WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical vortex metrology

  1. Optical vortex metrology for non-destructive testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2009-01-01

    Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis.......Based on the phase singularities in optical fields, we introduce a new technique, referred to as Optical Vortex Metrology, and demonstrate its application to nano- displacement, flow measurements and biological kinematic analysis....

  2. Optical vortex metrology: Are phase singularities foes or friends in optical metrology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, M.; Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;

    2008-01-01

    We raise an issue whether phase singularities are foes or friends in optical metrology, and give an answer by introducing the principle and applications of a new technique which we recently proposed for displacement and flow measurements. The technique is called optical vortex metrology because...

  3. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J

    2003-01-01

    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  4. Vortex metrology using Fourier analysis techniques: vortex networks correlation fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor

    2012-10-20

    In this work, we introduce an alternative method of analysis in vortex metrology based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques. The first part of the procedure is conducted as is usual in vortex metrology for uniform in-plane displacement determination. On the basis of two recorded intensity speckled distributions, corresponding to two states of a diffuser coherently illuminated, we numerically generate an analytical signal from each recorded intensity pattern by using a version of the Riesz integral transform. Then, from each analytical signal, a two-dimensional pseudophase map is generated in which the vortices are located and characterized in terms of their topological charges and their core's structural properties. The second part of the procedure allows obtaining Young's interference fringes when Fourier transforming the light passing through a diffracting mask with multiple apertures at the locations of the homologous vortices. In fact, we use the Fourier transform as a mathematical operation to compute the far-field diffraction intensity pattern corresponding to the multiaperture set. Each aperture from the set is associated with a rectangular hole that coincides both in shape and size with a pixel from recorded images. We show that the fringe analysis can be conducted as in speckle photography in an extended range of displacement measurements. Effects related with speckled decorrelation are also considered. Our experimental results agree with those of speckle photography in the range in which both techniques are applicable.

  5. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  6. In-plane displacement measurement in vortex metrology by synthetic network correlation fringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angel-Toro, Luciano; Sierra-Sosa, Daniel; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Néstor

    2013-03-01

    Recently we proposed an alternative method of displacement analysis in vortex metrology, based on the application of the Fourier optics techniques, that is suitable for an intermediate range of displacement measurements ranging below the resolution of speckle photography and above that of the conventional vortex metrology. However, for smaller displacements, we introduce an approach to perform the Fourier analysis from vortex networks. In this work, we present an enhanced method for measuring uniform in-plane displacements, taking advantage of the capability of determining the subpixel locations of vortices and having the ability to track the homologous vortices onto a plane. It is shown that high-quality fringe systems can be synthesized and analyzed to accurately measure in an extended range of displacements and for highly decorrelated speckle patterns. Experimental results supporting the validity of the method are presented and discussed.

  7. An optical vortex coronagraph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, David M.

    2005-08-01

    An optical vortex may be characterized as a dark core of destructive interference in a beam of spatially coherent light. This dark core may be used as a filter to attenuate a coherent beam of light so an incoherent background signal may be detected. Applications of such a filter include: eye and sensor protection, forward-scattered light measurement, and the detection of extra-solar planets. Optical vortices may be created by passing a beam of light through a vortex diffractive optical element, which is a plate of glass etched with a spiral pattern, such that the thickness of the glass increases in the azimuthal direction. An optical vortex coronagraph may be constructed by placing a vortex diffractive optical element near the image plane of a telescope. An optical vortex coronagraph opens a dark window in the glare of a distant star so nearby terrestrial sized planets and exo-zodiacal dust may be detected. An optical vortex coronagraph may hold several advantages over other techniques presently being developed for high contrast imaging, such as lower aberration sensitivity and multi-wavelength operation. In this manuscript, I will discuss the aberration sensitivity of an optical vortex coronagraph and the key advantages it may hold over other coronagraph architectures. I will also provide numerical simulations demonstrating high contrast imaging in the presence of low-order static aberrations.

  8. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  9. Optical metrology techniques for dimensional stability measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Jonathan David

    2010-01-01

    This thesis work is optical metrology techniques to determine material stability. In addition to displacement interferometry, topics such as periodic nonlinearity, Fabry-Perot interferometry, refractometry, and laser stabilization are covered.

  10. Improving metrology for micro-optics manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Angela D.; Bergner, Brent C.; Gardner, Neil W.

    2003-11-01

    Metrology is one of the critical enabling technologies for realizing the full market potential for micro-optical systems. Measurement capabilities are currently far behind present and future needs. Much of today"s test equipment was developed for the micro-electronics industry and is not optimized for micro-optic materials and geometries. Metrology capabilities currently limit the components that can be realized, in many cases. Improved testing will be come increasingly important as the technology moves to integration where it will become important to "test early and test often" to achieve high yields. In this paper, we focus on micro-refractive components in particular, and describe measurement challenges for this class of components and current and future needs. We also describe a new micro-optics metrology research program at UNC Charlotte under the Center for Precision Metrology and the new Center for Optoelectronics and Optical Communications to address these needs.

  11. New approaches in diffraction based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, M.; Vanoppen, P.; Jak, M.; v. d. Zouw, G.; Cramer, H.; Nooitgedagt, T.; v. d. Laan, H.

    2016-03-01

    Requirements for on-product overlay, focus and CD uniformity continue to tighten in order to support the demands of 10nm and 7nm nodes. This results in the need for simultaneously accurate, robust and dense metrology data as input for closed-loop control solutions thereby enabling wafer-level control and high order corrections. In addition the use of opaque materials and stringent design rules drive the need for expansion of the available measurement wavelengths and metrology target design space. Diffraction based optical metrology has been established as the leading methodology for integrated as well as standalone optical metrology for overlay, focus and CD monitoring and control in state of the art chip manufacturing. We are presenting the new approaches to diffraction based optical metrology designed to meet the processing diffraction based metrology signals. In this paper we will present the new detection principle and its impact on key performance characteristics of overlay and focus measurements. We will also describe the wide range of applications of a newly introduced increased measurement spot size, enabling significant improvements to accuracy and process robustness of overlay and focus measurements. With the YS350E the optical CD measurement capability is also extended, to 10x10μm2 targets. We will discuss the performance and value of small targets in after-develop and after-etch applications.

  12. Single shot interferogram analysis for optical metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mahendra Pratap; Singh, Mandeep; Khare, Kedar

    2014-10-10

    We report a novel constrained optimization method for single shot interferogram analysis. The unknown test wavefront is estimated as a minimum L2-norm squared solution whose phase is constrained to the space spanned by a finite number of Zernike polynomials. Using a single frame from standard phase shifting datasets, we demonstrate that our approach provides a phase map that matches with that generated using phase shifting algorithms to within λ/100  rms error. Our simulations and experimental results suggest the possibility of a simplified low-cost high quality optical metrology system for performing routine metrology tests involving smooth surface profiles.

  13. 7th International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    In continuation of the FRINGE Workshop Series this Proceeding contains all contributions presented at the 7. International Workshop on Advanced Optical Imaging and Metrology. The FRINGE Workshop Series is dedicated to the presentation, discussion and dissemination of recent results in Optical Imaging and Metrology. Topics of particular interest for the 7. Workshop are: - New methods and tools for the generation, acquisition, processing, and evaluation of data in Optical Imaging and Metrology (digital wavefront engineering, computational imaging, model-based reconstruction, compressed sensing, inverse problems solution) - Application-driven technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (high-resolution, adaptive, active, robust, reliable, flexible, in-line, real-time) - High-dynamic range solutions in Optical Imaging and Metrology (from macro to nano) - Hybrid technologies in Optical Imaging and Metrology (hybrid optics, sensor and data fusion, model-based solutions, multimodality) - New optical sensors, imagi...

  14. Advanced applications of scatterometry based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Keller, Nick; Kagalwala, Taher; Recchia, Fiona; Lifshitz, Yevgeny; Elia, Alexander; Todi, Vinit; Fronheiser, Jody; Vaid, Alok

    2017-03-01

    The semiconductor industry continues to drive patterning solutions that enable devices with higher memory storage capacity, faster computing performance, and lower cost per transistor. These developments in the field of semiconductor manufacturing along with the overall minimization of the size of transistors require continuous development of metrology tools used for characterization of these complex 3D device architectures. Optical scatterometry or optical critical dimension (OCD) is one of the most prevalent inline metrology techniques in semiconductor manufacturing because it is a quick, precise and non-destructive metrology technique. However, at present OCD is predominantly used to measure the feature dimensions such as line-width, height, side-wall angle, etc. of the patterned nano structures. Use of optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay, line edge roughness, etc. is fairly limited. Inspection of process induced abnormalities is a fundamental part of process yield improvement. It provides process engineers with important information about process errors, and consequently helps optimize materials and process parameters. Scatterometry is an averaging technique and extending it to measure the position of local process induced defectivity and feature-to-feature variation is extremely challenging. This report is an overview of applications and benefits of using optical scatterometry for characterizing defects such as pitch-walking, overlay and fin bending for advanced technology nodes beyond 7nm. Currently, the optical scatterometry is based on conventional spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectroscopic reflectometry measurements, but generalized ellipsometry or Mueller matrix spectroscopic ellipsometry data provides important, additional information about complex structures that exhibit anisotropy and depolarization effects. In addition the symmetry-antisymmetry properties associated with Mueller matrix (MM) elements

  15. Divergence of optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P

    2015-01-01

    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.

  16. Optical Vortex Solitons in Parametric Wave Mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Alexander, T J; Buryak, A V; Sammut, R A; Alexander, Tristram J.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Buryak, Alexander V.; Sammut, Rowland A.

    2000-01-01

    We analyze two-component spatial optical vortex solitons supported by degenerate three- or four-wave mixing in a nonlinear bulk medium. We study two distinct cases of such solitons, namely, parametric vortex solitons due to phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a optical medium with competing quadratic and cubic nonlinear response, and vortex solitons in the presence of third-harmonic generation in a cubic medium. We find, analytically and numerically, the structure of two-component vortex solitons, and also investigate modulational instability of their plane-wave background. In particular, we predict and analyze in detail novel types of vortex solitons, a `halo-vortex', consisting of a two-component vortex core surrounded by a bright ring of its harmonic field, and a `ring-vortex' soliton which is a vortex in a harmonic field that guides a bright localized ring-like mode of a fundamental frequency field.

  17. Evolution of optical vortex distributions in stochastic vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available dipole,? Opt. Commun. 236, 433?440 (2004). [23] Dana, I. and Freund, I., ?Vortex-lattice wave fields,? Opt. Commun. . [24] Jenkins, R., Banerji, J., and Davies, A., ?The generation of optical vortices and shape preserving vortex arrays in hollow...

  18. Astronomical demonstration of an optical vortex coronagraph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartzlander, Grover A; Ford, Erin L; Abdul-Malik, Rukiah S; Close, Laird M; Peters, Mary A; Palacios, David M; Wilson, Daniel W

    2008-07-07

    Using an optical vortex coronagraph and simple adaptive optics techniques, we have made the first convincing demonstration of an optical vortex coronagraph that is coupled to a star gazing telescope. We suppressed by 97% the primary star of a resolvable binary system, Cor Caroli. The stars had an angular separation of 1.9lambda/D at our imaging camera. The secondary star suffered no suppression from the vortex lens.

  19. Optical metrology at the Optical Sciences Center: an historical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creath, Katherine; Parks, Robert E.

    2014-10-01

    The Optical Sciences Center (OSC) begun as a graduate-level applied optics teaching institution to support the US space effort. The making of optics representative of those used in other space programs was deemed essential. This led to the need for optical metrology: at first Hartmann tests, but almost immediately to interferometric tests using the newly invented HeNe laser. Not only were new types of interferometers needed, but the whole infrastructure that went with testing, fringe location methods, aberration removal software and contour map generation to aid the opticians during polishing needed to be developed. Over the last half century more rapid and precise methods of interferogram data reduction, surface roughness measurement, and methods of instrument calibration to separate errors from those in the optic have been pioneered at OSC. Other areas of research included null lens design and the writing of lens design software that led into the design of computer generated holograms for asphere testing. More recently work has been done on the reduction of speckle noise in interferograms, methods to test large convex aspheres, and a return to slope measuring tests to increase the dynamic range of the types of aspheric surfaces amenable to optical testing including free-form surfaces. This paper documents the history of the development of optical testing projects at OSC and highlights the contributions some of the individuals associated with new methods of testing and the infrastructure needed to support the testing. We conclude with comments about the future trends optical metrology.

  20. Optical Fabrication and Metrology of Aspheric and Freeform Mirrors Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirement for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA, WFIRST...

  1. Optical metrology: from the laboratory to the real world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.; Garbusi, E.; Fleischle, D.; Lyda, W.; Pruss, C.; Reichle, R.; Falldorf, C.

    2010-09-01

    Optical metrology has shown to be a versatile tool for the solution of many inspection problems. The main advantages of optical methods are the noncontact nature, the non-destructive and fieldwise working principle, the fast response, high sensitivity, resolution and accuracy. Consequently, optical principles are increasingly being considered in all steps of the evolution of modern products. However, the step out of the laboratory into the harsh environment of the factory floor was and is a big challenge for optical metrology. The advantages mentioned above must be paid often with strict requirements concerning the measurement conditions and the object under test. For instance, the request for interferometric precision in general needs an environment where high stability is guaranteed. If this cannot be satisfied to a great extent special measures have to be taken or compromises have to be accepted. But the rapid technological development of the components that are used for creating modern optical measurement systems, the unrestrained growth of the computing power and the implementation of new measurement and inspection strategies give cause for optimism and show that the high potential of optical metrology is far from being fully utilized. In this article current challenges to optical metrology are discussed and new technical improvements that help to overcome existing restrictions are treated. On example of selected applications the progress in bringing optical metrology to the real world is shown.

  2. Birth and evolution of an optical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Vallone, Giuseppe; D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Villoresi, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    When a phase singularity is suddenly imprinted on the axis of an ordinary Gaussian beam, an optical vortex appears and starts to grow radially, by effect of diffraction. This radial growth and the subsequent evolution of the optical vortex under focusing or imaging can be well described in general within the recently introduced theory of circular beams, which generalize the hypergeometric-Gaussian beams and which obey novel kinds of ABCD rules. Here, we investigate experimentally these vortex propagation phenomena and test the validity of circular-beam theory. Moreover, we analyze the difference in radial structure between the newly generated optical vortex and the vortex obtained in the image plane, where perfect imaging would lead to complete closure of the vortex core.

  3. Handbook of 3D machine vision optical metrology and imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    With the ongoing release of 3D movies and the emergence of 3D TVs, 3D imaging technologies have penetrated our daily lives. Yet choosing from the numerous 3D vision methods available can be frustrating for scientists and engineers, especially without a comprehensive resource to consult. Filling this gap, Handbook of 3D Machine Vision: Optical Metrology and Imaging gives an extensive, in-depth look at the most popular 3D imaging techniques. It focuses on noninvasive, noncontact optical methods (optical metrology and imaging). The handbook begins with the well-studied method of stereo vision and

  4. Optical metrology tools for the Virgo projet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriette, V.

    For more than thirty years the search for gravitationnal waves, predicted by Einstein's relativistic theory of gravitation, has been an intense research field in experimental as well as theoretical physics. Today, with the constant advance of technology in optics, lasers, data analysis and processing, ... a promising way of directly detecting gravitationnal waves with earth-based instruments is optical interferometry. Before the end of this century many experiments will be carried on in Australia, Europe, Japan and the United States to detect the passage of a gravitationnal wave through giant Michelson-type interferometers. The effects predicted are so small, (a gravitationnal wave changes the length of three kilometer long arms by one thousandth of a fermi) that the need for “perfect” optical components is a key to the success of these experiments. Still a few years ago it would have been impossible to make optical components that would satisfy the required specifications for such interferometric detectors. For nearly ten years constant R&D efforts in optical coating manufacturing, optical material fabrication and optical metrology, allow us today to make such components. This text is intended to describe the field of optical metrology as it is needed for the testing of optical parts having performances far beyond than everything previously made. The first chapter is an introduction to gravitationnal waves, their sources and their effects on detectors. Starting by newtonian mechanics we jump rapidly to the general theory of relativity and describe particular solutions of Einstein's equations in the case of weak gravitationnal fields, which are periodic perturbations of the space-time metric in the form of plane waves, the so-called gravitationnal waves. We present various candidate sources, terrestrial and extra-terrestrial and give a short description of the two families of detectors: resonnant bars and optical interferometers. The second part of this chapter

  5. Hybrid enabled thin film metrology using XPS and optical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaid, Alok; Iddawela, Givantha; Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Lenahan, Michael; Hossain, Mainul; Timoney, Padraig; Bello, Abner F.; Bozdog, Cornel; Pois, Heath; Lee, Wei Ti; Klare, Mark; Kwan, Michael; Kang, Byung Cheol; Isbester, Paul; Sendelbach, Matthew; Yellai, Naren; Dasari, Prasad; Larson, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Complexity of process steps integration and material systems for next-generation technology nodes is reaching unprecedented levels, the appetite for higher sampling rates is on the rise, while the process window continues to shrink. Current thickness metrology specifications reach as low as 0.1A for total error budget - breathing new life into an old paradigm with lower visibility for past few metrology nodes: accuracy. Furthermore, for advance nodes there is growing demand to measure film thickness and composition on devices/product instead of surrogate planar simpler pads. Here we extend our earlier work in Hybrid Metrology to the combination of X-Ray based reference technologies (high performance) with optical high volume manufacturing (HVM) workhorse metrology (high throughput). Our stated goal is: put more "eyes" on the wafer (higher sampling) and enable move to films on pattern structure (control what matters). Examples of 1X front-end applications are used to setup and validate the benefits.

  6. A new approach to stitching optical metrology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher W.

    The next generation of optical instruments, including telescopes and imaging apparatus, will generate an increased requirement for larger and more complex optical forms. A major limiting factor for the production of such optical components is the metrology: how do we measure such parts and with respect to what reference datum This metrology can be thought of as part of a complete cycle in the production of optical components and it is currently the most challenging aspect of production. This thesis investigates a new and complete approach to stitching optical metrology data to extend the effective aperture or, in future, the dynamic range of optical metrology instruments. A practical approach is used to build up a complete process for stitching on piano and spherical parts. The work forms a basis upon which a stitching system for aspheres might be developed in the future, which is inherently more complicated. Beginning with a historical perspective and a review of optical polishing and metrology, the work presented relates the commercially available metrology instruments to the stitching process developed. The stitching is then performed by a numerical optimization routine that seeks to join together overlapping sub-aperture measurements by consideration of the aberrations introduced by the measurement scenario, and by the overlap areas between measurements. The stitching is part of a larger project, the PPARC Optical Manipulation and Metrology project, and was to benefit from new wavefront sensing technology developed by a project partner, and to be used for the sub-aperture measurement. Difficult mathematical problems meant that such a wavefront sensor was not avail able for this work and a work-around was therefore developed using commercial instruments. The techniques developed can be adapted to work on commercial ma chine platforms, and in partuicular, the OMAM NPL/UCL swing-arm profilometer described in chapter 5, or the computer controlled polishing machines

  7. Metrology Optical Power Budgeting in SIM Using Statistical Analysis Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Gary M

    2008-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is a space-based stellar interferometry instrument, consisting of up to three interferometers, which will be capable of micro-arc second resolution. Alignment knowledge of the three interferometer baselines requires a three-dimensional, 14-leg truss with each leg being monitored by an external metrology gauge. In addition, each of the three interferometers requires an internal metrology gauge to monitor the optical path length differences between the two sides. Both external and internal metrology gauges are interferometry based, operating at a wavelength of 1319 nanometers. Each gauge has fiber inputs delivering measurement and local oscillator (LO) power, split into probe-LO and reference-LO beam pairs. These beams experience power loss due to a variety of mechanisms including, but not restricted to, design efficiency, material attenuation, element misalignment, diffraction, and coupling efficiency. Since the attenuation due to these sources may degrade over time, an accounting of the range of expected attenuation is needed so an optical power margin can be book kept. A method of statistical optical power analysis and budgeting, based on a technique developed for deep space RF telecommunications, is described in this paper and provides a numerical confidence level for having sufficient optical power relative to mission metrology performance requirements.

  8. Topological metrology and its application to optical position sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Tischler, Nora; Singh, Sukhwinder; Zambrana-Puyalto, Xavier; Vidal, Xavier; Brennen, Gavin; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    We motivate metrology schemes based on topological singularities as a way to build robustness against deformations of the system. In particular, we relate reference settings of metrological systems to topological singularities in the measurement outputs. As examples we discuss optical nano-position sensing (i) using a balanced photodetector and a quadrant photodetector, and (ii) a more general image based scheme. In both cases the reference setting is a scatterer position that corresponds to a topological singularity in an output space constructed from the scattered field intensity distributions.

  9. At-wavelength Optical Metrology Development at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony

    2010-07-19

    Nano-focusing and brightness preservation for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 100 nrad. While the accuracy of fabrication and ex situ metrology of x-ray mirrors has improved over time, beamline in situ performance of the optics is often limited by application specific factors such as x-ray beam heat loading, temperature drift, alignment, vibration, etc. In the present work, we discuss the recent results from the Advanced Light Source developing high accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad accuracy surface slope measurements with reflecting x-ray optics. The techniques will ultimately allow closed-loop feedback systems to be implemented for x-ray nano-focusing. In addition, we present a dedicated metrology beamline endstation, applicable to a wide range of in situ metrology and test experiments. The design and performance of a bendable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror with active temperature stabilization will also be presented. The mirror is currently used to study, refine, and optimize in situ mirror alignment, bending and metrology methods essential for nano-focusing application.

  10. Optical vortex array in spatially varying lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Kapoor, Amit; Senthilkumaran, P; Joseph, Joby

    2015-01-01

    We present an experimental method based on a modified multiple beam interference approach to generate an optical vortex array arranged in a spatially varying lattice. This method involves two steps which are: numerical synthesis of a consistent phase mask by using two-dimensional integrated phase gradient calculations and experimental implementation of produced phase mask by utilizing a phase only spatial light modulator in an optical 4f Fourier filtering setup. This method enables an independent variation of the orientation and period of the vortex lattice. As working examples, we provide the experimental demonstration of various spatially variant optical vortex lattices. We further confirm the existence of optical vortices by formation of fork fringes. Such lattices may find applications in size dependent trapping, sorting, manipulation and photonic crystals.

  11. Vortex-based line beam optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shubo; Tao, Shaohua

    2016-10-01

    A vortex-based line beam, which has a straight-line shape of intensity and possesses phase gradient along the line trajectory is developed and applied for optical manipulation in this paper. The intensity and phase distributions of the beam in the imaging plane of the Fourier transform are analytically studied. Simulation results show that the length of the line and phase gradient possessed by a vortex-based line beam are dependent on the topological charge and the azimuthal proportional constant. A superposition of multiple phase-only holograms with elliptical azimuthal phases can be used to generate an array of vortex-based line beams. Optical trapping with the vortex-based line beams has been implemented. Furthermore, the automatic transportation of microparticles along the line trajectory perpendicular to the optical axis is realized with an array of the beams. The generation method for the vortex-based line beam is simple. The beam would have potential applications in fields such as optical trapping, laser machining, and so on.

  12. Ptychography for optical metrology with limited translation knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dustin B; Fienup, James R

    2016-06-10

    We introduce unknown-transverse translation diversity phase retrieval: a ptychographic algorithm for optical metrology when a subaperture is translating through a plane conjugate to the exit pupil in a very poorly known fashion. The algorithm estimates the direction of translation and the distance traveled by the subaperture from one point spread function (PSF) to the next. It also estimates unknown point target motion and rotations of the subaperture between PSF acquisitions from the PSF data.

  13. TNO TPD contributions to high precision optical metrology, a Darwin metrology breadboard for ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, A.L.; Dool, T.C. van den; Braam, B.C.; Calvel, B.; Sesselman, R.; Pöschel, W.; Dontsov, D.; Vega, I.C.; Manske, E.; Schuldt, T.; Sodnik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A Darwin precursor breadboard, comprising both fine lateral and longitudinal metrology sensors was designed, built and partially tested. The lateral metrology sensor was designed and built by TNO TPD and more than meets the imposed requirements. The longitudinal metrology sensor consists of a dual

  14. TNO TPD contributions to high precision optical metrology, a Darwin metrology breadboard for ESA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verlaan, A.L.; Dool, T.C. van den; Braam, B.C.; Calvel, B.; Sesselman, R.; Pöschel, W.; Dontsov, D.; Vega, I.C.; Manske, E.; Schuldt, T.; Sodnik, Z.

    2004-01-01

    A Darwin precursor breadboard, comprising both fine lateral and longitudinal metrology sensors was designed, built and partially tested. The lateral metrology sensor was designed and built by TNO TPD and more than meets the imposed requirements. The longitudinal metrology sensor consists of a dual w

  15. Metrology of transmission optics for LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Leistner, Achim J.; Oreb, Bozenko F.; Seckold, Jeffrey A.; Farrant, David I.; Pavlovic, Edita

    1999-08-01

    CSIRO is manufacturing the `core' optical substrates for LIGO, a Michelson interferometer with arms up to 4 km in length each containing a Fabry Perot cavity. The beam splitter and input test mass mirrors (the entrance mirror to each cavity) have specifications not only for the optical surfaces but also for the radius of curvature of the wave front transmitted through the optical substrate. Our approach to manufacturing the substrates is to calculate the quadratic component of refractive index gradient (Delta) n from measurement of the transmitted wave front and the surface relief of the two substrate surfaces. After one of the surfaces (S1) is polished to specification, the radius on the second side required to achieve the specification on the transmitted wave front is calculated (using the measured value of (Delta) n, the actual value of S1 and the target value of the transmitted wave front). Results of this work and complications of the measurement procedure due to the thermal inertia and poor thermal conductivity of the silica substrates will be presented.

  16. Optical vortex beam generator at nanoscale level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garoli, Denis; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Gorodetski, Yuri; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Optical beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) can find tremendous applications in several fields. In order to apply these particular beams in photonic integrated devices innovative optical elements have been proposed. Here we are interested in the generation of OAM-carrying beams at the nanoscale level. We design and experimentally demonstrate a plasmonic optical vortex emitter, based on a metal-insulator-metal holey plasmonic vortex lens. Our plasmonic element is shown to convert impinging circularly polarized light to an orbital angular momentum state capable of propagating to the far-field. Moreover, the emerging OAM can be externally adjusted by switching the handedness of the incident light polarization. The device has a radius of few micrometers and the OAM beam is generated from subwavelength aperture. The fabrication of integrated arrays of PVLs and the possible simultaneous emission of multiple optical vortices provide an easy way to the large-scale integration of optical vortex emitters for wide-ranging applications. PMID:27404659

  17. Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such

  18. Plasma spectroscopy using optical vortex laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Toda, Yasunori; Czarnetzki, Uwe; Shikano, Yutaka

    2014-10-01

    Laser spectroscopy is a useful tool for nonintrusive plasma diagnostics; it can provide many important quantities in a plasma such as temperature, density, and flow velocity of ions and neutrals from the spectrum obtained by scanning the frequency of narrow bandwidth laser. Obtainable information is, however, limited in principle to the direction parallel to the laser path. The aim of this study is to introduce a Laguerre-Gaussian beam, which is called as optical vortex, in place of a widely used Hermite-Gaussian beam. One of the remarkable properties of the Laguerre-Gaussian beam is that it carries an angular momentum in contrast to the Hermite-Gaussian beam. It follows that particles in the laser beam feel the Doppler effect even in the transverse direction of the laser path. Therefore it is expected that the limitation imposed by the laser path can be overcome by using an optical vortex laser. The concept of optical vortex spectroscopy, the development of the laser system, and some preliminary results of a proof-of-principle experiment will be presented. This work is performed with the support and under the auspices of NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25287152.

  19. Optical vortex coronagraphy from soft spin-orbit masks

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksanyan, Artur

    2016-01-01

    We report on a soft route towards optical vortex coronagraphy based on self-engineered electrically tunable vortex masks based on liquid crystal topological defects. These results suggest that a Nature-assisted technological approach to the fabrication of complex phase masks could be useful in optical imaging whenever optical phase singularities are at play.

  20. Optical metrology in the conflict between desire and reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osten, W.

    2016-08-01

    In the context of measurement technology, optical methods have a number of unique features. On the other hand the user is faced with serious challenges. One of the biggest challenges that currently attracts high attention in both the technical as well as life sciences, relates to exceeding the physical limits of resolution. Nowadays people prefer to talk about super-resolution. However, this concept creates an often excessive expectation, since this way only the diffraction limit can be achieved in many practical cases. Not to forget are those negative consequences that arise from the high information density in optical signals. The nature of light and its fascinating interaction with matter that makes our visual sense on the one hand the most valuable information carrier, often prevents on the other hand, the metrologically correct interpretation of the results. Nevertheless, it can be proven by numerous examples that no alternative to the optical principles exists. Because critical structures are getting smaller and functional surfaces are becoming increasingly complex, the wavelength of light provides the most flexible and traceable standard to cope with the challenges. But the potential of optical methods, often seduced to an overload of the wish list or to unrealistic promises. Therefore, this paper is dedicated to the tension between desire and reality in optical measuring techniques.

  1. Round Robin for Optical Fiber Bragg Grating Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, A H; Wang, C M; Dyer, S D

    2000-01-01

    NIST has administered the first round robin of measurements for optical fiber Bragg gratings. We compared the measurement of center wavelength, bandwidth, isolation, minimum relative transmittance, and relative group delay among several grating types in two industry groups, telecommunications and sensors. We found that the state of fiber Bragg grating metrology needs improvement in most areas. Specifically, when tunable lasers are used a filter is needed to remove broadband emissions from the laser. The linear slope of relative group delay measurements is sensitive to drift and systematic bias in the rf-modulation technique. The center wavelength measurement had a range of about 27 pm in the sensors group and is not adequate to support long-term structural monitoring applications.

  2. Dimensional quality control of Ti-Ni dental file by optical coordinate metrology and computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yagüe-Fabra, J.A.; Tosello, Guido; Ontiveros, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic dental files usually present complex 3D geometries, which make the complete measurement of the component very challenging with conventional micro metrology tools. Computed Tomography (CT) can represent a suitable alternative solution to micro metrology tools based on optical and tactil...

  3. Köhler illumination in high-resolution optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Yeung Joon; Barnes, Brian M.; Howard, Lowell; Silver, Richard M.; Attota, Ravikiran; Stocker, Michael T.

    2006-03-01

    Accurate preparation of illumination is critical for high-resolution optical metrology applications such as linewidth and overlay measurements. To improve the detailed evaluation and alignment of the illumination optics, we have separated Koehler illumination into three components. The three Koehler illumination components are defined as full field spatial intensity variation (Koehler factor 1), angular intensity homogeneity (Koehler factor 2), and wavefront phase/intensity homogeneity (Koehler factor 3). We have also proposed a field aperture pattern transfer method to analyze the illumination properties with respect to systematic variations, such as the shape of the source, the intensity distribution at the back focal plane, and the displacements of elements along and off the optical axis. These factors were investigated in both ideal and practical illumination systems. In particular, any angular asymmetry in the illumination proves to have a detrimental effect upon the distribution of light that illuminates the target. Wavefront asymmetry is also studied in the context of an optical system with a coherent or partially coherent light source.

  4. Azimuthal Doppler Effect in Optical Vortex Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Toda, Yasunori; Morisaki, Tomohiro; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masayoshi

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortices (OV) are a set of solutions of the paraxial Helmholtz equation in the cylindrical coordinates, and its wave front has a spiral shape. Since the Doppler shift is caused by the phase change by the movement in a wave field, the observer in the OV, which has the three-dimensional structured wave front, feels a three-dimensional Doppler effect. Since the multi-dimensional Doppler components are mixed into a single Doppler spectrum, development of a decomposition method is required. We performed a modified saturated absorption spectroscopy to separate the components. The OV and plane wave are used as a probe beam and pump beam, respectively. Although the plane-wave pump laser cancels the z-direction Doppler shift, the azimuthal Doppler shift remains in the saturated dip. The spatial variation of the dip width gives the information of the azimuthal Doppler shift. The some results of optical vortex spectroscopy will be presented.

  5. X-ray optics metrology limited by random noise, instrumental drifts, and systematic errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Anderson, Erik H.; Barber, Samuel K.; Cambie, Rossana; Celestre, Richard; Conley, Raymond; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Takacs, Peter Z.; Voronov, Dmitriy L.; Yuan, Sheng; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-07-09

    Continuous, large-scale efforts to improve and develop third- and forth-generation synchrotron radiation light sources for unprecedented high-brightness, low emittance, and coherent x-ray beams demand diffracting and reflecting x-ray optics suitable for micro- and nano-focusing, brightness preservation, and super high resolution. One of the major impediments for development of x-ray optics with the required beamline performance comes from the inadequate present level of optical and at-wavelength metrology and insufficient integration of the metrology into the fabrication process and into beamlines. Based on our experience at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory, we review the experimental methods and techniques that allow us to mitigate significant optical metrology problems related to random, systematic, and drift errors with super-high-quality x-ray optics. Measurement errors below 0.2 mu rad have become routine. We present recent results from the ALS of temperature stabilized nano-focusing optics and dedicated at-wavelength metrology. The international effort to develop a next generation Optical Slope Measuring System (OSMS) to address these problems is also discussed. Finally, we analyze the remaining obstacles to further improvement of beamline x-ray optics and dedicated metrology, and highlight the ways we see to overcome the problems.

  6. Frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balskus, K; Schilt, S; Wittwer, V J; Brochard, P; Ploetzing, T; Jornod, N; McCracken, R A; Zhang, Z; Bartels, A; Reid, D T; Südmeyer, T

    2016-04-18

    We report on the first demonstration of absolute frequency comb metrology with an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) frequency comb. The synchronously-pumped OPO operated in the 1.5-µm spectral region and was referenced to an H-maser atomic clock. Using different techniques, we thoroughly characterized the frequency noise power spectral density (PSD) of the repetition rate frep, of the carrier-envelope offset frequency fCEO, and of an optical comb line νN. The comb mode optical linewidth at 1557 nm was determined to be ~70 kHz for an observation time of 1 s from the measured frequency noise PSD, and was limited by the stability of the microwave frequency standard available for the stabilization of the comb repetition rate. We achieved a tight lock of the carrier envelope offset frequency with only ~300 mrad residual integrated phase noise, which makes its contribution to the optical linewidth negligible. The OPO comb was used to measure the absolute optical frequency of a near-infrared laser whose second-harmonic component was locked to the F = 2→3 transition of the 87Rb D2 line at 780 nm, leading to a measured transition frequency of νRb = 384,228,115,346 ± 16 kHz. We performed the same measurement with a commercial fiber-laser comb operating in the 1.5-µm region. Both the OPO comb and the commercial fiber comb achieved similar performance. The measurement accuracy was limited by interferometric noise in the fibered setup of the Rb-stabilized laser.

  7. Intense harmonics generation with customized photon frequency and optical vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaomei; Shen, Baifei; Shi, Yin; Zhang, Lingang; Ji, Liangliang; Wang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhizhan; Tajima, Toshiki

    2016-08-01

    An optical vortex with orbital angular momentum (OAM) enriches the light and matter interaction process, and helps reveal unexpected information in relativistic nonlinear optics. A scheme is proposed for the first time to explore the origin of photons in the generated harmonics, and produce relativistic intense harmonics with expected frequency and an optical vortex. When two counter-propagating Laguerre-Gaussian laser pulses impinge on a solid thin foil and interact with each other, the contribution of each input pulse in producing harmonics can be distinguished with the help of angular momentum conservation of photons, which is almost impossible for harmonic generation without an optical vortex. The generation of tunable, intense vortex harmonics with different photon topological charge is predicted based on the theoretical analysis and three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. Inheriting the properties of OAM and harmonics, the obtained intense vortex beam can be applied in a wide range of fields, including atom or molecule control and manipulation.

  8. Statistical behaviour of optical vortex fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Phase screens Least squares phase removersScintillated beam Observation plane Initial number of optical vortices is reduced asymptotically until equilibrium is reached. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1... ? complex coefficients 6 6 overall amplitude and phase 6 morphology parameters 6 6 0 + axx+ ayy + ... = A exp(iΩ) [ξ(x+ iy) + ζ(x− iy)] where |ξ|2 + |ζ|2 = 1 . – p.5/37 Vortex shape For isotropic (canonical) vortices: ξ = 1 and ζ = 0 → ν = +1 ξ = 0 and ζ = 1...

  9. Optical metrology analysis of the lower jaw deformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasić, Ivan; Sojić, Ljiljana Tihacek; Lemić, Aleksandra Milić

    2011-04-01

    New optical stereometric methods based on both contact and noncontact mechanisms for displacement measurement have become common methods in biomechanical behavior research of biomaterials, bone and soft tissue. The aim of this study was to register and measure possible deformations of the lower jaw (mandible) with the intact dental arch using optical metrology method. The system for full field measurement of deformations (strains) comprised of two digital cameras for a synchronized stereoview of the specimen, and the Aramis software. The maximum mandibular bone strains were measured in the regions of the lower first premolar and the lower second molar. In the action force of 500 N simulated in the region of the first lower premolar the intensity of deformation was 86 microm. The value of maximum strain in the bone around the molars was 24 microm for the force of 500 N acting on the second lower molar. When it comes to premolars, 3-5 times stronger deformation was observed in the region of the first lower premolar, compared to the deformation values of the second lower premolar area. Under loading of the applied forces the measured strains were in the elastic deformation area, meanning that the dependence of force and deformity is linear. The highest values of strain measurements obtained by the optical method were found in the jaw bone tissue around the loading teeth, and the bony regions of the triangle and mental region. According to the obtained results from the Aramis processing software it can be concluded that this method is applicable in a variety of biomedical research.

  10. Optical metrology analysis of the lower jaw deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanasić Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. New optical stereometric methods based on both contact and noncontact mechanisms for displacement measurement have become common methods in biomechanical behavior research of biomaterials, bone and soft tissue. The aim of this study was to register and measure possible deformations of the lower jaw (mandible with the intact dental arch using optical metrology method. Methods. The system for full field measurement of deformations (strains comprised of two digital cameras for a synchronized stereoview of the specimen, and the Aramis software. Results. The maximum mandibular bone strains were measured in the regions of the lower first premolar and the lower second molar. In the action force of 500 N simulated in the region of the first lower premolar the intensity of deformation was 86 μm. The value of maximum strain in the bone around the molars was 24 μm for the force of 500 N acting on the second lower molar. When it comes to premolars, 3-5 times stronger deformation was observed in the region of the first lower premolar, compared to the deformation values of the second lower premolar area. Conclusion. Under loading of the applied forces the measured strains were in the elastic deformation area, meanning that the dependence of force and deformity is linear. The highest values of strain measurements obtained by the optical method were found in the jaw bone tissue around the loading teeth, and the bony regions of the triangle and mental region. According to the obtained results from the Aramis processing software it can be concluded that this method is applicable in a variety of biomedical research.

  11. Optical vortex conversion in the elliptic vortex-beam propagating orthogonally to the crystal optical axis: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Bogdan; Kudryavtseva, Maria; Zinovyev, Alexey; Konovalenko, Victor; Rubass, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally analyzed the topological reactions occurred in the elliptic vortex-beam transmitting orthogonally to the optical axis of the SiO2 crystal. We have revealed that the oscillations of the polarization state when propagating the beam are accompanied by reconstruction of the polarization singularities at the beam cross-section that, in turn, entails the reconstruction of the wavefront in each circularly polarized beam component. Both synchronic oscillations of the spin angular momentum and the sign of the vortex topological charge are expressing in a field structure as birth and annihilation of topological dipoles. Also periodical conversion of the vortex ellipticity along the crystal length z and huge splash of spin angular momentum were analysed. The run of the dislocation reactions in the beam component results in converting the sign of the topological charge in the centered optical vortex, the distance of the vortex conversion being about 0.05 of the wavelength.

  12. Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....

  13. Parallel optical evaluation of double-exposure records in optical metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, W; Hinsch, K D

    1989-02-15

    The evaluation of double-exposure records in optical metrology (speckle photography or particle image velocimetry) is simplified by using two-step optical processing that is performed on many interrogation areas simultaneously by a 2-D array of narrow focused light beams. A first application of this procedure to the original record, if dimensioned properly, produces an array of small nonoverlapping Young's fringe systems. The photographic record of these patterns is subjected to the same operation once more, each beam illuminating precisely one pattern. The resulting output is an array of autocorrelation functions that are a direct representation of the displacement field since the spacing of respective side peaks gives the displacement. A single whole-field interrogation of the array of fringe systems produces an optical representation of accumulated displacement values thus rendering the statistics of the displacement field. The required matrix of light beams is generated by holographic optical elements.

  14. Optical vortex discrimination with a transmission volume hologram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruneisen, Mark T [Air Force Research Laboratory, Directed Energy Directorate, Kirtland AFB, NM 87117 (United States); Dymale, Raymond C; Stoltenberg, Kurt E [Boeing Company, PO Box 5670, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Steinhoff, Nicholas [Optical Sciences Company, 1341 S Sunkist St., Anaheim, CA 92806 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Transmissive volume holograms are considered as mode-selective optical elements for the de-multiplexing and detecting of optical vortex modes according to the topological charge or mode number. Diffraction of vortex modes by a fundamental mode hologram is modeled using a physical optics model that treats the volume hologram as an angle-dependent transfer function. Diffracted irradiance profiles and diffraction efficiencies are calculated numerically as a function of the incident mode number. The results of the model are compared with experimental results obtained with volume holograms of fundamental and higher-order vortex modes. When considered as a function of detuning between the incident and recorded mode numbers, the measured diffraction efficiencies are found to be invariant with respect to the recorded mode number, provided that the order difference remains unchanged, and in close agreement with the predictions of the model. Measurements are made with a 1.3 mm thick permanent photo-thermo-refractive glass hologram and a 9 mm thick re-writable photorefractive lithium niobate hologram. A liquid-crystal spatial light modulator generates the vortex modes used to record and read the holograms. The results indicate that a simple volume hologram can discriminate between vortex modes; however, adjacent mode discrimination with low crosstalk would require a very thick hologram. Furthermore, broadening of the vortex angular spectrum, due to diffraction at a finite aperture, can adversely affect diffraction efficiencies.

  15. In-field Raman amplification on coherent optical fiber links for frequency metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clivati, C; Bolognini, G; Calonico, D; Faralli, S; Mura, A; Levi, F

    2015-04-20

    Distributed Raman amplification (DRA) is widely exploited for the transmission of broadband, modulated signals used in data links, but not yet in coherent optical links for frequency metrology, where the requirements are rather different. After preliminary tests on fiber spools, in this paper we deeper investigate Raman amplification on deployed in-field optical metrological links. We actually test a Doppler-stabilized optical link both on a 94 km-long metro-network implementation with multiplexed ITU data channels and on a 180 km-long dedicated fiber haul connecting two cities, where DRA is employed in combination with Erbium-doped fiber amplification (EDFA). The performance of DRA is detailed in both experiments, indicating that it does not introduce noticeable penalties for the metrological signal or for the ITU data channels. We hence show that Raman amplification of metrological signals can be compatible with a wavelength division multiplexing architecture and that it can be used as an alternative or in combination with dedicated bidirectional EDFAs. No deterioration is noticed in the coherence properties of the delivered signal, which attains frequency instability at the 10(-19) level in both cases. This study can be of interest also in view of the undergoing deployment of continental fiber networks for frequency metrology.

  16. Model-based optical metrology and visualization of 3-D complex objects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-li; LI A-meng; ZHAO Xiao-bo; GAO Peng-dong; TIAN Jin-dong; PENG Xiang

    2007-01-01

    This letter addresses several key issues in the process of model-based optical metrology, including three dimensional (3D) sensing, calibration, registration and fusion of range images, geometric representation, and visualization of reconstructed 3D model by taking into account the shape measurement of 3D complex structures,and some experimental results are presented.

  17. Metrologically speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Matthew E.

    2008-08-01

    Optical metrology is a science and an art. Education in the engineering disciplines concentrates on technical knowledge transfer. However, creativity and imagination are required in partnership with these technical skills to generate truly innovative results. This presentation investigates strategies and methodologies of working in which the exploration of potential solutions to optical metrology problems becomes more of a creative process than the strict application of technical know-how.

  18. Non-conservative optical forces and Brownian vortexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo

    Optical manipulation using optical tweezers has been widely adopted in physics, chemical engineering and biology. While most applications and fundamental studies of optical trapping have focused on optical forces resulting from intensity gradients, we have also explored the role of radiation pressure, which is directed by phase gradients in beams of light. Interestingly, radiation pressure turns out to be a non-conservative force and drives trapped objects out of thermodynamic equilibrium with their surrounding media. We have demonstrated the resulting nonequilibrium effects experimentally by tracking the thermally driven motions of optically trapped colloidal spheres using holographic video microscopy. Rather than undergoing equilibrium thermal fluctuations, as has been assumed for more than a quarter century, a sphere in an optical tweezer enters into a stochastic steady-state characterized by closed loops in its probability current density. These toroidal vortexes constitute a bias in the particle's otherwise random thermal fluctuations arising at least indirectly from a solenoidal component in the optical force. This surprising effect is a particular manifestation of a more general class of noise-driven machines that we call Brownian vortexes. This previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines operates on qualitatively different principles from such extensively studied nonequilibrium systems as thermal ratchets and Brownian motors. Among its interesting properties, a Brownian vortex can reverse its direction with changes in temperature or equivalent control parameters.

  19. Structured caustic vector vortex optical field: manipulating optical angular momentum flux and polarization rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui-Pin; Chen, Zhaozhong; Chew, Khian-Hooi; Li, Pei-Gang; Yu, Zhongliang; Ding, Jianping; He, Sailing

    2015-05-29

    A caustic vector vortex optical field is experimentally generated and demonstrated by a caustic-based approach. The desired caustic with arbitrary acceleration trajectories, as well as the structured states of polarization (SoP) and vortex orders located in different positions in the field cross-section, is generated by imposing the corresponding spatial phase function in a vector vortex optical field. Our study reveals that different spin and orbital angular momentum flux distributions (including opposite directions) in different positions in the cross-section of a caustic vector vortex optical field can be dynamically managed during propagation by intentionally choosing the initial polarization and vortex topological charges, as a result of the modulation of the caustic phase. We find that the SoP in the field cross-section rotates during propagation due to the existence of the vortex. The unique structured feature of the caustic vector vortex optical field opens the possibility of multi-manipulation of optical angular momentum fluxes and SoP, leading to more complex manipulation of the optical field scenarios. Thus this approach further expands the functionality of an optical system.

  20. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  1. Contact-free on-axis metrology for the fabrication and testing of complex optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courteville, Alain; Wilhelm, Rainer; Delaveau, Marie; Garcia, Fabrice; de Vecchi, François

    2005-10-01

    This paper presents a fibre-based low coherence interferometric sensor developed by FOGALE nanotech. Based on the proven principle of partial coherence interferometry the sensor works as a comparator of optical path lengths. The optical path lengths along the optical axis in the measurement interferometer arm containing a target object are compared with the optical path lengths in an internal delay line. Multiple, partially reflecting surfaces of the target can be detected during one scan of the delay line. Standard measurement ranges are between a few mm up to 400 mm (optical thickness). Longer measurement ranges are available on request. The measurement zone can be placed at a distance of up to several meters away from the instrument's exit. The sensor reaches an absolute accuracy on position measurements down to +/-100 nm over the full measurement range. The system has been successfully applied in industry (glass and optical) as well as in research environments, e.g. for the dimensional metrology of large astronomical telescopes. This paper focuses on an innovative application of the sensor in the optics manufacturing industry. The paper starts with a description of the measurement technique, the system hardware concept, the detection and signal processing scheme. We present a modeling-based approach for the dimensional metrology of optical components (e.g. single lenses, windows, prisms) or complete, mounted systems where the positions of all individual elements can be detected. A comprehensive propagation model including dispersion and phase effects is used to extract the distances from the optical path differences. Prior to a measurement, the optimum tailoring of the measurement beam is obtained by a simulation of the beam propagation through the target object. This ensures that each surface to be measured delivers a sufficiently strong signal. To illustrate our approach we present its application in the fabrication process of complex optical systems where

  2. Range-Gated Metrology with Compact Optical Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Shaddock, Daniel; Ware, Brent; Lay, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    This work represents a radical simplification in the design of the optical head needed for high-precision laser ranging applications. The optical head is now a single fiber-optic collimator with dimensions of order of 1 1 2 cm, which can be easily integrated into the system being measured with minimal footprint.

  3. Development of at-wavelength metrology for x-ray optics at the ALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yuan, Sheng; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-07-09

    The comprehensive realization of the exciting advantages of new third- and forth-generation synchrotron radiation light sources requires concomitant development of reflecting and diffractive x-ray optics capable of micro- and nano-focusing, brightness preservation, and super high resolution. The fabrication, tuning, and alignment of the optics are impossible without adequate metrology instrumentation, methods, and techniques. While the accuracy of ex situ optical metrology at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) has reached a state-of-the-art level, wavefront control on beamlines is often limited by environmental and systematic alignment factors, and inadequate in situ feedback. At ALS beamline 5.3.1, we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad slope measurement accuracy for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. The at-wavelength methodology we are developing relies on a series of tests with increasing accuracy and sensitivity. Geometric Hartmann tests, performed with a scanning illuminated sub-aperture determine the wavefront slope across the full mirror aperture. Shearing interferometry techniques use coherent illumination and provide higher sensitivity wavefront measurements. Combining these techniques with high precision optical metrology and experimental methods will enable us to provide in situ setting and alignment of bendable x-ray optics to realize diffraction-limited, sub 50 nm focusing at beamlines. We describe here details of the metrology beamline endstation, the x-ray beam diagnostic system, and original experimental techniques that have already allowed us to precisely set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a focused spot size of 150 nm.

  4. Optical Rogue Waves in Vortex Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Christopher J; Oppo, Gian-Luca

    2015-01-01

    We present a spatio-temporal mechanism for producing 2D optical rogue waves in the presence of a turbulent state with creation, interaction and annihilation of optical vortices. Spatially periodic structures with bound phase lose stability to phase unbound turbulent states in complex Ginzburg- Landau and Swift-Hohenberg models with external driving. When the pumping is high and the external driving is low, synchronized oscillations are unstable and lead to spatio-temporal turbulence with high excursions in amplitude. Nonlinear amplification leads to rogue waves close to turbulent optical vortices, where the amplitude tends to zero, and to probability distribution functions with long tails typical of extreme optical events.

