WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical systems

  1. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  2. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  3. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  4. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  5. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  6. Multiaperture Optical System Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-06

    pp. 179-185 (1965). 6. Welford, W. T. and Winston , R., The Optics of Nonimaging Concentrators , P. 3, Academic Press, New York (1978). 7. Schneider, R...Welford and Winston investigated it was a possible concentrator for solar energy. They came up with the "ideal concentrator ", which has walls shaped...MULTIAPZRTURE OPTICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH ." Office of Naval Research Contract Number N00014-85-C-0862 . FINAL REPORT by RTS LABORATORIES, INC. 1663

  7. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  8. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  9. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  10. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  11. Optically pumped laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaria, A.J.; Mack, M.E.

    1975-01-01

    Laser systems which are pumped by an electric discharge formed in a gas are disclosed. The discharge is in the form of a vortex stabilized electric arc which is triggered with an auxiliary energy source. At high enough repetition rates residual ionization between successive pulses contributes to the pulse stabilization. The arc and the gain medium are positioned inside an optical pumping cavity where light from the arc is coupled directly into the gain medium

  12. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  13. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  14. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  15. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  16. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  17. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  18. Holographic optical security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F.

    1990-06-01

    One of the most successful applications of Holography,in recent years,has been its use as an optical security technique.Indeed the general public's awareness of holograms has been greatly enhanced by the incorporation of holographic elements into the VISA and MASTERCHARGE credit cards.Optical techniques related to Holography,are also being used to protect the currencies of several countries against the counterfeiter. The mass production of high quality holographic images is by no means a trivial task as a considerable degree of expertise is required together with an optical laboratory and embossing machinery.This paper will present an overview of the principal holographic and related optical techniques used for security purposes.Worldwide, over thirty companies are involved in the production of security elements utilising holographic and related optical technologies.Counterfeiting of many products is a major criminal activity with severe consequences not only for the manufacturer but for the public in general as defective automobile parts,aircraft components,and pharmaceutical products, to cite only a few of the more prominent examples,have at one time or another been illegally copied.

  19. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winston, R.; Ries, H.

    2000-02-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source, a light reflecting surface, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line with the reflecting surface defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t) = k(t) + Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  20. Nonimaging optical illumination system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ries, Harald

    1996-01-01

    A nonimaging illumination optical device for producing a selected far field illuminance over an angular range. The optical device includes a light source 102, a light reflecting surface 108, and a family of light edge rays defined along a reference line 104 with the reflecting surface 108 defined in terms of the reference line 104 as a parametric function R(t) where t is a scalar parameter position and R(t)=k(t)+Du(t) where k(t) is a parameterization of the reference line 104, and D is a distance from a point on the reference line 104 to the reflection surface 108 along the desired edge ray through the point.

  1. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  2. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  3. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  4. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  5. Systems and methods for enhancing optical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda; Chou, Jason T.

    2018-01-02

    An Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System includes a first system for producing an information bearing first optical wave that is impressed with a first information having a first information strength wherein the first optical wave has a first shape. A second system produces a second optical wave. An information strength enhancer module receives the first and said second optical waves and impresses the first optical wave upon the second optical wave via cross-phase modulation (XPM) to produce an information-strength-enhanced second optical wave having a second information strength that is greater than the first information strength of the first optical wave. Following a center-wavelength changer by an Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System improves its performance.

  6. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  7. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  8. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J.A.; Albert, A.

    2007-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented

  9. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageron, M. [CPPM - Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC - Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios de Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: J.A.Aguilar@ific.uv.es; Albert, A. [GRPHE - Groupe de Recherche en Physique des Hautes Energies, Universite de Haute Alsace, 61 Rue Albert Camus, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)) (and others)

    2007-08-11

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  10. The ANTARES optical beacon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageron, M.; Aguilar, J. A.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Auer, R.; Barbarito, E.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Becherini, Y.; Beltramelli, J.; Bertin, V.; Bigi, A.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; de Botton, N.; Bouwhuis, M. C.; Bradbury, S. M.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Burgio, G. F.; Busto, J.; Cafagna, F.; Caillat, L.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Cartwright, S. L.; Castel, D.; Castorina, E.; Cavasinni, V.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Charvis, P.; Chauchot, P.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Colnard, C.; Compère, C.; Coniglione, R.; Cottini, N.; Coyle, P.; Cuneo, S.; Cussatlegras, A.-S.; Damy, G.; van Dantzig, R.; de Bonis, G.; de Marzo, C.; de Vita, R.; Dekeyser, I.; Delagnes, E.; Denans, D.; Deschamps, A.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dinkespieler, B.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Drogou, J.-F.; Druillole, F.; Durand, D.; Ernenwein, J.-P.; Escoffier, S.; Falchini, E.; Favard, S.; Fehr, F.; Feinstein, F.; Ferry, S.; Fiorello, C.; Flaminio, V.; Fratini, K.; Fuda, J.-L.; Galeotti, S.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Girard, N.; Gojak, C.; Goret, Ph.; Graf, K.; Hallewell, G.; Harakeh, M. N.; Hartmann, B.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Hello, Y.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hößl, J.; Hoffman, C.; Hogenbirk, J.; Hubbard, J. R.; Jaquet, M.; Jaspers, M.; de Jong, M.; Jouvenot, F.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Katz, U.; Keller, P.; Kok, E.; Kok, H.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Korolkova, E. V.; Kouchner, A.; Kretschmer, W.; Kruijer, A.; Kuch, S.; Kudryavstev, V. A.; Lagier, P.; Lahmann, R.; Lamanna, G.; Lamare, P.; Lambard, G.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laschinsky, H.; Lavalle, J.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le van Suu, A.; Lefèvre, D.; Legou, T.; Lelaizant, G.; Lim, G.; Lo Presti, D.; Loehner, H.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lucarelli, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazéas, F.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J. E.; Megna, R.; Melissas, M.; Migneco, E.; Milovanovic, A.; Mongelli, M.; Montaruli, T.; Morganti, M.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Naumann, C.; Niess, V.; Noble, T.; Olivetto, C.; Ostasch, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Payre, P.; Peek, H.; Perez, A.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pillet, R.; Pineau, J.-P.; Poinsignon, J.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Racca, C.; Randazzo, N.; van Randwijk, J.; Real, D.; van Rens, B.; Réthoré, F.; Rewiersma, P.; Riccobene, G.; Rigaud, V.; Ripani, M.; Roca, V.; Roda, C.; Rolin, J. F.; Rose, H. J.; Rostovtsev, A.; Roux, J.; Ruppi, M.; Russo, G. V.; Rusydi, G.; Salesa, F.; Salomon, K.; Sapienza, P.; Schmitt, F.; Schuller, J.-P.; Shanidze, R.; Sokalski, I.; Spona, T.; Spurio, M.; van der Steenhoven, G.; Stolarczyk, T.; Streeb, K.; Sulak, L.; Taiuti, M.; Tamburini, C.; Tao, C.; Terreni, G.; Thompson, L. F.; Urbano, F.; Valdy, P.; Valente, V.; Vallage, B.; Vaudaine, G.; Venekamp, G.; Verlaat, B.; Vernin, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; van Wijk, R.; Wijnker, G.; de Witt Huberts, P.; Wobbe, G.; de Wolf, E.; Yao, A.-F.; Zaborov, D.; Zaccone, H.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2007-08-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope being deployed in the Mediterranean Sea. It consists of a three-dimensional array of photomultiplier tubes that can detect the Cherenkov light induced by charged particles produced in the interactions of neutrinos with the surrounding medium. High angular resolution can be achieved, in particular, when a muon is produced, provided that the Cherenkov photons are detected with sufficient timing precision. Considerations of the intrinsic time uncertainties stemming from the transit time spread in the photomultiplier tubes and the mechanism of transmission of light in sea water lead to the conclusion that a relative time accuracy of the order of 0.5 ns is desirable. Accordingly, different time calibration systems have been developed for the ANTARES telescope. In this article, a system based on Optical Beacons, a set of external and well-controlled pulsed light sources located throughout the detector, is described. This calibration system takes into account the optical properties of sea water, which is used as the detection volume of the ANTARES telescope. The design, tests, construction and first results of the two types of beacons, LED and laser-based, are presented.

  11. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  12. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  13. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  14. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  15. Optimized systems for energy efficient optical tweezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R.; Kleindienst, R.; Grewe, A.; Bürger, Elisabeth; Oeder, A.; Sinzinger, S.

    2013-03-01

    Compared to conventional optics like singlet lenses or even microscope objectives advanced optical designs help to develop properties specifically useful for efficient optical tweezers. We present an optical setup providing a customized intensity distribution optimized with respect to large trapping forces. The optical design concept combines a refractive double axicon with a reflective parabolic focusing mirror. The axicon arrangement creates an annular field distribution and thus clears space for additional integrated observation optics in the center of the system. Finally the beam is focused to the desired intensity distribution by a parabolic ring mirror. The compact realization of the system potentially opens new fields of applications for optical tweezers such as in production industries and micro-nano assembly.

  16. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  17. Optical multicast system for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Gupta, Varun; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Howard; Zussman, Gil; Bergman, Keren

    2015-08-24

    We present the design and experimental evaluation of an Optical Multicast System for Data Center Networks, a hardware-software system architecture that uniquely integrates passive optical splitters in a hybrid network architecture for faster and simpler delivery of multicast traffic flows. An application-driven control plane manages the integrated optical and electronic switched traffic routing in the data plane layer. The control plane includes a resource allocation algorithm to optimally assign optical splitters to the flows. The hardware architecture is built on a hybrid network with both Electronic Packet Switching (EPS) and Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) networks to aggregate Top-of-Rack switches. The OCS is also the connectivity substrate of splitters to the optical network. The optical multicast system implementation requires only commodity optical components. We built a prototype and developed a simulation environment to evaluate the performance of the system for bulk multicasting. Experimental and numerical results show simultaneous delivery of multicast flows to all receivers with steady throughput. Compared to IP multicast that is the electronic counterpart, optical multicast performs with less protocol complexity and reduced energy consumption. Compared to peer-to-peer multicast methods, it achieves at minimum an order of magnitude higher throughput for flows under 250 MB with significantly less connection overheads. Furthermore, for delivering 20 TB of data containing only 15% multicast flows, it reduces the total delivery energy consumption by 50% and improves latency by 55% compared to a data center with a sole non-blocking EPS network.

  18. All-Optical Regeneration System for Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical regeneration system for regeneration of optical wavelength division multiplexed WDM data signals in an optical WDM communication system. The system comprises a WDM-to-Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM, WDM-to-OTDM, converter, capable of converting....... The system additionally comprises an OTDM-to-WDM converter for converting the output OTDM data signal to an output WDM data signal. An input of the all-optical regenerator unit is in optical communication with an output of the WDM-to-OTDM converter, and an output of the all-optical regenerator unit...... an input WDM data signal comprising multiple wavelength channels into an input OTDM data signal comprising multiple time multiplexed time channels. The system further comprises an all-optical regenerator unit being configured for regenerating the input OTDM data signal into an output OTDM data signal...

  19. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  20. Non-Hermitian optics in atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-04-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Recently, this family of non-Hermitian systems has attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics due to their extraordinary properties, especially in optical systems based on solid-state materials, such as coupled gain-loss waveguides and microcavities. Considering the desired refractive index can be effectively manipulated through atomic coherence, it is important to realize such non-Hermitian optical potentials and further investigate their distinct properties in atomic systems. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress of non-Hermitian optics with coherently prepared multi-level atomic configurations. The realizations of (anti-) PT symmetry with different schemes have extensively demonstrated the special optical properties of non-Hermitian optical systems with atomic coherence.

  1. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface.

  2. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  3. Computer programs simplify optical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The optical ray-trace computer program performs geometrical ray tracing. The energy-trace program calculates the relative monochromatic flux density on a specific target area. This program uses the ray-trace program as a subroutine to generate a representation of the optical system.

  4. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  5. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  6. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing

  7. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  8. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  9. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  10. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  11. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  12. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  13. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  14. Characterization of Fiber Optic CMM Probe System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.W.Swallow

    2007-05-15

    This report documents a study completed on the fiber optic probe system that is a part of the Werth optical CMM. This study was necessary due to a lack of documentation from the vendor for the proper use and calibration of the fiber probe, and was performed in support of the Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung (LIGA) development program at the FM&T. As a result of this study, a better understanding of the fiber optic probe has been developed, including guidelines for its proper use and calibration.

  15. Full-duplex optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  16. Camera System MTF: combining optic with detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2017-08-01

    MTF is one of the most common metrics used to quantify the resolving power of an optical component. Extensive literature is dedicated to describing methods to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for stand-alone optical components such as a camera lens or telescope, and some literature addresses approaches to determine an MTF for combination of an optic with a detector. The formulations pertaining to a combined electro-optical system MTF are mostly based on theory, and assumptions that detector MTF is described only by the pixel pitch which does not account for wavelength dependencies. When working with real hardware, detectors are often characterized by testing MTF at discrete wavelengths. This paper presents a method to simplify the calculation of a polychromatic system MTF when it is permissible to consider the detector MTF to be independent of wavelength.

  17. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  18. Fiber optic gyroscopes for vehicle navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Tatsuya; Soekawa, Hirokazu; Yuhara, Toshiya; Kajioka, Hiroshi; Oho, Shigeru; Sonobe, Hisao

    1994-03-01

    Fiber optic gyroscopes (FOGs) have been developed for vehicle navigation systems and are used in Toyota Motor Corporation models Mark II, Chaser and Cresta in Japan. Use of FOGs in these systems requires high reliability under a wide range of conditions, especially in a temperature range between -40 and 85 degree(s)C. In addition, a high cost-performance ratio is needed. We have developed optical and electrical systems that are inexpensive and can perform well. They are ready to be mass-produced. FOGs have already been installed in luxury automobiles, and will soon be included in more basic vehicles. We have developed more inexpensive FOGs for this purpose.

  19. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  20. Control systems in optical fibre industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (1998), s. 195-200 ISSN 1405-5546 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KSK1067601 Projekt 10/96/K:4107 Keywords : control systems * real time systems * microcomputers * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  1. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  2. Adjustment of gripping force by optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Barz, C.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing automation, robotics also requires ever more intelligent solutions in the handling of various tasks. In this context, many grippers must also be re-designed. For this, they must always be adapted for different requirements. The equipment of the gripper systems with sensors should help to make the gripping process more intelligent. In order to achieve such objectives, optical systems can also be used. This work analyzes how the gripping force can be adjusted by means of an optical recognition. The result of this work is the creation of a connection between optical recognition, tolerances, gripping force and real-time control. In this way, algorithms can be created, with the aid of which robot grippers as well as other gripping systems become more intelligent.

  3. A tristate optical logic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basuray, A.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kumar Ghosh, Hirak; Datta, A. K.

    1991-09-01

    A method is described to represent data in a tristate logic system which are subsequently replaced by Modified Trinary Numbers (MTN). This system is advantagegeous in parallel processing as carry and borrow free operations in arithmatic computation is possible. The logical operations are also modified according to the three states available. A possible practical application of the same using polarized light is also suggested.

  4. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  5. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  6. Management Concerns for Optical Based Filing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-01

    terminals, WORM Palo Alto, CA 94303 drives, optical jukeboxes, printers, scanners. Candi Technology Inc. Systems integrators providing 2354 Calle Del Mundo ...firms are using them to help design everything from parts to buildings. Auto makers use them to design new car moaels and even build the cars using

  7. Optical interconnect for large-scale systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dress, William

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a switchless, optical interconnect module that serves as a node in a network of identical distribution modules for large-scale systems. Thousands to millions of hosts or endpoints may be interconnected by a network of such modules, avoiding the need for multi-level switches. Several common network topologies are reviewed and their scaling properties assessed. The concept of message-flow routing is discussed in conjunction with the unique properties enabled by the optical distribution module where it is shown how top-down software control (global routing tables, spanning-tree algorithms) may be avoided.

  8. The CEBAF fiber optic phase reference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, K.; Simrock, S.; Hovater, C.; Krycuk, A.

    1995-01-01

    The specified phase stability of the CEBAF RF distribution system is 2.9 degree rms per linac. Stability is achieved through the use of a temperature and pressure regulated coaxial drive line. Purpose of the fiber optic phase reference system is to monitor the relative phase at the beginning and ending of this drive line, between linacs, injector and separator to determine drift due to ambient temperature fluctuations. The system utilizes an Ortel 1310 nm single mode laser driving Sumitumo optical fiber to distribute a reference signal at 1497 MHz. Phase of this reference signal is compared to the 1427 MHz (LO) and the 70 MHz (IF) via a 360 degree phase detector. The detected information is then routed to the CEBAF control system for display with a specified resolution of ±0.2 degree over a 20 degree phase delta

  9. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  10. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  11. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  12. Automatic design of optical systems by digital computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, T. A.; Schmidt, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program uses geometrical optical techniques and a least squares optimization method employing computing equipment for the automatic design of optical systems. It evaluates changes in various optical parameters, provides comprehensive ray-tracing, and generally determines the acceptability of the optical system characteristics.

  13. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung

    2008-08-15

    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  14. Fiber coupled optical spark delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalin, Azer; Willson, Bryan; Defoort, Morgan

    2008-08-12

    A spark delivery system for generating a spark using a laser beam is provided, the spark delivery system including a laser light source and a laser delivery assembly. The laser delivery assembly includes a hollow fiber and a launch assembly comprising launch focusing optics to input the laser beam in the hollow fiber. In addition, the laser delivery assembly includes exit focusing optics that demagnify an exit beam of laser light from the hollow fiber, thereby increasing the intensity of the laser beam and creating a spark. In accordance with embodiments of the present invention, the assembly may be used to create a spark in a combustion engine. In accordance with other embodiments of the present invention, a method of using the spark delivery system is provided. In addition, a method of choosing an appropriate fiber for creating a spark using a laser beam is also presented.

  15. The experimental optical burst switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wu, Guiling; Wang, Hui; Lu, Jialin; Ye, Ailun

    2005-02-01

    The first optical burst switching (OBS) system has been demonstrated in China, which includes three edge routers and one core-node. A kind of fast wavelength selective optical switching was used in the system. The core OBS node consists of a kind of wavelength selective optical switch we developed. It consists of two SOA switches and one wavelength selective thin film filter with centre wavelength at one wavelength. There are one input optical fiber and two output fibers, each fiber carries two wavelengths. The Dell PE2650 servers act as the edge OBS routers. The wavelength of each data channel is located in C-band and the bit rate is at 1.25Gbps. The control channel uses bit rate of 100Mbps at wavelength of 1310 nm. A novel effective scheme for Just-In-Time (JIT) protocol was proposed and implemented. OBS services, such as Video on Demand (VOD) and file transfer protocol (FTP), have been demonstrated. Assembling and scheduling methods that are capable to guarantee the QoS (quality of service) of the transported service are studied.

  16. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás.; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, Peter

    2016-07-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class telescope, provided by European industry, to realize zodiacal background limited performance, and high spatial resolution. The instrument SAFARI is a cryogenic grating-based point source spectrometer working in the wavelength domain 34 to 230 μm, providing spectral resolving power from 300 to at least 2000. The instrument shall provide low and high resolution spectroscopy in four spectral bands. Low Resolution mode is the native instrument mode, while the high Resolution mode is achieved by means of a Martin-Pupplet interferometer. The optical system is all-reflective and consists of three main modules; an input optics module, followed by the Band and Mode Distributing Optics and the grating Modules. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled linear arrays of very sensitive TES detectors. The work presented in this paper describes the optical design architecture and design concept compatible with the current instrument performance and volume design drivers.

  17. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  18. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  19. Quantum optical properties in plasmonic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Plasmonic metallic particle (MP) can affect the optical properties of a quantum system (QS) in a remarkable way. We develop a general quantum nonlinear formalism with exact vectorial description for the scattered photons by the QS. The formalism enables us to study the variations of the dielectric function and photon spectrum of the QS with the particle distance between QS and MP, exciting laser direction, polarization and phase in the presence of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in the MP. The quantum formalism also serves as a powerful tool for studying the effects of these parameters on the nonclassical properties of the scattered photons. The plasmonic effect of nanoparticles has promising possibilities as it provides a new way for manipulating quantum optical properties of light in nanophotonic systems.

  20. The Airborne Optical Systems Testbed (AOSTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-31

    are the Atlantic Ocean and coastal waterways, which reflect back very little light at our SWIR operating wavelength of 1064 nm. The Airborne Optical...demonstrate our typical FOPEN capabilities, figure 5 shows two images taken over a forested area near Burlington, VT. Figure 5(a) is a 3D point...Systems Testbed (AOSTB) 1 - 6 STO-MP-SET-999 (a) (b) Fig. 5. Ladar target scan of a forested area in northern Vermont

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  2. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  3. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  4. Robust adaptive optics systems for vision science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, S. A.; de Castro, A.; Sawides, L.; Luo, T.; Sapoznik, K.

    2018-02-01

    Adaptive Optics (AO) is of growing importance for understanding the impact of retinal and systemic diseases on the retina. While AO retinal imaging in healthy eyes is now routine, AO imaging in older eyes and eyes with optical changes to the anterior eye can be difficult and requires a control and an imaging system that is resilient when there is scattering and occlusion from the cornea and lens, as well as in the presence of irregular and small pupils. Our AO retinal imaging system combines evaluation of local image quality of the pupil, with spatially programmable detection. The wavefront control system uses a woofer tweeter approach, combining an electromagnetic mirror and a MEMS mirror and a single Shack Hartmann sensor. The SH sensor samples an 8 mm exit pupil and the subject is aligned to a region within this larger system pupil using a chin and forehead rest. A spot quality metric is calculated in real time for each lenslet. Individual lenslets that do not meet the quality metric are eliminated from the processing. Mirror shapes are smoothed outside the region of wavefront control when pupils are small. The system allows imaging even with smaller irregular pupils, however because the depth of field increases under these conditions, sectioning performance decreases. A retinal conjugate micromirror array selectively directs mid-range scatter to additional detectors. This improves detection of retinal capillaries even when the confocal image has poorer image quality that includes both photoreceptors and blood vessels.

  5. Spike Bursts from an Excitable Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Leite, Jose R.; Rosero, Edison J.; Barbosa, Wendson A. S.; Tredicce, Jorge R.

