysis while overcoming narrow national borders. Although national governments will remain prominent performers in the global market, regional and local governments cannot be ignored because citizens worldwide are exerting greater self-determination in influencing governmental decisions. This paper is focused on the opportunity to analyze the governance of decentralization by the new optimizing procedures provided by complex system theory. The first section of the paper explores the positive and normative issues related to centralization and decentralization in a globalized framework as well as the increased interdependence in power sharing among different jurisdictional level. In the second section, Kauffman’s (1993 contributions are examined as a means of determining if the fitness landscape allows combining the institutional evolution. Finally, this paper concludes highlighting that complex system theory is one of the possible tools useful to redesign the map of institutional sharing power in an era of globalization, considering that it allows catching Pareto improving in the level of welfare.

  1. Decentralized production management: telecommunication and coordination schemes validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caire, R.; Retiere, N.; Hadjsaid, N.

    2005-01-01

    Decentralized production development is a reality in the majority of the power networks all over the world. The deregulation of the market of energy, ecological constraints as well as the technological developments of small power production encourage this development. Distribution networks represent the portion of the power system where the development of this production is the most awaited. Some studies carried out on the interconnection of decentralized production on a large scale ratio have shown significant effects and impacts on operation of the entire electric system. Indeed, the entire distribution network is going to be deeply modified by the introduction of new functions of remote control, of specific architectures, of intelligent protection systems and of telecommunication and information technologies. With these new paradigms the ability of testing and simulating the Distribution Management Systems is more and more necessary. Also, this is a crucial requirement for new communication means in order to better define the new management strategies of the production units within the distribution networks. The aim of this paper is to present a new real time experimental bench able to validate control strategies and communication devices included in Distribution Management Systems (DMS). (authors)

  2. Decentralized enforcement, sequential bargaining, and the clean development mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovi, Jon

    2001-07-01

    While there is a vast literature both on international bargaining and on how international agreements can be enforced, very little work has been done on how bargaining and enforcement interact. An important exception is Fearon (1998), who models international cooperation as a two-stage process in which the bargaining process is constrained by a need for decentralized enforcement (meaning that the agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves rather than a third party, such as a court). Using the Clean Development Mechanism as an example, the present paper proposes a different model of this kind of interaction. The model follows Fearon's in so far as we both use the infinitely repeated Prisoners' Dilemma to capture the enforcement phase of the game. However, while Fearon depicts the bargaining stage as a War of Attrition, the present model sees that stage as a sequential bargaining game of the Staahl-Rubinstein type. The implications of the present model are compared both to those of the Staahl-Rubinstein model and to those of the Fearon model. A surprising conclusion is that a need for decentralized enforcement tends to make the bargaining outcome more symmetrical than otherwise. Thus, the impact of bargaining power is actually smaller when the resulting agreement must be enforced by the parties themselves than it is if enforcement is taken care of by a third party. (author)

  3. Outdoor flocking of quadcopter drones with decentralized model predictive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Quan; Zhan, Jingyuan; Li, Xiang

    2017-11-01

    In this paper, we present a multi-drone system featured with a decentralized model predictive control (DMPC) flocking algorithm. The drones gather localized information from neighbors and update their velocities using the DMPC flocking algorithm. In the multi-drone system, data packages are transmitted through XBee ® wireless modules in broadcast mode, yielding such an anonymous and decentralized system where all the calculations and controls are completed on an onboard minicomputer of each drone. Each drone is a double-layered agent system with the coordination layer running multi-drone flocking algorithms and the flight control layer navigating the drone, and the final formation of the flock relies on both the communication range and the desired inter-drone distance. We give both numerical simulations and field tests with a flock of five drones, showing that the DMPC flocking algorithm performs well on the presented multi-drone system in both the convergence rate and the ability of tracking a desired path. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Towards a (Decentralization-Based Typology of Peer Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Dulong de Rosnay

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Online peer-production platforms facilitate the coordination of creative work and services. Generally considered as empowering participatory tools and a source of common good, they can also be, however, alienating instruments of digital labour. This paper proposes a typology of peer-production platforms, based on the centralization/decentralization levels of several of their design features. Between commons-based peer-production and crowdsourced, user-generated content “enclosed” by corporations, a wide range of models combine different social, political, technical and economic arrangements. This combined analysis of the level of (decentralization of platform features provides information on emancipation capabilities in a more granular way than a market-based qualification of platforms, based on the nature of ownership or business models only. The five selected features of the proposed typology are: ownership of means of production, technical architecture/design, social organization/governance of work patterns, ownership of the peer-produced resource, and value of the output.

  5. Optimal centralized and decentralized velocity feedback control on a beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engels, W P; Elliott, S J

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the optimization of a velocity feedback controller with a collocated force actuator, to minimize the kinetic energy of a simply supported beam. If the beam is excited at a single location, the optimum feedback gain varies with the position of the control system. It is shown that this variation depends partly on the location of the control force relative to the exciting force. If a distributed excitation is assumed, that is random in both time and space, a unique optimum value of the feedback gain can be found for a given control location. The effect of the control location on performance and the optimal feedback gain can then be examined and is found to be limited provided the control locations are not close to the ends of the beam. The optimization can also be performed for a multichannel velocity feedback system. Both a centralized and a decentralized controller are considered. It is shown that the difference in performance between a centralized and a decentralized controller is small, unless the control locations are closely spaced. In this case the centralized controller effectively feeds back a moment proportional to angular velocity as well as a force proportional to a velocity. It is also shown that the optimal feedback gain can be approximated on the basis of a limited model and that similar results can be achieved

  6. From centralization to decentralization in Chinese higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Qian

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1970’s, the Chinese government has been gradually changing its traditional policy for providing higher education and has begun to emphasize the comprehensiveness of the universities. Interdisciplinary cooperation and the synergization of resources are being promoted, and institutional autonomy is gradually increasing. Schools and faculties have been restored in universities, and new research institutions, research schools, research centers and the like have been established. From a unitary three-level model— university/department/ teaching and research group—before the reform, the organizational structures of the universities have developed a new organizational structure that is more flexible and more open. This more adaptable structure is intended to meet the developmental demands of modern universities with close links being created between their work and regional economic and social development. China has moved from a very centralized educational system in which the main decisions were taken by the central government to a decentralized educational system. This reform is also taking place within the institutions of higher education, and their internal organizational structure has also become more decentralized.

  7. A Decentralized Heuristic Approach towards Resource Allocation in Femtocell Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Geun Lee

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Femtocells represent a novel configuration for existing cellular communication, contributing towards the improvement of coverage and throughput. The dense deployment of these femtocells causes significant femto-macro and femto-femto interference, consequently deteriorating the throughput of femtocells. In this study, we compare two heuristic approaches, i.e., particle swarm optimization (PSO and genetic algorithm (GA, for joint power assignment and resource allocation, within the context of the femtocell environment. The supposition made in this joint optimization is that the discrete power levels are available for the assignment. Furthermore, we have employed two variants of each PSO and GA: inertia weight and constriction factor model for PSO, and twopoint and uniform crossover for GA. The two proposed algorithms are in a decentralized manner, with no involvement of any centralized entity. The comparison is carried out between the two proposed algorithms for the aforementioned joint optimization problem. The contrast includes the performance metrics: including average objective function, min–max throughput of the femtocells, average throughput of the femto users, outage rate and time complexity. The results demonstrate that the decentralized PSO constriction factor outperforms the others in terms of the aforementioned performance metrics.

  8. Sound Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Martin Bo; Olsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Sound zones, i.e. spatially confined regions of individual audio content, can be created by appropriate filtering of the desired audio signals reproduced by an array of loudspeakers. The challenge of designing filters for sound zones is twofold: First, the filtered responses should generate...... an acoustic separation between the control regions. Secondly, the pre- and post-ringing as well as spectral deterioration introduced by the filters should be minimized. The tradeoff between acoustic separation and filter ringing is the focus of this paper. A weighted L2-norm penalty is introduced in the sound...

  9. Administrative Decentralization in School Systems and Its Effect on the Organization of Media Services. Atlanta Public Schools: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, R. David

    This study reviews the literature on public school administration and on decentralization to establish the groundwork for an analysis of the administration of a decentralized school system and its media services, discusses some of the confusion in the centralization vs. decentralization debate, and presents a heuristic study of the administration…

  10. Decentralization of health care systems and health outcomes: Evidence from a natural experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores; García-Gómez, Pilar

    2017-09-01

    While many countries worldwide are shifting responsibilities for their health systems to local levels of government, there is to date insufficient evidence about the potential impact of these policy reforms. We estimate the impact of decentralization of the health services on infant and neonatal mortality using a natural experiment: the devolution of health care decision making powers to Spanish regions. The devolution was implemented gradually and asymmetrically over a twenty-year period (1981-2002). The order in which the regions were decentralized was driven by political factors and hence can be considered exogenous to health outcomes. In addition, we exploit the dynamic effect of decentralization of health services and allow for heterogeneous effects by the two main types of decentralization implemented across regions: full decentralization (political and fiscal powers) versus political decentralization only. Our difference in differences results based on a panel dataset for the 50 Spanish provinces over the period 1980 to 2010 show that the lasting benefit of decentralization accrues only to regions which enjoy almost full fiscal and political powers and which are also among the richest regions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Regional Development and Decentralization – two Options to Overcome Lack of Funding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravka JURLINA ALIBEGOVIC

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Decentralization can be generally described as a process in which selected functions are assigned to sub-national units. The literature identifies a number of positive consequences of decentralization which all lead to a better satisfaction of citizens’ needs for public services. Although the decentralization process in Croatia started more than ten years ago, it has not yet been completed. While leading to a new allocation of authorities and responsibilities to local government units, the level of fiscal decentralization remained lower than in the EU countries.In this paper we analyze the fiscal capacity of local government units to provide an insight into the main problems of decentralization in Croatia. We show that most local government units have very low fiscal capacity, which is insufficient for financing basic public functions with their own resources. The paper presents the results of a survey relating to the decentralization process conducted among local councilors at the regional level in Croatia. We explore how local councilors at the regional level evaluate different goals of decentralization. With the lack of fiscal capacity in mind, we identify two possible solutions for an optimal provision of public functions. The first one is the level of political will for a joint provision of public functions by different local units, and the second one is a change in the territorial organization of the country. We measure the difference in the attitudes toward these questions across counties.

  12. Driving up Standards: Civil Service Management and Decentralization: Case Study of Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Nabaho

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus that decentralization by devolution leads to improved service delivery, but debate on the appropriate type of personnel arrangements for delivering decentralized services is far from over. Put differently, the discourse on whether civil service management should be decentralized or devolved still rages on. Little wonder that countries which started off with decentralized civil service management models in the 1990s are currently centralizing some aspects of personnel management while others are having centralized and decentralized personnel arrangements operating side by side in sub-national governments. The paper argues that civil service management should be decentralized whenever a country chooses the path of decentralization by devolution. Using Uganda’s example, the paper highlights two major challenges of managing the civil service under separate personnel arrangements: civil service appointments devoid of merit, and the perennial failure to attract and retain qualified human resource. The paper presents proposals on how to ensure meritocracy in appointments and how to bolster attraction and retention of human capital in local governments.

  13. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D.; Gibson, Clark C.; Evans, Tom P.

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff. PMID:27956644

  14. FINANCIAL CONSOLIDATION OF THE ADMINISTRATIVE-TERRITORIAL ENTITY IN THE LIGHT OF DECENTRALIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana MANOLE

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available „Should we head towards ‘self-government’ required by many of the participants, would that be a selfgovernmentof the citizens or the elect representatives? Whatever would happen, decentralization is, ina way, the book of our society, a book in which we find its aspirations, discrepancies and questions…It is well led from above, but it is well administered from the bottom.”(Xavier Frège, Paris, 1986 This article presents the results of study regarding the decentralization process, which is currentlyunderway in the Republic of Moldova. The purpose of the study is to highlight the fundamental concept ofdecentralization, the areas of administrative decentralization, the forms of manifestation of financialdecentralization (fiscal decentralization and budget decentralization, to identify the priorities of thedecentralization process, and to establish the indicators for measuring the degree of decentralization. Inbase of the statistical analysis and synthesis method, it was determined the current state of the art in theadministrative-territorial entities in the course of the decentralization process in relation to the publicfinance management reform. It were formulate proposals to accelerate the process of financialdecentralization and self-government.

  15. Decentralization can help reduce deforestation when user groups engage with local government.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Glenn D; Andersson, Krister P; Gibson, Clark C; Evans, Tom P

    2016-12-27

    Policy makers around the world tout decentralization as an effective tool in the governance of natural resources. Despite the popularity of these reforms, there is limited scientific evidence on the environmental effects of decentralization, especially in tropical biomes. This study presents evidence on the institutional conditions under which decentralization is likely to be successful in sustaining forests. We draw on common-pool resource theory to argue that the environmental impact of decentralization hinges on the ability of reforms to engage local forest users in the governance of forests. Using matching techniques, we analyze longitudinal field observations on both social and biophysical characteristics in a large number of local government territories in Bolivia (a country with a decentralized forestry policy) and Peru (a country with a much more centralized forestry policy). We find that territories with a decentralized forest governance structure have more stable forest cover, but only when local forest user groups actively engage with the local government officials. We provide evidence in support of a possible causal process behind these results: When user groups engage with the decentralized units, it creates a more enabling environment for effective local governance of forests, including more local government-led forest governance activities, fora for the resolution of forest-related conflicts, intermunicipal cooperation in the forestry sector, and stronger technical capabilities of the local government staff.

  16. Factors influencing flap and INTACS decentration after femtosecond laser application in normal and keratoconic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertan, Aylin; Karacal, Humeyra

    2008-10-01

    To compare accuracy of LASIK flap and INTACS centration following femtosecond laser application in normal and keratoconic eyes. This is a retrospective case series comprising 133 eyes of 128 patients referred for refractive surgery. All eyes were divided into two groups according to preoperative diagnosis: group 1 (LASIK group) comprised 74 normal eyes of 72 patients undergoing LASIK with a femtosecond laser (IntraLase), and group 2 (INTACS group) consisted of 59 eyes of 39 patients with keratoconus for whom INTACS were implanted using a femtosecond laser (IntraLase). Decentration of the LASIK flap and INTACS was analyzed using Pentacam. Temporal decentration was 612.56 +/- 384.24 microm (range: 30 to 2120 microm) in the LASIK group and 788.33 +/- 500.34 microm (range: 30 to 2450 microm) in the INTACS group. A statistically significant difference was noted between the groups in terms of decentration (P decentration of the LASIK flap and INTACS correlated with the central corneal thickness in the LASIK group and preoperative sphere and cylinder in the INTACS group, respectively. Decentration with the IntraLase occurred in most cases, especially in keratoconic eyes. The applanation performed for centralization during IntraLase application may flatten and shift the pupil center, and thus cause decentralization of the LASIK flap and INTACS. Central corneal thickness in the LASIK group and preoperative sphere and cylinder in the INTACS group proved to be statistically significant parameters associated with decentration.