  5. Stable spatial and spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Adhikari, S K

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a robust, stable, mobile, two-dimensional (2D) spatial and three-dimensional (3D) spatiotemporal optical soliton in the core of an optical vortex, while all nonlinearities are of the cubic (Kerr) type. The 3D soliton can propagate with a constant velocity along the vortex core without any deformation. Stability of the soliton under a small perturbation is established numerically. Two such solitons moving along the vortex core can undergo a quasi-elastic collision at medium velocities. Possibilities of forming such a 2D spatial soliton in the core of a vortical beam are discussed.

  6. A Toolbox of Metrology-Based Techniques for Optical System Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Ohl, Raymond G.; Blake, Peter N.; Bos, Brent J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hagopian, John G.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hetherington, Samuel E.; Kubalak, David A.; McLean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Redman, Kevin W.; Sampler, Henry P.; Wenzel, Greg W.; Young, Jerrod L.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and its partners have broad experience in the alignment of flight optical instruments and spacecraft structures. Over decades, GSFC developed alignment capabilities and techniques for a variety of optical and aerospace applications. In this paper, we provide an overview of a subset of the capabilities and techniques used on several recent projects in a "toolbox" format. We discuss a range of applications, from small-scale optical alignment of sensors to mirror and bench examples that make use of various large-volume metrology techniques. We also discuss instruments and analytical tools.

  7. Large Volume, Optical and Opto-Mechanical Metrology Techniques for ISIM on JWST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo

    2015-01-01

    The final, flight build of the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element of the James Webb Space Telescope is the culmination of years of work across many disciplines and partners. This paper covers the large volume, ambient, optical and opto-mechanical metrology techniques used to verify the mechanical integration of the flight instruments in ISIM, including optical pupil alignment. We present an overview of ISIM's integration and test program, which is in progress, with an emphasis on alignment and optical performance verification. This work is performed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, in close collaboration with the European Space Agency, the Canadian Space Agency, and the Mid-Infrared Instrument European Consortium.

  8. A toolbox of metrology-based techniques for optical system alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Ohl, Raymond G.; Blake, Peter N.; Bos, Brent J.; Chambers, Victor J.; Eichhorn, William L.; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hagopian, John G.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hetherington, Samuel E.; Kubalak, David A.; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph C.; Redman, Kevin W.; Sampler, Henry P.; Wenzel, Greg W.; Young, Jerrod L.

    2016-10-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and its partners have broad experience in the alignment of flight optical instruments and spacecraft structures. Over decades, GSFC developed alignment capabilities and techniques for a variety of optical and aerospace applications. In this paper, we provide an overview of a subset of the capabilities and techniques used on several recent projects in a "toolbox" format. We discuss a range of applications, from small-scale optical alignment of sensors to mirror and bench examples that make use of various large-volume metrology techniques. We also discuss instruments and analytical tools.

  9. NIF Large Optics Metrology Software: Description and Algorithms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W H

    2002-10-15

    Several software packages have been developed for use by NIF large optics vendors during production of NIF optics. These packages allow specific comparison of the interferometer measurements done on optics against the wavefront requirements for those optics, as given on relevant drawings. This document outlines the various packages, and their specific applications, and describes in some detail the calculational algorithms used. It is intended as the primary reference document for the codes (aside from the source codes themselves). In order to ensure good laser beam quality, NIF requires that all large optics be measured with an interferometer to monitor how that optic will affect beam wavefront quality and focusability. Various specifications for transmitted wavefront (TWF) and reflected wavefront (RWF) for the full-aperture parts, and for various sub-apertures, are given on the large optics drawings. For reference, a summary of the various specifications for the NIF large optics is given in Figure 1. Each large optic in production will be measured against some of these specifications. Other specifications will be monitored in a 'process validation' fashion by measuring a representative sample of parts to assure the process is yielding parts which pass specification. This document will focus on the specifications requiring measurements on every part. This document will not go into detail concerning the procedures and limitations of the measurements themselves.

  10. Optical vortex coronagraphs on ground-based telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Charles

    2007-01-01

    The optical vortex coronagraph is potentially a remarkably effective device, at least for an ideal unobstructed telescope. Most ground-based telescopes however suffer from central obscuration and also have to operate through the aberrations of the turbulent atmosphere. This note analyzes the performance of the optical vortex in these circumstances and compares to some other designs, showing that it performs similarly in this situation. There is a large class of coronagraphs of this general type, and choosing between them in particular applications depends on details of performance at small off-axis distances and uniformity of response in the focal plane. Issues of manufacturability to the necessary tolerances are also likely to be important.

  11. Experimental observation of polarization-dependent optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Srisuphaphon, S; Photia, T; Temnuch, W; Chiangga, S; Deachapunya, S

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental demonstration of the induced polarization-dependent optical vortex beams. We use the Talbot configuration as a method to probe this effect. In particular, our simple experiment shows the direct measurement of this observation. Our experiment can exhibit clearly the combination between the polarization and orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of light. This implementation might be useful for further studies in the quantum system or quantum information.

  12. Analysis for the axial force exerted on a micro-particle in the optical vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The axial force exerting to a micro-particle in the TEM01* doughnut mode is calculated by using the ray-optic model. The calculated results show that the optical vortex possesses two advantages in trapping the high-index micro-particles compared with that of the conventional optical tweezers,of which one is the axial force induced by the optical vortex and is three times as great as that of the optical tweezers under the same power level, and the other is of two equilibrium positions in the optical vortex, which indicates that optical vortex is more suitable in trapping particles. Furthermore, the optical vortex can trap the low-index micro-particles, which can not by the conventional optical tweezers.

  13. Magnetic field induced optical vortex beam rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Shuai; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Li, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Shi, Bao-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Light with orbital angular momentum (OAM) has drawn a great deal of attention for its important applications in the fields of precise optical measurements and high capacity optical communications. Here we adopt a method to study the rotation of a light beam, which is based on magnetic field induced circular birefringence in warm 87Rb atomic vapor. The dependence of the rotation angle to the intensity of the magnetic field makes it appropriate for weak magnetic field measurement. We derive a detail theoretical description that is in well agreement with the experimental observations. The experiment shows here provides a new method for precise measurement of magnetic field intensity and expands the application of OAM-carrying light.

  14. Adaptive Optics for EUV Lithography: Phase Retrieval for Wavefront Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, optical lithography is presently the most widespread technology used to print a geometrical pattern on a semiconductor wafer. Because of the plans imposed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for more powerful and smaller chips, new printin

  15. Injection molding lens metrology using software configurable optical test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Cheng; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    Optical plastic lens produced by injection molding machine possesses numerous advantages of light quality, impact resistance, low cost, etc. The measuring methods in the optical shop are mainly interferometry, profile meter. However, these instruments are not only expensive, but also difficult to alignment. The software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) is based on the geometry of the fringe refection and phase measuring deflectometry method (PMD), which can be used to measure large diameter mirror, aspheric and freeform surface rapidly, robustly, and accurately. In addition to the conventional phase shifting method, we propose another data collection method called as dots matrix projection. We also use the Zernike polynomials to correct the camera distortion. This polynomials fitting mapping distortion method has not only simple operation, but also high conversion precision. We simulate this test system to measure the concave surface using CODE V and MATLAB. The simulation results show that the dots matrix projection method has high accuracy and SCOTS has important significance for on-line detection in optical shop.

  16. Adaptive Optics for EUV Lithography: Phase Retrieval for Wavefront Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.

    2014-01-01

    In the semiconductor industry, optical lithography is presently the most widespread technology used to print a geometrical pattern on a semiconductor wafer. Because of the plans imposed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for more powerful and smaller chips, new printin

  17. Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, Laura C; Swann, William C; Rieker, Greg B; Hati, Archita; Iwakuni, Kana; Newbury, Nathan R

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a self-referenced fiber frequency comb that can operate outside the well-controlled optical laboratory. The frequency comb has residual optical linewidths of < 1 Hz, sub-radian residual optical phase noise, and residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of 2.4 - 5 fs, when locked to an optical reference. This fully phase-locked frequency comb has been successfully operated in a moving vehicle with 0.5 g peak accelerations and on a shaker table with a sustained 0.5 g rms integrated acceleration, while retaining its optical coherence and 5-fs-level timing jitter. This frequency comb should enable metrological measurements outside the laboratory with the precision and accuracy that are the hallmarks of comb-based systems. Work of the U.S. government, not subject to copyright

  18. Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L C; Coddington, I; Swann, W C; Rieker, G B; Hati, A; Iwakuni, K; Newbury, N R

    2014-03-24

    We demonstrate a self-referenced fiber frequency comb that can operate outside the well-controlled optical laboratory. The frequency comb has residual optical linewidths of < 1 Hz, sub-radian residual optical phase noise, and residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of 2.4 - 5 fs, when locked to an optical reference. This fully phase-locked frequency comb has been successfully operated in a moving vehicle with 0.5 g peak accelerations and on a shaker table with a sustained 0.5 g rms integrated acceleration, while retaining its optical coherence and 5-fs-level timing jitter. This frequency comb should enable metrological measurements outside the laboratory with the precision and accuracy that are the hallmarks of comb-based systems.

  19. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2007-12-01

    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website http://goldberg.lbl.gov/MetrologyWorkshop07/. Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  20. Quantum metrology. Optically measuring force near the standard quantum limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreppler, Sydney; Spethmann, Nicolas; Brahms, Nathan; Botter, Thierry; Barrios, Maryrose; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M

    2014-06-27

    The Heisenberg uncertainty principle sets a lower bound on the noise in a force measurement based on continuously detecting a mechanical oscillator's position. This bound, the standard quantum limit, can be reached when the oscillator subjected to the force is unperturbed by its environment and when measurement imprecision from photon shot noise is balanced against disturbance from measurement back-action. We applied an external force to the center-of-mass motion of an ultracold atom cloud in a high-finesse optical cavity and measured the resulting motion optically. When the driving force is resonant with the cloud's oscillation frequency, we achieve a sensitivity that is a factor of 4 above the standard quantum limit and consistent with theoretical predictions given the atoms' residual thermal disturbance and the photodetection quantum efficiency.

  1. Laser Metrology for an Optical-Path-Length Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gursel, Yekta

    2005-01-01

    Laser gauges have been developed to satisfy requirements specific to monitoring the amplitude of the motion of an optical-path-length modulator that is part of an astronomical interferometer. The modulator includes a corner-cube retroreflector driven by an electromagnetic actuator. During operation of the astronomical interferometer, the electromagnet is excited to produce linear reciprocating motion of the corner-cube retroreflector at an amplitude of 2 to 4 mm at a frequency of 250, 750, or 1,250 Hz. Attached to the corner-cube retroreflector is a small pick-off mirror. To suppress vibrations, a counterweight having a mass equal to that of the corner-cube retroreflector and pick-off mirror is mounted on another electromagnetic actuator that is excited in opposite phase. Each gauge is required to measure the amplitude of the motion of the pick-off mirror, assuming that the motions of the pick-off mirror and the corner-cube retroreflector are identical, so as to measure the amplitude of motion of the corner- cube retroreflector to within an error of the order of picometers at each excitation frequency. Each gauge is a polarization-insensitive heterodyne interferometer that includes matched collimators, beam separators, and photodiodes (see figure). The light needed for operation of the gauge comprises two pairs of laser beams, the beams in each pair being separated by a beat frequency of 80 kHz. The laser beams are generated by an apparatus, denoted the heterodyne plate, that includes stabilized helium-neon lasers, acousto-optical modulators, and associated optical and electronic subsystems. The laser beams are coupled from the heterodyne plate to the collimators via optical fibers.

  2. Bitter decoration and magneto-optical observations of vortex chains in high temperature superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Tamegai; H Aoki; M Matsui; M Tokunaga

    2006-01-01

    In tilted magnetic fields, vortices in anisotropic superconductors form one-dimensional arrangements, called vortex chains. We have visualized vortex chains by Bitter decoration and magneto-optical technique. The fundamental energy scale for the attractive interaction between pancake and Josephson vortices is evaluated by observing vortex chains under various conditions. We also explore how the vortex chains evolve when the large in-plane field is applied or when the anisotropy parameter of the system is changed.

  3. Metrology and design of gradient-index optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Di

    Gradient-index (GRIN) materials provide interesting ways to direct light propagation inside a bulk medium. Their application in optical systems as compact optical elements offer many advantages such as convenient form factor, unique dispersion characteristics, aberration correction capabilities, etc. With the recent technological advances in the fabrication techniques for these materials, it is reasonable to speculate that arbitrary refract index distributions in GRIN media can be realized in the near future. The integration of GRIN components into optical systems requires accurate knowledge of their refractive index distribution. Numerical methods for recovering the refractive index of the material using boundary value measurements of position and slope for interrogating rays that transit the medium are described. For one-dimensional index profiles, we develop a bootstrap algorithm for recovering the refractive index in successive regions of the overall profile from the boundary value data. We then compare the reconstructed index profile obtained in this method with that of a different method based on ray displacement and show good agreement in computer simulation as well as in experimental measurement. In the case of two-dimensional refractive index distributions, we show that the path integrals describing beam deflection inside the material can be cast in the form of linear algebraic equations using a simplifying assumption that decouples unknown ray trajectories inside the medium from the refractive index. The resulting linear system is inverted numerically to recover the refractive index distribution, and the ray trajectories are subsequently ascertained through an iterative ray trace procedure. Using boundary values of ray position and slope generated from a numerical ray trace, we show that this method can achieve RMS index errors less than 0.5% of the refractive index range. In addition, we explore the application of GRIN components in designing optical

  4. Performance of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Advanced Light Source; Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.

    2008-07-14

    The next generation of synchrotrons and free electron laser facilities requires x-ray optical systems with extremely high performance, generally of diffraction limited quality. Fabrication and use of such optics requires adequate, highly accurate metrology and dedicated instrumentation. Previously, we suggested ways to improve the performance of the Long Trace Profiler (LTP), a slope measuring instrument widely used to characterize x-ray optics at long spatial wavelengths. The main way is use of a CCD detector and corresponding technique for calibration of photo-response non-uniformity [J. L. Kirschman, et al., Proceedings of SPIE 6704, 67040J (2007)]. The present work focuses on the performance and characteristics of the upgraded LTP-II at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory. This includes a review of the overall aspects of the design, control system, the movement and measurement regimes for the stage, and analysis of the performance by a slope measurement of a highly curved super-quality substrate with less than 0.3 microradian (rms)slope variation.

  5. Non-contact optical three dimensional liner metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Sebring, R J; Salazar, M A

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We optically captured the "as- built" geometry of NTLX cylindrical liners for Shiva Star using an ultra-precision ranging laser. We subsequently verified the resulting digitized geometry against the 3D CAD model of the part. The results confirmed that the liner contours are within designed tolerances but revealed subtle fabrication artifacts that would typically go undetected. These features included centimeters long waviness and saddle and bulge regions of 1 micron or less in magnitude. The laser technology typically provided 10 micron spatial resolution with 112 nanometer ranging precision. Atlas liners in the future may have to be diamond turned and will have the centimeter wavelength and 100 angstrom amplitude requirements. The advantages of using laser technology is 1) it avoids surface damage that may occur with conventional contact probes and 2) dramatically improves spatial resolution over CMM, LVDT, capacitance and inductance type probes. Our work is the result of...

  6. Metrology of microcomponents and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004......OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004...

  7. Metrology of microcomponents and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    2004-01-01

    OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004......OH presentation at Conference on "Optical Coordinate Metrology, 3D Digitisation and Reverse Engineering", DTU, 28. oktober 2004...

  8. New metrology techniques improve the production of silicon diffractive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Cynthia B.; Gully-Santiago, Michael; Grigas, Michelle; Jaffe, Daniel T.

    2014-07-01

    Silicon immersion gratings and grisms offer significant advantages in compactness and performance over frontsurface gratings and over grisms made from lower-index materials. At the same time, the high refractive index of Si (3.4) leads to very stringent constraints on the allowable groove position errors, typically rms error of errors and their origins, we could then implement process controls for each step. The plasma uniformity was improved for the silicon nitride mask etch process and the phase contribution of the plasma etch step was measured. We then used grayscale lithography, a technique in which the photoresist is deliberately underexposed, to measure large-scale nonuniformities in the UV exposure system to an accuracy of 3-5%, allowing us to make corrections to the optical alignment. Additionally, we used a new multiple-exposure technique combined with laser interferometry to measure the relationship between UV exposure dose and line edge shift. From these data we predict the contribution of the etching and photolithographic steps to phase error of the grating surface. These measurements indicate that the errors introduced during the exposure step dominate the contributions of all the other processing steps. This paper presents the techniques used to quantify individual process contributions to phase errors and steps that were taken to improve overall phase uniformity.

  9. Controlling multiple filaments by relativistic optical vortex beams in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, L. B.; Huang, T. W.; Xiao, K. D.; Wu, G. Z.; Yang, S. L.; Li, R.; Yang, Y. C.; Long, T. Y.; Zhang, H.; Wu, S. Z.; Qiao, B.; Ruan, S. C.; Zhou, C. T.

    2016-09-01

    Filamentation dynamics of relativistic optical vortex beams (OVBs) propagating in underdense plasma is investigated. It is shown that OVBs with finite orbital angular momentum (OAM) exhibit much more robust propagation behavior than the standard Gaussian beam. In fact, the growth rate of the azimuthal modulational instability decreases rapidly with increase of the OVB topological charge. Thus, relativistic OVBs can maintain their profiles for significantly longer distances in an underdense plasma before filamentation occurs. It is also found that an OVB would then break up into regular filament patterns due to conservation of the OAM, in contrast to a Gaussian laser beam, which in general experiences random filamentation.

  10. Optical phased array radiating optical vortex with manipulated topological charges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang

    2015-02-23

    Optical antennas are key elements in quantum optics emitting and sensing, and behave wide range applications in optical domain. However, integration of optical antenna radiating orbital angular momentum is still a challenge in nano-scale. We theoretically demonstrate a sub-wavelength phased optical antenna array, which manipulates the distribution of the orbital angular momentum in the near field. Orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 4 can be obtained by controlling the phase distribution of the fundamental mode orbital angular momentum in each antenna element. Our results indicate this phased array may be utilized in high integrated optical communication systems.

  11. Theory of vortex-lattice melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantum and temperature fluctuations of a vortex lattice in a one-dimensional optical lattice. We discuss in particular the Bloch bands of the Tkachenko modes and calculate the correlation function of the vortex positions along the direction of the optical lattice. Because of the

  12. Free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuquan; Huang, Sujuan; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Musheng; Zhang, Weibing; Zeng, Junzhang

    2017-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a free-space optical communication link using perfect vortex beams. Perfect vortex beams with different topological charges are generated using a phase-modulation-type spatial light modulator (SLM) loaded with novel phase holograms based on the Bessel function. With the help of a microscope objective and simple lens, perfect vortex beams are transmitted effectively for a certain distance. After completing the demodulation of perfect vortex beams carrying OFDM 16-QAM signals and a series of offline processing on the Gaussian bright spot demodulated from the perfect vortex beams, we also achieve a communication link. The constellations and mean bit error rates (BER) of subcarriers are shown.

  13. Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, J; Yang, Jianke; Musslimani, Ziad

    2003-01-01

    Fundamental and vortex solitons in a two-dimensional optically induced waveguide array are reported. In the strong localization regime, the fundamental soliton is largely confined to one lattice site, while the vortex state comprises of four fundamental modes superimposed in a square configuration with a phase structure that is topologically equivalent to the conventional vortex. However, in the weak localization regime, both the fundamental and vortex solitons spread over many lattice sites. We further show that fundamental and vortex solitons are stable against small perturbations in the strong localization regime.

  14. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.;

    2000-01-01

    telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  15. Fabrication, performance, and figure metrology of epoxy-replicated aluminum foils for hard x-ray focusing multilayer-coated segmented conical optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jimenez-Garate, M.A.; Craig, W.W.; Hailey, C.J.

    2000-01-01

    telescope HPD, we designed a figure metrology system and a new mounting technique. We describe a cylindrical metrology system built for fast axial and roundness figure measurement of hard x-ray conical optics. These developments lower cost and improve the optics performance of the HEFT (high-energy focusing...

  16. Axial-Stereo 3-D Optical Metrology for Inner Profile of Pipes Using a Scanning Laser Endoscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yuanzheng; Johnston, Richard S; Melville, C David; Seibel, Eric J

    As the rapid progress in the development of optoelectronic components and computational power, 3D optical metrology becomes more and more popular in manufacturing and quality control due to its flexibility and high speed. However, most of the optical metrology methods are limited to external surfaces. This paper proposed a new approach to measure tiny internal 3D surfaces with a scanning fiber endoscope and axial-stereo vision algorithm. A dense, accurate point cloud of internally machined threads was generated to compare with its corresponding X-ray 3D data as ground truth, and the quantification was analyzed by Iterative Closest Points algorithm.

  17. Q-switched Nd:YAG optical vortex lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D J; Kim, J W; Clarkson, W A

    2013-12-02

    Q-switched operation of a high-quality Nd:YAG optical vortex laser with the first order Laguerre-Gaussian mode and well-determined helical wavefronts using a fiber-based pump beam conditioning scheme is reported. A simple two-mirror resonator incorporating an acousto-optic Q-switch was employed, along with an etalon and a Brewster plate to enforce the particular helicity of the output. The laser yielded Q-switched pulses with ~250 μJ pulse energy and ~33 ns pulse duration (FWHM) at a 0.1 kHz repetition rate for 5.1 W of absorbed pump power. The handedness of the helical wavefronts was preserved regardless of the repetition rates. The prospects of further power scaling and improved laser performance are discussed.

  18. Observation of an optical vortex beam from a helical undulator in the XUV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyasu, Tatsuo; Hikosaka, Yasumasa; Fujimoto, Masaki; Iwayama, Hiroshi; Hosaka, Masahito; Shigemasa, Eiji; Katoh, Masahiro

    2017-09-01

    The observation of an optical vortex beam at 60 nm wavelength, produced as the second-harmonic radiation from a helical undulator, is reported. The helical wavefront of the optical vortex beam was verified by measuring the interference pattern between the vortex beam from a helical undulator and a normal beam from another undulator. Although the interference patterns were slightly blurred owing to the relatively large electron beam emittance, it was possible to observe the interference features thanks to the helical wavefront of the vortex beam. The experimental results were well reproduced by simulation.

  19. X-ray optical systems: from metrology to Point Spread Function

    CERN Document Server

    Spiga, D

    2015-01-01

    One of the problems often encountered in X-ray mirror manufacturing is setting proper manufacturing tolerances to guarantee an angular resolution - often expressed in terms of Point Spread Function (PSF) - as needed by the specific science goal. To do this, we need an accurate metrological apparatus, covering a very broad range of spatial frequencies, and an affordable method to compute the PSF from the metrology dataset. [...] However, the separation between these spectral ranges is difficult do define exactly, and it is also unclear how to affordably combine the PSFs, computed with different methods in different spectral ranges, into a PSF expectation at a given X-ray energy. For this reason, we have proposed a method entirely based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffracted field of real Wolter-I optics, including measured defects over a wide range of spatial frequencies. Owing to the shallow angles at play, the computation can be simplified limiting the computation to the longitudinal prof...

  20. Numerical study of the properties of optical vortex array laser tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Chun-Fu; Chu, Shu-Chun

    2013-11-01

    Chu et al. constructed a kind of Ince-Gaussian modes (IGM)-based vortex array laser beams consisting of p x p embedded optical vortexes from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e)(p,p) modes [Opt. Express 16, 19934 (2008)]. Such an IGM-based vortex array laser beams maintains its vortex array profile during both propagation and focusing, and is applicable to optical tweezers. This study uses the discrete dipole approximation (DDA) method to study the properties of the IGM-based vortex array laser tweezers while it traps dielectric particles. This study calculates the resultant force exerted on the spherical dielectric particles of different sizes situated at the IGM-based vortex array laser beam waist. Numerical results show that the number of trapping spots of a structure light (i.e. IGM-based vortex laser beam), is depended on the relation between the trapped particle size and the structure light beam size. While the trapped particle is small comparing to the beam size of the IGM-based vortex array laser beams, the IGM-based vortex array laser beams tweezers are suitable for multiple traps. Conversely, the tweezers is suitable for single traps. The results of this study is useful to the future development of the vortex array laser tweezers applications.

  1. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-4, Angle Measurement Instruments, Optical Projections and Surface Texture Gages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This fourth in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the universal bevel protractor and the sine bar, the engineering microscope and optical projector, and several types of surface texture gages. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3)…

  2. Analysis of Optical Fiber Complex Propagation Matrix on the Basis of Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng;

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel method for reconstruction of the complex propagation matrix of optical fibers supporting propagation of multiple vortex modes. This method is based on the azimuthal decomposition approach and allows the complex matrix elements to be determined...... by direct calculations. We apply the proposed method to demonstrate the feasibility of optical compensation for coupling between vortex modes in optical fiber....

  3. Editorial: 3DIM-DS 2015: Optical image processing in the context of 3D imaging, metrology, and data security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalou, Ayman

    2017-02-01

    Following the first International Symposium on 3D Imaging, Metrology, and Data Security (3DIM-DS) held in Shenzhen during september 2015, this special issue gathers a series of articles dealing with the main topics discussed during this symposium. These topics highlighted the importance of studying complex data treatment systems and intensive calculations designed for high dimensional imaging and metrology for which high image quality and high transmission speed become critical issues in a number of technological applications. A second purpose was to celebrate the International Year of Light by emphasizing the important role of optics in actual information processing systems.

  4. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  5. Vortex-lattice melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantum fluctuations of a vortex lattice in a one-dimensional optical lattice. Our method gives full access to all the modes of the vortex lattice and we discuss in particular the Bloch bands of the Tkachenko modes. Because of the small number of particles in the pancake

  6. Vortex-lattice melting in a one-dimensional optical lattice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate quantum fluctuations of a vortex lattice in a one-dimensional optical lattice for realistic numbers of particles and vortices. Our method gives full access to all the modes of the vortex lattice and we discuss in particular the Bloch bands of the Tkachenko modes. Because of the

  7. Time-dependent evolution of an optical vortex in photorefractive media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    We study the transient decay and rotation of a singly charged optical vortex in media with a photorefractive nonlinearity under conditions where the light intensity is high compared to the saturation intensity. Transient decay of an initially circular vortex is characterized by charge...

  8. Multi-colour microscopic interferometry for optical metrology and imaging applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit; Nandigana, Krishna Mohan; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry has been widely used for optical metrology and imaging applications because of their precision, reliability, and versatility. Although single-wavelength interferometery can provide high sensitivity and resolution, it has several drawbacks, namely, it fails to quantify large-discontinuities, large-deformations, and shape of unpolished surfaces. Multiple-wavelength techniques have been successfully used to overcome the drawbacks associated with single wavelength analysis. The use of colour CCD camera allows simultaneous acquisition of multiple interferograms. The advances in colour CCD cameras and image processing techniques have made the multi-colour interferometry a faster, simpler, and cost-effective tool for industrial applications. This article reviews the recent advances in multi-colour interferometric techniques and their demanding applications for characterization of micro-systems, non-destructive testing, and bio-imaging applications.

  9. High-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for MEMS metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orłowska, Karolina; Świątkowski, Michał; Kunicki, Piotr; Kopiec, Daniel; Gotszalk, Teodor

    2016-08-01

    We report on the design, properties, and applications of a high-resolution and wide-bandwidth light intensity fiber optic displacement sensor for microelectromechanical system (MEMS) metrology. There are two types of structures that the system is dedicated to: vibrating with both high and low frequencies. In order to ensure high-frequency and high-resolution measurements, frequency down mixing and selective signal processing were applied. The obtained effective measuring bandwidth ranges from single hertz to 1 megahertz. The achieved resolution presented here is 116  pm/Hz1/2 and 138  pm/Hz1/2 for low-frequency and high-frequency operation modes, respectively, whereas the measurement of static displacement is 100 μm.

  10. Metrology for the Development of High Energy X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Ramsey, Brian; Engelhaupt, Darell; Dpeegle, Chet

    2005-01-01

    We are developing grazing incidence x-ray optics for a balloon-borne hard-x-ray telescope (HERO). The instrument will have 200 sq cm effective collecting area at 40 keV and an angular resolution goal of 15 arcsec. The HERO mirror shells are fabricated using electroform-nickel replication off super-polished cylindrical mandrels. The angular resolution goal puts stringent requirements on the quality of x-ray mirrors and, hence, on mandrel quality. We used metrology in an iterative approach to monitor and refine the x- ray mirror fabrication process. Comparison of surface figure and microroughness measurements of the mandrel and the shells will be presented together with results from x-ray tests.

  11. Study on optical fabrication and metrology of precise convex aspheric mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huijun; Xu, Jin; Wang, Peng; Li, Ang; Guo, Wen; Du, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fabrication and metrology technologies are studied in the paper to improve the accuracy of surface figure of a convex aspheric mirror. First, the main specifications of a convex aspheric mirror which is chosen to be the secondary mirror of an optical system are presented. The aperture of the mirror is 400mm. The mirror is made of ultra-low expansion (ULE) glass with honeycomb sandwich structure to get the ideal lightweight requirement. Then the mirror is surfaced by ultrasonic grinding, smart robot lapping and smart robot polishing processes relatively. Large-apertured tool is applied to reduce the mid-frequency surface error. Both the contour measuring method in the grinding and lapping stage and the measuring method with meniscus lens and its calibration mirror in the polishing stage are studied. The final surface figure of the mirror is that the root mean-square value (RMS value) is 0.016λ (λ=632.8nm), which meets the requirement of the optical system. The results show that the forging surfacing processes and measuring methods are accurate and efficient to fabricate the convex aspheric mirror and can be applied in optical fabrication for larger-apertured convex aspheric mirrors.

  12. Optical vortex knots – one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempone-Wiltshire, Sebastien J.; Johnstone, Shaun P.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Feynman described the double slit experiment as “a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics”. The double-slit experiment, performed one photon at a time, dramatically demonstrates the particle-wave duality of quantum objects by generating a fringe pattern corresponding to the interference of light (a wave phenomenon) from two slits, even when there is only one photon (a particle) at a time passing through the apparatus. The particle-wave duality of light should also apply to complex three dimensional optical fields formed by multi-path interference, however, this has not been demonstrated. Here we observe particle-wave duality of a three dimensional field by generating a trefoil optical vortex knot – one photon at a time. This result demonstrates a fundamental physical principle, that particle-wave duality implies interference in both space (between spatially distinct modes) and time (through the complex evolution of the superposition of modes), and has implications for topologically entangled single photon states, orbital angular momentum multiplexing and topological quantum computing. PMID:27087642

  13. Optical vortex knots - one photon at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempone-Wiltshire, Sebastien J.; Johnstone, Shaun P.; Helmerson, Kristian

    2016-04-01

    Feynman described the double slit experiment as “a phenomenon which is impossible, absolutely impossible, to explain in any classical way and which has in it the heart of quantum mechanics”. The double-slit experiment, performed one photon at a time, dramatically demonstrates the particle-wave duality of quantum objects by generating a fringe pattern corresponding to the interference of light (a wave phenomenon) from two slits, even when there is only one photon (a particle) at a time passing through the apparatus. The particle-wave duality of light should also apply to complex three dimensional optical fields formed by multi-path interference, however, this has not been demonstrated. Here we observe particle-wave duality of a three dimensional field by generating a trefoil optical vortex knot - one photon at a time. This result demonstrates a fundamental physical principle, that particle-wave duality implies interference in both space (between spatially distinct modes) and time (through the complex evolution of the superposition of modes), and has implications for topologically entangled single photon states, orbital angular momentum multiplexing and topological quantum computing.

  14. An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OSI proposes to develop a wake vortex detection system including a group of double-ended and single-ended optical scintillometers properly deployed in the airfield...

  15. Towards a Uniform Metrological Assessment of Grating-Based Optical Fiber Sensors: From Refractometers to Biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavaioli, Francesco; Gouveia, Carlos A J; Jorge, Pedro A S; Baldini, Francesco

    2017-06-21

    A metrological assessment of grating-based optical fiber sensors is proposed with the aim of providing an objective evaluation of the performance of this sensor category. Attention was focused on the most common parameters, used to describe the performance of both optical refractometers and biosensors, which encompassed sensitivity, with a distinction between volume or bulk sensitivity and surface sensitivity, resolution, response time, limit of detection, specificity (or selectivity), reusability (or regenerability) and some other parameters of generic interest, such as measurement uncertainty, accuracy, precision, stability, drift, repeatability and reproducibility. Clearly, the concepts discussed here can also be applied to any resonance-based sensor, thus providing the basis for an easier and direct performance comparison of a great number of sensors published in the literature up to now. In addition, common mistakes present in the literature made for the evaluation of sensor performance are highlighted, and lastly a uniform performance assessment is discussed and provided. Finally, some design strategies will be proposed to develop a grating-based optical fiber sensing scheme with improved performance.

  16. Evaluating a hybrid three-dimensional metrology system: merging data from optical and touch probe devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerde, Janice R.; Christens-Barry, William A.

    2011-08-01

    In a project to meet requirements for CBP Laboratory analysis of footwear under the Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (HTSUS), a hybrid metrology system comprising both optical and touch probe devices has been assembled. A unique requirement must be met: To identify the interface-typically obscured in samples of concern-of the "external surface area upper" (ESAU) and the sole without physically destroying the sample. The sample outer surface is determined by discrete point cloud coordinates obtained using laser scanner optical measurements. Measurements from the optically inaccessible insole region are obtained using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). That surface similarly is defined by point cloud data. Mathematically, the individual CMM and scanner data sets are transformed into a single, common reference frame. Custom software then fits a polynomial surface to the insole data and extends it to intersect the mesh fitted to the outer surface point cloud. This line of intersection defines the required ESAU boundary, thus permitting further fractional area calculations to determine the percentage of materials present. With a draft method in place, and first-level method validation underway, we examine the transformation of the two dissimilar data sets into the single, common reference frame. We also will consider the six previously-identified potential error factors versus the method process. This paper reports our on-going work and discusses our findings to date.

  17. Experimental demonstration of free-space optical vortex transmutation with polygonal lenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Nan; Xie, Changqing

    2012-08-01

    Vortex transmutation was predicted to take place when vortices interact with systems possessing discrete rotational symmetries of finite order [Phys. Rev. Lett.95, 123901 (2005)]. Here we report what is believed to be the first experimental demonstration of vortex transmutation. We show that in free space, by simply inserting polygonal lenses into the optical path, the central vorticity of a coaxially incident optical vortex can be changed following the modular transmutation rule. We generate the wavefront at the exit face of the lenses with computer generated holograms and measure the output vorticity using the interference patterns at the focal plane. The results agree well with theoretical predictions.

  18. Coupling characterization and noise studies of the optical metrology system onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Gerndt, Rüdiger; Johann, Ulrich; Luetzow-Wentzky, Peter; Wand, Vinzenz; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Garcia-Marin, Antonio; Heinzel, Gerhard; Nofrarias, Miquel; Steier, Frank

    2010-10-10

    We describe the first investigations of the complete engineering model of the optical metrology system (OMS), a key subsystem of the LISA Pathfinder science mission to space. The latter itself is a technological precursor mission to LISA, a spaceborne gravitational wave detector. At its core, the OMS consists of four heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometers, a highly stable laser with an external modulator, and a phase meter. It is designed to monitor and track the longitudinal motion and attitude of two floating test masses in the optical reference frame with (relative) precision in the picometer and nanorad range, respectively. We analyze sensor signal correlations and determine a physical sensor noise limit. The coupling parameters between motional degrees of freedom and interferometer signals are analytically derived and compared to measurements. We also measure adverse cross-coupling effects originating from system imperfections and limitations and describe algorithmic mitigation techniques to overcome some of them. Their impact on system performance is analyzed within the context of the Pathfinder mission.

  19. Linear optical quantum metrology with single photons: exploiting spontaneously generated entanglement to beat the shot-noise limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motes, Keith R; Olson, Jonathan P; Rabeaux, Evan J; Dowling, Jonathan P; Olson, S Jay; Rohde, Peter P

    2015-05-01

    Quantum number-path entanglement is a resource for supersensitive quantum metrology and in particular provides for sub-shot-noise or even Heisenberg-limited sensitivity. However, such number-path entanglement has been thought to be resource intensive to create in the first place--typically requiring either very strong nonlinearities, or nondeterministic preparation schemes with feedforward, which are difficult to implement. Very recently, arising from the study of quantum random walks with multiphoton walkers, as well as the study of the computational complexity of passive linear optical interferometers fed with single-photon inputs, it has been shown that such passive linear optical devices generate a superexponentially large amount of number-path entanglement. A logical question to ask is whether this entanglement may be exploited for quantum metrology. We answer that question here in the affirmative by showing that a simple, passive, linear-optical interferometer--fed with only uncorrelated, single-photon inputs, coupled with simple, single-mode, disjoint photodetection--is capable of significantly beating the shot-noise limit. Our result implies a pathway forward to practical quantum metrology with readily available technology.

  20. The end-to-end testbed of the Optical Metrology System on-board LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Steier, Frank; Marín, Antonio F García; Gerardi, Domenico; Heinzel, Gerhard; Danzmann, Karsten; 10.1088/0264-9381/26/9/094010

    2012-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). The main experiment on-board LISA Pathfinder is the so-called LISA Technology Package (LTP) which has the aim to measure the differential acceleration between two free-falling test masses with an accuracy of 3x10^(-14) ms^(-2)/sqrt[Hz] between 1 mHz and 30 mHz. This measurement is performed interferometrically by the Optical Metrology System (OMS) on-board LISA Pathfinder. In this paper we present the development of an experimental end-to-end testbed of the entire OMS. It includes the interferometer and its sub-units, the interferometer back-end which is a phasemeter and the processing of the phasemeter output data. Furthermore, 3-axes piezo actuated mirrors are used instead of the free-falling test masses for the characterisation of the dynamic behaviour of the system and some parts of the Drag-free and Attitude Control System (DFACS) which controls the test masses and the satellite. The end-to-end testbe...

  1. Vortex algebra by multiply cascaded four-wave mixing of femtosecond optical beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansinger, Peter; Maleshkov, Georgi; Garanovich, Ivan L; Skryabin, Dmitry V; Neshev, Dragomir N; Dreischuh, Alexander; Paulus, Gerhard G

    2014-05-05

    Experiments performed with different vortex pump beams show for the first time the algebra of the vortex topological charge cascade, that evolves in the process of nonlinear wave mixing of optical vortex beams in Kerr media due to competition of four-wave mixing with self-and cross-phase modulation. This leads to the coherent generation of complex singular beams within a spectral bandwidth larger than 200nm. Our experimental results are in good agreement with frequency-domain numerical calculations that describe the newly generated spectral satellites.

  2. Generation of optical vortex dipole from superposition of two transversely scaled Gaussian beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Dinesh N; Pradeep Chakravarthy, T; Viswanathan, Nirmal K

    2016-04-20

    We propose a distinct concept on the generation of optical vortex through coupling between the amplitude and phase differences of the superposing beams. For the proof-of-concept demonstration, we propose a simple free-space optics recipe for the controlled synthesis of an optical beam with a vortex dipole by superposing two transversely scaled Gaussian beams. The experimental demonstration using a Sagnac interferometer introduces the desired amount of radial shear and linear phase difference between the two out-of-phase Gaussian beams to create a vortex pair of opposite topological charge in the superposed beam. Flexibility to tune their location and separation using the choice of direction of the linear phase difference and the amount of amplitude difference between the superposing beams has potential applications in optical tweezers and traps utilizing the local variation in angular momentum across the beam cross section.

  3. Optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from plasmonic vortex lens to light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Yang, Haifang; Xu, Xiangang; Wang, Zhengping; Petrov, V; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-11-12

    We demonstrate the optical orbital angular momentum conservation during the transfer process from subwavelength plasmonic vortex lens (PVLs) to light and the generating process of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Illuminating plasmonic vortex lenses with beams carrying optical orbital angular momentum, the SP vortices with orbital angular momentum were generated and inherit the optical angular momentum of light beams and PVLs. The angular momentum of twisting SP electromagnetic field is tunable by the twisted metal/dielectric interfaces of PVLs and angular momentum of illuminating singular light. This work may open the door for several possible applications of SP vortices in subwavelength region.

  4. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  5. INNOVATIVE NON-CONTACT METROLOGY SOLUTIONS FOR LARGE OPTICAL TELESCOPES Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA has unique non-contact precision metrology requirements for dimensionally inspecting the global position and orientation of large and highly-polished...

  6. Coherent Laser Radar Metrology System for Large Scale Optical Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A new type of laser radar metrology inspection system is proposed that incorporates a novel, dual laser coherent detection scheme capable of eliminating both...

  7. Numerical simulation of optical vortex propagation and reflection by the methods of scalar diffraction theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Nikolay V; Pavlov, Pavel V; Malov, A N

    2013-06-30

    Using the equations of scalar diffraction theory we consider the formation of an optical vortex on a diffractive optical element. The algorithms are proposed for simulating the processes of propagation of spiral wavefronts in free space and their reflections from surfaces with different roughness parameters. The given approach is illustrated by the results of numerical simulations. (propagation of wave fronts)

  8. Application of measurement configuration optimization for accurate metrology of sub-wavelength dimensions in multilayer gratings using optical scatterometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinlong; Shi, Yating; Goddard, Lynford L; Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-09-01

    Critical dimension measurement accuracy in optical scatterometry relies not only on the systematic noise level of instruments and the reliability of forward modeling algorithms, but also heavily on the measurement configuration. To construct a set of potentially high-accuracy configurations, we apply a general measurement configuration optimization method based on error propagation theory and singular value decomposition, by which the measurement accuracy is approximated as a function of a pseudo Jacobian with respect to the measurement configurations. Simulations and experiments for the optical metrology of a sub-wavelength deep-etched multilayer grating establish the feasibility of the proposed method.

  9. Reliable Optical Pump Architecture for Highly Coherent Lasers Used in Space Metrology Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlig, Herman; Qiu, Yueming; Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y.; Meras, Patrick L.; Chang, Daniel H.; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The design and initial demonstration of a laser pump module (LPM) incorporating single-mode, grating-stabilized 808-nm diode lasers and a low-loss, high-port-count optical combiner are completed. The purpose of the developed LPM is to reliably pump an Nd:YAG crystal in the laser head (LH), which serves as the optical metrology source for SIMLite mission. Using the narrow-linewidth, single-mode laser diodes enables placement of the pump power near Nd adsorption peak, which enhances pumping efficiency. Grating stabilization allows for stable pump spectra as diode operating temperature and bias current change. The low-loss, high-port-count optical combiner enables efficient combining of tens of pumps. Overall, the module supports 5+ years of continuous operation at 2 W of pump power with reliability approaching 100 percent. The LPM consists of a laser diode farm (LDF) and a pump beam combiner (PBC). An array of 807- to 808-nm fiber-pigtailed laser diodes makes up the LDF. A Bragg grating in each 5- m core single-mode (SM) fiber pigtail acts to stabilize the lasing spectra over a range of diode operating conditions. These commercially available single-mode laser diodes can deliver up to 150 mW of optical power. The outputs from the multiple pumps in the LDF are routed to the PBC, which is a 37-input by 1-output all-fiber device. The input ports consist of 5- m core SM fiber, while the output port consists of 105- m core, 0.15 NA (numerical aperture) multi-mode (MM) fiber. The combiner is fabricated by fusing the 37 input fibers while simultaneously tapering the fused region. At the completion of this process, the MM fiber is spliced to the end of the adiabatic taper, and, for protection, the combiner is sheathed by a capillary tube. A compact and robust metal housing was designed and fabricated to protect the PBC during space deployment.

  10. Driven optical matter: Dynamics of electrodynamically coupled nanoparticles in an optical ring vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figliozzi, Patrick; Sule, Nishant; Yan, Zijie; Bao, Ying; Burov, Stanislav; Gray, Stephen K.; Rice, Stuart A.; Vaikuntanathan, Suriyanarayanan; Scherer, Norbert F.

    2017-02-01

    To date investigations of the dynamics of driven colloidal systems have focused on hydrodynamic interactions and often employ optical (laser) tweezers for manipulation. However, the optical fields that provide confinement and drive also result in electrodynamic interactions that are generally neglected. We address this issue with a detailed study of interparticle dynamics in an optical ring vortex trap using 150-nm diameter Ag nanoparticles. We term the resultant electrodynamically interacting nanoparticles a driven optical matter system. We also show that a superior trap is created by using a Au nanoplate mirror in a retroreflection geometry, which increases the electric field intensity, the optical drive force, and spatial confinement. Using nanoparticles versus micron sized colloids significantly reduces the surface hydrodynamic friction allowing us to access small values of optical topological charge and drive force. We quantify a further 50% reduction of hydrodynamic friction when the nanoparticles are driven over the Au nanoplate mirrors versus over a mildly electrostatically repulsive glass surface. Further, we demonstrate through experiments and electrodynamics-Langevin dynamics simulations that the optical drive force and the interparticle interactions are not constant around the ring for linearly polarized light, resulting in a strong position-dependent variation in the nanoparticle velocity. The nonuniformity in the optical drive force is also manifest as an increase in fluctuations of interparticle separation, or effective temperature, as the optical driving force is increased. Finally, we resolve an open issue in the literature on periodic modulation of interparticle separation with comparative measurements of driven 300-nm-diameter polystyrene beads that also clearly reveal the significance of electrodynamic forces and interactions in optically driven colloidal systems. Therefore, the modulations in the optical forces and electrodynamic interactions

  11. Entangled vector vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ambrosio, Vincenzo; Carvacho, Gonzalo; Graffitti, Francesco; Vitelli, Chiara; Piccirillo, Bruno; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Sciarrino, Fabio

    2016-09-01

    Light beams having a vectorial field structure, or polarization, that varies over the transverse profile and a central optical singularity are called vector vortex (VV) beams and may exhibit specific properties such as focusing into "light needles" or rotation invariance. VV beams have already found applications in areas ranging from microscopy to metrology, optical trapping, nano-optics, and quantum communication. Individual photons in such beams exhibit a form of single-particle quantum entanglement between different degrees of freedom. On the other hand, the quantum states of two photons can be also entangled with each other. Here, we combine these two concepts and demonstrate the generation of quantum entanglement between two photons that are both in VV states: a form of entanglement between two complex vectorial fields. This result may lead to quantum-enhanced applications of VV beams as well as to quantum information protocols fully exploiting the vectorial features of light.

  12. Evolution of the phase singularities in edge-diffracted optical-vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bekshaev, Aleksandr; Chernykh, Aleksey; Khoroshun, Anna

    2016-01-01

    We study, both theoretically and by experiment, migration of the amplitude zeros within a fixed cross section of the edge-diffracted optical-vortex beam, when the screen edge performs permanent translation in the transverse plane from the beam periphery towards the axis. Generally, the amplitude zeros (optical-vortex cores) describe spiral-like trajectories. When the screen edge advances uniformly, the motion of the amplitude zeros is not smooth and sometimes shows anomalously high rates, which make an impression of instantaneous "jumps" from one position to another. We analyze the nature, conditions and mechanism of these jumps and show that they are associated with the "birth - annihilation" topological reactions involving the optical vortex dipoles.

  13. Phame: a novel phase metrology tool of Carl Zeiss for in-die phase measurements under scanner relevant optical settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlitz, Sascha; Buttgereit, Ute; Scherübl, Thomas

    2007-03-01

    Meeting the demands of the lithography mask manufacturing industry moving toward 45nm and 32nm node for in-die phase metrology on phase shifting masks, Zeiss is currently developing an optical phase measurement tool (Phame TM), providing the capability of extending process control from large CD test features to in-die phase shifting features with high spatial resolution. In collaboration with Intel, the necessity of designing this optical metrology tool according to the optical setup of a lithographic exposure tool (scanner) has been researched to be fundamental for the acquisition of phase information generated from features the size of the used wavelength. Main cause is the dependence of the image phase of a scanner on polarization and the angle of incidence of the illumination light due to rigorous effects, and on the imaging NA of the scanner due to the loss of phase information in the imaging pupil. The resulting scanner phase in the image plane only coincides with the etch-depth equivalent phase for large test features, exceeding the size of the in-die feature by an order of magnitude. In this paper we introduce the Phame TM phase metrology tool, using a 193nm light source with the optical capability of phase measurement at scanner NA up to the equivalent of a NA1.6 immersion scanner, under varying, scanner relevant angle of incidence for EAPSMs and CPLs, and with the possibility of polarizing the illuminating light. New options for phase shifting mask process control on in-die features will be outlined with first measurement results.

  14. Industrial graphene metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Jennifer Reiber; Ozkan, Cengiz S; Ozkan, Mihrimah

    2012-07-07

    Graphene is an allotrope of carbon whose structure is based on one-atom-thick planar sheets of carbon atoms that are densely packed in a honeycomb crystal lattice. Its unique electrical and optical properties raised worldwide interest towards the design and fabrication of future electronic and optical devices with unmatched performance. At the moment, extensive efforts are underway to evaluate the reliability and performance of a number of such devices. With the recent advances in synthesizing large-area graphene sheets, engineers have begun investigating viable methodologies for conducting graphene metrology and quality control at industrial scales to understand a variety of reliability issues including defects, patternability, electrical, and physical properties. This review summarizes the current state of industrial graphene metrology and provides an overview of graphene metrology techniques. In addition, a recently developed large-area graphene metrology technique based on fluorescence quenching is introduced. For each metrology technique, the industrial metrics it measures are identified--layer thickness, edge structure, defects, Fermi level, and thermal conductivity--and a detailed description is provided as to how the measurements are performed. Additionally, the potential advantages of each technique for industrial use are identified, including throughput, scalability, sensitivity to substrate/environment, and on their demonstrated ability to achieve quantified results. The recently developed fluorescence-quenching metrology technique is shown to meet all the necessary criteria for industrial applications, rendering it the first industry-ready graphene metrology technique.

  15. Dimensional metrology of lab-on-a-chip internal structures: a comparison of optical coherence tomography with confocal fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D R; Halter, M; Hwang, J

    2015-07-01

    The characterization of internal structures in a polymeric microfluidic device, especially of a final product, will require a different set of optical metrology tools than those traditionally used for microelectronic devices. We demonstrate that optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging is a promising technique to characterize the internal structures of poly(methyl methacrylate) devices where the subsurface structures often cannot be imaged by conventional wide field optical microscopy. The structural details of channels in the devices were imaged with OCT and analyzed with an in-house written ImageJ macro in an effort to identify the structural details of the channel. The dimensional values obtained with OCT were compared with laser-scanning confocal microscopy images of channels filled with a fluorophore solution. Attempts were also made using confocal reflectance and interferometry microscopy to measure the channel dimensions, but artefacts present in the images precluded quantitative analysis. OCT provided the most accurate estimates for the channel height based on an analysis of optical micrographs obtained after destructively slicing the channel with a microtome. OCT may be a promising technique for the future of three-dimensional metrology of critical internal structures in lab-on-a-chip devices because scans can be performed rapidly and noninvasively prior to their use.