    Diode Lasers with double optical feedback are shown to present power drop spikes with statistical distribution controllable by the ratio of the two feedback times. The average time between spikes and the variance within long time series are studied. The system is shown to be excitable and present bursting of spikes created with specific feedback time ratios and strength. A rate equation model, extending the Lang-Kobayashi single feedback for semiconductor lasers proves to match the experimental observations. Potential applications to construct network to mimic neural systems having controlled bursting properties in each unit will be discussed. Brazilian Agency CNPQ.

  6. High-Resolution Integrated Optical System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakapenka, V. B.; Goncharov, A. F.; Holtgrewe, N.; Greenberg, E.

    2017-12-01

    Raman and optical spectroscopy in-situ at extreme high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the planets' deep interior is a versatile tool for characterization of wide range of properties of minerals essential for understanding the structure, composition, and evolution of terrestrial and giant planets. Optical methods, greatly complementing X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy techniques, become crucial when dealing with light elements. Study of vibrational and optical properties of minerals and volatiles, was a topic of many research efforts in past decades. A great deal of information on the materials properties under extreme pressure and temperature has been acquired including that related to structural phase changes, electronic transitions, and chemical transformations. These provide an important insight into physical and chemical states of planetary interiors (e.g. nature of deep reservoirs) and their dynamics including heat and mass transport (e.g. deep carbon cycle). Optical and vibrational spectroscopy can be also very instrumental for elucidating the nature of the materials molten states such as those related to the Earth's volatiles (CO2, CH4, H2O), aqueous fluids and silicate melts, planetary ices (H2O, CH4, NH3), noble gases, and H2. The optical spectroscopy study performed concomitantly with X-ray diffraction and spectroscopy measurements at the GSECARS beamlines on the same sample and at the same P-T conditions would greatly enhance the quality of this research and, moreover, will provide unique new information on chemical state of matter. The advanced high-resolution user-friendly integrated optical system is currently under construction and expected to be completed by 2018. In our conceptual design we have implemented Raman spectroscopy with five excitation wavelengths (266, 473, 532, 660, 946 nm), confocal imaging, double sided IR laser heating combined with high temperature Raman (including coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and

  7. Optical tristability in a hybrid optomechanical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghari Nejad, A.; Askari, H. R.; Baghshahi, H. R.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we investigate a hybrid optomechanical system consisting of two cavities, which one of them is an optomechanical cavity that includes an optical parametric amplifier (OPA) and the other is a traditional cavity which contains an atomic medium. Hamiltonian of the system is written in a rotating frame with a rotation frequency of the frequency of input field to the system. Using Heisenberg-Langevin equations of motion, the dynamics of the system is described. Applying the steady-state conditions leads to a system of equations of the mean values of the operators of the system. The stability condition of the system is satisfied numerically and behavior of optomechanical cavity is investigated in different situations to find the effect of changing of the parameters of the system on the type of its stability. We show proposed system has the capability of tristable behavior, where, the gain coefficient of OPA acts as a switch in changing the bistability of the system to a tristable manner. The building block of the tristability in this system can be figured out as the enhanced nonlinearity of the system due to the presence of OPA.

  8. Optical design of a LED searchlight system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Chen; Xu, Haiping; Liang, Jinhua; Liu, Yunfei; Yuan, Zengquan

    2018-01-01

    A 1200m visible searchlight system is designed based on photometry and application of geometric optics. To generate intensity distribution of this relatively powerful light beam we propose to use a high power LED and several refractive optical elements, which are composed of two plane-convex lenses and a conventional Fresnel lens. Two plane-convex lenses enable refraction of the side rays from the LED to the front direction which incident on the Fresnel lens. Fresnel lens, in its turn, concentrate the light flux and provide a nearly collimated beam to meet the requirement of forming a well-illuminated area across the road in the far field. Simulation data shows that this searchlight allow generating an appropriate illumination distribution for the long range requirements. A proof-of-concept prototype producing acceptable illuminance is developed.

  9. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  10. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  11. Optical monitoring system for a turbine engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Dennis H; Smed, Jan P; Williams, James P; Jonnalagadda, Vinay

    2013-05-14

    The monitoring system for a gas turbine engine including a viewing tube assembly having an inner end and an outer end. The inner end is located adjacent to a hot gas flow path within the gas turbine engine and the outer end is located adjacent to an outer casing of the gas turbine engine. An aperture wall is located at the inner end of the viewing tube assembly and an optical element is located within the viewing tube assembly adjacent to the inner end and is spaced from the aperture wall to define a cooling and purge chamber therebetween. An aperture is defined in the aperture wall for passage of light from the hot gas flow path to the optical element. Swirl passages are defined in the viewing tube assembly between the aperture wall and the optical element for passage of cooling air from a location outside the viewing tube assembly into the chamber, wherein swirl passages effect a swirling movement of air in a circumferential direction within the chamber.

  12. The Optical Bichromatic Force in Molecular Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldridge, Leland; Galica, Scott; Eyler, E. E.

    2015-05-01

    The optical bichromatic force has been demonstrated to be useful for slowing atomic beams much more rapidly than radiative forces. Through numerical simulations, we examine several aspects of applying the bichromatic force to molecular beams. One is the unavoidable existence of out-of-system radiative decay, requiring one or more repumping beams. We find that the average deceleration varies strongly with the repumping intensity, but when using optimal parameters, the force approaches the limiting value allowed by population statistics. Another consideration is the effect of fine and hyperfine structure. We examine a simplified multlevel model based on the B X transition in calcium monofluoride. To circumvent optical pumping into coherent dark states, we include two possible schemes: (1) a skewed dc magnetic field, and (2) rapid optical polarization switching. Our results indicate that the bichromatic force remains a viable option for creating large forces in molecular beams, with a reduction in the peak force by approximately an order of magnitude compared to a two-level atom, but little effect on the velocity range over which the force is effective. We also describe our progress towards experimental tests of the bichromatic force on a molecular beam of CaF. Supported by the National Science Foundation.

  13. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  14. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  15. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  16. Self-imaging in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Guota, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    The structure and main properties of coherent and partially coherent optical fields that are self-reproducible under propagation through a first-order optical system are investigated. A phase space description of self-imaging in first-order optical systems is presented. The Wigner distribution

  17. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  18. Energy flow in angularly dispersive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ware, M.; Dibble, W. E.; Glasgow, S. A.; Peatross, J.

    2001-01-01

    Light-pulse propagation in angularly dispersive systems is explored in the context of a center-of-mass definition of energy arrival time. In this context the time of travel is given by a superposition of group delays weighted by the spectral content of the pulse. With this description the time of travel from one point to the next for a pulse is found to be completely determined by the spectral content, independent of the state of chirp. The effect of sensor orientation on arrival time is also considered. [copyright] 2001 Optical Society of America

  19. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conte, A. Mosca; Violante, C.; Missori, M.; Bechstedt, F.; Teodonio, L.; Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P.; Guidoni, L.; Pulci, O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth

  20. Theoretical optical spectroscopy of complex systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conte, A. Mosca, E-mail: adriano.mosca.conte@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Violante, C., E-mail: claudia.violante@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Missori, M., E-mail: mauro.missori@isc.cnr.it [Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Via Salaria Km 29.300, 00016 Monterotondo Scalo (Rome) (Italy); Bechstedt, F., E-mail: bech@ifto.physik.uni-jena.de [Institut fur Festkorpertheorie und -optik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitat, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Teodonio, L. [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy); Istituto centrale per il restauro e la conservazione del patrimonio archivistico e librario (IC-RCPAL), Italian Minister for Cultural Heritage, Via Milano 76, 00184 Rome (Italy); Ippoliti, E.; Carloni, P. [German Research School for Simulation Sciences, Julich (Germany); Guidoni, L., E-mail: leonardo.guidoni@univaq.it [Università degli Studi di L’Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Materiali, Via Campo di Pile, 67100 L’Aquila (Italy); Pulci, O., E-mail: olivia.pulci@roma2.infn.it [MIFP, NAST, ETSF,CNR INFM-SMC, Universitá di Roma Tor Vergata, Via della Ricerca Scientifica 1, Roma (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: ► We review some theoretical condensed matter ab initio spectroscopic computational techniques. ► We show several applications ranging from 0 to 3 dimensional systems. ► For each system studied, we show which kind of information it is possible to obtain by performing these calculations. -- Abstract: We review here some of the most reliable and efficient computational theoretical ab initio techniques for the prediction of optical and electronic spectroscopic properties and show some important applications to molecules, surfaces, and solids. We investigate the role of the solvent in the optical absorption spectrum of indole molecule. We study the excited-state properties of a photo-active minimal model molecule for the retinal of rhodopsin, responsible for vision mechanism in animals. We then show a study about spectroscopic properties of Si(1 1 1) surface. Finally we simulate a bulk system: paper, that is mainly made of cellulose, a pseudo-crystalline material representing 40% of annual biomass production in the Earth.

  1. Optical camera system for radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Koichi; Senoo, Makoto; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Shibata, Keiichiro; Honda, Takuro.

    1995-01-01

    An infrared-ray camera comprises a transmitting filter used exclusively for infrared-rays at a specific wavelength, such as far infrared-rays and a lens used exclusively for infrared rays. An infrared ray emitter-incorporated photoelectric image converter comprising an infrared ray emitting device, a focusing lens and a semiconductor image pick-up plate is disposed at a place of low gamma-ray dose rate. Infrared rays emitted from an objective member are passed through the lens system of the camera, and real images are formed by way of the filter. They are transferred by image fibers, introduced to the photoelectric image converter and focused on the image pick-up plate by the image-forming lens. Further, they are converted into electric signals and introduced to a display and monitored. With such a constitution, an optical material used exclusively for infrared rays, for example, ZnSe can be used for the lens system and the optical transmission system. Accordingly, it can be used in a radiation field of high gamma ray dose rate around the periphery of the reactor container. (I.N.)

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  3. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  4. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA

  5. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  6. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...

  7. Electron-optical systems for Mott polarimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fishkova, T.Ya.; Mamaev, Yu.A.; Ovsyannikova, I.P.; Petrov, V.N.; Shpak, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Electron-optical systems, forming polarized electron beams from solid and gaseous sources at a Mott detector with operating potentials of 20 and 50 kV, have been theoretically investigated. The integral EOS creates a beam <2.6 nm in diameter at the target of the Mott detector for secondary electrons with energies of 1-20 eV and exit angles of 0 -60 . The differential EOS provides an energy resolution of 2-6% within the range of 3-2000 eV, the illumination being 5-13% for a 4π angle; at the target of the Mott detector it creates a beam of 1-6 mm in diameter. Both systems have been constructed at the laboratory of Spin-polarized Electron Spectroscopy (Department of Experimental Physics) at St. Petersburg State Technical University. ((orig.))

  8. Adaptive optics system application for solar telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Grigor'ev, V. M.; Antoshkin, L. V.; Botugina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Kovadlo, P. G.; Krivolutskiy, N. P.; Lavrionova, L. N.; Skomorovski, V. I.

    2008-07-01

    The possibility of applying adaptive correction to ground-based solar astronomy is considered. Several experimental systems for image stabilization are described along with the results of their tests. Using our work along several years and world experience in solar adaptive optics (AO) we are assuming to obtain first light to the end of 2008 for the first Russian low order ANGARA solar AO system on the Big Solar Vacuum Telescope (BSVT) with 37 subapertures Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor based of our modified correlation tracker algorithm, DALSTAR video camera, 37 elements deformable bimorph mirror, home made fast tip-tip mirror with separate correlation tracker. Too strong daytime turbulence is on the BSVT site and we are planning to obtain a partial correction for part of Sun surface image.

  9. Noncontacting Optical Measurement And Inspection Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Jeffrey A.; Jackson, Robert L.

    1986-10-01

    Product inspection continues to play a growing role in the improvement of quality and reduction of scrap. Recent emphasis on precision measurements and in-process inspection have been a driving force for the development of noncontacting sensors. Noncontacting sensors can provide long term, unattended use due to the lack of sensor wear. Further, in applications where, sensor contact can damage or geometrically change the part to be measured or inspected, noncontacting sensors are the only technical approach available. MTI is involved in the development and sale of noncontacting sensors and custom inspection systems. This paper will review the recent advances in noncontacting sensor development. Machine vision and fiber optics sensor systems are finding a wide variety of industrial inspection applications. This paper will provide detailed examples of several state-of-the-art applications for these noncontacting sensors.

  10. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  11. Optics study of liquid scintillation counting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran Ramiro, M. T.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    2005-01-01

    Optics is a key issue in the development of any liquid scintillation counting (LSC) system. Light emission in the scintillating solution, transmission through the vial and reflector design are some aspects that need to be considered in detail. This paper describes measurements and calculations carried out to optimise these factors for the design of a new family of LSC counters. Measurements of the light distribution emitted by a scintillation vial were done by autoradiographs of cylindrical vials made of various materials and results were compared to those obtained by direct measurements of the light distribution made by scanning the vial with a photomultiplier tube. Calculations were also carried out to study the light transmission in the vial and the optimal design of the reflector for a system with one photomultiplier tube. (Author)

  12. The Modular Optical Underwater Survey System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhul Amin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center deploys the Modular Optical Underwater Survey System (MOUSS to estimate the species-specific, size-structured abundance of commercially-important fish species in Hawaii and the Pacific Islands. The MOUSS is an autonomous stereo-video camera system designed for the in situ visual sampling of fish assemblages. This system is rated to 500 m and its low-light, stereo-video cameras enable identification, counting, and sizing of individuals at a range of 0.5–10 m. The modular nature of MOUSS allows for the efficient and cost-effective use of various imaging sensors, power systems, and deployment platforms. The MOUSS is in use for surveys in Hawaii, the Gulf of Mexico, and Southern California. In Hawaiian waters, the system can effectively identify individuals to a depth of 250 m using only ambient light. In this paper, we describe the MOUSS’s application in fisheries research, including the design, calibration, analysis techniques, and deployment mechanism.

  13. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  14. Calculation Of Extraction Optics For Ion System With Plazma Emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, B A

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D code for simulating of ion optics system of positive ion extraction from a plasma source is described. Example calculation of 100 kV optics for the extraction ion IHEP gun is presented. The trajectories of particles and emittance plots are resulted. The aberrations influ-ence strongly on ion optics for considered geometry.

  15. The Wigner distribution function applied to optical signals and systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    In this paper the Wigner distribution function has been introduced for optical signals and systems. The Wigner distribution function of an optical signal appears to be in close resemblance to the ray concept in geometrical optics. This resemblance reaches even farther: although derived from Fourier

  16. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  17. Optical design and tolerancing of an ophthalmological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Martin, Thomas; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Rübenach, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Tolerance analysis by means of simulation is an essential step in system integration. Tolerance analysis allows for predicting the performance of a system setup of real manufactured parts and for an estimation of the yield with respect to evaluation figures, such as performance requirements, systems specification or cost demands. Currently, optical freeform optics is gaining importance in optical systems design. The performance of freeform optics often strongly depends on the manufacturing accuracy of the surfaces. For this reason, a tolerance analysis with respect to the fabrication accuracy is of crucial importance. The characterization of form tolerances caused by the manufacturing process is based on the definition of straightness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity. In case of freeform components, however, it is often impossible to define a form deviation by means of this standard classification. Hence, prediction of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on the optical performance is not possible by means of a conventional tolerance analysis. To carry out a tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem, including freeform optics, metrology data of the fabricated surfaces have to be integrated into the optical model. The focus of this article is on design for manufacturability of freeform optics with integrated alignment structures and on tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem based on the measured surface data of manufactured optical freeform components with respect to assembly and manufacturing tolerances. This approach will be reported here using an ophthalmological system as an example.

  18. Raman amplification in optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Rasmus

    2008-01-01

    Fiber Raman amplifiers are investigated with the purpose of identifying new applications and limitations for their use in optical communication systems. Three main topics are investigated, namely: New applications of dispersion compensating Raman amplifiers, the use Raman amplification to increase...... fiberbaserede Raman-forstærkere med henblik på at identificere både deres begrænsninger og nye anvendelsesmuligheder i optiske kommunikationssystemer. En numerisk forstærkermodel er blevet udviklet for bedre at forstå forstærkerens dynamik, dens gain- og støjbegrænsninger. Modellen bruges til at forudsige...... forstærkerens statiske og dynamiske egenskaber, og det eftervises at dens resultater er i god overensstemmelse med eksperimentelle forstærkermålinger. Dispersions-kompenserende fiber er på grund af sin store udbredelse og fiberens høje Raman gain effektivitet et meget velegnet Raman gain-medium. Tre nye...

  19. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, Peter E; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T; Tycho, Andreas; Joergensen, Thomas M; Frosz, Michael H

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging

  20. Multiparameter fiber optic sensing system for monitoring enhanced geothermal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challener, William A

    2014-12-04

    The goal of this project was to design, fabricate and test an optical fiber cable which supports multiple sensing modalities for measurements in the harsh environment of enhanced geothermal systems. To accomplish this task, optical fiber was tested at both high temperatures and strains for mechanical integrity, and in the presence of hydrogen for resistance to darkening. Both single mode (SM) and multimode (MM) commercially available optical fiber were identified and selected for the cable based on the results of these tests. The cable was designed and fabricated using a tube-within-tube construction containing two MM fibers and one SM fiber, and without supporting gel that is not suitable for high temperature environments. Commercial fiber optic sensing instruments using Raman DTS (distributed temperature sensing), Brillouin DTSS (distributed temperature and strain sensing), and Raleigh COTDR (coherent optical time domain reflectometry) were selected for field testing. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure sensor was designed, fabricated, packaged, and calibrated for high pressure measurements at high temperatures and spliced to the cable. A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) temperature sensor was also spliced to the cable. A geothermal well was selected and its temperature and pressure were logged. The cable was then deployed in the well in two separate field tests and measurements were made on these different sensing modalities. Raman DTS measurements were found to be accurate to ±5°C, even with some residual hydrogen darkening. Brillouin DTSS measurements were in good agreement with the Raman results. The Rayleigh COTDR instrument was able to detect some acoustic signatures, but was generally disappointing. The FBG sensor was used to determine the effects of hydrogen darkening, but drift over time made it unreliable as a temperature or pressure sensor. The MEMS sensor was found to be highly stable and accurate to better than its 0.1% calibration.

  1. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  2. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Anitropov; P. Benitez; I. L. Livshits S. K. Stafeev; S. K. Stafeev; V. N. Vasilev; M. V. Letunovskaya; A. S. Zaitceva

    2016-01-01

    Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures ...

  3. Fiber Optic Temperature Sensors for Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase 1, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS), in collaboration with North Carolina State University, successfully demonstrated a Fiber Bragg...

  4. Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Electro-Optical Data Acquisition and Tracking System (EDATS) dynamically tracks and measures target signatures. It consists of an instrumentation van integrated...

  5. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  6. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  7. Optimisation of optical receiver for 10 Gbit/s optical duobinary transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified.......Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified....

  8. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  9. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  10. Drawing inspiration from biological optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpert, H. D.

    2009-08-01

    Bio-Mimicking/Bio-Inspiration: How can we not be inspired by Nature? Life has evolved on earth over the last 3.5 to 4 billion years. Materials formed during this time were not toxic; they were created at low temperatures and low pressures unlike many of the materials developed today. The natural materials formed are self-assembled, multifunctional, nonlinear, complex, adaptive, self-repairing and biodegradable. The designs that failed are fossils. Those that survived are the success stories. Natural materials are mostly formed from organics, inorganic crystals and amorphous phases. The materials make economic sense by optimizing the design of the structures or systems to meet multiple needs. We constantly "see" many similar strategies in approaches, between man and nature, but we seldom look at the details of natures approaches. The power of image processing, in many of natures creatures, is a detail that is often overlooked. Seldon does the engineer interact with the biologist and learn what nature has to teach us. The variety and complexity of biological materials and the optical systems formed should inspire us.

  11. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B.W.; Swallow, A.J.

    1992-01-01

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel. (author)

  12. Multiple wavelength multitimescale optical absorption system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, R.; Allan, D.; Hodgson, B. W.; Swallow, A. J.

    A new workstation for pulse radiolysis studies has been developed for the Paterson Institute Linear Accelerator Laboratory. It is particularly suited to the study of materials available only in limited quantities. The analysing light beam is dispersed into a plane spectrum by a McPherson 270 monochromator and focused down to a line spectrum by a rod lens. The spectral intensity distribution is sampled by a linear array of optical fibres which conduct the light to photodiodes. A preamplifier unit amplifies and buffers the diode photocurrent signal which then passes to the main electronics unit incorporating further amplification stages, filters, backing-off of the background photocurrent, analog-to-digital conversion, data storage memory and a computer interface. All control of the electronic system is performed from a computer equipped with appropriate software. The system has 10 channels of spectral bandwidth 16 nm, a useful spectral response from 350 nm to 1 μm with a high signal-to-noise ratio, signal sampling rates from 20 MHz to 2 kHz and 8 kbyte of local memory for each channel.

  13. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  14. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  15. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  16. Air driven fiber optic coupled pulser system for ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of an air powered fiber optic coupled pulser system for initiating various high-voltage systems in the ZT-40 experiment is displayed. The air fiber optic system provides complete electrical isolation of the experimental high-voltage circuits from the digital timing and control circuits. In addition, this pulser system prevents cross talk between individual output channels and eliminates trigger system ground loops. The system uses an additional fiber optic bundle to confirm pulser output in the screen room

  17. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  18. Digital optical computers at the optoelectronic computing systems center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The Digital Optical Computing Program within the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Opto-electronic Computing Systems has as its specific goal research on optical computing architectures suitable for use at the highest possible speeds. The program can be targeted toward exploiting the time domain because other programs in the Center are pursuing research on parallel optical systems, exploiting optical interconnection and optical devices and materials. Using a general purpose computing architecture as the focus, we are developing design techniques, tools and architecture for operation at the speed of light limit. Experimental work is being done with the somewhat low speed components currently available but with architectures which will scale up in speed as faster devices are developed. The design algorithms and tools developed for a general purpose, stored program computer are being applied to other systems such as optimally controlled optical communication networks.

  19. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  20. Optical Systems of Biopsy: The Invisible Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Bagri-Manjrekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of new methods and techniques for the diagnosis of malignant tumours has always attracted the attention of scientists. The development of adjunct tools to facilitate the non invasive screening of high risk lesions in real time has the potential to significantly improve our ability to reduce the dismal morbidity and mortality of oral cancer. Despite easy accessibility of the oral cavity to examination, there is no satisfactory method to adequately screen and detect precancers non-invasively. The current method of oral cancer diagnosis clinically relies heavily on visual examination of the oral cavity. However, discerning potentially malignant and early malignant lesions from common benign inflammatory conditions can be difficult at times. There is a need for an objective method that could provide real- time results and be routinely applied to a large population. Though science is yet to present such a perfect technique, Optical Biopsy Systems developed using knowledge of light and tissue interaction, can provide a plausible option.