  17. Coastal zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    The report entitled Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation : A Canadian Perspective, presents a summary of research regarding the impacts of climate change on key sectors over the past five years as it relates to Canada. This chapter on the coastal zone focuses on the impact of climate change on Canada's marine and Great Lakes coasts with tips on how to deal with the impacts associated with climate change in sensitive environments. This report is aimed at the sectors that will be most affected by adaptation decisions in the coastal zone, including fisheries, tourism, transportation and water resources. The impact of climate change in the coastal zone may include changes in water levels, wave patterns, storm surges, and thickness of seasonal ice cover. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change projects global average sea level will rise between 9 and 88 centimetres between 1990 to 2100, but not all areas of Canada will experience the same rate of future sea level change. The main physical impact would be shoreline change that could result in a range of biophysical and socio-economic impacts, some beneficial, some negative. The report focuses on issues related to infrastructure and communities in coastal regions. It is noted that appropriate human adaptation will play a vital role in reducing the extent of potential impacts by decreasing the vulnerability of average zone to climate change. The 3 main trends in coastal adaptation include: (1) increase in soft protection, retreat and accommodation, (2) reliance on technology such as geographic information systems to manage information, and (3) awareness of the need for coastal adaptation that is appropriate for local conditions. 61 refs., 7 figs

  18. A Novel Decentralized Economic Operation in Islanded AC Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Han

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Droop schemes are usually applied to the control of distributed generators (DGs in microgrids (MGs to realize proportional power sharing. The objective might, however, not suit MGs well for economic reasons. Addressing that issue, this paper proposes an alternative droop scheme for reducing the total active generation costs (TAGC. Optimal economic operation, DGs’ capacity limitations and system stability are fully considered basing on DGs’ generation costs. The proposed scheme utilizes the frequency as a carrier to realize the decentralized economic operation of MGs without communication links. Moreover, a fitting method is applied to balance DGs’ synchronous operation and economy. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed scheme are verified through simulations and experiments.

  19. Decentralized Adaptive Overcurrent Protection for Medium Voltage Maritime Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciontea, Catalin-Iosif; Bak, Claus Leth; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    the entire electrical network and changes the relay settings accordingly, but this approach is not adequate for the maritime power systems. This paper propose a decentralized adaptive protection method, where each protection relay is able to identify by itself the network status without the need of a central...... control unit. The new adaptive protection method is based on communication between the overcurrent relays and the equipment that could affect the protection system, such as circuit breakers and generators. Using PSCAD, the proposed method is implemented in a test medium voltage maritime power system......More and more maritime applications as marine vessels and offshore platforms need an adaptive protection power system. However, the adaptive protection is yet to be implemented in the maritime sector. Usually, the adaptive protection implies the existence of a central control unit that monitors...

  20. Decentralized adaptive control of manipulators - Theory, simulation, and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seraji, Homayoun

    1989-01-01

    The author presents a simple decentralized adaptive-control scheme for multijoint robot manipulators based on the independent joint control concept. The control objective is to achieve accurate tracking of desired joint trajectories. The proposed control scheme does not use the complex manipulator dynamic model, and each joint is controlled simply by a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) feedback controller and a position-velocity-acceleration feedforward controller, both with adjustable gains. Simulation results are given for a two-link direct-drive manipulator under adaptive independent joint control. The results illustrate trajectory tracking under coupled dynamics and varying payload. The proposed scheme is implemented on a MicroVAX II computer for motion control of the three major joints of a PUMA 560 arm. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that trajectory tracking is achieved despite coupled nonlinear joint dynamics.

  1. Decentralization and social participation: the new design of social policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Maria Teixeira

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This text indicates essential elements needed for an analysis of direct democracy, materialized in processes of decentralization and civil society participation in spaces for deliberating public policies, in a context of reform of these policies in the 1990’s. It analyzes the national Policy for the Elderly and the experiences of elderly rights councils. It concludes that despite the fact that spaces for participation are contradictory and the orientations of participation of the various subjects are in conflict, the correlation of forces favorable to conservative forces, redirect social policies, giving them a new rationality and new legitimacy that distribute responsibilities to civil society. These changes reinforce a culture of privation in light of the clashes of the refractions of the social issue and transmute popular participation into consent and legitimization of the given order.

  2. Transnationalism and the Decentralization of the Global Film Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Codó Martínez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As in other aspects of society (politics, economics, the film industry appears to be undergoing a process of decentralization (still in its infancy by which Asia is, if not overtaking, at least matching its level of influence with that of European and American powers. Much of the impetus shifting this balance corresponds to China. The spectacular growth of China‟s domestic market is concentrating a substantial part of the global film business within this Asian giant, resulting in the still sector leader, the United States, conditioning its production in order to maximize profits in that territory. Resolute internationalization policies are also helping Chinese companies gain a foothold in Western countries conditioning film content there, although paradoxically their audiences remain unwilling to consume cinema that is culturally foreign. This essay will attempt to explain how all this has occurred.

  3. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    In this study, on a base of result of a nuclear substrate cross-over study on 'Artificial intelligence for nuclear plant' promoted by 5 years plan since 1989 fiscal year, further developed studies are conducted. The studies are promoted by next 5 years plan on following 6 items: (1) Study on stratified expression technique of autonomous function. (2) Study on expression technique of motion state in decentralized-cooperative function. (3) Study on expression technique of decision making process. (4) Integration to operation control system. (5) Integration to maintenance system. And, (6) Comprehensive evaluation experiment. In 1996 fiscal year, improvement and investigation on automatic classification function of plant state were executed. And, preparation of development environment for expression of robot group motion state was conducted. Furthermore, communication experiment using network to realize integration to operation control and maintenance systems and periodical meetings with other institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  4. Tuberculosis control: decentralization, local planning and management specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigueiro, Janaína Von Söhsten; Nogueira, Jordana de Almeida; de Sá, Lenilde Duarte; Palha, Pedro Fredemir; Villa, Tereza Cristina Scatena; Trigueiro, Débora Raquel Soares Guedes

    2011-01-01

    The goal was to analyze, according to the perception of health managers, the practices that guide tuberculosis control actions in cities in the metropolitan region of João Pessoa - PB, Brazil. This qualitative study involved eight professionals in management functions. Testimonies were collected through semi-structured interviews between May and June 2009 and organized through content analysis. Despite the acknowledged benefits of tuberculosis control action decentralization, local planning indicates the predominance of a bureaucratic model that is restricted to negotiation and supplies. Local programming is centered on the coordinator, which shows a command line and vertical management that lead to the fragmentation of the work process. Management action should follow an innovative and transformative route that surpasses bureaucratic barriers and faces the biggest challenge it is proposed: to balance professional interrelations with a view to improving health work performance.

  5. Capacity investment and competition in decentralized electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fehr, Nils-Henrik von der; Harbord, David Cameron

    1997-11-01

    With particular reference to the recently deregulated and market-based electricity industries in Norway, the UK and elsewhere the report analyses oligopoly entry and capacity investment decisions as a non-cooperative game in a decentralized electricity market. A two-stage game is considered, with multiple capacity types and uncertain demand, in which capacity decisions are made prior to spot-market, or price competition. Equilibrium outcomes for different pricing mechanisms or regulatory regimes are analysed. The following questions are dealt with in particular: Will industry capacity be sufficient to ensure adequate supply security? Does imperfect competition in the spot-market lead to an inefficient mix of base-load and peak-load technologies? How do different regulatory policies affect the market outcomes? 24 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Methane synthesis under mild conditions for decentralized applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, Michael; Roensch, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    It is a central aim of the German government to significantly reduce the emission of greenhouse gases in the next years. One possibility to reach this aim is the substitution of fossil fuels, especially natural gas, by fuels from biogenic sources (Bio-SNG). However, it is a drawback of Bio-SNG that the production costs are considerably higher than those of fossil natural gas. This work provides an approach to reduce the production costs of Bio-SNG. It is the aim to reduce the process parameters of the methane synthesis. At the same time, it has to be ensured that high methane yields are achieved even at those mild conditions. A procedure for the optimization of the methanation catalyst activity will be presented. If the catalyst is as active as possible even at mild conditions, it will be possible to produce Bio-SNG cost efficient even in small, decentralized scale.

  7. Integration of Decentralized Thermal Storages Within District Heating (DH Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuchardt Georg K.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal Storages and Thermal Accumulators are an important component within District Heating (DH systems, adding flexibility and offering additional business opportunities for these systems. Furthermore, these components have a major impact on the energy and exergy efficiency as well as the heat losses of the heat distribution system. Especially the integration of Thermal Storages within ill-conditioned parts of the overall DH system enhances the efficiency of the heat distribution. Regarding an illustrative and simplified example for a DH system, the interactions of different heat storage concepts (centralized and decentralized and the heat losses, energy and exergy efficiencies will be examined by considering the thermal state of the heat distribution network.

  8. Decentralization of Decision Authority in Complex Task Structures DRUID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Karim, Samina

    -relevant knowledge, the matching of required knowledge and manager?s expertise, and information processing intensity affect (a) the occurrence of delegation, and (b), if delegation occurs, how far down the organizational hierarchy authority is delegated. We discuss how these findings complement existing theories......We investigate tradeoffs associated with delegating authority over multiple interrelated decisions in a complex task structure. The empirical setting is a business process of a global Fortune 50 firm. The firm decentralized its organization and redefined decision authority across organizational...... hierarchies between 2008 and 2011. We employ regression analysis of micro-level data on the organization design of 761 decision tasks and we investigate the allocation of decision authority at the level of all observable individual decision tasks. Our findings show how the specialization of decision...

  9. Decentralized substations for low-temperature district heating with no Legionella risk, and low return temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaochen; Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    2016-01-01

    To improve energy efficiency and give more access to renewable energy sources, low-temperature district heating (LTDH) is a promising concept to be realized in the future. However, concern about Legionella proliferation restricts applying low-temperature district heating in conventional systems with domestic hot water (DHW) circulation. In this study, a system with decentralized substations was analysed as a solution to this problem. Furthermore, a modification for the decentralized substation system were proposed in order to reduce the average return temperature. Models of conventional system with medium-temperature district heating, decentralized substation system with LTDH, and innovative decentralized substation system with LTDH were built based on the information of a case building. The annual distribution heat loss and the operating costs of the three scenarios were calculated and compared. From the results, realizing LTDH by the decentralized substation unit, 30% of the annual distribution heat loss inside the building can be saved compared to a conventional system with medium-temperature district heating. Replacing the bypass pipe with an in-line supply pipe and a heat pump, the innovative decentralized substation system can reduce distribution heat loss by 39% compared to the conventional system and by 12% compared to the normal decentralized substation system with bypass. - Highlights: • The system of decentralized substations can realize low-temperature district heating without running the risk of Legionella. • Decentralized substations help reduce the distribution heat loss inside the building compared to conventional system. • A new concept that can reduce the return temperature for district heating is proposed and analysed.

  10. Optical measurements in the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition zone. I. On the origin of the deep water in the Kattegat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Højerslev, N. K.; Holt, N.; Aarup, T.

    1996-08-01

    In the North Sea-Baltic Sea region, several studies have shown that yellow substance can be treated as a quasi-conservative parameter that is negatively correlated with salinity. A review of more than 5000 historic and recently gathered yellow substance absorption and salinity measurements from the transition zone between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea have been analyzed for the purpose of water mass identification. Salinity-yellow substance scatter plots show that three water masses can be identified in the area: (1) North Sea water (high salinity, low yellow substance content); (2) Baltic Sea water (low salinity, intermediate-high yellow substance content); and (3) German Bight/Southern North Sea water (intermediate-high salinity, high yellow substance content). Based on the volume flow estimates used in a two-layer box-model of the Kattegat (Jørgensen, Continental Shelf Research, 12, 103-114, 1992) and conservation of yellow substance, it is argued that the long-term average composition of the bottom layer inflow to the Kattegat from the Skagerrak consists of about 90% North Sea/Atlantic water and 10% German Bight/Southern North Sea water. The German Bight content estimate is substantially lower than the ones given in earlier studies (50-67%) and implies that the Jutland Coastal Current only has a small impact on the water quality of the Kattegat.

  11. Decentred Centre in John Fowles’s The Magus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleks Matosoğlu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Decentred Centre in John Fowles’sThe Magus Abstract John Fowles’ The Magus (1966 has been the focus of criticism for many years. This study regards the character of Conchis as a decentred “centre” in the structure of the novel and as in the experience of the contemporary humanity. Conchis becomes in the eyes of Nicholas an all-knowing figure, an accumulation of Western thought since the Greek civilization. He produces signs to be read as he himself becomes a body of various signs that construct him as the metaphysical centre that Western thinkers have relied upon. His narration becomes superior to Nicholas’ and he himself becomes only a narrative voice. The voice from the times of Plato has been considered as a direct expression of the thoughts in one’s mind and thus superior to writing that is permeated with the undecidability of meaning in the absence of the speaker and the addressee. In the novel, words as an endless play of metaphors take the place of voice. There is no knowable reality outside the play words or metaphors which is an endless chain of signifiers that lead to other signifiers. Every time Nicholas turns to Conchis to find the centre outside the play of the language, he finds other signifiers. Thus, Conchis as a meaning-making centre is dethroned. He is not the sole operator of the masks that divert from their presumed original target when they are read. Nicholas is just another production of the literary tradition who reads the signs only to produce other signs. Conchis in the beginning of the novel renounces fiction for science but along the course of the novel, we see that words are never reliable whether in fiction or in science.