  16. On the characterization of ultra-precise X-ray optical components: advances and challenges in ex situ metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siewert, F; Buchheim, J; Zeschke, T; Störmer, M; Falkenberg, G; Sankari, R

    2014-09-01

    To fully exploit the ultimate source properties of the next-generation light sources, such as free-electron lasers (FELs) and diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), the quality requirements for gratings and reflective synchrotron optics, especially mirrors, have significantly increased. These coherence-preserving optical components for high-brightness sources will feature nanoscopic shape accuracies over macroscopic length scales up to 1000 mm. To enable high efficiency in terms of photon flux, such optics will be coated with application-tailored single or multilayer coatings. Advanced thin-film fabrication of today enables the synthesis of layers on the sub-nanometre precision level over a deposition length of up to 1500 mm. Specifically dedicated metrology instrumentation of comparable accuracy has been developed to characterize such optical elements. Second-generation slope-measuring profilers like the nanometre optical component measuring machine (NOM) at the BESSY-II Optics laboratory allow the inspection of up to 1500 mm-long reflective optical components with an accuracy better than 50 nrad r.m.s. Besides measuring the shape on top of the coated mirror, it is of particular interest to characterize the internal material properties of the mirror coating, which is the domain of X-rays. Layer thickness, density and interface roughness of single and multilayer coatings are investigated by means of X-ray reflectometry. In this publication recent achievements in the field of slope measuring metrology are shown and the characterization of different types of mirror coating demonstrated. Furthermore, upcoming challenges to the inspection of ultra-precise optical components designed to be used in future FEL and DLSR beamlines are discussed.

  17. Coherent double-color interference microscope for traceable optical surface metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovski, I.; França, R. S.; Bessa, M. S.; Silva, C. R.; Couceiro, I. B.

    2016-06-01

    Interference microscopy is an important field of dimensional surface metrology because it provides direct traceability of the measurements to the SI base unit definition of the metre. With a typical measurement range from micrometres to nanometres interference microscopy (IM) covers the gap between classic metrology and nanometrology, providing continuous transfer of dimensional metrology into new areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Therefore IM is considered to be an indispensable tool for traceable transfer of the metre unit to different instruments. We report here the metrological study of an absolute Linnik interference microscope (IM) based on two frequency stabilized lasers. The design permits the flexible use of both lasers for measurements depending on the demand of the concrete measurement task. By principle of operation IM is combination of imaging and phase-shifting interferometry (PSI). The traceability is provided by the wavelength reference, that is, a He-Ne 633 nm stabilized laser. The second laser source, that is, a Blue-Green 488 nm grating stabilized laser diode, is used for improvements of resolution, and also for resolving integer fringe discontinuities on sharp features of the surface. The IM was optimized for surface height metrology. We have performed the study of the systematic effects of the measurements. This study allowed us to improve the hardware and software of IM and to find corrections for main systematic errors. The IM is purposed for 1D to 3D height metrology and surface topography in an extended range from nanometres to micrometres. The advantages and disadvantages of the design and developed methods are discussed.

  18. Quantum-enhanced metrology with the single-mode coherent states of an optical cavity inside a quantum feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lewis A.; Stokes, Adam; Beige, Almut

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we use the nonlinear generator of dynamics of the individual quantum trajectories of an optical cavity inside an instantaneous quantum feedback loop to measure the phase shift between two pathways of light with a precision above the standard quantum limit. The feedback laser provides a reference frame and constantly increases the dependence of the state of the resonator on the unknown phase. Since our quantum metrology scheme can be implemented with current technology and does not require highly efficient single photon detectors, it should be of practical interest until highly entangled many-photon states become more readily available.

  19. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  20. Shaping perfect optical vortex with amplitude modulated using a digital micro-mirror device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonglei; Min, Changjun; Yuan, X.-C.

    2016-12-01

    We propose a technique to generate of perfect optical vortex (POV) via Fourier transformation of Bessel-Gauss (BG) beams through encoding of the amplitude of the optical field with binary amplitude digital micro-mirrors device (DMD). Furthermore, we confirm the correct phase patterns of the POV with the method of Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our approach to generate the POV has the advantages that rapidly switch among the different modes, wide spectral regions and high energy tolerance. Since the POV possess propagation properties that not shape-invariant, we therefore suppose that our proposed approach will find potential applications in optical microscopy, optical fabrication, and optical communication.

  1. All-optical Data Vortex node using an MZI-SOA switch array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H.D.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Koonen, A.M.J.;

    2007-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a new structure of a Data Vortex switch node for all-optical routing of wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) 10-Gb/s optical packets. The proposed node consists of two Mach-Zehnder interferometers with integrated semiconductor optical amplifier: an optical AND gate...... and a high-speed optical switch. In the experiment, WDM 10-Gb/s data packets are successfully routed with 1-dB power penalty at a bit-error rate of 10(-9)....

  2. Performance of the primary mirror center-of-curvature optical metrology system during cryogenic testing of the JWST Pathfinder telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Wells, Conrad; Olczak, Gene; Waldman, Mark; Whitman, Tony; Cosentino, Joseph; Connolly, Mark; Chaney, David; Telfer, Randal

    2016-07-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) primary mirror (PM) is 6.6 m in diameter and consists of 18 hexagonal segments, each 1.5 m point-to-point. Each segment has a six degree-of-freedom hexapod actuation system and a radius of-curvature (RoC) actuation system. The full telescope will be tested at its cryogenic operating temperature at Johnson Space Center. This testing will include center-of-curvature measurements of the PM, using the Center-of-Curvature Optical Assembly (COCOA) and the Absolute Distance Meter Assembly (ADMA). The COCOA includes an interferometer, a reflective null, an interferometer-null calibration system, coarse and fine alignment systems, and two displacement measuring interferometer systems. A multiple-wavelength interferometer (MWIF) is used for alignment and phasing of the PM segments. The ADMA is used to measure, and set, the spacing between the PM and the focus of the COCOA null (i.e. the PM center-of-curvature) for determination of the ROC. The performance of these metrology systems was assessed during two cryogenic tests at JSC. This testing was performed using the JWST Pathfinder telescope, consisting mostly of engineering development and spare hardware. The Pathfinder PM consists of two spare segments. These tests provided the opportunity to assess how well the center-of-curvature optical metrology hardware, along with the software and procedures, performed using real JWST telescope hardware. This paper will describe the test setup, the testing performed, and the resulting metrology system performance. The knowledge gained and the lessons learned during this testing will be of great benefit to the accurate and efficient cryogenic testing of the JWST flight telescope.

  3. CONFERENCE NOTE: CETO—Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Opticas, Trends in Optical Fibre Metrology and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    Summer School, 27 June to 8 July 1994, Viana do Castelo, Hotel do Parque, Portugal Optical fibres, with their extremely low transmission loss, untapped bandwidth and controllable dispersion, dominate a broad range of technologies in which applications must respond to the increasing constraints of today's specifications as well as envisage future requirements. Optical fibres dominate communications systems. In the area of sensors, fibre optics will be fully exploited for their immunity to EMI, their high sensitivity and their large dynamic range. The maturity of single mode optical technology has led to intensive R&D of a range of components based on the advantages of transmission characteristics and signal processing. Specifications and intercompatibility requests for the new generation of both analogue and digital fibre optical components and systems has created a demand for sophisticated measuring techniques based on unique and complex instruments. In recent years there has been a signification evolution in response to the explosion of applications and the tightening of specifications. These developments justify a concerted effort to focus on trends in optical fibre metrology and standards. Objective The objective of this school is to provide a progressive and comprehensive presentation of current issues concerning passive and active optical fibre characterization and measurement techniques. Passive fibre components support a variety of developments in optical fibre systems and will be discussed in terms of relevance and standards. Particular attention will be paid to devices for metrological purposes such as reference fibres and calibration artefacts. The characterization and testing of optical fibre amplifiers, which have great potential in telecommunications, data distribution networks and as a system part in instrumentation, will be covered. Methods of measurement and means of calibration with traceability will be discussed, together with the characterization

  4. Quantised vortex line visualisation in superfluid helium using low-temperature optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seddon, J.R.T.James R.T.; Thurlow, M.S.Michael S.; Lees, M.J.Matthew J.; Lucas, P.G.J.Peter G.J

    2003-05-01

    An optical probe based on the technique of shadowgraphy is proposed that would enable visualisation of the surface depressions (dimples) above quantised vortex lines in a sample of rotating superfluid liquid helium. An analysis based on the dimple profile calculated by Sonin and Manninen shows that the technique is feasible from the known sensitivity of our shadowgraphy system used to visualise thermal convection rolls. Such a probe could be used to investigate vortex arrays in the presence of appreciable normal component, would provide information on the profile of the dimples, and could be adapted to visualise quantum turbulence.

  5. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  6. Vortex matter and ultracold superstrings in optical lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, M.

    2006-01-01

    The combination of a rotating cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate with a one-dimensional optical lattice gives rise to very interesting physics. The one-dimensional optical lattice splits the Bose-Einstein condensate into two-dimensional pancake-condensates, each containing a small number of

  7. Optical torque on a magneto-dielectric Rayleigh absorptive sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Yang, Ruiping; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-04-01

    The optical torque exerted on an absorptive megneto-dielectric sphere by an axicon-generated vector Bessel (vortex) beam with selected polarizations is investigated in the framework of the dipole approximation. The total optical torque is expressed as the sum of orbital and spin torques. The axial orbital torque component is calculated from the z-component of the cross-product of the vector position r and the optical force exerted on the sphere F. Depending on the beam characteristics (such as the half-cone angle and polarization type) and the physical properties of the sphere, it is shown here that the axial orbital torque vanishes before reversing sign, indicating a counter-intuitive orbital motion in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident waves. Moreover, analytical formulas for the spin torque, which is divided into spin torques induced by electric and magnetic dipoles, are derived. The corresponding components of both the optical spin and orbital torques are numerically calculated, and the effects of polarization, the order of the beam, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. The left-handed (i.e., negative) optical torque is discussed, and the conditions for generating optical spin and orbital torque sign reversal are numerically investigated. The transverse optical spin torque has a vortex-like character, whose direction depends on the polarization, the half-cone angle, and the order of the beam. Numerical results also show that the vortex direction depends on the radial position of the particle in the transverse plane. This means that a sphere may rotate with different directions when it moves radially. Potential applications are in particle manipulation and rotation, single beam optical tweezers, and other emergent technologies using vector Bessel beams on a small magneto-dielectric (nano) particle.

  8. FOREWORD: Materials metrology Materials metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Seton; Valdés, Joaquin

    2010-04-01

    It seems that so much of modern life is defined by the materials we use. From aircraft to architecture, from cars to communications, from microelectronics to medicine, the development of new materials and the innovative application of existing ones have underpinned the technological advances that have transformed the way we live, work and play. Recognizing the need for a sound technical basis for drafting codes of practice and specifications for advanced materials, the governments of countries of the Economic Summit (G7) and the European Commission signed a Memorandum of Understanding in 1982 to establish the Versailles Project on Advanced Materials and Standards (VAMAS). This project supports international trade by enabling scientific collaboration as a precursor to the drafting of standards. The VAMAS participants recognized the importance of agreeing a reliable, universally accepted basis for the traceability of the measurements on which standards depend for their preparation and implementation. Seeing the need to involve the wider metrology community, VAMAS approached the Comité International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM). Following discussions with NMI Directors and a workshop at the BIPM in February 2005, the CIPM decided to establish an ad hoc Working Group on the metrology applicable to the measurement of material properties. The Working Group presented its conclusions to the CIPM in October 2007 and published its final report in 2008, leading to the signature of a Memorandum of Understanding between VAMAS and the BIPM. This MoU recognizes the work that is already going on in VAMAS as well as in the Consultative Committees of the CIPM and establishes a framework for an ongoing dialogue on issues of materials metrology. The question of what is meant by traceability in the metrology of the properties of materials is particularly vexed when the measurement results depend on a specified procedure. In these cases, confidence in results requires not only traceable

  9. Mounting for Fabrication, Metrology, and Assembly of Full Shell Grazing Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, Jacqueline M.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Ramsey, Brian D.; Elsner, Ronald F.

    2014-01-01

    Future x-ray telescopes will likely require lightweight mirrors to attain the large collecting areas needed to accomplish the science objectives. Understanding and demonstrating processes now is critical to achieving sub-arcsecond performance in the future. Consequently, designs not only of the mirrors but of fixtures for supporting them during fabrication, metrology, handling, assembly, and testing must be adequately modeled and verified. To this end, MSFC is using finite-element modeling to study the effects of mounting on full-shell grazing-incidence mirrors, during all processes leading to flight mirror assemblies. Here we report initial results of this study.

  10. Single beam optical vortex tweezers with tunable orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gecevičius, Mindaugas; Drevinskas, Rokas, E-mail: rd1c12@orc.soton.ac.uk; Beresna, Martynas; Kazansky, Peter G. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    We propose a single beam method for generating optical vortices with tunable optical angular momentum without altering the intensity distribution. With the initial polarization state varying from linear to circular, we gradually control the torque transferred to the trapped non-absorbing and non-birefringent silica beads. The continuous transition from the maximum rotation speed to zero without changing the trapping potential gives a way to study the complex tribological interactions.

  11. Negative optical spin torque wrench of a nondiffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam

    CERN Document Server

    Mitri, F G

    2016-01-01

    An absorptive Rayleigh dielectric sphere in a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam experiences a spin torque. The axial and transverse radiation spin torque components are evaluated in the dipole approximation using the radiative correction of the electric field. Particular emphasis is given on the polarization as well as changing the topological charge and the beam's half-cone angle. When the beam order is zero, the axial spin torque component vanishes. However, when the beam order becomes a real positive number, the vortex beam induces left-handed (negative) axial spin torque as the sphere shifts off-axially from the center of the beam. The results show that a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam is capable to induce a spin reversal of an absorptive Rayleigh sphere placed arbitrarily in its path. Potential applications are yet to be explored in particle manipulation, rotation in optical tweezers, optical tractor beams, the design of optically-engineered metamateri...

  12. Laboratory demonstration of an optical vortex mask coronagraph using photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, N.; Baba, N.; Ise, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Oka, K.

    2010-10-01

    Photonic crystal, artificial periodic nanostructure, is an attractive device for constructing focal-plane phase-mask coronagraphs such as segmented phase masks (four-quadrant, eight-octant, and 4N-segmented ones) and an optical vortex mask (OVM), because of its extremely small manufacturing defect. Recently, speckle-noise limited contrast has been demonstrated for two monochromatic lasers by using the eight-octant phase-mask made of the photonic crystal (Murakami et al. 2010, ApJ, 714, 772). We applied the photonic-crystal device to the OVM coronagraph. The OVM is more advantageous over the segmented phase masks because it does not have discontinuities other than a central singular point and provides a full on-sky field of view. For generating an achromatic optical vortex, we manufactured an axially-symmetric half-wave plate (ASHWP). It is expected that a size of the manufacturing defect due to the central singularity is an order of several hundreds nanometers. The ASHWP is placed between two circular polarizers for modulating a Pancharatnam phase. A continuous spiral phase modulation is then implemented achromatically. We carried out preliminary laboratory demonstration of the OVM coronagraph using two monochromatic lasers as a model star (wavelengths of 532 nm and 633 nm). We report a principle of the achromatic optical-vortex generation, and results of the laboratory demonstration of the OVM coronagraph.

  13. Initial Results of Optical Vortex Laser Absorption Spectroscopy in the HYPER-I Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinji; Asai, Shoma; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; Terasaka, Kenichiro; Ozawa, Naoya; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Morisaki, Tomohiro

    2015-11-01

    Optical vortex beams have a potential to make a new Doppler measurement, because not only parallel but perpendicular movement of atoms against the beam axis causes the Doppler shift of their resonant absorption frequency. As the first step of a proof-of-principle experiment, we have performed the optical vortex laser absorption spectroscopy for metastable argon neutrals in an ECR plasma produced in the HYPER-I device at the National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan. An external cavity diode laser (TOPTICA, DL100) of which center wavelength was 696.735 nm in vacuum was used for the light source. The Hermite-Gaussian (HG) beam was converted into the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam (optical vortex) by a computer-generated hologram displayed on the spatial light modulator (Hamamatsu, LCOS-SLM X10468-07). In order to make fast neutral flow across the LG beam, a high speed solenoid valve system was installed on the HYPER-I device. Initial results including the comparison of absorption spectra for HG and LG beams will be presented. This study was supported by NINS young scientists collaboration program for cross-disciplinary study, NIFS collaboration research program (NIFS13KOAP026), and JSPS KAKENHI grant number 15K05365.

  14. Control of diffusion of nanoparticles in an optical vortex lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Ivar; Delgado-Buscalioni, Rafael; Sáenz, Juan José

    2016-06-01

    A two-dimensional periodic optical force field, which combines conservative dipolar forces with vortices from radiation pressure, is proposed in order to influence the diffusion properties of optically susceptible nanoparticles. The different deterministic flow patterns are identified. In the low-noise limit, the diffusion coefficient is computed from a mean first passage time and the most probable escape paths are identified for those flow patterns which possess a stable stationary point. Numerical simulations of the associated Langevin equations show remarkable agreement with the analytically deduced expressions. Modifications of the force field are proposed so that a wider range of phenomena could be tested.

  15. Perfect optical vortex enhanced surface plasmon excitation for plasmonic structured illumination microscopy imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chonglei; Min, Changjun; Du, Luping; Yuan, X.-C.

    2016-05-01

    We propose an all-optical technique for plasmonic structured illumination microscopy (PSIM) with perfect optical vortex (POV). POV can improve the efficiency of the excitation of surface plasma and reduce the background noise of the excited fluorescence. The plasmonic standing wave patterns are excited by POV with fractional topological charges for accurate phase shift of {-2π/3, 0, and 2π/3}. The imaging resolution of less than 200 nm was produced. This PSIM technique is expected to be used as a wide field, super resolution imaging technique in dynamic biological imaging.

  16. Manifestation of the rotational Doppler effect by use of an off-axis optical vortex beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basistiy, I V; Slyusar, V V; Soskin, M S; Vasnetsov, M V; Bekshaev, A Ya

    2003-07-15

    We report what is to our knowledge the first all-optical detection of the frequency beats between Gaussian and Laguerre-Gaussian LG0(1) modes in their axial superposition, caused by the rotational Doppler effect. The relation between the observable off-axis optical vortex rotation and the rotational frequency shift of the Laguerre-Gaussian component is ascertained. The results can be used as a physical basis for recognition of Laguerre-Gaussian mode spectra along their orbital angular momenta.

  17. Fundamental Performance Determining Factors of the Ultrahigh-Precision Space-Borne Optical Metrology System for the LISA Pathfinder mission

    CERN Document Server

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald

    2013-01-01

    The LISA Pathfinder mission to space employs an optical metrology system (OMS) at its core to measure the distance and attitude between two freely floating test-masses to picometer and nanorad accuracy, respectively, within the measurement band of [1 mHz, 30 mHz]. The OMS is based upon an ultra-stable optical bench with 4 heterodyne interferometers from which interference signals are read-out and processed by a digital phase-meter. Laser frequency noise, power fluctuations and optical path-length variations are suppressed to uncritical levels by dedicated control loops so that the measurement performance approaches the sensor limit imposed by the phase-meter. The system design is such that low frequency common mode noise which affects the read-out phase of all four interferometers is generally well suppressed by subtraction of a reference phase from the other interferometer signals. However, high frequency noise directly affects measurement performance and its common mode rejection depends strongly on the rel...

  18. Optical Metrology for the Filter Set for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Boucarut, Rene A.; Content, David A.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva A.; Krebs, Carolyn A.; Miner, Linda A.; Norton, Todd A.; Mehalick, Kimberly; Petrone, Peter; Bush, Frank D.; Puc, Bernard; Standley, Clive; Tsvetanov, Zlatan; Kral, Catherine

    1998-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) will employ a wide variety of spectral filtration components including narrow band, medium band, wide band, and far ultraviolet (FUV) long pass filters, spatially- variable filters (ramp filters), VIS/IR polarizers, NUV polarizers, FUV prisms, and a grism. These components are spread across ACS's Wide Field, High Resolution, and Solar Blind channels which provide diffraction-limited imaging of astronomical targets using aberration-correcting optics which remove most aberrations from HST's Optical Telescope Assembly (OTA). In order for ACS to be truly advanced, these filters must push the state-of-the-art in performance in a number of key areas at the same time. Important requirements which these filters must meet include outstanding transmitted wavefront, high transmittance, uniform transmittance across each filter, spectrally structure-free bandpasses, exceptionally high out of band rejection, and a high degree of parfocality. These constitute a very stringent set of requirements indeed, especially for filters which are up to 90 mm in diameter. The development of optical metrology stations used to demonstrate that each ACS filter will meet its design specifications is discussed. Of particular note are specially-designed spectral transmissometers and interferometers.

  19. Propagation of an optical vortex in fiber arrays with triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushref, Muhammad Abdulrahman Abdulghani

    The propagation of optical vortices (OVs) in linear and nonlinear media is an important field of research in science and engineering. The most important goal is to explore the properties of guiding dynamics for potential applications such as sensing, all-optical switching, frequency mixing and modulation. In this dissertation, we present analytical methods and numerical techniques to investigate the propagation of an optical vortex in fiber array waveguides. Analytically, we model wave propagation in a waveguide by coupled mode Equations as a simplified approximation. The beam propagation method (BPM) is also employed to numerically solve the paraxial wave Equation by finite difference (FD) techniques. We will investigate the propagation of fields in a 2D triangular lattice with different core arrangements in the optical waveguide. In order to eliminate wave reflections at the boundaries of the computational area, the transparent boundary condition (TBC) is applied. In our explorations for the propagation properties of an optical vortex in a linear and a non-linear triangular lattice medium, images are numerically generated for the field phase and intensity in addition to the interferogram of the vortex field with a reference plane or Gaussian field. The finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) with transparent boundary condition (TBC) is a robust approach to numerically deal with optical field propagations in waveguides. In a fiber array arranged in triangular lattices, new vortices vary with respect to the propagation distance and the number of cores in the fiber array for both linear and nonlinear regimes. With more cores and longer propagation distances, more vortices are created. However, they do not always survive and may disappear while other new vortices are formed at other points. In a linear triangular lattice, the results demonstrated that the number of vortices may increase or decrease with respect to the number of cores in the array lattice

  20. An optical tweezer in asymmetrical vortex Bessel-Gaussian beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotlyar, V. V.; Kovalev, A. A., E-mail: alexeysmr@mail.ru; Porfirev, A. P. [Image Processing Systems Institute, 151 Molodogvardeiskaya St., 443001 Samara (Russian Federation); Department of Technical cybernetics, Samara State Aerospace University, Samara 443086 (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-14

    We study an optical micromanipulation that comprises trapping, rotating, and transporting 5-μm polystyrene microbeads in asymmetric Bessel-Gaussian (BG) laser beams. The beams that carry orbital angular momentum are generated by means of a liquid crystal microdisplay and focused by a microobjective with a numerical aperture of NA = 0.85. We experimentally show that given a constant topological charge, the rate of microparticle motion increases near linearly with increasing asymmetry of the BG beam. Asymmetric BG beams can be used instead of conventional Gaussian beam for trapping and transferring live cells without thermal damage.

  1. Development of facilities and methods for the metrological characterization of distributed temperature sensing systems based on optical fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Failleau, G.; Beaumont, O.; Delepine-Lesoille, S.; Plumeri, S.; Razouk, R.; Beck, Y. L.; Hénault, J. M.; Bertrand, J.; Hay, B.

    2017-01-01

    Raman distributed temperature sensing (DTS) technologies are currently under evaluation by the nuclear and hydraulic industries as it may bring promising alternatives to classical measurement techniques. The reliability of the DTS measurements, as well as the traceability to the temperature standards, must be ensured throughout the entire period of monitoring (typically over a few tens of years). In order to achieve this goal, one key task consists in the verification of the performances claimed by the DTS devices manufacturers. Thus, the metrological performances and characteristics of the DTS devices, such as their limitations and accuracies, as well as the practical aspects of systems implemented on site should be evaluated step by step. This paper describes the dedicated facilities which have been developed at LNE in order to evaluate and to qualify DTS devices for very demanding applications. A first case study performed on one specific DTS device is detailed. A systematic bias has been observed among others on the spatial resolution. The DTS response to a temperature variation step over 1 m (spatial resolution typically claimed by the manufacturers) of sensing optical fibre corresponds indeed to only 90% of the temperature step magnitude, whereas the full DTS response is obtained in fact for 10 m (the practical spatial resolution) of sensing optical fibre solicited by this temperature step variation.

  2. Precision metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X; Whitehouse, D J

    2012-08-28

    This article is a summary of the Satellite Meeting, which followed on from the Discussion Meeting at the Royal Society on 'Ultra-precision engineering: from physics to manufacture', held at the Kavli Royal Society International Centre, Chicheley Hall, Buckinghamshire, UK. The meeting was restricted to 18 invited experts in various aspects of precision metrology from academics from the UK and Sweden, Government Institutes from the UK and Germany and global aerospace industries. It examined and identified metrology problem areas that are, or may be, limiting future developments in precision engineering and, in particular, metrology. The Satellite Meeting was intended to produce a vision that will inspire academia and industry to address the solutions of those open-ended problems identified. The discussion covered three areas, namely the function of engineering parts, their measurement and their manufacture, as well as their interactions.

  3. 3D micro-optical elements for generation of tightly focused vortex beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balčytis Armandas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Orbital angular momentum carrying light beams are usedfor optical trapping and manipulation. This emerging trend provides new challenges involving device miniaturization for improved performance and enhanced functionality at the microscale. Here we discus a new fabrication method based on combining the additive 3D structuring capability laser photopolymerization and the substractive sub-wavelength resolution patterning of focused ion beam lithography to produce micro-optical elements capable of compound functionality. As a case in point of this approach binary spiral zone pattern based high numerical aperture micro-lenses capable of generating topological charge carrying tightly focused vortex beams in a single wavefront transformation step are presented. The devices were modelled using finite-difference time-domain simulations, and the theoretical predictions were verified by optically characterizing the propagation properties of light transmitted through the fabricated structures. The resulting devices had focal lengths close to the predicted values of f = 18 µm and f = 13 µm as well as topological charge ℓ dependent vortex focal spot sizes of ~ 1:3 µm and ~ 2:0 µm for ℓ = 1 and ℓ = 2 respectively.

  4. Multi-scale optical metrology for the quality control of polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Micro injection moulding is a replication technology enabling large scale production of polymer-based micro products. To this respect, optical measuring technologies were selected to perform the quality control of a polymer micro-component: an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a whit...

  5. Multi-scale optical metrology for the quality control of polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Micro injection moulding is a replication technology enabling large scale production of polymer-based micro products. To this respect, optical measuring technologies were selected to perform the quality control of a polymer micro-component: an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a whit...

  6. The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfers, F; Bischoff, P; Eggenstein, F; Erko, A; Gaupp, A; Künstner, S; Mast, M; Schmidt, J-S; Senf, F; Siewert, F; Sokolov, A; Zeschke, Th

    2016-01-01

    A technology center for the production of high-precision reflection gratings has been established. Within this project a new optics beamline and a versatile reflectometer for at-wavelength characterization of UV- and XUV-reflection gratings and other (nano-) optical elements has been set up at BESSY-II. The Plane Grating Monochromator beamline operated in collimated light (c-PGM) is equipped with an SX700 monochromator, of which the blazed gratings (600 and 1200 lines mm(-1)) have been recently exchanged for new ones of improved performance produced in-house. Over the operating range from 10 to 2000 eV this beamline has very high spectral purity achieved by (i) a four-mirror arrangement of different coatings which can be inserted into the beam at different angles and (ii) by absorber filters for high-order suppression. Stray light and scattered radiation is removed efficiently by double sets of in situ exchangeable apertures and slits. By use of in- and off-plane bending-magnet radiation the beamline can be adjusted to either linear or elliptical polarization. One of the main features of a novel 11-axes reflectometer is the possibility to incorporate real life-sized gratings. The samples are adjustable within six degrees of freedom by a newly developed UHV-tripod system carrying a load up to 4 kg, and the reflectivity can be measured between 0 and 90° incidence angle for both s- and p-polarization geometry. This novel powerful metrology facility has gone into operation recently and is now open for external users. First results on optical performance and measurements on multilayer gratings will be presented here.

  7. Coupling of relative intensity noise and pathlength noise to the length measurement in the optical metrology system of LISA Pathfinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittchen, Andreas; the LPF Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a technology demonstration mission for the space-based gravitational wave observatory, LISA. It demonstrated that the performance requirements for the interferometric measurement of two test masses in free fall can be met. An important part of the data analysis is to identify the limiting noise sources. [1] This measurement is performed with heterodyne interferometry. The performance of this optical metrology system (OMS) at high frequencies is limited by sensing noise. One such noise source is Relative Intensity Noise (RIN). RIN is a property of the laser, and the photodiode current generated by the interferometer signal contains frequency dependant RIN. From this electric signal the phasemeter calculates the phase change and laser power, and the coupling of RIN into the measurement signal depends on the noise frequency. RIN at DC, at the heterodyne frequency and at two times the heterodyne frequency couples into the phase. Another important noise at high frequencies is path length noise. To reduce the impact this noise is suppressed with a control loop. Path length noise not suppressed will couple directly into the length measurement. The subtraction techniques of both noise sources depend on the phase difference between the reference signal and the measurement signal, and thus on the test mass position. During normal operations we position the test mass at the interferometric zero, which is optimal for noise subtraction purposes. This paper will show results from an in-flight experiment where the test mass position was changed to make the position dependant noise visible.

  8. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field of...

  9. High-Resolution Detector for At-Wavelength Metrology of X-Ray Optics Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the launch of the first X-ray focusing telescope in 1963, the development of grazing incidence X-ray optics has been crucial to the development of the field...

  10. Generation of femtosecond optical vortex beams in all-fiber mode-locked fiber laser using mode selective coupler

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Teng; Shi, Fan; Pang, Fufei; Huang, Sujuan; Wang, Tingyun; Zeng, Xianglong

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a high-order optical vortex pulsed laser based on a mode selective all-fiber fused coupler composed of a single-mode fiber (SMF) and a few-mode fiber (FMF). The fused SMF-FMF coupler inserted in the cavity not only acts as mode converter from LP01 mode to LP11 or LP21 modes with a broadband width over 100 nm, but also directly delivers femtosecond vortex pulses out of the mode locked cavity. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the generation of high-order pulse vortex beams in mode-locked fiber laser. The generated 140 femtosecond vortex beam has a spectral width of 67 nm centered at 1544 nm.

  11. Process window metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausschnitt, Christopher P.; Chu, William; Hadel, Linda M.; Ho, Hok; Talvi, Peter

    2000-06-01

    This paper is the third of a series that defines a new approach to in-line lithography control. The first paper described the use of optically measurable line-shortening targets to enhance signal-to-noise and reduce measurement time. The second described the dual-tone optical critical dimension (OCD) measurement and analysis necessary to distinguish dose and defocus. Here we describe the marriage of dual-tone OCD to SEM-CD metrology that comprises what we call 'process window metrology' (PWM), the means to locate each measured site in dose and focus space relative to the allowed process window. PWM provides in-line process tracking and control essential to the successful implementation of low-k lithography.

  12. The at-wavelength metrology facility for UV- and XUV-reflection and diffraction optics at BESSY-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schäfers, F., E-mail: franz.schaefers@helmholtz-berlin.de; Bischoff, P.; Eggenstein, F.; Erko, A.; Gaupp, A.; Künstner, S.; Mast, M.; Schmidt, J.-S.; Senf, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Zeschke, Th. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, Berlin 12489 (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    A new optics beamline and a versatile 11-axes UHV-reflectometer for at-wavelength characterization of real life-sized UV- and XUV-reflection gratings and other (nano-) optical elements has been set up and is in operation at BESSY-II. Azimuthal rotation of samples allows for reflectometry and polarimetry measurements in s- and p-polarization. A technology center for the production of high-precision reflection gratings has been established. Within this project a new optics beamline and a versatile reflectometer for at-wavelength characterization of UV- and XUV-reflection gratings and other (nano-) optical elements has been set up at BESSY-II. The Plane Grating Monochromator beamline operated in collimated light (c-PGM) is equipped with an SX700 monochromator, of which the blazed gratings (600 and 1200 lines mm{sup −1}) have been recently exchanged for new ones of improved performance produced in-house. Over the operating range from 10 to 2000 eV this beamline has very high spectral purity achieved by (i) a four-mirror arrangement of different coatings which can be inserted into the beam at different angles and (ii) by absorber filters for high-order suppression. Stray light and scattered radiation is removed efficiently by double sets of in situ exchangeable apertures and slits. By use of in- and off-plane bending-magnet radiation the beamline can be adjusted to either linear or elliptical polarization. One of the main features of a novel 11-axes reflectometer is the possibility to incorporate real life-sized gratings. The samples are adjustable within six degrees of freedom by a newly developed UHV-tripod system carrying a load up to 4 kg, and the reflectivity can be measured between 0 and 90° incidence angle for both s- and p-polarization geometry. This novel powerful metrology facility has gone into operation recently and is now open for external users. First results on optical performance and measurements on multilayer gratings will be presented here.

  13. Joint Research on Scatterometry and AFM Wafer Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodermann, B.; Buhr, E.; Danzebrink, H.U.; Bär, M.; Scholze, F.; Krumrey, M.; Wurm, M.; Klapetek, P.; Hansen, P.E.; Korpelainen, V.; Van Veghel, M.; Yacoot, A.; Siitonen, S.; El Gawhary, O.; Burger, S.; Saastamoinen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Supported by the European Commission and EURAMET, a consortium of 10 participants from national metrology institutes, universities and companies has started a joint research project with the aim of overcoming current challenges in optical scatterometry for traceable linewidth metrology. Both

  14. On polarization metrology (estimation) of the degree of coherence of optical waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O.V.; Hanson, Steen Grüner; Zenkova, C. Yu

    2009-01-01

    A new approach is proposed for estimating the degree of coherence of optical waves. The possibility of transformation of the spatial polarization distribution in the measured spatial intensity distribution for determining the degree of correlation of superposing waves, linearly polarized in the p...

  15. Optical Metrology for CIGS Solar Cell Manufacturing and its Cost Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkoju, Sravan Kumar

    Solar energy is a promising source of renewable energy which can meet the demand for clean energy in near future with advances in research in the field of photovoltaics and cost reduction by commercialization. Availability of a non-contact, in-line, real time robust process control strategies can greatly aid in reducing the gap between cell and module efficiencies, thereby leading to cost-effective large-scale manufacturing of high efficiency CIGS solar cells. In order to achieve proper process monitoring and control for the deposition of the functional layers of CuIn1-xGaxSe 2 (CIGS) based thin film solar cell, optical techniques such as spectroscopic reflectometry and polarimetry are advantageous because they can be set up in an unobtrusive manner in the manufacturing line, and collect data in-line and in-situ. The use of these techniques requires accurate optical models that correctly represent the properties of the layers being deposited. In this study, Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied for the characterization of each individual stage of CIGS layers deposited using the 3-stage co-evaporation process along with the other functional layers. Dielectric functions have been determined for the energy range from 0.7 eV to 5.1 eV. Critical-point line-shape analysis was used in this study to determine the critical point energies of the CIGS based layers. To control the compositional and thickness uniformity of all the functional layers during the fabrication of CIGS solar cells over large areas, multilayer photovoltaics (PV) stack optical models were developed with the help of extracted dielectric functions. In this study, mapping capability of RC2 spectroscopic ellipsometer was used to map all the functional layer thicknesses of a CIGS solar cell in order to probe the spatial non-uniformities that can affect the performance of a cell. The optical functions for each of the stages of CIGS 3-stage deposition process along with buffer layer and transparent

  16. Alternative methods of optical diagnostics in the field of standardization and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinov, Boris I.; Pasechnic, Teodosie I.; Sircu, Sergiu

    2000-10-01

    An optical configuration based on the photothermoplastic recording (PTPR) is suggested for the operational optical diagnostics and standardization of the products in the real time scale. The presence of three or four PTPR cameras along the counter of the tested product makes it possible to investigate in the real-time scale not only the appearance of the internal defects, but also the influence of the condition of different units onto the condition of the whole system. Dry development of the images in the real-time scale and instant fixation of images on the photothermoplastic carriers (PTPC) followed by the computer analysis used to compare the product and the standard allow us to gain in time and areas.

  17. Metrology of IXO Mirror Segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kai-Wing

    2011-01-01

    For future x-ray astrophysics mission that demands optics with large throughput and excellent angular resolution, many telescope concepts build around assembling thin mirror segments in a Wolter I geometry, such as that originally proposed for the International X-ray Observatory. The arc-second resolution requirement posts unique challenges not just for fabrication, mounting but also for metrology of these mirror segments. In this paper, we shall discuss the metrology of these segments using normal incidence metrological method with interferometers and null lenses. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems we are currently using, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring near-cylindrical mirror segments and the stability of the measurements.

  18. Overview of Mask Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Bryan J.; Jindal, Vibhu; Lin, C. C.; Harris-Jones, Jenah; Kwon, Hyuk Joo; Ma, Hsing-Chien; Goldstein, Michael; Chan, Yau-Wai; Goodwin, Frank

    2011-11-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography is the successor to optical lithography and will enable advanced patterning in semiconductor manufacturing processes down to the 8 nm half pitch technology node and beyond. However, before EUV can successfully be inserted into high volume manufacturing a few challenges must be overcome. Central among these remaining challenges is the requirement to produce "defect free" EUV masks. Mask blank defects have been one of the top challenges in the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. To determine defect sources and devise mitigation solutions, detailed characterization of defects is critical. However, small defects pose challenges in metrology scale-up. SEMATECH has a comprehensive metrology strategy to address any defect larger than a 20 nm core size to obtain solutions for defect-free EUV mask blanks. SEMATECH's Mask Blank Development Center has been working since 2003 to develop the technology to support defect free EUV mask blanks. Since 2003, EUV mask blank defects have been reduced from 10000 of size greater than 100 nm to about a few tens at size 70 nm. Unfortunately, today's state of the art defect levels are still about 10 to 100 times higher than needed. Closing this gap requires progress in the various processes associated with glass substrate creation and multilayer deposition. That process development improvement in turn relies upon the availability of metrology equipment that can resolve and chemically characterize defects as small as 30 nm. The current defect reduction efforts at SEMATECH have intensively included a focus on inspection and characterization. The facility boasts nearly 100M of metrology hardware, including an FEI Titan TEM, Lasertec M1350 and M7360 tools, an actinic inspection tool, AFM, SPM, and scanning auger capabilities. The newly established Auger tool at SEMATECH can run a standard 6-inch mask blank and is already providing important information on sub-100 nm defects on EUV

  19. Grating-based at-wavelength metrology of hard x-ray reflective optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric

    2012-11-01

    A mean of characterizing the tangential shape of a hard x-ray mirror is presented. Derived from a group of methods operating under visible light, its application in the x-ray domain using an x-ray absorption grating allows recovery of the mirror shape with nanometer accuracy and submillimeter spatial resolution. The method works with incoherent light, does not require any a priori information about the mirror characteristics and allows shape reconstruction of x-ray reflective optics under thermal and mechanical working conditions.

  20. Investigating the vortex melting phenomenon in BSCCO crystals using magneto-optical imaging technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Soibel; S S Banerjee; Y Myasoedov; M L Rappaport; E Zeldov; S Ooi; T Tamegai

    2002-05-01

    Using a novel differential magneto-optical imaging technique we investigate the phenomenon of vortex lattice melting in crystals of Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8 (BSCCO). The images of melting reveal complex patterns in the formation and evolution of the vortex solid–liquid interface with varying field ()/temperature (). We believe that the complex melting patterns are due to a random distribution of material disorder/inhomogeneities across the sample, which create fluctuations in the local melting temperature or field value. To study the fluctuations in the local melting temperature/field, we have constructed maps of the melting landscape m(, ), viz., the melting temperature (m) at a given location () in the sample at a given field (). A study of these melting landscapes reveals an unexpected feature: the melting landscape is not fixed, but changes rather dramatically with varying field and temperature along the melting line. It is concluded that the changes in both the scale and shape of the landscape result from the competing contributions of different types of quenched disorder which have opposite effects on the local melting transition.

  1. Adaptive automatic data analysis in full-field fringe-pattern-based optical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trusiak, Maciej; Patorski, Krzysztof; Sluzewski, Lukasz; Pokorski, Krzysztof; Sunderland, Zofia

    2016-12-01

    Fringe pattern processing and analysis is an important task of full-field optical measurement techniques like interferometry, digital holography, structural illumination and moiré. In this contribution we present several adaptive automatic data analysis solutions based on the notion of Hilbert-Huang transform for measurand retrieval via fringe pattern phase and amplitude demodulation. The Hilbert-Huang transform consists of 2D empirical mode decomposition algorithm and Hilbert spiral transform analysis. Empirical mode decomposition adaptively dissects a meaningful number of same-scale subimages from the analyzed pattern - it is a data-driven method. Appropriately managing this set of unique subimages results in a very powerful fringe pre-filtering tool. Phase/amplitude demodulation is performed using Hilbert spiral transform aided by the local fringe orientation estimator. We describe several optical measurement techniques for technical and biological objects characterization basing on the especially tailored Hilbert-Huang algorithm modifications for fringe pattern denoising, detrending and amplitude/phase demodulation.

  2. Optical critical dimension metrology for directed self-assembly assisted contact hole shrink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Dhairya; Green, Avery; Hosler, Erik R.; Kamineni, Vimal; Preil, Moshe E.; Keller, Nick; Race, Joseph; Chun, Jun Sung; O'Sullivan, Michael; Khare, Prasanna; Montgomery, Warren; Diebold, Alain C.

    2016-01-01

    Directed self-assembly (DSA) is a potential patterning solution for future generations of integrated circuits. Its main advantages are high pattern resolution (˜10 nm), high throughput, no requirement of high-resolution mask, and compatibility with standard fab-equipment and processes. The application of Mueller matrix (MM) spectroscopic ellipsometry-based scatterometry to optically characterize DSA patterned contact hole structures fabricated with phase-separated polystyrene-b-polymethylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) is described. A regression-based approach is used to calculate the guide critical dimension (CD), DSA CD, height of the PS column, thicknesses of underlying layers, and contact edge roughness of the post PMMA etch DSA contact hole sample. Scanning electron microscopy and imaging analysis is conducted as a comparative metric for scatterometry. In addition, optical model-based simulations are used to investigate MM elements' sensitivity to various DSA-based contact hole structures, predict sensitivity to dimensional changes, and its limits to characterize DSA-induced defects, such as hole placement inaccuracy, missing vias, and profile inaccuracy of the PMMA cylinder.

  3. Large-core photonic microcells for coherent optics and laser metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, N. V.; Grogan, M. D. W.; Wang, Y. Y.; Murphy, D. F.; Birks, T. A.; Benabid, F.

    2011-03-01

    A photonic microcell (PMC) is a length of gas-filled hollow core-photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) which is hermetically sealed at both ends by splicing to standard single mode fiber. We describe advances in the fabrication technique of PMCs which enable large core Kagome-lattice HC-PCFs to be integrated into PMC form. The modified fabrication technique uses fiber-tapering to accommodate the large dimensions of the fiber and enables low loss splices with single mode fiber by reducing mode field mismatch. Splice losses as low as 0.6 dB are achieved between 1-cell defect Kagome HC-PCF and single mode fiber. Relative to the previously reported PMCs, which were based on photonic bandgap HC-PCF, the present Kagome HC-PCF based PMC provides broad optical transmission, surface mode-free guidance and larger core at the cost of slightly increased fiber attenuation (~0.2 dB/m). Therefore, the integration of this fiber into PMC form opens up new applications for PMC-based devices. The advantage of the large core dimensions and surface mode free guidance for quantum optics in gas-filled HC-PCF are demonstrated by generation of narrow sub-Doppler features in an acetylenefilled large core PMC.

  4. Constellation of phase singularities in a speckle-like pattern for optical vortex metrology applied to biological kinematic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Wei; Qiao, Yu; Ishijima, Reika;

    2008-01-01

    detect the spatial structures of a cluster of phase singularities, which serves as a unique constellation characterizing the mutual position relation between the individual pseudophase singularities. Experimental results of in vivo measurements for a swimming fish along with its kinematic analysis...

  5. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications.

  6. Vortex magnetic structure in circularly magnetized microwires as deduced from magneto-optical Kerr measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Ivanov, Yurii P.

    2014-02-14

    The magneto-optic Kerr effect has been employed to determine the magnetization process and estimate the domain structure of microwires with circular magnetic anisotropy. The diameter of microwires was 8 μm, and pieces 2 cm long were selected for measurements. The analysis of the local surface longitudinal and transverse hysteresis loops has allowed us to deduce a vortex magnetic structure with axial core and circular external shell. Moreover, a bamboo-like surface domain structure is confirmed with wave length of around 10 to 15 μm and alternating chirality in adjacent circular domains. The width of the domain wall is estimated to be less than 3 μm. Finally, closure domain structures with significant helical magnetization component are observed extending up to around 1000 μm from the end of the microwire.

  7. Optical Tracking Measurement on Vortex Induced Vibration of Flexible Riser with Short-Length Buoyance Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Dixia; Du, Honglin; Triantafyllou, Michael

    2016-11-01

    We address experimentally the vortex induced vibrations (VIV) of long flexible cylinders. We employ optical tracking, using an array of high speed cameras. Compared to strain gauges and accelerometers, this non-intrusive approach, allows direct measurement of the flexible cylinder displacement with far denser spatial distribution. The measurements reveal essential features of flexible cylinder VIV, including complex geometries such as cylinders containing short-length buoyancy modules, with module to cylinder diameter ratio of 1:3.2 and module to bare cylinder length ratio of 1:1. The experiments are conducted with aspect ratio of 170 and 3 different coverage ratios, of 100%, 50% and 20%. The measurements demonstrate bi-frequency response due to excitation from both buoyancy module and bare cylinder, at low Strouhal number, down to values of 0.08, and the generation of traveling wave patterns.

  8. Gaussian laser beam transformation into an optical vortex beam by helical lens

    CERN Document Server

    Janicijevic, Ljiljana

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the Fresnel diffraction characteristics of the hybrid optical element which is a combination of a spiral phase plate (SPP) with topological charge p and a thin lens with focal length f, named the helical lens (HL). As incident a Gaussian laser beam is treated, having its waist a distance from the HL plane and its axis passing through the centre of the HL. It is shown that the SPP introduces a phase singularity of p-th order to the incident beam, while the lens transforms the beam characteristic parameters. The output light beam is analyzed in detail: its characteristic parameters and focusing properties, amplitude and intensity distributions and the vortex rings profiles and radii, at any z distance behind the HL plane, as well as in the near and far field.

  9. Temperature metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Fellmuth, B.

    2005-05-01

    The majority of the processes used by the manufacturing industry depend upon the accurate measurement and control of temperature. Thermal metrology is also a key factor affecting the efficiency and environmental impact of many high-energy industrial processes, the development of innovative products and the health and safety of the general population. Applications range from the processing, storage and shipment of perishable foodstuffs and biological materials to the development of more efficient and less environmentally polluting combustion processes for steel-making. Accurate measurement and control of temperature is, for instance, also important in areas such as the characterization of new materials used in the automotive, aerospace and semiconductor industries. This paper reviews the current status of temperature metrology. It starts with the determination of thermodynamic temperatures required on principle because temperature is an intensive quantity. Methods to determine thermodynamic temperatures are reviewed in detail to introduce the underlying physical basis. As these methods cannot usually be applied for practical measurements the need for a practical temperature scale for day-to-day work is motivated. The International Temperature Scale of 1990 and the Provisional Low Temperature Scale PLTS-2000 are described as important parts of the International System of Units to support science and technology. Its main importance becomes obvious in connection with industrial development and international markets. Every country is strongly interested in unique measures, in order to guarantee quality, reproducibility and functionability of products. The eventual realization of an international system, however, is only possible within the well-functioning organization of metrological laboratories. In developed countries the government established scientific institutes have certain metrological duties, as, for instance, the maintenance and dissemination of national

  10. 支撑光学制造的几何量计量技术%Dimensional Metrology at PTB to Support Optical Fabrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴高良; SCHULZ Michael; EHRET Gerd; DANZEBRINK Hans-Ulrich; FLUEGGE Jens; BOSSE Harald

    2011-01-01

    几何量计量技术大量应用于光学制造业以检测零件质量和控制生产过程,是光学制造业的核心技术,涉及微纳米结构的几何量计量以及平面、球面、非球面、直纹曲面及自由曲面的面形计量.本文综述了德国联邦物理技术研究院支撑光学制造的部分计量技术.介绍了一种测量范围为25 mm×25 mm×5 mm的计量型大范围原子力显微镜(AFM),可灵活多样地测量各种微纳结构.介绍了一种新颖的AFM探针(ACP),可实现微纳结构侧壁形貌的直接、无损测量.介绍了一种应用Flared AFM探针的真三维AFM及其用于减少针尖磨损的矢量探测技术,可应用于各种纳米结构的真三维测量.介绍了可用于平面和中等曲面面形绝对测量的两种方法:差分型激光束偏转法和可溯源多路传感器法(TMS).讨论了面形测量中存在的挑战性难题.介绍了可用于面形测量的高精度三坐标测量机.%Dimensional metrology is the enabling technology required not only for ensuring the quality of optical products but also for monitoring/controlling the manufacturing processes.Dimensional metrology of micro and nano structures and form metrology of flat,spherical,aspherical,ruled and free form surfaces are needed.This paper introduced some dimensional metrology research activities at PTB to support optical fabrication.A metrological large range atomic force microscope (AFM) with a capable measurement volume of 25 mm × 25 mm × 5 mm was introduced for versatile measurements of micro/nano structures.A kind of assembled cantilever probe (ACP) which is applicable for direct and non-destructive sidewall measurements was presented.A true 3D AFM using flared AFM probes was described by specially developed vector approaching probe (VAP) strategy for true 3D measurements of nano structures.Difference deflectometry and traceable multi sensor (TMS) methods applicable for absolute form metrology of flat to moderately curved

  11. The evolution of microphysical and optical properties of an A380 contrail in the vortex phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-F. Gayet

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The contrail from a large-body A380 aircraft has extensively been probed in the vortex and early dispersion regime with in situ instruments to measure microphysical and optical properties of contrail ice particles on the DLR research aircraft Falcon. Concentrations up to 340 cm−3 of ice particles with diameters d >0.9 μm and extinction coefficients up to 7.0 km−1 were measured inside the plume. Initially the primary vortices were sampled about 270 m below the A380 flight altitude at contrail ages of 70 to 120 s in ice subsaturated conditions, followed by measurements in the secondary wake with contrail ages of 120 to 220 s at conditions near ice saturation. In the primary vortices the mean effective diameter was 3.5 μm and the maximum ice water content (IWC was 7.0 mg m−3 increasing with altitude and ice saturation in the secondary wake to 4.8 μm and 10.0 mg m−3. The asymmetry parameter was found to decrease systematically with contrail age (and altitude from 0.87 to 0.80 indicating that ice crystals become more and more aspherical during ice crystal growth. In addition, an inversion approach was used to retrieve the ice particle size distribution and the partitioning between spherical and aspherical particles. In the young primary vortex 100% of the ice particles were of spherical shape, whereas partitioning coefficients of 68% and 44% were found in the more aged secondary wake. The extrapolation of our results to older contrails under similar meteorological conditions suggests that contrails with ages over 5 min may be dominated by aspherically-shaped ice particles typical for natural mid latitude cirrus.