  1. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 1. Introductory topics. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    Various fundamental topics are considered which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation. The point of view of linear system theory is chosen which acts as a unifying concept throughout the series. In this context the important optical quantities usually appear as either impulse response functions (Green's functions) or frequency transfer functions (Fourier Transforms of the Green's functions). Topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free-space optical field propagation, optical properties of materials, dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations

  2. An optical system for controlling ion source parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baifang; Liu Zhenhao; Jiang Yi; Xu Zhengjia

    1999-01-01

    An optical control system used for adjusting the source's parameters of an ion separator is described. There are two slice microcomputers at HV terminal and the ground respectively. These microcomputers communicate each other with the full-duplex mode through two pieces of optical fiber, in which many parameters are time-share transmitted in the form of optical pulse. This system can stabilize the arc current and temperature, adjust and display all parameters and has safe-guard ability. At HV terminal, the optical coupling technique is used for connecting the CPU and the ion source, and at the ground the CPU can communicate with a control microcomputer

  3. Cartesian oval representation of freeform optics in illumination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Schreiber, P; Bräuer, A

    2011-03-15

    The geometrical method for constructing optical surfaces for illumination purpose developed by Oliker and co-workers [Trends in Nonlinear Analysis (Springer, 2003)] is generalized in order to obtain freeform designs in arbitrary optical systems. The freeform is created by a set of primitive surface elements, which are generalized Cartesian ovals adapted to the given optical system. Those primitives are determined by Hamiltonian theory of ray optics. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by some examples, e.g., freeform lenses with collimating front elements.

  4. Optical System Critical Design Review (CDR) Flight Software Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorrami, Mori

    2006-01-01

    The Mid Infrared Instrument (MIRI FSW presentation covers: (1) Optical System FSW only and Cooling System FSW is covered at its CDR (2) Requirements & Interfaces (3) Relationship with the ISIM FSW (4) FSW Design Drivers & Solutions.

  5. Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) : Volume 1. Advanced System Specification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-12-01

    A performance specification is provided in this report for an Optical Automatic Car Identification (OACI) scanner system which features 6% improved readability over existing industry scanner systems. It also includes the analysis and rationale which ...

  6. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  7. Geometric optics theory and design of astronomical optical systems using Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This text, now in its second edition, presents the mathematical background needed to design many optical combinations that are used in astronomical telescopes and cameras. It uses a novel approach to third-order aberration theory based on Fermat’s principle and the use of particular optical paths (called stigmatic paths) instead of rays, allowing for easier derivation of third-order formulae. Each optical combination analyzed is accompanied by a downloadable Mathematica® notebook that automates its third-order design, eliminating the need for lengthy calculations. The essential aspects of an optical system with an axis of rotational symmetry are introduced first, along with a development of Gaussian optics from Fermat’s principal. A simpler approach to third-order monochromatic aberrations based on both Fermat’s principle and stigmatic paths is then described, followed by a new chapter on fifth-order aberrations and their classification. Several specific optical devices are discussed and analyzed, incl...

  8. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  9. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  10. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  11. Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped ... Keywords. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy; quantum Hall effect; Landau levels; edge states. ... An optical fibre carries light from tunable diode laser.

  12. Optical surgical navigation system causes pulse oximeter malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masaaki; Hara, Tetsuhito; Tamai, Kenji; Shiba, Juntaro; Hotta, Kunihisa; Takeuchi, Mamoru; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    An optical surgical navigation system is used as a navigator to facilitate surgical approaches, and pulse oximeters provide valuable information for anesthetic management. However, saw-tooth waves on the monitor of a pulse oximeter and the inability of the pulse oximeter to accurately record the saturation of a percutaneous artery were observed when a surgeon started an optical navigation system. The current case is thought to be the first report of this navigation system interfering with pulse oximetry. The causes of pulse jamming and how to manage an optical navigation system are discussed.

  13. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Weiland, T.L.; Luthi, R.L.; Vickers, J.L.; Sell, W.D.; Stanley, J.A.; Honig, J.; Auerbach, J.; Hackel, R.P.; Wegner, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm 2 high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics

  14. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  15. The optical system of the proposed Chinese 12-m optical/infrared telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2017-08-01

    The lack of a large-aperture optical/infrared telescope has seriously affected the development of astronomy in China. In 2016, the authors published their concept study and suggestions for a 12-m telescope optical system. This article presents the authors' further research and some new results. Considering that this telescope should be a general-purpose telescope for a wide range of scientific goals and could be used for frontier scientific research in the future, the authors studied and designed a variety of 12-m telescope optical systems for comparison and final decision-making. In general, we still adopt our previous configuration, but the Nasmyth and prime-focus corrector systems have been greatly improved. In this article, the adaptive optics is given special attention. Ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) is adopted. It has a 14-arcmin field of view. The secondary mirror is used as the adaptive optical deformable mirror. Obviously, not all the optical systems in this telescope configuration will be used or constructed at the same stage. Some will be for the future and some are meant for research rather than for construction.

  16. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  17. Structurally integrated fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measures, R M; Glossop, N D; Lymer, J; Leblanc, M; West, J; Dubois, S; Tsaw, W; Tennyson, R C

    1989-07-01

    Progress toward the development of a fiber optic damage assessment system for composite materials is reported. This system, based on the fracture of embedded optical fibers, has been characterized with respect to the orientation and location of the optical fibers in the composite. Together with a special treatment, these parameters have been tailored to yield a system capable of detecting the threshold of damage for various impacted Kevlar/epoxy panels. The technique has been extended to measure the growth of a damage region which could arise from either impact, manufacturing flaws, or static overloading. The mechanism of optical fiber fracture has also been investigated. In addition, the influence of embedded optical fibers on the tensile and compressive strength of the composite material has been studied. Image enhanced backlighting has been shown to be a powerful and convenient method of assessing internal damage to translucent composite materials.

  18. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  19. Information Optics and Photonics Algorithms, Systems, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses applications, recent advances, and emerging areas in fields with applications in information optics and photonics systems. The objective of this book is to illustrate and discuss novel approaches, analytical techniques, models, and technologies that enhance sensing, measurement, processing, interpretation, and visualization of information using free space optics and photonics. The material in this book concentrates on integration of diverse fields for cross-disciplinary applications including bio-photonics, digitally enhanced sensing and imaging systems, multi-dimensional optical imaging and image processing, bio-inspired imaging, 3D visualization, 3D displays, imaging on the nano-scale, quantum optics, super resolution imaging, photonics for biological applications, and holographic information systems. As a result, this book is a useful resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students who work in the diverse fields comprising information optics and photonics.

  20. Optical signal processing techniques and applications of optical phase modulation in high-speed communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ning

    In recent years, optical phase modulation has attracted much research attention in the field of fiber optic communications. Compared with the traditional optical intensity-modulated signal, one of the main merits of the optical phase-modulated signal is the better transmission performance. For optical phase modulation, in spite of the comprehensive study of its transmission performance, only a little research has been carried out in terms of its functions, applications and signal processing for future optical networks. These issues are systematically investigated in this thesis. The research findings suggest that optical phase modulation and its signal processing can greatly facilitate flexible network functions and high bandwidth which can be enjoyed by end users. In the thesis, the most important physical-layer technology, signal processing and multiplexing, are investigated with optical phase-modulated signals. Novel and advantageous signal processing and multiplexing approaches are proposed and studied. Experimental investigations are also reported and discussed in the thesis. Optical time-division multiplexing and demultiplexing. With the ever-increasing demand on communication bandwidth, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) is an effective approach to upgrade the capacity of each wavelength channel in current optical systems. OTDM multiplexing can be simply realized, however, the demultiplexing requires relatively complicated signal processing and stringent timing control, and thus hinders its practicability. To tackle this problem, in this thesis a new OTDM scheme with hybrid DPSK and OOK signals is proposed. Experimental investigation shows this scheme can greatly enhance the demultiplexing timing misalignment and improve the demultiplexing performance, and thus make OTDM more practical and cost effective. All-optical signal processing. In current and future optical communication systems and networks, the data rate per wavelength has been approaching

  1. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-01-01

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive

  2. The analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such techniques include electrical and optical dispersion compensation, optical and electrical pulse shaping, and modifications of the fibre dispersion profiles. Some of these techniques and methods have resulted into very effective but expensive systems, and it has been difficult to adopt them. Others have resulted into ...

  3. Optical System Design and Integration of the Mercury Laser Altimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Scott, V. Stanley, III; Schmidt, Stephen; Britt, Jamie; Mamakos, William; Trunzo, Raymond; Cavanaugh, John; Miller, Roger

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Laser Altimeter (MLA). developed for the 2004 MESSENGER mission to Mercury, is designed to measure the planet's topography via laser ranging. A description of the MLA optical system and its measured optical performance during instrument-level and spacecraft-level integration and testing are presented.

  4. Security System Responsive to Optical Fiber Having Bragg Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Charles K. (Inventor); Ozcan, Meric (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    An optically responsive electronic lock is disclosed comprising an optical fiber serving as a key and having Bragg gratings placed therein. Further, an identification system is disclosed which has the optical fiber serving as means for tagging and identifying an object. The key or tagged object is inserted into a respective receptacle and the Bragg gratings cause the optical fiber to reflect a predetermined frequency spectra pattern of incident light which is detected by a decoder and compared against a predetermined spectrum to determine if an electrical signal is generated to either operate the lock or light a display of an authentication panel.

  5. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  6. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  7. Subcarrier multiplexing tolerant dispersion transmission system employing optical broadband sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Fulvio; Mora, José; Ortega, Beatriz; Capmany, José

    2009-03-16

    This paper presents a novel SCM optical transmission system for next-generation WDM-PONs combining broadband optical sources and a Mach-Zehnder interferometric structure. The approach leeds to transport RF signals up to 50 GHz being compatible with RoF systems since a second configuration has been proposed in order to overcome dispersion carrier suppression effect using DSB modulation. The theoretical analysis validates the potentiality of the system also considering the effects of the dispersion slope over the transmission window. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  8. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  9. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner

    1997-05-01

    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  10. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  11. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  12. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  13. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  14. Optical system for laser triggering of PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamil, R.A.; Seamons, L.O.; Schanwald, L.P.; Gerber, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PBFA II laser triggering optical system consists of nearly 300 optical components. These optics must be sufficiently precise to preserve the laser beam quality, as well as to equally distribute the energy of the UV laser beam to the 36, 5.5 MV gas-filled switches at precisely the same instant. Both index variation and cleanliness of the air long the laser path must be controlled. The manual alignment system is capable of alignment to better than the acceptable error of 200 microradians (laser to switches). A technique has been devised to ease the alignment procedure by using a special high gain video camera and a tool alignment telescope to view retroreflective tape targets having optical brightness gains over white surfaces of 10/sup 3/. The camera is a charge-coupled detector intensified by a double microchannel plate having an optical gain of between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 5/

  15. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Realization of first order optical systems using thin lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.; Mukunda, N.; Simon, R.

    1983-09-01

    A first order optical system is investigated in full generality within the context of wave optics. We reduce the problem to a study of the ray transfer matrices. The simplest such systems correspond to axially symmetric propagation. Realization of such systems by centrally located lenses separated by finite distances is studied. It is shown that every axially symmetric first order system can be realized using at most three lenses. Among anisotropic systems it is proven that every symplectic ray transfer matrix, and no others, can be realized using lenses and free propagations. Suggestions for further study of the general first order system are outlined. 16 references

  17. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  18. Automated Mulitple Object Optical Tracking and Recognition System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — OPTRA proposes to develop an optical tracking system that is capable of recognizing and tracking up to 50 different objects within an approximately 2 degree x 3...

  19. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  20. Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten; Larsson, David; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo

    2005-01-01

    We present investigations on 10 and 40 GHz monolithic mode-locked lasers for applications in optical communications systems. New all-active lasers with one to three quantum wells have been designed, fabricated and characterized....

  1. FTTA System Demo Using Optical Fiber-Coupled Active Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Neumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of optical and wireless systems such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF networks is the key to coping with the increasing bandwidth demands due to the increasing popularity of video and other high data rate applications. A high level of integration of optical technologies enables simple base stations with a fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA approach. In this paper, we present a complete full-duplex RoF–FTTA system consisting of integrated active fiber-coupled optical receiving and transmitting antennas that are directly connected to a standard single mode fiber optical link. Data rates up to 1 Gbit/s could be shown without advanced modulation formats on a 1.5 GHz carrier frequency. The antennas as well as the whole system are explained and the results of the system experiments are discussed.

  2. Lithographically-Scribed Planar Holographic Optical CDMA Devices and Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mossberg, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    .... The present Phase II effort has harnessed new fabrication tools to perfect disruptive HBR-based multiplexer products for DoD avionics, optical communications systems computer data communications and local area networks...

  3. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  4. Digital optical feeder links system for broadband geostationary satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulenard, Sylvain; Mège, Alexandre; Fuchs, Christian; Perlot, Nicolas; Riedi, Jerome; Perdigues, Josep

    2017-02-01

    An optical link based on a multiplex of wavelengths at 1.55μm is foreseen to be a valuable solution for the feeder link of the next generation of high-throughput geostationary satellite. The main satellite operator specifications for such link are an availability of 99.9% over the year, a capacity around 500Gbit/s and to be bent-pipe. Optical ground station networks connected to Terabit/s terrestrial fibers are proposed. The availability of the optical feeder link is simulated over 5 years based on a state-of-the-art cloud mask data bank and an atmospheric turbulence strength model. Yearly and seasonal optical feeder link availabilities are derived and discussed. On-ground and on-board terminals are designed to be compliant with 10Gbit/s per optical channel data rate taking into account adaptive optic systems to mitigate the impact of atmospheric turbulences on single-mode optical fiber receivers. The forward and return transmission chains, concept and implementation, are described. These are based on a digital transparent on-off keying optical link with digitalization of the DVB-S2 and DVB-RCS signals prior to the transmission, and a forward error correcting code. In addition, the satellite architecture is described taking into account optical and radiofrequency payloads as well as their interfaces.

  5. Useful forms of the Hamiltonian for ion-optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, W.G.

    1991-04-01

    The symbiosis of differential algebra and the Lie-algebraic formulation of optics provides a set of very powerful tools for analyzing and understanding the orbit dynamics of complex accelerators up to very high orders. In order to use these tools effectively it is usually necessary to express the Hamiltonian in the appropriate coordinate system. In this report, the relativistic Hamiltonian is derived in curvilinear (the fundamental coordinate system for ion-optics), Cartesian and polar coordinates, in forms suitable for solving problems in ion optics and accelerator physics both with and without the help of differential algebra

  6. Optical Assembly and Characterization System for Nano-Photonics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    freedoms) 3 (3) Carried out initial research work related to semiconductor membrane transfer printing. Based on the customer designed PDMS stamp...for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The system has the following features: Micro-precision alignment with integrated 50 nm...a FL300-12 Automated Alignment System was acquired from Ficontec (USA) Corporation for optical characterization and membrane printing/assembly. The

  7. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  8. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  9. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  10. A new approach for the verification of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Umair; Aravantinos, Vincent; Tahar, Sofiène

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly used in microsystems, telecommunication, aerospace and laser industry. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification poses many challenges to engineers. Tra­ditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide perfectly accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about them by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as an alternative to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical system analysis in a comprehensive framework. In particular, this paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of ray optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. Based on the multivariate analysis library of HOL Light, we formalize the notion of light ray and optical system (by defining medium interfaces, mirrors, lenses, etc.), i.e., we express these notions mathematically in the software. This allows us to derive general theorems about the behavior of light in such optical systems. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness, we present the stability analysis of a Fabry-Perot resonator.

  11. Geometrical optics in correlated imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Dezhong; Xiong Jun; Wang Kaige

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the geometrical optics of correlated imaging for two kinds of spatial correlations corresponding, respectively, to a classical thermal light source and a quantum two-photon entangled source. Due to the different features in the second-order spatial correlation, the two sources obey different imaging equations. The quantum entangled source behaves as a mirror, whereas the classical thermal source looks like a phase-conjugate mirror in the correlated imaging

  12. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  13. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol; Cha, Jae Sang

    2008-01-01

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications

  14. Iterative Decoding for an Optical CDMA based Laser communication System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kim, Eun Cheol [Kwangwoon Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Sang [Seoul National Univ. of Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-11-15

    An optical CDMA(code division multiple access)based Laser communication system has attracted much attention since it requires minimal optical Laser signal processing and it is virtually delay free, while from the theoretical point of view, its performance depends on the auto and cross correlation properties of employed sequences. Various kinds of channel coding schemes for optical CDMA based Laser communication systems have been proposed and analyzed to compensate nonideal channel and receiver conditions in impaired photon channels. In this paper, we propose and analyze an iterative decoding of optical CDMA based Laser communication signals for both shot noise limited and thermal noise limited systems. It is assumed that optical channel is an intensity modulated (IM)channel and direct detection scheme is employed to detect the received optical signal. The performance is evaluated in terms of bit error probability and throughput. It is demonstrated that the BER and throughput performance is substantially improved with interleaver length for a fixed code rate and with alphabet size of PPM (pulse position modulation). Also, the BER and throughput performance is significantly enhanced with the number of iterations for decoding process. The results in this paper can be applied to the optical CDMA based Laser communication network with multiple access applications.

  15. Specification and testing of optics for LIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunita; Sridhar, G.; Rawat, V.S.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical component specification for the high average power lasers and laser beam transport system used in the laser isotope separation demonstration facility must address demanding system performance requirements. In a typical demonstration facility a few thousand of commercial and custom optical components are required. The optical system is expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability. Evaluation and testing of optical components used in LIS plant is critical for qualification of suppliers and assurance of performance in the actual process. The stringent specifications require specialized test equipment and techniques, which are not routine. Careful planning with the optics manufacturer, detailed quality assurance plan, comprehensive procedures for testing and evaluation, and a plan for corrective action are required. The specifications are given on material characteristics, surface quality and flatness, reflectance or transmittance and high average power laser damage. Our approach to specifying, testing the performance characteristics and assuring quality of optical components required for the technology demonstration of laser based isotopic clean-up of 233 U project is presented. (author)

  16. TV-acquired optical diagnostics systems on ATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Jackson, C.H.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on optical system developments on the ATA and their applications to ATA beam characterization. Television (TV)-acquired optical diagnostics data provide spatial and temporal properties of the ATA beam that complements recorded information from other types of sensors, such as, beam-wall current monitors, x-ray probes, and rf probes. The ATA beam operates: (1) in the normal mode at 50-MeV, 10-kA at a 1-Hz rate; and (2) in the 1-KHz burst mode (for 10-pulses) at a 0.5 Hz rate. The beam has a 70-ns pulse width in vacuum propagation; however, beam-head erosion will occur in atmospheric propagation, thus limiting the pulse width to less than 50-ns. Various optical systems are used for ATA diagnostics. Optical-imaging provides a convenient measurement in a single pulse of the 2-dimensional profile of the beam intensity. It can also provide multiple 2-D framing in a single pulse. In some studies it may be desirable to study optical events with temporal resolution less than 100-ps with 1-dimensional streak cameras. Spatially integrated data from phototube cameras can also be used for background measurement applications as well as for single pixel monitoring. The optical line-of-sight (LOS) configurations have been made versatile to accommodate a large number of options for the various optical systems

  17. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  18. The control of an optical hyper-chaotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shumin; Tian Lixin; Wang Xuedi

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the problem of hyper-chaos control of an optical system. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, a non-autonomous feedback controller is designed. The proposed controller ensures that the hyper-chaotic system will be asymptotically stable. Numerical simulation of the original and the controlled system is provided to show the effectiveness of our method

  19. A computer program to evaluate optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, D.

    1972-01-01

    A computer program is used to evaluate a 25.4 cm X-ray telescope at a field angle of 20 minutes of arc by geometrical analysis. The object is regarded as a point source of electromagnetic radiation, and the optical surfaces are treated as boundary conditions in the solution of the electromagnetic wave propagation equation. The electric field distribution is then determined in the region of the image and the intensity distribution inferred. A comparison of wave analysis results and photographs taken through the telescope shows excellent agreement.

  20. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  1. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  2. The Wigner distribution function and Hamilton's characteristics of a geometric-optical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Four system functions have been defined for an optical system; each of these functions describes the system completely in terms of Fourier optics. From the system functions the Wigner distribution function of an optical system has been defined; although derived from Fourier optics, this Wigner

  3. Optical components of adaptive systems for improving laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, Yuri I.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kudryashov, Aleksis V.; Starikov, Fedor A.

    2008-10-01

    The short overview is given of optical equipment developed within the ISTC activity for adaptive systems of new generation allowing for correction of high-power laser beams carrying optical vortices onto the phase surface. They are the kinoform many-level optical elements of new generation, namely, special spiral phase plates and ordered rasters of microlenses, i.e. lenslet arrays, as well as the wide-aperture Hartmann-Shack sensors and bimorph deformable piezoceramics- based mirrors with various grids of control elements.

  4. Optical laser systems at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minitti, Michael P.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Coffee, Ryan N.; Edstrom, Steve; Gilevich, Sasha; Glownia, James M.; Granados, Eduardo; Hering, Philippe; Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Miahnahri, Alan; Milathianaki, Despina; Polzin, Wayne; Ratner, Daniel; Tavella, Franz; Vetter, Sharon; Welch, Marc; White, William E.; Fry, Alan R., E-mail: alanfry@slac.stanford.edu [Linac Coherent Light Source, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2015-04-22

    This manuscript serves as a reference to describe the optical laser sources and capabilities at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Ultrafast optical lasers play an essential role in exploiting the unique capabilities of recently commissioned X-ray free-electron laser facilities such as the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Pump–probe experimental techniques reveal ultrafast dynamics in atomic and molecular processes and reveal new insights in chemistry, biology, material science and high-energy-density physics. This manuscript describes the laser systems and experimental methods that enable cutting-edge optical laser/X-ray pump–probe experiments to be performed at LCLS.