  12. Optimal decentralized valley-filling charging strategy for electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kangkang; Xu, Liangfei; Ouyang, Minggao; Wang, Hewu; Lu, Languang; Li, Jianqiu; Li, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • An implementable charging strategy is developed for electric vehicles connected to a grid. • A two-dimensional pricing scheme is proposed to coordinate charging behaviors. • The strategy effectively works in decentralized way but achieves the systematic valley filling. • The strategy allows device-level charging autonomy, and does not require a bidirectional communication/control network. • The strategy can self-correct when confronted with adverse factors. - Abstract: Uncoordinated charging load of electric vehicles (EVs) increases the peak load of the power grid, thereby increasing the cost of electricity generation. The valley-filling charging scenario offers a cheaper alternative. This study proposes a novel decentralized valley-filling charging strategy, in which a day-ahead pricing scheme is designed by solving a minimum-cost optimization problem. The pricing scheme can be broadcasted to EV owners, and the individual charging behaviors can be indirectly coordinated. EV owners respond to the pricing scheme by autonomously optimizing their individual charge patterns. This device-level response induces a valley-filling effect in the grid at the system level. The proposed strategy offers three advantages: coordination (by the valley-filling effect), practicality (no requirement for a bidirectional communication/control network between the grid and EV owners), and autonomy (user control of EV charge patterns). The proposed strategy is validated in simulations of typical scenarios in Beijing, China. According to the results, the strategy (1) effectively achieves the valley-filling charging effect at 28% less generation cost than the uncoordinated charging strategy, (2) is robust to several potential affecters of the valley-filling effect, such as (system-level) inaccurate parameter estimation and (device-level) response capability and willingness (which cause less than 2% deviation in the minimal generation cost), and (3) is compatible with

  13. Towards a personalized Internet: a case for a full decentralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermarrec, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-28

    The Web has become a user-centric platform where users post, share, annotate, comment and forward content be it text, videos, pictures, URLs, etc. This social dimension creates tremendous new opportunities for information exchange over the Internet, as exemplified by the surprising and exponential growth of social networks and collaborative platforms. Yet, niche content is sometimes difficult to retrieve using traditional search engines because they target the mass rather than the individual. Likewise, relieving users from useless notification is tricky in a world where there is so much information and so little of interest for each and every one of us. We argue that ultra-specific content could be retrieved and disseminated should search and notification be personalized to fit this new setting. We also argue that users' interests should be implicitly captured by the system rather than relying on explicit classifications simply because the world is by nature unstructured, dynamic and users do not want to be hampered in their actions by a tight and static framework. In this paper, we review some existing personalization approaches, most of which are centralized. We then advocate the need for fully decentralized systems because personalization raises two main issues. Firstly, personalization requires information to be stored and maintained at a user granularity which can significantly hurt the scalability of a centralized solution. Secondly, at a time when the 'big brother is watching you' attitude is prominent, users may be more and more reluctant to give away their personal data to the few large companies that can afford such personalization. We start by showing how to achieve personalization in decentralized systems and conclude with the research agenda ahead.

  14. Mountainous areas and decentralized energy planning: Insights from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsoulakos, Nikolas M.; Kaliampakos, Dimitris C.

    2016-01-01

    Mountainous areas have particular characteristics, whose influence on energy planning is explored in this paper, through a suitably tailored methodology applied to the case of Greece. The core element of the methodology is a linear optimization model with a “total cost” objective function, which includes financial, as well as external costs and benefits. Altitude proves to have decisive influence on energy optimization results, because it affects energy demand. The improvement of local energy systems provides greater socioeconomic benefits in mountainous settlements, due to the high shares of renewables and energy efficiency interventions in the optimal solutions. Energy poverty can be alleviated by redesigning local energy systems and the structure of the energy market. However, spatial and aesthetic restrictions, presented often in mountainous settlements, may affect the operational costs of energy systems, which is a crucial parameter for confronting energy poverty. Furthermore, the study indicates that it could be better to electrify remote areas, far from electricity grids, by decentralized systems than by grid expansion. The results of this study and the assumptions made about the way in which energy market should function, could be utilized for reconsidering energy policy measures, aiming at supporting sensitive societies to improve their development perspectives. - Highlights: •The influence of mountains' characteristics on energy planning was analyzed. •Optimal energy solutions present differentiations with respect to altitude. •Greater socioeconomic benefits by energy optimization in mountainous areas. •Remoteness favors the development of decentralized energy systems. •The study is based on data from Greece.

  15. Decentralized energy: technology assessment and systems description. [Potential for implementation for years 2000 and 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckard, M K

    1979-06-01

    Decentralized energy systems and their characteristic features are examined in the report. These systems have been divided into six groups for the purpose of analysis: solar, wind, hydro, biomass, geothermal, and coproduction (total energy). The technical and economic potential for the implementation of these systems is discussed for the years 2000 and 2025. The results of a comparison of base-case and decentralized scenarios for the year 2000, using a computer systems model, are presented. Social and institutional factors are also addressed, both as motivations for and results of energy system decentralization. Appendices are included with more detailed technical information on each of the systems groups.

  16. Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vedachalam, Sridhar; Riha, Susan J

    2013-01-01

    In the article ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’ published in Environmental Research Letters (2012 Environ. Res. Lett. 7 024007), Shehabi et al compared a decentralized and a centralized system on the basis of energy use, greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants, and claimed that economies of scale lower the environmental impacts from a centralized system on a per-volume basis. In this comment, we present literature and data from New York State, USA to argue that the authors’ comparison between a small decentralized system (0.015 MGD) and a large centralized system (66.5 MGD) is unconventional and inappropriate. (comment)

  17. The recent process of decentralization and democratic management of education in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Filho, José Camilo Dos

    1993-09-01

    Brazilian society is beginning a new historical period in which the principle of decentralization is beginning to predominate over centralization, which held sway during the last 25 years. In contrast to recent Brazilian history, there is now a search for political, democratic and participatory decentralization more consonant with grass-roots aspirations. The first section of this article presents a brief analysis of some decentralization policies implemented by the military regime of 1964, and discusses relevant facts related to the resistance of civil society to state authoritarianism, and to the struggle for the democratization and organization of civil society up to the end of the 1970s. The second section analyzes some new experiences of democratic public school administration initiated in the 1970s and 1980s. The final section discusses the move toward decentralization and democratization of public school administration in the new Federal and State Constitutions, and in the draft of the new Law of National Education.

  18. A Call for Different Styles of Data Management and Institutional Research: Centralized versus Decentralized Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Charles H.; Howard, Richard D.

    1979-01-01

    The planning processes at two universities are contrasted as they relate to styles of data management and institutional research required to support two different planning philosophies--centralized planning and decentralized planning. (Author/BH)

  19. The Politics of Fiscal Decentralization Revisited: a Typology and Comparative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge P. Gordin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Although the practice of fiscal decentralization is worldwide and its implementation and effects vary from country to country, its political significance has been often neglected, or worse, treated as implicit to decentralization. This study considers the sources of politicization of fiscal decentralization, focusing on the determination and manipulation of intergovernmental transfers. It develops a new index of fiscal politicization and proposes an explanatory typology that takes into account subnational transfer dependency and the extent to which transfers are politically determined. This analysis renders a conceptual tool that captures nuanced facts about the intergovernmental level of conflict to a larger extent than conventional measures of fiscal decentralization do. We found that the effects of fiscal dependency are intertwined with political asymmetries derived from legislative overrepresentation of territorial units and intergovernmental bargaining strategies.

  20. On the local politics of administrative decentralization: applying for policy responsibilities in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faust, J.; Harbers, I.

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the behavior and preferences of subnational governments is one of the areas that remain poorly understood by students of comparative decentralization and federalism. Yet, evidence suggests that this variation plays an important role in shaping intergovernmental relations. Ecuador

  1. Engaging Social Capital for Decentralized Urban Stormwater Management (Paper in Non-EPA Proceedings)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decentralized approaches to urban stormwater management, whereby installations of green infrastructure (e.g., rain gardens, bioswales, constructed wetlands) are dispersed throughout a management area, are cost-effective solutions with co-benefits beyond just water abatement. Inst...

  2. Fiscal Decentralization and Delivery of Public Services: Evidence from Education Sector in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Abdur

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal Decentralization is the devolution of fiscal assignments to lower governments for high growth and better delivery of public services. The current study covering the period from 1972 to 2009 is an attempt to find out the impacts of fiscal decentralization on public services deliveries in Pakistan. Public services are proxy by Gross enrollment at primary school level while fiscal decentralization by fiscal transfer and expenditure sides of devolution. Using time series data, it is found that the individual impacts of fiscal transfer are although insignificant but still support the theoretical proposition regarding fiscal decentralization and public services relationship while delegation of expenditure responsibilities helps in improving the gross enrollment at primary school level. Furthermore the study evident that complete delegation of fiscal responsibilities to lower governments enhance enrollment ratio in Pakistan.

  3. COINSTAC: Decentralizing the future of brain imaging analysis [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ming

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In the era of Big Data, sharing neuroimaging data across multiple sites has become increasingly important. However, researchers who want to engage in centralized, large-scale data sharing and analysis must often contend with problems such as high database cost, long data transfer time, extensive manual effort, and privacy issues for sensitive data. To remove these barriers to enable easier data sharing and analysis, we introduced a new, decentralized, privacy-enabled infrastructure model for brain imaging data called COINSTAC in 2016. We have continued development of COINSTAC since this model was first introduced. One of the challenges with such a model is adapting the required algorithms to function within a decentralized framework. In this paper, we report on how we are solving this problem, along with our progress on several fronts, including additional decentralized algorithms implementation, user interface enhancement, decentralized regression statistic calculation, and complete pipeline specifications.

  4. Decentralized Feedback Controllers for Exponential Stabilization of Hybrid Periodic Orbits: Application to Robotic Walking*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Kaveh Akbari; Gregg, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic algorithm to design time-invariant decentralized feedback controllers to exponentially stabilize periodic orbits for a class of hybrid dynamical systems arising from bipedal walking. The algorithm assumes a class of parameterized and nonlinear decentralized feedback controllers which coordinate lower-dimensional hybrid subsystems based on a common phasing variable. The exponential stabilization problem is translated into an iterative sequence of optimization problems involving bilinear and linear matrix inequalities, which can be easily solved with available software packages. A set of sufficient conditions for the convergence of the iterative algorithm to a stabilizing decentralized feedback control solution is presented. The power of the algorithm is demonstrated by designing a set of local nonlinear controllers that cooperatively produce stable walking for a 3D autonomous biped with 9 degrees of freedom, 3 degrees of underactuation, and a decentralization scheme motivated by amputee locomotion with a transpelvic prosthetic leg. PMID:27990059

  5. Decentralized energy aware co-optimization of mobility and communication in multiagent systems

    KAUST Repository

    Jaleel, Hassan; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    Our goal is to design decentralized coordination strategies that enable agents to achieve global performance guarantees while minimizing the energy cost of their actions with an emphasis on feasibility for real-time implementation. As a motivating

  6. Endogenous System Microbes as Treatment Process Indicators for Decentralized Non-potable Water Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monitoring the efficacy of treatment strategies to remove pathogens in decentralized systems remains a challenge. Evaluating log reduction targets by measuring pathogen levels is hampered by their sporadic and low occurrence rates. Fecal indicator bacteria are used in centraliz...

  7. Supplier’s Joint Investments in Cost Reduction and Quality Improvement in a Decentralized Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hengyun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a decentralized supply chain with a downstream manufacturer and an upstream supplier. The upstream supplier sells a product to the manufacturer, who faces a quality and price sensitive demand. The supplier has a chance to invest in both cost reduction and quality improvement of its product. We derive the optimal investment and pricing decisions for the supply chain members. We do so in both the centralized and the decentralized supply chains. We show that the optimal investment and pricing decisions in the decentralized supply chain may deviate from that in the centralized supply chain. We develop a mechanism to coordinate the decentralized supply chain. The developed mechanism contains four policies: wholesale price, sharing of revenue, sharing of cost reduction investment cost, and sharing of quality improvement investment cost. We also show that the developed coordination mechanism can lead to Pareto improvement.

  8. Development of a completely decentralized control system for modular continuous conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Stephan H.

    2009-01-01

    To increase the flexibility of application of continuous conveyor systems, a completely decentralized control system for a modular conveyor system is introduced in the paper. This system is able to carry conveyor units without any centralized infrastructure. Based on existing methods of decentralized data transfer in IT networks, single modules operate autonomously and, after being positioned into the required topology, independently connect together to become a functioning conveyor system.

  9. Organizational precedents for ownership and management of decentralized renewable-energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meunier, R.; Silversmith, J.A.

    1981-03-01

    Three existing organizational types that meet the decentralization criteria of local consumer ownership and control - cooperatives, Rural Electric Cooperatives, and municipal utilities - are examined. These three organizational precedents are analyzed in terms of their histories, structures, legal powers, sources of capital, and social and political aspects. Examples of related experiments with renewable energy technologies are given, and inferences are drawn regarding the organizations' suitability as vehicles for future implementation of decentralized renewable energy systems.

  10. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers. The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1 defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2 supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3 identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best

  11. Fears of Redistribution, Decentralization and Secession: Evidence from Bolivia’s Referendum for Departmental Autonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Werner L. Hernani-Limarino

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed strong movements toward decentralization and secession. The former Soviet Union, Yugoslavia, Czechoslovaquia and Serbia and Montenegro have disintegrated. Movements for regional autonomy and even independence have gained larger support in Bolivia, Canada, Spain, France and Italy. What is the importance of redistributive politics in explaining decentralization and secession outcomes in a democratic polity? This paper attempts to answer this question building a simpl...

  12. Decentralized Wastewater Management Solutions for Improved Public Health Protection and Reclamation: Optimization and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Naik, Kartiki Shirish

    2014-01-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban or industrial areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers. Alternatively, the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation is called decentralized wastewater treatment. Smaller decentralized plants with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularization of expansion and minimum capital investment can mee...

  13. Decentralization's impact on the health workforce: Perspectives of managers, workers and national leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolehmainen-Aitken, Riitta-Liisa

    2004-05-14

    Designers and implementers of decentralization and other reform measures have focused much attention on financial and structural reform measures, but ignored their human resource implications. Concern is mounting about the impact that the reallocation of roles and responsibilities has had on the health workforce and its management, but the experiences and lessons of different countries have not been widely shared. This paper examines evidence from published literature on decentralization's impact on the demand side of the human resource equation, as well as the factors that have contributed to the impact. The elements that make such an impact analysis exceptionally complex are identified. They include the mode of decentralization that a country is implementing, the level of responsibility for the salary budget and pay determination, and the civil service status of transferred health workers.The main body of the paper is devoted to examining decentralization's impact on human resource issues from three different perspectives: that of local health managers, health workers themselves, and national health leaders. These three groups have different concerns in the human resource realm, and consequently, have been differently affected by decentralization processes. The paper concludes with recommendations regarding three key concerns that national authorities and international agencies should give prompt attention to. They are (1) defining the essential human resource policy, planning and management skills for national human resource managers who work in decentralized countries, and developing training programs to equip them with such skills; (2) supporting research that focuses on improving the knowledge base of how different modes of decentralization impact on staffing equity; and (3) identifying factors that most critically influence health worker motivation and performance under decentralization, and documenting the most cost-effective best practices to improve them

  14. Research on Calculation of the IOL Tilt and Decentration Based on Surface Fitting

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Lin; Wang, Ke; Yan, Yan; Song, Xudong; Liu, Zhicheng

    2013-01-01

    The tilt and decentration of intraocular lens (IOL) result in defocussing, astigmatism, and wavefront aberration after operation. The objective is to give a method to estimate the tilt and decentration of IOL more accurately. Based on AS-OCT images of twelve eyes from eight cases with subluxation lens after operation, we fitted spherical equation to the data obtained from the images of the anterior and posterior surfaces of the IOL. By the established relationship between IOL tilt (decentrati...

  15. Integrating centralized and decentralized organization structures: an education and development model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheriff, R; Banks, A

    2001-01-01

    Organization change efforts have led to critically examining the structure of education and development departments within hospitals. This qualitative study evaluated an education and development model in an academic health sciences center. The model combines centralization and decentralization. The study results can be used by staff development educators and administrators when organization structure is questioned. This particular model maximizes the benefits and minimizes the limitations of centralized and decentralized structures.