  12. Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube thermocycler for fast DNA amplification and real-time optical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebmeier, Ryan J.; Whitney, Scott E.; Sarkar, Amitabha; Nelson, Michael; Padhye, Nisha V.; Gogos, George; Viljoen, Hendrik J.

    2004-12-01

    An innovative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) thermocycler capable of performing real-time optical detection is described below. This device utilizes the Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube in a system to efficiently and rapidly cycle three 20 μL samples between the denaturation, annealing, and elongation temperatures. The reaction progress is displayed real-time by measuring the size of a fluorescent signal emitted by SYBR green/double-stranded DNA complexes. This device can produce significant reaction yields with very small amounts of initial DNA, for example, it can amplify 0.25 fg (˜5 copies) of a 96 bp bacteriophage λ-DNA fragment 2.7×1011-fold by performing 45 cycles in less than 12 min. The optical threshold (150% of the baseline intensity) was passed 8 min into the reaction at cycle 34. Besides direct applications, the speed and sensitivity of this device enables it to be used as a scientific instrument for basic studies such as PCR assembly and polymerase kinetics.

  13. Quantum Computing, Metrology, and Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, H; Dowling, J P; Lee, Hwang; Lougovski, Pavel; Dowling, Jonathan P.

    2005-01-01

    Information science is entering into a new era in which certain subtleties of quantum mechanics enables large enhancements in computational efficiency and communication security. Naturally, precise control of quantum systems required for the implementation of quantum information processing protocols implies potential breakthoughs in other sciences and technologies. We discuss recent developments in quantum control in optical systems and their applications in metrology and imaging.

  14. Negative optical spin torque wrench of a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F. G.

    2016-10-01

    An absorptive Rayleigh dielectric sphere in a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam experiences a spin torque. The axial and transverse radiation spin torque components are evaluated in the dipole approximation using the radiative correction of the electric field. Particular emphasis is given on the polarization as well as changing the topological charge α and the half-cone angle of the beam. When α is zero, the axial spin torque component vanishes. However, when α becomes a real positive number, the vortex beam induces left-handed (negative) axial spin torque as the sphere shifts off-axially from the center of the beam. The results show that a non-diffracting non-paraxial fractional Bessel vortex beam is capable of inducing a spin reversal of an absorptive Rayleigh sphere placed arbitrarily in its path. Potential applications are yet to be explored in particle manipulation, rotation in optical tweezers, optical tractor beams, and the design of optically-engineered metamaterials to name a few areas.

  15. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Bo; Guo, Lana; Yue, Chengfeng; Tang, Zhilie

    2017-02-01

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex.

  16. Constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling can twist materials to create spiral structures in optical vortex illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barada, Daisuke [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research and Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Juman, Guzhaliayi; Yoshida, Itsuki [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, Katsuhiko; Omatsu, Takashige, E-mail: omatsu@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Molecular Chirality Research Center, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Kawata, Shigeo [Graduate School of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8585 (Japan); Ohno, Seigo [Graduate School of Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    It was discovered that optical vortices twist isotropic and homogenous materials, e.g., azo-polymer films to form spiral structures on a nano- or micro-scale. However, the formation mechanism has not yet been established theoretically. To understand the mechanism of the spiral surface relief formation in the azo-polymer film, we theoretically investigate the optical radiation force induced in an isotropic and homogeneous material under irradiation using a continuous-wave optical vortex with arbitrary topological charge and polarization. It is revealed that the spiral surface relief formation in azo-polymer films requires the irradiation of optical vortices with a positive (negative) spin angular momentum and a positive (negative) orbital angular momentum (constructive spin-orbital angular momentum coupling), i.e., the degeneracy among the optical vortices with the same total angular momentum is resolved.

  17. Brownian vortexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Lin, Jiayi; Darby, Ellis; Grosberg, Alexander Y.; Grier, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Mechanical equilibrium at zero temperature does not necessarily imply thermodynamic equilibrium at finite temperature for a particle confined by a static but nonconservative force field. Instead, the diffusing particle can enter into a steady state characterized by toroidal circulation in the probability flux, which we call a Brownian vortex. The circulatory bias in the particle’s thermally driven trajectory is not simply a deterministic response to the solenoidal component of the force but rather reflects interplay between advection and diffusion in which thermal fluctuations extract work from the nonconservative force field. As an example of this previously unrecognized class of stochastic heat engines, we consider a colloidal sphere diffusing in a conventional optical tweezer. We demonstrate both theoretically and experimentally that nonconservative optical forces bias the particle’s fluctuations into toroidal vortexes whose circulation can reverse direction with temperature or laser power.

  18. Hybrid photonic chip interferometer for embedded metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.; Martin, H.; Maxwell, G.; Jiang, X.

    2014-03-01

    Embedded metrology is the provision of metrology on the manufacturing platform, enabling measurement without the removal of the work piece. Providing closer integration of metrology upon the manufacturing platform can lead to the better control and increased throughput. In this work we present the development of a high precision hybrid optical chip interferometer metrology device. The complete metrology sensor system is structured into two parts; optical chip and optical probe. The hybrid optical chip interferometer is based on a silica-on-silicon etched integrated-optic motherboard containing waveguide structures and evanescent couplers. Upon the motherboard, electro-optic components such as photodiodes and a semiconductor gain block are mounted and bonded to provide the required functionality. The key structure in the device is a tunable laser module based upon an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL). Within the cavity is a multi-layer thin film filter which is rotated to select the longitudinal mode at which the laser operates. An optical probe, which uses a blazed diffracting grating and collimating objective lens, focuses light of different wavelengths laterally over the measurand. Incident laser light is then tuned in wavelength time to effectively sweep an `optical stylus' over the surface. Wavelength scanning and rapid phase shifting can then retrieve the path length change and thus the surface height. We give an overview of the overall design of the final hybrid photonic chip interferometer, constituent components, device integration and packaging as well as experimental test results from the current version now under evaluation.

  19. Vortex transmutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacarés, Mario; García-March, Miguel-Angel; Monsoriu, Juan A; de Córdoba, Pedro Fernández

    2005-09-16

    Using group theory arguments and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the possibility of changing the vorticity or topological charge of an individual vortex by means of the action of a system possessing a discrete rotational symmetry of finite order. We establish on theoretical grounds a "transmutation pass" determining the conditions for this phenomenon to occur and numerically analyze it in the context of two-dimensional optical lattices. An analogous approach is applicable to the problems of Bose-Einstein condensates in periodic potentials.

  20. Evolution of the optical vortex density in phase corrected speckle fields

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available to determine the characteristics scales associated with these processes. Here the authors report the initial results and show how one can represent the evolution of the vortex density in the paraxial limit....

  1. Reconstructing the Poynting vector skew angle and wave-front of optical vortex beams via two-channel moir\\'e deflectometery

    CERN Document Server

    Yeganeh, Mohammad; Dashti, Mohsen; Slussarenko, Sergei; Santamato, Enrico; Karimi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach based on the two-channel moir\\'e deflectometry has been used to measure both wave-front and transverse component of the Poynting vector of an optical vortex beam. Generated vortex beam by the q-plate, an inhomogeneous liquid crystal cell, has been analyzed with such technique. The measured topological charge of generated beams are in an excellent agreement with theoretical prediction.

  2. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  3. Metrological multispherical freeform artifact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blobel, Gernot; Wiegmann, Axel; Siepmann, Jens; Schulz, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Precisely known artifacts are required to characterize the accuracy of asphere and freeform measuring instruments. To this end the best knowledge of the surface characteristics in conjunction with a low measurement uncertainty are necessary. Because this is a challenging task for typical freeform surfaces used in optical systems, the concept of "metrological" artifacts is introduced. We have developed a multispherical freeform artifact for performance tests of tactile touch probe and contact-free optical measuring systems. The measurement accuracy of the complete form and the deviation from calibrated spherical sections can thus be determined. The radius calibration of multiple spherical sections is performed with an extended radius measuring procedure by interferometry. Evaluated surface forms of different measuring methods and the radii determined can be compared to each other. In this study, a multispherical freeform specimen made of copper, with two differing radii, has been measured by two optical measuring methods, a full field measuring tilted-wave interferometer and a high accuracy cylinder coordinate measuring machine with an optical probe. The surface form measurements are evaluated and compared, and the radii determined are compared to the results of a radius measurement bench.

  4. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  5. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bo [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Lana [School of Electronics and Information, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665 (China); Yue, Chengfeng [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie, E-mail: tangzhl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-02-26

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex. - Highlights: • Different non-integer vortices cannot have three spiral spectra is demonstrated. • Relationship between the non-integer topological charge and the spiral spectra is presented. • Topological charge of non-integer vortices can be determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra.

  6. Generation of radially polarized high energy mid-infrared optical vortex by use of a passive axially symmetric ZnSe waveplate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakayama, Toshitaka, E-mail: wakayama@saitama-med.ac.jp; Yonemura, Motoki [School of Biomedical Engineering, Saitama Medical University, Yamane 1397-1, Hidaka, Saitama 350-1241 (Japan); Oikawa, Hiroki; Sasanuma, Atsushi; Arai, Goki; Fujii, Yusuke [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Dinh, Thanh-Hung; Otani, Yukitoshi [Center for Optical Research & Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Center for Optical Research & Education (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 (Japan); Sakaue, Kazuyuki, E-mail: kazuyuki.sakaue@aoni.waseda.jp [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Washio, Masakazu [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Miura, Taisuke, E-mail: miura@fzu.cz [HiLASE Centre, Institute of Physics CAS, Za radnicí 828, 252 41, Dolní Břežany (Czech Republic); Takahashi, Akihiko [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Nakamura, Daisuke; Okada, Tatsuo [Graduate School of Information Sciences and Electrical Engineering, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-08-24

    We demonstrated the generation of the intense radially polarized mid-infrared optical vortex at a wavelength of 10.6 μm by use of a passive axially symmetric zinc selenide (ZnSe) waveplate with high energy pulse throughput. The phase of the radially polarized optical vortex with the degree of polarization of 0.95 was spirally distributed in regard to the angle. The converted laser beam energy of about 2.6 mJ per pulse was obtained at the input pulse energy of 4.9 mJ, corresponding to the energy conversion efficiency of 56%.

  7. Generation of Optical Vortex Using a Spiral Phase Plate Fabricated in Quartz by Direct Laser Writing and Inductively Coupled Plasma Etching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun; KUANG Deng-Feng; GUI Min; FANG Zhi-Liang

    2009-01-01

    A simple, economical and reliable technique is proposed for fabricating a spiral phase plate (SPP) in a quartz substrate to generate optical vortex with a unit topological charge at the wavelengths of 632.8nm. The spiral phase plate is first formed in the photoresist by direct laser writing lithography and then transferred into the quartz substrate by inductively coupled plasma etching. The performance of the fabricated SPP is verified by using beam intensity distribution, which is in agreement with the theoretical calculation result. The interference measurement suggests that we have succeeded to generate opticM vortex with a unit topological charge with the fabricated SPP.

  8. Capability Handbook- offline metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul; Marhöfer, David Maximilian; Tosello, Guido

    This offline metrological capability handbook has been made in relation to HiMicro Task 3.3. The purpose of this document is to assess the metrological capability of the HiMicro partners and to gather the information of all available metrological instruments in the one single document. It provides...... a quick overview of what is possible today by the state of the art, what the HiMicro consortium can do and what metrological requirements we have concerning the HiMicro industrial demonstrators....

  9. Advances in Solar Radiometry and Metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.

    2005-01-01

    The Solar Radiometry and Metrology task at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during the NREL Pyrheliometer Comparison in October 2003. The task has calibrated 10 spectral and more than 180 broadband radiometers for solar measurements. Other accomplishments include characterization of pyranometer thermal offset errors with laboratory and spectral modeling tools; developing a simple scheme to correct pyranometer data for known responsivity variations; and measuring detailed spectral distributions of the NREL High Intensity Pulsed Solar Simulator (HIPSS) as a function of lamp voltage and time. The optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations. Optical metrology functions have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  10. Advances in speckle metrology and related techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kaufmann, Guillermo H

    2010-01-01

    Speckle metrology includes various optical techniques that are based on the speckle fields generated by reflection from a rough surface or by transmission through a rough diffuser. These techniques have proven to be very useful in testing different materials in a non-destructive way. They have changed dramatically during the last years due to the development of modern optical components, with faster and more powerful digital computers, and novel data processing approaches. This most up-to-date overview of the topic describes new techniques developed in the field of speckle metrology over the l

  11. Commissioning and first light results of an L'-band vortex coronagraph with the Keck II adaptive optics NIRC2 science instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femenía Castellá, Bruno; Serabyn, Eugene; Mawet, Dimitri; Absil, Olivier; Wizinowich, Peter; Matthews, Keith; Huby, Elsa; Bottom, Michael; Campbell, Randy; Chan, Dwight; Carlomagno, Brunella; Cetre, Sylvain; Defrère, Denis; Delacroix, Christian; Gomez Gonzalez, Carlos; Jolivet, Aïssa; Karlsson, Mikael; Lanclos, Kyle; Lilley, Scott; Milner, Steven; Ngo, Henry; Reggiani, Maddalena; Simmons, Julia; Tran, Hien; Vargas Catalan, Ernesto; Wertz, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    On March 2015 an L'-band vortex coronagraph based on an Annular Groove Phase Mask made up of a diamond sub-wavelength grating was installed on NIRC2 as a demonstration project. This vortex coronagraph operates in the L' band not only in order to take advantage from the favorable star/planet contrast ratio when observing beyond the K band, but also to exploit the fact that the Keck II Adaptive Optics (AO) system delivers nearly extreme adaptive optics image quality (Strehl ratios values near 90%) at 3.7μm. We describe the hardware installation of the vortex phase mask during a routine NIRC2 service mission. The success of the project depends on extensive software development which has allowed the achievement of exquisite real-time pointing control as well as further contrast improvements by using speckle nulling to mitigate the effect of static speckles. First light of the new coronagraphic mode was on June 2015 with already very good initial results. Subsequent commissioning nights were interlaced with science nights by members of the VORTEX team with their respective scientific programs. The new capability and excellent results so far have motivated the VORTEX team and the Keck Science Steering Committee (KSSC) to offer the new mode in shared risk mode for 2016B.

  12. NIF Target Assembly Metrology Methodology and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alger, E. T. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Kroll, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dzenitis, E. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Montesanti, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hughes, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Swisher, M. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Segraves, K. [IAP, Livermore, CA (United States); Lord, D. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reynolds, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Edwards, G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-01-01

    During our inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) we require cryogenic targets at the 1-cm scale to be fabricated, assembled, and metrologized to micron-level tolerances. During assembly of these ICF targets, there are physical dimensmetrology is completed using optical coordinate measurement machines that provide repeatable measurements with micron precision, while also allowing in-process data collection for absolute accuracy in assembly. To date, 51 targets have been assembled and metrologized, and 34 targets have been successfully fielded on NIF relying on these metrology data. In the near future, ignition experiments on NIF will require tighter tolerances and more demanding target assembly and metrology capability. Metrology methods, calculations, and uncertainty estimates will be discussed. Target diagnostic port alignment, target position, and capsule location results will be reviewed for the 2009 Energetics Campaign. The information is presented via control charts showing the effect of process improvements that were made during target production. Certain parameters, including capsule position, met the 2009 campaign specifications but will have much tighter requirements in the future. Finally, in order to meet these new requirements assembly process changes and metrology capability upgrades will be necessary.

  13. Metrology and Energy Conservation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuan Xiang

    2006-01-01

    @@ May 20 is World Metrology Day and the theme of this year is "Metrology and Energy Conservation." Energy is not only a vital issue for China, but also for the world. In order to implement Proposal of the CPC Central Committee on the 11th Five-Year Program for National Economic and Social Development, the government bulletin of 5th Plenary Session of the 16th CPC Central Committee announced that "there shall be marked improvement on resource utilization; the energy consumption for unit GDP shall cut 20%, water consumption of unit industrial added value drop 30%... and the recycle ratio of industrial solid wastes shall raise by 60%." These are key targets of economic development during the 11th five-year program. To make full use of metrology for energy conservation and energy utilization, the competent metrology department of Chinese Goyernment advanced metrology program in light of China's energy status.

  14. Measuring the In-Process Figure, Final Prescription, and System Alignment of Large Optics and Segmented Mirrors Using Lidar Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohl, Raymond; Slotwinski, Anthony; Eegholm, Bente; Saif, Babak

    2011-01-01

    The fabrication of large optics is traditionally a slow process, and fabrication capability is often limited by measurement capability. W hile techniques exist to measure mirror figure with nanometer precis ion, measurements of large-mirror prescription are typically limited to submillimeter accuracy. Using a lidar instrument enables one to measure the optical surface rough figure and prescription in virtuall y all phases of fabrication without moving the mirror from its polis hing setup. This technology improves the uncertainty of mirror presc ription measurement to the micron-regime.

  15. Quantum metrology with cold atomic ensembles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Morgan W.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantum metrology uses quantum features such as entanglement and squeezing to improve the sensitivity of quantum-limited measurements. Long established as a valuable technique in optical measurements such as gravitational-wave detection, quantum metrology is increasingly being applied to atomic instruments such as matter-wave interferometers, atomic clocks, and atomic magnetometers. Several of these new applications involve dual optical/atomic quantum systems, presenting both new challenges and new opportunities. Here we describe an optical magnetometry system that achieves both shot-noise-limited and projection-noise-limited performance, allowing study of optical magnetometry in a fully-quantum regime [1]. By near-resonant Faraday rotation probing, we demonstrate measurement-based spin squeezing in a magnetically-sensitive atomic ensemble [2-4]. The versatility of this system allows us also to design metrologically-relevant optical nonlinearities, and to perform quantum-noise-limited measurements with interacting photons. As a first interaction-based measurement [5], we implement a non-linear metrology scheme proposed by Boixo et al. with the surprising feature of precision scaling better than the 1/N “Heisenberg limit” [6].

  16. Lithography, metrology and nanomanufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, J Alexander; Gallatin, Gregg M

    2011-07-01

    Semiconductor chip manufacturing is by far the predominant nanomanufacturing technology in the world today. Top-down lithography techniques are used for fabrication of logic and memory chips since, in order to function, these chips must essentially be perfect. Assuring perfection requires expensive metrology. Top of the line logic sells for several hundred thousand dollars per square metre and, even though the required metrology is expensive, it is a small percentage of the overall manufacturing cost. The level of stability and control afforded by current lithography tools means that much of this metrology can be online and statistical. In contrast, many of the novel types of nanomanufacturing currently being developed will produce products worth only a few dollars per square metre. To be cost effective, the required metrology must cost proportionately less. Fortunately many of these nanofabrication techniques, such as block copolymer self-assembly, colloidal self-assembly, DNA origami, roll-2-roll nano-imprint, etc., will not require the same level of perfection to meet specification. Given the variability of these self-assembly processes, in order to maintain process control, these techniques will require some level of real time online metrology. Hence we are led to the conclusion that future nanomanufacturing may well necessitate "cheap" nanometre scale metrology which functions real time and on-line, e.g. at GHz rates, in the production stream. In this paper we review top-down and bottom-up nanofabrication techniques and compare and contrast the various metrology requirements.

  17. Optical vortex beam transmission with different OAM in scattering beads and brain tissue media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, W. B.; Shi, Lingyan; Lindwasser, Lukas; Marque, Paulo; Lavery, M. P. J.; Alfano, R. R.

    2016-03-01

    Light transmission of Laguerre Gaussian (LG) vortex beams with different orbital angular momentum (OAM) values (L) in scattering beads and mouse brain tissue media were experimentally investigated for the first time in comparison with Gaussian (G) beams. The LG beams with different OAM were generated using a spatial light modulator (SLM) in reflection mode. The scattering beads media consist of various sizes and concentrations of latex beads in water solutions. The transmissions of LG and G beams through scattering beads and brain tissue media were measured with different ratios of sample thicknesses (z) to scattering mean free path (ls) of the turbid media, z/ls. The results indicate that within the ballistic region where z/ls is small, the LG and G beams show no significant difference, while in the diffusive region where z/ls is higher, the vortex beams show higher transmission than G beams. In the diffusive region, the LG beams with higher L values show higher transmission than the beams with lower L values due to the eigen channels in the media. The transition points from the ballistic to diffusive regions for different scattering beads and brain tissue media were studied.

  18. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, P I; Leach, R K

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  19. Invited Review Article: Review of post-process optical form metrology for industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavroulakis, P. I.; Leach, R. K.

    2016-04-01

    The scope of this review is to investigate the main post-process optical form measurement technologies available in industry today and to determine whether they are applicable to industrial-grade metal additive manufactured parts. An in-depth review of the operation of optical three-dimensional form measurement technologies applicable to metal additive manufacturing is presented, with a focus on their fundamental limitations. Looking into the future, some alternative candidate measurement technologies potentially applicable to metal additive manufacturing will be discussed, which either provide higher accuracy than currently available techniques but lack measurement volume, or inversely, which operate in the appropriate measurement volume but are not currently accurate enough to be used for industrial measurement.

  20. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  1. Note: Near infrared interferometric silicon wafer metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M S; Park, H M; Joo, K N

    2016-04-01

    In this investigation, two near infrared (NIR) interferometric techniques for silicon wafer metrology are described and verified with experimental results. Based on the transparent characteristic of NIR light to a silicon wafer, the fiber based spectrally resolved interferometry can measure the optical thickness of the wafer and stitching low coherence scanning interferometry can reconstruct entire surfaces of the wafer.

  2. Photomask Dimensional Metrology in the SEM: Has Anything Really Changed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postek, Michael T., Jr.; Vladar, Andras E.; Bennett, Marylyn H.

    2002-12-01

    Photomask dimensional metrology in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) has not evolved as rapidly as the metrology of resists and integrated circuit features on wafers. This has been due partly to the 4x (or 5x) reduction in the optical steppers and scanners used in the lithography process, and partly for the lesser need to account for the real three-dimensionality of the mask structures. So, where photomasks are concerned, many of the issues challenging wafer dimensional metrology at 1x are reduced by a factor of 4 or 5 and thus could be temporarily swept aside. This is rapidly changing with the introduction of advanced masks with optical proximity correction and phase shifting features used in 100 nm and smaller circuit generations. Fortunately, photomask metrology generally benefits from the advances made for wafer metrology, but there are still unique issues to be solved in this form of dimensional metrology. It is likely that no single metrology method or tool will ever provide all necessary answers. As with other types of metrology, resolution, sensitivity and linearity in the three-dimensional measurements of the shape of the lines and phase shifting features in general (width, height and wall angles) and the departures from the desired shape (surface and edge roughness, etc.) are the key parameters. Different methods and tools differ in their ability to collect averaged and localized signals with an acceptable speed, but in any case, application of this thorough knowledge of the physics of the given metrology is essential to extract the needed information. This paper will discuss the topics of precision, accuracy and traceability in the SEM metrology of photomasks. Current and possible new techniques utilized in the measurements of photomasks including charge suppression and highly accurate modeling for electron beam metrology will also be explored to answer the question "Has anything really changed?"

  3. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.

    2003-11-12

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2000, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/ts/htdocs/210/214/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized in the table at the bottom of this introduction.

  4. Dimensional Metrology for Microtechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bariani, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    This ph. D. project was aimed at developing and validating techniques for dimensional metrology of: miniaturized items, microsystem components, and surfaces. In particular the study was focused on techniques based on: AFM-CMM integration and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Development...... was proposed and the principle demonstrated on software gauges. Simulations of Surface Mapping were done, based on the model developed. Direct performance verification of the Large Range AFM was eventually carried out, and lateral metrology was possible, in the millimeter range, with accuracy in the order...... at high magnifications was, proposed and this has resulted into a patent application. The final part of the thesis is devoted to applications of dimensional metrology to case studies. Three applications are presented, two of them are investigations of surface metrology, while the third is about extraction...

  5. Semiconductor strain metrology principles and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Terence KS

    2012-01-01

    This book surveys the major and newly developed techniques for semiconductor strain metrology. Semiconductor strain metrology has emerged in recent years as a topic of great interest to researchers involved in thin film and nanoscale device characterization. This e-book employs a tutorial approach to explain the principles and applications of each technique specifically tailored for graduate students and postdoctoral researchers. Selected topics include optical, electron beam, ion beam and synchrotron x-ray techniques. Unlike earlier references, this e-book specifically discusses strain metrol

  6. Three-dimensional metrology for printed electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Vadim; Harding, Kevin

    2017-05-01

    Novel materials and printing technologies can enable rapid and low cost prototyping and manufacturing of electronic devices with increased flexibility and complexity. However, robust and on-demand printing of circuits will require accurate metrology methods that can measure micron level patterns to verify proper production. This paper presents an evaluation of a range of optical gaging tools ranging from confocal to area 3D systems to determine metrological capability for a range of key parameters from trace thickness to solder paste volumes. Finally, this paper will present a select set of optimized measurement tools detailing both capabilities and gaps in the available technologies needed to fully realize the potential of printed electronics.

  7. Optical spin torque induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams with selective polarizations on a light-absorptive sphere of arbitrary size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Renxian; Ding, Chunying; Mitri, F. G.

    2017-07-01

    The optical spin torque (OST) induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams can cause a particle to rotate around its center of mass. Previous works have considered the OST on a Rayleigh absorptive dielectric sphere by a vector Bessel (vortex) beam, however, it is of some importance to analyze the OST components for a sphere of arbitrary size. In this work, the generalized Lorenz-Mie theory (GLMT) is used to compute the OST induced by vector Bessel (vortex) beams on an absorptive dielectric sphere of arbitrary size, with particular emphasis on the beam order, the polarization of the plane wave component forming the beam, and the half-cone angle. The OST is expressed as the integration of the moment of the time-averaged Maxwell stress tensor, and the beam shape coefficients (BSCs) are calculated using the angular spectrum decomposition method (ASDM). Using this theory, the OST exerted on the light-absorptive dielectric sphere in the Rayleigh, Mie or the geometrical optics regimes can be considered. The axial and transverse OSTs are numerically calculated with particular emphasis on the sign reversal of the axial OST and the vortex-like character of the transverse OST, and the effects of polarization, beam order, and half-cone angle are discussed in detail. Numerical results show that by choosing an appropriate polarization, order and half-cone angle, the sign of the axial OST can be reversed, meaning that the sphere would spin in opposite handedness of the angular momentum carried by the incident beam. The vortex-like structure of the total transverse OSTs can be observed for all cases. When the sphere moves radially away from the beam axis, it may rotate around its center of mass in either the counter-clockwise or the clockwise direction. Conditions are also predicted where the absorptive sphere experiences no spinning. Potential applications in particle manipulation and rotation in optical tweezers and tractor beams would benefit from the results.

  8. Vortex rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmetov, D.G. [Lavrentiev Institute of Hydrodynamics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    This book presents a comprehensive coverage of the wide field of vortex rings. The book presents the results of systematic experimental investigations, theoretical foundation, as well as the practical applications of vortex rings, such as the extinction of fires at gushing gas and oil wells. All the basic properties of vortex rings as well as their hydrodynamic structures are presented. Special attention is paid to the formation and motion of turbulent vortex rings. (orig.)

  9. Vulcanized Vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2008-01-01

    We investigate vortex configurations with the "vulcanization" term introduced for renormalization of $\\phi_\\star^4$ theory in canonical $\\theta$-deformed noncommutativity. In the small-$\\theta$ limit, we perform numerical calculations and find that nontopological vortex solutions exist as well as Q-ball type solutions, but topological vortex solutions are not admitted.

  10. Adaptive on-chip control of nano-optical fields with optoplasmonic vortex nanogates

    CERN Document Server

    Boriskina, Svetlana V

    2011-01-01

    A major challenge for plasmonics as an enabling technology for quantum information processing is the realization of active spatio-temporal control of light on the nanoscale. The use of phase-shaped pulses or beams enforces specific requirements for on-chip integration and imposes strict design limitations. We introduce here an alternative approach, which is based on exploiting the strong sub-wavelength spatial phase modulation in the near-field of resonantly-excited high-Q optical microcavities integrated into plasmonic nanocircuits. Our theoretical analysis reveals the formation of areas of circulating powerflow (optical vortices) in the near-fields of optical microcavities, whose positions and mutual coupling can be controlled by tuning the microcavities parameters and the excitation wavelength. We show that optical powerflow though nanoscale plasmonic structures can be dynamically molded by engineering interactions of microcavity-induced optical vortices with noble-metal nanoparticles. The proposed strateg...

  11. PREFACE: VII Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa-Félix, Rodrigo; Bernardes, Americo; Valente de Oliveira, José Carlos; Mauro Granjeiro, José; Epsztejn, Ruth; Ihlenfeld, Waldemar; Smarçaro da Cunha, Valnei

    2015-01-01

    SEVENTH BRAZILIAN CONGRESS ON METROLOGY (METROLOGIA 2013) Metrology and Quality for a Sustainable Development From November 24th to 27th 2013 was issued the Seventh Brazilian Congress on Metrology (Metrologia 2013), which is a biannual conference organized and sponsored by the Brazilian Society of Metrology (SBM) and the Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (Inmetro). This edition was held in the charming and historical city of Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, and aimed to join people and institutions devoted to the dissemination of the metrology and conformity assessment. The Metrologia 2013 Conference consisted of Keynote Speeches (7) and regular papers (204). Among the regular papers, the 47 most outstanding ones, comprising a high quality content on Metrology and Conformity Assessment, were selected to be published in this issue of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series. The topics of the conference covered all important areas of Metrology, which were agglutinated in the following sessions in the present issue: . Physical Metrology (Acoustics, Vibration and Ultrasound; Electricity and Magnetism; Mechanics; Optics); . Metrology on Ionizing Radiations; . Time and Frequency; . Chemistry Metrology; . Materials Metrology; . Biotechnology; . Uncertainty, Statistics and Mathematics; . Legal Metrology; . Conformity Assessment. It is our great pleasure to present this volume of IOP Journal of Physics: Conference Series (JPCS) to the scientific community to promote further research in Metrology and related areas. We believe that this volume will be both an excellent source of scientific material in the fast evolving fields that were covered by Metrologia 2013. President of the congress Americo Bernardes Federal University of Ouro Preto atb@iceb.ufop.br Editor-in-chief Rodrigo Costa-Félix Brazilian National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology rpfelix@inmetro.gov.br Editors José Carlos Valente de Oliveira (Editor on Mechanical Metrology

  12. An Optical Wake Vortex Detection System for Super-Density Airport Operation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Feasibility study including analysis and experiment performed in Phase I indicated that several singled-ended optical scintillometer and retro-reflector pairs...

  13. Metrology for Fuel Cell Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stocker, Michael [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Stanfield, Eric [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-02-04

    The project was divided into three subprojects. The first subproject is Fuel Cell Manufacturing Variability and Its Impact on Performance. The objective was to determine if flow field channel dimensional variability has an impact on fuel cell performance. The second subproject is Non-contact Sensor Evaluation for Bipolar Plate Manufacturing Process Control and Smart Assembly of Fuel Cell Stacks. The objective was to enable cost reduction in the manufacture of fuel cell plates by providing a rapid non-contact measurement system for in-line process control. The third subproject is Optical Scatterfield Metrology for Online Catalyst Coating Inspection of PEM Soft Goods. The objective was to evaluate the suitability of Optical Scatterfield Microscopy as a viable measurement tool for in situ process control of catalyst coatings.

  14. Freeform metrology using subaperture stitching interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supranowitz, Chris; Lormeau, Jean-Pierre; Maloney, Chris; Murphy, Paul; Dumas, Paul

    2016-11-01

    As applications for freeform optics continue to grow, the need for high-precision metrology is becoming more of a necessity. Currently, coordinate measuring machines (CMM) that implement touch probes or optical probes can measure the widest ranges of shapes of freeform optics, but these measurement solutions often lack sufficient lateral resolution and accuracy. Subaperture stitching interferometry (SSI™) extends traditional Fizeau interferometry to provide accurate, high-resolution measurements of flats, spheres, and aspheres, and development is currently on-going to enable measurements of freeform surfaces. We will present recent freeform metrology results, including repeatability and cross-test data. We will also present MRF® polishing results where the stitched data was used as the input "hitmap" to the deterministic polishing process.

  15. A Century of Acoustic Metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Knud

    1998-01-01

    The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect.......The development in acoustic measurement technique over the last century is reviewed with special emphasis on the metrological aspect....

  16. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, L.M.

    2000-03-23

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM and T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties in laboratories that conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 8.4, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1 (equivalent to ISO Guide 25). FM and T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. These parameters are summarized.

  17. Metrology for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Peter; Klein, Stephan

    2015-08-01

    In various recently published studies, it is argued that there are underestimated risks with infusion technology, i.e., adverse incidents believed to be caused by inadequate administration of the drugs. This is particularly the case for applications involving very low-flow rates, i.e., metrological infrastructure for low-flow rates. Technical challenges such as these were the reason a European research project "Metrology for Drug Delivery" was started in 2011. In this special issue of Biomedical Engineering, the results of that project are discussed.

  18. The Development of a Deflectometer for Accurate Surface Figure Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; Eberhardt, Andrew; Ramsey, Brian; Atkins, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center is developing the method of direct fabrication for high resolution full-shell x-ray optics. In this technique the x-ray optics axial profiles are figured and polished using a computer-controlled ZeekoIRP600X polishing machine. Based on the Chandra optics fabrication history about one third of the manufacturing time is spent on moving a mirror between fabrication and metrology sites, reinstallation and alignment with either the metrology or fabrication instruments. Also, the accuracy of the alignment significantly affects the ultimate accuracy of the resulting mirrors. In order to achieve higher convergence rate it is highly desirable to have a metrology technique capable of in situ surface figure measurements of the optics under fabrication, so the overall fabrication costs would be greatly reduced while removing the surface errors due to the re-alignment necessary after each metrology cycle during the fabrication. The goal of this feasibility study is to demonstrate if the Phase Measuring Deflectometry can be applied for in situ metrology of full shell x-ray optics. Examples of the full-shell mirror substrates suitable for the direct fabrication

  19. A low cost scheme for high precision dual-wavelength laser metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Kok, Yitping; Robertson, J Gordon; Tuthill, Peter G; Warrington, Benjamin A; Tango, William J

    2013-01-01

    A novel method capable of delivering relative optical path length metrology with nanometer precision is demonstrated. Unlike conventional dual-wavelength metrology which employs heterodyne detection, the method developed in this work utilizes direct detection of interference fringes of two He-Ne lasers as well as a less precise stepper motor open-loop position control system to perform its measurement. Although the method may be applicable to a variety of circumstances, the specific application where this metrology is essential is in an astrometric optical long baseline stellar interferometer dedicated to precise measurement of stellar positions. In our example application of this metrology to a narrow-angle astrometric interferometer, measurement of nanometer precision could be achieved without frequency-stabilized lasers although the use of such lasers would extend the range of optical path length the metrology can accurately measure. Implementation of the method requires very little additional optics or el...

  20. MAMMUT: mirror vibration metrology for VLTI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaleniak, Izabela; Giessler, Frank; Geiss, Reinhard; Minardi, Stefano; Pertsch, Thomas; Neuhaeuser, Ralph; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Delplancke, Françoise; Richichi, Andrea; Ménardi, Serge; Schmid, Christian

    2010-07-01

    MAMMUT (Mirror vibrAtion Metrolology systeM for the Unit Telescope) is an ESO funded feasibility project for the development of a fiber interferometer prototype designed for optical path laser-metrology along the optical train of the Unit Telescopes (UT) of the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI). Fast mechanical vibrations originating in the VLTI cause fast variations of the optical path difference between two arms of the stellar interferometer, thus reducing the contrast of measured interference fringes. MAMMUT aims at monitoring in real time the optical path variations inside the Coudé train of the UT, for active control purposes. MAMMUT features a 250-meter-long optical fiber which can be used to deliver and inject a laser beam at 1353 nm into the UT. The injected beam can be dropped from the telescope in the Coudé room and interfered with a phase reference, provided by the second 250-meter-long arm of the fiber interferometer. The optical path variations are measured by means of an active homodyne scheme. Coherence between the beam at the injection point and the phase reference is provided by active fiber stabilization, made possible by the implementation of an internal metrology channel in MAMMUT. Here we present the initial laboratory performance results of the MAMMUT prototype, which will be able to sense optical path variations of +/- 5 μm with sub-10 nm precision within a bandwidth of at least 100 Hz.

  1. Overlay metrology for double patterning processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leray, Philippe; Cheng, Shaunee; Laidler, David; Kandel, Daniel; Adel, Mike; Dinu, Berta; Polli, Marco; Vasconi, Mauro; Salski, Bartlomiej

    2009-03-01

    The double patterning (DPT) process is foreseen by the industry to be the main solution for the 32 nm technology node and even beyond. Meanwhile process compatibility has to be maintained and the performance of overlay metrology has to improve. To achieve this for Image Based Overlay (IBO), usually the optics of overlay tools are improved. It was also demonstrated that these requirements are achievable with a Diffraction Based Overlay (DBO) technique named SCOLTM [1]. In addition, we believe that overlay measurements with respect to a reference grid are required to achieve the required overlay control [2]. This induces at least a three-fold increase in the number of measurements (2 for double patterned layers to the reference grid and 1 between the double patterned layers). The requirements of process compatibility, enhanced performance and large number of measurements make the choice of overlay metrology for DPT very challenging. In this work we use different flavors of the standard overlay metrology technique (IBO) as well as the new technique (SCOL) to address these three requirements. The compatibility of the corresponding overlay targets with double patterning processes (Litho-Etch-Litho-Etch (LELE); Litho-Freeze-Litho-Etch (LFLE), Spacer defined) is tested. The process impact on different target types is discussed (CD bias LELE, Contrast for LFLE). We compare the standard imaging overlay metrology with non-standard imaging techniques dedicated to double patterning processes (multilayer imaging targets allowing one overlay target instead of three, very small imaging targets). In addition to standard designs already discussed [1], we investigate SCOL target designs specific to double patterning processes. The feedback to the scanner is determined using the different techniques. The final overlay results obtained are compared accordingly. We conclude with the pros and cons of each technique and suggest the optimal metrology strategy for overlay control in double

  2. Metrology and Time

    CERN Document Server

    Rybak, B

    1999-01-01

    The algorithm Pi/sinx reveals an elliptic excess which acts as the real component (Space) inducing the imaginary component (Time). Key words : metrology, chronogenesis, tropic year, anomalistic year. ----- L 'algorithme Pi/sinx revele un excedent elliptique constituant la composante active d ' espace dont la composante reactive exprime la chronogenese tropique aussi bien qu ' anomalistique.. Mots-cles : metrologie, chronogenese, annee tropique, annee anomalistique

  3. Method and system for processing optical elements using magnetorheological finishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menapace, Joseph Arthur; Schaffers, Kathleen Irene; Bayramian, Andrew James; Molander, William A

    2012-09-18

    A method of finishing an optical element includes mounting the optical element in an optical mount having a plurality of fiducials overlapping with the optical element and obtaining a first metrology map for the optical element and the plurality of fiducials. The method also includes obtaining a second metrology map for the optical element without the plurality of fiducials, forming a difference map between the first metrology map and the second metrology map, and aligning the first metrology map and the second metrology map. The method further includes placing mathematical fiducials onto the second metrology map using the difference map to form a third metrology map and associating the third metrology map to the optical element. Moreover, the method includes mounting the optical element in the fixture in an MRF tool, positioning the optical element in the fixture; removing the plurality of fiducials, and finishing the optical element.

  4. Quantum metrology and its application in biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael A.; Bowen, Warwick P.

    2016-02-01

    Quantum metrology provides a route to overcome practical limits in sensing devices. It holds particular relevance to biology, where sensitivity and resolution constraints restrict applications both in fundamental biophysics and in medicine. Here, we review quantum metrology from this biological context, focusing on optical techniques due to their particular relevance for biological imaging, sensing, and stimulation. Our understanding of quantum mechanics has already enabled important applications in biology, including positron emission tomography (PET) with entangled photons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using nuclear magnetic resonance, and bio-magnetic imaging with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In quantum metrology an even greater range of applications arise from the ability to not just understand, but to engineer, coherence and correlations at the quantum level. In the past few years, quite dramatic progress has been seen in applying these ideas into biological systems. Capabilities that have been demonstrated include enhanced sensitivity and resolution, immunity to imaging artefacts and technical noise, and characterization of the biological response to light at the single-photon level. New quantum measurement techniques offer even greater promise, raising the prospect for improved multi-photon microscopy and magnetic imaging, among many other possible applications. Realization of this potential will require cross-disciplinary input from researchers in both biology and quantum physics. In this review we seek to communicate the developments of quantum metrology in a way that is accessible to biologists and biophysicists, while providing sufficient details to allow the interested reader to obtain a solid understanding of the field. We further seek to introduce quantum physicists to some of the central challenges of optical measurements in biological science. We hope that this will aid in bridging the communication gap that exists

  5. Quantum metrology and its application in biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Michael A. [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia); Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Max F. Perutz Laboratories & Research Platform for Quantum Phenomena and Nanoscale Biological Systems (QuNaBioS), University of Vienna, Dr. Bohr Gasse 7-9, A-1030 Vienna (Austria); Bowen, Warwick P., E-mail: w.bowen@uq.edu.au [Centre for Engineered Quantum Systems, University of Queensland, St Lucia, Queensland 4072 (Australia)

    2016-02-23

    Quantum metrology provides a route to overcome practical limits in sensing devices. It holds particular relevance to biology, where sensitivity and resolution constraints restrict applications both in fundamental biophysics and in medicine. Here, we review quantum metrology from this biological context, focusing on optical techniques due to their particular relevance for biological imaging, sensing, and stimulation. Our understanding of quantum mechanics has already enabled important applications in biology, including positron emission tomography (PET) with entangled photons, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using nuclear magnetic resonance, and bio-magnetic imaging with superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs). In quantum metrology an even greater range of applications arise from the ability to not just understand, but to engineer, coherence and correlations at the quantum level. In the past few years, quite dramatic progress has been seen in applying these ideas into biological systems. Capabilities that have been demonstrated include enhanced sensitivity and resolution, immunity to imaging artefacts and technical noise, and characterization of the biological response to light at the single-photon level. New quantum measurement techniques offer even greater promise, raising the prospect for improved multi-photon microscopy and magnetic imaging, among many other possible applications. Realization of this potential will require cross-disciplinary input from researchers in both biology and quantum physics. In this review we seek to communicate the developments of quantum metrology in a way that is accessible to biologists and biophysicists, while providing sufficient details to allow the interested reader to obtain a solid understanding of the field. We further seek to introduce quantum physicists to some of the central challenges of optical measurements in biological science. We hope that this will aid in bridging the communication gap that exists

  6. Optical multiple-image encryption based on the chaotic structured phase masks under the illumination of a vortex beam in the gyrator domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liansheng, Sui; Bei, Zhou; Xiaojuan, Ning; Ailing, Tian

    2016-01-11

    A novel multiple-image encryption scheme using the nonlinear iterative phase retrieval algorithm in the gyrator transform domain under the illumination of an optical vortex beam is proposed. In order to increase the randomness, the chaotic structured phase mask based on the logistic map, Fresnel zone plate and radial Hilbert mask is proposed. With the help of two chaotic phase masks, each plain image is encoded into two phase-only masks that are considered as the private keys by using the iterative phase retrieval process in the gyrator domain. Then, the second keys of all plain images are modulated into the ciphertext, which has the stationary white noise distribution. Due to the use of the chaotic structured phase masks, the problem of axis alignment in the optical setup can easily be solved. Two private keys are directly relative to the plain images, which makes that the scheme has high resistance against various potential attacks. Moreover, the use of the vortex beam that can integrates more system parameters as the additional keys into one phase mask can improve the security level of the cryptosystem, which makes the key space enlarged widely. Simulation results are given to verify the feasibility and robustness of the proposed encryption scheme.

  7. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Chang, Yin-Chang; Huang, Pin-Jie; Hu, Yen-Sang; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Gunn, James E; Karr, Jennifer; Yan, Chi-Hung; Mao, Peter; Ohyama, Youichi; Karoji, Hiroshi; Sugai, Hajime; Shimono, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. The metrology camera system of PFS serves as the optical encoder of the COBRA fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. The 380mm diameter aperture metrology camera will locate at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS sensor. The metrology camera is designed to provide the fiber position information within 5{\\mu}m error over the 45cm focal plane. The positions of all fibers can be obtained within 1s after the exposure is finished. This enables the overall fiber configuration to be less than 2 minutes.

  8. Vortex methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chorin, A.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Mathematics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1993-06-01

    Vortex methods originated from the observation that in incompressible inviscid flow vorticity (or, more accurately, circulation) is a conserved quantity, as can be readily deduced from the absence of tangential stresses. Thus, if the vorticity is known at time t=0, one can find the flow at a later time by simply following the vorticity. In this narrow context, a vortex method is a numerical method that follows vorticity. The author restricts himself in these lectures to a special class of numerical vortex methods, those that are based on a Lagrangian transport of vorticity in hydrodynamics by smoothed particles (blobs) and those whose analysis contributes to the understanding of blob methods. Blob methods started in the 1930`s.

  9. Low-cost scheme for high-precision dual-wavelength laser metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Yitping; Ireland, Michael J; Robertson, J Gordon; Tuthill, Peter G; Warrington, Benjamin A; Tango, William J

    2013-04-20

    A method capable of delivering relative optical path length metrology with nanometer precision is demonstrated. Unlike conventional dual-wavelength metrology, which employs heterodyne detection, the method developed in this work utilizes direct detection of interference fringes of two He-Ne lasers as well as a less precise stepper motor open-loop position control system to perform its measurement. Although the method may be applicable to a variety of circumstances, the specific application in which this metrology is essential is in an astrometric optical long baseline stellar interferometer dedicated to precise measurement of stellar positions. In our example application of this metrology to a narrow-angle astrometric interferometer, measurement of nanometer precision could be achieved without frequency-stabilized lasers, although the use of such lasers would extend the range of optical path length the metrology can accurately measure. Implementation of the method requires very little additional optics or electronics, thus minimizing the cost and effort of implementation. Furthermore, the optical path traversed by the metrology lasers is identical to that of the starlight or science beams, even down to using the same photodetectors, thereby minimizing the noncommon path between metrology and science channels.

  10. Vortex beam generation and other advanced optics experiments reproduced with a twisted-nematic liquid-crystal display with limited phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofré, Aaron; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Vargas, Asticio; Moreno, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    In this work we propose the use of twisted-nematic liquid-crystal spatial light modulators (TN-LC-SLM) as a useful tool for training students in the manipulation of light beams with phase-only masks. In particular, we focus the work on the realization of phase-only gratings and phase-only spiral phases for the generation of vortex beams, beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). Despite the extensive activity in this field, its experimental implementation for educational purposes is limited because it requires the use of very expensive high-resolution liquid-crystal on silicon (LCOS) SLMs. Here, we show that a low-cost experimental implementation can be done with older TNLC technology. However, these devices, intended for display applications, exhibit rather limited optical phase modulation properties in comparison with modern LCOS devices, such as a very low range of phase modulation and a general coupled intensity modulation. However, we show that a precise characterization of their retardance parameters permits their operation in useful modulation configurations. As examples, we include one continuous phase-only configuration useful for reproducing the optimal triplicator phase grating, and a binary π-phase modulation. We include experiments with the realization of different phase diffraction gratings, and their combination with spiral phase patterns and lens functions to generate a variety of vortex beams.

  11. Laser Metrology in the Micro-Arcsecond Metrology Testbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Xin; Marx, D.; Goullioud, Renaud; Zhao, Feng

    2004-01-01

    The Space Interferometer Mission (SIM), scheduled for launch in 2009, is a space-born visible light stellar interferometer capable of micro-arcsecond-level astrometry. The Micro-Arcsecond Metrology testbed (MAM) is the ground-based testbed that incorporates all the functionalities of SIM minus the telescope, for mission-enabling technology development and verification. MAM employs a laser heterodyne metrology system using the Sub-Aperture Vertex-to-Vertex (SAVV) concept. In this paper, we describe the development and modification of the SAVV metrology launchers and the metrology instrument electronics, precision alignments and pointing control, locating cyclic error sources in the MAM testbed and methods to mitigate the cyclic errors, as well as the performance under the MAM performance metrics.

  12. Advances in Quantum Metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannetti, Vittorio; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    In classical estimation theory, the central limit theorem implies that the statistical error in a measurement outcome can be reduced by an amount proportional to n^(-1/2) by repeating the measures n times and then averaging. Using quantum effects, such as entanglement, it is often possible to do better, decreasing the error by an amount proportional to 1/n. Quantum metrology is the study of those quantum techniques that allow one to gain advantages over purely classical approaches. In this review, we analyze some of the most promising recent developments in this research field. Specifically, we deal with the developments of the theory and point out some of the new experiments. Then we look at one of the main new trends of the field, the analysis of how the theory must take into account the presence of noise and experimental imperfections.

  13. Combining classical metrology models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Roldán

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The results obtained in the graphic analysis of the modulation of the Cuarto Real de Santo Domingo building in Granada, Spain, (ROLDÁN, 2011 have provided new insights to further approach the research on possible use the double-scale in historical monumental architecture. We propose the characterization of the singularities of the system, from the implications and graphic representation required by the metrological scheme identified, as well as the variety of typologies that are presented in their modular frames, and the iterative combination of two-scale modules which allow operational approximations to fractions and ratios not explicitly present in the system.