  5. Performance evaluation of an IMDD optical OFDM-CDMA system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhatli, Sofien; Mrabet, Hichem; Giacoumidis, Elias; Dayoub, Iyad

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a modulation technique for passive optical networks that harnesses two-dimensional prime hop system optical code division multiplexing access (OCDMA) and optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for intensity modulation with direct-detection (IMDD) to enhance users' signal capacity in a cost-effective manner. The theoretical analysis is built from an analytical formula that takes into account both multiple-access interference and photodetector noise. Results show that OFDM-OCDMA with multiple users has similar performance to single-user conventional OOFDM for low transmitted powers.

  6. System Design, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Optical Broadband Correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-20

    shear-mode TeO2 , Model No. N45075-6-20, manufactured by Newport Electro- Optic Systems with a length of 75 pjs, acoustic direction 1110], optical...optical aperture (or useful length) TOA of our cells are shown in Table 3. The Bragg cells are shear-mode TeO2 , Model No. N45075-6-20, manufactured by...focusing or integrating (Fourier transform) lens is a laser diode glass doublet Model 06LAI013/076, from Melles Griot. Its focal length is 145 nun at 830

  7. A removable optical sealing system for application to international safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.E.

    1985-06-01

    A removable, optically verifiable sealing system for CANDU spent fuel storage facilities has been developed. The seal is based on the use of unique crystal patterns formed in a pure metal identity/integrity element and has been designed for easy installation and removal using simple tooling. Since the seal is optically verified, a wide range of commercial instruments, including those in use by the IAEA, can be used to verify it. Futhermore, optical verification allows the level of scrutiny to be matched with the degree of confidence required to be confident that spent fuel has not been diverted

  8. Magneto-optical system for high speed real time imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baziljevich, M.; Barness, D.; Sinvani, M.; Perel, E.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.

    2012-08-01

    A new magneto-optical system has been developed to expand the range of high speed real time magneto-optical imaging. A special source for the external magnetic field has also been designed, using a pump solenoid to rapidly excite the field coil. Together with careful modifications of the cryostat, to reduce eddy currents, ramping rates reaching 3000 T/s have been achieved. Using a powerful laser as the light source, a custom designed optical assembly, and a high speed digital camera, real time imaging rates up to 30 000 frames per seconds have been demonstrated.

  9. The Impact Of Optical Storage Technology On Image Processing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garges, Daniel T.; Durbin, Gerald T.

    1984-09-01

    The recent announcement of commercially available high density optical storage devices will have a profound impact on the information processing industry. Just as the initial introduction of random access storage created entirely new processing strategies, optical technology will allow dramatic changes in the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of engineering drawings and other pictorial or text-based documents. Storage Technology Corporation has assumed a leading role in this arena with the introduction of the 7600 Optical Storage Subsystem, and the formation of StorageTek Integrated Systems, a subsidiary chartered to incorporate this new technology into deliverable total systems. This paper explores the impact of optical storage technology from the perspective of a leading-edge manufacturer and integrator.

  10. Respiratory monitoring system based on fiber optic macro bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Widyakinanti, Astari; Dhia, Arika; Gumelar, Muhammad Raditya; Widianto, Arif; Randy, Muhammad; Soedibyo, Harry

    2018-02-01

    We proposed a respiratory monitoring system for living activities in human body based on fiber optic macro-bending for laboratory scale. The respiration sensor consists of a single-mode optical fiber and operating on a wavelength at around 1550 nm. The fiber optic was integrated into an elastic fabric placed on the chest and stomach of the monitored human subject. Deformations of the flexible textile involving deformations of the fiber optic bending curvature, which was proportional to the chest and stomach expansion. The deformation of the fiber was detected using photodetector and processed using microcontroller PIC18F14K50. The results showed that this system able to display various respiration pattern and rate for sleeping, and after walking and running activities in real time.

  11. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  12. Nodal aberration theory for wild-filed asymmetric optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Cheng, Xuemin; Hao, Qun

    2016-10-01

    Nodal Aberration Theory (NAT) was used to calculate the zero field position in Full Field Display (FFD) for the given aberration term. Aiming at wide-filed non-rotational symmetric decentered optical systems, we have presented the nodal geography behavior of the family of third-order and fifth-order aberrations. Meanwhile, we have calculated the wavefront aberration expressions when one optical element in the system is tilted, which was not at the entrance pupil. By using a three-piece-cellphone lens example in optical design software CodeV, the nodal geography is testified under several situations; and the wavefront aberrations are calculated when the optical element is tilted. The properties of the nodal aberrations are analyzed by using Fringe Zernike coefficients, which are directly related with the wavefront aberration terms and usually obtained by real ray trace and wavefront surface fitting.

  13. A fiber optic synchronization system for LUX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, R.B.; Staples, J.W.; Doolittle, L.R.

    2004-01-01

    The LUX femtosecond light source concept would support pump-probe experiments that need to synchronize laser light pulses with electron-beam-generated X-ray pulses to less than 50 fs at the experimenter endstations. To synchronize multiple endstation lasers with the X-ray pulse, we are developing a fiber-distributed optical timing network. A high frequency clock signal is distributed via fiber to RF cavities (controlling X-ray probe pulse timing) and mode-locked lasers at endstations (controlling pump pulse timing). The superconducting cavities are actively locked to the optical clock phase. Most of the RF timing error is contained within a 10 kHz bandwidth, so these errors and any others affecting X-ray pulse timing (such as RF gun phase) can be detected and transmitted digitally to correct laser timing at the endstations. Time delay through the fibers will be stabilized by comparing a retro-reflected pulse from the experimenter endstation end with a reference pulse from the sending en d, and actively controlling the fiber length

  14. Threshold-Based Multiple Optical Signal Selection Scheme for Free-Space Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexing Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Sung Sik; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Zhang, Lin; Ko, Young-Chai

    2017-01-01

    We propose a threshold-based multiple optical signal selection scheme (TMOS) for free-space optical wavelength division multiplexing systems. With this scheme, we can obtain higher spectral efficiency while reducing the possible complexity

  15. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  16. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  17. Nonlinear Fourier transform for dual-polarization optical communication system

    OpenAIRE

    Gaiarin, Simone

    2018-01-01

    New services and applications are causing an exponential increase in the internet traffic. In a few years, the current fiber-optic communication system infrastructure will not be able to meet this demand because fiber nonlinearity dramatically limits the information transmission rate. Eigenvalue communication is considered an emerging paradigm in fiber-optic communications that could potentially overcome these limitations. It relies on a mathematical technique called “inverse scattering trans...

  18. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  19. All-optical delay technique for supporting multiple antennas in a hybrid optical - wireless transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prince, Kamau; Chiuchiarelli, A; Presi, M

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency.......We introduce a novel continuously-variable optical delay technique to support beam-forming wireless communications systems using antenna arrays. We demonstrate delay with 64-QAM modulated signals at a rate of 15 Msymbol/sec with 2.5 GHz carrier frequency....

  20. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  1. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareło, K; Górecka-Drzazga, A; Dziuban, J A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm 3 ) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm 2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  2. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilic, D. Gul [Physics Department, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Sakiroglu, S., E-mail: serpil.sakiroglu@deu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey); Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U. [Department of Optical Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Kasapoglu, E. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sari, H. [Department of Primary Education, Faculty of Education, Cumhuriyet University, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Sokmen, I. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Dokuz Eylül University, 35390 Izmir (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  3. Optical response in a laser-driven quantum pseudodot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, D. Gul; Sakiroglu, S.; Ungan, F.; Yesilgul, U.; Kasapoglu, E.; Sari, H.; Sokmen, I.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate theoretically the intense laser-induced optical absorption coefficients and refractive index changes in a two-dimensional quantum pseudodot system under an uniform magnetic field. The effects of non-resonant, monochromatic intense laser field upon the system are treated within the framework of high-frequency Floquet approach in which the system is supposed to be governed by a laser-dressed potential. Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients and relative changes in the refractive index are obtained by means of the compact-density matrix approach and iterative method. The results of numerical calculations for a typical GaAs quantum dot reveal that the optical response depends strongly on the magnitude of external magnetic field and characteristic parameters of the confinement potential. Moreover, we have demonstrated that the intense laser field modifies the confinement and thereby causes remarkable changes in the linear and nonlinear optical properties of the system.

  4. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3D vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.B.; Gallman, P.G.; Slotwinski, A.R.; Wagner, K.; Weaver, S.; Xu, Jieping

    1996-01-01

    This CLVS will provide a substantial advance in high speed computer vision performance to support robotic Environmental Management (EM) operations. This 3D system employs a compact fiber optic based scanner and operator at a 128 x 128 pixel frame at one frame per second with a range resolution of 1 mm over its 1.5 meter working range. Using acousto-optic deflectors, the scanner is completely randomly addressable. This can provide live 3D monitoring for situations where it is necessary to update once per second. This can be used for decontamination and decommissioning operations in which robotic systems are altering the scene such as in waste removal, surface scarafacing, or equipment disassembly and removal. The fiber- optic coherent laser radar based system is immune to variations in lighting, color, or surface shading, which have plagued the reliability of existing 3D vision systems, while providing substantially superior range resolution

  5. Mounting system for optical frequency reference cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notcutt, Mark (Inventor); Hall, John L. (Inventor); Ma, Long-Sheng (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A technique for reducing the vibration sensitivity of laser-stabilizing optical reference cavities is based upon an improved design and mounting method for the cavity, wherein the cavity is mounted vertically. It is suspended at one plane, around the spacer cylinder, equidistant from the mirror ends of the cavity. The suspension element is a collar of an extremely low thermal expansion coefficient material, which surrounds the spacer cylinder and contacts it uniformly. Once the collar has been properly located, it is cemented in place so that the spacer cylinder is uniformly supported and does not have to be squeezed at all. The collar also includes a number of cavities partially bored into its lower flat surface, around the axial bore. These cavities are support points, into which mounting base pins will be inserted. Hence the collar is supported at a minimum of three points.

  6. Microstructured optical fibers for gas sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challener, William Albert; Choudhury, Niloy; Palit, Sabarni

    2017-10-17

    Microstructured optical fiber (MOF) includes a cladding extending a length between first and second ends. The cladding includes an inner porous microstructure that at least partially surrounds a hollow core. A perimeter contour of the hollow core has a non-uniform radial distance from a center axis of the cladding such that first segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour have a shorter radial distance from the center axis relative to second segments of the cladding along the perimeter contour. The cladding receives and propagates light energy through the hollow core, and the inner porous microstructure substantially confines the light energy within the hollow core. The cladding defines at least one port hole that extends radially from an exterior surface of the cladding to the hollow core. Each port hole penetrates the perimeter contour of the hollow core through one of the second segments of the cladding.

  7. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  8. Optimization of a particle optical system in a mutilprocessor environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Lei; Yin Hanchun; Wang Baoping; Tong Linsu

    2002-01-01

    In the design of a charged particle optical system, many geometrical and electric parameters have to be optimized to improve the performance characteristics. In every optimization cycle, the electromagnetic field and particle trajectories have to be calculated. Therefore, the optimization of a charged particle optical system is limited by the computer resources seriously. Apart from this, numerical errors of calculation may also influence the convergence of merit function. This article studies how to improve the optimization of charged particle optical systems. A new method is used to determine the gradient matrix. With this method, the accuracy of the Jacobian matrix can be improved. In this paper, the charged particle optical system is optimized with a Message Passing Interface (MPI). The electromagnetic field, particle trajectories and gradients of optimization variables are calculated on networks of workstations. Therefore, the speed of optimization has been increased largely. It is possible to design a complicated charged particle optical system with optimum quality on a MPI environment. Finally, an electron gun for a cathode ray tube has been optimized on a MPI environment to verify the method proposed in this paper

  9. Optical transfection using an endoscope-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2011-02-01

    Optical transfection is a powerful method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to biological cells. A tightly focused pulsed laser beam may transiently change the permeability of a cell membrane to facilitate the delivery of foreign genetic material into cells. We report the first realization of an endoscope-like integrated system for optical transfection. An imaging fiber (coherent optical fiber bundle) with ∼ 6000 cores (pixels) embedded in a fiber cladding of ∼ 300 μm in diameter, produces an image circle (area) of ∼ 270 μm diam. This imaging fiber, with an ordered axicon lens array chemically etched at its exit face, is used for the delivery of a femtosecond laser to the cell membrane for optical transfection along with subcellular resolution imaging. A microcapillary-based microfluidic system for localized drug delivery was also combined in this miniature, flexible system. Using this novel system, a plasmid transfection efficiency up to ∼ 72% was obtained for CHO-K1 cells. This endoscope-like system opens a range of exciting applications, in particular, in the targeted in vivo optical microsurgery area.

  10. Performance of an optical identification and interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, A.; Ghosh, A. K.; Verma, P.; Cheng, S.

    2008-04-01

    A free space optics based identification and interrogation system has been designed. The applications of the proposed system lie primarily in areas which require a secure means of mutual identification and information exchange between optical readers and tags. Conventional RFIDs raise issues regarding security threats, electromagnetic interference and health safety. The security of RF-ID chips is low due to the wide spatial spread of radio waves. Malicious nodes can read data being transmitted on the network, if they are in the receiving range. The proposed system provides an alternative which utilizes the narrow paraxial beams of lasers and an RSA-based authentication scheme. These provide enhanced security to communication between a tag and the base station or reader. The optical reader can also perform remote identification and the tag can be read from a far off distance, given line of sight. The free space optical identification and interrogation system can be used for inventory management, security systems at airports, port security, communication with high security systems, etc. to name a few. The proposed system was implemented with low-cost, off-the-shelf components and its performance in terms of throughput and bit error rate has been measured and analyzed. The range of operation with a bit-error-rate lower than 10-9 was measured to be about 4.5 m. The security of the system is based on the strengths of the RSA encryption scheme implemented using more than 1024 bits.

  11. Kansas Communication and Instruction System through Fiber-Optic Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Dept. of Education, Topeka.

    Schools and communities will restructure as they move into the next decade. The success of this restructuring will be dependent upon access to and sharing of quality teaching and information through an expanded communication system. One of the major two-way interactive technologies is the fiber-optic cable: a delivery system that will provide…

  12. Semiconductor Mode-Locked Lasers for Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yvind, Kresten

    2003-01-01

    The thesis deals with the design and fabrication of semiconductor mode-locked lasers for use in optical communication systems. The properties of pulse sources and characterization methods are described as well as requirements for application in communication systems. Especially, the importance of...

  13. Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.

  14. Optical bus of centralized relay protection and automation system of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article deals with the system of information collection and transfer from a centralized relay protection and automation system for medium voltage electrical units based on a passive optical bus. The issues of electromagnetic compatibility of technical devices are also considered, and the intensity of electromagnetic ...

  15. First-order optical systems with unimodular eigenvalues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.; Alieva, T.

    2006-01-01

    It is shown that a lossless first-order optical system whose real symplectic ray transformation matrix can be diagonalized and has only unimodular eigenvalues, is similar to a separable fractional Fourier transformer in the sense that the ray transformation matrices of the unimodular system and the

  16. Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation System. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayworth, Don

    The total system capability, including all the special purpose and general purpose hardware comprising the Airborne Electro-Optical Sensor Simulation (AEOSS) System, is described. The functional relationship between hardware portions is described together with interface to the software portion of the computer image generation. Supporting rationale…

  17. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  18. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  19. Turnkey Optical Inspection Systems: Getting The Job Done Right

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figler, Burton D.

    1988-05-01

    A turnkey optical inspection system is one for which the vendor, not the customer, assumes the responsibility for ensuring that the system satisfies the customer's needs. This paper presents some of the pitfalls that are encountered in reaching the goal of mutual satisfaction of vendor and customer, based on experience with actual turnkey inspection and measurement systems that have been developed for industrial assembly operations. A "roadmap" is presented for achieving a turnkey system that is satisfactory to both vendor and customer.

  20. Directional amplifier in an optomechanical system with optical gain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Cheng; Song, L. N.; Li, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Directional amplifiers are crucial nonreciprocal devices in both classical and quantum information processing. Here we propose a scheme for realizing a directional amplifier between optical and microwave fields based on an optomechanical system with optical gain, where an active optical cavity and two passive microwave cavities are coupled to a common mechanical resonator via radiation pressure. The two passive cavities are coupled via hopping interaction to facilitate the directional amplification between the active and passive cavities. We obtain the condition of achieving optical directional amplification and find that the direction of amplification can be controlled by the phase differences between the effective optomechanical couplings. The effects of the gain rate of the active cavity and the effective coupling strengths on the maximum gain of the amplifier are discussed. We show that the noise added to this amplifier can be greatly suppressed in the large cooperativity limit.

  1. Chinese National Optical Education Small Private Online Course system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, XiaoJie; Lin, YuanFang; Liu, Xu; Liu, XiangDong; Cen, ZhaoFeng; Li, XiaoTong; Zheng, XiaoDong; Wang, XiaoPing

    2017-08-01

    In order to realize the sharing of high quality course resources and promote the deep integration of `Internet+' higher education and talent training, a new on-line to off-line specialized courses teaching mode was explored in Chinese colleges and universities, which emphasized different teaching places, being organized asynchronously and localized. The latest progress of the Chinese National Optical Education Small Private On-line Course (CNOESPOC) system set up by Zhejiang University and other colleges and universities having disciplines in the field of optics and photonics under the guidance of the Chinese National Steering Committee of Optics and Photonics (CNSCOP) was introduced in this paper. The On-line to Off-line (O2O) optical education teaching resource sharing practice offers a new good example for higher education in China under the background of Internet +.

  2. Optical filtering in directly modulated/detected OOFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, C; Ortega, B; Wei, J L; Capmany, J

    2013-12-16

    This work presents a theoretical investigation on the performance of directly modulated/detected (DM/DD) optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexed (OOFDM) systems subject to optical filtering. The impact of both linear and nonlinear distortion effects are taken into account to calculate the effective signal-to-noise ratio of each subcarrier. These results are then employed to optimize the design parameters of two simple optical filtering structures: a Mach Zehnder interferometer and a uniform fiber Bragg grating, leading to a significant optical power budget improvement given by 3.3 and 3dB, respectively. These can be further increased to 5.5 and 4.2dB respectively when balanced detection configurations are employed. We find as well that this improvement is highly dependent on the clipping ratio.

  3. Evaluation of Geometrical Modulation Transfer Function in Optical Lens System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Mu Tsai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents ray tracing algorithms to evaluate the geometrical modulation transfer function (GMTF of optical lens system. There are two kinds of ray tracings methods that can be applied to help simulate the point spread function (PSF in the image plane, for example, paraxial optics and real ray tracings. The paraxial optics ray tracing is used to calculate the first-order properties such as the effective focal length (EFL and the entrance pupil position through less cost of computation. However, the PSF could have a large tolerance by only using paraxial optics ray tracing for simulation. Some formulas for real ray tracing are applied in the sagittal and tangential line spread function (LSF. The algorithms are developed to demonstrate the simulation of LSF. Finally, the GMTF is evaluated after the fast Fourier transform (FFT of the LSF.

  4. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  5. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  6. Camera, handlens, and microscope optical system for imaging and coupled optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungas, Greg S. (Inventor); Boynton, John (Inventor); Sepulveda, Cesar A. (Inventor); Nunes de Sepulveda, legal representative, Alicia (Inventor); Gursel, Yekta (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An optical system comprising two lens cells, each lens cell comprising multiple lens elements, to provide imaging over a very wide image distance and within a wide range of magnification by changing the distance between the two lens cells. An embodiment also provides scannable laser spectroscopic measurements within the field-of-view of the instrument.

  7. Optical gain in an optically driven three-level ? system in atomic Rb vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballmann, C. W.; Yakovlev, V. V.

    2018-06-01

    In this work, we report experimentally achieved optical gain of a weak probe beam in a three-level ? system in a low density Rubidium vapor cell driven by a single pump beam. The maximum measured gain of the probe beam was about 0.12%. This work could lead to new approaches for enhancing molecular spectroscopy applications.

  8. System and Method for Multi-Wavelength Optical Signal Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, Thomas D. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The system and method for multi-wavelength optical signal detection enables the detection of optical signal levels significantly below those processed at the discrete circuit level by the use of mixed-signal processing methods implemented with integrated circuit technologies. The present invention is configured to detect and process small signals, which enables the reduction of the optical power required to stimulate detection networks, and lowers the required laser power to make specific measurements. The present invention provides an adaptation of active pixel networks combined with mixed-signal processing methods to provide an integer representation of the received signal as an output. The present invention also provides multi-wavelength laser detection circuits for use in various systems, such as a differential absorption light detection and ranging system.

  9. Note: Optical receiver system for 152-channel magnetoencephalography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin-Mok; Kwon, Hyukchan; Yu, Kwon-kyu; Lee, Yong-Ho; Kim, Kiwoong [Center for Biosignals, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    An optical receiver system composing 13 serial data restore/synchronizer modules and a single module combiner converted optical 32-bit serial data into 32-bit synchronous parallel data for a computer to acquire 152-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals. A serial data restore/synchronizer module identified 32-bit channel-voltage bits from 48-bit streaming serial data, and then consecutively reproduced 13 times of 32-bit serial data, acting in a synchronous clock. After selecting a single among 13 reproduced data in each module, a module combiner converted it into 32-bit parallel data, which were carried to 32-port digital input board in a computer. When the receiver system together with optical transmitters were applied to 152-channel superconducting quantum interference device sensors, this MEG system maintained a field noise level of 3 fT/√Hz @ 100 Hz at a sample rate of 1 kSample/s per channel.

  10. Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward

    2012-01-01

    The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a

  11. Computerized literature reference system: use of an optical scanner and optical character recognition software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossef, S V; Schwartz, L H

    1990-09-01

    A computerized reference system for radiology journal articles was developed by using an IBM-compatible personal computer with a hand-held optical scanner and optical character recognition software. This allows direct entry of scanned text from printed material into word processing or data-base files. Additionally, line diagrams and photographs of radiographs can be incorporated into these files. A text search and retrieval software program enables rapid searching for keywords in scanned documents. The hand scanner and software programs are commercially available, relatively inexpensive, and easily used. This permits construction of a personalized radiology literature file of readily accessible text and images requiring minimal typing or keystroke entry.