  16. Decentralized vs. centralized scheduling in wireless sensor networks for data fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Mitici, M.A.; Goseling, Jasper; de Graaf, Maurits; Boucherie, Richardus J.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of data estimation in a sensor wireless network where sensors transmit their observations according to decentralized and centralized transmission schedules. A data collector is interested in achieving a data estimation using several sensor observations such that the variance of the estimation is below a targeted threshold. We analyze the waiting time for a collector to receive sufficient sensor observations. We show that, for sufficiently large sensor sets, the decentr...

  17. The stimulative effect of an unconditional block grant on the decentralized provision of care

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Kattenberg; Wouter Vermeulen

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of central government grants on decentralized health care provision is of crucial importance for the design of grant systems, yet empirical evidence on the prevalence of flypaper effects in this domain is rare. We study the decentralization of home care in the Netherlands and exploit the gradual introduction of formula-based equalization to identify the effect of exogenous changes in an unconditional block grant on local expenditure and utilization. A one euro increas...

  18. Economic Inequalities and the Level of Decentralization in European Countries: Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laboutková Šárka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This submitted article identifies relations between the degree of decentralization and economic imbalances on the basis of a cluster (exploratory analysis. Two indicators have been chosen for measuring economic inequalities: an indicator of dispersion of regional GDP per capita as representative of the performance imbalances within countries (it measures the economic development gap among regions in European countries; and a multidimensional inequality-adjusted human development index as representative of inequalities in the distribution of wealth in the countries. Decentralization is measured by means of a decentralization index, which contains both quantitative and qualitative components. Although groups of countries characterised by a high degree of decentralization do not necessarily show the lowest degrees of economic imbalances, it is however possible to conclude that the countries in groups with a higher degree of decentralization are among those countries with more favourable values of the economic imbalances indicators monitored. As a part of the research, two clusters of countries were identified which are identical in their degree of decentralization, but differ in the results connected with economic imbalances. The differences are caused by different institutional qualities in the two groups.

  19. The Wolf and the Caribou: Coexistence of Decentralized Economies and Competitive Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Freund

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Starting with BitTorrent and then Bitcoin, decentralized technologies have been on the rise over the last 15+ years, gaining significant momentum in the last 2+ years with the advent of platform ecosystems such as the Blockchain platform Ethereum. New projects have evolved from decentralized games to marketplaces to open funding models to decentralized autonomous organizations. The hype around cryptocurrency and the valuation of innovative projects drove the market cap of cryptocurrencies to over a trillion dollars at one point in 2017. These high valued technologies are now enabling something new: globally scaled and decentralized business models. Despite their valuation and the hype, these new business ecosystems are frail. This is not only because the underlying technology is rapidly evolving, but also because competitive markets see a profit opportunity in exponential cryptocurrency returns. This extracts value from these ecosystems, which could lead to their collapse, if unchecked. In this paper, we explore novel ways for decentralized economies to protect themselves from, and coexist with, competitive markets at a global scale utilizing decentralized technologies such as Blockchain.

  20. Agricultural and forestry residues for decentralized energy generation in Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Missagia, Bruna

    2011-10-11

    Regular electricity access is a key element for the economic development and social welfare of rural areas. Decentralized energy generation has the advantage of using local resources, increasing employment and reducing transmission and distribution losses. Brazil is a tropical country, endowed with vast arable land, plentiful precipitation levels, and a large supply of human labour. Furthermore, it has strong regional distinctions with geographical, cultural and economical differences. Forestry and agriculture, important activities in the Brazilian economy, are dependent on local people and are deeply connected to traditions, nature and culture. Furthermore, these activities generate a significant amount of residues that could be used in conversion technologies for biomass, based on type, availability and market demand. When biomass were used to generate energy locally, community members could have business opportunities, improving local economy and life quality of individuals while diversifying the Brazilian energy matrix, which is mostly based on hydropower. Alternatives for implementing small-scale decentralized biomass schemes are dependent on the screening of the existing biomass supply chains, the implementation of adapted technologies for local conditions and the exploration of local resources. The present research carried out a detailed field work in order to evaluate the potential of Brazilian biomass in different regions. The author identified crucial needs, usual constraints and possible challenges of rural electrification and economic development in Brazil. Several case studies and social groups were investigated in the Federal States of Minas Gerais, Sao Paulo and Para to identify different resource management strategies, which biomass technology was applied and the needs of the local population. It was concluded that the compaction of biomass to generate solid biofuels with uniform properties could be a cost-effective alternative for communities

  1. ZONING DESIGN FOR HAND­WRITTEN NUMERAL RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecce Di, V.; Dimauro, G.; Guerriero, A.; Impedovo, S.; Pirlo, G.; Salzo, A.

    2004-01-01

    In the field of Optical Character Recognition (OCR), zoning is used to extract topological information from patterns. In this paper zoning is considered as the result of an optimisation problem and a new technique is presented for automatic zoning. More precisely, local analysis of feature

  2. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  3. Decentralized real-time simulation of forest machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Eckhard; Adam, Frank; Hoffmann, Katharina; Rossmann, Juergen; Kraemer, Michael; Schluse, Michael

    2000-10-01

    To develop realistic forest machine simulators is a demanding task. A useful simulator has to provide a close- to-reality simulation of the forest environment as well as the simulation of the physics of the vehicle. Customers demand a highly realistic three dimensional forestry landscape and the realistic simulation of the complex motion of the vehicle even in rough terrain in order to be able to use the simulator for operator training under close-to- reality conditions. The realistic simulation of the vehicle, especially with the driver's seat mounted on a motion platform, greatly improves the effect of immersion into the virtual reality of a simulated forest and the achievable level of education of the driver. Thus, the connection of the real control devices of forest machines to the simulation system has to be supported, i.e. the real control devices like the joysticks or the board computer system to control the crane, the aggregate etc. Beyond, the fusion of the board computer system and the simulation system is realized by means of sensors, i.e. digital and analog signals. The decentralized system structure allows several virtual reality systems to evaluate and visualize the information of the control devices and the sensors. So, while the driver is practicing, the instructor can immerse into the same virtual forest to monitor the session from his own viewpoint. In this paper, we are describing the realized structure as well as the necessary software and hardware components and application experiences.

  4. Integrating Decentralized Indoor Evacuation with Information Depositories in the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The lonelier evacuees find themselves, the riskier become their wayfinding decisions. This research supports single evacuees in a dynamically changing environment with risk-aware guidance. It deploys the concept of decentralized evacuation, where evacuees are guided by smartphones acquiring environmental knowledge and risk information via exploration and knowledge sharing by peer-to-peer communication. Peer-to-peer communication, however, relies on the chance that people come into communication range with each other. This chance can be low. To bridge between people being not at the same time at the same places, this paper suggests information depositories at strategic locations to improve information sharing. Information depositories collect the knowledge acquired by the smartphones of evacuees passing by, maintain this information, and convey it to other passing-by evacuees. Multi-agent simulation implementing these depositories in an indoor environment shows that integrating depositories improves evacuation performance: It enhances the risk awareness and consequently increases the chance that people survive and reduces their evacuation time. For evacuating dynamic events, deploying depositories at staircases has been shown more effective than deploying them in corridors.

  5. Decentring the Human? Towards a Post- Anthropocentric Standpoint Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnaLouise Keating

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on recent developments in virology and the work of Chicana queer-feminist Gloria Anzaldúa, this article explores the possibility of shifting from anthropocentric epistemologies (including feminist standpoint theories into more expansive, decentralized modes of knowledge production which are neither entirely human-centered nor fully post-human. We explore this shift through several parts: (1 A brief overview of recent critiques of anthropocentrism and the limitations in mainstream feminist standpoint theory’s ability to overcome this anthropocentrism; (2 an exploration of recent developments in virology’s promising alternatives to anthropocentrism’s narrow definition of the human; and (3 an analysis of Anzaldúa’s innovative nepantlera subjectivity and onto-epistemology as seen in her theory of conocimiento. Because scholars have yet to examine the post-anthropocentric (and posthumanist dimensions of Anzaldúa’s thought, but instead generally categorize her epistemology as an ethnic-specific feminist standpoint theory, her work offers a unique point of entry into these investigations.

  6. A market approach to decentralized control of a manufacturing cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Xinyu; Ma Li; Guan Zailin

    2009-01-01

    Based on a fictitious market model, a decentralized approach is presented for the workstation scheduling in a CNC workshop. A multi-agent framework is proposed, where job agents and resource agents act as buyers and sellers of resource in the virtual market. With cost and benefit calculation of these agent activities, which reflects the state of the production environment, various, and often conflicting goals and interests influencing the scheduling process in practice can be balanced through a unified instrument offered by the markets. The paper first introduces a heuristic procedure that makes scheduling reservations in a periodic manner. A multi-agent framework is then introduced, in which job agents and resource agents seek appropriate job-workstation matches through bidding in the construction of the above periodic 'micro-schedules'. A pricing policy is proposed for the price-directed coordination of agent activities in this. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and give some insights on the effects of some decision making parameters. Future work will be focused on the designing of some more sophisticated coordination mechanism and its deployment.

  7. Controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Milovan M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is composed from three parts. In the first part, I emphasize the importance of theoretical and sociological discussion for the design of the model of social system reforms and stress the problems that occur in Serbia with regard to this. In the second part, I discuss public controversies regarding decentralism, regionalism, and local governance in Serbia. I advocate for regionalism that is closer to local then to para-state governance and argue for the advantages of alternative model of 'functional autonomy of different tempo', that could harmonize inherited historical geopolitical, economic, and cultural differences and reconcile current political antagonisms in Serbia. In the third part I give a proposition that envisages central (Republic administration and local (municipal and city self-governance as main levels of territorial organization of governance (with original authorities, while federal and regional levels would be complementary with it, not parallel. In that sense, I propose 15 autonomous regions for Serbia, with possibility of making 4 to 6 larger regions out of them, at different pace.

  8. Decentralized Cooperative Localization Approach for Autonomous Multirobot Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thumeera R. Wanasinghe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes the use of a split covariance intersection algorithm (Split-CI for decentralized multirobot cooperative localization. In the proposed method, each robot maintains a local cubature Kalman filter to estimate its own pose in a predefined coordinate frame. When a robot receives pose information from neighbouring robots, it employs a Split-CI based approach to fuse this received measurement with its local belief. The computational and communicative complexities of the proposed algorithm increase linearly with the number of robots in the multirobot systems (MRS. The proposed method does not require fully connected synchronous communication channels between robots; in fact, it is applicable for MRS with asynchronous and partially connected communication networks. The pose estimation error of the proposed method is bounded. As the proposed method is capable of handling independent and interdependent information of the estimations separately, it does not generate overconfidence state estimations. The performance of the proposed method is compared with several multirobot localization approaches. The simulation and experiment results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm outperforms the single-robot localization algorithms and achieves approximately the same estimation accuracy as the centralized cooperative localization approach, but with reduced computational and communicative cost.

  9. The Real World of the Decentralized Autonomous Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Z. Garrod

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it is still in early stages, many commentators have been quick to note the revolutionary potential of next-generation or Bitcoin 2.0 technology. While some have expressed fear that the widespread application of these technologies may engender the rise of a Terminator-style Skynet, others believe that it represents the coming of a decentralized autonomous society (DAS in which humans are freed from centralized forms of power through the proliferation of distributed autonomous organizations or DAOs. Influenced by neoliberal theory that stresses privatization, open markets, and deregulation, Bitcoin 2.0 technologies are implicitly working on the assumption that 'freedom' means freedom from the state. This neglects, however, that within capitalist societies, the state can also provide freedom from the vagaries of the market by protecting certain things from commodification. Through an analysis of (1 class and the role of the state; (2 the concentration and centralization of capital; and (3 the role of automation, I argue that the vision of freedom that underpins Bitcoin 2.0 tech is one that neglects the power that capital holds over us in both organizing the structure of our lives, and informing our idea of what it means to be human. In neglecting these other forms of power, I claim that the DAS might be a far more dystopian development than its supporters comprehend, making possible societies that are commodities all the way down.

  10. Decentralized control of multi-agent aerial transportation system

    KAUST Repository

    Toumi, Noureddine

    2017-04-01

    Autonomous aerial transportation has multiple potential applications including emergency cases and rescue missions where ground intervention may be difficult. In this context, the following work will address the control of multi-agent Vertical Take-off and Landing aircraft (VTOL) transportation system. We develop a decentralized method. The advantage of such a solution is that it can provide better maneuverability and lifting capabilities compared to existing systems. First, we consider a cooperative group of VTOLs transporting one payload. The main idea is that each agent perceive the interaction with other agents as a disturbance while assuming a negotiated motion model and imposing certain magnitude bounds on each agent. The theoretical model will be then validated using a numerical simulation illustrating the interesting features of the presented control method. Results show that under specified disturbances, the algorithm is able to guarantee the tracking with a minimal error. We describe a toolbox that has been developed for this purpose. Then, a system of multiple VTOLs lifting payloads will be studied. The algorithm assures that the VTOLs are coordinated with minimal communication. Additionally, a novel gripper design for ferrous objects is presented that enables the transportation of ferrous objects without a cable. Finally, we discuss potential connections to human in the loop transportation systems.