  14. Metrology with Unknown Detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altorio, Matteo; Genoni, Marco G; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco

    2016-03-11

    The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterization that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here, we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cramér-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and we present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provides a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e., a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  15. Metrology with Unknown Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Altorio, Matteo; Somma, Fabrizia; Barbieri, Marco

    2015-01-01

    The best possible precision is one of the key figures in metrology, but this is established by the exact response of the detection apparatus, which is often unknown. There exist techniques for detector characterisation, that have been introduced in the context of quantum technologies, but apply as well for ordinary classical coherence; these techniques, though, rely on intense data processing. Here we show that one can make use of the simpler approach of data fitting patterns in order to obtain an estimate of the Cram\\'er-Rao bound allowed by an unknown detector, and present applications in polarimetry. Further, we show how this formalism provide a useful calculation tool in an estimation problem involving a continuous-variable quantum state, i.e. a quantum harmonic oscillator.

  16. Talking about Metrology and Energy On World Metrology Day

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ The theme of this year's World Metrology Day is "Metrology and Energy". The energy problem is an important issue for the whole world and has received great attention in China since China is both a big energy-consuming country and a country severely short of energy.Under the energy and environmental pressure, China will take measures in the following four respects in order to solve the problem of energy shortage:

  17. Integration of full-spectrum metrology and polishing for rapid production of large aspheres Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Integration of three proven, non-contact, optical metrology techniques with an emerging new polishing approach in a single machine will enable the rapid production...

  18. Multi-petahertz electronic metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, M; Zhan, M; Luu, T T; Lakhotia, H; Klostermann, T; Guggenmos, A; Goulielmakis, E

    2016-10-20

    The frequency of electric currents associated with charge carriers moving in the electronic bands of solids determines the speed limit of electronics and thereby that of information and signal processing. The use of light fields to drive electrons promises access to vastly higher frequencies than conventionally used, as electric currents can be induced and manipulated on timescales faster than that of the quantum dephasing of charge carriers in solids. This forms the basis of terahertz (10(12) hertz) electronics in artificial superlattices, and has enabled light-based switches and sampling of currents extending in frequency up to a few hundred terahertz. Here we demonstrate the extension of electronic metrology to the multi-petahertz (10(15) hertz) frequency range. We use single-cycle intense optical fields (about one volt per ångström) to drive electron motion in the bulk of silicon dioxide, and then probe its dynamics by using attosecond (10(-18) seconds) streaking to map the time structure of emerging isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet transients and their optical driver. The data establish a firm link between the emission of the extreme ultraviolet radiation and the light-induced intraband, phase-coherent electric currents that extend in frequency up to about eight petahertz, and enable access to the dynamic nonlinear conductivity of silicon dioxide. Direct probing, confinement and control of the waveform of intraband currents inside solids on attosecond timescales establish a method of realizing multi-petahertz coherent electronics. We expect this technique to enable new ways of exploring the interplay between electron dynamics and the structure of condensed matter on the atomic scale.

  19. Non-null full field X-ray mirror metrology using SCOTS: a reflection deflectometry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Peng; Wang, Yuhao; Burge, James H; Kaznatcheev, Konstantine; Idir, Mourad

    2012-05-21

    In a previous paper, the University of Arizona (UA) has developed a measurement technique called: Software Configurable Optical Test System (SCOTS) based on the principle of reflection deflectometry. In this paper, we present results of this very efficient optical metrology method applied to the metrology of X-ray mirrors. We used this technique to measure surface slope errors with precision and accuracy better than 100 nrad (rms) and ~200 nrad (rms), respectively, with a lateral resolution of few mm or less. We present results of the calibration of the metrology systems, discuss their accuracy and address the precision in measuring a spherical mirror.

  20. Fundamental units: physics and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich

    2003-01-01

    The problem of fundamental units is discussed in the context of achievements of both theoretical physics and modern metrology. On one hand, due to fascinating accuracy of atomic clocks, the traditional macroscopic standards of metrology (second, metre, kilogram) are giving way to standards based on fundamental units of nature: velocity of light $c$ and quantum of action $h$. On the other hand, the poor precision of gravitational constant $G$, which is widely believed to define the ``cube of theories'' and the units of the future ``theory of everything'', does not allow to use $G$ as a fundamental dimensional constant in metrology. The electromagnetic units in SI are actually based on concepts of prerelativistic classical electrodynamics such as ether, electric permitivity and magnetic permeability of vacuum. Concluding remarks are devoted to terminological confusion which accompanies the progress in basic physics and metrology.

  1. Color and appearance metrology facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The NIST Physical Measurement Laboratory has established the color and appearance metrology facility to support calibration services for 0°/45° colored samples, 20°,...

  2. Advanced Mathematical Tools in Metrology III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciarlini, P.

    Superconducting Magnetic Levitation in Matlab Environment * Data Flow Evaluation in Metrology * A Generalized Data Model for Integrating Clinical Data and Biosignal Records of Patients * Assessment of Three-Dimensional Structures in Clinical Dentistry * Maximum Entropy and Bayesian Approaches to Parameter Estimation in Mass Metrology * Amplitude and Phase Determination of Sinusoidal Vibration in the Nanometer Range using Quadrature Signals * A Class of Symmetric Compactly Supported Wavelets and Associated Dual Bases * Analysis of Surface Topography by Maximum Entropy Power Spectrum Estimation * Influence of Different Kinds of Errors on Imaging Results in Optical Tomography * Application of the Laser Interferometry for Automatic Calibration of Height Setting Micrometer * Author Index

  3. Computed tomography for dimensional metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruth, J.P.; Bartscher, M.; Carmignato, S.;

    2011-01-01

    metrology, putting emphasis on issues as accuracy, traceability to the unit of length (the meter) and measurement uncertainty. It provides a state of the art (anno 2011) and application examples, showing the aptitude of CT metrology to: (i) check internal dimensions that cannot be measured using traditional...... coordinate measuring machines and (ii) combine dimensional quality control with material quality control in one single quality inspection run....

  4. Relativistic Quantum Metrology: Exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Friis, Nicolai; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2013-01-01

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory (QFT). QFT properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in QFT including proper times and acce...

  5. Incoming Metrology of Segmented X-Ray Mandrels at MSFC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail; ODell, Steve; Kester, Thomas; Lehner, David; Jones, William; Smithers, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The Constellation-X Spectroscopy X-ray telescope (SXT) is designed to be built from X-ray optic segments. The X-ray segments will be fabricated from the segmented mandrels using a replication process. The purpose of the incoming metrology is to map the surface of the mandrels, so the performance of the X-ray optics produced can be predicted. Three Constellation-X segmented mandrels have been delivered to MSFC for incoming metrology. The segmented mandrels are 30-degree sections of a cylindrical surface and have diameters of 1.0 m, 1.2 m and 1.6 m. The maximum dimensions of the optical surface are 1.0 m axial length and 0.5 m azimuthal segment length. The metrology of the mandrels consists of the measurement of their slope differences, roundness, absolute radius, axial profile and microroughness. Accuracy goals for each type of measurement and the accuracy of the instruments used for the measurements will be discussed. The results of the mandrel metrology together with the performance predictions will be presented.

  6. Laser damage in optical components: metrology, statistical and photo-induced analysis of precursor centres; Endommagement laser dans les composants optiques: metrologie, analyse statistique et photo-induite des sites initiateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallais, L

    2002-11-15

    This thesis deals with laser damage phenomena for nanosecond pulses, in optical components such as glasses, dielectric and metallic thin films. Firstly, a work is done on the laser damage metrology, in order to obtain accurate and reliable measurement of laser-induced damage probabilities, with a rigorous control of test parameters. Then, with the use of a specific model, we find densities of laser damage precursors in the case of bulk glasses (few tens by (100{mu}m){sup 3}) and in the case of glass surfaces (one precursor by {mu}m{sup 3}). Our analysis is associated to morphology studies by Atomic Force Microscope to discuss about precursor nature and damage process. Influence of wavelength (from 355 to 1064 nm) and cumulated shots is also studied. Simulations are performed to study initiation mechanisms on these inclusions. This work gives an estimation of complex index and size of the precursor, which permits to discuss about possible detection by non-destructive tools. (author)

  7. Economic benefits of metrology in manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Carmignato, S.

    2016-01-01

    In streamlined manufacturing systems, the added value of inspection activities is often questioned, and metrology in particular is sometimes considered only as an avoidable expense. Documented quantification of economic benefits of metrology is generally not available. This work presents concrete...... examples from industrial production, in which the added value of metrology in manufacturing is discussed and quantified. Case studies include: general manufacturing, forging, machining, and related metrology. The focus of the paper is on the improved effectiveness of metrology when used at product...... and process design stages, as well as on the improved accuracy and efficiency of manufacturing through better measuring equipment and process chains with integrated metrology for process control....

  8. CSAM Metrology Software Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Duc; Sandor, Michael; Agarwal, Shri

    2005-01-01

    CSAM Metrology Software Tool (CMeST) is a computer program for analysis of false-color CSAM images of plastic-encapsulated microcircuits. (CSAM signifies C-mode scanning acoustic microscopy.) The colors in the images indicate areas of delamination within the plastic packages. Heretofore, the images have been interpreted by human examiners. Hence, interpretations have not been entirely consistent and objective. CMeST processes the color information in image-data files to detect areas of delamination without incurring inconsistencies of subjective judgement. CMeST can be used to create a database of baseline images of packages acquired at given times for comparison with images of the same packages acquired at later times. Any area within an image can be selected for analysis, which can include examination of different delamination types by location. CMeST can also be used to perform statistical analyses of image data. Results of analyses are available in a spreadsheet format for further processing. The results can be exported to any data-base-processing software.

  9. Integration of mask and silicon metrology in DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Mito, Hiroaki; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2009-03-01

    We have developed a highly integrated method of mask and silicon metrology. The method adopts a metrology management system based on DBM (Design Based Metrology). This is the high accurate contouring created by an edge detection algorithm used in mask CD-SEM and silicon CD-SEM. We have inspected the high accuracy, stability and reproducibility in the experiments of integration. The accuracy is comparable with that of the mask and silicon CD-SEM metrology. In this report, we introduce the experimental results and the application. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device advances, OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) goes aggressively dense in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). However, from the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), the cost of data process for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) and mask producing is a problem. Such trade-off between RET and mask producing is a big issue in semiconductor market especially in mask business. Seeing silicon device production process, information sharing is not completely organized between design section and production section. Design data created with OPC and MDP should be linked to process control on production. But design data and process control data are optimized independently. Thus, we provided a solution of DFM: advanced integration of mask metrology and silicon metrology. The system we propose here is composed of followings. 1) Design based recipe creation: Specify patterns on the design data for metrology. This step is fully automated since they are interfaced with hot spot coordinate information detected by various verification methods. 2) Design based image acquisition: Acquire the images of mask and silicon automatically by a recipe based on the pattern design of CD-SEM.It is a robust automated step because a wide range of design data is used for the image acquisition. 3) Contour profiling and GDS data generation: An image profiling process is applied to the acquired image based

  10. Why should we apply more metrological knowledge to field measurements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, B.; Kraemer, M.; Rolf, C.; Wagner, S.; Zondlo, M. A.; Ebert, V.

    2016-12-01

    Metrology, the science of measurement, defines the SI, the international system of measurement units, their realization and aims to provide a traceable linkage of measurements to the SI. Primary standards at the national metrology institutes (NMIs) provide the highest achievable accuracy levels linked to the SI and thus are ideal scale reference points to establish long-term comparability between instruments in large networks e.g. in global atmospheric monitoring. However, NMIs offer much more than traceable standards. Metrological communities share internally a large valuable knowledge about "how to measure", e.g. how to calculate, assess and estimate impacts which deteriorate measurements or how to minimize negative impacts and address them in a systematic way with a scientific approach. Over the last years WMO, the world meteorological organization, as well as sub communities in the environmental sciences (e.g. the TCCON or GRUAN network), have greatly increased their efforts to integrate metrological principles and improved the comparability across the network. Prominent examples are airborne water vapor measurements, which, despite the well validated global metrological water scale for industry applications, are only very rarely linked to it, mainly due to the lack of established transfer standards. During the last years our group at PTB developed a new class of optical hygrometers and related validation strategies, in order to reduce deviations of up to 20% found in AquaVIT, a large scale, lab based comparison of leading airborne field hygrometers (Fahey et al, AMT, 7, 3159-3251, 2014) down to a long-term stability over 18 month of 0.35%, making this instrument (SEALDH-II) the first dTDLAS-based airborne transfer standards for atmospheric humidity. These and other examples lead to the conclusion that scientific communities starting to enroll metrological principles significantly improve their measurements and eventually the validity as well as interpretation

  11. Identification of the predicted 5s-4f level crossing optical lines with applications to metrology and searches for the variation of fundamental constants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windberger, A; Crespo López-Urrutia, J R; Bekker, H; Oreshkina, N S; Berengut, J C; Bock, V; Borschevsky, A; Dzuba, V A; Eliav, E; Harman, Z; Kaldor, U; Kaul, S; Safronova, U I; Flambaum, V V; Keitel, C H; Schmidt, P O; Ullrich, J; Versolato, O O

    2015-04-17

    We measure optical spectra of Nd-like W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt ions of particular interest for studies of a possibly varying fine-structure constant. Exploiting characteristic energy scalings we identify the strongest lines, confirm the predicted 5s-4f level crossing, and benchmark advanced calculations. We infer two possible values for optical M2/E3 and E1 transitions in Ir^{17+} that have the highest predicted sensitivity to a variation of the fine-structure constant among stable atomic systems. Furthermore, we determine the energies of proposed frequency standards in Hf^{12+} and W^{14+}.

  12. Metrology of Large Parts. Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2012-01-01

    As discussed in the first chapter of this book, there are many different methods to measure a part using optical technology. Chapter 2 discussed the use of machine vision to measure macroscopic features such as length and position, which was extended to the use of interferometry as a linear measurement tool in chapter 3, and laser or other trackers to find the relation of key points on large parts in chapter 4. This chapter looks at measuring large parts to optical tolerances in the sub-micron range using interferometry, ranging, and optical tools discussed in the previous chapters. The purpose of this chapter is not to discuss specific metrology tools (such as interferometers or gauges), but to describe a systems engineering approach to testing large parts. Issues such as material warpage and temperature drifts that may be insignificant when measuring a part to micron levels under a microscope, as will be discussed in later chapters, can prove to be very important when making the same measurement over a larger part. In this chapter, we will define a set of guiding principles for successfully overcoming these challenges and illustrate the application of these principles with real world examples. While these examples are drawn from specific large optical testing applications, they inform the problems associated with testing any large part to optical tolerances. Manufacturing today relies on micrometer level part performance. Fields such as energy and transportation are demanding higher tolerances to provide increased efficiencies and fuel savings. By looking at how the optics industry approaches sub-micrometer metrology, one can gain a better understanding of the metrology challenges for any larger part specified to micrometer tolerances. Testing large parts, whether optical components or precision structures, to optical tolerances is just like testing small parts, only harder. Identical with what one does for small parts, a metrologist tests large parts and optics

  13. Dimensional micro and nano metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; da Costa Carneiro, Kim; Haitjema, Han

    2006-01-01

    The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer these chal......The need for dimensional micro and nano metrology is evident, and as critical dimensions are scaled down and geometrical complexity of objects is increased, the available technologies appear not sufficient. Major research and development efforts have to be undertaken in order to answer...... these challenges. The developments have to include new measuring principles and instrumentation, tolerancing rules and procedures as well as traceability and calibration. The current paper describes issues and challenges in dimensional micro and nano metrology by reviewing typical measurement tasks and available...

  14. Generation of nonlinear vortex precursors

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yue-Yue; Liu, Chengpu

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of a few-cycle pulse carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) through a dense atomic system. Nonlinear precursors consisting of high-order vortex har- monics are generated in the transmitted field due to ultrafast Bloch oscillation. The nonlinear precursors survive to propagation effects and are well separated with the main pulse, which provide a straightforward way of measuring precursors. By the virtue of carrying high-order OAM, the obtained vortex precursors as information carriers have potential applications in optical informa- tion and communication fields where controllable loss, large information-carrying capacity and high speed communication are required.

  15. Metrology - Beyond the Calibration Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    We rely on data from measurements every day; a gas-pump, a speedometer, and a supermarket weight scale are just three examples of measurements we use to make decisions. We generally accept the data from these measurements as "valid." One reason we can accept the data is the "legal metrology" requirements established and regulated by the government in matters of commerce. The measurement data used by NASA, other government agencies, and industry can be critical to decisions which affect everything from economic viability, to mission success, to the security of the nation. Measurement data can even affect life and death decisions. Metrology requirements must adequately provide for risks associated with these decisions. To do this, metrology must be integrated into all aspects of an industry including research, design, testing, and product acceptance. Metrology, the science of measurement, has traditionally focused on the calibration of instruments, and although instrument calibration is vital, it is only a part of the process that assures quality in measurement data. For example, measurements made in research can influence the fundamental premises that establish the design parameters, which then flow down to the manufacturing processes, and eventually impact the final product. Because a breakdown can occur anywhere within this cycle, measurement quality assurance has to be integrated into every part of the life-cycle process starting with the basic research and ending with the final product inspection process. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of metrology in the various phases of a product's life-cycle. For simplicity, the cycle will be divided in four broad phases, with discussions centering on metrology within NASA. .

  16. Metrological Reliability of Medical Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Monteiro, E.; Leon, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    The prominent development of health technologies of the 20th century triggered demands for metrological reliability of physiological measurements comprising physical, chemical and biological quantities, essential to ensure accurate and comparable results of clinical measurements. In the present work, aspects concerning metrological reliability in premarket and postmarket assessments of medical devices are discussed, pointing out challenges to be overcome. In addition, considering the social relevance of the biomeasurements results, Biometrological Principles to be pursued by research and innovation aimed at biomedical applications are proposed, along with the analysis of their contributions to guarantee the innovative health technologies compliance with the main ethical pillars of Bioethics.

  17. Celtiberian metrology and its romanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard A. CURCHIN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Celtiberian metrology has scarcely been investigated until now, with the exception of coin weights. On the basis of measurements of pre-Roman mud bricks, a Celtiberian foot of 24 cm is proposed. With regard to weights, we can accept a module of 9 g for silver jewelry and some bronze coins; however, loom weights do not conform to any metrological system. Over time, Roman measures of length (as indicated by the dimensions of bricks, tiles and architectural monuments and weight were adopted.

  18. The Limits of CD Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Bryan J.; Cao, Heidi; Grumski, Michael; Roberts, Jeanette

    2005-09-01

    One of the many technology decisions facing the semiconductor industry for the 32 nm node (and beyond) is the selection of the best critical dimension (CD) metrology equipment to meet the needs of process equipment suppliers and semiconductor manufacturers. Over the past three years Intel ® has fabricated a variety of test structures and performed a number of technology evaluations aimed at determining the limits of today's CD metrology. In this paper we discuss the capability of those technologies to measure structures having dimensions representative of the 45 nm, 32 nm, and 22 nm nodes.

  19. Range-Gated Metrology: An Ultra-Compact Sensor for Dimensional Stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Oliver P.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Shaddock, Daniel A.; Ware, Brent; Woodruff, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Point-to-point laser metrology systems can be used to stabilize large structures at the nanometer levels required for precision optical systems. Existing sensors are large and intrusive, however, with optical heads that consist of several optical elements and require multiple optical fiber connections. The use of point-to-point laser metrology has therefore been limited to applications where only a few gauges are needed and there is sufficient space to accommodate them. Range-Gated Metrology is a signal processing technique that preserves nanometer-level or better performance while enabling: (1) a greatly simplified optical head - a single fiber optic collimator - that can be made very compact, and (2) a single optical fiber connection that is readily multiplexed. This combination of features means that it will be straightforward and cost-effective to embed tens or hundreds of compact metrology gauges to stabilize a large structure. In this paper we describe the concept behind Range-Gated Metrology, demonstrate the performance in a laboratory environment, and give examples of how such a sensor system might be deployed.

  20. Frequency and time transfer for metrology and beyond using telecommunication network fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Olivier; Jiang, Haifeng; Haboucha, Adil; Bercy, Anthony; Stefani, Fabio; Chanteau, Bruno; Kanj, Amale; Rovera, Daniele; Achkar, Joseph; Chardonnet, Christian; Pottie, Paul-Eric; Amy-Klein, Anne; Santarelli, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The distribution and the comparison of an ultra-stable optical frequency and accurate time using optical fibres have been greatly improved in the last ten years. The frequency stability and accuracy of optical links surpass well-established methods using the global navigation satellite system and geostationary satellites. In this paper, we present a review of the methods and the results obtained. We show that public telecommunication network carrying Internet data can be used to compare and distribute ultra-stable metrological signals over long distances. This novel technique paves the way for the deployment of a national and continental ultra-stable metrological optical network.

  1. Vortex Laser at Exceptional Point

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-01-01

    The optical vortices carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) are commonly generated by modulating the available conventional light beam. This article shows that a micro-laser operates at the exceptional point (EP) of the non-Hermitian quantum system can directly emit vortex laser with well-defined OAM at will. Two gratings (the refractive index modulation and along azimuthal direction and the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity) modulate the eigenmode of a micro-ring cavity to be a vortex laser mode. The phase-matching condition ensures that we can tune the OAM of the vortex beam to be arbitrary orders by changing the grating protruding from the micro-ring cavity while the system is kept at EP. The results are obtained by analytical analysis and confirmed by 3D full wave simulations.

  2. Generation of intense femtosecond optical vortex pulses with blazed-phase grating in chirped-pulse amplification system of Ti:sapphire laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chieh; Nabekawa, Yasuo; Midorikawa, Katsumi

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate the generation of an intense femtosecond optical vortex (OV) pulse by employing an OV converter set between two laser amplifiers in a chirped-pulse amplification (CPA) system of a Ti:sapphire laser. The OV converter is composed of a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (LC-SLM) exhibiting a blazed-phase computer-generated hologram, a concave mirror, and a flat mirror in the 4f setup. Owing to the intrinsic nature of the 4f setup, the OV converter is free from chromatic and topological-charge dispersions, which are always induced in a spiral phase plate conventionally used to convert an intense Gaussian laser pulse to an OV pulse, while we can avoid damage to the LC-SLM by the irradiation of a low-energy pulse before the second amplifier. We have increased the throughput of the OV converter to 42% by systematically investigating the diffraction efficiency of the blazed-phase hologram on the LC-SLM, which relaxes the gain condition required for the second amplifier. The combination of the high-throughput OV converter and the two-stage amplification enables us to generate OV pulses with an energy of 1.63 mJ and a pulse duration of 60 fs at a wavelength of 720 nm, at which the gain of the Ti:sapphire laser is only 60% of the peak gain around 800 nm.

  3. Evolution of an optical vortex dipole diffracted by a half screen%光涡旋偶极子经半屏衍射后的演化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高曾辉; 何德; 吕百达

    2011-01-01

    The analytical expression for the propagation of an optical vortex dipole (OVD) nested in a Gaussian beam diffracted by a half screen is derived and used to study the evolution of the diffracted OVD. It is shown that Compared with the case of the OVD evolution in free space, multi-pairs of the OVD may take place in the diffracted field, and the annihilation fashion depends on the off-axis displacement. A variety of the evolution behaviors of OVDs appear by varying the off-axis parameter, but the topological charge is conserved in the evolution process.%推导出寄居于高斯光束中的光涡旋偶极子经过半屏衍射后的解析传输公式.利用所得公式对光涡旋偶极子经半屏衍射后的演化做了详细研究.结果表明,与自由空间中光涡旋偶极子演化相比较,衍射场中会出现多对光涡旋偶极子,湮没方式与离轴量有关.随离轴参数的变化,偶极子出现不同的演化特性,但在演化过程中,拓扑电荷守恒.

  4. Fiscal Year 2005 Solar Radiometry and Metrology Task Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myers, D.; Andreas, A.; Reda, I.; Gotseff, P.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.; Anderberg, M.; Kay, B.; Bowen, A.

    2005-11-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Solar Radiometry and Metrology task provides traceable optical radiometric calibrations and measurements to photovoltaic (PV) researchers and the PV industry. Traceability of NREL solar radiometer calibrations to the World Radiometric Reference (WRR) was accomplished during Pyrheliometer Comparison at NREL in October 2004. Ten spectral and more than 200 broadband radiometers for solar measurements were calibrated this year. We measured detailed spectral distributions of the NREL and PV industry Pulsed Solar Simulators and are analyzing the influence of environmental variables on radiometer uncertainty. New systems for indoor and outdoor solar radiometer calibrations and ultraviolet (UV) spectral measurements and UV radiometer calibrations were purchased and tested. Optical metrology functions support the NREL Measurement and Characterization Task effort for ISO 17025 accreditation of NREL Solar Reference Cell Calibrations and have been integrated into the NREL quality system and audited for ISO17025 compliance.

  5. Development of a virtual metrology method using plasma harmonics analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, H.; Shin, J.; Kim, S.; Choi, H.

    2017-07-01

    A virtual metrology technique based on plasma harmonics is developed for predicting semiconductor processes. From a plasma process performed by 300 mm photoresist stripper equipment, a strong correlation is found between optical plasma harmonics intensities and the process results, such as the photoresist strip rate and strip non-uniformity. Based on this finding, a general process prediction model is developed. The developed virtual metrology model shows that the R-squared (R2) values between the measured and predicted process results are 95% and 64% for the photoresist strip rate and photoresist strip non-uniformity, respectively. This is the first research on process prediction based on optical plasma harmonics analysis, and the results can be applied to semiconductor processes such as dry etching and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition.

  6. X-ray microscope assemblies. Final report and metrology report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zehnpfennig, T.F.

    1981-04-13

    This is the Final Report and Metrology Report prepared under Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Subcontract 9936205, X-ray Microscope Assemblies. The purpose of this program was to design, fabricate, and perform detailed metrology on an axisymmetric grazing-incidence x-ray microscope (XRMS) to be used as a diagnostic instrument in the Lawrence Livermore Laser Fusion Program. The optical configuration chosen for this device consists of two internally polished surfaces of revolution: an hyperboloid facing the object; and a confocal, co-axial elliposid facing the image. This arrangement is known as the Wolter Type-I configuration. The grazing angle of reflection for both surfaces is approximately 1/sup 0/. The general optical performance goals under this program were to achieve a spatial resolution in the object plane in the soft x-ray region of approximately 1 micron, and to achieve an effective solid collecting angle which is an appreciable fraction of the geometric solid collecting angle.

  7. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Sheng; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; Church, Matthew; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Greg; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-31

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situ visible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  8. Surface Slope Metrology on Deformable Soft X-ray Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, S.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Goldberg, K.A.; Celestre, R.; Church, M.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.

    2009-09-18

    We report on the current state of surface slope metrology on deformable mirrors for soft x-rays at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). While we are developing techniques for in situ at-wavelength tuning, we are refining methods of ex situvisible-light optical metrology to achieve sub-100-nrad accuracy. This paper reports on laboratory studies, measurements and tuning of a deformable test-KB mirror prior to its use. The test mirror was bent to a much different optical configuration than its original design, achieving a 0.38 micro-radian residual slope error. Modeling shows that in some cases, by including the image conjugate distance as an additional free parameter in the alignment, along with the two force couples, fourth-order tangential shape errors (the so-called bird shape) can be reduced or eliminated.

  9. Reducing measurement uncertainty drives the use of multiple technologies for supporting metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banke, Bill, Jr.; Archie, Charles N.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Robert, Jim; Slinkman, James A.; Kaszuba, Phil; Kontra, Rick; DeVries, Mick; Solecky, Eric P.

    2004-05-01

    Perhaps never before in semiconductor microlithography has there been such an interest in the accuracy of measurement. This interest places new demands on our in-line metrology systems as well as the supporting metrology for verification. This also puts a burden on the users and suppliers of new measurement tools, which both challenge and complement existing manufacturing metrology. The metrology community needs to respond to these challenges by using new methods to assess the fab metrologies. An important part of this assessment process is the ability to obtain accepted reference measurements as a way of determining the accuracy and Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) of an in-line critical dimension (CD). In this paper, CD can mean any critical dimension including, for example, such measures as feature height or sidewall angle. This paper describes the trade-offs of in-line metrology systems as well as the limitations of Reference Measurement Systems (RMS). Many factors influence each application such as feature shape, material properties, proximity, sampling, and critical dimension. These factors, along with the metrology probe size, interaction volume, and probe type such as e-beam, optical beam, and mechanical probe, are considered. As the size of features shrinks below 100nm some of the stalwarts of reference metrology come into question, such as the electrically determined transistor gate length. The concept of the RMS is expanded to show how multiple metrologies are needed to achieve the right balance of accuracy and sampling. This is also demonstrated for manufacturing metrology. Various comparisons of CDSEM, scatterometry, AFM, cross section SEM, electrically determined CDs, and TEM are shown. An example is given which demonstrates the importance in obtaining TMU by balancing accuracy and precision for selecting manufacturing measurement strategy and optimizing manufacturing metrology. It is also demonstrated how the necessary supporting metrology will

  10. A study of optical vortices inside the Talbot interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Panthong, Pituk; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart; Chiangga, Surasak; Deachapunya, Sarayut

    2015-01-01

    The optical Talbot interferometer has been used to explore the topological charges of optical vortices. We recorded the self-imaging of a diffraction grating in the near-field regime with the optical vortex of several topological charges. Our twisted light was generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM). Previous studies showed that interferometric methods can determine the particular orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, but a large number of OAM eigenvalues are difficult to distinguish from the interference patterns. Here, we show that the Talbot patterns can distinguish the charges as well as the OAM of the vortices with high orders. Owing to high sensitivity and self-imaging of Talbot effect, several OAM eigenvalues can be distinguished by direct measurement. We assure the experimental results with our theory. The present results are useful for classical and quantum metrology as well as future implementations of quantum communications.

  11. Quantum resistance metrology using graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, T J B M; Tzalenchuk, A; Lara-Avila, S; Kubatkin, S; Fal'ko, V I

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we review the recent extraordinary progress in the development of a new quantum standard for resistance based on graphene. We discuss the unique properties of this material system relating to resistance metrology and discuss results of the recent highest-ever precision direct comparison of the Hall resistance between graphene and traditional GaAs. We mainly focus our review on graphene expitaxially grown on SiC, a system which so far resulted in the best results. We also briefly discuss progress in the two other graphene material systems, exfoliated graphene and chemical vapour deposition graphene, and make a critical comparison with SiC graphene. Finally, we discuss other possible applications of graphene in metrology.

  12. OPC aware mask and wafer metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Wilhelm; Wiaux, Vincent; Jonckheere, Rik M.; Philipsen, Vicky; Hoffmann, Thomas; Verhaegen, Staf; Ronse, Kurt G.; England, Jonathan G.; Howard, William B.

    2002-08-01

    Lithography at its limit of resolution is a highly non- linear pattern transfer process. Typically the shapes of printed features deviate considerably from their corresponding features in the layout. This deviation is known as Optical Proximity Effect, and its correction Optical Proximity effect Correction or OPC. Although many other so-called optical enhancement technologies are applied to cope with the issues of lithography at its limit of resolution, almost none of these can re-store the linearity of the pattern transfer. Hence fully functional OPC has become a very basic requirement for current and future lithography processes. In general, proximity effects are two-dimensional (2d) effects. Thus any measurement of proximity effects or any characterization of the effectiveness of OPC has to be two- dimensional. As OPC modifies shapes in the data for mask writing in a way to compensate for the expected proximity effects of the following processing steps, parameters describing the particular OPC-mask quality is a major concern. One-dimensional mask specifications, such as linewidth mean-to-target and uniformity, pattern placement, and maximum size of a tolerable defect, are not sufficient anymore to completely describe the functionality of a given mask for OPC. Two-dimensional mask specifications need to be evaluated. We present in this paper a basic concept for 2d metrology. Examples for 2d measurements to assess the effectiveness of OPC are given by the application of an SEM Image Analysis tool to an advanced 130nm process.

  13. Melting of heterogeneous vortex matter: The vortex `nanoliquid'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S S Banerjee; S Goldberg; Y Myasoedov; M Rappaport; E Zeldov; A Soibel; F de la Cruz; C J van der Beek; M Konczykowski; T Tamegai; V Vinokur

    2006-01-01

    Disorder and porosity are parameters that strongly influence the physical behavior of materials, including their mechanical, electrical, magnetic and optical properties. Vortices in superconductors can provide important insight into the effects of disorder because their size is comparable to characteristic sizes of nanofabricated structures. Here we present experimental evidence for a novel form of vortex matter that consists of inter-connected nanodroplets of vortex liquid caged in the pores of a solid vortex structure, like a liquid permeated into a nanoporous solid skeleton. Our nanoporous skeleton is formed by vortices pinned by correlated disorder created by high-energy heavy ion irradiation. By sweeping the applied magnetic field, the number of vortices in the nanodroplets is varied continuously from a few to several hundred. Upon cooling, the caged nanodroplets freeze into ordered nanocrystals through either a first-order or a continuous transition, whereas at high temperatures a uniform liquid phase is formed upon delocalization-induced melt- ing of the solid skeleton. This new vortex nanoliquid displays unique properties and symmetries that are distinct from both solid and liquid phases.

  14. Precision Metrology Using Weak Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2015-05-01

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  15. Metrology at Philip Morris Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualandris R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the metrology function at Philip Morris Europe (PME, a multinational organisation producing at over 40 sites in the European, Middle Eastern and African Regions is presented. Standardisation of test methods and equipment as well as the traceability of calibration gauges to the same reference gauge are essential in order to obtain comparable results among the various production centers. The metrology function as well as the qualification of instruments and the drafting of test and calibration operating procedures for this region are conducted or co-ordinated by the Research and Development Department in Neuchatel, Switzerland. In this paper the metrology function within PME is presented based on the measurement of the resistance to draw for which the PME R&D laboratory is accredited (ISO/CEI 17025, as both a calibration and a testing laboratory. The following topics are addressed in this paper: traceability of calibration standards to national standards; comparison of results among manufacturing centres; the choice, the budget as well as the computation of uncertainties. Furthermore, some practical aspects related to the calibration and use of the glass multicapillary gauges are discussed.

  16. Flexible resources for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Nicolai; Orsucci, Davide; Skotiniotis, Michalis; Sekatski, Pavel; Dunjko, Vedran; Briegel, Hans J.; Dür, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Quantum metrology offers a quadratic advantage over classical approaches to parameter estimation problems by utilising entanglement and nonclassicality. However, the hurdle of actually implementing the necessary quantum probe states and measurements, which vary drastically for different metrological scenarios, is usually not taken into account. We show that for a wide range of tasks in metrology, 2D cluster states (a particular family of states useful for measurement-based quantum computation) can serve as flexible resources that allow one to efficiently prepare any required state for sensing, and perform appropriate (entangled) measurements using only single qubit operations. Crucially, the overhead in the number of qubits is less than quadratic, thus preserving the quantum scaling advantage. This is ensured by using a compression to a logarithmically sized space that contains all relevant information for sensing. We specifically demonstrate how our method can be used to obtain optimal scaling for phase and frequency estimation in local estimation problems, as well as for the Bayesian equivalents with Gaussian priors of varying widths. Furthermore, we show that in the paradigmatic case of local phase estimation 1D cluster states are sufficient for optimal state preparation and measurement.

  17. Precision metrology using weak measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lijian; Datta, Animesh; Walmsley, Ian A

    2015-05-29

    Weak values and measurements have been proposed as a means to achieve dramatic enhancements in metrology based on the greatly increased range of possible measurement outcomes. Unfortunately, the very large values of measurement outcomes occur with highly suppressed probabilities. This raises three vital questions in weak-measurement-based metrology. Namely, (Q1) Does postselection enhance the measurement precision? (Q2) Does weak measurement offer better precision than strong measurement? (Q3) Is it possible to beat the standard quantum limit or to achieve the Heisenberg limit with weak measurement using only classical resources? We analyze these questions for two prototypical, and generic, measurement protocols and show that while the answers to the first two questions are negative for both protocols, the answer to the last is affirmative for measurements with phase-space interactions, and negative for configuration space interactions. Our results, particularly the ability of weak measurements to perform at par with strong measurements in some cases, are instructive for the design of weak-measurement-based protocols for quantum metrology.

  18. Nonlinear metrology with a quantum interface

    OpenAIRE

    Napolitano, M.; Mitchell, M. W.

    2009-01-01

    We describe nonlinear quantum atom-light interfaces and nonlinear quantum metrology in the collective continuous variable formalism. We develop a nonlinear effective Hamiltonian in terms of spin and polarization collective variables and show that model Hamiltonians of interest for nonlinear quantum metrology can be produced in $^{87}$Rb ensembles. With these Hamiltonians, metrologically relevant atomic properties, e.g. the collective spin, can be measured better than the "Heisenberg limit" $\\...

  19. Fractional vortex Hilbert's Hotel

    CERN Document Server

    Gbur, Greg

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate how the unusual mathematics of transfinite numbers, in particular a nearly perfect realization of Hilbert's famous hotel paradox, manifests in the propagation of light through fractional vortex plates. It is shown how a fractional vortex plate can be used, in principle, to create any number of "open rooms," i.e. topological charges, simultaneously. Fractional vortex plates are therefore demonstrated to create a singularity of topological charge, in which the vortex state is completely undefined and in fact arbitrary.

  20. An innovative bifocal metrology system for aerospace applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, F.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper an innovative space metrology system which objective is to measure the mutual arrangement between two spacecrafts is descripted. It is a simple and robust system that makes possible relative attitude measurements between 2 satellites in formation flying with coarse and fine accuracies. Generally, in formation flying mission it's necessary to have a satellite attitude control whose accuracy depends on their relative distance. The proposed metrology is based on an innovative optical projective system embedded on satellite 1 and a target composed by several light sources mounted on satellite 2. Optical system concurrently projects on a CCD two images of the target and from relative position of the light sources on the CCD image plane it's possible to detect position and attitude of the S2. Basic element of innovation of this versatile metrology concept is the possibility to work on a very large S/Cs range distance (~10 m-15 km) and to determinate the relative attitude and position of two spacecrafts on all six degree of freedom in a very simple and fast way.

  1. Sadovskii vortex in strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freilich, Daniel; Llewellyn Smith, Stefan

    2014-11-01

    A Sadovskii vortex is a patch of fluid with uniform vorticity surrounded by a vortex sheet. Using a boundary element type method, we investigate the steady states of this flow in an incompressible, inviscid straining flow. Outside the vortex, the fluid is irrotational. In the limiting case where the entire circulation is due to the vortex patch, this is a patch vortex (Moore & Saffman, Aircraft wake turbulence and its detection 1971). In the other limiting case, where all the circulation is due to the vortex sheet, this is a hollow vortex (Llewellyn Smith and Crowdy, J. Fluid Mech. 691, 2012). This flow has two governing nondimensional parameters, relating the strengths of the straining field, vortex sheet, and patch vorticity. We study the relationship between these two parameters, and examine the shape of the resulting vortices. We also work towards a bifurcation diagram of the steady states of the Sadovskii vortex in an attempt to understand the connection between vortex sheet and vortex patch desingularizations of the point vortex. Support from NSF-CMMI-0970113.

  2. The metrology of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Elisa Felicitas

    2005-09-15

    Measuring time is a continuous activity, an international and restless enterprise hidden in time laboratories spread all over the planet. The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures is charged with coordinating activities for international timekeeping and it makes use of the world's capacity to produce a remarkably stable and accurate reference time-scale. Commercial atomic clocks beating the second in national laboratories can reach a stability of one part in 10(14) over a 5 day averaging time, compelling us to research the most highly performing methods of remote clock comparison. The unit of the international time-scale is the second of the International System of Units, realized with an uncertainty of the order 10(-15) by caesium fountains. Physicists in a few time laboratories are making efforts to gain one order of magnitude in the uncertainty of the realization of the second, and more refined techniques of time and frequency transfer are in development to accompany this progress. Femtosecond comb technology will most probably contribute in the near future to enhance the definition of the second with the incorporation of optical clocks. We will explain the evolution of the measuring of time, current state-of-the-art measures and future challenges.

  3. Streamwise Vortex Interaction with a Horseshoe Vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Piotr Doerffer; Pawel Flaszynski; Franco Magagnato

    2003-01-01

    Flow control in turbomachinery is very difficult because of the complexity of its fully 3-D flow structure. The authors propose to introduce streamwise vortices into the control of internal flows. A simple configuration of vortices was investigated in order to better understand the flow control methods by means of streamwise vortices.The research presented here concerns streamwise vortex interaction with a horseshoe vortex. The effects of such an interaction are significantly dependent on the relative location of the streamwise vortex in respect to the leading edge of the profile. The streamwise vortex is induced by an air jet. The horseshoe vortex is generated by the leading edge of a symmetric profile. Such a configuration gives possibility to investigate the interaction of these two vortices alone. The presented analysis is based on numerical simulations by means of N-S compressible solver with a two-equation turbulence model.

  4. Half a century of light scatter metrology and counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, John C.

    2014-09-01

    Back in the early days Bill Wolf once said something like: "The guy with the lowest scatter measurement is closest to the right answer." He was often right then - but not anymore. Everything has changed. Today measurements are limited by Rayleigh scatter from the air - not the instrument. We have both written and physical standards and everybody spells BRDF the same way. In the time it takes to give this talk, over 100,000 silicon wafers will be inspected around the world using a few thousand scatterometers - average price about one million dollars each. The way the world illuminates everything from homes to football fields is changing with the advent of high brightness LED's and these lighting systems are designed using a combination of scatter metrology and analysis techniques - many of which were started at The Optical Sciences Center. This paper reviews two major highlights in half a century of scatter metrology progress.

  5. Ultracold Molecules in Lattices for Metrology and Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinaudi, Gael; Osborn, Chris; McDonald, Mickey; Wang, Dili; Zelevinsky, Tanya

    2012-06-01

    Ultracold diatomic molecules offer exciting possibilities for studies of novel states of matter, quantum information, and metrology. Two-electron-atom based molecules are particularly promising for precision measurements, such as molecular time metrology and variations of the proton-electron mass ratio. We present an experimental setup that allows for the photoassociation, in an optical lattice, of strontium atoms into molecules using the narrow singlet-triplet transitions. We feature newly observed two-photon photoassociation to deeply bound molecular levels, as well as the study of the lifetime of such molecules in lattices, which is a determining factor concerning the practical use of this system. Other characteristics of our setup are presented, such as a computer controlled permanent-magnet Zeeman slower optimized with a genetic algorithm.

  6. Metrology for industrial quantum communications: the MIQC project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastello, M. L.; Degiovanni, I. P.; Sinclair, A. G.; Kück, S.; Chunnilall, C. J.; Porrovecchio, G.; Smid, M.; Manoocheri, F.; Ikonen, E.; Kubarsepp, T.; Stucki, D.; Hong, K. S.; Kim, S. K.; Tosi, A.; Brida, G.; Meda, A.; Piacentini, F.; Traina, P.; Natsheh, A. Al; Cheung, J. Y.; Müller, I.; Klein, R.; Vaigu, A.

    2014-12-01

    The ‘Metrology for Industrial Quantum Communication Technologies’ project (MIQC) is a metrology framework that fosters development and market take-up of quantum communication technologies and is aimed at achieving maximum impact for the European industry in this area. MIQC is focused on quantum key distribution (QKD) technologies, the most advanced quantum-based technology towards practical application. QKD is a way of sending cryptographic keys with absolute security. It does this by exploiting the ability to encode in a photon's degree of freedom specific quantum states that are noticeably disturbed if an eavesdropper trying to decode it is present in the communication channel. The MIQC project has started the development of independent measurement standards and definitions for the optical components of QKD system, since one of the perceived barriers to QKD market success is the lack of standardization and quality assurance.

  7. The elusive Heisenberg limit in quantum-enhanced metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafał; Kołodyński, Jan; Guţă, Mădălin

    2012-01-01

    Quantum precision enhancement is of fundamental importance for the development of advanced metrological optical experiments, such as gravitational wave detection and frequency calibration with atomic clocks. Precision in these experiments is strongly limited by the 1/√N shot noise factor with N being the number of probes (photons, atoms) employed in the experiment. Quantum theory provides tools to overcome the bound by using entangled probes. In an idealized scenario this gives rise to the Heisenberg scaling of precision 1/N. Here we show that when decoherence is taken into account, the maximal possible quantum enhancement in the asymptotic limit of infinite N amounts generically to a constant factor rather than quadratic improvement. We provide efficient and intuitive tools for deriving the bounds based on the geometry of quantum channels and semi-definite programming. We apply these tools to derive bounds for models of decoherence relevant for metrological applications including: depolarization, dephasing, spontaneous emission and photon loss. PMID:22990859

  8. Microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-Yuan; Chen, Hua-Zhou; Li, Ying; Li, Bo; Ma, Ren-Min

    2016-12-01

    A microscale vortex laser is a new type of coherent light source with small footprint that can directly generate vector vortex beams. However, a microscale laser with controlled topological charge, which is crucial for virtually any of its application, is still unrevealed. Here we present a microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge. The vortex laser eigenmode was synthesized in a metamaterial engineered non-Hermitian micro-ring cavity system at exceptional point. We also show that the vortex laser cavity can operate at exceptional point stably to lase under optical pumping. The microscale vortex laser with controlled topological charge can serve as a unique and general building block for next-generation photonic integrated circuits and coherent vortex beam sources. The method we used here can be employed to generate lasing eigenmode with other complex functionalities. Project supported by the “Youth 1000 Talent Plan” Fund, Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. 201421) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11574012 and 61521004).

  9. Vortex mechanism in hydrocyclones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐继润; 刘正宁; 邢军; 李新跃; 黄慧; 徐海燕; 罗茜

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analyzing the vortex characteristics, a new mechanism of the vortex formation in hydrocyclones is developed. The main concept of the mechanism is that the vortex flow in a hydrocyclone is resulted from the overlapping of container rotation and hole leakage. The model is then used to explain the compound distribution of free vortex and forced vortex, predict the similarity of tangential velocity at different input pressures, and make count of the principle of small hydrocyclone with lower cut-size than large one. Meanwhile a new possible approach to a large hydro-cyclone with lower cut-size by minimizing or eliminating the air core is discussed briefly.

  10. Leaf area estimation of medium size plants using optical metrology Estimativa da área foliar de plantas de médio porte com metrologia óptica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber M. Ribeiro

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The total leaf area (TLA estimation is an important feature of the crops and their assessment a challenge, since the direct methods of obtaining it are destructive and time consuming. Non-destructive methods have been explored to obtain the TLA by indirect approaches, in turn creating other features, as the leaf area index. The development of non-destructive technology to access the TLA of a plant has been the subject of much research, and the optical metrology is an promising approach. In this work, some indirect methods associated with optical approaches were evaluated as an alternative to obtain the TLA of the coffee plant. Commercial equipment were used, such as a camera with a fish eye lens and lux meters, associated to the sizes of the canopies were tested and compared to another non-destructive method and with methods proposed in the literature. The association between production and the TLA estimated was also evaluated. The results showed that the commercial equipment, generally used in forestry, was not the best approach in coffee plants, and that the methods related to the size and lux values of the plants were the best alternatives to estimate the TLA of the coffee plant.A estimativa da área foliar total (AFT é uma importante característica das culturas cuja avaliação é um desafio visto que métodos diretos de obtê-la são destrutivos e consome tempo. Métodos não destrutivos têm sido explorados com vista a se obter a AFT por meio de abordagens indiretas e, por sua vez, a criação de outros recursos, como o índice de área foliar. O desenvolvimento de tecnologia não destrutiva para acessar a AFT de uma planta tem sido objeto de muitas pesquisas e a metrologia óptica é uma abordagem promissora. Neste trabalho alguns métodos indiretos associados com as abordagens ópticas foram avaliados como alternativa para obtenção da AFT do cafeeiro. Equipamentos comerciais foram usados, como uma câmera com lente olho de peixe e

  11. Sub-microradian Surface Slope Metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V; Barber, Samuel; Domning, Edward E.; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas

    2009-09-11

    A new low budget slope measuring instrument, the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP), was recently brought to operation at the ALS Optical Metrology Laboratory. The design, instrumental control and data acquisition system, initial alignment and calibration procedures, as well as the developed experimental precautions and procedures are described in detail. The capability of the DLTP to achieve sub-microradian surface slope metrology is verified via cross-comparison measurements with other high performance slope measuring instruments when measuring the same high quality test optics. The directions of future work to develop a surface slope measuring profiler with nano-radian performance are also discussed.

  12. Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometry for nanostructure metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyuan; Du, Weichao; Chen, Xiuguo; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei

    2015-06-29

    In order to achieve effective process control, fast, inexpensive, nondestructive and reliable nanometer scale feature measurements are extremely useful in high-volume nanomanufacturing. Among the possible techniques, optical scatterometry is relatively ideal due to its high throughput, low cost, and minimal sample damage. However, this technique is inherently limited by the illumination spot size of the instrument and the low efficiency in construction of a map of the sample over a wide area. Aiming at these issues, we introduce conventional imaging techniques to optical scatterometry and combine them with Mueller matrix ellipsometry based scatterometry, which is expected to be a powerful tool for the measurement of nanostructures in future high-volume nanomanufacturing, and propose to apply Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometry (MMIE) for nanostructure metrology. Two kinds of nanostructures were measured using an in-house developed Mueller matrix imaging ellipsometer in this work. The experimental results demonstrate that we can achieve Mueller matrix measurement and analysis for nanostructures with pixel-sized illumination spots by using MMIE. We can also efficiently construct parameter maps of the nanostructures over a wide area with pixel-sized lateral resolution by performing parallel ellipsometric analysis for all the pixels of interest.

  13. Heisenberg limit superradiant superresolving metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Da-Wei; Scully, Marlan O

    2014-08-22

    We propose a superradiant metrology technique to achieve the Heisenberg limit superresolving displacement measurement by encoding multiple light momenta into a three-level atomic ensemble. We use 2N coherent pulses to prepare a single excitation superradiant state in a superposition of two timed Dicke states that are 4N light momenta apart in momentum space. The phase difference between these two states induced by a uniform displacement of the atomic ensemble has 1/4N sensitivity. Experiments are proposed in crystals and in ultracold atoms.

  14. Loschmidt echo for quantum metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrı, Tommaso; Smerzi, Augusto; Pezzè, Luca

    2016-07-01

    We propose a versatile Loschmidt echo protocol to detect and quantify multiparticle entanglement. It allows us to extract the quantum Fisher information for arbitrary pure states, and finds direct application in quantum metrology. In particular, the protocol applies to states that are generally difficult to characterize, as non-Gaussian states, and states that are not symmetric under particle exchange. We focus on atomic systems, including trapped ions, polar molecules, and Rydberg atoms, where entanglement is generated dynamically via long-range interaction, and show that the protocol is stable against experimental detection errors.