  12. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong

    2011-11-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  13. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  14. Bright, dark and singular optical solitons in a cascaded system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Qin; Zhu, Qiuping; Yu, Hua; Liu, Yaxian; Wei, Chun; Yao, Ping; Bhrawy, Ali H; Biswas, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    This work studies nonlinear dynamics of optical solitons in a cascaded system with Kerr law nonlinearity and spatio-temporal dispersion. The mathematical model that describes the propagation of optical solitons through a cascaded system is given by the vector-coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation. It is investigated analytically using three integration algorithms. The Jacobian elliptic equation expansion method, Bernoulli equation expansion approach and Riccati equation expansion scheme are the integration tools of this model that are recruited to extract singular, bright and dark solitons. The restrictions that need to hold for the existence of these solitons are derived. (paper)

  15. Optical design of high power excimer laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yongsheng; Zhao Jun; Ma Lianying; Yi Aiping; Liu Jingru

    2011-01-01

    Image relay and angular multiplexing,which should be considered together in the design of high power excimer laser system, is reviewed. It's important to select proper illumination setup and laser beam shaping techniques. Given the complex and special angular multiplexing scheme in high power excimer laser systems, some detailed conceptual layout schemes are given in the paper. After a brief description of lens array and reflective telescope objective, which combine the incoming beams to a common focus, a new schematic layout which uses the final targeting optics and one optical delay line array, to realize multiplexing and de-multiplexing simultaneously is first proposed in the paper. (authors)

  16. Geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Lijun; Deng Zhiyong

    2009-01-01

    The geometric characteristics of aberrations of plane-symmetric optical systems are studied in detail with a wave-aberration theory. It is dealt with as an extension of the Seidel aberrations to realize a consistent aberration theory from axially symmetric to plane-symmetric systems. The aberration distribution is analyzed with the spot diagram of a ray and an aberration curve. Moreover, the root-mean-square value and the centroid of aberration distribution are discussed. The numerical results are obtained with the focusing optics of a toroidal mirror at grazing incidence.

  17. Optical sensors and their applications for probing biological systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palanco, Marta Espina

    There is a great interest in exploring and developing new optical sensitive methodologies for probing complex biological systems. In this project we developed non-invasive and sensitive biosensor strategies for studying physiologically relevant chemical and physical properties of plant and mammal......There is a great interest in exploring and developing new optical sensitive methodologies for probing complex biological systems. In this project we developed non-invasive and sensitive biosensor strategies for studying physiologically relevant chemical and physical properties of plant...... of a trapped cell. The project could provide new insights into the desired biosensor for future membrane-protein cell studies....

  18. Optical fiber sensors: Systems and applications. Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culshaw, Brian; Dakin, John

    State-of-the-art fiber-optic (FO) sensors and their applications are described in chapters contributed by leading experts. Consideration is given to interferometers, FO gyros, intensity- and wavelength-based sensors and optical actuators, Si in FO sensors, point-sensor multiplexing principles, and distributed FO sensor systems. Also examined are chemical, biochemical, and medical sensors; physical and chemical sensors for process control; FO-sensor applications in the marine and aerospace industries; FO-sensor monitoring systems for security and safety, structural integrity, NDE, and the electric-power industry; and the market situation for FO-sensor technology. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  19. Optical design of digital control systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tou, Julius T

    1963-01-01

    In this book, we study theoretical and practical aspects of computing methods for mathematical modelling of nonlinear systems. A number of computing techniques are considered, such as methods of operator approximation with any given accuracy; operator interpolation techniques including a non-Lagrange interpolation; methods of system representation subject to constraints associated with concepts of causality, memory and stationarity; methods of system representation with an accuracy that is the best within a given class of models; methods of covariance matrix estimation;methods for low-rank mat

  20. Micro optical sensor systems for sunsensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leijtens, Johan; de Boom, Kees

    2017-11-01

    Optimum application of micro system technologies allows building small sensor systems that will alter procurement strategies for spacecraft manufacturers. One example is the decreased size and cost for state of the art sunsensors. Integrated sensor systems are being designed which, through use of microsystem technology, are an order of magnitutde smaller than most current sunsensors and which hold due to the large reproducibility through batch manufacturing the promise of drastic price reduction. If the Commercial Of The Shelf (COTS) approach is adopted by satellite manufacturers, this will drastically decrease mass and cost budgets associated with sunsensing applications.

  1. The Multiaperture Optical (mao) System Based on the Apposition Principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shih-Chao

    Automation freed mankind from repeated boring labor and/or labor requiring an instantaneous response. When applied as robotics it could even free mankind from dangerous labor such as handling radioactive material. For a robot or an automated system a vision device has proven to be an important element. Almost all artificial vision systems are similar in design to the human eye with its single large lens system. In contrast, the compound eye of an insect is much smaller than the human eye. Therefore, it is proposed to imitate the insect eye in order to develop a small viewing device useful in robotic design. The basic element of the multiaperture optical system described here is a non-imaging light horn. The optical studies on the non-imaging light horn (a simulated insect eye eyelet) have been done and show that this device may produce images when several horns are used together in an array. The study also shows that with several non -imaging devices the position of an object point light source can be determined very easily. One possible realization of multiaperture optical system design based on the apposition principle is proposed and discussed. The multiaperture optical system proposed is a small, low cost device with digital image processing.

  2. An optical ASK and FSK phase diversity transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenboom, H.; Vanetten, W.; Dekrom, W. H. C.; Vanbennekom, P.; Huijskens, F.; Niessen, L.; Deleijer, F.

    1992-12-01

    The results of a contribution to an electrooptical project for a 'phase diversity system', covering ASK and FSK (Amplitude and Frequency Shift Keying), are described. Specifications of subsystems, and tolerances and consequences of these tolerances for the final system performance, were derived. For the optical network of the phase diversity receiver, a manufacturing set up for three by three fused biconical taper fiber couplers was developed. In order to characterize planar optical networks, a set up was constructed to measure the phase relations at 1523 nm. The optical frequency of the local oscillator laser has to be locked on to the frequency of the received optical signal. This locking circuit is described. A complete optical three by three phase diversity transmission system was developed that can be used as a testbed for subsystems. The sensitivity of the receiver at a bit error rate of 10 to the minus 9th power is -47.2 dBm, which is 4.2 dB better than the value of the specifications.

  3. Development of optical fiber frequency and time distribution systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutes, G.

    1982-01-01

    The development of ultra stable optical fiber distribution systems for the dissemination of frequency and timing references is reported. The ultimate design goals for these systems are a frequency stability of 10 to the -17 power for tau or = 100 sec and time stability of + or - 0.1 ns for 1 year and operation over distances or = 30 km. A prototype system is reviewed and progress is discussed.

  4. DWDM Fiber-Wireless Access System with Centralized Optical Frequency Comb-based RF Carrier Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pang, Xiaodan; Beltrán, Marta; Sánchez, José

    2013-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an optical wireless DWDM system at 60 GHz with optical incoherent heterodyne up-conversion using an optical frequency comb. Multiple users with wireline and wireless services are simultaneously supported....

  5. Transparent thin film polarizing and optical control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson V. Tabiryan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We show that a diffractive waveplate can be combined with a phase retardation film for fully converting light of arbitrary polarization state into a polarized light. Incorporating a photonic bandgap layer into a system of such polarizers that unify different polarization states in the input light into a single polarization state at its output, rather than absorbing or reflecting half of it, we developed and demonstrated a polarization-independent optical controller capable of switching between transmittive and reflective states. The transition between those states is smoothly controlled with low-voltage and low-power sources. Using versatile fabrication methods, this “universally polarizing optical controller” can be integrated into a thin package compatible with a variety of display, spatial light modulation, optical communication, imaging and other photonics systems.

  6. Nonimaging optics maximizing exergy for hybrid solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Jiang, Lun; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Ferry, Jonathan; Cygan, David; Abbasi, Hamid; Kozlov, Alexandr; Kirk, Alexander; Elarde, Victor; Osowski, Mark

    2016-09-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-Merced), Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a hybrid solar system using a nonimaging compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) that maximizes the exergy by delivering direct electricity and on-demand heat. The hybrid solar system technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles and uses reflective liftoff cooled double junction (2J) InGaP/GaAs solar cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The nonimaging optics provides additional concentration towards the high temperature thermal stream and enables it to operate efficiently at 650 °C while the solar cell is maintained at 40 °C to operate as efficiently as possible.

  7. Active polarization imaging system based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian; Sun, Jianfeng; Lu, Zhiyong; Zhou, Yu; Luan, Zhu; Hou, Peipei; Liu, liren

    2017-08-01

    Active polarization imaging technology has recently become the hot research field all over the world, which has great potential application value in the military and civil area. By introducing active light source, the Mueller matrix of the target can be calculated according to the incident light and the emitted or reflected light. Compared with conventional direct detection technology, optical heterodyne detection technology have higher receiving sensitivities, which can obtain the whole amplitude, frequency and phase information of the signal light. In this paper, an active polarization imaging system will be designed. Based on optical heterodyne balanced receiver, the system can acquire the horizontal and vertical polarization of reflected optical field simultaneously, which contain the polarization characteristic of the target. Besides, signal to noise ratio and imaging distance can be greatly improved.

  8. Present status of metrology of electro-optical surveillance systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrzanowski, K.

    2017-10-01

    There has been a significant progress in equipment for testing electro-optical surveillance systems over the last decade. Modern test systems are increasingly computerized, employ advanced image processing and offer software support in measurement process. However, one great challenge, in form of relative low accuracy, still remains not solved. It is quite common that different test stations, when testing the same device, produce different results. It can even happen that two testing teams, while working on the same test station, with the same tested device, produce different results. Rapid growth of electro-optical technology, poor standardization, limited metrology infrastructure, subjective nature of some measurements, fundamental limitations from laws of physics, tendering rules and advances in artificial intelligence are major factors responsible for such situation. Regardless, next decade should bring significant improvements, since improvement in measurement accuracy is needed to sustain fast growth of electro-optical surveillance technology.

  9. Optical character recognition systems for different languages with soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Chaudhuri, Arindam; Badelia, Pratixa; K Ghosh, Soumya

    2017-01-01

    The book offers a comprehensive survey of soft-computing models for optical character recognition systems. The various techniques, including fuzzy and rough sets, artificial neural networks and genetic algorithms, are tested using real texts written in different languages, such as English, French, German, Latin, Hindi and Gujrati, which have been extracted by publicly available datasets. The simulation studies, which are reported in details here, show that soft-computing based modeling of OCR systems performs consistently better than traditional models. Mainly intended as state-of-the-art survey for postgraduates and researchers in pattern recognition, optical character recognition and soft computing, this book will be useful for professionals in computer vision and image processing alike, dealing with different issues related to optical character recognition.

  10. Characterization of optical systems for the ALPS II experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, Aaron D.; Baehre, Robin; Willke, Benno; Hannover Univ.

    2016-09-01

    ALPS II is a light shining through a wall style experiment that will use the principle of resonant enhancement to boost the conversion and reconversion probabilities of photons to relativistic WISPs. This will require the use of long baseline low-loss optical cavities. Very high power build up factors in the cavities must be achieved in order to reach the design sensitivity of ALPS II. This necessitates a number of different sophisticated optical and control systems to maintain the resonance and ensure maximal coupling between the laser and the cavity. In this paper we report on the results of the characterization of these optical systems with a 20m cavity and discuss the results in the context of ALPS II.

  11. SAFARI optical system architecture and design concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pastor, Carmen; Jellema, Willem; Zuluaga-Ramírez, Pablo; Arrazola, David; Fernández-Rodriguez, M.; Belenguer, Tomás; González Fernández, Luis M.; Audley, Michael D.; Evers, Jaap; Eggens, Martin; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Najarro, Francisco; Roelfsema, P.

    2016-01-01

    SpicA FAR infrared Instrument, SAFARI, is one of the instruments planned for the SPICA mission. The SPICA mission is the next great leap forward in space-based far-infrared astronomy and will study the evolution of galaxies, stars and planetary systems. SPICA will utilize a deeply cooled 2.5m-class

  12. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  13. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging. PMID:27213392

  14. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Eom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT and optical coherence tomography (OCT. The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF. The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  15. Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes-Ramirez, Harold

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

  16. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  17. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  18. Advanced MEMS systems for optical communication and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M N; Sumner, R; Freedman, D S; Datta, M; Kani, N; Miller, P; Stewart, J B; Cornelissen, S

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication and adaptive optics have emerged as two important uses of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices based on electrostatic actuation. Each application uses a mirror whose surface is altered by applying voltages of up to 300 V. Previous generations of adaptive-optic mirrors were large (∼1 m) and required the use of piezoelectric transducers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a new class of small MEMS mirrors (∼1 cm) were developed. These mirrors are now a commercially available, mature technology. This paper describes three advanced applications of MEMS mirrors. The first is a mirror used for corona-graphic imaging, whereby an interferometric telescope blocks the direct light from a distant star so that nearby objects such as planets can be seen. We have developed a key component of the system: a 144-channel, fully-scalable, high-voltage multiplexer that reduces power consumption to only a few hundred milliwatts. In a second application, a MEMS mirror comprises part of a two-way optical communication system in which only one node emits a laser beam. The other node is passive, incorporating a retro-reflective, electrostatic MEMS mirror that digitally encodes the reflected beam. In a third application, the short (∼100-ns) pulses of a commercially-available laser rangefinder are returned by the MEMS mirror as a digital data stream. Suitable low-power drive systems comprise part of the system design.

  19. A beamforming system based on the acousto-optic effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torras Rosell, Antoni; Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Jacobsen, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Beamforming techniques are usually based on microphone arrays. The present work uses a beam of light as a sensor element, and describes a beamforming system that locates sound sources based on the acousto-optic effect, this is, the interaction between sound and light. The use of light as a sensin...

  20. Wavelet-Based Processing for Fiber Optic Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamory, Philip J. (Inventor); Parker, Allen R., Jr. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method of processing conglomerate data. The method employs a Triband Wavelet Transform that decomposes and decimates the conglomerate signal to obtain a final result. The invention may be employed to improve performance of Optical Frequency Domain Reflectometry systems.

  1. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated...

  2. Temporal Probabilistic Constellation Shaping for WDM Optical Communication Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Forchhammer, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Finite state machine sources transmitting QPSK are studied as input to WDM optical fiber systems with ideal distributed Raman amplification. The probabilities of successive constellation symbols are shaped for nonlinear transmission and gains of around 500km (5-10%) are demonstrated

  3. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  4. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  5. PYROLASER - PYROLASER OPTICAL PYROMETER OPERATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, F. E.

    1994-01-01

    The PYROLASER package is an operating system for the Pyrometer Instrument Company's Pyrolaser. There are 6 individual programs in the PYROLASER package: two main programs, two lower level subprograms, and two programs which, although independent, function predominantly as macros. The package provides a quick and easy way to setup, control, and program a standard Pyrolaser. Temperature and emissivity measurements may be either collected as if the Pyrolaser were in the manual operations mode, or displayed on real time strip charts and stored in standard spreadsheet format for post-test analysis. A shell is supplied to allow macros, which are test-specific, to be easily added to the system. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program provides full on-screen remote operation capabilities, thus allowing the user to operate the Pyrolaser from the computer just as it would be operated manually. The Pyrolaser Simple Operation program also allows the use of "quick starts". Quick starts provide an easy way to permit routines to be used as setup macros for specific applications or tests. The specific procedures required for a test may be ordered in a sequence structure and then the sequence structure can be started with a simple button in the cluster structure provided. One quick start macro is provided for continuous Pyrolaser operation. A subprogram, Display Continuous Pyr Data, is used to display and store the resulting data output. Using this macro, the system is set up for continuous operation and the subprogram is called to display the data in real time on strip charts. The data is simultaneously stored in a spreadsheet format. The resulting spreadsheet file can be opened in any one of a number of commercially available spreadsheet programs. The Read Continuous Pyrometer program is provided as a continuously run subprogram for incorporation of the Pyrolaser software into a process control or feedback control scheme in a multi-component system. The program requires the

  6. An adaptive optics imaging system designed for clinical use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Yang, Qiang; Saito, Kenichi; Nozato, Koji; Williams, David R.; Rossi, Ethan A.

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate a new imaging system that addresses several major problems limiting the clinical utility of conventional adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy (AOSLO), including its small field of view (FOV), reliance on patient fixation for targeting imaging, and substantial post-processing time. We previously showed an efficient image based eye tracking method for real-time optical stabilization and image registration in AOSLO. However, in patients with poor fixation, eye motion causes the FOV to drift substantially, causing this approach to fail. We solve that problem here by tracking eye motion at multiple spatial scales simultaneously by optically and electronically integrating a wide FOV SLO (WFSLO) with an AOSLO. This multi-scale approach, implemented with fast tip/tilt mirrors, has a large stabilization range of ± 5.6°. Our method consists of three stages implemented in parallel: 1) coarse optical stabilization driven by a WFSLO image, 2) fine optical stabilization driven by an AOSLO image, and 3) sub-pixel digital registration of the AOSLO image. We evaluated system performance in normal eyes and diseased eyes with poor fixation. Residual image motion with incremental compensation after each stage was: 1) ~2–3 arc minutes, (arcmin) 2) ~0.5–0.8 arcmin and, 3) ~0.05–0.07 arcmin, for normal eyes. Performance in eyes with poor fixation was: 1) ~3–5 arcmin, 2) ~0.7–1.1 arcmin and 3) ~0.07–0.14 arcmin. We demonstrate that this system is capable of reducing image motion by a factor of ~400, on average. This new optical design provides additional benefits for clinical imaging, including a steering subsystem for AOSLO that can be guided by the WFSLO to target specific regions of interest such as retinal pathology and real-time averaging of registered images to eliminate image post-processing. PMID:26114033

  7. 40 Gb/s optical transmission systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buxens Azcoaga, Alvaro Juan; Nielsen, Steen Krogh

    2003-01-01

    ; chromatic dispersion, Polarization Mode Dispersion (PMD), Self Phase Modulation (SPM) and linear or non-linear crosstalk among others. Regarding chromatic dispersion, sufficient evidence is presented for the need in 40 Gb/s systems of either modulation formats that allow for higher tolerance than....... Using a 9 ps pulsed RZ Tx, transmission is achieved over a 400 km link consisting of 5 spans of 80 km standard-SMF with a Quality (Q) factor of 17.7 dB, while for NRZ it is reduced to 15 dB. In another experimental verification over 40 km spans of standard-SMF, we could achieve transmission over 6 spans...

  8. Ion optics in an ion source system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Salam, F W; Moustafa, O A; El-Khabeary, H [Accelerators Dept, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)

    1997-12-31

    An analysis of ion beams from an ion source which consisted of a hemispherical anode, a plane earthed cathode, and a focusing electrode has been carried out. The focal properties of such electrode arrangement were studied using axially symmetric fields. Axial and radial electric fields were obtained as functions of the axial distance. It was found that the radial component of the gradient of potential pushes the ions towards the axis, which indicates the convergent action of the system. The effect of voltage variation between the boundary and the focusing electrode on the position of the plasma boundary are given using the experimental data of the ion source characteristics and its geometrical parameters. The advantages of plasma diffusing outside the source through a small aperture were used by applying a potential to the focusing electrode. It was possible to extract a large ion current from the expanded plasma. The system constituted a lens with a focal length of 29.4 mm. 7 figs.

  9. High-speed photodetectors in optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zeping; Liu, Jianguo; Liu, Yu; Zhu, Ninghua

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a review and discussion for high-speed photodetectors and their applications on optical communications and microwave photonics. A detailed and comprehensive demonstration of high-speed photodetectors from development history, research hotspots to packaging technologies is provided to the best of our knowledge. A few typical applications based on photodetectors are also illustrated, such as free-space optical communications, radio over fiber and millimeter terahertz signal generation systems. Project supported by the Preeminence Youth Fund of China (No. 61625504).

  10. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  11. Detection system using scintillating optical fibers and image tube readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alspector, J.; Borenstein, S.

    1979-01-01

    The hodoscope subgroup has studied a detection system consisting of bundles of optical fibers with readout via image tubes. The basic building block is an optical fiber with a scintillator inner core. The inner core has refractive index n/sub o/ (1.58 for plastic scintillator), and the outer sheath has a low index (approx. 1.4). Light is created in the core by passage of a particle track; if the light strikes the sheath at an angle greater than the critical angle phi/sub c/, it is trapped in the fiber until it finds its way to the photon detector

  12. Optical Components for Reconfigurable Photonic Networks and Mobile Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Rommel, Simon

    communication needs to move to the millimeter-wavelength or sub-terahertz range. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along...... processing, high speed modulators and photodiodes and optical switching technologies. A deep overview on the state-of-the-art and current efforts towards optical components enabling photonic reconfigurability will be given during the presentation....

  13. Design of optoelectronic system for optical diffusion tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erakhtin Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores issues connected with the circuit design of a device for optical diffusion tomography, which we are currently designing. We plan to use the device in experimental studies for the development of a faster method of brain hematoma detection. We reviewed currently existing methods for emergency diagnosis of hematomas, primarily the Infrascanner model 2000, for which we identified weaknesses, and outlined suggestions for improvements. This article describes the method of scanning tissues based on a triangulated arrangement of sources and receivers of optical radiation, and it discusses the optoelectronic system that implements that principle.

  14. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu

  15. Ring resonator systems to perform optical communication enhancement using soliton

    CERN Document Server

    Amiri, Iraj Sadegh

    2014-01-01

    The title explain new technique of secured and high capacity optical communication signals generation by using the micro and nano ring resonators. The pulses are known as soliton pulses which are more secured due to having the properties of chaotic and dark soliton signals with ultra short bandwidth. They have high capacity due to the fact that ring resonators are able to generate pulses in the form of solitons in multiples and train form. These pulses generated by ring resonators are suitable in optical communication due to use the compact and integrated rings system, easy to control, flexibi

  16. Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Yu, Xiao; Kim, Myung K.

    2013-01-01

    A Fourier transform digital holographic adaptive optics imaging system and its basic principles are proposed. The CCD is put at the exact Fourier transform plane of the pupil of the eye lens. The spherical curvature introduced by the optics except the eye lens itself is eliminated. The CCD is also at image plane of the target. The point-spread function of the system is directly recorded, making it easier to determine the correct guide-star hologram. Also, the light signal will be stronger at the CCD, especially for phase-aberration sensing. Numerical propagation is avoided. The sensor aperture has nothing to do with the resolution and the possibility of using low coherence or incoherent illumination is opened. The system becomes more efficient and flexible. Although it is intended for ophthalmic use, it also shows potential application in microscopy. The robustness and feasibility of this compact system are demonstrated by simulations and experiments using scattering objects. PMID:23262541

  17. An Antenna Measurement System Based on Optical Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryohei Hosono

    2013-01-01

    the advantage of the system is demonstrated by measuring an ultra-wideband (UWB antenna both by the optical and electrical feeding systems and comparing with a calculated result. Ripples in radiation pattern due to the electrical feeding are successfully suppressed by the optical feeding. For example, in a radiation measurement on the azimuth plane at 3 GHz, ripple amplitude of 1.0 dB that appeared in the electrical feeding is reduced to 0.3 dB. In addition, a circularly polarized (CP antenna is successfully measured by the proposed system to show that the system is available not only for amplitude but also phase measurements.