  11. An Enterprise Information Architecture: A Case Study for Decentralized Organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    As enterprises become increasingly information based, making improvements in their information activities is a top priority to assure their continuing competitiveness. A key to achieving these improvements is developing an Enterprise Information Architecture (EIA). An EIA can be viewed as a structured set of multidimensional interrelated elements that support all information processes. The current ad hoc EIAs in place within many enterprises can not meet their future needs because of a lack of a coherent framework, incompatibilities, missing elements, few and poorly understood standards, uneven quality and unnecessary duplications. This paper discusses the EIA developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory as a case study, for other information based enterprises, particularly those with decentralized and autonomous organization structures and cultures. While the architecture is important, the process by which it is developed and sustained over time is equally important. This paper outlines the motivation for an EIA and discusses each of the interacting elements identified. It also presents an organizational structure and processes for building a sustainable EIA activity

  12. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleten, S.-E.; Maribu, K.M.; Wangensteen, I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a method for evaluating investments in decentralized renewable power generation under price un certainty. The analysis is applicable for a client with an electricity load and a renewable resource that can be utilized for power generation. The investor has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one local power generating unit, with the objective to maximize the profits from the opportunity. Renewable electricity generation can serve local load when generation and load coincide in time, and surplus power can be exported to the grid. The problem is to find the price intervals and the capacity of the generator at which to invest. Results from a case with wind power generation for an office building suggests it is optimal to wait for higher prices than the net present value break-even price under price uncertainty, and that capacity choice can depend on the current market price and the price volatility. With low price volatility there can be more than one investment price interval for different units with intermediate waiting regions between them. High price volatility increases the value of the investment opportunity, and therefore makes it more attractive to postpone investment until larger units are profitable. (author)

  13. Kasai hepatoportoenterostomy in South Australia: a case for 'centralized decentralization'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Chen Gang; Khurana, Sanjeev; Couper, Richard; Ford, Andrew W D

    2015-11-01

    Recent follow-up studies have demonstrated significant improvement in overall survival as well as survival with native liver following geographic centralization of services to three centres in the UK. However, this model has not been replicated in countries with relatively low population density such as Australia and Canada. Retrospective evaluation of all patients born with biliary atresia (BA) in South Australia from 1989 to 2010 was performed. Thirty-one patients with BA were discovered. Two patients were excluded because the initial Kasai procedure (KP) was performed interstate. Outcome parameters measured were (i) clearance of jaundice (bilirubin of less than 20 μmol/L, by 6 months); (ii) survival with native liver; and (iii) overall survival. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were plotted for both survival with native liver and overall survival. The incidence of BA in South Australia between 1989 and 2010 was 7.48 per 100,000 live births. Following KP, clearance of jaundice was achieved in 42.9% of patients. Five-year actuarial survival with native liver was 55.2%, and overall 5-year actuarial survival was 89.3%. The results of KP performed at Women's and Children's Hospital from 1989 to 2010 can be considered comparable with international benchmarks. Based on these results, we propose the creation of a 'centralized' pool of surgeons in Australia to help continue providing 'decentralized' care of BA. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  14. Decentralized Consistent Network Updates in SDN with ez-Segway

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-03-06

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and black-holes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  15. Decentralized modal identification using sparse blind source separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadhu, A; Hazra, B; Narasimhan, S; Pandey, M D

    2011-01-01

    Popular ambient vibration-based system identification methods process information collected from a dense array of sensors centrally to yield the modal properties. In such methods, the need for a centralized processing unit capable of satisfying large memory and processing demands is unavoidable. With the advent of wireless smart sensor networks, it is now possible to process information locally at the sensor level, instead. The information at the individual sensor level can then be concatenated to obtain the global structure characteristics. A novel decentralized algorithm based on wavelet transforms to infer global structure mode information using measurements obtained using a small group of sensors at a time is proposed in this paper. The focus of the paper is on algorithmic development, while the actual hardware and software implementation is not pursued here. The problem of identification is cast within the framework of under-determined blind source separation invoking transformations of measurements to the time–frequency domain resulting in a sparse representation. The partial mode shape coefficients so identified are then combined to yield complete modal information. The transformations are undertaken using stationary wavelet packet transform (SWPT), yielding a sparse representation in the wavelet domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed on the resulting wavelet coefficients, yielding the partial mixing matrix coefficients from a few measurement channels at a time. This process is repeated using measurements obtained from multiple sensor groups, and the results so obtained from each group are concatenated to obtain the global modal characteristics of the structure

  16. Decentralized modal identification using sparse blind source separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadhu, A.; Hazra, B.; Narasimhan, S.; Pandey, M. D.

    2011-12-01

    Popular ambient vibration-based system identification methods process information collected from a dense array of sensors centrally to yield the modal properties. In such methods, the need for a centralized processing unit capable of satisfying large memory and processing demands is unavoidable. With the advent of wireless smart sensor networks, it is now possible to process information locally at the sensor level, instead. The information at the individual sensor level can then be concatenated to obtain the global structure characteristics. A novel decentralized algorithm based on wavelet transforms to infer global structure mode information using measurements obtained using a small group of sensors at a time is proposed in this paper. The focus of the paper is on algorithmic development, while the actual hardware and software implementation is not pursued here. The problem of identification is cast within the framework of under-determined blind source separation invoking transformations of measurements to the time-frequency domain resulting in a sparse representation. The partial mode shape coefficients so identified are then combined to yield complete modal information. The transformations are undertaken using stationary wavelet packet transform (SWPT), yielding a sparse representation in the wavelet domain. Principal component analysis (PCA) is then performed on the resulting wavelet coefficients, yielding the partial mixing matrix coefficients from a few measurement channels at a time. This process is repeated using measurements obtained from multiple sensor groups, and the results so obtained from each group are concatenated to obtain the global modal characteristics of the structure.

  17. A market approach to decentralized control of a manufacturing cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shao Xinyu [State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing and Equipments, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)], E-mail: shaoxy@hust.edu.cn; Ma Li [State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing and Equipments, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)], E-mail: china_ml@163.com; Guan Zailin [State Key Lab of Digital Manufacturing and Equipments, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074, Hubei (China)], E-mail: zlguan@hust.edu.cn

    2009-03-15

    Based on a fictitious market model, a decentralized approach is presented for the workstation scheduling in a CNC workshop. A multi-agent framework is proposed, where job agents and resource agents act as buyers and sellers of resource in the virtual market. With cost and benefit calculation of these agent activities, which reflects the state of the production environment, various, and often conflicting goals and interests influencing the scheduling process in practice can be balanced through a unified instrument offered by the markets. The paper first introduces a heuristic procedure that makes scheduling reservations in a periodic manner. A multi-agent framework is then introduced, in which job agents and resource agents seek appropriate job-workstation matches through bidding in the construction of the above periodic 'micro-schedules'. A pricing policy is proposed for the price-directed coordination of agent activities in this. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach and give some insights on the effects of some decision making parameters. Future work will be focused on the designing of some more sophisticated coordination mechanism and its deployment.

  18. To decentralize or to continue on the centralization track: The cases of authoritarian regimes in Russia and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Busygina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Decisions on decentralization versus centralization come as a result of strategic choices made by politicians after weighing their costs and benefits. In authoritarian regimes, the highest-priority political task is that of restraining political competition and securing power in the hands of the incumbent. This task incentivizes politicians to restrict political decentralization (or at least block reforms promoting such decentralization. At the same time, external economic pressures (e.g. globalization place the task of national competitiveness in the global markets on the agenda, and increase incentives for fiscal and administrative decentralization. Thus, political and economic pressures create contradicting incentives, and in weighing costs and benefits, politicians in different authoritarian regimes make different choices that lead to variation in the form, degree and success of decentralization/centralization policies. In this article we compare authoritarian decentralization in Russia and Kazakhstan.

  19. Patient Experiences of Decentralized HIV Treatment and Care in Plateau State, North Central Nigeria: A Qualitative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace O. Kolawole

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Decentralization of care and treatment for HIV infection in Africa makes services available in local health facilities. Decentralization has been associated with improved retention and comparable or superior treatment outcomes, but patient experiences are not well understood. Methods. We conducted a qualitative study of patient experiences in decentralized HIV care in Plateau State, north central Nigeria. Five decentralized care sites in the Plateau State Decentralization Initiative were purposefully selected. Ninety-three patients and 16 providers at these sites participated in individual interviews and focus groups. Data collection activities were audio-recorded and transcribed. Transcripts were inductively content analyzed to derive descriptive categories representing patient experiences of decentralized care. Results. Patient participants in this study experienced the transition to decentralized care as a series of “trade-offs.” Advantages cited included saving time and money on travel to clinic visits, avoiding dangers on the road, and the “family-like atmosphere” found in some decentralized clinics. Disadvantages were loss of access to ancillary services, reduced opportunities for interaction with providers, and increased risk of disclosure. Participants preferred decentralized services overall. Conclusion. Difficulty and cost of travel remain a fundamental barrier to accessing HIV care outside urban centers, suggesting increased availability of community-based services will be enthusiastically received.

  20. Decentralized session initiation protocol solution in ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Jin, Zhigang; Shu, Yantai; Dong, Linfang

    2006-10-01

    With the fast development of ad hoc networks, SIP has attracted more and more attention in multimedia service. This paper proposes a new architecture to provide SIP service for ad hoc users, although there is no centralized SIP server deployed. In this solution, we provide the SIP service by the introduction of two nodes: Designated SIP Server (DS) and its Backup Server (BDS). The nodes of ad hoc network designate DS and BDS when they join the session nodes set and when some pre-defined events occur. A new sip message type called REGISTRAR is presented so nodes can send others REGISTRAR message to declare they want to be DS. According to the IP information taken in the message, an algorithm works like the election of DR and BDR in OSPF protocol is used to vote DS and BDS SIP servers. Naturally, the DS will be replaced by BDS when the DS is down for predicable or unpredictable reasons. To facilitate this, the DS should register to the BDS and transfer a backup of the SIP users' database. Considering the possibility DS or BDS may abruptly go down, a special policy is given. When there is no DS and BDS, a new election procedure is triggered just like the startup phase. The paper also describes how SIP works normally in the decentralized model as well as the evaluation of its performance. All sessions based on SIP in ad hoc such as DS voting have been tested in the real experiments within a 500m*500m square area where about 30 random nodes are placed.

  1. Competition in decentralized electricity markets: Three papers on electricity auctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbord, David William Cameron

    This thesis consists of three self-contained papers on the analysis of electricity auctions written over a period of twelve years. The first paper models price competition in a decentralized wholesale market for electricity as a first-price, sealed-bid, multi-unit auction. In both the pure and mixed-strategy equilibria of the model, above marginal cost pricing and inefficient despatch of generating units occur. An alternative regulatory pricing rule is considered and it is shown that offering to supply at marginal cost can be induced as a dominant strategy for all firms. The second paper analyses strategic interaction between long-term contracts and price competition in the British electricity wholesale market, and confirms that forward contracts will tend to put downward pressure on spot market prices. A 'strategic commitment' motive for selling forward contracts is also identified: a generator may commit itself to bidding lower prices into the spot market in order to ensure that it will be despatched with its full capacity. The third paper characterizes bidding behavior and market outcomes in uniform and discriminatory electricity auctions. Uniform auctions result in higher average prices than discriminatory auctions, but the ranking in terms of productive efficiency is ambiguous. The comparative effects of other market design features, such as the number of steps in suppliers' bid functions, the duration of bids and the elasticity of demand are analyzed. The paper also clarifies some methodological issues in the analysis of electricity auctions. In particular we show that analogies with continuous share auctions are misplaced so long as firms are restricted to a finite number of bids.

  2. [Decentralization of health care and medical teaching: the Chilean experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Alejandro; Armas, Rodolfo

    2003-07-01

    In Chile there has been a close interaction between medical teaching and health care. In 1943, the University of Chile School of Medicine (founded in 1833) created Chairs in several public hospitals. The University of Chile School of Public Health (founded in 1943) played a key role in the creation in 1952 of a centralized National Health Service (NHS). The NHS had outpatient clinics and hospitals all over the country and was responsible for health care and for the promotion of health and disease prevention programs. In 1954, the NHS and the School of Medicine set up Residencies and General Practitioners programs aimed at improving the distribution of specialists and general practitioners throughout the country. In 1979, the NHS was replaced with 27 autonomous Health Services headed by the Ministry of Health, while the administration of primary care outpatient clinics was transferred to the municipal government. However, sanitary programs were still managed at the central level. Higher education also expanded and was decentralized. There are currently 60 universities and 17 medical schools, compared to eight and six, respectively, in 1981. The number of students in higher education has increased by 370% in 20 years. At the present time, the Chilean health case system is a predominantly public system with a strong and sizeable private system. Sixty two percent of the population is covered by public health insurance, while 27% is covered by private insurance. New and well equipped private clinics have multiplied. Private non profit institutions manage the prevention and treatment of work related injuries and diseases. Chile's outstanding health indicators (fertility rate: 17.2 x 1,000; mortality: 5.4 x 1,000; maternal mortality: 2.3 x 10,000; neonatal mortality: 4.5 x 1,000; life expectancy: 76 years) are a direct consequence of the improved social, cultural and economic condition of the general populations as well as of the sanitary programs sustained over the past

  3. TARGETED STELLATE DECENTRALIZATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR SYMPATHETIC CONTROL OF VENTRICULAR ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Una; Yamakawa, Kentaro; Takamiya, Tatsuo; Armour, J. Andrew; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Ardell, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Selective, bilateral cervicothoracic sympathectomy has proven to be effective for managing ventricular arrhythmias in the setting of structural heart disease. The procedure currently employed removes the caudal portions of both stellate ganglia, along with thoracic chain ganglia down to T4 ganglia. Objective To define the relative contributions of T1-T2 and the T3-T4 paravertebral ganglia in modulating ventricular electrical function. Methods In anesthetized vagotomised porcine subjects (n=8), the heart was exposed via sternotomy along with right and left paravertebral sympathetic ganglia to the T4 level. A 56-electrode epicardial sock was placed over both ventricles to assess epicardial activation recovery intervals (ARI) in response to individually stimulating right and left stellate vs T3 paravertebral ganglia. Responses to T3 stimuli were repeated following surgical removal of the caudal portions of stellate ganglia and T2 bilaterally. Results In intact preparations, stellate ganglion vs T3 stimuli (4Hz, 4ms duration) were titrated to produce equivalent decreases in global ventricular ARIs (right-side 85±6 vs 55±10 ms; left-side 24±3 vs 17±7 ms). Threshold of stimulus intensity applied to T3 ganglia to achieve threshold was 3 times that of T1 threshold. ARIs in unstimulated states were unaffected by bilateral stellate-T2 ganglion removal. Following acute decentralization, T3 stimulation failed to change ARIs. Conclusion Preganglionic sympathetic efferents arising from the T1-T4 spinal cord that project to the heart transit through stellate ganglia via the paravertebral chain. T1-T2 surgical excision is thus sufficient to functionally interrupt central control of peripheral sympathetic efferent activity. PMID:26282244

  4. Community Development in the context of the power decentralization in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Berezinskiy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to define opportunities of development of the community in the implementation of the power decentralization reform in Ukraine. It has been shown that the principle of decentralization provides for territorial and political unity of the state by a legal delimitation of powers between central government agencies and regional public authorities (or local authorities. It makes it clear that the issue of power decentralization in Ukraine has a constitutional and legal framework, as the Main Law states that the power system is based on a combination of centralization and decentralization. The requirement of power decentralization has been constitutionally justified. It has been revealed that according to the State Regional Development Strategy, the following priorities of the state regional policy are: increase of the competitiveness of regions; territorial socio-economic integration and spatial development; effective governance in regional development. It has been disclosed that in Ukraine the deepening of the decentralization is aimed at the strengthening of the role of local self-government, empowerment of the representative authorities of local communities to get more authority for managing local affairs, deprivation of local power authorities for the preparation and fulfilment of budgets in regions, the transfer of significant powers and financial resources from government to local self-governmental authorities. It has been proved that decentralization contributes to the democratization of the local government and the development of local community as the ultimate goals of the reform of the power decentralization are the creation and maintenance of good living environment for citizens. This reform should correspond to interests of citizens in all spheres of life, and it must support on the relevant territory. In this regard, series of legislative acts were adopted («On a voluntary association of local communities»,

  5. Influence of the Budgetary Decentralization on the Economic Growth of Regions of Ukraine: Statistical Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voznyak Halyna V.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to define, determine and analyze the interrelationships between the budgetary decentralization and the economic growth of regions of Ukraine under conditions of reforming the power and financial resources. A statistical estimation of the influence of the budgetary decentralization on the economic growth of regions of Ukraine for 2015-2016 is carried out. The application of the panel data modeling allowed to build econometric models that made it possible to determine the ambiguous nature of the budgetary decentralization and identify key factors of its influence. It is shown that in terms of the income and expenditures the budgetary decentralization is positively associated with the economic growth of regions of Ukraine during the chosen time range of the study. The dynamic growth of the own revenues of local budgets is not a catalyst for the economic development of the regions. A strong negative effect of transfers on the dependent variable is confirmed. Among the variables included in the model and additionally characterizing the budgetary decentralization, the single tax and subsidies for the socio-economic development of individual territories attract attention. As a result of the study, the author justifies the need to minimize the transfer dependence of the regions at a simultaneous increasing of their own revenue base with local taxes and fees serving as a reliable basis for a long-term planning and development.