  15. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.

    2009-01-01

    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  16. Metrology Careers: Jobs for Good Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming, Drew

    2009-01-01

    What kind of career rewards precision and accuracy? One in metrology--the science of measurement. By evaluating and calibrating the technology in people's everyday lives, metrologists keep their world running smoothly. Metrology is used in the design and production of almost everything people encounter daily, from the cell phones in their pockets…

  17. Depicting Vortex Stretching and Vortex Relaxing Mechanisms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符松; 李启兵; 王明皓

    2003-01-01

    Different from many existing studies on the paranetrization of vortices, we investigate the effectiveness of two new parameters for identifying the vortex stretching and vortex relaxing mechanisms. These parameters are invariants and identify three-dimensional flow structures only, i.e. they diminish in two-dimensional flows. This is also unlike the existing vortex identification approaches which deliver information in two-dimensional flows. The present proposals have been successfully applied to identify the stretching and relaxing vortices in compressible mixing layers and natural convection flows.

  18. Optimal focusing of a beam in a ring vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrizón, Victor; Ruiz, Ulises; Aguirre-Olivas, Dilia; Mellado-Villaseñor, Gabriel

    2015-12-01

    Conventional light focusing, i.e. concentration of an extended optical field within a small area around a point, is a frequently used process in Optics. An important extension to conventional focusing is the generation of the annular focal field of an optical beam. We discuss a simple optical setup that achieves this kind of focusing employing a phase plate as unique optical component. It is assumed that the annular focal field is modulated by an azimuthal phase of integer order q that converts the field in a ring vortex. We first establish the class of beams that being transmitted through the phase plate can be focused into a ring vortex. Then, for each beam in this class we determine the plate transmittance that generates the vortex with the maximum possible intensity, which is referred to as optimal ring vortex.

  19. Non-contact metrology of aspheric surfaces based on MWLI technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, G.; Petter, J.

    2013-09-01

    A non-contact optical scanning metrology solution measuring aspheric surfaces is presented, which is based on multi wavelength interferometry (MWLI). The technology yields high density 3D data in short measurement times (including set up time) and provides high, reproducible form measurement accuracy. It measures any asphere without restrictions in terms of spherical departures. In addition, measurement of a large variety of special optics is enabled, such as annular lenses, segmented optics, optics with diffractive steps, ground optics, optics made of opaque and transparent materials, and small and thin optics (e.g. smart phone lenses). The measurement instrument can be used under production conditions.

  20. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-07-01

    In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  1. Two-dimensional in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors using the speckle scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongchang, E-mail: hongchang.wang@diamond.ac.uk; Kashyap, Yogesh; Laundy, David; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2015-06-06

    The two-dimensional slope error of an X-ray mirror has been retrieved by employing the speckle scanning technique, which will be valuable at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes. In situ metrology overcomes many of the limitations of existing metrology techniques and is capable of exceeding the performance of present-day optics. A novel technique for precisely characterizing an X-ray bimorph mirror and deducing its two-dimensional (2D) slope error map is presented. This technique has also been used to perform fast optimization of a bimorph mirror using the derived 2D piezo response functions. The measured focused beam size was significantly reduced after the optimization, and the slope error map was then verified by using geometrical optics to simulate the focused beam profile. This proposed technique is expected to be valuable for in situ metrology of X-ray mirrors at synchrotron radiation facilities and in astronomical telescopes.

  2. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torres-Argüelles

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  3. Fractal Metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Argüelles, V.; Oleschko, K.; Tarquis, A. M.; Korvin, G.; Gaona, C.; Parrot, J.-F.; Ventura-Ramos, E.

    2010-11-01

    The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes of this complex system. In the present research, we studied the aggregation process as self-organizing and operating near a critical point. The structural pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate" Clay) and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them measured in terms of standard deviation. Some of the applied methods are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc.) while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM). We show the usefulness of FM for complex systems analysis through a case study of the soil's physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  4. Fractal metrology for biogeosystems analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Torres-Argüelles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The solid-pore distribution pattern plays an important role in soil functioning being related with the main physical, chemical and biological multiscale and multitemporal processes. In the present research, this pattern is extracted from the digital images of three soils (Chernozem, Solonetz and "Chocolate'' Clay and compared in terms of roughness of the gray-intensity distribution (the measurand quantified by several measurement techniques. Special attention was paid to the uncertainty of each of them and to the measurement function which best fits to the experimental results. Some of the applied techniques are known as classical in the fractal context (box-counting, rescaling-range and wavelets analyses, etc. while the others have been recently developed by our Group. The combination of all these techniques, coming from Fractal Geometry, Metrology, Informatics, Probability Theory and Statistics is termed in this paper Fractal Metrology (FM. We show the usefulness of FM through a case study of soil physical and chemical degradation applying the selected toolbox to describe and compare the main structural attributes of three porous media with contrasting structure but similar clay mineralogy dominated by montmorillonites.

  5. Relativistic quantum metrology: exploiting relativity to improve quantum measurement technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Bruschi, David Edward; Sabín, Carlos; Adesso, Gerardo; Fuentes, Ivette

    2014-05-22

    We present a framework for relativistic quantum metrology that is useful for both Earth-based and space-based technologies. Quantum metrology has been so far successfully applied to design precision instruments such as clocks and sensors which outperform classical devices by exploiting quantum properties. There are advanced plans to implement these and other quantum technologies in space, for instance Space-QUEST and Space Optical Clock projects intend to implement quantum communications and quantum clocks at regimes where relativity starts to kick in. However, typical setups do not take into account the effects of relativity on quantum properties. To include and exploit these effects, we introduce techniques for the application of metrology to quantum field theory. Quantum field theory properly incorporates quantum theory and relativity, in particular, at regimes where space-based experiments take place. This framework allows for high precision estimation of parameters that appear in quantum field theory including proper times and accelerations. Indeed, the techniques can be applied to develop a novel generation of relativistic quantum technologies for gravimeters, clocks and sensors. As an example, we present a high precision device which in principle improves the state-of-the-art in quantum accelerometers by exploiting relativistic effects.

  6. Dynamically controlled energy dissipation for fast magnetic vortex switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, R.; Berezovsky, J.

    2017-09-01

    Manipulation of vortex states in magnetic media provides new routes towards information storage and processing technology. The typical slow relaxation times (˜100 ns) of magnetic vortex dynamics may present an obstacle to the realization of these applications. Here, we investigate how a vortex state in a ferromagnetic microdisk can be manipulated in a way that translates the vortex core while enhancing energy dissipation to rapidly damp the vortex dynamics. We use time-resolved differential magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy to measure the motion of the vortex core in response to applied magnetic fields. We first map out how the vortex core becomes sequentially trapped by pinning sites as it translates across the disk. After applying a fast magnetic field step to translate the vortex from one pinning site to another, we observe long-lived dynamics of the vortex as it settles to the new equilibrium. We then demonstrate how the addition of a short (magnetic field pulse can induce additional energy dissipation, strongly damping the long-lived dynamics. A model of the vortex dynamics using the Thiele equation of motion explains the mechanism behind this effect.

  7. Influence of spatial temperature distribution on high accuracy interferometric metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yongqiang; Miao, Erlong; Yan, Feng; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Huaijiang

    2010-10-01

    We calculate the influence of temperature change on the refractive index of air, establish a model of air temperature distribution and analyze the effect of different temperature distribution on the high accuracy interferometric metrology. First, a revised Edlen formula is employed to acquire the relation between temperature and refractive index of air, followed by introducing the fixed temperature gradient distribution among the spatial grid within the optical cavity between the reference flat and the test flat of the Fizeau interferometer, accompanied by a temperature change random function within each grid. Finally, all the rays through the air layer with different incident angles are traced by Matlab program in order to obtain the final output position, angle and OPD for each ray. The influence of different temperature distribution and the length of the optical cavity in on the testing accuracy can be analyzed through the RMS value that results from repeatable rays tracing. As a result, the horizontal distribution (vertical to optical axis) has a large effect on the testing accuracy. Thus, to realize the high accuracy figure metrology, the horizontal distribution of temperature must be rigorously controlled as well as to shorten the length of the optical cavity to a large extent. The results from our simulation are of great significant for the accuracy analysis of interferometric testing and the research of manufacturing a interferometer.

  8. The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Schäfers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The At-Wavelength Metrology Facility at BESSY-II is dedicated to short-term characterization of novel UV, EUV and XUV optical elements, such as diffraction gratings, mirrors, multilayers and nano-optical devices like reflection zone plates. It consists of an Optics Beamline PM-1 and a Reflectometer in a clean-room hutch as a fixed end station. The bending magnet Beamline is a Plane Grating Monochromator beamline (c-PGM equipped with an SX700 monochromator. The beamline is specially tailored for efficient high-order suppression and stray light reduction. The versatile 11-axes UHV-Reflectometer can house life-sized optical elements, which are fully adjustable and of which the reflection properties can be measured in the full incidence angular range as well as in the full azimuthal angular range to determine polarization properties.

  9. Metrology System for a Large, Somewhat Flexible Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Bartman, Randall; Cook, Walter; Craig, William

    2009-01-01

    A proposed metrology system would be incorporated into a proposed telescope that would include focusing optics on a rigid bench connected via a deployable mast to another rigid bench holding a focal-plane array of photon counting photodetectors. Deformations of the deployable mast would give rise to optical misalignments that would alter the directions (and, hence, locations) of incidence of photons on the focal plane. The metrology system would measure the relative displacement of the focusing- optics bench and the focal-plane array bench. The measurement data would be used in post-processing of the digitized photodetector outputs to compensate for the mast-deformation-induced changes in the locations of incidence of photons on the focal plane, thereby making it possible to determine the original directions of incidence of photons with greater accuracy. The proposed metrology system is designed specifically for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) a proposed spaceborne x-ray telescope. The basic principles of design and operation are also applicable to other large, somewhat flexible telescopes, both terrestrial and spaceborne. In the NuSTAR, the structural member connecting the optical bench and the photodetector array would be a 10-m-long deployable mast, and there is a requirement to keep errors in measured directions of incidence of photons below 10 arc seconds (3 sigma). The proposed system would include three diode lasers that would be mounted on the focusing-optics bench. For clarity, only one laser is shown in the figure, which is a greatly simplified schematic diagram of the system. Each laser would be aimed at a position-sensitive photodiode that would be mounted on the detector bench alongside the aforementioned telescope photodetector array. The diode lasers would operate at a wavelength of 830 nm, each at a power of 200 mW. Each laser beam would be focused to a spot of .1-mm diameter on the corresponding position-sensitive photodiode. To

  10. Oscillator metrology with software defined radio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jeff A; Jördens, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Analog electrical elements such as mixers, filters, transfer oscillators, isolating buffers, dividers, and even transmission lines contribute technical noise and unwanted environmental coupling in time and frequency measurements. Software defined radio (SDR) techniques replace many of these analog components with digital signal processing (DSP) on rapidly sampled signals. We demonstrate that, generically, commercially available multi-channel SDRs are capable of time and frequency metrology, outperforming purpose-built devices by as much as an order-of-magnitude. For example, for signals at 10 MHz and 6 GHz, we observe SDR time deviation noise floors of about 20 fs and 1 fs, respectively, in under 10 ms of averaging. Examining the other complex signal component, we find a relative amplitude measurement instability of 3 × 10(-7) at 5 MHz. We discuss the scalability of a SDR-based system for simultaneous measurement of many clocks. SDR's frequency agility allows for comparison of oscillators at widely different frequencies. We demonstrate a novel and extreme example with optical clock frequencies differing by many terahertz: using a femtosecond-laser frequency comb and SDR, we show femtosecond-level time comparisons of ultra-stable lasers with zero measurement dead-time.

  11. State-of-the-art attosecond metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultze, M., E-mail: martin.schultze@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wirth, A.; Grguras, I.; Uiberacker, M.; Uphues, T.; Verhoef, A.J.; Gagnon, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hofstetter, M.; Kleineberg, U. [Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Goulielmakis, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Krausz, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Department fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-04-15

    Research highlights: {yields} We present a complete setup for investigations with attosecond temporal resoultion. {yields} Few-cycle visible laser pulses are used to generate xray pulses approaching the atomic unit of time. {yields} Attosecond XUV pulses explore ultrafast electronic dynamics in atoms. - Abstract: Tracking and controlling electron dynamics in the interior of atoms, molecules as well as in solids is at the forefront of modern ultrafast science . Time-resolved studies of these dynamics require attosecond temporal resolution that is provided by an ensemble of techniques consolidated under the term 'attosecond metrology'. This work reports the development and commissioning of what we refer to as next-generation attosecond beamline technology: the AS-1 attosecond beamline at the Max-Planck Institute of Quantum Optics. It consists of a phase-stabilized few-cycle laser system, for the generation of XUV radiation, and modules tailored for the spectral filtering and isolation of attosecond pulses as well as for their temporal characterization. The setup produces the shortest attosecond pulses demonstrated to date and combines them with advanced spectroscopic instrumentation (electron-, ion- and XUV-spectrometers). These pulses serve as temporally confined trigger events (attosecond streaking and tunneling spectroscopy) or probe pulses (attosecond absorption and photoelectron spectroscopy) enabling attosecond chronoscopy to be applied to a broad range of systems belonging to the microcosm.

  12. Metrology in Pharmaceutical Industry - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvamoto, Priscila D.; Fermam, Ricardo K. S.; Nascimento, Elizabeth S.

    2016-07-01

    Metrology is recognized by improving production process, increasing the productivity, giving more reliability to the measurements and consequently, it impacts in the economy of a country. Pharmaceutical area developed GMP (Good Manufacture Practice) requeriments, with no introduction of metrological concepts. However, due to Nanomedicines, it is expected this approach and the consequent positive results. The aim of this work is to verify the level of metrology implementation in a Brazilian pharmaceutical industry, using a case study. The purpose is a better mutual comprehension by both areas, acting together and governmental support to robustness of Brazilian pharmaceutical area.

  13. Statistical analysis of the metrological properties of float glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Brian W.; Duffy, Alan M.

    2008-08-01

    The radius of curvature, slope error, surface roughness and associated height distribution and power spectral density of uncoated commercial float glass samples have been measured in our Canadian Light Source Optical Metrology Facility, using our Micromap-570 surface profiler and long trace profilometer. The statistical differences in these parameters have been investigated between the tin and air sides of float glass. The effect of soaking the float glass in sulfuric acid to try to dissolve the tin contamination has also been investigated, and untreated and post-treatment surface roughness measurements compared. We report the results of our studies on these float glass samples.

  14. 100 years of radionuclide metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, S M; Arnold, D; Chauvenet, B; Collé, R; De Felice, P; García-Toraño, E; Wätjen, U

    2014-05-01

    The discipline of radionuclide metrology at national standards institutes started in 1913 with the certification by Curie, Rutherford and Meyer of the first primary standards of radium. In early years, radium was a valuable commodity and the aim of the standards was largely to facilitate trade. The focus later changed to providing standards for the new wide range of radionuclides, so that radioactivity could be used for healthcare and industrial applications while minimising the risk to patients, workers and the environment. National measurement institutes responded to the changing demands by developing new techniques for realising primary standards of radioactivity. Looking ahead, there are likely to be demands for standards for new radionuclides used in nuclear medicine, an expansion of the scope of the field into quantitative imaging to facilitate accurate patient dosimetry for nuclear medicine, and an increasing need for accurate standards for radioactive waste management and nuclear forensics.

  15. Swept Frequency Laser Metrology System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A swept frequency laser ranging system having sub-micron accuracy that employs multiple common-path heterodyne interferometers, one coupled to a calibrated delay-line for use as an absolute reference for the ranging system. An exemplary embodiment uses two laser heterodyne interferometers to create two laser beams at two different frequencies to measure distance and motions of target(s). Heterodyne fringes generated from reflections off a reference fiducial X(sub R) and measurement (or target) fiducial X(sub M) are reflected back and are then detected by photodiodes. The measured phase changes Delta phi(sub R) and Delta phi (sub m) resulting from the laser frequency swept gives target position. The reference delay-line is the only absolute reference needed in the metrology system and this provides an ultra-stable reference and simple/economical system.

  16. National Needs for Appearance Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Maria E.

    2003-04-01

    Appearance greatly influences a customer's judgement of the quality and acceptability of manufactured products, as yearly there is approximately $700 billion worth of shipped goods for which overall appearance is critical to their sale. For example, appearance is reported to be a major factor in about half of automobile purchases. The appearance of an object is the result of a complex interaction of the light field incident upon the object, the scattering and absorption properties of the object, and human perception. The measurable attributes of appearance are divided into color (hue, saturation, and lightness) and geometry (gloss, haze). The nature of the global economy has increased international competition and the need to improve the quality of many manufactured products. Since the manufacturing and marketing of these products is international in scope, the lack of national appearance standard artifacts and measurement protocols results in a direct loss to the supplier. One of the primary missions of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is to strengthen the U.S. economy by working with industry to develop and apply technology, measurements and standards. The NIST Physics Laboratory has established an appearance metrology laboratory. This new laboratory provides calibration services for 0^o/45^o color standards and 20^o°, 60^o°, and 85^o° specular gloss, and research in the colorimetric characterization of gonioapparent including a new Standard Reference Material for metallic coatings (SRM 2017) and measurement protocols for pearlescent coatings. These services are NIST's first appearance metrology efforts in many years; a response to needs articulated by industry. These services are designed to meet demands for improved measurements and standards to enhance the acceptability of final products since appearance often plays a major role in their acceptability.

  17. Manufacturing and metrology for IR conformal windows and domes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferralli, Ian; Blalock, Todd; Brunelle, Matt; Lynch, Timothy; Myer, Brian; Medicus, Kate

    2017-05-01

    Freeform and conformal optics have the potential to dramatically improve optical systems by enabling systems with fewer optical components, reduced aberrations, and improved aerodynamic performance. These optical components differ from standard components in their surface shape, typically a non-symmetric equation based definition, and material properties. Traditional grinding and polishing tools are unable to handle these freeform shapes. Additionally, standard metrology tools cannot measure these surfaces. Desired substrates are typically hard ceramics, including poly-crystalline alumina or aluminum oxynitride. Notwithstanding the challenges that the hardness provides to manufacturing, these crystalline materials can be highly susceptible to grain decoration creating unacceptable scatter in optical systems. In this presentation, we will show progress towards addressing the unique challenges of manufacturing conformal windows and domes. Particular attention is given to our robotic polishing platform. This platform is based on an industrial robot adapted to accept a wide range of tooling and parts. The robot's flexibility has provided us an opportunity to address the unique challenges of conformal windows. Slurries and polishing active layers can easily be changed to adapt to varying materials and address grain decoration. We have the flexibility to change tool size and shape to address the varying sizes and shapes of conformal optics. In addition, the robotic platform can be a base for a deflectometry-based metrology tool to measure surface form error. This system, whose precision is independent of the robot's positioning accuracy, will allow us to measure optics in-situ saving time and reducing part risk. In conclusion, we will show examples of the conformal windows manufactured using our developed processes.

  18. Signal processing for order 10 pm accuracy displacement metrology in real-world scientific applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Peter G.; Loya, Frank M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes heterodyne displacement metrology gauge signal processing methods that achieve satisfactory robustness against low signal strength and spurious signals, and good long-term stability. We have a proven displacement-measuring approach that is useful not only to space-optical projects at JPL, but also to the wider field of distance measurements.

  19. Cryptanalysis of Vortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aumasson, Jean-Philippe; Dunkelman, Orr; Mendel, Florian;

    2009-01-01

    Vortex is a hash function that was first presented at ISC'2008, then submitted to the NIST SHA-3 competition after some modifications. This paper describes several attacks on both versions of Vortex, including collisions, second preimages, preimages, and distinguishers. Our attacks exploit flaws ...

  20. Aerodynamically shaped vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Otto Laver; Velte, Clara Marika; Øye, Stig;

    2016-01-01

    An aerodynamically shaped vortex generator has been proposed, manufactured and tested in a wind tunnel. The effect on the overall performance when applied on a thick airfoil is an increased lift to drag ratio compared with standard vortex generators. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. The quality of measurements a metrological reference

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, A E

    2012-01-01

    This book provides a detailed discussion and commentary on the fundamentals of metrology. The fundamentals of metrology, the principles underlying the design of the SI International System of units, the theory of measurement error, a new methodology for estimation of measurement accuracy based on uncertainty, and methods for reduction of measured results and estimation of measurement uncertainty are all discussed from a modern point of view. The concept of uncertainty is shown to be consistent with the classical theory of accuracy. The theory of random measurement errors is supplemented by a very general description based on the generalized normal distribution; systematic instrumental error is described in terms of a methodology for normalizing the metrological characteristics of measuring instruments. A new international system for assuring uniformity of measurements based on agreements between national metrological institutes is discussed, in addition to the role and procedure for performance of key compari...

  2. Preface: The 5th International Workshop on X-ray Mirror Design, Fabrication, and Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoufid, Lahsen; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy V

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in synchrotron storage rings and free-electron laser-based x-ray sources with ever-increasing brightness and coherent flux have pushed x-ray optics requirements to new frontiers. This Special Topic gathers a set of articles derived from a subset of the key presentations of the International Workshop on X-ray Mirrors Fabrication (IWXM-2015) and Metrology held at Lawrence Berkley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA, July 14-16, 2015. The workshop objective was to report on recent progress in x-ray synchrotron radiation mirrors fabrication as well as on new developments in related metrology tools and methods.

  3. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatz, A.; Vlasko-Vlasov, V. K.; Kwok, W. K.; Crabtree, G. W.

    2016-08-01

    Vortex cutting and reconnection is an intriguing and still-unsolved problem central to many areas of classical and quantum physics, including hydrodynamics, astrophysics, and superconductivity. Here, we describe a comprehensive investigation of the crossing of magnetic vortices in superconductors using time dependent Ginsburg-Landau modeling. Within a macroscopic volume, we simulate initial magnetization of an anisotropic high temperature superconductor followed by subsequent remagnetization with perpendicular magnetic fields, creating the crossing of the initial and newly generated vortices. The time resolved evolution of vortex lines as they approach each other, contort, locally conjoin, and detach, elucidates the fine details of the vortex-crossing scenario under practical situations with many interacting vortices in the presence of weak pinning. Our simulations also reveal left-handed helical vortex instabilities that accompany the remagnetization process and participate in the vortex crossing events.

  4. Advanced in situ metrology for x-ray beam shaping with super precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Sutter, John; Sawhney, Kawal

    2015-01-26

    We report a novel method for in situ metrology of an X-ray bimorph mirror by using the speckle scanning technique. Both the focusing beam and the "tophat" defocussed beam have been generated by optimizing the bimorph mirror in a single iteration. Importantly, we have demonstrated that the angular sensitivity for measuring the slope error of an optical surface can reach accuracy in the range of two nanoradians. When compared with conventional ex-situ metrology techniques, the method enables a substantial increase of around two orders of magnitude in the angular sensitivity and opens the way to a previously inaccessible region of slope error measurement. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial for both the manufacture of polished mirrors and the optimization of beam shaping.

  5. Corner cube model for Microarcsec Metrology (MAM) testbed in Space Interferometer Mission (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu

    2005-02-01

    A corner cube model is developed to calculate the SIM internal metrology optical delay bias (with the accuracy of picometer) due to the component imperfections, such as vertex offset, coating index error, dihedral error, and gimbal offset. This physics-based and Matlab-implemented ray-trace model provides useful guidance on the flight system design, integration, and characterization. In this paper, the details of the corner cube model will be described first. Then the sub-nanometer level model validation through the MAM testbed will be presented. Finally several examples of the model application, such as the metrology delay bias minimization, design parameter error budget (or tolerance) allocation, and the metrology beam prints visualization, will be shown.

  6. On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Aiping; Ren, Xifeng; Wang, Qin; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-01-01

    A new method to generate and control the amplitude and phase distributions of a optical vortex beam is proposed. By introducing a holographic grating on top of the dielectric waveguide, the free space vortex beam and the in-plane guiding wave can be converted to each other. This microscale holographic grating is very robust against the variation of geometry parameters. The designed vortex beam generator can produce the target beam with a fidelity up to 0.93, and the working bandwidth is about 175 nm with the fidelity larger than 0.80. In addition, a multiple generator composed of two holographic gratings on two parallel waveguides are studied, which can perform an effective and flexible modulation on the vortex beam by controlling the phase of the input light. Our work opens a new avenue towards the integrated OAM devices with multiple degrees of optical freedom, which can be used for optical tweezers, micronano imaging, information processing, and so on.

  7. A metrological approach to improve accuracy and reliability of ammonia measurements in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogány, Andrea; Balslev-Harder, David; Braban, Christine F.; Cassidy, Nathan; Ebert, Volker; Ferracci, Valerio; Hieta, Tuomas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Peltola, Jari; Persijn, Stefan; Tiebe, Carlo; Twigg, Marsailidh M.; Vaittinen, Olavi; van Wijk, Janneke; Wirtz, Klaus; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    The environmental impacts of ammonia (NH3) in ambient air have become more evident in the recent decades, leading to intensifying research in this field. A number of novel analytical techniques and monitoring instruments have been developed, and the quality and availability of reference gas mixtures used for the calibration of measuring instruments has also increased significantly. However, recent inter-comparison measurements show significant discrepancies, indicating that the majority of the newly developed devices and reference materials require further thorough validation. There is a clear need for more intensive metrological research focusing on quality assurance, intercomparability and validations. MetNH3 (Metrology for ammonia in ambient air) is a three-year project within the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP), which aims to bring metrological traceability to ambient ammonia measurements in the 0.5-500 nmol mol-1 amount fraction range. This is addressed by working in three areas: (1) improving accuracy and stability of static and dynamic reference gas mixtures, (2) developing an optical transfer standard and (3) establishing the link between high-accuracy metrological standards and field measurements. In this article we describe the concept, aims and first results of the project.

  8. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel, E-mail: srio@esrf.eu [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Bianchi, Davide [AC2T Research GmbH, Viktro-Kaplan-Strasse 2-C, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Cocco, Daniele [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Glass, Mark [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Idir, Mourad [NSLS II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Metz, Jim [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca [Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Basovizza (TS) (Italy); Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Siewert, Frank [BESSY II, Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin, Institute for Nanometre Optics and Technology, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 15, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle [Swiss Light Source at Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Takacs, Peter [Instrumentation Division, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Tomasset, Muriel [Synchrotron Soleil (France); Tonnessen, Tom [InSync Inc., 2511C Broadbent Parkway, Albuquerque, NM 87107 (United States); Vivo, Amparo [ESRF - The European Synchrotron, 71 Avenue des Martyrs, 38000 Grenoble (France); Yashchuk, Valeriy [Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, MS 15-R0317, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8199 (United States)

    2016-04-20

    DABAM, an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology to be used with ray-tracing and wave-propagation codes for simulating the effect of the surface errors on the performance of a synchrotron radiation beamline. An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  9. Speckle-based at-wavelength metrology of X-ray mirrors with super accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Yogesh; Wang, Hongchang; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    X-ray active mirrors, such as bimorph and mechanically bendable mirrors, are increasingly being used on beamlines at modern synchrotron source facilities to generate either focused or "tophat" beams. As well as optical tests in the metrology lab, it is becoming increasingly important to optimise and characterise active optics under actual beamline operating conditions. Recently developed X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique has shown great potential. The technique has been established and further developed at the Diamond Light Source and is increasingly being used to optimise active mirrors. Details of the X-ray speckle-based at-wavelength metrology technique and an example of its applicability in characterising and optimising a micro-focusing bimorph X-ray mirror are presented. Importantly, an unprecedented angular sensitivity in the range of two nanoradians for measuring the slope error of an optical surface has been demonstrated. Such a super precision metrology technique will be beneficial to the manufacturers of polished mirrors and also in optimization of beam shaping during experiments.

  10. Nuclear Technology. Course 26: Metrology. Module 27-7, Statistical Techniques in Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espy, John; Selleck, Ben

    This seventh in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology focuses on descriptive and inferential statistical techniques in metrology. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6) materials…

  11. Nuclear Technology. Course 27: Metrology. Module 27-1, Fundamentals of Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleck, Ben; Espy, John

    This first in a series of eight modules for a course titled Metrology describes the fundamentals of metrology as they pertain to dimensional inspection. The module follows a typical format that includes the following sections: (1) introduction, (2) module prerequisites, (3) objectives, (4) notes to instructor/student, (5) subject matter, (6)…

  12. Metrology systems of Hobby-Eberly Telescope wide field upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hanshin; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; Vattiat, Brian L.; Perry, Dave M.; Rafferty, Tom H.; Taylor, Trey; Hart, Michael; Rafal, Marc D.; Savage, Richard D.

    2012-09-01

    The Hobby-Eberly Telescope (HET) Wide-Field Upgrade (WFU) will be equipped with new closed-loop metrology systems to actively control the optical alignment of the new four-mirror Wide-Field Corrector (WFC) as it tracks sidereal motion with respect to the fixed primary mirror. These systems include a tip/tilt camera (TTCam), distance measuring interferometers (DMI), guide probes (GP), and wavefront sensors (WFS). While the TTCam and DMIs are to monitor the mechanical alignment of the WFC, the WFSs and GPs will produce direct measurement of the optical alignment of the WFC with respect to the HET primary mirror. Together, these systems provide fully redundant alignment and pointing information for the telescope, thereby keeping the WFC in focus and suppressing alignment driven field aberrations. In addition to these closed-loop metrology systems, we will have a pupil viewing camera (PVCam) and a calibration wavefront sensor (CWFS). The PVCam will be used for occasional reflectance measurement of the HET primary mirror segments in the standard R,G,B colors. The CWFS will provide the reference wavefront signal against which the other two WFS are calibrated. We describe the current snapshot of these systems and discuss lab/on-sky performance test results of the systems.

  13. Spacetime Metrology with LISA Pathfinder

    CERN Document Server

    Congedo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    LISA is the proposed ESA-NASA gravitational wave detector in the 0.1 mHz - 0.1 Hz band. LISA Pathfinder is the down-scaled version of a single LISA arm. The arm -- named Doppler link -- can be treated as a differential accelerometer, measuring the relative acceleration between test masses. LISA Pathfinder -- the in-flight test of the LISA instrumentation -- is currently in the final implementation and planned to be launched in 2014. It will set stringent constraints on the ability to put test masses in geodesic motion to within the required differential acceleration of 3\\times10^{-14} m s^{-2} Hz^{-1/2} and track their relative motion to within the required differential displacement measurement noise of 9\\times10^{-12} m Hz^{-1/2}, around 1 mHz. Given the scientific objectives, it will carry out -- for the first time with such high accuracy required for gravitational wave detection -- the science of spacetime metrology, in which the Doppler link between two free-falling test masses measures the curvature. Thi...

  14. Ocular microtremor laser speckle metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Kalbani, M.; Mihaylova, E.; Collins, N.; Toal, V.; Coakley, D.; Boyle, G.

    2009-02-01

    Ocular Microtremor (OMT) is a continual, high frequency physiological tremor of the eye present in all subjects even when the eye is apparently at rest. OMT causes a peak to peak displacement of around 150nm-2500nm with a broadband frequency spectrum between 30Hz to 120Hz; with a peak at about 83Hz. OMT carries useful clinical information on depth of consciousness and on some neurological disorders. Nearly all quantitative clinical investigations have been based on OMT measurements using an eye contacting piezoelectric probe which has low clinical acceptability. Laser speckle metrology is a candidate for a high resolution, non-contacting, compact, portable OMT measurement technique. However, tear flow and biospeckle might be expected to interfere with the displacement information carried by the speckle. The paper investigates the properties of the scattered speckle of laser light (λ = 632.8nm) from the eye sclera to assess the feasibility of using speckle techniques to measure OMT such as the speckle correlation. The investigation is carried using a high speed CMOS video camera adequate to capture the high frequency of the tremor. The investigation is supported by studies using an eye movement simulator (a bovine sclera driven by piezoelectric bimorphs). The speckle contrast and the frame to frame spatiotemporal variations are analyzed to determine if the OMT characteristics are detectable within speckle changes induced by the biospeckle or other movements.

  15. Fast Josephson vortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malishevskii, A.S.; Silin, V.P.; Uryupin, S.A

    2002-12-30

    For the magnetically coupled waveguide and long Josephson junction we gave the analytic description of two separate velocity domains where the free motion of traveling vortex (2{pi}-kink) exists. The role of the mutual influence of waveguide and long Josephson junction is discussed. It is shown the possibility of the fast vortex motion with the velocity much larger than Swihart velocity of Josephson junction and close to the speed of light in the waveguide. The excitation of motion of such fast Josephson vortex is described.

  16. Spectroscopic metrology for isotope composition measurements and transfer standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe Nwaboh, Javis; Balslev-Harder, David; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Richmond, Craig; Manninen, Albert; Mohn, Joachim; Kiseleva, Maria; Petersen, Jan C.; Werhahn, Olav; Ebert, Volker

    2017-04-01

    The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has identified greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and N2O as critical for global climate monitoring. Other molecules such as CO that has an indirect effect of enhancing global warming are also monitored. WMO has stated compatibility goals for atmospheric concentration and isotope ratio measurements of these gases, e.g. 0.1 ppm for CO2 concentration measurements in the northern hemisphere and 0.01 ‰ for δ13C-CO2. For measurements of the concentration of greenhouse gases, gas analysers are typically calibrated with static gas standards e.g. traceable to the WMO scale or to the International System of Units (SI) through a national metrology institute. However, concentrations of target components, e.g. CO, in static gas standards have been observed to drift, and typically the gas matrix as well as the isotopic composition of the target component does not always reflect field gas composition, leading to deviations of the analyser response, even after calibration. The deviations are dependent on the measurement technique. To address this issue, part of the HIGHGAS (Metrology for high-impact greenhouse gases) project [1] focused on the development of optical transfer standards (OTSs) for greenhouse gases, e.g. CO2 and CO, potentially complementing gas standards. Isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) [2] is currently used to provide state-of-the-art high precision (in the 0.01 ‰ range) measurements for the isotopic composition of greenhouse gases. However, there is a need for field-deployable techniques such as optical isotope ratio spectroscopy (OIRS) that can be combined with metrological measurement methods. Within the HIGHGAS project, OIRS methods and procedures based on e.g. cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), matched to metrological principles have been established for the measurement of 13C/12C and 18O/16O ratios in CO2, 15N/14N ratios in N2O, and 13C/12C and 2H

  17. Vortex flow hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A. M., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to quantify the hysteresis associated with various vortex flow transition points and to determine the effect of planform geometry. The transition points observed consisted of the appearance (or disappearance) of trailing edge vortex burst and the transition to (or from) flat plate or totally separated flows. Flow visualization with smoke injected into the vortices was used to identify the transitions on a series of semi-span models tested in a low speed tunnel. The planforms tested included simple deltas (55 deg to 80 deg sweep), cranked wings with varying tip panel sweep and dihedral, and a straked wing. High speed movies at 1000 frames per second were made of the vortex flow visualization in order to better understand the dynamics of vortex flow, burst and transition.

  18. Modeling gasodynamic vortex cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahverdyan, A. E.; Fauve, S.

    2017-08-01

    We aim at studying gasodynamic vortex cooling in an analytically solvable, thermodynamically consistent model that can explain limitations on the cooling efficiency. To this end, we study an angular plus radial flow between two (coaxial) rotating permeable cylinders. Full account is taken of compressibility, viscosity, and heat conductivity. For a weak inward radial flow the model qualitatively describes the vortex cooling effect, in terms of both temperature and the decrease of the stagnation enthalpy, seen in short uniflow vortex (Ranque) tubes. The cooling does not result from external work and its efficiency is defined as the ratio of the lowest temperature reached adiabatically (for the given pressure gradient) to the lowest temperature actually reached. We show that for the vortex cooling the efficiency is strictly smaller than 1, but in another configuration with an outward radial flow, we find that the efficiency can be larger than 1. This is related to both the geometry and the finite heat conductivity.

  19. Metrology For Emerging Research Materials And Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, C. Michael; Herr, Dan

    2007-09-01

    The International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) [1] identifies a number of potentially enabling device and materials technologies to extend and compliment CMOS. These emerging memory and logic devices employ alternate "states" including 1D charge state, molecular state, polarization, material phase, and spin. The improvement of these materials and devices depends on utilizing existing and new metrology methods to characterize their structure, composition and emerging critical properties at the nanometer scale. The metrology required to characterize nanomaterials, interfaces, and device structures will include existing structural metrology, such as TEM, SEM, and others, as well as metrology to characterize new "state" properties of the materials. The characterization of properties and correlations to nanostructure and composition are critical for these new devices and materials. Characterizing the properties of emerging logic technologies will be very difficult, as an applied stimulus is required to probe dynamic state changes. In many cases, it will be important simultaneously to measure the spatial variation of multiple state properties, such as charge and spin, as a function of time at high frequencies to develop an understanding of the interactions occurring in the materials and at interfaces. Furthermore, the challenge of characterizing interface structure/composition and "state" interactions likely will increase with device scaling. New metrology capabilities are needed to study the static and dynamic properties of potential alternate "state" materials and devices at small dimensions.

  20. Buoyant Norbury's vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyth, Mark; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Salman, Hayder

    2014-11-01

    Norbury's vortices are a one-parameter family of axisymmetric vortex rings that are exact solutions to the Euler equations. Due to their relative simplicity, they are extensively used to model the behavior of real vortex rings found in experiments and in Nature. In this work, we extend the original formulation of the problem to include buoyancy effects for the case where the fluid that lies within the vortex has a different density to that of the ambient. In this modified formulation, buoyancy effects enter the problem through the baroclinic term of the vorticity equation. This permits an efficient numerical solution of the governing equation of motion in terms of a vortex contour method that tracks the evolution of the boundary of the vortex. Finally, we compare our numerical results with the theoretical analysis of the short-time evolution of a buoyant vortex. Funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness through grant DPI2011-28356-C03-02 and by the London Mathematical Society.

  1. Distributed large-scale dimensional metrology new insights

    CERN Document Server

    Franceschini, Fiorenzo; Maisano, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Focuses on the latest insights into and challenges of distributed large scale dimensional metrology Enables practitioners to study distributed large scale dimensional metrology independently Includes specific examples of the development of new system prototypes

  2. Three-wave electron vortex lattices for measuring nanofields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, C., E-mail: c.dwyer@fz-juelich.de; Boothroyd, C.B.; Chang, S.L.Y.; Dunin-Borkowski, R.E.

    2015-01-15

    It is demonstrated how an electron-optical arrangement consisting of two electron biprisms can be used to generate three-wave vortex lattices with effective lattice spacings between 0.1 and 1 nm. The presence of vortices in these lattices was verified by using a third biprism to perform direct phase measurements via off-axis electron holography. The use of three-wave lattices for nanoscale electromagnetic field measurements via vortex interferometry is discussed, including the accuracy of vortex position measurements and the interpretation of three-wave vortex lattices in the presence of partial spatial coherence. - Highlights: • We demonstrate how three-wave electron vortex lattices can be generated using two electron biprisms in the TEM. • The optical setup can be used to measure nanoscale electromagnetic fields via vortex interferometry. • The presence of vortices is verified explicitly by using a third biprism to perform phase measurements. • The accuracy of vortex position measurements and the requirements of spatial coherence are discussed.

  3. Geometric Metasurface Fork Gratings for Vortex Beam Generation and Manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shumei; Li, Guixin; Zhang, Shuang; Cheah, Kok Wai

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, optical vortex beams possessing orbital angular momentum have caught much attention due to their potential for high capacity optical communications. This capability arises from the unbounded topological charges of orbital angular momentum (OAM) that provides infinite freedoms for encoding information. The two most common approaches for generating vortex beams are through fork diffraction gratings and spiral phase plates. While realization of conventional spiral phase plate requires complicated 3D fabrication, the emerging field of metasurfaces has provided a planar and facile solution for generating vortex beams of arbitrary orbit angular momentum. Here we realize a novel type of geometric metasurface fork grating that seamlessly combine the functionality of a metasurface phase plate for vortex beam generation, and that of a linear phase gradient metasurface for controlling the wave propagation direction. The metasurface fork grating is therefore capable of simultaneously controlling both the...

  4. 探测涡旋光束轨道角动量的新方法%Novel Method to Detect the Orbital Angular Momentum in Optical Vortex Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘曼

    2013-01-01

    The intensity and phase distributions of speckle fields on the near-field plane generated by the scattering of Laguerre-Gaussian beam from the weak random scattering screen are simulated. It is found that the spot profiles are similar to the peacock feather in intensity distributions of speckle fields, and those spots are uniformly distributed around the central dark spots. The number of spots is related to the orbital angular momentum quantum number of the vortex beams. The orbital angular momentum quantum number is an integer or fractional, while whether it is integer or fractional, the number spots is four times of the orbital angular momentum quantum number. In the case of fractional vortex beam, there is a spot along the horizontal direction uniformly split into two petals. This method can be used to detect the orbital angular momentum quantum number of vortex beams.%模拟了拉盖尔-高斯光束照射弱随机散射屏散射后在近场形成的光强和相位的分布,发现散射光场的光强分布图中有轮廓类似于孔雀羽毛状的光斑.这些光斑均匀分布在中心黑暗区域周围,且光斑的个数与涡旋光束的轨道角动量量子数有关,无论涡旋光束的轨道角动量量子数是整数还是分数,光斑的个数恰好是涡旋光束轨道角动量量子数的4倍.只是在分数轨道角动量量子数的光强分布图中,有一条狭缝沿水平方向将光斑均匀分裂成两瓣.该方法可用于探测涡旋光束的轨道角动量量子数.

  5. Metrology and properties of engineering surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greenwood, J; Chetwynd, D

    2001-01-01

    Metrology and Properties of Engineering Surfaces provides in a single volume a comprehensive and authoritative treatment of the crucial topics involved in the metrology and properties of engineering surfaces. The subject matter is a central issue in manufacturing technology, since the quality and reliability of manufactured components depend greatly upon the selection and qualities of the appropriate materials as ascertained through measurement. The book can in broad terms be split into two parts; the first deals with the metrology of engineering surfaces and covers the important issues relating to the measurement and characterization of surfaces in both two and three dimensions. This covers topics such as filtering, power spectral densities, autocorrelation functions and the use of Fractals in topography. A significant proportion is dedicated to the calibration of scanning probe microscopes using the latest techniques. The remainder of the book deals with the properties of engineering surfaces and covers a w...

  6. Controlling vortex motion and vortex kinetic friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nori, Franco; Savel'ev, Sergey

    2006-05-01

    We summarize some recent results of vortex motion control and vortex kinetic friction. (1) We describe a device [J.E. Villegas, S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, E.M. Gonzalez, J.V. Anguita, R. Garcìa, J.L. Vicent, Science 302 (2003) 1188] that can easily control the motion of flux quanta in a Niobium superconducting film on an array of nanoscale triangular magnets. Even though the input ac current has zero average, the resulting net motion of the vortices can be directed along either one direction, the opposite direction, or producing zero net motion. We also consider layered strongly anisotropic superconductors, with no fixed spatial asymmetry, and show [S. Savel'ev, F. Nori, Nature Materials 1 (2002) 179] how, with asymmetric drives, the ac motion of Josephson and/or pancake vortices can provide a net dc vortex current. (2) In analogy with the standard macroscopic friction, we present [A. Maeda, Y. Inoue, H. Kitano, S. Savel'ev, S. Okayasu, I. Tsukada, F. Nori , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94 (2005) 077001] a comparative study of the friction force felt by vortices in superconductors and charge density waves.

  7. Mask Design for the Space Interferometry Mission Internal Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, David; Zhao, Feng; Korechoff, Robert

    2005-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the mask design used for the internal metrology of the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Included is information about the project, the method of measurements with SIM, the internal metrology, numerical model of internal metrology, wavefront examples, performance metrics, and mask design

  8. Electrical test prediction using hybrid metrology and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Mary; Chao, Robin; Muthinti, Gangadhara Raja; de la Peña, Abraham A.; Simon, Jacques; Cepler, Aron J.; Sendelbach, Matthew; Gaudiello, John; Emans, Susan; Shifrin, Michael; Etzioni, Yoav; Urenski, Ronen; Lee, Wei Ti

    2017-03-01

    Electrical test measurement in the back-end of line (BEOL) is crucial for wafer and die sorting as well as comparing intended process splits. Any in-line, nondestructive technique in the process flow to accurately predict these measurements can significantly improve mean-time-to-detect (MTTD) of defects and improve cycle times for yield and process learning. Measuring after BEOL metallization is commonly done for process control and learning, particularly with scatterometry (also called OCD (Optical Critical Dimension)), which can solve for multiple profile parameters such as metal line height or sidewall angle and does so within patterned regions. This gives scatterometry an advantage over inline microscopy-based techniques, which provide top-down information, since such techniques can be insensitive to sidewall variations hidden under the metal fill of the trench. But when faced with correlation to electrical test measurements that are specific to the BEOL processing, both techniques face the additional challenge of sampling. Microscopy-based techniques are sampling-limited by their small probe size, while scatterometry is traditionally limited (for microprocessors) to scribe targets that mimic device ground rules but are not necessarily designed to be electrically testable. A solution to this sampling challenge lies in a fast reference-based machine learning capability that allows for OCD measurement directly of the electrically-testable structures, even when they are not OCD-compatible. By incorporating such direct OCD measurements, correlation to, and therefore prediction of, resistance of BEOL electrical test structures is significantly improved. Improvements in prediction capability for multiple types of in-die electrically-testable device structures is demonstrated. To further improve the quality of the prediction of the electrical resistance measurements, hybrid metrology using the OCD measurements as well as X-ray metrology (XRF) is used. Hybrid metrology

  9. Coordinate Metrology by Traceable Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Pavel

    metrology and coordinate metrology and is currently becoming more and more important measuring technique for dimensional measurements. This is mainly due to the fact that with CT, a complete three-dimensional model of the scanned part is in a relatively short time visualized using a computer...... is an important factor for decision making about manufactured parts. However, due to many influences in CT, estimation of the uncertainty is a challenge, also because standardized procedures and guidelines are not available yet. In this thesis, several methods for uncertainty estimation were applied in connection...

  10. Vacuum Technology Considerations For Mass Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Patrick J.; Jabour, Zeina J.

    2011-01-01

    Vacuum weighing of mass artifacts eliminates the necessity of air buoyancy correction and its contribution to the measurement uncertainty. Vacuum weighing is also an important process in the experiments currently underway for the redefinition of the SI mass unit, the kilogram. Creating the optimum vacuum environment for mass metrology requires careful design and selection of construction materials, plumbing components, pumping, and pressure gauging technologies. We review the vacuum technology1 required for mass metrology and suggest procedures and hardware for successful and reproducible operation. PMID:26989593

  11. Using entanglement against noise in quantum metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demkowicz-Dobrzański, Rafal; Maccone, Lorenzo

    2014-12-19

    We analyze the role of entanglement among probes and with external ancillas in quantum metrology. In the absence of noise, it is known that unentangled sequential strategies can achieve the same Heisenberg scaling of entangled strategies and that external ancillas are useless. This changes in the presence of noise; here we prove that entangled strategies can have higher precision than unentangled ones and that the addition of passive external ancillas can also increase the precision. We analyze some specific noise models and use the results to conjecture a general hierarchy for quantum metrology strategies in the presence of noise.

  12. Industrial Photogrammetry - Accepted Metrology Tool or Exotic Niche

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bösemann, Werner

    2016-06-01

    New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]). This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly) illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM's. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  13. Ice flood velocity calculating approach based on single view metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X.; Xu, L.

    2017-02-01

    Yellow River is the river in which the ice flood occurs most frequently in China, hence, the Ice flood forecasting has great significance for the river flood prevention work. In various ice flood forecast models, the flow velocity is one of the most important parameters. In spite of the great significance of the flow velocity, its acquisition heavily relies on manual observation or deriving from empirical formula. In recent years, with the high development of video surveillance technology and wireless transmission network, the Yellow River Conservancy Commission set up the ice situation monitoring system, in which live videos can be transmitted to the monitoring center through 3G mobile networks. In this paper, an approach to get the ice velocity based on single view metrology and motion tracking technique using monitoring videos as input data is proposed. First of all, River way can be approximated as a plane. On this condition, we analyze the geometry relevance between the object side and the image side. Besides, we present the principle to measure length in object side from image. Secondly, we use LK optical flow which support pyramid data to track the ice in motion. Combining the result of camera calibration and single view metrology, we propose a flow to calculate the real velocity of ice flood. At last we realize a prototype system by programming and use it to test the reliability and rationality of the whole solution.

  14. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berujon, Sebastien, E-mail: berujon@esrf.eu; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP-220, F-38043 Grenoble (France)

    2015-05-09

    The theoretical description and experimental implementation of a speckle-tracking-based instrument which permits the characterisation of X-ray pulse wavefronts. An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology.

  15. Diffraction-based overlay metrology for double patterning technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasari, Prasad; Korlahalli, Rahul; Li, Jie; Smith, Nigel; Kritsun, Oleg; Volkman, Cathy

    2009-03-01

    The extension of optical lithography to 32nm and beyond is made possible by Double Patterning Techniques (DPT) at critical levels of the process flow. The ease of DPT implementation is hindered by increased significance of critical dimension uniformity and overlay errors. Diffraction-based overlay (DBO) has shown to be an effective metrology solution for accurate determination of the overlay errors associated with double patterning [1, 2] processes. In this paper we will report its use in litho-freeze-litho-etch (LFLE) and spacer double patterning technology (SDPT), which are pitch splitting solutions that reduce the significance of overlay errors. Since the control of overlay between various mask/level combinations is critical for fabrication, precise and accurate assessment of errors by advanced metrology techniques such as spectroscopic diffraction based overlay (DBO) and traditional image-based overlay (IBO) using advanced target designs will be reported. A comparison between DBO, IBO and CD-SEM measurements will be reported. . A discussion of TMU requirements for 32nm technology and TMU performance data of LFLE and SDPT targets by different overlay approaches will be presented.