  18. Initial study and verification of a distributed fiber optic corrosion monitoring system for transportation structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    For this study, a novel optical fiber sensing system was developed and tested for the monitoring of corrosion in : transportation systems. The optical fiber sensing system consists of a reference long period fiber gratings (LPFG) sensor : for corrosi...

  19. Integrated optical measurement system for fluorescence spectroscopy in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hübner, Jörg; Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2001-01-01

    A transportable miniaturized fiber-pigtailed measurement system is presented which allows quantitative fluorescence detection in microliquid handling systems. The microliquid handling chips are made in silica on silicon technology and the optical functionality is monolithically integrated with th...... with two dyes, fluorescein, and Bodipy 650/665 X, showed good linear behavior over a wide range of concentrations. Minimally detected concentrations were 250 pM for fluorescein and 100 nM for Bodipy....

  20. Capillarity-based preparation system for optical colorimetric sensor arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Gang; Yi, Xin; Bu, Xiang-Nan; Hou, Chang-Jun; Huo, Dan-Qun; Yang, Mei; Fa, Huan-Bao; Lei, Jin-Can

    2017-03-01

    In recent years, optical colorimetric sensor arrays have demonstrated beneficial features, including rapid response, high selectivity, and high specificity; as a result, it has been extensively applied in food inspection and chemical studies, among other fields. There are instruments in the current market available for the preparation of an optical colorimetric sensor array, but it lacks the corresponding research of the preparation mechanism. Therefore, in connection with the main features of this kind of sensor array such as consistency, based on the preparation method of contact spotting, combined with a capillary fluid model, Washburn equation, Laplace equation, etc., this paper develops a diffusion model of an optical colorimetric sensor array during its preparation and sets up an optical colorimetric sensor array preparation system based on this diffusion model. Finally, this paper compares and evaluates the sensor arrays prepared by the system and prepared manually in three aspects such as the quality of array point, response of array, and response result, and the results show that the performance index of the sensor array prepared by a system under this diffusion model is better than that of the sensor array of manual spotting, which meets the needs of the experiment.

  1. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  2. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, A.; Bivol, V.; Iovu, M

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  3. Optical system for object detection and delineation in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handelman, Amir; Shwartz, Shoam; Donitza, Liad; Chaplanov, Loran

    2018-01-01

    Object recognition and delineation is an important task in many environments, such as in crime scenes and operating rooms. Marking evidence or surgical tools and attracting the attention of the surrounding staff to the marked objects can affect people's lives. We present an optical system comprising a camera, computer, and small laser projector that can detect and delineate objects in the environment. To prove the optical system's concept, we show that it can operate in a hypothetical crime scene in which a pistol is present and automatically recognize and segment it by various computer-vision algorithms. Based on such segmentation, the laser projector illuminates the actual boundaries of the pistol and thus allows the persons in the scene to comfortably locate and measure the pistol without holding any intermediator device, such as an augmented reality handheld device, glasses, or screens. Using additional optical devices, such as diffraction grating and a cylinder lens, the pistol size can be estimated. The exact location of the pistol in space remains static, even after its removal. Our optical system can be fixed or dynamically moved, making it suitable for various applications that require marking of objects in space.

  4. Optical methods for the optimization of system SWaP-C using aspheric components and advanced optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Amy; Benson, Robert; Deegan, John; Walsh, Ken; Schmidt, W. David; Howe, Russell

    2013-06-01

    We describe the benefits to camera system SWaP-C associated with the use of aspheric molded glasses and optical polymers in the design and manufacture of optical components and elements. Both camera objectives and display eyepieces, typical for night vision man-portable EO/IR systems, are explored. We discuss optical trade-offs, system performance, and cost reductions associated with this approach in both visible and non-visible wavebands, specifically NIR and LWIR. Example optical models are presented, studied, and traded using this approach.

  5. Optical and spectroscopic investigation on Calcium Borotellurite glass system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, E. C.; Lodi, T. A.; Gomes, B. R. A.; Melo, G. H. A.; Pedrochi, F.; Steimacher, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work, the glass formation in Calcium Borotellurite (CBTx) system and their optical properties were studied. Six glass samples were prepared by melt-quenching technique and the samples obtained are transparent, lightly yellowish, without any visible crystallites. The results showed that TeO2 addition increases the density, the electronic polarizability and, consequently, the refractive index. The increase of electronic polarizability and optical basicity suggest that TeO2 addition increases the non-bridging oxygen (NBO) concentration. The increase of TeO2 shifts the band edge to longer wavelength owing to increase in non-bridging oxygen ions, resulting in a linear decrease of optical energy gap. The addition of TeO2 increases the temperature coefficient of the optical path length (dS/dT) in room temperature, which are comparable to phosphate and lower than Low Silica Calcium Alumino Silicate (LSCAS) glasses. The values of dS/dT present an increase as a function of temperature for all the samples measured. The results suggest that CBTx is a good candidate for rare-earth doping and several optical applications.

  6. Progress in Nano-Electro-Optics VII Chemical, Biological, and Nanophotonic Technologies for Nano-Optical Devices and Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2010-01-01

    This book focuses on chemical and nanophotonic technology to be used to develop novel nano-optical devices and systems. It begins with temperature- and photo-induced phase transition of ferromagnetic materials. Further topics include: energy transfer in artificial photosynthesis, homoepitaxial multiple quantum wells in ZnO, near-field photochemical etching and nanophotonic devices based on a nonadiabatic process and optical near-field energy transfer, respectively and polarization control in the optical near-field for optical information security. Taken as a whole, this overview will be a valuable resource for engineers and scientists working in the field of nano-electro-optics.

  7. Impact of optical hard limiter on the performance of an optical overlapped-code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaty, Elie; Raad, Robert; Tablieh, Nicole

    2011-08-01

    Throughout this paper, a closed form expression of the multiple access interference (MAI) limited bit error rate (BER) is provided for the multiwavelength optical code-division multiple-access system when the system is working above the nominal transmission rate limit imposed by the passive encoding-decoding operation. This system is known in literature as the optical overlapped code division multiple access (OV-CDMA) system. A unified analytical framework is presented emphasizing the impact of optical hard limiter (OHL) on the BER performance of such a system. Results show that the performance of the OV-CDMA system may be highly improved when using OHL preprocessing at the receiver side.

  8. Development of a fiber optic pavement subgrade strain measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Craig Emerson

    2000-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of a fiber optic sensing system to measure strains within the soil subgrade of highway pavements resulting from traffic loads. The motivation to develop such a device include improvements to: (1)all phases of pavement design, (2)theoretical models used to predict pavement performance, and (3)pavement rehabilitation. The design of the sensing system encompasses selecting an appropriate transducer design as well as the development of optimal optical and demodulation systems. The first is spring based, which attempts to match its spring stiffness to that of the soil-data indicate it is not an optimal transducer design. The second transducer implements anchoring plates attached to two telescoping tubes which allows the soil to be compacted to a desired density between the plates to dictate the transducer's behavior. Both transducers include an extrinsic Fabry- Perot cavity to impose the soil strains onto a phase change of the optical signal propagating through the cavity. The optical system includes a low coherence source and allows phase modulation via path length stretching by adding a second interferometer in series with the transducer, resulting in a path matched differential interferometer. A digitally implemented synthetic heterodyne demodulator based on a four step phase stepping algorithm is used to obtain unambiguous soil strain information from the displacement of the Fabry-Perot cavity. The demodulator is calibrated and characterized by illuminating the transducer with a second long coherence source of different wavelength. The transducer using anchoring plates is embedded within cylindrical soil specimens of varying soil types and soil moisture contents. Loads are applied to the specimen and resulting strains are measured using the embedded fiber optic gage and LVDTs attached to the surface of the specimen. This experimental verification is substantiated using a finite element analysis to predict any differences

  9. Optical Selection Rule of Excitons in Gapped Chiral Fermion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoou; Shan, Wen-Yu; Xiao, Di

    2018-02-01

    We show that the exciton optical selection rule in gapped chiral fermion systems is governed by their winding number w , a topological quantity of the Bloch bands. Specifically, in a CN-invariant chiral fermion system, the angular momentum of bright exciton states is given by w ±1 +n N with n being an integer. We demonstrate our theory by proposing two chiral fermion systems capable of hosting dark s -like excitons: gapped surface states of a topological crystalline insulator with C4 rotational symmetry and biased 3 R -stacked MoS2 bilayers. In the latter case, we show that gating can be used to tune the s -like excitons from bright to dark by changing the winding number. Our theory thus provides a pathway to electrical control of optical transitions in two-dimensional material.

  10. The selection criteria elements of X-ray optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikova, I. V.; Chicherina, N. V.; Bays, S. S.; Bildanov, R. G.; Stary, O.

    2018-01-01

    At the design of new modifications of x-ray tomography there are difficulties in the right choice of elements of X-ray optical system. Now this problem is solved by practical consideration, selection of values of the corresponding parameters - tension on an x-ray tube taking into account the thickness and type of the studied material. For reduction of time and labor input of design it is necessary to create the criteria of the choice, to determine key parameters and characteristics of elements. In the article two main elements of X-ray optical system - an x-ray tube and the detector of x-ray radiation - are considered. Criteria of the choice of elements, their key characteristics, the main dependences of parameters, quality indicators and also recommendations according to the choice of elements of x-ray systems are received.

  11. Optical demodulation system for digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qinghua; Li, Dongmei; He, Yonghong; Guan, Tian; Zhang, Yilong; Shen, Zhiyuan; Chen, Xuejing; Liu, Siyu; Lu, Bangrong; Ji, Yanhong

    2017-09-01

    A laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy-coupled optical system is reported to demodulate digitally encoded suspension array in fluoroimmunoassay. It takes advantage of the plasma emissions of assembled elemental materials to digitally decode the suspension array, providing a more stable and accurate recognition to target biomolecules. By separating the decoding procedure of suspension array and adsorption quantity calculation of biomolecules into two independent channels, the cross talk between decoding and label signals in traditional methods had been successfully avoided, which promoted the accuracy of both processes and realized more sensitive quantitative detection of target biomolecules. We carried a multiplexed detection of several types of anti-IgG to verify the quantitative analysis performance of the system. A limit of detection of 1.48×10-10 M was achieved, demonstrating the detection sensitivity of the optical demodulation system.

  12. A radiographic image archive system on digital optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Wong, W.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of projection computed radiography (CR) systems allows radiology departments to consider digital operation in over 90% of performed procedures. Ideally, current patient procedures from CT, CT, and MR along with laser-digitized historical films should be centrally stored at their full digital resolution. Magnetic disks, because of their limited storage capacity and expense, can only retain these data on a limited basis. The author devised an optical disk archive system which automatically stores images directly onto 2.6-gigabyte optical cartridges without recourse to film. This system is in full clinical operation in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Section of the authors' department. From this experience they present (a) an analysis of the digital archiving requirements of the Pediatric Radiology Section based on CR, CT, MR, and laser digitized films; (b) the archive and retrieval methods along with performance statistics; and (c) the procedure for assuring digital image integrity

  13. Fiber-optic perimeter security system based on WDM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakov, Alexandre V.

    2017-10-01

    Intelligent underground fiber optic perimeter security system is presented. Their structure, operation, software and hardware with neural networks elements are described. System allows not only to establish the fact of violation of the perimeter, but also to locate violations. This is achieved through the use of WDM-technology division spectral information channels. As used quasi-distributed optoelectronic recirculation system as a discrete sensor. The principle of operation is based on registration of the recirculation period change in the closed optoelectronic circuit at different wavelengths under microstrain exposed optical fiber. As a result microstrain fiber having additional power loss in a fiber optical propagating pulse, which causes a time delay as a result of switching moments of the threshold device. To separate the signals generated by intruder noise and interference, the signal analyzer is used, based on the principle of a neural network. The system detects walking, running or crawling intruder, as well as undermining attempts to register under the perimeter line. These alarm systems can be used to protect the perimeters of facilities such as airports, nuclear reactors, power plants, warehouses, and other extended territory.

  14. Adaptive Optical System for Retina Imaging Approaches Clinic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, N.; Zhang, Y.; Rao, X.; Wang, C.; Hu, Y.; Jiang, W.; Jiang, C.

    We presented "A small adaptive optical system on table for human retinal imaging" at the 3rd Workshop on Adaptive Optics for Industry and Medicine. In this system, a 19 element small deformable mirror was used as wavefront correction element. High resolution images of photo receptors and capillaries of human retina were obtained. In recent two years, at the base of this system a new adaptive optical system for human retina imaging has been developed. The wavefront correction element is a newly developed 37 element deformable mirror. Some modifications have been adopted for easy operation. Experiments for different imaging wavelengths and axial positions were conducted. Mosaic pictures of photoreceptors and capillaries were obtained. 100 normal and abnormal eyes of different ages have been inspected.The first report in the world concerning the most detailed capillary distribution images cover ±3° by ± 3° field around the fovea has been demonstrated. Some preliminary very early diagnosis experiment has been tried in laboratory. This system is being planned to move to the hospital for clinic experiments.

  15. Fiber optic perimeter system for security in smart city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav; Nedoma, Jan; Fajkus, Marcel; Zboril, Ondrej; Novak, Martin; Jargus, Jan; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Protection of persons and assets is the key challenge of Smart City safeguards technologies. Conventional security technologies are often outdated and easy to breach. Therefore, new technologies that could complement existing systems or replace them are developed. The use of optical fibers and their subsequent application in sensing is a trend of recent years. This article discusses the use of fiber-optic sensors in perimeter protection. The sensor consists of optical fibers and couplers only and being constructed without wires and metal parts bring many advantages. These include an absence of interference with electromagnetic waves, system presence can be difficult to detect as well as affect its operation. Testing installation of perimeter system was carried out under reinforced concrete structure. Subjects walked over the bridge at different speeds and over the different routes. The task for the system was an absolute detection of all subjects. The proposed system should find application mainly in areas with the presence of volatile substances, strong electromagnetic fields, or in explosive areas.

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  17. Fiber-optic multipoint radiation sensing system using waveguide scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Yoda, Masaki; Tanaka, Koutarou; Masumaru, Tarou; Morimoto, Souichirou.

    1996-01-01

    Novel fiber-optic radiation sensors and a multipoint measurement method that takes advantage of them have been developed. The new sensor design, which we call a 'waveguide scintillator', consists of a scintillating material and a wavelength-shifting fiber (WLSF). The WLSF is embedded in the scintillating material, and each end is connected to a transparent optical fiber. These waveguide scintillators can be connected in series along an optical fiber loop to form a radiation monitoring system, and each end of the fiber loop is terminated with a photodetector. This new radiation monitoring arrangement dispenses with the need for electronic apparatus at each measuring point and consequently improves resistance to noise. Furthermore, it offers the advantages of multipoint monitoring - meaning that radiation intensity can be measured at multiple sensors - using only two photodetectors. We have examined the light output characteristics and time resolution of a prototype arrangement of these new waveguide scintillators, thus confirming the feasibility of multipoint measurements using a system of multiple waveguide scintillators connected in series in an optical fiber loop. (author)

  18. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  19. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    The unabated demand for more capacity due to the ever-increasing internet traffic dictates that the boundaries of the state of the art maybe pushed to send more data through the network. Traditionally, this need has been satisfied by multiple wavelengths (wavelength division multiplexing), higher order modulation formats and coherent communication (either individually or combined together). WDM has the ability to reduce cost by using multiple channels within the same physical fiber, and with EDFA amplifiers, the need for O-E-O regenerators is eliminated. Moreover the availability of multiple colors allows for wavelength-based routing and network planning. Higher order modulation formats increases the capacity of the link by their ability to encode data in both the phase and amplitude of light, thereby increasing the bits/sec/Hz as compared to simple on-off keyed format. Coherent communications has also emerged as a primary means of transmitting and receiving optical data due to its support of formats that utilize both phase and amplitude to further increase the spectral efficiency of the optical channel, including quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) and quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). Polarization multiplexing of channels can double capacity by allowing two channels to share the same wavelength by propagating on orthogonal polarization axis and is easily supported in coherent systems where the polarization tracking can be performed in the digital domain. Furthermore, the forthcoming IEEE 100 Gbit/s Ethernet Standard, 802.3ba, provides greater bandwidth, higher data rates, and supports a mixture of modulation formats. In particular, Pol-MUX QPSK is increasingly becoming the industry's format of choice as the high spectral efficiency allows for 100 Gbit/s transmission while still occupying the current 50 GHz/channel allocation of current 10 Gbit/s OOK fiber systems. In this manner, 100 Gbit/s transfer speeds using current fiber links, amplifiers, and filters

  20. Editorial: Special issue on smart optical instruments and systems for space applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING; Fei

    2015-01-01

    Optical systems are playing more and more important roles for space applications,such as high accurate attitude determination and remote sensing systems etc.Innovations in optical systems have brought great advantages,some even revolutionary for the space applications.Accordingly,in this special issue of Smart Optical systems and instruments

  1. Measuring the spatial resolution of an optical system in an undergraduate optics laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Calvin; Donnelly, T. D.

    2017-06-01

    Two methods of quantifying the spatial resolution of a camera are described, performed, and compared, with the objective of designing an imaging-system experiment for students in an undergraduate optics laboratory. With the goal of characterizing the resolution of a typical digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera, we motivate, introduce, and show agreement between traditional test-target contrast measurements and the technique of using Fourier analysis to obtain the modulation transfer function (MTF). The advantages and drawbacks of each method are compared. Finally, we explore the rich optical physics at work in the camera system by calculating the MTF as a function of wavelength and f-number. For example, we find that the Canon 40D demonstrates better spatial resolution at short wavelengths, in accordance with scalar diffraction theory, but is not diffraction-limited, being significantly affected by spherical aberration. The experiment and data analysis routines described here can be built and written in an undergraduate optics lab setting.

  2. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation. Lecture 2. Mirror systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1986-02-01

    The process of reflection of VUV and x-radiation is summarized. The functions of mirrors in synchrotron beamlines are described, which include deflection, filtration, power absorption, formation of a real image, focusing, and collimation. Fabrication of optical surfaces for synchrotron radiation beamlines are described, and include polishing of a near spherical surface as well as bending a cylindrical surface to toroidal shape. The imperfections present in mirrors, aberrations and surface figure inaccuracy, are discussed. Calculation of the thermal load of a mirror in a synchrotron radiation beam and the cooling of the mirror are covered briefly. 50 refs., 7 figs

  3. A planar waveguide optical discrete Fourier transformer design for 160 Gb/s all-optical OFDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Liang, Xiaojun; Ma, Weidong; Zhou, Tianhong; Huang, Benxiong; Liu, Deming

    2010-01-01

    A cost-effective all-optical discrete Fourier transformer (ODFT) is designed based on a silicon planar lightwave circuit (PLC), which can be applied to all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) transmission systems and can be achieved by current techniques. It consists of 2 × 2 directional couplers, phase shifters and optical delay lines. Metal-film heaters are used as phase shifters, according to the thermooptic effect of SiO 2. Based on the ODFT, a 160 Gb/s OFDM system is set up. Simulation results show excellent bit error rate (BER) and optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) performances after 400 km transmission.

  4. On Madelung systems in nonlinear optics: A reciprocal invariance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Colin; Malomed, Boris

    2018-05-01

    The role of the de Broglie-Bohm potential, originally established as central to Bohmian quantum mechanics, is examined for two canonical Madelung systems in nonlinear optics. In a seminal case, a Madelung system derived by Wagner et al. via the paraxial approximation and in which the de Broglie-Bohm potential is present is shown to admit a multi-parameter class of what are here introduced as "q-gaussons." In the limit, as the Tsallis parameter q → 1, the q-gaussons are shown to lead to standard gausson solitons, as admitted by the logarithmic nonlinear Schrödinger equation encapsulating the Madelung system. The q-gaussons are obtained for optical media with dual power-law refractive index. In the second case, a Madelung system originally derived via an eikonal approximation in the context of laser beam propagation and in which the de Broglie Bohm term is neglected is shown to admit invariance under a novel class of two-parameter class of reciprocal transformations. Model optical laws analogous to the celebrated Kármán-Tsien law of classical gas dynamics are introduced.

  5. Quantifying Optical Microangiography Images Obtained from a Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Reif

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The blood vessel morphology is known to correlate with several diseases, such as cancer, and is important for describing several tissue physiological processes, like angiogenesis. Therefore, a quantitative method for characterizing the angiography obtained from medical images would have several clinical applications. Optical microangiography (OMAG is a method for obtaining three-dimensional images of blood vessels within a volume of tissue. In this study we propose to quantify OMAG images obtained with a spectral domain optical coherence tomography system. A technique for determining three measureable parameters (the fractal dimension, the vessel length fraction, and the vessel area density is proposed and validated. Finally, the repeatability for acquiring OMAG images is determined, and a new method for analyzing small areas from these images is proposed.

  6. Hybrid optical security system using photonic crystals and MEMS devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciosek, Jerzy; Ostrowski, Roman

    2017-10-01

    An important issue in security systems is that of selection of the appropriate detectors or sensors, whose sensitivity guarantees functional reliability whilst avoiding false alarms. Modern technology enables the optimization of sensor systems, tailored to specific risk factors. In optical security systems, one of the safety parameters considered is the spectral range in which the excitation signal is associated with a risk factor. Advanced safety systems should be designed taking into consideration the possible occurrence of, often multiple, complex risk factors, which can be identified individually. The hazards of concern in this work are chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds present in the forms of gases and aerosols. The proposed sensor solution is a hybrid optical system consisting of a multi-spectral structure of photonic crystals associated with a MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical System) resonator. The crystallographic structures of carbon present in graphene rings and graphenecarbon nanotube nanocomposites have properties which make them desirable for use in detectors. The advantage of this system is a multi-spectral sensitivity at the same time as narrow-band selectivity for the identification of risk factors. It is possible to design a system optimized for detecting specified types of risk factor from very complex signals.