  6. Fully decentralized control of a soft-bodied robot inspired by true slime mold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Takeda, Koichi; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio

    2010-03-01

    Animals exhibit astoundingly adaptive and supple locomotion under real world constraints. In order to endow robots with similar capabilities, we must implement many degrees of freedom, equivalent to animals, into the robots' bodies. For taming many degrees of freedom, the concept of autonomous decentralized control plays a pivotal role. However a systematic way of designing such autonomous decentralized control system is still missing. Aiming at understanding the principles that underlie animals' locomotion, we have focused on a true slime mold, a primitive living organism, and extracted a design scheme for autonomous decentralized control system. In order to validate this design scheme, this article presents a soft-bodied amoeboid robot inspired by the true slime mold. Significant features of this robot are twofold: (1) the robot has a truly soft and deformable body stemming from real-time tunable springs and protoplasm, the former is used for an outer skin of the body and the latter is to satisfy the law of conservation of mass; and (2) fully decentralized control using coupled oscillators with completely local sensory feedback mechanism is realized by exploiting the long-distance physical interaction between the body parts stemming from the law of conservation of protoplasmic mass. Simulation results show that this robot exhibits highly supple and adaptive locomotion without relying on any hierarchical structure. The results obtained are expected to shed new light on design methodology for autonomous decentralized control system.

  7. On decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianbo; Liu, Chao; Su, Housheng; Zhang, Qin

    2017-11-01

    In this study, a novel decentralized adaptive full-order sliding mode control framework is proposed for the robust synchronized formation motion of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) subject to system uncertainty. First, a full-order sliding mode surface in a decentralized manner is designed to incorporate both the individual position tracking error and the synchronized formation error while the UAV group is engaged in building a certain desired geometric pattern in three dimensional space. Second, a decentralized virtual plant controller is constructed which allows the embedded low-pass filter to attain the chattering free property of the sliding mode controller. In addition, robust adaptive technique is integrated in the decentralized chattering free sliding control design in order to handle unknown bounded uncertainties, without requirements for assuming a priori knowledge of bounds on the system uncertainties as stated in conventional chattering free control methods. Subsequently, system robustness as well as stability of the decentralized full-order sliding mode control of multiple UAVs is synthesized. Numerical simulation results illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed control framework to achieve robust 3D formation flight of the multi-UAV system. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Reliable Decentralized Control of Fuzzy Discrete-Event Systems and a Test Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fuchun; Dziong, Zbigniew

    2013-02-01

    A framework for decentralized control of fuzzy discrete-event systems (FDESs) has been recently presented to guarantee the achievement of a given specification under the joint control of all local fuzzy supervisors. As a continuation, this paper addresses the reliable decentralized control of FDESs in face of possible failures of some local fuzzy supervisors. Roughly speaking, for an FDES equipped with n local fuzzy supervisors, a decentralized supervisor is called k-reliable (1 ≤ k ≤ n) provided that the control performance will not be degraded even when n - k local fuzzy supervisors fail. A necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs is proposed by introducing the notions of M̃uc-controllability and k-reliable coobservability of fuzzy language. In particular, a polynomial-time algorithm to test the k-reliable coobservability is developed by a constructive methodology, which indicates that the existence of k-reliable decentralized supervisors of FDESs can be checked with a polynomial complexity.

  9. Financial management systems under decentralization and their effect on malaria control in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivumbi, George W; Nangendo, Florence; Ndyabahika, Boniface Rutagira

    2004-01-01

    A descriptive case study with multiple sites and a single level of analysis was carried out in four purposefully selected administrative districts of Uganda to investigate the effect of financial management systems under decentralization on malaria control. Data were primarily collected from 36 interviews with district managers, staff at health units and local leaders. A review of records and documents related to decentralization at the central and district level was also used to generate data for the study. We found that a long, tedious, and bureaucratic process combined with lack of knowledge in working with new financial systems by several actors characterized financial flow under decentralization. This affected the timely use of financial resources for malaria control in that there were funds in the system that could not be accessed for use. We were also told that sometimes these funds were returned to the central government because of non-use due to difficulties in accessing them and/or stringent conditions not to divert them to other uses. Our data showed that a cocktail of bureaucratic control systems, corruption and incompetence make the financial management system under decentralization counter-productive for malaria control. The main conclusion is that good governance through appropriate and efficient financial management systems is very important for effective malaria control under decentralization.

  10. An empirical analysis of the green paradox in China: From the perspective of fiscal decentralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Liang, Qiao-Mei

    2017-01-01

    While it is generally recognized that the introduction of environmental policy can effectively control carbon emissions, the green paradox hypothesis puts forth a new warning about the validity of this policy's implementation. This study uses panel data on 29 Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2012 to investigate the impact of fiscal decentralization on the functional mechanisms of environmental policy while controlling for the spatial correlations of carbon emission. The empirical results indicate that environmental policy alone can achieve the objective of reducing carbon emissions. However, the Chinese style fiscal decentralization makes the environmental policy significantly promote carbon emissions, leading to a green paradox. Moreover, we find that the impact of fiscal decentralization on environmental policy varies greatly among different geographical regions and the direct-controlled municipalities. In addition, our study confirms the spatial correlations in China's carbon emissions by using a spatial integration term. Finally, we recommend that emission reduction efforts should be incorporated into the local government's performance evaluation system to improve the institutional environment. Further, differentiated environmental policies and measures should be considered for different provinces to maximize the emission reduction potential. - Highlights: • We consider the spatial correlations of carbon emissions in neighboring provinces. • The impacts of environmental regulation on carbon emissions are examined. • Fiscal decentralization is not beneficial to environmental policy implementation. • The effects of fiscal decentralization vary greatly among different regions.

  11. Centralized vs. Decentralized Nursing Stations: An Evaluation of the Implications of Communication Technologies in Healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayramzadeh, Sara; Alkazemi, Mariam F

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between the nursing station design and use of communication technologies by comparing centralized and decentralized nursing stations. The rapid changes in communication technologies in healthcare are inevitable. Communication methods can change the way occupants use a space. In the meantime, decentralized nursing stations are emerging as a replacement for the traditional centralized nursing stations; however, not much research has been done on how the design of nursing stations can impact the use of communication technologies. A cross sectional study was conducted using an Internet-based survey among registered nurses in a Southeastern hospital in the United States. Two units with centralized nursing stations and two units with decentralized nursing stations were compared in terms of the application of communication technologies. A total of 70 registered nurses completed the survey in a 2-week period. The results revealed no significant differences between centralized and decentralized nursing stations in terms of frequency of communication technologies used. However, a difference was found between perception of nurses toward communication technologies and perceptions of the use of communication technologies in decentralized nursing stations. Although the study was limited to one hospital, the results indicate that nurses hold positive attitudes toward communication technologies. The results also reveal the strengths and weaknesses of each nursing station design with regard to communication technologies. Hospital, interdisciplinary, nursing, technology, work environment.

  12. Optimal placement and decentralized robust vibration control for spacecraft smart solar panel structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jian-ping; Li, Dong-xu

    2010-01-01

    The decentralized robust vibration control with collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain sensor pairs is considered in this paper for spacecraft solar panel structures. Each actuator is driven individually by the output of the corresponding sensor so that only local feedback control is implemented, with each actuator, sensor and controller operating independently. Firstly, an optimal placement method for the location of the collocated piezoelectric actuator and strain gauge sensor pairs is developed based on the degree of observability and controllability indices for solar panel structures. Secondly, a decentralized robust H ∞ controller is designed to suppress the vibration induced by external disturbance. Finally, a numerical comparison between centralized and decentralized control systems is performed in order to investigate their effectiveness to suppress vibration of the smart solar panel. The simulation results show that the vibration can be significantly suppressed with permitted actuator voltages by the controllers. The decentralized control system almost has the same disturbance attenuation level as the centralized control system with a bit higher control voltages. More importantly, the decentralized controller composed of four three-order systems is a better practical implementation than a high-order centralized controller is

  13. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  14. Zone separator for multiple zone vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John B.

    1983-02-01

    A solids-gas contact vessel, having two vertically disposed distinct reaction zones, includes a dynamic seal passing solids from an upper to a lower zone and maintaining a gas seal against the transfer of the separate treating gases from one zone to the other, and including a stream of sealing fluid at the seal.

  15. Fiscal Decentralization and Disparity of Access to Primary Education in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinta Doriza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In education, one crusial issue of development is the disparity of primary education access. Using 440 regions database from 2005-2009, this study is aim to analize the impact of fiscal decentralization in reducing the enrolement of primary education in Indonesia. Three factors were included, i.e fiscal decentralization, socioeconomic factors and regional characteristics. The result of panel data estimation using fixed-effect approach on this study is that DAK for Education, DAK Non Education, and PAD have significant impact in reducing education acess disparity along with poverty and regional characteristic such as Java-non Java regions. For education level, another variable was also found significant including education of the society and regional characteristic such as proliferated-non proliferated regions. In general there is a facts and proves that fiscal decentralization improve education access equality, but several effort need to done to optimalize the equalization of primary education access in Indonesia.

  16. Decentralized supply of electricity is a favorable development. Analysis of system options and effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, A.; Ros, J.; De Boer-Meulman, P.; In 't Groen, B.

    2010-01-01

    Decentralised electricity systems can provide a significant contribution to the development of environment-friendly techniques such as solar power and electric vehicles. However, there are also some obstacles and uncertainties. Not only does the balancing of supply and demand constitute an important challenge; the development of smart grids is also crucial to the improvement of reliability and system efficiency of the decentralized grids. Especially the distribution of investment costs is a decisive factor for the success rate of decentralized electricity systems. What is more, it is still uncertain whether an extensive decentralized system would have a higher score in cleanliness, affordability and reliability than a future central system. The system variants can be distinguished based on the deployment of six possible energy technologies for the future: PV (solar power), micro-CHP, small-scale wind energy in the built environment (urban wind), heat pumps, electric vehicles and air-conditioning. [nl

  17. The Role of Delay and Connectivity in Throughput Reduction of Cooperative Decentralized Wireless Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Alkhayyat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We proposed a multiple relay selection protocol for decentralized wireless networks. The proposed relays selection protocol aims to address three issues: (1 selecting relays within the coverage area of the source and destination to ensure that the relays are positioned one hop away from the destination, (2 ensuring that the best node (best relays with less distance and attenuation from the destination access the channel first, and (3 ensuring that the proposed relays selection is collision-free. Our analysis also considers three important characteristics of decentralized wireless networks that are directly affected by cooperation: delay, connectivity, and throughput. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that improving connectivity and increasing number of relays reduce the throughput of cooperative decentralized wireless networks; consequently, a trade-off equation has been derived.

  18. A three-level atomicity model for decentralized workflow management systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Shaul, Israel Z.; Heineman, George T.

    1996-12-01

    A workflow management system (WFMS) employs a workflow manager (WM) to execute and automate the various activities within a workflow. To protect the consistency of data, the WM encapsulates each activity with a transaction; a transaction manager (TM) then guarantees the atomicity of activities. Since workflows often group several activities together, the TM is responsible for guaranteeing the atomicity of these units. There are scalability issues, however, with centralized WFMSs. Decentralized WFMSs provide an architecture for multiple autonomous WFMSs to interoperate, thus accommodating multiple workflows and geographically-dispersed teams. When atomic units are composed of activities spread across multiple WFMSs, however, there is a conflict between global atomicity and local autonomy of each WFMS. This paper describes a decentralized atomicity model that enables workflow administrators to specify the scope of multi-site atomicity based upon the desired semantics of multi-site tasks in the decentralized WFMS. We describe an architecture that realizes our model and execution paradigm.

  19. Decentralized H∞ Control of Interconnected Systems with Time-varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Zouhri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the problem of delay dependent stability/stabilization of interconnected systems with time-varying delays. The approach is based on a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. A decentralized delay-dependent stability analysis is performed to characterize linear matrix inequalities (LMIs based on the conditions under which every local subsystem of the linear interconnected delay system is asymptotically stable. Then we design a decentralized state-feedback stabilization scheme such that the family of closedloop feedback subsystems enjoys the delay-dependent asymptotic stability for each subsystem. The decentralized feedback gains are determined by convex optimization over LMIs. All the developed results are tested on a representative example and compared with some recent previous ones.

  20. Constitutional framework of the process of decentralization and public administration reform in Serbia and Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiplić Svetozar M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the comparative analyze of the processes of the decentralization reorganization and reform of the public administration at the level of the horizontal governance organization in Serbia and Croatia. At the first part of the work the authors analyze the decentralization and devolution as well as their demarcation in the sense of their related but not similar meanings. The second part is devoted to the historical experiences and genesis foundations of the common state where Serbia and Croatia were joined. The particular historical developments of Serbia and Croatia influenced the present attitude of their political elites toward decentralization. The third, final part/conclusion, is dedicated to a comparative analyses of the constitutional solutions in Serbia and Croatia which are related to the vertical organization. .

  1. Decentralization and public expenditure: Does special local autonomy affect regional economic growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martapina Anggai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between public expenditure within regional autonomy policy and economic growth in West Papua and Papua provinces. We distinguish two kinds of expenditure’s decentralization – operational and capital – and also private expenditures. We use an unbalanced panel data over the period of 2007-2010 to investigate those expenditures, whether they enhance regional economic growth or not. We find that the government’s operating and private expenditures have a positive effect on local economic growth, but there is no relationship between capital expenditure’s decentralization on economic growth. The findings did not conform to a-priori efficiency expectations, which suggest needing to reform regional autonomy and fiscal decentralization policy in both provinces.