  16. X-ray pulse wavefront metrology using speckle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berujon, Sebastien; Ziegler, Eric; Cloetens, Peter

    2015-07-01

    An instrument allowing the quantitative analysis of X-ray pulsed wavefronts is presented and its processing method explained. The system relies on the X-ray speckle tracking principle to accurately measure the phase gradient of the X-ray beam from which beam optical aberrations can be deduced. The key component of this instrument, a semi-transparent scintillator emitting visible light while transmitting X-rays, allows simultaneous recording of two speckle images at two different propagation distances from the X-ray source. The speckle tracking procedure for a reference-less metrology mode is described with a detailed account on the advanced processing schemes used. A method to characterize and compensate for the imaging detector distortion, whose principle is also based on speckle, is included. The presented instrument is expected to find interest at synchrotrons and at the new X-ray free-electron laser sources under development worldwide where successful exploitation of beams relies on the availability of an accurate wavefront metrology.

  17. Development of laser materials processing and laser metrology techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Chung, Chin Man; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Kwang Suk; Baik, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong Ouk; Park, Seung Kyu

    1997-09-01

    The applications of remote laser materials processing and metrology have been investigated in nuclear industry from the beginning of laser invention because they can reduce the risks of workers in the hostile environment by remote operation. The objective of this project is the development of laser material processing and metrology techniques for repairing and inspection to improve the safety of nuclear power plants. As to repairing, we developed our own laser sleeve welding head and innovative optical laser weld monitoring techniques to control the sleeve welding process. Furthermore, we designedand fabricated a 800 W Nd:YAG and a 150 W Excimer laser systems for high power laser materials processing in nuclear industry such as cladding and decontamination. As to inspection, we developed an ESPI and a laser triangulation 3-D profile measurement system for defect detection which can complement ECT and UT inspections. We also developed a scanning laser vibrometer for remote vibration measurement of large structures and tested its performance. (author). 58 refs., 16 tabs., 137 figs.

  18. INDUSTRIAL PHOTOGRAMMETRY - ACCEPTED METROLOGY TOOL OR EXOTIC NICHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Bösemann

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available New production technologies like 3D printing and other adaptive manufacturing technologies have changed the industrial manufacturing process, often referred to as next industrial revolution or short industry 4.0. Such Cyber Physical Production Systems combine virtual and real world through digitization, model building process simulation and optimization. It is commonly understood that measurement technologies are the key to combine the real and virtual worlds (eg. [Schmitt 2014]. This change from measurement as a quality control tool to a fully integrated step in the production process has also changed the requirements for 3D metrology solutions. Key words like MAA (Measurement Assisted Assembly illustrate that new position of metrology in the industrial production process. At the same time it is obvious that these processes not only require more measurements but also systems to deliver the required information in high density in a short time. Here optical solutions including photogrammetry for 3D measurements have big advantages over traditional mechanical CMM’s. The paper describes the relevance of different photogrammetric solutions including state of the art, industry requirements and application examples.

  19. The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Jolivet, Aissa; Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier; Delacroix, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Li\\`ege named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also ai...

  20. Absolute distance metrology for space interferometers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swinkels, B.L.; Latoui, A.; Bhattacharya, N.; Wielders, A.A.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Future space missions, among which the Darwin Space Interferometer, will consist of several free flying satellites. A complex metrology system is required to have all the components fly accurately in formation and have it operate as a single instrument. Our work focuses on a possible implementation

  1. Traceability and uncertainty estimation in coordinate metrology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Savio, Enrico; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    are required. Depending on the requirements for uncertainty level, different approaches may be adopted to achieve traceability. Especially in the case of complex measurement situations and workpieces the procedures are not trivial. This paper discusses the establishment of traceability in coordinate metrology...

  2. Status of the Metrology Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, R.; Ulm, G.; Feikes, J.; Hartrott, M. v.; Wüstefeld, G.

    2010-06-01

    The Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), the German national metrology institute, has set up the low-energy electron storage ring Metrology Light Source (MLS) in close cooperation with the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB, formerly BESSY). This new storage ring has been in regular user operation since April 2008 and is dedicated to synchrotron-radiation-based metrology and technological developments in the far-IR/THz, IR, UV, VUV and EUV spectral range. The MLS has a double-bend-achromate lattice structure, injection is from a 105 MeV racetrack microtron. The electron energy can be ramped to any value from 105 MeV up to 630 MeV and the electron beam current covers the range from one stored electron (1 pA) up to 200 mA. The MLS is the first electron storage ring optimized for the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation, based on an electron bunch shortening mode. In this mode, MLS delivers coherent radiation in the far-IR/THz spectral range with enhanced intensity as compared to the normal mode of operation. Several beamlines are in operation or in construction, including one undulator beamline, bending magnet beamlines for the calibration of radiation sources and detectors and for reflectometry, an EUV metrology beamline and three IR/THz beamlines.

  3. [Metrological software of laser medical equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romashkov, A P; Glazov, A I; Tikhomirov, S V

    2001-01-01

    The paper considers the laser medical equipment situation that has established in Russia and that is characterized by the wide medical application of laser technologies and appropriate software and by inadequate development and imperfection of required metrological software and maintenance of laser equipment.

  4. Reconnection of superfluid vortex bundles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamri, Sultan Z; Youd, Anthony J; Barenghi, Carlo F

    2008-11-21

    Using the vortex filament model and the Gross-Pitaevskii nonlinear Schroedinger equation, we show that bundles of quantized vortex lines in He II are structurally robust and can reconnect with each other maintaining their identity. We discuss vortex stretching in superfluid turbulence and show that, during the bundle reconnection process, kelvin waves of large amplitude are generated, in agreement with the finding that helicity is produced by nearly singular vortex interactions in classical Euler flows.

  5. Nano magnetic vortex wall guide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Y. Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A concept of nano magnetic vortex wall guide is introduced. Two architectures are proposed. The first one is properly designed superlattices while the other one is bilayer nanostrips. The concept is verified by micromagnetic simulations. Both guides can prevent the vortex core in a magnetic vortex wall from colliding with sample surface so that the information stored in the vortex core can be preserved during its transportation from one location to another one through the guides.

  6. Vortex Characterization for Engineering Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankun-Kelly, M; Thompson, D S; Jiang, M; Shannahan, B; Machiraju, R

    2008-01-30

    Realistic engineering simulation data often have features that are not optimally resolved due to practical limitations on mesh resolution. To be useful to application engineers, vortex characterization techniques must be sufficiently robust to handle realistic data with complex vortex topologies. In this paper, we present enhancements to the vortex topology identification component of an existing vortex characterization algorithm. The modified techniques are demonstrated by application to three realistic data sets that illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

  7. Jet vortex methods

    CERN Document Server

    Holm, Darryl D

    2015-01-01

    Vortex blob methods are typically characterized by a regularization length scale, below which the the dynamics are trivial for isolated blobs. In this article we will find that the dynamics need not be trivial if one is willing to consider distributional derivatives of Dirac delta functionals as valid vorticity distributions. More specifically, a new singular vortex theory is presented for regularised Euler fluid equations of ideal incompressible flow in the plane. We determine the conditions under which such regularised Euler fluid equations may admit vorticity singularities which are stronger than delta functions, e.g., derivatives of delta functions. We also characterise the Hamiltonian dynamics of the higher-order singular vortices. Applications to the design of numerical meth- ods similar to vortex blob methods are also discussed. Such findings shed light onto the rich dynamics which occur below the regularization length scale and enlighten our perspective on the multiscale aspects of regularized fluid m...

  8. Vortex tube optimization theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewins, Jeffery [Cambridge Univ., Magdalene Coll., Cambridge (United Kingdom); Bejan, Adrian [Duke Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-11-01

    The Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube splits a single high pressure stream of gas into cold and warm streams. Simple models for the vortex tube combined with regenerative precooling are given from which an optimisation can be undertaken. Two such optimisations are needed: the first shows that at any given cut or fraction of the cold stream, the best refrigerative load, allowing for the temperature lift, is nearly half the maximum loading that would result in no lift. The second optimisation shows that the optimum cut is an equal division of the vortex streams between hot and cold. Bounds are obtainable within this theory for the performance of the system for a given gas and pressure ratio. (Author)

  9. Magnetic vortex racetrack memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Liwei D.; Jin, Yongmei M.

    2017-02-01

    We report a new type of racetrack memory based on current-controlled movement of magnetic vortices in magnetic nanowires with rectangular cross-section and weak perpendicular anisotropy. Data are stored through the core polarity of vortices and each vortex carries a data bit. Besides high density, non-volatility, fast data access, and low power as offered by domain wall racetrack memory, magnetic vortex racetrack memory has additional advantages of no need for constrictions to define data bits, changeable information density, adjustable current magnitude for data propagation, and versatile means of ultrafast vortex core switching. By using micromagnetic simulations, current-controlled motion of magnetic vortices in cobalt nanowire is demonstrated for racetrack memory applications.

  10. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcock, Simon G., E-mail: simon.alcock@diamond.ac.uk; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal [Diamond Light Source Ltd., Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)

    2016-05-15

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM’s autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror’s slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  11. Nano-metrology: The art of measuring X-ray mirrors with slope errors <100 nrad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, Simon G; Nistea, Ioana; Sawhney, Kawal

    2016-05-01

    We present a comprehensive investigation of the systematic and random errors of the nano-metrology instruments used to characterize synchrotron X-ray optics at Diamond Light Source. With experimental skill and careful analysis, we show that these instruments used in combination are capable of measuring state-of-the-art X-ray mirrors. Examples are provided of how Diamond metrology data have helped to achieve slope errors of <100 nrad for optical systems installed on synchrotron beamlines, including: iterative correction of substrates using ion beam figuring and optimal clamping of monochromator grating blanks in their holders. Simulations demonstrate how random noise from the Diamond-NOM's autocollimator adds into the overall measured value of the mirror's slope error, and thus predict how many averaged scans are required to accurately characterize different grades of mirror.

  12. Requirements of weighing in legal metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källgren, Håkan; Pendrill, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    A review is given of recent developments in the formulation of requirements of weighing where such measurements are performed in society and industry with legal implications such as safety, fair trade and environmental considerations. Traditional legal metrology in the area of weights and measures has been developed and given an expanded scope in recent years. This reflects, on the one hand, technical and scientific development (computerization of weighing devices, improved weight manufacturing and new methods of magnetism determination, for example), and on the other hand, administrative evolution (global requirements of the market and the Measurement Instrument Directive). Particularly fruitful has been the joint effort by the scientific mass metrology and legal metrology communities in the development in the last decade of international recommendations—especially OIML R111—on weighing. Consensus has been reached in the international weighing forum concerning important areas such as maximum permissible errors for weights, how to calculate measurement uncertainty and how measurement uncertainty should be accounted for in relation to conformity assessment. These international recommendations for weights as mass standards include both tolerances and extensive instructions about various influence quantities that affect the weight result, such as magnetization, surface roughness and volume of weights. Much remains to be done, however: corresponding requirements of weighing devices in particular need to meet the challenges of a rapidly changing technology. The promising collaboration between scientific and legal metrology initiated in the area of weights may act as a model and stimulate similar developments in other areas of metrology, particularly where requirements are generic (for instance uncertainty and conformity) or analogous.

  13. Ambient Optomechanical Alignment and Pupil Metrology for the Flight Instruments Aboard the James Webb Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Phillip; Beaton, Alexander; Gum, Jeffrey S.; Hadjimichael, Theodore J.; Hayden, Joseph E.; Hummel, Susann; Hylan, Jason E.; Lee, David; Madison, Timothy J.; Maszkiewicz, Michael; Mclean, Kyle F.; McMann, Joseph; Melf, Markus; Miner, Linda; Ohl, Raymond G.; Redman, Kevin; Roedel, Andreas; Schweiger, Paul; Plate, Maurice T.; Wells, Martyn; Wenzel, Greg W.; Williams, Patrick K.; Young, Jerrod

    2014-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope science instruments are in the final stages of being integrated into the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element. Each instrument is tied into a common coordinate system through mechanical references that are used for optical alignment and metrology within ISIM after element-level assembly. In addition, a set of ground support equipment (GSE) consisting of large, precisely calibrated, ambient, and cryogenic structures are used as alignment references and gauges during various phases of integration and test (I&T). This GSE, the flight instruments, and ISIM structure feature different types of complimentary metrology targeting. These GSE targets are used to establish and track six degrees of freedom instrument alignment during I&T in the vehicle coordinate system (VCS). This paper describes the optomechanical metrology conducted during science instrument integration and alignment in the Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) cleanroom at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The measurement of each instrument's ambient entrance pupil location in the telescope coordinate system is discussed. The construction of the database of target locations and the development of metrology uncertainties is also discussed.

  14. Establishing metrological traceability for radiometric calibration of earth observation sensor in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, S. W.; Zulkifli, A.

    2016-10-01

    The space borne earth observation (EO) sensor provides a continuous large spatial coverage over the earth at relatively low cost (cost-effective) and can be practically accessible worldwide. The daily synoptic view offered by instrument in earth orbit is tremendously useful in various applications, particularly long term global monitoring that needs multi-disciplinary, multi-temporal and multi-sensor data. Due to the indirect measurement nature of the EO sensor, calibration and validation (cal/val) are essentially required to establish the linkage between the acquired raw data and the actual target of interest. Ultimately, EO sensor provider must strive to deliver “the right information, at the right time, to the right people”. This paper is authored with the main aim to report the process of establishing metrological traceability for radiometric calibration of EO sensor at Optical Calibration Laboratory (OCL), National Space Agency of Malaysia (ANGKASA). The paper is structured into six sections. The first section introduces the context of EO and background of radiometric calibration. The next section discusses the requirements for metrological traceability in radiometric calibration while the following third section outlines ANGKASA efforts in setting up the metrological traceability laboratory in radiometric calibration. Meanwhile, the uncertainty estimation results is reported in the fourth section and the fifth section explains some of the continuous efforts made in order to improve the current metrological traceability set up. Lastly, the summary of this paper is provided in the last section.

  15. Surface Figure Metrology for CELT Primary Mirror Segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommargren, G; Phillion, D; Seppala, L; Lerner, S

    2001-02-27

    The University of California and California Institute of Technology are currently studying the feasibility of building a 30-m segmented ground based optical telescope called the California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT). The early ideas for this telescope were first described by Nelson and Mast and more recently refined by Nelson. In parallel, concepts for the fabrication of the primary segments were proposed by Mast, Nelson and Sommargren where high risk technologies were identified. One of these was the surface figure metrology needed for fabricating the aspheric mirror segments. This report addresses the advanced interferometry that will be needed to achieve 15nm rms accuracy for mirror segments with aspheric departures as large as 35mm peak-to-valley. For reasons of cost, size, measurement consistency and ease of operation we believe it is desirable to have a single interferometer that can be universally applied to each and every mirror segment. Such an instrument is described in this report.

  16. A search algorithm for quantum state engineering and metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knott, P. A.

    2016-07-01

    In this paper we present a search algorithm that finds useful optical quantum states which can be created with current technology. We apply the algorithm to the field of quantum metrology with the goal of finding states that can measure a phase shift to a high precision. Our algorithm efficiently produces a number of novel solutions: we find experimentally ready schemes to produce states that show significant improvements over the state-of-the-art, and can measure with a precision that beats the shot noise limit by over a factor of 4. Furthermore, these states demonstrate a robustness to moderate/high photon losses, and we present a conceptually simple measurement scheme that saturates the Cramér-Rao bound.

  17. An active reflector antenna using a laser angle metrology system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Zhang; Jie Zhang; De-Hua Yang; Guo-Hua Zhou; Ai-Hua Li; Guo-Ping Li

    2012-01-01

    An active reflector is one of the key technologies for constructing large telescopes,especially for millimeter/sub-millimeter radio telescopes.This article introduces a new efficient laser angle metrology system for an active reflector antenna on large radio telescopes.Our experiments concentrate on developing an active reflector for improving the detection precisions and the maintenance of the surface shape in real time on the 65-meter prototype radio telescope constructed by Nanjing Institute of Astronomical Optics and Technology (NIAOT; http://65m.shao.cas.cn/).The test results indicate that the accuracy of the surface shape segmentation and maintenance has the dimensions of microns,and the time-response can be on the order of minutes.Our efforts proved to be workable for sub-millimeter radio telescopes.

  18. Demodulation for multi vortex beams based on composite diffraction hologram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weibin; Li, Yingchun; Sun, Tengfen; Shao, Wei; Zhu, Fuquan; Wang, YingYing

    2016-12-01

    While projecting a Gaussian beam onto the spatial light modulator (SLM) which has loaded a composite hologram, several vortex beams can be generated at one time. On the contrary, while projecting the corresponding vortex beam onto the hologram, the Gaussian beam can be restored, realizing the demodulation of vortex beam. In traditional optical communication systems, a hologram can only demodulate one incident vortex beam. In this paper, a vortex beam demodulation method based on composite diffraction hologram is proposed, which can demodulate several incident vortex beams with only one hologram. An experimental system is set up in this paper which achieves the generation, transmission and demodulation experiments of vortex beams with 64QAM-OFDM signals. After a series of offline processing on the demodulated Gaussian beam, constellation and bit error rates (BER) of each subcarrier for OFDM signals are acquired. The experimental results show that good system performance can be achieved with this method as the BERs of all subcarriers are under the FEC threshold.

  19. Evolution of the scintillation index and the optical vortex density in speckle fields after removal of the least-squares phase

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chen, M

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the behavior of stochastic optical fields can aid the understanding of the scintillation of light propagating through a turbulent medium. For this purpose, the authors perform a numerical investigation of the evolution...

  20. Geometrical metrology on vacuum cast silicone rubber form using computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacurar, Ramona; Müller, Pavel; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    An investigation on geometrical measurements of silicone rubber cake form and polyamide molds using three measuring techniques - CMM, optical scanner and CT scanner - was carried out. The only measurand was diameter of a cone measured at specified levels. An uncertainty budget for all three techn...... and measuring of complicated features. In connection with the silicone rubber form, CT scanning could be also used for example for failure analysis, 3D volume analysis and other non-destructive and metrological analysis....

  1. Multiphoton Interference in Quantum Fourier Transform Circuits and Applications to Quantum Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zu-En; Li, Yuan; Rohde, Peter P.; Huang, He-Liang; Wang, Xi-Lin; Li, Li; Liu, Nai-Le; Dowling, Jonathan P.; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-08-01

    Quantum Fourier transforms (QFTs) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here, we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observe the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploit number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrate optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.

  2. Interaction-based nonlinear quantum metrology with a cold atomic ensemble

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this manuscript we present an experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum-noise-limited measurement by nonlinear interferometry, or from another perspective, quantum-noise-limited interaction-based measurement. The experimental work is performed using a polarization-based quantum interface between propagating light pulses and cold rubidium-87 atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap. We first review the theory of quantum metrology and estimation theory, and we describe theor...

  3. Three-dimensional metrology inside a vacuum chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costille, Anne; Beaumont, Florent; Prieto, Eric; Carle, Michael; Fabron, Christophe

    2016-07-01

    Several three dimensional coordinates systems are proposed by companies to provide accurate measurement of mechanical parts in a volume. None of them are designed to perform the metrology of a system in a vacuum chamber. In the frame of the test of NISP instrument from ESA Euclid mission, the question was raised to perform a three dimensional measurement of different parts during the thermal test of NISP instrument into ERIOS chamber done at Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille (LAM). One of the main objectives of the test campaign will be the measurement of the focus position of NISP image plane with respect to the EUCLID object plane to ensure a good focalisation of NISP instrument after integration on the payload. A Metrology Verification System (MVS) has been proposed. Its goal is to provide at operational temperature the measurement of references frames set on a EUCLID telescope simulator and NISP, the knowledge of the coordinates of the object point source provided by the telescope simulator and the measurement of the angle between the telescope simulator optical axis and NISP optical axis. The MVS concept is based on the use of a laser tracker, outside the vacuum chamber, that measures reflectors inside the vacuum chamber through a curved window. We will present preliminary results that show the possibility to perform this type of measurements and the accuracy reached in this configuration. An analysis of the contributors to the measurement error budget of the MVS is proposed, based on the current knowledge of the MVS performance and constraints during the TB/TV tests.

  4. Photonic Quantum Metrologies Using Photons: Phase Super-sensitivity and Entanglement-Enhanced Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shigeki

    Quantum information science has been attracting significant attention recently. It harnesses the intrinsic nature of quantum mechanics such as quantum superposition, the uncertainty principle, and quantum entanglement to realize novel functions. Recently, quantum metrology has been emerging as an application of quantum information science. Among the many physical quanta, photons are an indispensable tool for metrology, as light-based measurements are applicable to fields ranging from astronomy to life science. In quantum metrology, quantum entanglement between photons is the phenomenon utilized.In this chapter, we will try to give a brief overview of this emerging field mainly focusing on two topics: Optical phase measurements beyond the standard quantum limit (SQL) and quantum optical coherence tomography (QOCT). The sensitivity of an optical phase measurement for a given photon number N is usually limited by N sqrt{N} , which is called the SQL or shot noise limit. However, the SQL can be overcome when non-classical light is used. We explain the basic concepts and the recent experimental results that exceed the SQL, and an application of this technology for microscopy. QOCT harnesses the quantum entanglement of photons in frequency to cancel out the dispersion effect, which degrades the resolution of conventional OCT. The mechanism of the dispersion cancellation and the latest experimental results will be given.

  5. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez Del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-05-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  6. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database. PMID:27140145

  7. DABAM: an open-source database of X-ray mirrors metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez del Rio, Manuel; Bianchi, Davide; Cocco, Daniele; Glass, Mark; Idir, Mourad; Metz, Jim; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rebuffi, Luca; Reininger, Ruben; Shi, Xianbo; Siewert, Frank; Spielmann-Jaeggi, Sibylle; Takacs, Peter; Tomasset, Muriel; Tonnessen, Tom; Vivo, Amparo; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2016-04-20

    An open-source database containing metrology data for X-ray mirrors is presented. It makes available metrology data (mirror heights and slopes profiles) that can be used with simulation tools for calculating the effects of optical surface errors in the performances of an optical instrument, such as a synchrotron beamline. A typical case is the degradation of the intensity profile at the focal position in a beamline due to mirror surface errors. This database for metrology (DABAM) aims to provide to the users of simulation tools the data of real mirrors. The data included in the database are described in this paper, with details of how the mirror parameters are stored. An accompanying software is provided to allow simple access and processing of these data, calculate the most usual statistical parameters, and also include the option of creating input files for most used simulation codes. Some optics simulations are presented and discussed to illustrate the real use of the profiles from the database.

  8. Time evolution of dimethyl carbinol in water vortex rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omocea, Ioana-Laura; Damian, Iulia-Rodica; Simionescu, Štefan-Mugur; Bǎlan, Corneliu; Mihǎilescu, Mona

    2015-02-01

    The paper is concerned with the experimental study of the time evolution of a single laminar vortex ring generated at the interface between water and dimethyl carbinol. The experiments were performed by the submerged injection with a constant rate of dimethyl carbinol (isopropyl alcohol) in a water tank. The dynamics of the vortex formation was recorded at 1000 fps with a Photron Fastcam SA1 camera, equipped with a microscopic Edmund Optics objective. A symmetrical buoyant vortex ring with an elongated topology was observed at the interface between the two immiscible liquids. The analyses of the time dependence of the vortex rings disclosed three regions for the evolution of the interface: one dominated by inertia force, a transition region and a third region, dominated by buoyancy force.

  9. Mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P

    2014-05-20

    Transformation of vortex Bessel beams during propagation in turbulent atmosphere is theoretically analyzed. Deforming influence of the random inhomogeneity of the turbulent medium on propagation of diffraction-free beams leads to disappearance of their invariant properties. In the given research, features of evolution of the spatial structure of distribution of mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams in turbulent atmosphere are analyzed. A quantitative criterion of possibility of carrying over of a dark central domain by vortex Bessel beams in a turbulent atmosphere is derived. The analysis of the behavior of several physical parameters of mean-level optical radiation shows that the shape stability of a vortex Bessel beam increases with the topological charge of this beam during its propagation in a turbulent atmosphere.

  10. Stereo particle image velocimetry applied to a vortex pipe flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zherui; Hugo, Ronald J.

    2006-03-01

    Stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) has been employed to study a vortex generated via tangential injection of water in a 2.25 inch (57 mm) diameter pipe for Reynolds numbers ranging from 1,118 to 63,367. Methods of decreasing pipe-induced optical distortion and the PIV calibration technique are addressed. The mean velocity field analyses have shown spatial similarity and revealed four distinct flow regions starting from the central axis of rotation to the pipe wall in the vortex flows. Turbulence statistical data and vortex core location data suggest that velocity fluctuations are due to the axis of the in-line vortex distorting in the shape of a spiral.

  11. Propagation of Vortex Electron Wave Functions in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallatin, Gregg M

    2012-01-01

    The physics of coherent beams of photons carrying axial orbital angular momentum (OAM) is well understood and such beams, sometimes known as vortex beams, have found applications in optics and microscopy. Recently electron beams carrying very large values of axial OAM have been generated. In the absence of coupling to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of such vortex electron beams is virtually identical mathematically to that of vortex photon beams propagating in a medium with a homogeneous index of refraction. But when coupled to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of vortex electron beams is distinctly different from photons. Here we use the exact path integral solution to Schrodingers equation to examine the time evolution of an electron wave function carrying axial OAM. Interestingly we find that the nonzero OAM wave function can be obtained from the zero OAM wave function, in the case considered here, simply by multipling it by an appropriate time and position dependent pref...

  12. Dynamics of Vortex Cavitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennings, P.C.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis describes the mechanisms with which tip vortex cavitation is responsible for broadband pressure fluctuations on ship propellers. Hypotheses for these are described in detail by Bosschers (2009). Validation is provided by three main cavitation-tunnel experiments, one on a model propeller

  13. Passive Wake Vortex Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, J M

    2001-10-18

    The collapse of the Soviet Union and ending of the Cold War brought about many significant changes in military submarine operations. The enemies that the US Navy faces today and in the future will not likely be superpowers armed with nuclear submarines, but rather smaller, rogue nations employing cheaper diesel/electric submarines with advanced air-independent propulsion systems. Unlike Cold War submarine operations, which occurred in deep-water environments, future submarine conflicts are anticipated to occur in shallow, littoral regions that are complex and noisy. Consequently, non-acoustic signatures will become increasingly important and the submarine stealth technology designed for deep-water operations may not be effective in these environments. One such non-acoustic signature is the surface detection of a submarine's trailing vortex wake. If a submarine runs in a slightly buoyant condition, its diving planes must be inclined at a negative angle of attack to generate sufficient downforce, which keeps the submarine from rising to the surface. As a result, the diving planes produce a pair of counter-rotating trailing vortices that propagate to the water surface. In previous deep-water operations, this was not an issue since the submarines could dive deep enough so that the vortex pair became incoherent before it reached the water surface. However, in shallow, littoral environments, submarines do not have the option of diving deep and, hence, the vortex pair can rise to the surface and leave a distinct signature that might be detectable by synthetic aperture radar. Such detection would jeopardize not only the mission of the submarine, but also the lives of military personnel on board. There has been another attempt to solve this problem and reduce the intensity of trailing vortices in the wakes of military submarines. The research of Quackenbush et al. over the past few years has been directed towards an idea called ''vortex leveraging

  14. Revealing the radial characteristics of Q-plate generated vortex beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sephton, Bereneice

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Q-plates (QP) have become ubiquitous in experiments requiring the generation of vortex beams since its development in 2006. It consequently follows that it is important to characterize the vortex beams created by this geometric-phase optical element...

  15. Metrology requirements for the serial production of ELT primary mirror segments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Paul C. T.; Gray, Caroline

    2015-08-01

    The manufacture of the next generation of large astronomical telescopes, the extremely large telescopes (ELT), requires the rapid manufacture of greater than 500 1.44m hexagonal segments for the primary mirror of each telescope. Both leading projects, the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), have set highly demanding technical requirements for each fabricated segment. These technical requirements, when combined with the anticipated construction schedule for each telescope, suggest that more than one optical fabricator will be involved in the delivery of the primary mirror segments in order to meet the project schedule. For one supplier, the technical specification is challenging and requires highly consistent control of metrology in close coordination with the polishing technologies used in order to optimize production rates. For production using multiple suppliers, however the supply chain is structured, consistent control of metrology along the supply chain will be required. This requires a broader pattern of independent verification than is the case of a single supplier. This paper outlines the metrology requirements for a single supplier throughout all stages of the fabrication process. We identify and outline those areas where metrology accuracy and duration have a significant impact on production efficiency. We use the challenging ESO E-ELT technical specification as an example of our treatment, including actual process data. We further develop this model for the case of a supply chain consisting of multiple suppliers. Here, we emphasize the need to control metrology throughout the supply chain in order to optimize net production efficiency.

  16. The shock-vortex interaction patterns affected by vortex flow regime and vortex models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keun-Shik; Barik, Hrushikesh; Chang, Se-Myong

    2009-08-01

    We have used a third-order essentially non-oscillatory method to obtain numerical shadowgraphs for investigation of shock-vortex interaction patterns. To search different interaction patterns, we have tested two vortex models (the composite vortex model and the Taylor vortex model) and as many as 47 parametric data sets. By shock-vortex interaction, the impinging shock is deformed to a S-shape with leading and lagging parts of the shock. The vortex flow is locally accelerated by the leading shock and locally decelerated by the lagging shock, having a severely elongated vortex core with two vertices. When the leading shock escapes the vortex, implosion effect creates a high pressure in the vertex area where the flow had been most expanded. This compressed region spreads in time with two frontal waves, an induced expansion wave and an induced compression wave. They are subsonic waves when the shock-vortex interaction is weak but become supersonic waves for strong interactions. Under a intermediate interaction, however, an induced shock wave is first developed where flow speed is supersonic but is dissipated where the incoming flow is subsonic. We have identified three different interaction patterns that depend on the vortex flow regime characterized by the shock-vortex interaction.

  17. Quantum Metrology in Non-Markovian Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Chin, Alex W; Plenio, Martin B

    2011-01-01

    We analyze optimal bounds for precision spectroscopy in the presence of general, non-Markovian phase noise. We demonstrate that the metrological equivalence of product and maximally entangled states that holds under Markovian dephasing fails in the non-Markovian case. Using an exactly solvable model of a physically realistic finite band-width dephasing environment, we show that the ensuing non-Markovian dynamics enables quantum correlated states to outperform metrological strategies based on uncorrelated states but otherwise identical resources. We show that this conclusion is a direct result of the coherent dynamics of the global state of the system and environment and, as a result, possesses general validity that goes beyond specific models.

  18. Machine tool metrology an industrial handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Graham T

    2016-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the key scientific disciplines of Machine Tool Metrology, this text will prove useful for the industrial-practitioner and those interested in the operation of machine tools. Within this current level of industrial-content, this book incorporates significant usage of the existing published literature and valid information obtained from a wide-spectrum of manufacturers of plant, equipment and instrumentation before putting forward novel ideas and methodologies. Providing easy to understand bullet points and lucid descriptions of metrological and calibration subjects, this book aids reader understanding of the topics discussed whilst adding a voluminous-amount of footnotes utilised throughout all of the chapters, which adds some additional detail to the subject. Featuring an extensive amount of photographic-support, this book will serve as a key reference text for all those involved in the field. .

  19. Compressed quantum metrology for the Ising Hamiltonian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyajian, W. L.; Skotiniotis, M.; Dür, W.; Kraus, B.

    2016-12-01

    We show how quantum metrology protocols that seek to estimate the parameters of a Hamiltonian that exhibits a quantum phase transition can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer. Specifically, by exploiting the fact that the ground state of such a Hamiltonian changes drastically around its phase-transition point, we construct a suitable observable from which one can estimate the relevant parameters of the Hamiltonian with Heisenberg scaling precision. We then show how, for the one-dimensional Ising Hamiltonian with transverse magnetic field acting on N spins, such a metrology protocol can be efficiently simulated on an exponentially smaller quantum computer while maintaining the same Heisenberg scaling for the squared error, i.e., O (N-2) precision, and derive the explicit circuit that accomplishes the simulation.

  20. Quantum metrology and estimation of Unruh effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jieci; Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang; Fan, Heng

    2014-11-26

    We study the quantum metrology for a pair of entangled Unruh-Dewitt detectors when one of them is accelerated and coupled to a massless scalar field. Comparing with previous schemes, our model requires only local interaction and avoids the use of cavities in the probe state preparation process. We show that the probe state preparation and the interaction between the accelerated detector and the external field have significant effects on the value of quantum Fisher information, correspondingly pose variable ultimate limit of precision in the estimation of Unruh effect. We find that the precision of the estimation can be improved by a larger effective coupling strength and a longer interaction time. Alternatively, the energy gap of the detector has a range that can provide us a better precision. Thus we may adjust those parameters and attain a higher precision in the estimation. We also find that an extremely high acceleration is not required in the quantum metrology process.

  1. Metrology for fire experiments in outdoor conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Silvani, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Natural fires can be considered as scale-dependant, non-linear processes of mass, momentum and heat transport, resulting from a turbulent reactive and radiative fluid medium flowing over a complex medium, the vegetal fuel. In natural outdoor conditions, the experimental study of natural fires at real scale needs the development of an original metrology, one able to capture the large range of time and length scales involved in its dynamic nature and also able to resist the thermal, mechanical and chemical aggression of flames on devices. Robust, accurate and poorly intrusive tools must be carefully set-up and used for gaining very fluctuating data over long periods. These signals also need the development of original post-processing tools that take into account the non-steady nature of their stochastic components. Metrology for Fire Experiments in Outdoor Conditions closely analyzes these features, and also describes measurements techniques, the thermal insulation of fragile electronic systems, data acquisitio...

  2. Quantum metrology foundation of units and measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Goebel, Ernst O

    2015-01-01

    The International System of Units (SI) is the world's most widely used system of measurement, used every day in commerce and science, and is the modern form of the metric system. It currently comprises the meter (m), the kilogram (kg), the second (s), the ampere (A), the kelvin (K), the candela (cd) and the mole (mol)). The system is changing though, units and unit definitions are modified through international agreements as the technology of measurement progresses, and as the precision of measurements improves. The SI is now being redefined based on constants of nature and their realization by quantum standards. Therefore, the underlying physics and technologies will receive increasing interest, and not only in the metrology community but in all fields of science. This book introduces and explains the applications of modern physics concepts to metrology, the science and the applications of measurements. A special focus is made on the use of quantum standards for the realization of the forthcoming new SI (the...

  3. What metrology can do to improve the quality of your atmospheric ammonia measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuenberger, Daiana; Martin, Nicholas A.; Pascale, Céline; Guillevic, Myriam; Ackermann, Andreas; Ferracci, Valerio; Cassidy, Nathan; Hook, Josh; Battersby, Ross M.; Tang, Yuk S.; Stevens, Amy C. M.; Jones, Matthew R.; Braban, Christine F.; Gates, Linda; Hangartner, Markus; Sacco, Paolo; Pagani, Diego; Hoffnagle, John A.; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2017-04-01

    Measuring ammonia in ambient air is a sensitive and priority issue due to its harmful effects on human health and ecosystems. The European Directive 2001/81/EC on "National Emission Ceilings for Certain Atmospheric Pollutants (NEC)" regulates ammonia emissions in the member states. However, there is a lack of regulation to ensure reliable ammonia measurements, namely in applicable analytical technology, maximum allowed uncertainty, quality assurance and quality control (QC/QA) procedures, as well as in the infrastructure to attain metrological traceability, i.e. that the results of measurements are traceable to SI-units through an unbroken chain of calibrations. In the framework of the European Metrology Research Programme (EMRP) project on the topic "Metrology for Ammonia in Ambient Air" (MetNH3), European national metrology institutes (NMI's) have joined to tackle the issue of generating SI-traceable reference material, i.e. generate reference gas mixtures containing known amount fractions of NH3.This requires special infrastructure and analytical techniques: Measurements of ambient ammonia are commonly carried out with diffusive samplers or by active sampling with denuders, but such techniques have not yet been extensively validated. Improvements in the metrological traceability may be achieved through the determination of NH3 diffusive sampling rates using ammonia Primary Standard Gas Mixtures (PSMs), developed by gravimetry at the National Physical Laboratory NPL and a controlled atmosphere test facility in combination with on-line monitoring with a cavity ring-down spectrometer. The Federal Institute of Metrology METAS has developed an infrastructure to generate SI-traceable NH3 reference gas mixtures dynamically in the amount fraction range 0.5-500 nmol/mol (atmospheric concentrations) and with uncertainties UNH3 filling. The mobile system as well as these cylinders can be applied for calibrations of optical instruments in other laboratories and in the field

  4. Digital holography for MEMS and microsystem metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Asundi, Anand

    2011-01-01

    Approaching the topic of digital holography from the practical perspective of industrial inspection, Digital Holography for MEMS and Microsystem Metrology describes the process of digital holography and its growing applications for MEMS characterization, residual stress measurement, design and evaluation, and device testing and inspection. Asundi also provides a thorough theoretical grounding that enables the reader to understand basic concepts and thus identify areas where this technique can be adopted. This combination of both practical and theoretical approach will ensure the

  5. Interpreting Quantum Discord in Quantum Metrology

    OpenAIRE

    Girolami, Davide

    2015-01-01

    Multipartite quantum systems show properties which do not admit a classical explanation. In particular, even nonentangled states can enjoy a kind of quantum correlations called quantum discord. I discuss some recent results on the role of quantum discord in metrology. Given an interferometric phase estimation protocol where the Hamiltonian is initially unknown to the experimentalist, the quantum discord of the probe state quantifies the minimum precision of the estimation. This provides a phy...

  6. Uterine metrology devices for IUD selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-01

    Accurate measurements of the length of the uterine cavity would make it feasible to select an IUD that is compatible with a given cavity size. Considerable evidence exists to indicate that selecting an IUD on the basis of accurate longitudinal measurements of the uterine cavity improves IUD performance. There are study findings to suggest that as more data are available, specific IUDs can be prescribed for defined ranges of uterine cavity length. Metrology (uterine measuring) devices improve the ability of the clinican to measure accurately longitudinal and, in some instances, lateral dimensions of the uterine cavity. Longitudinal measurements depend on identifying the location of the internal os in order to determine the total length of the cervical canal. Lateral metrology devices also provide a measurement of uterine cavity width. Pain and discomfort associated with the use of the prototype lateral measurement instruments developed thus far is a major deterrent to their wide-scale use. 2 metrology devices -- the Crochet Hook Sound and the Hasson Wing Sound -- are designed to obtain longitudinal measurements of total uterine cavity length and of the length of the cervical canel. 2 new instruments -- the Cavimeter and the Hasson Wing Sound 2 -- designed to obtain both lateral and longitudinal measurements are now available for evaluation. The Hasson Wing Sound appears to be the only uterine metrology device available for service programs that could affect continuation rates of IUD users. It can measure the length of the uterine cavity directly, thus permitting improved IUD selection of individual women or the ability to exclude women who should not be IUD users because of small uterine size. An illustration of the prescriptive approach is included in a table.

  7. Normal modes and mode transformation of pure electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Mousley, M.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2017-02-01

    Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture. As these modes are eigenfunctions of the axial orbital angular momentum operator, they can provide a complete description of the two-dimensional transverse distribution of the wave function of any electron vortex beam in such a system, in analogy with the prominent role Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams played in the description of optical vortex beams. The characteristics of the normal modes of TBBs and FT-TBBs are described, including the quantized orbital angular momentum (in terms of the winding number l) and the radial index p>0. We present the experimental realization of such beams using computer-generated holograms. The mode analysis can be carried out using astigmatic transformation optics, demonstrating close analogy with the astigmatic mode transformation between LG and Hermite-Gaussian beams. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  8. Metrological analysis of the human foot: 3D multisensor exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Potosi, A.; Meneses Fonseca, J.; León Téllez, J.

    2011-08-01

    In the podiatry field, many of the foot dysfunctions are mainly generated due to: Congenital malformations, accidents or misuse of footwear. For the treatment or prevention of foot disorders, the podiatrist diagnoses prosthesis or specific adapted footwear, according to the real dimension of foot. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire 3D information of foot with 360 degrees of observation. As alternative solution, it was developed and implemented an optical system of threedimensional reconstruction based in the principle of laser triangulation. The system is constituted by an illumination unit that project a laser plane into the foot surface, an acquisition unit with 4 CCD cameras placed around of axial foot axis, an axial moving unit that displaces the illumination and acquisition units in the axial axis direction and a processing and exploration unit. The exploration software allows the extraction of distances on three-dimensional image, taking into account the topography of foot. The optical system was tested and their metrological performances were evaluated in experimental conditions. The optical system was developed to acquire 3D information in order to design and make more appropriate footwear.

  9. State preparation for quantum information science and metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samblowski, Aiko

    2012-06-08

    The precise preparation of non-classical states of light is a basic requirement for performing quantum information tasks and quantum metrology. Depending on the assignment, the range of required states varies from preparing and modifying squeezed states to generating bipartite entanglement and establishing multimode entanglement networks. Every state needs special preparation techniques and hence it is important to develop the experimental expertise to generate all states with the desired degree of accuracy. In this thesis, the experimental preparation of different kinds of non-classical states of light is demonstrated. Starting with a multimode entangled state, the preparation of an unconditionally generated bound entangled state of light of unprecedented accuracy is shown. Its existence is of fundamental interest, since it certifies an intrinsic irreversibility of entanglement and suggests a connection with thermodynamics. The state is created in a network of linear optics, utilizing optical parametric amplifiers, operated below threshold, beam splitters and phase gates. The experimental platform developed here afforded the precise and stable control of all experimental parameters. Focusing on the aspect of quantum information networks, the generation of suitable bipartite entangled states of light is desirable. The optical connection between atomic transitions and light that can be transmitted via telecommunications fibers opens the possibility to employ quantum memories within fiber networks. For this purpose, a non-degenerate optical parametric oscillator is operated above threshold and the generation of bright bipartite entanglement between its twin beams at the wavelengths of 810 nm and 1550 nm is demonstrated. In the field of metrology, quantum states are used to enhance the measurement precision of interferometric gravitational wave (GW) detectors. Recently, the sensitivity of a GW detector operated at a wavelength of 1064 nm was increased using squeezed

  10. Comparisons organized by Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of FTMC, Lithuania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudelis, A; Gorina, I

    2016-03-01

    The newly established Ionizing Radiation Metrology Laboratory of the National Metrology Institute (FTMC) in Lithuania organized four comparisons in the field of low-level radioactivity measurements in water. For gamma-ray emitters, the activity concentration in the samples was in the range 1-25Bq/kg, while for tritium it was around 2Bq/g. The assigned values of all comparisons were traceable to the primary standards of the Czech Metrology Institute (CMI).

  11. Vortex array laser beam generation from a Dove prism-embedded unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chao-Shun; Otsuka, Kenju

    2008-11-24

    This paper proposes a new scheme for generating vortex laser beams from a laser. The proposed system consists of a Dove prism embedded in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. This configuration allows controlled construction of p x p vortex array beams from Ince-Gaussian modes, IG(e) (p,p) modes. An incident IG(e)(p,p) laser beam of variety order p can easily be generated from an end-pumped solid-state laser system with an off-axis pumping mechanism. This study simulates this type of vortex array laser beam generation, analytically derives the vortex positions of the resulting vortex array laser beams, and discusses beam propagation effects. The resulting vortex array laser beam can be applied to optical tweezers and atom traps in the form of two-dimensional arrays, or used to study the transfer of angular momentum to micro particles or atoms (Bose-Einstein condensate).

  12. 3D spectral imaging system for anterior chamber metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Trevor; Segref, Armin; Frisken, Grant; Frisken, Steven

    2015-03-01

    Accurate metrology of the anterior chamber of the eye is useful for a number of diagnostic and clinical applications. In particular, accurate corneal topography and corneal thickness data is desirable for fitting contact lenses, screening for diseases and monitoring corneal changes. Anterior OCT systems can be used to measure anterior chamber surfaces, however accurate curvature measurements for single point scanning systems are known to be very sensitive to patient movement. To overcome this problem we have developed a parallel 3D spectral metrology system that captures simultaneous A-scans on a 2D lateral grid. This approach enables estimates of the elevation and curvature of anterior and posterior corneal surfaces that are robust to sample movement. Furthermore, multiple simultaneous surface measurements greatly improve the ability to register consecutive frames and enable aggregate measurements over a finer lateral grid. A key element of our approach has been to exploit standard low cost optical components including lenslet arrays and a 2D sensor to provide a path towards low cost implementation. We demonstrate first prototypes based on 6 Mpixel sensor using a 250 μm pitch lenslet array with 300 sample beams to achieve an RMS elevation accuracy of 1μm with 95 dB sensitivity and a 7.0 mm range. Initial tests on Porcine eyes, model eyes and calibration spheres demonstrate the validity of the concept. With the next iteration of designs we expect to be able to achieve over 1000 simultaneous A-scans in excess of 75 frames per second.

  13. New method of 2-dimensional metrology using mask contouring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Ryoichi; Yamagata, Yoshikazu; Sugiyama, Akiyuki; Toyoda, Yasutaka

    2008-10-01

    We have developed a new method of accurately profiling and measuring of a mask shape by utilizing a Mask CD-SEM. The method is intended to realize high accuracy, stability and reproducibility of the Mask CD-SEM adopting an edge detection algorithm as the key technology used in CD-SEM for high accuracy CD measurement. In comparison with a conventional image processing method for contour profiling, this edge detection method is possible to create the profiles with much higher accuracy which is comparable with CD-SEM for semiconductor device CD measurement. This method realizes two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern that had been difficult to measure conventionally by utilizing high precision contour profile. In this report, we will introduce the algorithm in general, the experimental results and the application in practice. As shrinkage of design rule for semiconductor device has further advanced, an aggressive OPC (Optical Proximity Correction) is indispensable in RET (Resolution Enhancement Technology). From the view point of DFM (Design for Manufacturability), a dramatic increase of data processing cost for advanced MDP (Mask Data Preparation) for instance and surge of mask making cost have become a big concern to the device manufacturers. This is to say, demands for quality is becoming strenuous because of enormous quantity of data growth with increasing of refined pattern on photo mask manufacture. In the result, massive amount of simulated error occurs on mask inspection that causes lengthening of mask production and inspection period, cost increasing, and long delivery time. In a sense, it is a trade-off between the high accuracy RET and the mask production cost, while it gives a significant impact on the semiconductor market centered around the mask business. To cope with the problem, we propose the best method of a DFM solution using two-dimensional metrology for refined pattern.

  14. Deep sub-wavelength metrology for advanced defect classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walle, P.; Kramer, E.; van der Donck, J. C. J.; Mulckhuyse, W.; Nijsten, L.; Bernal Arango, F. A.; de Jong, A.; van Zeijl, E.; Spruit, H. E. T.; van den Berg, J. H.; Nanda, G.; van Langen-Suurling, A. K.; Alkemade, P. F. A.; Pereira, S. F.; Maas, D. J.

    2017-06-01

    Particle defects are important contributors to yield loss in semi-conductor manufacturing. Particles need to be detected and characterized in order to determine and eliminate their root cause. We have conceived a process flow for advanced defect classification (ADC) that distinguishes three consecutive steps; detection, review and classification. For defect detection, TNO has developed the Rapid Nano (RN3) particle scanner, which illuminates the sample from nine azimuth angles. The RN3 is capable of detecting 42 nm Latex Sphere Equivalent (LSE) particles on XXX-flat Silicon wafers. For each sample, the lower detection limit (LDL) can be verified by an analysis of the speckle signal, which originates from the surface roughness of the substrate. In detection-mode (RN3.1), the signal from all illumination angles is added. In review-mode (RN3.9), the signals from all nine arms are recorded individually and analyzed in order to retrieve additional information on the shape and size of deep sub-wavelength defects. This paper presents experimental and modelling results on the extraction of shape information from the RN3.9 multi-azimuth signal such as aspect ratio, skewness, and orientation of test defects. Both modeling and experimental work confirm that the RN3.9 signal contains detailed defect shape information. After review by RN3.9, defects are coarsely classified, yielding a purified Defect-of-Interest (DoI) list for further analysis on slower metrology tools, such as SEM, AFM or HIM, that provide more detailed review data and further classification. Purifying the DoI list via optical metrology with RN3.9 will make inspection time on slower review tools more efficient.

  15. INCREASING METROLOGICAL AUTONOMY OF IN-PLANT MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykola Mykyychuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors offer to solve the problem of providing traceability of measurements by increasing metrological autonomy of in-plant measuring systems. The paper shows the expedience of increasing metrological autonomy by creating a "virtual" reference. There are analysed possible variants of implementation of the "virtual" reference, which will provide high metrological stability of measurements at insignificant additional expenses. The authors point out the necessity of creation of universal technical and programmatic means of mutual comparison for the in-plant measuring systems to increase the reliability of measurements in the conditions of metrological autonomy.

  16. Simulations of vortex generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koumoutsakos, P.

    1995-01-01

    We are interested in the study, via direct numerical simulations, of active vortex generators. Vortex generators may be used to modify the inner part of the boundary layer or to control separation thus enhancing the performance and maneuverability of aerodynamic configurations. We consider generators that consist of a surface cavity elongated in the stream direction and partially covered with a moving lid that at rest lies flush with the boundary. Streamwise vorticity is generated and ejected due to the oscillatory motion of the lid. The present simulations complement relevant experimental investigations of active vortex generators at NASA Ames and Stanford University (Saddoughi, 1994, and Jacobson and Reynolds, 1993). Jacobson and Reynolds (1993) used a piezoelectric device in water, allowing for small amplitude high frequency oscillations. They placed the lid asymmetrically on the cavity and observed a strong outward velocity at the small gap of the cavity. Saddoughi used a larger mechanically driven device in air to investigate this flow and he observed a jet emerging from the wide gap of the configuration, contrary to the findings of Jacobson and Reynolds. Our task is to simulate the flows generated by these devices and to conduct a parametric study that would help us elucidate the physical mechanisms present in the flow. Conventional computational schemes encounter difficulties when simulating flows around complex configurations undergoing arbitrary motions. Here we present a formulation that achieves this task on a purely Lagrangian frame by extending the formulation presented by Koumoutsakos, Leonard and Pepin (1994). The viscous effects are taken into account by modifying the strength of the particles, whereas fast multipole schemes employing hundreds of thousands of particles allow for high resolution simulations. The results of the present simulations would help us assess some of the effects of three-dimensionality in experiments and investigate the role

  17. Stabilization of vortex beams in Kerr media by nonlinear absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porras, Miguel A.; Carvalho, Márcio; Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A.

    2016-11-01

    We elaborate a solution for the problem of stable propagation of transversely localized vortex beams in homogeneous optical media with self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Stationary nonlinear Bessel-vortex states are stabilized against azimuthal breakup and collapse by multiphoton absorption, while the respective power loss is offset by the radial influx of the power from an intrinsic reservoir. A linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations reveal a region of stability of these vortices. Beams with multiple vorticities have their stability regions too. These beams can then form robust tubular filaments in transparent dielectrics as common as air, water, and optical glasses at sufficiently high intensities. We also show that the tubular, rotating, and specklelike filamentation regimes, previously observed in experiments with axicon-generated Bessel beams, can be explained as manifestations of the stability or instability of a specific nonlinear Bessel-vortex state, which is fully identified.