  7. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  8. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  9. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  10. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  11. Digital optical tomography system for dynamic breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flexman, Molly L.; Khalil, Michael A.; Al Abdi, Rabah; Kim, Hyun K.; Fong, Christopher J.; Desperito, Elise; Hershman, Dawn L.; Barbour, Randall L.; Hielscher, Andreas H.

    2011-07-01

    Diffuse optical tomography has shown promising results as a tool for breast cancer screening and monitoring response to chemotherapy. Dynamic imaging of the transient response of the breast to an external stimulus, such as pressure or a respiratory maneuver, can provide additional information that can be used to detect tumors. We present a new digital continuous-wave optical tomography system designed to simultaneously image both breasts at fast frame rates and with a large number of sources and detectors. The system uses a master-slave digital signal processor-based detection architecture to achieve a dynamic range of 160 dB and a frame rate of 1.7 Hz with 32 sources, 64 detectors, and 4 wavelengths per breast. Included is a preliminary study of one healthy patient and two breast cancer patients showing the ability to identify an invasive carcinoma based on the hemodynamic response to a breath hold.

  12. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  13. Optical control system for high-voltage terminals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bicek, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    An optical control system for the control of devices in the terminal of an electrostatic accelerator includes a laser that is modulated by a series of preselected codes produced by an encoder. A photodiode receiver is placed in the laser beam at the high-voltage terminal of an electrostatic accelerator. A decoder connected to the photodiode decodes the signals to provide control impulses for a plurality of devices at the high voltage of the terminal

  14. Design considerations for a servo optical projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadalsky, Michael; Allen, Daniel; Bien, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    The present servooptical projection system (SOPS) furnishes 'out-the-window' scenery for a pilot-training flight simulator; attention is given to the parametric tradeoffs made in the SOPS' optical design, as well as to its mechanical packaging and the servonetwork performance of the unit as integrated into a research/training helicopter flight simulator. The final SOPS configuration is a function of scan head design, assembly modularity, image deterioration method, and focal lengths and relative apertures.

  15. Updated optical read/write memory system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the building blocks of the electro-optic read/write system was made. Critical areas and alternate paths are discussed. The latest PLZT block data composer is analyzed. Stricter controls in the production and fabrication of PLZT are implied by the performance of the BDC. A reverse charge before erase has eliminated several problems observed in the parallel plane charging process for photoconductor-thermoplastic hologram storage.

  16. Radiation resistance characteristics of optical communication system for single mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Masamoto; Chigusa, Yoshiki; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Gohtaro; Watanabe, Hajime; Okamoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Optical communication has been utilized also for nuclear power stations and fuel reporocessing plants. As the sufficient safety countermeasures are required there, the amount of information becomes enormous, therefore, optical communication, by which the required space is expected to be reduced, becomes more important. Also in the application to submarine cables, attention must be paid to the radiation resistance as there are the effects of potassium contained in large amount in seawater and uranium deposits in sea bottom. Therefore, the reliability of the components of optical communication systems against radiation becomes a problem. In this study, single mode optical fibers and transmission and receipt modules were selected, and high dose rate irradiation supposing the case of using in a cell and low dose rate, long time irradiation supposing the case of submarine cables were carried out to evaluate the radiation resistance characteristics. The fibers tested were SiO 2 core/F-SiO 2 clad type and GeO 2 -SiO 2 core/SiO 2 clad type. The characteristics of increasing loss in irradiation and restoration after irradiation of the former type were superior to those of the latter type. The output of a receipt module was normal during irradiation, and the output power of a transmission module decreases, but other problems did not arise. (K.I.)

  17. Fiber-Optic Micrometeoroid/Orbital Debris Impact Detector System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Eric L.; Tennyson, R. C.; Morison, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    A document describes a reliable, lightweight micrometeoroid/orbital debris (MMOD) detection system that can be located at strategic positions of "high consequence" to provide real-time warning of a penetration, its location, and the extent of the damage to a spacecraft. The concept is to employ fiber-optic sensors to detect impact damage and penetration of spacecraft structures. The fibers are non-electrical, employ light waves, and are immune to electromagnetic interference. The fiber-optic sensor array can be made as a stand-alone product, being bonded to a flexible membrane material or a structure that is employed as a MMOD shield material. The optical sensors can also be woven into hybrid MMOD shielding fabrics. The glass fibers of the fiber-optic sensor provide a dual purpose in contributing to the breakup of MMOD projectiles. The grid arrays can be made in a modular configuration to provide coverage over any area desired. Each module can be connected to a central scanner instrument and be interrogated in a continuous or periodic mode.

  18. PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL CDMA SYSTEM USING VC CODE FAMILY UNDER VARIOUS OPTICAL PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN YOUSIF AHMED

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.

  19. ASPHERICAL SURFACES APPROXIMATION IN AUTOMATED DESIGN OF OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Ivanova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with the problems of higher order aspherical surfaces approximation using different equation types. The objects of research are two types of equations for higher order aspherical surfaces description used in different software for optical systems design (SАRО, OPAL, ZEMAX, CODE-V, etc. and dependent on z-coordinate or on a radial coordinate on the surface. Conversion from one type of equations to another is considered in view of application in different software for optical systems design. Methods. The subject matter of the method lies in usage of mean square method approximation for recalculation of high-order aspherical surface. Iterative algorithm for recalculation is presented giving the possibility to recalculate coefficients for different types of equations with required accuracy. Recommendations are given for choosing recalculation parameters such as the number of result equation coefficients, the number of points for recalculation and point allocation on a surface. Main Results. Example of recalculation for aspherical surface and accuracy estimation, including result aberration comparison between initial surface and recalculated surface are presented. The example has shown that required accuracy of surface representation was obtained. Practical Relevance. This technique is usable for recalculation of higher order aspherical surfaces in various types of software for optical systems design and also for research of optimal higher order aspherical surfaces description.

  20. Self-Homodyne Detection in Optical Communication Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J. Puttnam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review work on self-homodyne detection (SHD for optical communication systems. SHD uses a transmitted pilot-tone (PT, originating from the transmitter laser, to exploit phase noise cancellation at a coherent receiver and to enable transmitter linewidth tolerance and potential energy savings. We give an overview of SHD performance, outlining the key contributors to the optical signal-to-noise ratio penalty compared to equivalent intradyne systems, and summarize the advantages, differences and similarities between schemes using polarization-division multiplexed PTs (PDM-SHD and those using space-division multiplexed PTs (SDM-SHD. For PDM-SHD, we review the extensive work on the transmission of advanced modulation formats and techniques to minimize the trade-off with spectral efficiency, as well as recent work on digital SHD, where the SHD receiver is combined with an polarization-diversity ID front-end receiver to provide both polarization and modulation format alignment. We then focus on SDM-SHD systems, describing experimental results using multi-core fibers (MCFs with up to 19 cores, including high capacity transmission with broad-linewidth lasers and experiments incorporating SDM-SHD in networking. Additionally, we discuss the requirement for polarization tracking of the PTs at the receiver and path length alignment and review some variants of SHD before outlining the future challenges of self-homodyne optical transmission and gaps in current knowledge.

  1. Optical wireless networked-systems: applications to aircrafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehrad, Mohsen; Fadlullah, Jarir

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on leveraging the progress in semiconductor technologies to facilitate production of efficient light-based in-flight entertainment (IFE), distributed sensing, navigation and control systems. We demonstrate the ease of configuring "engineered pipes" using cheap lenses, etc. to achieve simple linear transmission capacity growth. Investigation of energy-efficient, miniaturized transceivers will create a wireless medium, for both inter and intra aircrafts, providing enhanced security, and improved quality-of-service for communications links in greater harmony with onboard systems. The applications will seamlessly inter-connect multiple intelligent devices in a network that is deployable for aircrafts navigation systems, onboard sensors and entertainment data delivery systems, and high-definition audio-visual broadcasting systems. Recent experimental results on a high-capacity infrared (808 nm) system are presented. The light source can be applied in a hybrid package along with a visible lighting LED for both lighting and communications. Also, we present a pragmatic combination of light communications through "Spotlighting" and existing onboard power-lines. It is demonstrated in details that a high-capacity IFE visible light system communicating over existing power-lines (VLC/PLC) may lead to savings in many areas through reduction of size, weight and energy consumption. This paper addresses the challenges of integrating optimized optical devices in the variety of environments described above, and presents mitigation and tailoring approaches for a multi-purpose optical network.

  2. 77 FR 73456 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-10

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor... Modulated Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 83,816.//U.S. Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic...

  3. 78 FR 17187 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice..., 2012, announcing an intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation, a revocable... the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

  4. Optical system for UV-laser technological equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedosov, Yuri V.; Romanova, Galina E.; Afanasev, Maxim Ya.

    2017-09-01

    Recently there has been an intensive development of intelligent industrial equipment that is highly automated and can be rapidly adjusted for certain details. This equipment can be robotics systems, automatic wrappers and markers, CNC machines and 3D printers. The work equipment considered is the system for selective curing of photopolymers using a UV-laser and UV-radiation in such equipment that leads to additional technical difficulties. In many cases for transporting the radiation from the laser to the point processed, a multi-mirror system is used: however, such systems are usually difficult to adjust. Additionally, such multi-mirror systems are usually used as a part of the equipment for laser cutting of metals using high-power IR-lasers. For the UV-lasers, using many mirrors leads to crucial radiation losses because of many reflections. Therefore, during the development of the optical system for technological equipment using UV-laser we need to solve two main problems: to transfer the radiation for the working point with minimum losses and to include the system for controlling/handling the radiation spot position. We introduce a system for working with UV-lasers with 450mW of power and a wavelength of 0.45 μm based on a fiber system. In our modelling and design, we achieve spot sizes of about 300 μm, and the designed optical and mechanical systems (prototypes) were manufactured and assembled. In this paper, we present the layout of the technological unit, the results of the theoretical modelling of some parts of the system and some experimental results.

  5. Performance analysis of an adaptive optics system for free-space optics communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang

    2018-01-18

    The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0  = 10, f G  = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB  = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.

  6. Non-linear optical techniques and optical properties of condensed molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citroni, Margherita

    2013-06-01

    Structure, dynamics, and optical properties of molecular systems can be largely modified by the applied pressure, with remarkable consequences on their chemical stability. Several examples of selective reactions yielding technologically attractive products can be cited, which are particularly efficient when photochemical effects are exploited in conjunction with the structural conditions attained at high density. Non-linear optical techniques are a basic tool to unveil key aspects of the chemical reactivity and dynamic properties of molecules. Their application to high-pressure samples is experimentally challenging, mainly because of the small sample dimensions and of the non-linear effects generated in the anvil materials. In this talk I will present results on the electronic spectra of several aromatic crystals obtained through two-photon induced fluorescence and two-photon excitation profiles measured as a function of pressure (typically up to about 25 GPa), and discuss the relationship between the pressure-induced modifications of the electronic structure and the chemical reactivity at high pressure. I will also present the first successful pump-probe infrared measurement performed as a function of pressure on a condensed molecular system. The system under examination is liquid water, in a sapphire anvil cell, up to 1 GPa along isotherms at 298 and 363 K. These measurements give a new enlightening insight into the dynamical properties of low- and high-density water allowing a definition of the two structures.

  7. Use of fiber optics in an emergency response data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahaffey, J.A.; Wahab, E.Z.

    1988-01-01

    An optical fiber communications medium has been installed in the Emergency Response Data Systems (ERDS) in the E. I. Hatch Nuclear Power Plant. These high-speed, digital communications systems are used to link together two data-collection nodes in each of two computer networks, so that the plant operating data may be shared on a real-time basis. The use of a glass-and-plastic fiber for data communications may have several advantages over a metallic medium in this special application, and it has proven to be a very reliable means of data linkage over several unit-years of operation

  8. Adaptive optics system for the IRSOL solar observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramelli, Renzo; Bucher, Roberto; Rossini, Leopoldo; Bianda, Michele; Balemi, Silvano

    2010-07-01

    We present a low cost adaptive optics system developed for the solar observatory at Istituto Ricerche Solari Locarno (IRSOL), Switzerland. The Shack-Hartmann Wavefront Sensor is based on a Dalsa CCD camera with 256 pixels × 256 pixels working at 1kHz. The wavefront compensation is obtained by a deformable mirror with 37 actuators and a Tip-Tilt mirror. A real time control software has been developed on a RTAI-Linux PC. Scicos/Scilab based software has been realized for an online analysis of the system behavior. The software is completely open source.

  9. Ray and wave optics of integrable and stochastic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, S.W.; Kaufman, A.N.

    1979-07-01

    The generalization of WKB methods to more than one dimension is discussed in terms of the integrability or non-integrability of the geometrical optics (ray Hamiltonian) system derived in the short-wave approximation. In the two-dimensional case the ray trajectories are either regular or stochastic, and the qualitative differences between these types of motion are manifested in the characteristics of the spectra and eigenfunctions. These are examined for a model system which may be integrable or stochastic, depending on a single parameter

  10. LISA Pathfinder: Optical Metrology System monitoring during operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audley, Heather E.; LISA Pathfinder Collaboration

    2017-05-01

    The LISA Pathfinder (LPF) mission has demonstrated excellent performance. In addition to having surpassed the main mission goals, data has been collected from the various subsystems throughout the duration of the mission. This data is a valuable resource, both for a more complete understanding of the LPF satellite and the differential acceleration measurements, as well as for the design of the future Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. Initial analysis of the Optical Metrology System (OMS) data was performed as part of daily system monitoring, and more in-depth analyses are ongoing. This contribution presents an overview of these activities along with an introduction to the OMS.

  11. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene monolayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@126.com [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Sun, Zhaoyu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Ding, Chunling [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Rong [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a graphene monolayer system driven by an elliptically polarized control field and a right-hand circularly polarized probe field. Our numerical results show that it is easy to realize the transition from OB to OM or vice versa by adjusting the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field, as well as the polarization-dependent phase difference between the two components of the control laser field. The influences of the intensity of the control field and the cooperation parameter on the OB behavior are also discussed in detail. These results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  12. Optical components and systems for synchrotron radiation: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the nature and origins of synchrotron radiation is given with special reference to its geometrical optical properties and the use of storage rings as light souces. The geographical distribution of SR sources in the world is reviewed and some discussion of the level of experimental activity is given. Estimates of future levels of experimental activity are also made both for existing storage rings and those planned for the future. Calculations of the approximate number of mirrors and gratings that will be required are offered. Some general considerations are outlined showing how synchrotron radiation optical systems couple to the light source and indicating which parameters need to be maximized for best overall performance

  13. Optical cuff for optogenetic control of the peripheral nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Frédéric; Sottas, Loïc; Browne, Liam E.; Asboth, Léonie; Latremoliere, Alban; Sakuma, Miyuki; Courtine, Grégoire; Woolf, Clifford J.; Lacour, Stéphanie P.

    2018-02-01

    Objective. Nerves in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) contain axons with specific motor, somatosensory and autonomic functions. Optogenetics offers an efficient approach to selectively activate axons within the nerve. However, the heterogeneous nature of nerves and their tortuous route through the body create a challenging environment to reliably implant a light delivery interface. Approach. Here, we propose an optical peripheral nerve interface—an optocuff—, so that optogenetic modulation of peripheral nerves become possible in freely behaving mice. Main results. Using this optocuff, we demonstrate orderly recruitment of motor units with epineural optical stimulation of genetically targeted sciatic nerve axons, both in anaesthetized and in awake, freely behaving animals. Behavioural experiments and histology show the optocuff does not damage the nerve thus is suitable for long-term experiments. Significance. These results suggest that the soft optocuff might be a straightforward and efficient tool to support more extensive study of the PNS using optogenetics.

  14. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.

    2010-09-01

    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  15. Polarization mode dispersion in optical fiber transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, John Charles

    The birefringence of optical fibers causes pulse broadening in fiber-optic communication systems. This phenomenon is known as polarization mode dispersion (PMD). PMD is one of the most important limiting factors for high capacity fiber-optic systems. A number of aspects of PMD are examined in this thesis. In Chapter 2 an expression is derived for the probability density function of the pulse broadening due to first-order PMD. This result is used to obtain an expression for the system limitation due to PMD. The birefringence of optical fibers is commonly simulated with the waveplate model. In Chapter 3 two standard versions of the waveplate model are introduced. In addition, a novel waveplate model is proposed. The characteristics of the three versions of the waveplate model are examined to confirm their suitability for use in subsequent chapters of the thesis. Simulations with the waveplate model are performed in Chapter 4 for three purposes: (1) to determine the impact of chromatic dispersion on the system limitation due to PMD, (2) to examine the effectiveness of three different PMD compensation techniques in the presence of chromatic dispersion, and (3) to examine the interaction of second-order chromatic dispersion with PMD. The simulations in Chapter 4 reveal that it is possible with one compensation technique to have output pulses that are narrower than the input pulses. In Chapter 5, this anomalous pulse narrowing is demonstrated analytically for a simple model of PMD and through experiment. It is also shown that this pulse narrowing can be explained as an interference phenomenon. Chapter 6 presents measurements of PMD and state of polarization on installed optical fibers. The PMD coefficients of 122 fibers are presented and the results are analyzed in terms of the age of the fibers and the type of cabling. Measurements of the time evolution of PMD and state of polarization are presented for fibers installed in both buried and aerial cables. The uncertainty

  16. Sinusoidal modulation analysis for optical system MTF measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, J M; Yu, T; Seibert, J A

    1996-12-01

    The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a commonly used metric for defining the spatial resolution characteristics of imaging systems. While the MTF is defined in terms of how an imaging system demodulates the amplitude of a sinusoidal input, this approach has not been in general use to measure MTFs in the medical imaging community because producing sinusoidal x-ray patterns is technically difficult. However, for optical systems such as charge coupled devices (CCD), which are rapidly becoming a part of many medical digital imaging systems, the direct measurement of modulation at discrete spatial frequencies using a sinusoidal test pattern is practical. A commercially available optical test pattern containing spatial frequencies ranging from 0.375 cycles/mm to 80 cycles/mm was sued to determine the MRF of a CCD-based optical system. These results were compared with the angulated slit method of Fujita [H. Fujita, D. Tsia, T. Itoh, K. Doi, J. Morishita, K. Ueda, and A. Ohtsuka, "A simple method for determining the modulation transfer function in digital radiography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging 11, 34-39 (1992)]. The use of a semiautomated profiled iterated reconstruction technique (PIRT) is introduced, where the shift factor between successive pixel rows (due to angulation) is optimized iteratively by least-squares error analysis rather than by hand measurement of the slit angle. PIRT was used to find the slit angle for the Fujita technique and to find the sine-pattern angle for the sine-pattern technique. Computer simulation of PIRT for the case of the slit image (a line spread function) demonstrated that it produced a more accurate angle determination than "hand" measurement, and there is a significant difference between the errors in the two techniques (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p < 0.001). The sine-pattern method and the Fujita slit method produced comparable MTF curves for the CCD camera evaluated.

  17. Beat Noise Cancellation in 2-D Optical Code-Division Multiple-Access Systems Using Optical Hard-Limiter Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Ngoc T.; Pham, Anh T.; Cheng, Zixue

    We analyze the beat noise cancellation in two-dimensional optical code-division multiple-access (2-D OCDMA) systems using an optical hard-limiter (OHL) array. The Gaussian shape of optical pulse is assumed and the impact of pulse propagation is considered. We also take into account the receiver noise and multiple access interference (MAI) in the analysis. The numerical results show that, when OHL array is employed, the system performance is greatly improved compared with the cases without OHL array. Also, parameters needed for practical system design are comprehensively analyzed.

  18. Nuclear reactor and production systems with flux-optical digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luger, P.P.; Nealen, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    Several digital sensing devices are described for use in automated production systems. The first described is for use in the automatic operation of a reactor. This device employs a binant electrometer using a quartz fiber mounted at one end but free to vibrate at the other in an AC field. The fiber oscillates if a charge is placed upon it. An optical slit replaces the ordinary eyepiece reticule scale. With the quartz fiber adjusted so its image is in focus at the optical slit, photoelectric signals are obtained at null charge on the fiber. The quartz fiber is repeatedly charged and allowed to discharge by collecting ions from a source under measurement. Each photoelectric signal causes a digital time reading to be taken. The time readings are used to evaluate the current due to the electric charge. The photoelectric signals, by feedback, also operate the electrometer for continuous intermittent-continuous operation. Basically the current is a current digitizer. Application is made to reactor monitoring and control as well as to other types of production systems. The flux-optical digitizer is a radiometer-like-structure carryig rotating fins that may be coated with fissionable material, such as 235 U for the purpose of neutron flux measurements. The rotating fins are mounted on a shaft that also carries an arm that produces photoelectric signals whenever the arm overlaps an optical slit and thus diminishes light from an auxiliary light flux source incident on the slit. Between successive photoelectric signals, time interval measurements are obtained. This and other sensing devices are fully described for various automated, controlled, production processes

  19. Noise and signal interference in optical fiber transmission systems an optimum design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacchi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to noise and signal interference in optical fiber communications Noise and Signal Interference in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems is a compendium on specific topics within optical fiber transmission and the optimization process of the system design. It offers comprehensive treatment of noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) components affecting optical fiber communications systems, containing coverage on noise from the light source, the fiber and the receiver. The ISI is modeled with a statistical approach, leading to new useful computational m

  20. Technicon H*1 Hematology System: Optical Design Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, G. M.; Tycko, D. H.; Groner, W.

    1988-06-01

    The Technicon H*1 systemTM is a clinical laboratory flow cytometer which performs a complete hematology profile, providing quantitative information on the various types of cells in a blood sample. A light-scattering method, using a HeNe laser, determines in a single flow channel the red cell count, platelet count, and the distributions of red cell volume, red cell hemoglobin concentration, and platelet volume. To accomplish this the scattered light from each red cell in the sample is measured in real time at two angular intervals. The cell volume and the hemoglobin concentration within the cell are derived from these two measurements. Severe accuracy and precision specifications are placed on the medically important red cell count (RBC) and the mean red cell volume (MCV). From the point of view of optical system design, the dominant factor is the requirement that RBC and MCV have precision and accuracy of the order of 2%. Signal-to-noise and scattering-angle definition requirements dictated the choice of a HeNe laser light source. The optics includes an illumination system for producing a sharply defined, uniformly illuminated scattering region and a detection system which must accurately define the accepted scattering angles. In previous cytometric methods for determining MCV only a single quantity was measured for each cell. Such methods cannot disentangle the independent effects of cell size and hemoglobin concentration on the measurement, thus compromising MCV accuracy. The present double-angle scattering method overcomes this accuracy problem. The H*1 red cell method, the supporting optical design and data demonstrating that the use of this technique eliminates interference between the observed red cell indices are presented.