  2. Decentralized Control of Unmanned Aerial Robots for Wireless Airborne Communication Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deok-Jin Lee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a cooperative control strategy for a team of aerial robotic vehicles to establish wireless airborne communication networks between distributed heterogeneous vehicles. Each aerial robot serves as a flying mobile sensor performing a reconfigurable communication relay node which enabls communication networks with static or slow-moving nodes on gorund or ocean. For distributed optimal deployment of the aerial vehicles for communication networks, an adaptive hill-climbing type decentralized control algorithm is developed to seek out local extremum for optimal localization of the vehicles. The sensor networks estabilished by the decentralized cooperative control approach can adopt its configuraiton in response to signal strength as the function of the relative distance between the autonomous aerial robots and distributed sensor nodes in the sensed environment. Simulation studies are conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed decentralized cooperative control technique for robust communication networks.

  3. COOPERATION AND TRUST IN THE CONTEXT OF DECENTRALIZATION REFORMS IN RURAL TANZANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharia S. Masanyiwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of decentralization reforms on cooperation andtrust at the village level in Tanzania, using a gender perspective. The paper drawson survey and qualitative data from ten villages intwo rural districts. The findingsshow that the reforms have revitalized 'formal’ cooperative efforts and socialnetworks and groups aimed at improving public services and poverty reduction.Citizen’s participation in decision-making processes and users’ satisfaction withpublic services are significantly related to socialand political trust, in whichgender plays a role as well. There is a two-way interface between trust and decent-ralization reforms. ‘Good’ decentralization outcomes generate trust while ‘bad’outcomes decrease trust.

  4. A Decentralized Eigenvalue Computation Method for Spectrum Sensing Based on Average Consensus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Jafar; Limmer, Steffen; Stańczak, Sławomir

    2016-07-01

    This paper considers eigenvalue estimation for the decentralized inference problem for spectrum sensing. We propose a decentralized eigenvalue computation algorithm based on the power method, which is referred to as generalized power method GPM; it is capable of estimating the eigenvalues of a given covariance matrix under certain conditions. Furthermore, we have developed a decentralized implementation of GPM by splitting the iterative operations into local and global computation tasks. The global tasks require data exchange to be performed among the nodes. For this task, we apply an average consensus algorithm to efficiently perform the global computations. As a special case, we consider a structured graph that is a tree with clusters of nodes at its leaves. For an accelerated distributed implementation, we propose to use computation over multiple access channel (CoMAC) as a building block of the algorithm. Numerical simulations are provided to illustrate the performance of the two algorithms.

  5. [Health care reform, decentralization, prevention and control of vector-borne diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmunis, G A; Dias, J C

    2000-01-01

    Economic policies are changing Latin American health programs, particularly promoting decentralization. Numerous difficulties thus arise for the control of endemic diseases, since such activities traditionally depend on vertical, and centralized structures. Theoretical arguments in favor of decentralization notwithstanding, no such tradition exists at the county level. The lack of program expertise at peripheral levels, intensive staff turnover, and even corruption are additional difficulties. Hence, the simple bureaucratic transfer of activities from the Federal to county level is often irresponsible. The loss of priority for control of endemic diseases in Latin America may mean the inexorable extinction of traditional control services. Malaria, dengue fever, and Chagas disease programs are examples of the loss of expertise and effectiveness in Latin America. A better strategy for responsible decentralization is required. In particular, a shared transition involving all governmental levels is desirable to effectively modernize programs. Maintenance of regional reference centers to ensure supervision, surveillance, and training is suggested.

  6. Shorter Decentralized Attribute-Based Encryption via Extended Dual System Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Decentralized attribute-based encryption (ABE is a special form of multiauthority ABE systems, in which no central authority and global coordination are required other than creating the common reference parameters. In this paper, we propose a new decentralized ABE in prime-order groups by using extended dual system groups. We formulate some assumptions used to prove the security of our scheme. Our proposed scheme is fully secure under the standard k-Lin assumption in random oracle model and can support any monotone access structures. Compared with existing fully secure decentralized ABE systems, our construction has shorter ciphertexts and secret keys. Moreover, fast decryption is achieved in our system, in which ciphertexts can be decrypted with a constant number of pairings.

  7. Agent-based Decentralization of Applications in Distributed Smart Grid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kienesberger, Georg; Xypolytou, Evangelia; Marchgraber, Jurgen

    2015-01-01

    systems (DMACS) and aims to give an overview on the different requirements and challenges on the way from current centralized control systems to DMACS. Therefore, different ICT scenarios and MAS topologies are employed to discuss the decentralization of three exemplary smart grid applications: voltage......Smart grid technology promises to prepare today’s power systems for the challenges of the future by extensive integration of information and communication technology (ICT). One key aspect is the control paradigm which will have to be shifted from completely centralized control systems to more...... dezentralized concepts in order to adapt to the distributed nature of smart grids. Multi-agent systems (MAS) are a very promising approach for designing distributed, decentralized systems, naturally also in the field of smart grids. This work introduces the notion of decentralized multi-agent-based control...

  8. Reply to Comment on ‘Energy and air emission implications of a decentralized wastewater system’

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shehabi, Arman; Stokes, Jennifer R; Horvath, Arpad

    2013-01-01

    Complementing centralized water-related infrastructure with decentralized facilities is being considered in some communities and a life-cycle perspective is needed for informed decision making. Our 2012 study presents a framework for analyzing the environmental effects of decentralized wastewater systems. While the analysis framework could be applied to cases with a variety of sizes, we evaluated two currently operating systems in California, one decentralized and one centralized plant with a much larger capacity. The disparate scales of the two plants represent an ‘off-the-grid’ suburban neighborhood-scale system compared with a similarly sized neighborhood connecting to an adjacent large centralized plant. Deciding whether or not to connect expanding developments to nearby centralized plants is a realistic scenario for future growth, making the treatment plants evaluated in our study a realistic choice for comparison. (reply)

  9. Decentralization and centralization in a federal system: the case of democratic Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Hermínia Tavares de Almeida

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the contradictory impulses towards decentralization and centralization in Brazil during the 1990s and early 2000s. After discussing the analytical issues related to the specific nature of decentralization in federal systems, the paper examines two sets of policy issues: those regulating the fiscal relations between national and sub-national governments and those redefining responsibilities for social services provision (basic education, health care, social assistance. Against conventional academic wisdom, it sustains that although there has been some re-centralization of fiscal decisions and of targeted income transfer programs, a clear re-centralization tendency cannot be siad to exist. Decentralization and centralization trends coexist propelled by different forces, with different motives and different outcomes.

  10. The contribution of fiscal/financial decentralization to the debt expansion of the local financing platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huayang, Yin; Di, Zhou; Bing, Cui

    2018-02-01

    Using soft budget theory to explore the formation mechanism and the deep institutional incentive of the local financing platform debt expansion from the perspective of fiscal / financial decentralization, construct theoretical framework which explain the expansion of local debt financing platform and conduct an empirical test, the results showed that the higher the degree of fiscal decentralization, fiscal autonomy as a soft constraint body of local government the stronger, local financing platform debt scale is greater; the higher the degree of financial decentralization, local government and financial institutions have the higher autonomy with respect to the central, local financing platform debt scale is bigger; financial synergy degree is stronger, local government financial mutual supervision prompted the local government debt more transparency, local debt financing platform size is smaller.

  11. Sustainable electric energy supply by decentralized alternative energy technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahedi, A., E-mail: Ahmad.Zahedi@jcu.edu.au [James Cook University, Queensland (Australia). School of Engineering and Physical Sciences

    2010-07-01

    The most available and affordable sources of energy in today's economic structure are fossil fuels, namely, oil, gas, and coal. Fossil fuels are non-renewable, have limited reserves, and have serious environmental problems associated with their use. Coal and nuclear energy are used in central and bulky power stations to produce electricity, and then this electricity is delivered to customers via expensive transmission lines and distribution systems. Delivering electric power via transmission and distribution lines to the electricity users is associated with high electric power losses. These power losses are costly burdens on power suppliers and users. One of the advantages of decentralized generation (DG) is that DG is capable of minimizing power losses because electric power is generated at the demand site. The world is facing two major energy-related issues, short term and long term. These issues are (i) not having enough and secure supplies of energy at affordable prices and (ii) environmental damages caused by consuming too much energy in an unsustainable way. A significant amount of the current world energy comes from limited resources, which when used, cannot be replaced. Hence the energy production and consumption do not seem to be sustainable, and also carries the threat of severe and irreversible damages to the environment including climate change.The price of energy is increasing and there are no evidences suggesting that this trend will reverse. To compensate for this price increase we need to develop and use high energy efficient technologies and focusing on energy technologies using renewable sources with less energy conversion chains, such as solar and wind. The world has the potential to expand its capacity of clean, renewable, and sustainable energy to offset a significant amount of greenhouse gas emissions from conventional power use. The increasing utilization of alternative sources such as hydro, biomass, geothermal, ocean energy, solar and

  12. Remote handling of decentralized power generation plants; Fernwirken von dezentralen Energieerzeugungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, Michael [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany). Geschaeftsbereich Entwicklung-Prozessautomatisierung; Thomas, Ralf [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany). Bereich Business Development und Marketing

    2011-05-15

    The incresing number of decentral power generation systems requires new grid solutions, i.e. the so-called smart grids. One important function is the monitoring and control, e.g. of decentral PV, wind power and cogeneration systems. The data interfaces used are highly diverse and as a rule are taken from measuring and automation technology, i.e. they must be adapted to the data models and transmission procedures of remote control and guidance systems. A compact protocol gateway enables standardized control and diagnosis.

  13. Decentralized control of the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, Douglas K.; Celano, Tom; Ide, Eric

    1989-01-01

    Consideration is given to a decentralized control design for vibration suppression in the COFS-I Mast using linear dc motors for actuators. The decentralized control design is based results from power systems using root locus techniques that are not well known. The approach is effective because the loop gain is low due to low actuator authority. The frequency-dependent nonlinearities of the actuator are taken into account. Because of the tendency of the transients to saturate the the stroke length of the actuator, its effectiveness is limited.

  14. Sourcing and pricing strategies for two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under supply disruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Azarmehr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the decentralized supply chain with two suppliers and two competing retailers. It also investigates the sourcing and pricing strategies of two retailers in a decentralized supply chain system under a supply disruption environment. These retailers face their individual stochastic demand markets; however, they compete with each other through a two-stage price and service operation. The interactive dynamics among retailers is characterized, including the existence and uniqueness of the Nash Equilibrium in service and price games demonstrated.

  15. Decentralized cooperative spectrum sensing for ad-hoc disaster relief network clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Marchetti, Nicola; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2010-01-01

    cooperative schemes becomes essential. A cluster based decentralized orchestration cooperative sensing scheme is proposed, where each node in the cluster decides which spectrum it should monitor, according to the past sensing decisions of all the cluster nodes. The proposed scheme performance is evaluated...... through a framework, which allows gauging the accuracy of multi narrow-band spectrum sensing cooperative schemes as well as to gauge the error in the estimation of each of the channels un-occupancy. Through that evaluation it is shown that the proposed decentralized scheme performance reaches...... the performance of the correspondent centralized scheme while outperforming the Round Robin scheme....

  16. Decentralizing the Team Station: Simulation before Reality as a Best-Practice Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charko, Jackie; Geertsen, Alice; O'Brien, Patrick; Rouse, Wendy; Shahid, Ammarah; Hardenne, Denise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share the logistical planning requirements and simulation experience of one Canadian hospital as it prepared its staff for the change from a centralized inpatient unit model to the decentralized design planned for its new community hospital. With the commitment and support of senior leadership, project management resources and clinical leads worked collaboratively to design a decentralized prototype in the form of a pod-style environment in the hospital's current setting. Critical success factors included engaging the right stakeholders, providing an opportunity to test new workflows and technology, creating a strong communication plan and building on lessons learned as subsequent pod prototypes are launched.

  17. Near Optimal Decentralized H-infinity Control: Bounded vs. Unbounded Controller Order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown that for a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinite dimensional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results, a heuris......It is shown that for a class of decentralized control problems there does not exist a sequence of controllers of bounded order which obtains near optimal control. Neither does there exist an infinite dimensional optimal controller. Using the insight of the line of proof of these results...

  18. Decentralized energy conversion of biomass from Amstelland. The feasibility of decentralized use of energy from green wastes in the municipality Amstelveen and its environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, H.D.

    1997-10-01

    The aim of the study on the title subject is to determine the enviro-technical and economical feasibility of decentralized biomass conversion as part of the green area and energy infrastructure of the region Amstelland, Netherlands. The parts of the study concern a regional inventory of green wastes in Amstelland, an energy demand analysis of conversion sites in the region, a logistic analysis, an evaluation of technical options (cogeneration, combustion, gasification), business economical analysis of the investments, determining the support and willingness to contribute and cooperate, and drafting a final report. Based on the results of the report decisions can be made whether or not the design and installation of a decentralized biomass conversion system should be elaborated in detail. 16 refs

  19. Hot water supply in ''Smart Home''. Decentralized supply, decentralized control; Warmwasserversorgung im 'Smart Home'. Dezentral versorgen, dezentral steuern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechers, Olaf

    2013-10-01

    The separation of the heating system and domestic hot water is already established in commercial and residential construction. The decentralized hot water supply offers environmental and economic benefits. In this paper it is shown that one can also do this in a detached house. [German] Die Trennung von Heizsystem und Warmwasserbereitung ist im Gewerbe- und Wohnungsbau bereits etabliert. Die dezentrale Warmwasserversorgung bietet oekologische und oekonomische Vorteile. In diesem Beitrag wird gezeigt, dass man dies auch bei einem Einfamilienhaus durchfuehren kann.

  20. Governing decentralization in health care under tough budget constraint: what can we learn from the Italian experience?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tediosi, Fabrizio; Gabriele, Stefania; Longo, Francesco

    2009-05-01

    In many European countries, since the World War II, there has been a trend towards decentralization of health policy to lower levels of governments, while more recently there have been re-centralization processes. Whether re-centralization will be the new paradigm of European health policy or not is difficult to say. In the Italian National Health Service (SSN) decentralization raised two related questions that might be interesting for the international debate on decentralization in health care: (a) what sort of regulatory framework and institutional balances are required to govern decentralization in health care in a heterogeneous country under tough budget constraints? (b) how can it be ensured that the most advanced parts of the country remain committed to solidarity, supporting the weakest ones? To address these questions this article describes the recent trends in SSN funding and expenditure, it reviews the strategy adopted by the Italian government for governing the decentralization process and discusses the findings to draw policy conclusions. The main lessons emerging from this experience are that: (1) when the differences in administrative and policy skills, in socio-economic standards and social capital are wide, decentralization may lead to undesirable divergent evolution paths; (2) even in decentralized systems, the role of the Central government can be very important to contain health expenditure; (3) a strong governance of the Central government may help and not hinder the enforcement of decentralization; and (4) supporting the weakest Regions and maintaining inter-regional solidarity is hard but possible. In Italy, despite an increasing role of the Central government in steering the SSN, the pattern of regional decentralization of health sector decision making does not seem at risk. Nevertheless, the Italian case confirms the complexity of decentralization and re-centralization processes that sometimes can be paradoxically reinforcing each other.