  18. Stabilization of vortex beams in Kerr media by nonlinear absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Porras, Miguel A; Leblond, Hervé; Malomed, Boris A

    2016-01-01

    We elaborate a new solution for the problem of stable propagation of transversely localized vortex beams in homogeneous optical media with self-focusing Kerr nonlinearity. Stationary nonlinear Bessel-vortex states are stabilized against azimuthal breakup and collapse by multiphoton absorption, while the respective power loss is offset by the radial influx of the power from an intrinsic reservoir. A linear stability analysis and direct numerical simulations reveal a region of stability of these vortices. Beams with multiple vorticities have their stability regions too. These beams can then form robust tubular filaments in transparent dielectrics as common as air, water and optical glasses at sufficiently high intensities. We also show that the tubular, rotating and speckle-like filamentation regimes, previously observed in experiments with axicon-generated Bessel beams, can be explained as manifestations of the stability or instability of a specific nonlinear Bessel-vortex state, which is fully identified.

  19. Multiply Phased Traveling BPS Vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Kimm, Kyoungtae; Cho, Y M

    2016-01-01

    We present the multiply phased current carrying vortex solutions in the U(1) gauge theory coupled to an $(N+1)$-component SU(N+1) scalar multiplet in the Bogomolny limit. Our vortex solutions correspond to the static vortex dressed with traveling waves along the axis of symmetry. What is notable in our vortex solutions is that the frequencies of traveling waves in each component of the scalar field can have different values. The energy of the static vortex is proportional to the topological charge of $CP^N$ model in the BPS limit, and the multiple phase of the vortex supplies additional energy contribution which is proportional to the Noether charge associated to the remaining symmetry.

  20. Metrology for Trending Alignment of the James Webb Space Telescope Before and After Ambient Environmental Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadjimichael, Theo; Ohl, Raymond G.; Berrier, Joshua; Gum, Jeffery; Hayden, Joseph; Khreishi, Manal; McLean, Kyle; Redman, Kevin; Sullivan, Joseph; Wenzel, Greg; hide

    2017-01-01

    NASA's James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a 6.6m diameter, segmented, deployable telescope for cryogenic IR space astronomy. The JWST Observatory architecture includes the Optical Telescope Element (OTE) and the Integrated Science Instrument Module (ISIM) element which contains four science instruments (SIs). Prior to integration with the spacecraft, theJWST optical assembly is put through rigorous launch condition environmental testing. This work reports on the metrology operations conducted to determine any changes in subassembly alignment, including primary mirror segments with respect to each other, the secondary mirror to its support structure, the tertiary mirror assembly to the backplane of the telescope and ultimately to the ISIM.

  1. Vortex cores and vortex motion in superconductors with anisotropic Fermi surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvis, J. A.; Herrera, E.; Guillamón, I.; Vieira, S.; Suderow, H.

    2017-02-01

    Explaning static and dynamic properties of the vortex lattice in anisotropic superconductors requires a careful characterization of vortex cores. The vortex core contains Andreev bound states whose spatial extension depends on the anisotropy of the electronic band-structure and superconducting gap. This might have an impact on the anisotropy of the superconducting properties and on vortex dynamics. Here we briefly summarize basic concepts to understand anisotropic vortex cores and review vortex core imaging experiments. We further discuss moving vortex lattices and the influence of vortex core shape in vortex motion. We find vortex motion in highly tilted magnetic fields. We associate vortex motion to the vortex entry barrier and the screening currents at the surface. We find preferential vortex motion along the main axis of the vortex lattice. After travelling integers of the intervortex distance, we find that vortices move more slowly due to the washboard potential of the vortex lattice.

  2. Design and simulation of GRIN objective lenses for an imaging fiber based speckle metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhathan, P.; Guru Prasad, A. S.; Haridas, Aswin; Chan, Kelvin H. K.; Murukeshan, V. M.

    2016-11-01

    Gradient-Index (GRIN) lenses are characterized by its small diameter and length, enabling them to be an effective lens for an integrated probe based imaging system. For a speckle-based surface metrology system, the imaging lens plays an important role in deciding the statistical dimensions of the speckles. In such cases, the design and simulation of the lens system would be a key process to better the performance of the lensed imaging fiber probe. In this context, this paper focuses on the design of lensed fiber probes for a speckle-based surface metrological imaging system that can find intra cavity interrogation applications. Different optical properties of GRIN lenses and imaging fibers are considered while designing the final probe distal end to meet the targeted specifications. Singlet GRIN lens configuration is analyzed for a front view configuration and a parameter optimization has been carried out to obtain the specifications including the field-of-view, resolution, working distance and magnification.

  3. Multi-dimensional, non-contact metrology using trilateration and high resolution FMCW ladar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo, Ana Baselga; Barber, Zeb W

    2015-07-01

    Here we propose, describe, and provide experimental proof-of-concept demonstrations of a multidimensional, non-contact-length metrology system design based on high resolution (millimeter to sub-100 micron) frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) ladar and trilateration based on length measurements from multiple, optical fiber-connected transmitters. With an accurate FMCW ladar source, the trilateration-based design provides 3D resolution inherently independent of standoff range and allows self-calibration to provide flexible setup of a field system. A proof-of-concept experimental demonstration was performed using a highly stabilized, 2 THz bandwidth chirped laser source, two emitters, and one scanning emitter/receiver providing 1D surface profiles (2D metrology) of diffuse targets. The measured coordinate precision of <200 microns was determined to be limited by laser speckle issues caused by diffuse scattering of the targets.

  4. Counterdiabatic vortex pump in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollikainen, T.; Masuda, S.; Möttönen, M.; Nakahara, M.

    2017-01-01

    Topological phase imprinting is a well-established technique for deterministic vortex creation in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates of alkali-metal atoms. It was recently shown that counterdiabatic quantum control may accelerate vortex creation in comparison to the standard adiabatic protocol and suppress the atom loss due to nonadiabatic transitions. Here we apply this technique, assisted by an optical plug, for vortex pumping to theoretically show that sequential phase imprinting up to 20 cycles generates a vortex with a very large winding number. Our method significantly increases the fidelity of the pump for rapid pumping compared to the case without the counterdiabatic control, leading to the highest angular momentum per particle reported to date for the vortex pump. Our studies are based on numerical integration of the three-dimensional multicomponent Gross-Pitaevskii equation, which conveniently yields the density profiles, phase profiles, angular momentum, and other physically important quantities of the spin-1 system. Our results motivate the experimental realization of the vortex pump and studies of the rich physics it involves.

  5. Experimental verification on tightly focused radially polarized vortex beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Fu-Rong; Zhou Zhe-Hai; Tan Qiao-Feng; Yang Chang-Xi; Zhang Xiao-Qing; Zhu Lian-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results of tightly focused radially polarized vortex beams are demonstrated.An auto-focus technology is introduced into the measurement system in order to enhance the measurement precision,and the radially polarized vortex beams are generated by a liquid-crystal polarization converter and a vortex phase plate.The focused fields of radially polarized vortex beams with different topological charges at numerical apertures (NAs) of 0.65 and 0.85 are measured respectively,and the results indicate that the total intensity distribution at focus is dependent not only on the NA of the focusing objective lens and polarization pattem of the beam but also on the topological charge l of the beam.Some unique focusing properties of radially polarized vortex beams with fractional topological charges are presented based on numerical calculations.The experimental verification paves the way for some practical applications of radially polarized vortex beams,such as in optical trapping,near-field microscopy,and material processing.

  6. A generalization of vortex lines

    CERN Document Server

    Fecko, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Helmholtz theorem states that, in ideal fluid, vortex lines move with the fluid. Another Helmholtz theorem adds that strength of a vortex tube is constant along the tube. The lines may be regarded as integral surfaces of an 1-dimensional integrable distribution (given by the vorticity 2-form). In general setting of theory of integral invariants, due to Poincare and Cartan, one can find $d$-dimensional integrable distribution whose integral surfaces show both properties of vortex lines: they move with (abstract) fluid and, for appropriate generalization of vortex tube, strength of the latter is constant along the tube.

  7. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Jaeger, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  8. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  9. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  10. Next Generation Fiber Coherent Lidar System for Wake Vortex Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SibellOptics proposes to develop an eye-safe, long-range, compact, versatile, all-fiber wind LIDAR system for wake vortex measurement and other wind measurement...

  11. Metrology Camera System Using Two-Color Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubovitsky, Serge; Liebe, Carl Christian; Peters, Robert; Lay, Oliver

    2007-01-01

    A metrology system that contains no moving parts simultaneously measures the bearings and ranges of multiple reflective targets in its vicinity, enabling determination of the three-dimensional (3D) positions of the targets with submillimeter accuracy. The system combines a direction-measuring metrology camera and an interferometric range-finding subsystem. Because the system is based partly on a prior instrument denoted the Modulation Sideband Technology for Absolute Ranging (MSTAR) sensor and because of its 3D capability, the system is denoted the MSTAR3D. Developed for use in measuring the shape (for the purpose of compensating for distortion) of large structures like radar antennas, it can also be used to measure positions of multiple targets in the course of conventional terrestrial surveying. A diagram of the system is shown in the figure. One of the targets is a reference target having a known, constant distance with respect to the system. The system comprises a laser for generating local and target beams at a carrier frequency; a frequency shifting unit to introduce a frequency shift offset between the target and local beams; a pair of high-speed modulators that apply modulation to the carrier frequency in the local and target beams to produce a series of modulation sidebands, the highspeed modulators having modulation frequencies of FL and FM; a target beam launcher that illuminates the targets with the target beam; optics and a multipixel photodetector; a local beam launcher that launches the local beam towards the multi-pixel photodetector; a mirror for projecting to the optics a portion of the target beam reflected from the targets, the optics being configured to focus the portion of the target beam at the multi-pixel photodetector; and a signal-processing unit connected to the photodetector. The portion of the target beam reflected from the targets produces spots on the multi-pixel photodetector corresponding to the targets, respectively, and the signal

  12. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  13. Absolute surface metrology with a phase-shifting interferometer for incommensurate transverse spatial shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemhof, E E

    2014-02-10

    We consider the detailed implementation and practical utility of a novel absolute optical metrology scheme recently proposed for use with a phase-shifting interferometer (PSI). This scheme extracts absolute phase differences between points on the surface of the optic under test by differencing phase maps made with slightly different transverse spatial shifts of that optic. These absolute phase (or height) differences, which for single-pixel shifts are automatically obtained in the well-known Hudgin geometry, yield the underlying absolute surface map by standard wavefront reconstruction techniques. The PSI by itself maps surface height only relative to that of a separate reference optic known or assumed to be flat. In practice, even relatively high-quality (and expensive) transmission flats or spheres used to reference a PSI are flat or spherical only to a few dozen nanometers peak to valley (P-V) over typical 4 in. apertures. The new technique for removing the effects of the reference surface is in principle accurate as well as simple, and may represent a significant advance in optical metrology. Here it is shown that transverse shifts need not match the pixel size; somewhat counterintuitively, the single-pixel spatial resolution of the PSI is retained even when transverse shifts are much coarser. Practical considerations for shifts not necessarily commensurate with pixel size, and broader applications, are discussed.

  14. Robust overlay metrology with differential Mueller matrix calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiuguo; Gu, Honggang; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Chuanwei; Liu, Shiyuan

    2017-04-17

    Overlay control is of vital importance to good device performances in semiconductor manufacturing. In this work, the differential Mueller matrix calculus is introduced to investigate the Mueller matrices of double-patterned gratings with overlay displacements, which helps to reveal six elementary optical properties hidden in the Mueller matrices. We find and demonstrate that, among these six elementary optical properties, the linear birefringence and dichroism, LB' and LD', along the ± 45° axes show a linear response to the overlay displacement and are zero when the overlay displacement is absent at any conical mounting. Although the elements from the two 2 × 2 off-diagonal blocks of the Mueller matrix have a similar property to LB' and LD', as reported in the literature, we demonstrate that it is only valid at a special conical mounting with the plane of incidence parallel to grating lines. The better property of LB' and LD' than the Mueller matrix elements of the off-diagonal blocks in the presence of overlay displacement verifies them to be a more robust indicator for the diffraction-based overlay metrology.

  15. Metrology Camera System of Prime Focus Spectrograph for Subaru Telescope

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shiang-Yu; Huang, Pin-Jie; Ling, Hung-Hsu; Karr, Jennifer; Chang, Yin-Chang; Hu, Yen-Shan; Hsu, Shu-Fu; Chen, Hsin-Yo; Gunn, James E; Reiley, Dan J; Tamura, Naoyuki; Takato, Naruhisa; Shimono, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    The Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) is a new optical/near-infrared multi-fiber spectrograph designed for the prime focus of the 8.2m Subaru telescope. PFS will cover a 1.3 degree diameter field with 2394 fibers to complement the imaging capabilities of Hyper SuprimeCam. To retain high throughput, the final positioning accuracy between the fibers and observing targets of PFS is required to be less than 10um. The metrology camera system (MCS) serves as the optical encoder of the fiber motors for the configuring of fibers. MCS provides the fiber positions within a 5um error over the 45 cm focal plane. The information from MCS will be fed into the fiber positioner control system for the closed loop control. MCS will be located at the Cassegrain focus of Subaru telescope in order to to cover the whole focal plane with one 50M pixel Canon CMOS camera. It is a 380mm Schmidt type telescope which generates a uniform spot size with a 10 micron FWHM across the field for reasonable sampling of PSF. Carbon fiber tubes are ...

  16. Absolute surface reconstruction by slope metrology and photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yue

    Developing the manufacture of aspheric and freeform optical elements requires an advanced metrology method which is capable of inspecting these elements with arbitrary freeform surfaces. In this dissertation, a new surface measurement scheme is investigated for such a purpose, which is to measure the absolute surface shape of an object under test through its surface slope information obtained by photogrammetric measurement. A laser beam propagating toward the object reflects on its surface while the vectors of the incident and reflected beams are evaluated from the four spots they leave on the two parallel transparent windows in front of the object. The spots' spatial coordinates are determined by photogrammetry. With the knowledge of the incident and reflected beam vectors, the local slope information of the object surface is obtained through vector calculus and finally yields the absolute object surface profile by a reconstruction algorithm. An experimental setup is designed and the proposed measuring principle is experimentally demonstrated by measuring the absolute surface shape of a spherical mirror. The measurement uncertainty is analyzed, and efforts for improvement are made accordingly. In particular, structured windows are designed and fabricated to generate uniform scattering spots left by the transmitted laser beams. Calibration of the fringe reflection instrument, another typical surface slope measurement method, is also reported in the dissertation. Finally, a method for uncertainty analysis of a photogrammetry measurement system by optical simulation is investigated.

  17. Vortex stabilization by means of spatial solitons in nonlocal media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebskaya, Yana; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Smyth, Noel F.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2016-05-01

    We investigate how optical vortices, which tend to be azimuthally unstable in local nonlinear materials, can be stabilized by a copropagating coaxial spatial solitary wave in nonlocal, nonlinear media. We focus on the formation of nonlinear vortex-soliton vector beams in reorientational soft matter, namely nematic liquid crystals, and report on experimental results, as well as numerical simulations.

  18. Vortex-Surface Interactions: Vortex Dynamics and Instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-16

    a) Main vortex structures developing on a typical submarine hull; (b) Schematic illustrating a horseshoe vortex at a wing-body junction of a " Rood ...secondary vortices. Firstly, looking at Figure 7, showing only the secondary vortices being visualized by our technique , we see that a tongue of secondary

  19. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex-beams in a uniaxial crystal

    CERN Document Server

    Fadeyeva, T; Rubass, A; Zinov'ev, A; Konovalenko, V; Volyar, A

    2011-01-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  20. Simulation of vortex laser beams propagation in parabolic index media based on fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoulina, O. A.; Kirilenko, M. S.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We use radial Fractional Fourier transform to model vortex laser beams propagation in optical waveguides with parabolic dependence of the refractive index. To overcome calculation difficulties at distances proportional to a quarter of the period we use varied calculation step. Numerical results for vortex modes superposition propagation in a parabolic optical fiber show that the transverse beam structure can be changed significantly during the propagation. To provide stable transverse distribution input scale modes should be in accordance with fiber parameters.

  1. Subwave spikes of the orbital angular momentum of the vortex beams in a uniaxial crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeyeva, T.; Alexeyev, C.; Rubass, A.; Zinov'Ev, A.; Konovalenko, V.; Volyar, A.

    2011-11-01

    We have theoretically predicted the gigantic spikes of the orbital angular momentum caused by the conversion processes of the centered optical vortex in the circularly polarized components of the elliptic vortex beam propagating perpendicular to the crystal optical axis. We have experimentally observed the conversion process inside the subwave deviations of the crystal length. We have found that the total orbital angular momentum of the wave beam is conserved.

  2. Modeling of surface metrology of state-of-the-art x-ray mirrors as a result of stochastic polishing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Tyurin, Yury N.; Tyurina, Anastasia Y.

    2016-07-01

    The design and evaluation of the expected performance of optical systems requires sophisticated and reliable information about the surface topography of planned optical elements before they are fabricated. The problem is especially severe in the case of x-ray optics for modern diffraction-limited-electron-ring and free-electron-laser x-ray facilities, as well as x-ray astrophysics missions, such as the X-ray Surveyor under development. Modern x-ray source facilities are reliant upon the availability of optics of unprecedented quality, with surface slope accuracy x-ray space observatories require high-quality optics of 100 m2 in total area. The uniqueness of the optics and limited number of proficient vendors make the fabrication extremely time-consuming and expensive, mostly due to the limitations in accuracy and measurement rate of metrology used in fabrication. We continue investigating the possibility of improving metrology efficiency via comprehensive statistical treatment of a compact volume of metrology of surface topography, which is considered the result of a stochastic polishing process. We suggest, verify, and discuss an analytical algorithm for identification of an optimal symmetric time-invariant linear filter model with a minimum number of parameters and smallest residual error. If successful, the modeling could provide feedback to deterministic polishing processes, avoiding time-consuming, whole-scale metrology measurements over the entire optical surface with the resolution required to cover the entire desired spatial frequency range. The modeling also allows forecasting of metrology data for optics made by the same vendor and technology. The forecast data are vital for reliable specification for optical fabrication, evaluated from numerical simulation to be exactly adequate for the required system performance, avoiding both over- and underspecification.

  3. Metrology for graphene and 2D materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Andrew J.

    2016-09-01

    The application of graphene, a one atom-thick honeycomb lattice of carbon atoms with superlative properties, such as electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and strength, has already shown that it can be used to benefit metrology itself as a new quantum standard for resistance. However, there are many application areas where graphene and other 2D materials, such as molybdenum disulphide (MoS2) and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), may be disruptive, areas such as flexible electronics, nanocomposites, sensing and energy storage. Applying metrology to the area of graphene is now critical to enable the new, emerging global graphene commercial world and bridge the gap between academia and industry. Measurement capabilities and expertise in a wide range of scientific areas are required to address this challenge. The combined and complementary approach of varied characterisation methods for structural, chemical, electrical and other properties, will allow the real-world issues of commercialising graphene and other 2D materials to be addressed. Here, examples of metrology challenges that have been overcome through a multi-technique or new approach are discussed. Firstly, the structural characterisation of defects in both graphene and MoS2 via Raman spectroscopy is described, and how nanoscale mapping of vacancy defects in graphene is also possible using tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS). Furthermore, the chemical characterisation and removal of polymer residue on chemical vapour deposition (CVD) grown graphene via secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) is detailed, as well as the chemical characterisation of iron films used to grow large domain single-layer h-BN through CVD growth, revealing how contamination of the substrate itself plays a role in the resulting h-BN layer. In addition, the role of international standardisation in this area is described, outlining the current work ongoing in both the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and the

  4. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  5. Enhacement of intrafield overlay using a design based metrology system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Gyoyeon; Ji, Sunkeun; Kim, Shinyoung; Kang, Hyunwoo; Park, Minwoo; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Jungchan; Park, Chanha; Yang, Hyunjo; Maruyama, Kotaro; Park, Byungjun

    2016-03-01

    As the scales of the semiconductor devices continue to shrink, accurate measurement and control of the overlay have been emphasized for securing more overlay margin. Conventional overlay analysis methods are based on the optical measurement of the overlay mark. However, the overlay data obtained from these optical methods cannot represent the exact misregistration between two layers at the circuit level. The overlay mismatch may arise from the size or pitch difference between the overlay mark and the real pattern. Pattern distortion, caused by CMP or etching, could be a source of the overlay mismatch as well. Another issue is the overlay variation in the real circuit pattern which varies depending on its location. The optical overlay measurement methods, such as IBO and DBO that use overlay mark on the scribeline, are not capable of defining the exact overlay values of the real circuit. Therefore, the overlay values of the real circuit need to be extracted to integrate the semiconductor device properly. The circuit level overlay measurement using CDSEM is time-consuming in extracting enough data to indicate overall trend of the chip. However DBM tool is able to derive sufficient data to display overlay tendency of the real circuit region with high repeatability. An E-beam based DBM(Design Based Metrology) tool can be an alternative overlay measurement method. In this paper, we are going to certify that the overlay values extracted from optical measurement cannot represent the circuit level overlay values. We will also demonstrate the possibility to correct misregistration between two layers using the overlay data obtained from the DBM system.

  6. Evaluation of metrology technologies for free form surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arámbula, K.; Siller, H.R.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    This research work describes a novel approach for comparing different technologies for free form surface metrology: computerized tomography (CT), photogrammetry and coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The comparison has the aim of providing relevant information for the selection of metrology...... also deals with costs issues, required standards, and necessary additional information when selecting inspection equipment....

  7. Evaluation of metrology technologies for free form surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arámbula, K.; Siller, H.R.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2012-01-01

    This research work describes a novel approach for comparing different technologies for free form surface metrology: computerized tomography (CT), photogrammetry and coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The comparison has the aim of providing relevant information for the selection of metrology...... also deals with costs issues, required standards, and necessary additional information when selecting inspection equipment....

  8. Primary Laboratory for Dimentional Metrology Annual Report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Rasmussen, Svend Nytoft

    2001-01-01

    The measurement capability concerning different areas within geometrical metrology has been maintained through approximately 1700 calibration and testing tasks for Danish clients.......The measurement capability concerning different areas within geometrical metrology has been maintained through approximately 1700 calibration and testing tasks for Danish clients....

  9. Differential Evolution for Many-Particle Adaptive Quantum Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lovett, N.B.; Crosnier, C.; Perarnau- Llobet, M.; Sanders, B.

    2013-01-01

    We devise powerful algorithms based on differential evolution for adaptive many-particle quantum metrology. Our new approach delivers adaptive quantum metrology policies for feedback control that are orders-of-magnitude more efficient and surpass the few-dozen-particle limitation arising in methods

  10. Vectorial rotating vortex Hankel laser beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, Victor V.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Soifer, Victor A.

    2016-09-01

    We propose a generalization of spherical waves in the form of linearly polarized beams with embedded optical vortices. The source of these beams is an infinitely narrow light ring with an infinitely small radius. These vectorial beams are obtained based on scalar Hankel beams discovered by the authors recently. We have derived explicit relations for complex amplitudes of all six components of vectorial vortex Hankel beams. A closed analytical expression for the axial projection of the orbital angular momentum density in far field has been obtained. We also showed that the intensity distribution of the electric vector rotates by 90 degrees upon the beam propagation in near field.

  11. Figuring and Polishing Precision Optical Surfaces Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The requirements for cost effective manufacturing and metrology of large optical surfaces is instrumental for the success of future NASA programs such as LISA,...

  12. Solitary vortexes in magnetohydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainshtein, S.I.

    1985-12-01

    Stationary configurations in magnetohydrodynamics are investigated for the following two particular cases: (1) there is no motion, which corresponds to a state of magnetostatic equilibrium; and (2) the magnetic field intensity becomes zero, i.e., hydrodynamic vortexes are involved. It is shown that in certain cases the line-of-force topology must be sufficiently simple in order before a stationary or equilibrium state can be achieved. It is also shown that in the two-dimensional case, the magnetic surfaces of an equilibrium configuration represent coaxial cylindrical surfaces. 12 references.

  13. Vortex Flow Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    j . 1978. 93. Grabowski , W.J.; "Solutions of the Navier-Stokes Equations for Vortex Breakdown," NASA CR...including foreign nations. This technical report has been reviewed and is approved for publication. LAWRENCE W. ROGERS Q LOWELL C. KEEL, Major, USAF Project...or’ a w U - a LU LU U- LU C - J ’di 2 2 C LU I- 4 S Ua * - w x 2 40 20 I- 2 LU W S ~ 00 * U. 4 I- 𔃾 LU a 4 U 4 2 C C LU 4 a 4a 2 I- 4 a 3 9

  14. Robustness of a coherence vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2016-09-20

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.

  15. Vortex duality in higher dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, Aron Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic vortex line traces out a world sheet in spacetime. This thesis shows that the information of all its dynamic behaviour is completely contained in the world sheet. Furthermore a mathematical framework for order–disorder phase transitions in terms of the proliferation of such vortex world sh

  16. Re-calibration of the NIST SRM 2059 master standard using traceable atomic force microscope metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixson, Ronald; Potzick, James; Orji, Ndubuisi G.

    2008-10-01

    The current photomask linewidth Standard Reference Material (SRM) supplied by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), SRM 2059, is the fifth generation of such standards for mask metrology. An in house optical microscope tool developed at NIST, called the NIST ultra-violet (UV) microscope, was used in transmission mode to calibrate the SRM 2059 photomasks. Due to the limitations of available optical models for determining the edge response in the UV microscope, the tool was used in a comparator mode. One of the masks was selected as a master standard - and the features on this mask were calibrated using traceable critical dimension atomic force microscope (CD-AFM) dimensional metrology. The optical measurements were then used to determine the relative offsets between the widths on the master standard and individual masks for sale to customers. At the time of these measurements, however, the uncertainties in the CD-AFM reference metrology on the master standard were larger than can now be achieved because the NIST single crystal critical dimension reference material (SCCDRM) project had not been completed. Using our CD-AFM at NIST, we have performed new measurements on the SRM 2059 master standard. The new AFM results are in agreement with the prior measurements and have expanded uncertainties approximately one fourth of those of the earlier results for sub-micrometer features. When the optical comparator data for customers masks are reanalyzed using these new AFM results, we expect to reduce the combined reported uncertainties for the linewidths on the actual SRMs by at least 40 % for the nominal 0.25 μm features.

  17. A polyphonic acoustic vortex and its complementary chords

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, C; Padgett, M J [SUPA, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow (United Kingdom)], E-mail: c.wilson@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2010-02-15

    Using an annular phased array of eight loudspeakers, we generate sound beams that simultaneously contain phase singularities at a number of different frequencies. These frequencies correspond to different musical notes and the singularities can be set to overlap along the beam axis, creating a polyphonic acoustic vortex. Perturbing the drive amplitudes of the speakers means that the singularities no longer overlap, each note being nulled at a slightly different lateral position, where the volume of the other notes is now nonzero. The remaining notes form a tri-note chord. We contrast this acoustic phenomenon to the optical case where the perturbation of a white light vortex leads to a spectral spatial distribution.

  18. Lift enhancement by trapped vortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossow, Vernon J.

    1992-01-01

    The viewgraphs and discussion of lift enhancement by trapped vortex are provided. Efforts are continuously being made to find simple ways to convert wings of aircraft from an efficient cruise configuration to one that develops the high lift needed during landing and takeoff. The high-lift configurations studied here consist of conventional airfoils with a trapped vortex over the upper surface. The vortex is trapped by one or two vertical fences that serve as barriers to the oncoming stream and as reflection planes for the vortex and the sink that form a separation bubble on top of the airfoil. Since the full three-dimensional unsteady flow problem over the wing of an aircraft is so complicated that it is hard to get an understanding of the principles that govern the vortex trapping process, the analysis is restricted here to the flow field illustrated in the first slide. It is assumed that the flow field between the two end plates approximates a streamwise strip of the flow over a wing. The flow between the endplates and about the airfoil consists of a spanwise vortex located between the suction orifices in the endplates. The spanwise fence or spoiler located near the nose of the airfoil serves to form a separated flow region and a shear layer. The vorticity in the shear layer is concentrated into the vortex by withdrawal of fluid at the suction orifices. As the strength of the vortex increases with time, it eventually dominates the flow in the separated region so that a shear or vertical layer is no longer shed from the tip of the fence. At that point, the vortex strength is fixed and its location is such that all of the velocity contributions at its center sum to zero thereby making it an equilibrium point for the vortex. The results of a theoretical analysis of such an idealized flow field are described.

  19. METROLOGICAL PERFORMANCE OF SEM 3D TECHNIQUES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Carmignato, Simone; Savio, Enrico;

    2008-01-01

    This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted for eucent...... condition are studied, in order to define a strategy to optimise the measurements taking account of the critical factors in SEM 3D reconstruction. Investigations were performed on a novel sample, specifically developed and implemented for the tests.......This paper addresses the metrological performance of three-dimensional measurements performed with Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEMs) using reconstruction of surface topography through stereo-photogrammetry. Reconstruction is based on the model function introduced by Piazzesi adapted...... and the instrument set-up; the second concerns the quality of scanned images and represents the major criticality in the application of SEMs for 3D characterizations. In particular the critical role played by the tilting angle and its relative uncertainty, the magnification and the deviations from the eucentricity...

  20. Quantum metrology in non-Markovian environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Alex W; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2012-12-07

    We analyze precision bounds for a local phase estimation in the presence of general, non-Markovian phase noise. We demonstrate that the metrological equivalence of product and maximally entangled states that holds under strictly Markovian dephasing fails in the non-Markovian case. Using an exactly solvable model of a physically realistic finite bandwidth dephasing environment, we demonstrate that the ensuing non-Markovian dynamics enables quantum correlated states to outperform metrological strategies based on uncorrelated states using otherwise identical resources. We show that this conclusion is a direct result of the coherent dynamics of the global state of the system and environment and therefore the obtained scaling with the number of particles, which surpasses the standard quantum limit but does not achieve Heisenberg resolution, possesses general validity that goes beyond specific models. This is in marked contrast with the situation encountered under general Markovian noise, where an arbitrarily small amount of noise is enough to restore the scaling dictated by the standard quantum limit.

  1. Cryocooled Josephson standards for AC voltage metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durandetto, P.; Sosso, A.; Monticone, E.; Trinchera, B.; Fretto, M.; Lacquaniti, V.

    2017-05-01

    The Josephson effect is worldwide used as a basis for constant reference voltages in national metrological institutes and in calibration laboratories of industry. Research on Josephson voltage standards is aiming at a fundamental change also in the metrology of the volt for AC and arbitrary waveforms: programmable Josephson voltage standards converting a digital code into a quantum-accurate stepwise waveform are already available in primary laboratories and even more advanced standards for converting sub-nanosecond binary coded pulses into any arbitrary signal with quantum accuracy are now actively developed and tested. A new experimental setup based on a two-stage Gifford-McMahon cryocooler has been developed at INRiM for the operation of AC-Josephson voltage standards. Among its distinct features, the possibility of employing both the aforementioned techniques (programmable and pulsed Josephson voltage standards) is particularly interesting. Quantum-based AC voltage sine waves have been synthesized with both programmable and pulse-driven arrays, although their accuracy is still limited by thermal oscillations due to the cryocooler piston motion.

  2. Metrology of vibration measurements by laser techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Martens, Hans-Jürgen

    2008-06-01

    Metrology as the art of careful measurement has been understood as uniform methodology for measurements in natural sciences, covering methods for the consistent assessment of experimental data and a corpus of rules regulating application in technology and in trade and industry. The knowledge, methods and tools available for precision measurements can be exploited for measurements at any level of uncertainty in any field of science and technology. A metrological approach to the preparation, execution and evaluation (including expression of uncertainty) of measurements of translational and rotational motion quantities using laser interferometer methods and techniques will be presented. The realization and dissemination of the SI units of motion quantities (vibration and shock) have been based on laser interferometer methods specified in international documentary standards. New and upgraded ISO standards are reviewed with respect to their suitability for ensuring traceable vibration measurements and calibrations in an extended frequency range of 0.4 Hz to higher than 100 kHz. Using adequate vibration exciters to generate sufficient displacement or velocity amplitudes, the upper frequency limits of the laser interferometer methods specified in ISO 16063-11 for frequencies procedures (i.e. measurement uncertainty 0.05 % at frequencies <= 10 kHz, <= 1 % up to 100 kHz).

  3. Quantum metrology with unitary parametrization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Jing, Xiao-Xing; Wang, Xiaoguang

    2015-02-24

    Quantum Fisher information is a central quantity in quantum metrology. We discuss an alternative representation of quantum Fisher information for unitary parametrization processes. In this representation, all information of parametrization transformation, i.e., the entire dynamical information, is totally involved in a Hermitian operator H. Utilizing this representation, quantum Fisher information is only determined by H and the initial state. Furthermore, H can be expressed in an expanded form. The highlights of this form is that it can bring great convenience during the calculation for the Hamiltonians owning recursive commutations with their partial derivative. We apply this representation in a collective spin system and show the specific expression of H. For a simple case, a spin-half system, the quantum Fisher information is given and the optimal states to access maximum quantum Fisher information are found. Moreover, for an exponential form initial state, an analytical expression of quantum Fisher information by H operator is provided. The multiparameter quantum metrology is also considered and discussed utilizing this representation.

  4. Superfluid Vortex Cooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaeva, I. A.; Lindemann, U.; Jiang, N.; de Waele, A. T. A. M.; Thummes, G.

    2004-06-01

    A superfluid vortex cooler (SVC) is a combination of a fountain pump and a vortex cooler. The working fluid in the SVC is 4He at a temperature below the lambda line. The cooler has no moving parts, is gravity independent, and hardly requires any additional infrastructure. At saturated vapour pressure the SVC is capable of reaching a temperature as low as 0.75 K. At pressures close to the melting pressure the temperature can be brought down to 0.65 K. As the SVC operates only below the lambda line, it has to be precooled e.g. by a liquid-helium bath or a cryocooler. As a first step of our research we have carried out a number of experiments, using a liquid-helium bath as a precooler for the SVC. In this arrangement we have reached temperatures below 1 K with 3.5 mW heating power supplied to the fountain part of the SVC at 1.4 K. The next step was combining the SVC with a pulse tube refrigerator (PTR), developed at the University of Giessen. It is a two-stage G-M type refrigerator with 3He as a working fluid that reached a lowest temperature of 1.27 K. In this contribution we report on the results of the SVC tests in liquid helium and the progress in the integration of the SVC with the PTR.

  5. On-chip generation and control of the vortex beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Aiping; Wang, Qin [College of Telecommunications and Information Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210000, China and Key Lab of Broadband Wireless Communication and Sensor Network Technology, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Ministry of Education, Nanjing 210003 (China); Zou, Chang-Ling, E-mail: clzou321@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Department of Electric Engineering, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States); Ren, Xifeng, E-mail: renxf@ustc.edu.cn; Guo, Guang-Can [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science and Technology of China, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026, China and Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-05-02

    A method to generate and control the amplitude and phase distributions of an optical vortex beam is proposed. By introducing a holographic grating on the top of a dielectric waveguide, the free space vortex beam and the in-plane guiding wave can be converted to each other. This microscale holographic grating is very robust against the variation of geometry parameters. The designed vortex beam generator can produce the target beam with a fidelity up to 0.93, and the working bandwidth is about 175 nm with the fidelity larger than 0.80. In addition, a multiple generator composed of two holographic gratings on two parallel waveguides is studied, which can perform an effective and flexible modulation on the vortex beam by controlling the phase of the input light. Our work opens an available avenue towards the integrated orbital angular momentum devices with multiple degrees of optical freedom, which can be used for optical tweezers, micronano imaging, information processing, and so on.

  6. Self-mixing interferometry: a novel yardstick for mechanical metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donati, Silvano

    2016-11-01

    A novel configuration of interferometry, SMI (self-mixing interferometry), is described in this paper. SMI is attractive because it doesn't require any optical part external to the laser and can be employed in a variety of measurements - indeed it is sometimes indicated as the "interferometer for measuring without an interferometer". On processing the phase carried by the optical field upon propagation to the target under test, a number of applications have been developed, including traditional measurements related to metrology and mechanical engineering - like displacement, distance, small-amplitude vibrations, attitude angles, velocity, as well as new measurements, like mechanical stress-strain hysterisis and microstructure/MEMS electro-mechanical response. In another field, sensing of motility finds direct application in a variety of biophysical measurements, like blood pulsation, respiratory sounds, chest acoustical impedance, and blood velocity profile. And, we may also look at the amplitude of the returning signal in a SMI, and we can measure weak optical echoes - for return loss and isolation factor measurements, CD readout and scroll sensing, and THz-wave detection. Last, the fine details of the SMI waveform reveal physical parameters of the laser like the laser linewidth, coherence length, and alpha factor. Worth to be noted, SMI is also a coherent detection scheme, and measurement close to the quantum limit of received field with minimum detectable displacements of 100 pm/√Hz are currently achieved upon operation on diffusive targets, whereas in detection mode returning signal can be sensed down to attenuations of -80dB.

  7. Regimes of flow past a vortex generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, V.L.; Naumov, I.V.

    2012-01-01

    A complete parametric investigation of the development of multi-vortex regimes in a wake past simple vortex generator has been carried out. It is established that the vortex structure in the wake is much more complicated than a simple monopole tip vortex. The vortices were studied by stereoscopic...

  8. Some discussions on Arctic vortex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hai; Sun Lantao; Wu Huiding; Li Xiang

    2006-01-01

    The Arctic vortex is a persistent large-scale cyclonic circulation in the middle and upper troposphere and the stratosphere. Its activity and variation control the semi-permanent active centers of Pan-Arctic and the short-time cyclone activity in the subarctic areas. Its strength variation, which directly relates to the atmosphere, ocean, sea ice and ecosystem of the Arctic, can affect the lower atmospheric circulation, the weather of subarctic area and even the weather of middle latitude areas. The 2003 Chinese Second Arctic Research Expedition experienced the transition of the stratosphereic circulation from a warm anticyclone to a cold cyclone during the ending period of Arctic summertime, a typical establishing process of the polar vortex circulation. The impact of the polar vortex variation on the low-level circulation has been investigated by some scientists through studying the coupling mechanisms of the stratosphere and troposphere. The impact of the Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SFW) events on the polar vortex variation was drawing people's great attention in the fifties of the last century. The Arctic Oscillation (AO) , relating to the variation of the Arctic vortex, has been used to study the impact of the Arctic vortex on climate change. The recent Arctic vortex studies are simply reviewed and some discussions on the Arctic vertex are given in the paper. Some different views and questions are also discussed.

  9. Motion of a helical vortex

    CERN Document Server

    Fuentes, Oscar Velasco

    2015-01-01

    We study the motion of a single helical vortex in an unbounded, inviscid, incompressible fluid. The vortex is an infinite tube whose centerline is a helix and whose cross section is a circle of small radius (compared to the radius of curvature) where the vorticity is uniform and parallel to the centerline. Ever since Joukowsky (1912) deduced that this vortex translates and rotates steadily without change of form, numerous attempts have been made to compute these self-induced velocities. Here we use Hardin's (1982) solution for the velocity field to find new expressions for the vortex's linear and angular velocities. Our results, verified by numerically computing the Helmholtz integral and the Rosenhead-Moore approximation to the Biot-Savart law, are more accurate than previous results over the whole range of values of the vortex pitch and cross-section. We then use the new formulas to study the advection of passive particles near the vortex; we find that the vortex's motion and capacity to transport fluid dep...

  10. Metrology in physics, chemistry, and biology: differing perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, Venkatesh

    2007-04-01

    The association of physics and chemistry with metrology (the science of measurements) is well documented. For practical purposes, basic metrological measurements in physics are governed by two components, namely, the measure (i.e., the unit of measurement) and the measurand (i.e., the entity measured), which fully account for the integrity of a measurement process. In simple words, in the case of measuring the length of a room (the measurand), the SI unit meter (the measure) provides a direct answer sustained by metrological concepts. Metrology in chemistry, as observed through physical chemistry (measures used to express molar relationships, volume, pressure, temperature, surface tension, among others) follows the same principles of metrology as in physics. The same basis percolates to classical analytical chemistry (gravimetry for preparing high-purity standards, related definitive analytical techniques, among others). However, certain transition takes place in extending the metrological principles to chemical measurements in complex chemical matrices (e.g., food samples), as it adds a third component, namely, indirect measurements (e.g., AAS determination of Zn in foods). This is a practice frequently used in field assays, and calls for additional steps to account for traceability of such chemical measurements for safeguarding reliability concerns. Hence, the assessment that chemical metrology is still evolving.

  11. Sub-microradian Surface Slope Metrology with the ALS Developmental Long Trace Profiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Barber, Samuel; Domning, Edward E.; Kirschman, Jonathan L.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Siewert, Frank; Zeschke, Thomas; Geckeler, Ralf; Just, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    Development of X-ray optics for 3rd and 4th generation X-ray light sources with a level of surface slope precision of 0.1-0.2 {micro}rad requires the development of adequate fabrication technologies and dedicated metrology instrumentation and methods. Currently, the best performance of surface slope measurement has been achieved with the NOM (Nanometer Optical Component Measuring Machine) slope profiler at BESSY (Germany) [1] and the ESAD (Extended Shear Angle Difference) profiler at the PTB (Germany) [2]. Both instruments are based on electronic autocollimators (AC) precisely calibrated for the specific application [3] with small apertures of 2.5-5 mm in diameter. In the present work, we describe the design, initial alignment and calibration procedures, the instrumental control and data acquisition system, as well as the measurement performance of the Developmental Long Trace Profiler (DLTP) slope measuring instrument recently brought into operation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) Optical Metrology Laboratory (OML). Similar to the NOM and ESAD, the DLTP is based on a precisely calibrated autocollimator. However, this is a reasonably low budget instrument used at the ALS OML for the development and testing of new measuring techniques and methods. Some of the developed methods have been implemented into the ALS LTP-II (slope measuring long trace profiler [4]) which was recently upgraded and has demonstrated a capability for 0.25 {micro}rad surface metrology [5]. Performance of the DLTP was verified via a number of measurements with high quality reference mirrors. A comparison with the corresponding results obtained with the world's best slope measuring instrument, the BESSY NOM, proves the accuracy of the DLTP measurements on the level of 0.1-0.2 {micro}rad depending on the curvature of a surface under test. The directions of future work to develop a surface slope measuring profiler with nano-radian performance are also discussed.

  12. Optimized Biasing of Pump Laser Diodes in a Highly Reliable Metrology Source for Long-Duration Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poberezhskiy, Ilya Y; Chang, Daniel H.; Erlig, Herman

    2011-01-01

    Optical metrology system reliability during a prolonged space mission is often limited by the reliability of pump laser diodes. We developed a metrology laser pump module architecture that meets NASA SIM Lite instrument optical power and reliability requirements by combining the outputs of multiple single-mode pump diodes in a low-loss, high port count fiber coupler. We describe Monte-Carlo simulations used to calculate the reliability of the laser pump module and introduce a combined laser farm aging parameter that serves as a load-sharing optimization metric. Employing these tools, we select pump module architecture, operating conditions, biasing approach and perform parameter sensitivity studies to investigate the robustness of the obtained solution.

  13. Ionospheric current system accompanied by auroral vortex streets

    CERN Document Server

    Hiraki, Yasutaka

    2016-01-01

    High resolution optical measurements have revealed that a sudden brightening of aurora and its deformation from an arc-like to a vortex street structure appear just at the onset of substorm. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been studied by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations in order to comprehend the formation of auroral vortex streets. Our previous work reported that an initially placed arc intensifies, splits, and deforms into a vortex street during a couple of minutes, and the prime key is an enhancement of the convection electric field. This study elaborated physics of the ionospheric horizontal currents related to the vortex street in the context of so-called Cowling polarization. One component is due to the perturbed electric field by Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves, and the other is due to the perturbed electron density (or polarization) in the ionosphere. It was found that, when a vortex street develops, upward/downward pair currents in its leading/trail...

  14. Bathtub vortex induced by instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Jiro; Abe, Kazuki; Yokoyama, Naoto

    2014-10-01

    The driving mechanism and the swirl direction of the bathtub vortex are investigated by the linear stability analysis of the no-vortex flow as well as numerical simulations. We find that only systems having plane symmetries with respect to vertical planes deserve research for the swirl direction. The bathtub vortex appearing in a vessel with a rectangular cross section having a drain hole at the center of the bottom is proved to be induced by instability when the flow rate exceeds a threshold. The Coriolis force is capable of determining the swirl direction to be cyclonic.

  15. A compact high-sensitivity heterodyne interferometer for industrial metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuldt, Thilo; Gohlke, Martin; Weise, Dennis; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Braxmaier, Claus

    2008-04-01

    For translation and tilt metrology, we developed a compact fiber-coupled polarizing heterodyne interferometer which is based on a highly symmetric design where both, measurement and reference beam have similar optical pathlengths and the same frequency and polarization. The method of differential wavefront sensing is implemented for tilt measurement. With this setup we reached noise levels below 5 pm/square root of Hz; Hz in translation and below 10 nrad/square root of Hz; in tilt measurement, both for frequencies above 10-2 Hz. While this setup is developed with respect to the requirements of the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) space mission, we here present the current status of its adoption to industrial applications. We currently design a very compact and quasi-monolithic setup of the interferometer sensor head based on ultra-low expansion glass material. The resulting compact and robust sensor head can be used for nano-positioning control. We also plan to implement a scan of the measurement beam over the surface under investigation enabling high resolution 3D profilometry and surface property measurements (i. e. roughness, evenness and roundness). The dedicated low-noise (piezo-electric actuator in the measurement beam of the interferometer will be realized using integrated micro-system technology and can either be implemented in one or two dimensions.

  16. Laser metrology for coherent multi-telescope arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Michael; Massie, Norbert A.

    1993-01-01

    In multi-telescope arrays that comprise multiple telescopes, a beam-combining module, and flat mirrors for directing light beams from the multiple telescopes to the beam combining module, a laser metrology system is used for monitoring various pathlengths along a beam path where deviations are likely. Some pathlengths are defined simply by a pair of retroreflectors or reflectors at both ends. Lengths between pairs of retroreflectors are measured and monitored by laser interferometers. One critical pathlength deviation is related to the displacement of the flat mirror. A reference frame is set up relative to the beam-combining module to form and define the coordinate system within which the positions of the flat mirrors are measured and monitored. In the preferred embodiment, a pair of retroreflectors along the optical axis of the beam-combining module defines a reference frame. A triangle is formed by the reference frame as the base and another retroreflector at the flat mirror as the vertex. The triangle is used to monitor the position of the flat mirror. A beam's pathlength is dynamically corrected in response to the monitored deviations.

  17. Nonlinear acoustics in ultrasound metrology and other selected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Peter A.

    2010-01-01

    A succinct background explaining why, initially, both the scientific community and industry were skeptical about the existence of the nonlinear (NL) wave propagation in tissue will be given and the design of an adequately wideband piezoelectric polymer hydrophone probe that was eventually used to verify that the 1-5 MHz probing wave then used in diagnostic ultrasound imaging was undergoing nonlinear distortion and generated harmonics in tissue will be discussed. The far-reaching implications of the advent of the piezoelectric PVDF polymer material will be reviewed and the advances in ultrasound metrology prompted by the regulatory agencies such as US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) will be presented. These advances include the development of absolute calibration techniques for hydrophones along with the methods of accounting for spatial averaging corrections up to 100 MHz and the development of 'point-receiver' hydrophone probes utilizing acousto-optic sensors. Next, selected therapeutic applications of nonlinear ultrasonics (NLU), including lithotripters will be briefly discussed. Also, the use of shock waves as pain relief tool and in abating penicillin resistant bacteria that develop rock hard 'biofilm' that can be shattered by the finite amplitude wave will also be mentioned. The growing applications of NLU in cosmetic industry where it is used for redistribution and reduction of fatty tissue within the body will be briefly reviewed, and, finally, selected examples of NLU applications in retail and entertainment industry will also be pointed out.

  18. A Scanning laser-velocimeter technique for measuring two-dimensional wake-vortex velocity distributions. [Langley Vortex Research Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartrell, L. R.; Rhodes, D. B.

    1980-01-01

    A rapid scanning two dimensional laser velocimeter (LV) has been used to measure simultaneously the vortex vertical and axial velocity distributions in the Langley Vortex Research Facility. This system utilized a two dimensional Bragg cell for removing flow direction ambiguity by translating the optical frequency for each velocity component, which was separated by band-pass filters. A rotational scan mechanism provided an incremental rapid scan to compensate for the large displacement of the vortex with time. The data were processed with a digital counter and an on-line minicomputer. Vaporized kerosene (0.5 micron to 5 micron particle sizes) was used for flow visualization and LV scattering centers. The overall measured mean-velocity uncertainity is less than 2 percent. These measurements were obtained from ensemble averaging of individual realizations.

  19. Design of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongdong; Peng, Xiaocan; Ma, Li; Sun, Mei

    2016-11-01

    In order to enlarge the communication capability, a model of the multiplexing communication system with non-coherent vortex beams is established. One detector for measurement the signal of the vortex beam with topological charge of 0, which is a Gaussian beam, is located in the center of the cross sectional plane of vortex beam. The other three detectors are set around the first detector in the same plane to receive the power of the vortex beam with topological charge of 1. The principle of determining the emitting power of vortex beams, the radii and the positions of the detectors are suggested to increase the signals and reduce the interchannel crosstalk noise at the detectors. The signal powers as well as the interchannel crosstalk noise in a receiver channel are identical to that in another channel, respectively. This research may have applications in free space optical communications.

  20. Faraday Rotation for Electron Beams Composed of Vortex Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Greenshields, Colin; Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Propagating vortex states, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), are well known in optics and have recently been demonstrated for electrons. While many analogies exist between photonic and electron vortex states, electron vortices in addition possess an orbital magnetic moment. We show here that propagation of electrons in a superposition of OAM states through a longitudinal magnetic field produces an analogue to optical Faraday rotation. In the optical domain, Faraday rotation is observed for polarisation, but not for superpositions of OAM states. The rotation we predict arises from the additional phase accumulated by the electron as it propagates in the presence of an external magnetic field. We propose an experiment in which this rotation can be measured directly in a transmission electron microscope, and discuss its relation to the well known classical image rotation associated with the Lorentz force.