  1. Bidirectional decentralized energy management in the low voltage grid based on centralized and decentralized informations; Bidirektionales dezentrales Energiemanagement im Niederspannungsnetz auf Basis zentraler und dezentraler Informationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bendel, C.; Nestle, D.; Ringelstein, J. [Inst. fuer Solare Energieversorgungstechnik e.V., Verein an der Univ. Kassel (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    Decentralized electrical generation units (DG units) are connected to the network in Europe with an increasing number and generation capacity. This includes renewable energy sources with fluctuating generation characteristics as well as more controllable generation from biomass and co-generation. Severe problems with grid operation are expected among experts when the share of DG without controllability exceeds approx. 20 to 25% of the total generation within the power system, so a new strategy for the integration of DG into grid operation will be required. This strategy will include energy management with controllable generators as well as controllable loads. Today, however, this potential in most cases cannot be activated due to lack of standards and missing economical incentives. In the concept presented in this work the grid connection point is extended by intelligent components to a Bidirectional Energy Management Interface (BEMI). This allows a technically efficienct design of an energy management system and avoids fundamental organizational changes to the current grid regime. The concept of decentralized decision based on information from a central control station covers the requirements of the system operators as well as the local customer. Using the same concept the management of a pool of devices, containing BEMI-equipped households as well as other decentralized resources is possible. This is expected to bring additional benefits for both system operators and local customers. Therefore an approach for upscaling the existing BEMI technology is outlined as an outlook. (orig.)

  2. Radiation protection zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    Radiation being not visible, the zoning of an area containing radioactive sources is important in terms of safety. Concerning radiation protection, 2 work zones are defined by regulations: the monitored zone and the controlled zone. The ministerial order of 15 may 2006 settles the frontier between the 2 zones in terms of radiation dose rates, the rules for access and the safety standards in both zones. Radioprotection rules and the name of the person responsible for radiation protection must be displayed. The frontier between the 2 zones must be materialized and marked with adequate equipment (specific danger signs and tapes). Both zones are submitted to selective entrance, the access for the controlled zone is limited because of the radiation risk and of the necessity of confining radioactive contamination while the limitation of the access to the monitored zone is due to radiation risk only. (A.C.)

  3. [Reduction of decentration after LASIK using a modified eye tracker ring for the MEL-70 excimer laser].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, S; Nietgen, G; Sekundo, W

    2004-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the rate of eccentric laser ablation after LASIK depending on the eye tracker ring used. All LASIK treatments were carried out using the MEL-70 flying spot excimer laser (Zeiss-Meditec, Jena). The flap was produced using a Corneal Shaper trade mark or Hansatome trade mark Microkeratome (B and L Surgical, Heidelberg). Initially we used an 11 mm eye tracker ring without hinge protector. At the end of February 2001 this ring was replaced by a 10 mm and a 9.5 mm ring with built-in hinge protector. An additional modification was introduced by us: at 1 mm separations little teeth-like spikes were engraved into the eyeward side of the ring, thus stabilising the position of the ring on the globe and allowing free liquid to flow through the spaces between each spike. The built-in calibration system of the corneal topography (TMS 3, Tomey, Erlangen) from patients with a follow-up of one month or longer was used to determine the distance between the centre of the ablation zone from the fixation point. In group I patients (old ring) 42 eyes were treated. In 4 eyes ablation was perfect, in 21 eyes the ablation centre was located 0.1 to 0.49 mm from the fixation point, in 11 eyes 0.51 to 0.99 mm and in 5 eyes 1.1 to 1.49 mm whereas one eye showed a decentred ablation of 1.53 mm. In group II (new ring) 42 eyes were investigated also. In 11 eyes ablation was perfect, in 20 eyes the ablation centre was located 0.1 to 0.49 mm from the fixation point, in 10 eyes 0.5 to 0.99 mm and one eye had an eccentric ablation of 1.28 mm from the fixation point. The further development of our eye tracker ring for the MEL-70 laser considerably reduced the rate of decentred ablations. An enhanced grip of the ring onto the globe reduces a slow slide during the laser procedure.

  4. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  5. Decentralized cogeneration - A solution for Romania? RAEF experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binig, Alexandru-Valeriu

    2004-01-01

    deficit should be covered using indigenous power generation sources. One could conclude, correlated with the previous discussion on financing investment, that most of the private capital is expected in the power and heat generation sector. New injection points might necessitate network reinforcement (implying additional costs and delays), may have to pass a complicated and lengthy authorizations process, etc. In conclusion, realisation of 'greenfield' large projects is likely to be cumbersome and delayed due mainly to issues related to connection to the grid. But also fuel supply issues, cooling water access, impact on communities, add to the serious siting problems for new greenfield power generation projects. A psychological impact on private investor's appetite is also given by the continuation of erection of Cernavoda 2, (3?) nuclear units, as these are modern, safe, and optimal at dispatching. In conclusion, in Romania, at present, one cannot identify large private power generation projects in advanced development phase. A solution could be decentralized power generation. Combined with covering a heat demand, it leads to distributed cogeneration. It is an EU and worldwide trend. The above, combined with the overall analysis of the experience in Romania and worldwide allow drawing the following conclusions: - Decentralised generation (cogeneration) is a solution to be considered for Romania and for the region; - The national energy strategy must consider it; - Resources should be allocated to it (not necessarily financial), thus contributing to sustainable development; - It must be promoted by appropriate legislative, regulatory fiscal, etc framework; - Periodic exchange of experience among different actors is decisive for avoiding wasting resources; - this is mainly the purpose of the present article; - Private initiative is the main driver and must be encouraged for promoting efficiency and sustainability; - The solution chosen yields better risk management while

  6. Decision making under the tree: gender perspectives on decentralization reforms in service delivery in rural Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masanyiwa, Z.S.

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, decentralization has been upheld by governments, donors and policy makers in many developing countries as a means of improving people’s participation and public services delivery. In 1996, the government of Tanzania embarked on major local government reforms reflecting the

  7. Synthesis of Decentralized Supervisor for Petri Nets Using Decomposition with Overlapping Places

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Papík, Martin; Moravec, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 124 (2012), s. 6181-6194 ISSN 1312-885X Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Perti nets * loopback control * decentralization Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/papik-0382079.pdf

  8. Political Innovation and Institution-Building: The Experience of Decentralization Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Douglas

    The purpose of this paper is to resolve what determines the success or failure of innovations in participatory government; and, more precisely what are the dynamics of institution-building by which the ideas of participation and decentralization are implemented and enduring neighborhood institutions are established. To answer these questions, a…

  9. The Problems of Theoretical Interpretation of Centralism/Decentralism in Federalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сергей Олегович Алехнович

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of displacement of a vector of theoretical and empirical judgment of new tendencies in federalism functioning. Authors consider possible ways of development of its potential, initiate new approaches to its reflection and the analysis through a prism of centralism and decentralism in federal relations.

  10. Decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management: applicability in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, May A; Tarhini, Akram; Nasr, Joumana A

    2009-01-01

    Providing reliable and affordable wastewater treatment in rural areas is a challenge in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries. The problems and limitations of the centralized approaches for wastewater treatment are progressively surfacing. Centralized wastewater collection and treatment systems are costly to build and operate, especially in areas with low population densities and dispersed households. Developing countries lack both the funding to construct centralized facilities and the technical expertise to manage and operate them. Alternatively, the decentralized approach for wastewater treatment which employs a combination of onsite and/or cluster systems is gaining more attention. Such an approach allows for flexibility in management, and simple as well as complex technologies are available. The decentralized system is not only a long-term solution for small communities but is more reliable and cost effective. This paper presents a review of the various decentralized approaches to wastewater treatment and management. A discussion as to their applicability in developing countries, primarily in rural areas, and challenges faced is emphasized all through the paper. While there are many impediments and challenges towards wastewater management in developing countries, these can be overcome by suitable planning and policy implementation. Understanding the receiving environment is crucial for technology selection and should be accomplished by conducting a comprehensive site evaluation process. Centralized management of the decentralized wastewater treatment systems is essential to ensure they are inspected and maintained regularly. Management strategies should be site specific accounting for social, cultural, environmental and economic conditions in the target area.

  11. Progress and challenges in utilization of palm oil biomass as fuel for decentralized electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazmi, Aqeel Ahmed [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia); Biomass Conversion Research Center (BCRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore (Pakistan); Zahedi, Gholamreza; Hashim, Haslenda [Process Systems Engineering Centre (PROSPECT), Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, Skudai 81310, Johor Bahru, JB (Malaysia)

    2011-01-15

    It has been broadly accepted worldwide that global warming, indeed, is the greatest threat of the time to the environment. Renewable energy (RE) is expected as a perfect solution to reduce global warming and to endorse sustainable development. Progressive release of greenhouse gases (GHG) from increasing energy-intensive industries has eventually caused human civilization to suffer. Realizing the exigency of reducing emissions and simultaneously catering to needs of industries, researchers foresee the RE as the perfect entrant to overcome these challenges. RE provides an effective option for the provision of energy services from the technical point of view while biomass, a major source of energy in the world until before industrialization when fossil fuels become dominant, appears an important renewable source of energy and researches have proven from time to time its viability for large-scale production. Being a widely spread source, biomass offers the execution of decentralized electricity generation gaining importance in liberalized electricity markets. The decentralized power is characterized by generation of electricity nearer to the demand centers, meeting the local energy needs. Researchers envisaged an increasing decentralization of power supply, expected to make a particular contribution to climate protection. This article investigates the progress and challenges for decentralized electricity generation by palm oil biomass according to the overall concept of sustainable development. (author)

  12. Local Government Systems and Decentralization: Evidence from Pakistan’s Devolution Plan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shakil Ahmad

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The discourse of governance and development practitioners continues to embrace community participation and community empowerment as an elementary means of building local capacity for poverty reduction, development and change at the local level. This article is a review of the decentralization initiatives of local government systems after the announcement of the devolution plan in Pakistan. It evaluates the initiatives’ participatory methods to ascertain the extent to which they have improved the process of community development at the local level. This article also measures the impact of community empowerment on the sustainability of community-driven projects implemented under the decentralization initiative through community-based organizations known as Citizen Community Boards (CCBs. Document analysis and literature review methodologies were employed to gain further insight into the decentralization phenomenon in Pakistan. The results describe human development, improvements in community empowerment and the sustainability of local projects; however, the sense of community has yet to be translated into shared benefits for rural communities. The fundamental goal of decentralization seems to be elusive because only power was transferred to the local level, whereas there is little support for community capacity building and community access to resources and the elites still control the electoral process. It is argued that community development initiatives in Pakistan require continuous support from local governments to boost local rural economies. Likewise, community-local government participatory development strategies can lead to strong local ownership and empowerment in rural communities.

  13. The Russian Federation Islamic Republic of Dagestan: Curricular Decentralization, Social Cohesion, and Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Jana Sackman

    2005-01-01

    This article focuses on the curricular decentralization-sociopolitical stability nexus in the predominantly Muslim Russian Federation Republic of Dagestan, adjacent to war-torn Chechnya. Concomitant with the metamorphoses taking place in the economic and political sectors of society is the overhaul of institutionalized education. A major reform…

  14. Conceptual bases of land managment planning for urban land use in conditions of decentralization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Tretyak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The place and role of the plans of the land-economic system as a tool of land managment planning of urban land use development in the conditions of decentralization of power in replacement of general plans as not a market type of documentation is substantiated

  15. Implementation of the Decentralization Reform in Ukraine: Current Issues of Public Administration Modernization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroshenko Igor V.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The need of all parts of the modern Ukrainian society for structural transformations determines the direction of development of the country and its territories. One of such priority vectors is the decentralization reform, efficiency of which is inextricably linked with the changes that occur in all vital for the development of society and every individual public areas: public administration, judicial system, law enforcement bodies, deregulation and development of business, banking and financial sectors, innovation and trade policies, education, medicine and other sectors of the economy and social sphere. The initiated in Ukraine transformations, including the decentralization of public power, require further legislative changes and desire of all public institutions to ensure their effective implementation through public initiative and public support. Monitoring the course of the decentralization reform in Ukraine has demonstrated little actual results of its implementation. Today an adequate legislation framework concerning the powers, resources and responsibilities has not been established yet. It is advisable to carry out a profound theoretical and practical study of the world and Ukrainian experience, develop and introduce an own science-based system of power decentralization with consideration for historical, ideological, cultural, social, economic, geographical and other features of the country, while taking into account the best practices, which can be effectively used.

  16. A decentralized scalable approach to voltage control of DC islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucci, Michele; Riverso, Stefano; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the point of common coupling of the corresponding DGU...

  17. Advancing grate-firing for greater environmental impacts and efficiency for decentralized biomass/wastes combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Li, Shuangshuang

    2017-01-01

    to well suit decentralized biomass and municipal/industrial wastes combustion. This paper discusses with concrete examples how to advance grate-firing for greater efficiency and environmental impacts, e.g., use of advanced secondary air system, flue gas recycling and optimized grate assembly, which...

  18. Iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker for large-scale systems: a digital redesign approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jason Sheng-Hong; Du, Yan-Yi; Huang, Pei-Hsiang; Guo, Shu-Mei; Shieh, Leang-San; Chen, Yuhua

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, a digital redesign methodology of the iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker is proposed to improve the dynamic performance of sampled-data linear large-scale control systems consisting of N interconnected multi-input multi-output subsystems, so that the system output will follow any trajectory which may not be presented by the analytic reference model initially. To overcome the interference of each sub-system and simplify the controller design, the proposed model reference decentralized adaptive control scheme constructs a decoupled well-designed reference model first. Then, according to the well-designed model, this paper develops a digital decentralized adaptive tracker based on the optimal analog control and prediction-based digital redesign technique for the sampled-data large-scale coupling system. In order to enhance the tracking performance of the digital tracker at specified sampling instants, we apply the iterative learning control (ILC) to train the control input via continual learning. As a result, the proposed iterative learning-based decentralized adaptive tracker not only has robust closed-loop decoupled property but also possesses good tracking performance at both transient and steady state. Besides, evolutionary programming is applied to search for a good learning gain to speed up the learning process of ILC. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Decentralized H-infinity control of complex systems with delayed feedback

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bakule, Lubomír; Rehák, Branislav; Papík, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 1 (2016), s. 127-131 ISSN 0005-1098 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-02149S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : decentralized control * H-infinity control * large-scale systems * Fault-tolerant systems Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 5.451, year: 2016

  20. Do Decentralized Innovation Systems Promote Agricultural Technology Adoption? Experimental Evidence from Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pamuk, Haki; Bulte, Erwin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/141315245; Adekunle, Adewale A.

    2014-01-01

    We use experimental data collected in 8 African countries to investigate whether a decentralized approach can promote the adoption of agricultural innovations. This participatory model is based on the creation of so-called ‘innovation platforms’ where local stakeholders meet and seek to identify