  1. Discovery Channel Telescope active optics system early integration and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetiou, Alexander J.; Bida, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.3-meter telescope with a thin meniscus primary mirror (M1) and a honeycomb secondary mirror (M2). The optical design is an f/6.1 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) with an unvignetted 0.5° Field of View (FoV) at the Cassegrain focus. We describe the design, implementation and performance of the DCT active optics system (AOS). The DCT AOS maintains collimation and controls the figure of the mirror to provide seeing-limited images across the focal plane. To minimize observing overhead, rapid settling times are achieved using a combination of feed-forward and low-bandwidth feedback control using a wavefront sensing system. In 2011, we mounted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the prime focus of M1, the Prime Focus Test Assembly (PFTA), to test the AOS with the wavefront sensor, and the feedback loop. The incoming wavefront is decomposed using Zernike polynomials, and the mirror figure is corrected with a set of bending modes. Components of the system that we tested and tuned included the Zernike to Bending Mode transformations. We also started open-loop feed-forward coefficients determination. In early 2012, the PFTA was replaced by M2, and the wavefront sensor moved to its normal location on the Cassegrain instrument assembly. We present early open loop wavefront test results with the full optical system and instrument cube, along with refinements to the overall control loop operating at RC Cassegrain focus.

  2. The multi-camera optical surveillance system (MOS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, P.; Wagner, H.; Richter, B.; Gaertner, K.J.; Laszlo, G.; Neumann, G.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from film camera to video surveillance systems, in particular the implementation of high capacity multi-camera video systems, results in a large increase in the amount of recorded scenes. Consequently, there is a substantial increase in the manpower requirements for review. Moreover, modern microprocessor controlled equipment facilitates the collection of additional data associated with each scene. Both the scene and the annotated information have to be evaluated by the inspector. The design of video surveillance systems for safeguards necessarily has to account for both appropriate recording and reviewing techniques. An aspect of principal importance is that the video information is stored on tape. Under the German Support Programme to the Agency a technical concept has been developed which aims at optimizing the capabilities of a multi-camera optical surveillance (MOS) system including the reviewing technique. This concept is presented in the following paper including a discussion of reviewing and reliability

  3. A Sort-Last Rendering System over an Optical Backplane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Kirihata

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Sort-Last is a computer graphics technique for rendering extremely large data sets on clusters of computers. Sort-Last works by dividing the data set into even-sized chunks for parallel rendering and then composing the images to form the final result. Since sort-last rendering requires the movement of large amounts of image data among cluster nodes, the network interconnecting the nodes becomes a major bottleneck. In this paper, we describe a sort-last rendering system implemented on a cluster of computers whose nodes are connected by an all-optical switch. The rendering system introduces the notion of the Photonic Computing Engine, a computing system built dynamically by using the optical switch to create dedicated network connections among cluster nodes. The sort-last volume rendering algorithm was implemented on the Photonic Computing Engine, and its performance is evaluated. Prelimi- nary experiments show that performance is affected by the image composition time and average payload size. In an attempt to stabilize the performance of the system, we have designed a flow control mechanism that uses feedback messages to dynamically adjust the data flow rate within the computing engine.

  4. Multi Optical Transition Radiation System for ATF2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alabau-Gonzalvo, Javier

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the design, installation and first calibration tests of a Multi Optical Transition Radiation System in the beam diagnostic section of the Extraction (EXT) line of ATF2, close to the multi wire scanner system. This system will be a valuable tool for measuring beam sizes and emittances coming from the ATF Damping Ring. With an optical resolution of about 2 (micro)m an original OTR design (OTR1X) located after the septum at the entrance of the EXT line demonstrated the ability to measure a 5.5 (micro)m beam size in one beam pulse and to take many fast measurements. This gives the OTR the ability to measure the beam emittance with high statistics, giving a low error and a good understanding of emittance jitter. Furthermore the nearby wire scanners will be a definitive test of the OTR as a beam emittance diagnostic device. The multi-OTR system design proposed here is based on the existing OTR1X.

  5. Structure and optical bandgap relationship of π-conjugated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leitão Botelho

    Full Text Available In bulk heterojunction photovoltaic systems both the open-circuit voltage as well as the short-circuit current, and hence the power conversion efficiency, are dependent on the optical bandgap of the electron-donor material. While first-principles methods are computationally intensive, simpler model Hamiltonian approaches typically suffer from one or more flaws: inability to optimize the geometries for their own input; absence of general, transferable parameters; and poor performance for non-planar systems. We introduce a set of new and revised parameters for the adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (aSSH Hamiltonian, which is capable of optimizing geometries, along with rules for applying them to any [Formula: see text]-conjugated system containing C, N, O, or S, including non-planar systems. The predicted optical bandgaps show excellent agreement to UV-vis spectroscopy data points from literature, with a coefficient of determination [Formula: see text], a mean error of -0.05 eV, and a mean absolute deviation of 0.16 eV. We use the model to gain insights from PEDOT, fused thiophene polymers, poly-isothianaphthene, copolymers, and pentacene as sources of design rules in the search for low bandgap materials. Using the model as an in-silico design tool, a copolymer of benzodithiophenes along with a small-molecule derivative of pentacene are proposed as optimal donor materials for organic photovoltaics.

  6. Integrated manufacture of a freeform off-axis multi-reflective imaging system without optical alignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zexiao; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Zhu, Linlin; Yan, Ning

    2018-03-19

    Multi-reflective imaging systems find wide applications in optical imaging and space detection. However, it is faced with difficulties in adjusting the freeform mirrors with high accuracy to guarantee the optical function. Motivated by this, an alignment-free manufacture approach is proposed to machine the optical system. The direct optical performance-guided manufacture route is established without measuring the form error of freeform optics. An analytical model is established to investigate the effects of machine errors to serve the error identification and compensation in machining. Based on the integrated manufactured system, an ingenious self-designed testing configuration is constructed to evaluate the optical performance by directly measuring the wavefront aberration. Experiments are carried out to manufacture a three-mirror anastigmat, surface topographical details and optical performance shows agreement to the designed expectation. The final system works as an off-axis infrared imaging system. Results validate the feasibility of the proposed method to achieve excellent optical application.

  7. Application for surveying technology for the alignment of large optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Precise alignment of optical elements in large optical systems is difficult if many elements are positioned such that direct alignment or boresighting becomes impossible. A practical approach is to identify discrete optical path segments and align these using standard surveying or optical-tooling instrumentation. One simply has to develop an alignment theory in which the alignment optical path duplicates or closely approximates the optical path of the operational device. The surveying instruments can then be used to simulate the optical input beams to the system segments to be aligned. Auxiliary targets and reflectors may be added, and the alignment procedure may be augmented by standard optical test instrumentation and techniques. Examples are given using theodolites, transits, and levels with autocollimating capability and micrometer adaptors to perform boresighting and autocollimation techniques on segments of the optical train of the Antares Laser Fusion System at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  8. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  9. An adaptive optics system for solid-state laser systems used in inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, J.T.; Bliss, E.S.; Byrd, J.L.; Feldman, M.; Kartz, M.A.; Toeppen, J.S.; Wonterghem, B. Van; Winters, S.E.

    1995-01-01

    Using adaptive optics the authors have obtained nearly diffraction-limited 5 kJ, 3 nsec output pulses at 1.053 microm from the Beamlet demonstration system for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The peak Strehl ratio was improved from 0.009 to 0.50, as estimated from measured wavefront errors. They have also measured the relaxation of the thermally induced aberrations in the main beam line over a period of 4.5 hours. Peak-to-valley aberrations range from 6.8 waves at 1.053 microm within 30 minutes after a full system shot to 3.9 waves after 4.5 hours. The adaptive optics system must have enough range to correct accumulated thermal aberrations from several shots in addition to the immediate shot-induced error. Accumulated wavefront errors in the beam line will affect both the design of the adaptive optics system for NIF and the performance of that system

  10. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-raySources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-05-09

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes.

  11. Transport of heavy ions through matter within ion optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwab, T.

    1991-04-01

    In this thesis for the first time higher-order ion-optical calculations were connected with the whole phase-space changes of the heavy ions in passing through matter. With the developed programs and the newly proposed analytical methods atomic and nuclear interactions of the heavy ions within ion optical systems can be described realistically. The results of this thesis were applied to the conception of the fragment separator (FRS) and to the planning and preparation of experiments at the new GSI accelerator facility. Especially for the description of the ion-optical combination of FRS and the storage ring ESR the developed programs and methods proved to be necessary. A part of the applied theories on the atomic stopping could be confirmed in the framework of this thesis in an experiment with the high-resolving spectrometer SPEC at GANIL. The method of the isotopically pure separation of projectile fragments by means of magnetic analysis and the electronic energy loss could be also experimentally successfully tested at several energies (60-400 MeV/u). Furthermore in this thesis also application-related problems regarding a tumor therapy with heavy ions were solved. A concept for a medical separator (BMS) was developed, which separates light diagnosis beams isotopically purely and beyond improves the energy sharpness by means of an especially shaped (monoenergetic) stopper so that an in-situ range determination is possible with an accuracy of about one millimeter. (orig./HSI) [de

  12. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-ray Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W.; Holzwarth, Ronald

    2004-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short X-Ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error over 100 meter of glass fiber. For stabilization in the hundred femtosecond range a CW laser is amplitude modulated at 1 10 GHz, the signal retroreflected from the far end, and the relative phase used to correct the transit time with a piezoelectric phase modulator. For the sub-10 fsec range the laser frequency itself is upshifted 55 MHz with an acousto-optical modulator, retroreflected, upshifted again and phase compared at the sending end to a 110 MHz reference. Initial experiments indicate less than 1 fsec timing jitter. To lock lasers in the sub-10 fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several tera Hertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes

  13. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  14. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  15. Bedside arterial blood gas monitoring system using fluorescent optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartnik, Daniel J.; Rymut, Russell A.

    1995-05-01

    We describe a bedside arterial blood gas (ABG) monitoring system which uses fluorescent optical sensors in the measurement of blood pH, PCO2 and PO2. The Point-of-Care Arterial Blood Gas Monitoring System consists of the SensiCathTM optical sensor unit manufactured by Optical Sensors Incorporated and the TramTM Critical Care Monitoring System with ABG Module manufactured by Marquette Electronics Incorporated. Current blood gas measurement techniques require a blood sample to be removed from the patient and transported to an electrochemical analyzer for analysis. The ABG system does not require removal of blood from the patient or transport of the sample. The sensor is added to the patient's existing arterial line. ABG measurements are made by drawing a small blood sample from the arterial line in sufficient quantity to ensure an undiluted sample at the sensor. Measurements of pH, PCO2 and PO2 are made within 60 seconds. The blood is then returned to the patient, the line flushed and results appear on the bedside monitor. The ABG system offers several advantages over traditional electrochemical analyzers. Since the arterial line remains closed during the blood sampling procedure the patient's risk of infection is reduced and the caregiver's exposure to blood is eliminated. The single-use, disposable sensor can be measure 100 blood samples over 72 hours after a single two-point calibration. Quality Assurance checks are also available and provide the caregiver the ability to assess system performance even after the sensor is patient attached. The ABG module integrates with an existing bedside monitoring system. This allows ABG results to appear on the same display as ECG, respiration, blood pressure, cardiac output, SpO2, and other clinical information. The small module takes up little space in the crowded intensive care unit. Performance studies compare the ABG system with an electrochemical blood gas analyzer. Study results demonstrated accurate and precise blood

  16. High extinction ratio integrated optical modulator for quantum telecommunication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tronev, A.; Parfenov, M.; Agruzov, P.; Ilichev, I.; Shamray, A.

    2018-01-01

    A method for increasing the extinction ratio of integrated optical Mach-Zehnder modulators based on LiNbO3 via the photorefractive effect is proposed. The influence of the photorefractive effect on the X- and Y-splitters of intensity modulators is experimentally studied. An increase in the modulator extinction ratio by 17 dB (from 30 to 47 dB) is obtained. It is shown that fabricated modulators with a high extinction ratio are important for quantum key distribution systems.

  17. Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

    1993-05-18

    A projection reflection optical system has two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have spherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 [mu]m, and preferably less than 100 [mu]m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05-0.1 [mu]m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm [times] 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

  18. Optical performance of the Gemini carbon dioxide laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hayden, J.J.; Liberman, I.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of the Gemini two beam carbon dioxide laser fusion system was recently upgraded by installation of optical components with improved quality in the final amplifier. A theoretical analysis was conducted in conjunction with measurements of the new performance. The analysis and experimental procedures, and results obtained are reported and compared. Good agreement was found which was within the uncertainties of the analysis and the inaccuracies of the experiments. The focal spot Strehl ratio was between 0.24 and 0.3 for both beams

  19. Eigenvalues of the Transferences of Gaussian Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.F. Harris

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The  problem  of  how  to  define  an  average eye leads to the question of what eigenvalues are  possible  for  ray  transferences.  This  paper examines the set of possible eigenvalues in the simplest possible case, that of optical systems consisting  of  elements  that  are  stigmatic  and centred on a common axis.

  20. A review on optical actuators for microfluidic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tie; Chen, Yue; Minzioni, Paolo

    2017-12-01

    During the last few decades microfluidic systems have become more and more popular and their relevance in different fields is continually growing. In fact, the use of microchannels allows a significant reduction of the required sample-volume and opens the way to a completely new set of possible investigations, including the study of the properties of cells, the development of new cells’ separation techniques and the analysis of single-cell proteins. One of the main differences between microscopic and macroscopic systems is obviously dictated by the need for suitable actuation mechanisms, which should allow precise control of microscopic fluid volumes and of micro-samples inside the fluid. Even if both syringe-pump and pneumatic-pump technologies significantly evolved and they currently enable sub-μL samples control, completely new approaches were recently developed for the manipulation of samples inside the microchannel. This review is dedicated to describing different kinds of optical actuators that can be applied in microfluidic systems for sample manipulation as well as for pumping. The basic principles underlying the optical actuation mechanisms will be described first, and then several experimental demonstrations will be reviewed and compared.

  1. A new optical encryption system for image transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuyu; Chen, Linfei; Chang, Guojun; He, Bingyu

    2017-12-01

    This paper introduces a new optical image encryption system based on Fresnel diffraction and phase iterative algorithm, which can realize the conversion between different images. The method is based on the optical system of free space transmission, and uses the iterative phase retrieval algorithm to encode an image into two phase masks and a ciphertext. Unlike the existed methods, the ciphertext is a visible image, which can be used to achieve the conversion of one image to another image. In order to enhance the security, two phase masks are combined into a wide-scale phase mask by the double image cross pixel scrambling approach. In the decryption process, the wide-scale phase mask is re-decrypted into two random phase masks using a random shift matrix. The ciphertext and the first phase mask are placed on the input plane and the second random phase mask is placed on the transformation plane. The Fresnel diffraction principle can be used to obtain the plaintext information on the output plane. Theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the encryption system is feasible and quite safe.

  2. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A; Benner, A

    2011-01-01

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  3. Benefits of glass fibers in solar fiber optic lighting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volotinen, Tarja T; Lingfors, David H S

    2013-09-20

    The transmission properties and coupling of solar light have been studied for glass core multimode fibers in order to verify their benefits for a solar fiber optic lighting system. The light transportation distance can be extended from 20 m with plastic fibers to over 100 m with the kind of glass fibers studied here. A high luminous flux, full visible spectrum, as well as an outstanding color rendering index (98) and correlated color temperature similar to the direct sun light outside have been obtained. Thus the outstanding quality of solar light transmitted through these fibers would improve the visibility of all kinds of objects compared to fluorescent and other artificial lighting. Annual relative lighting energy savings of 36% in Uppsala, Sweden, and 76% in Dubai were estimated in an office environment. The absolute savings can be doubled by using glass optical fibers, and are estimated to be in the order of 550 kWh/year in Sweden and 1160 kWh/year in Dubai for one system of only 0.159 m(2) total light collecting area. The savings are dependent on the fiber length, the daily usage time of the interior, the type of artificial lighting substituted, the system light output flux, and the available time of sunny weather at the geographic location.

  4. Advanced optical system for scanning-spot photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochen, Michael; Wullner, Christian; Semchishen, Vladimir A.; Seiler, Theo

    1999-06-01

    Purpose: The goal of this presentation is to discuss the use of the Light Shaping Beam Homogenizer in an optical system for scanning-spot PRK. Methods: The basic principle of the LSBH is the transformation of any incident intensity distribution by light scattering on an irregular microlens structure z = f(x,y). The relief of this microlens structure is determined by a defined statistical function, i.e. it is defined by the mean root-squared tilt σ of the surface relief. Therefore, the beam evolution after the LSBH and in the focal plane of an imaging lens was measured for various root-squared tilts. Beside this, an optical setup for scanning-spot PRK was assembled according to the theoretical and experimental results. Results: The divergence, homogeneity and the Gaussian radius of the intensity distribution in the treatment plane of the scanning-spot PRK laser system is mainly characterized by dependent on root-mean-square tilt σ of the LSBH, as it will be explained by the theoretical description of the LSBH. Conclusions: The LSBH represents a simple, low cost beam homogenizer with low energy losses, for scanning-spot excimer laser systems.

  5. Performance of the APS optical slope measuring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian, Jun; Sullivan, Joe; Erdmann, Mark; Khounsary, Ali; Assoufid, Lahsen

    2013-01-01

    An optical slope measuring system (OSMS) was recently brought into operation at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory. This system is equipped with a precision autocollimator and a very accurate mirror-based pentaprism on a scanning stage and kept in an environment-controlled enclosure. This system has the capability to measure precision optics with sub-microradian rms slope errors as documented with a series of tests demonstrating accuracy, stability, reliability and repeatability. Measurements of a flat mirror with 0.2 μrad rms slope error are presented which show that the variation of the slope profile measurements with the mirror setting at different locations along the scanning direction is only 60 nrad and the corresponding height error profile has 2 nm rms. -- Highlights: ► This is the first time to present the APS OSMS in publication. ► The APS OSMS is capable to measure flat and near flat mirrors with slope error <100 nrad rms. ► The accuracy of the slope error measurements of a 350 mm long mirror is less than 60 nrad rms

  6. Optical technologies for data communication in large parallel systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, M B; Vlasov, Y; Kash, J A [IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY (United States); Benner, A, E-mail: mritter@us.ibm.com [IBM Poughkeepsie, Poughkeepsie, NY (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Large, parallel systems have greatly aided scientific computation and data collection, but performance scaling now relies on chip and system-level parallelism. This has happened because power density limits have caused processor frequency growth to stagnate, driving the new multi-core architecture paradigm, which would seem to provide generations of performance increases as transistors scale. However, this paradigm will be constrained by electrical I/O bandwidth limits; first off the processor card, then off the processor module itself. We will present best-estimates of these limits, then show how optical technologies can help provide more bandwidth to allow continued system scaling. We will describe the current status of optical transceiver technology which is already being used to exceed off-board electrical bandwidth limits, then present work on silicon nanophotonic transceivers and 3D integration technologies which, taken together, promise to allow further increases in off-module and off-card bandwidth. Finally, we will show estimated limits of nanophotonic links and discuss breakthroughs that are needed for further progress, and will speculate on whether we will reach Exascale-class machine performance at affordable powers.

  7. New education system for construction of optical holography setup – Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  8. Laser metrology and optic active control system for GAIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, F.; Bonino, L.; Cesare, S.; Castorina, G.; Mottini, S.; Bertinetto, F.; Bisi, M.; Canuto, E.; Musso, F.

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Metrology and Optic Active Control (LM&OAC) program has been carried out under ESA contract with the purpose to design and validate a laser metrology system and an actuation mechanism to monitor and control at microarcsec level the stability of the Basic Angle (angle between the lines of sight of the two telescopes) of GAIA satellite. As part of the program, a breadboard (including some EQM elements) of the laser metrology and control system has been built and submitted to functional, performance and environmental tests. In the followings we describe the mission requirements, the system architecture, the breadboard design, and finally the performed validation tests. Conclusion and appraisals from this experience are also reported.

  9. Performance of the Keck Observatory adaptive-optics system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dam, Marcos A; Le Mignant, David; Macintosh, Bruce A

    2004-10-10

    The adaptive-optics (AO) system at the W. M. Keck Observatory is characterized. We calculate the error budget of the Keck AO system operating in natural guide star mode with a near-infrared imaging camera. The measurement noise and bandwidth errors are obtained by modeling the control loops and recording residual centroids. Results of sky performance tests are presented: The AO system is shown to deliver images with average Strehl ratios of as much as 0.37 at 1.58 microm when a bright guide star is used and of 0.19 for a magnitude 12 star. The images are consistent with the predicted wave-front error based on our error budget estimates.

  10. Fiber optic sensor system for entrance areas monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajkus, Marcel; Nedoma, Jan; Kepak, Stanislav; Cubik, Jakub; Jargus, Jan; Zboril, Ondřej; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Authors of this article present the fiber-optic system based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) which are used to secure the entrance areas such as buildings, halls, warehouses, etc. The system uses the specially encapsulated sensory array of fiber Bragg gratings which are implemented into the floor or on the floor and allows for monitoring the area of 1 m2 up to 100 m2 depending on the number of FBG sensors. The sensory array is characterized by immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), passivity regarding electrical power supply, the possibility of remote evaluation (up to units of km) and high sensitivity. Proposed sensor system has detection capability greater than 99 % and furthermore, provides information about the weight load to an accuracy of +/- 5 kg. The concept has been tested in a real environment within the test polygon for several weeks. As the reference devices, we used the CCTV (Closed Circuit Television).

  11. Machine learning techniques for optical communication system optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Wass, Jesper; Thrane, Jakob

    In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction.......In this paper, machine learning techniques relevant to optical communication are presented and discussed. The focus is on applying machine learning tools to optical performance monitoring and performance prediction....

  12. Design of an optimized adaptive optics system with a photo-controlled deformable mirror

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pilař, Jan; Bonora, Stefano; Lucianetti, Antonio; Jelínková, H.; Mocek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 13 (2016), s. 1422-1425 ISSN 1041-1135 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : adaptive optics * closed loop systems * deformable mirror Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.375, year: 2016

  13. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  14. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  15. A system's view of metro and regional optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Cedric F.; Way, Winston I.

    2009-01-01

    Developments in fiber optic communications have been rejuvenated after the glut of the overcapacity at the turn of the century. The boom of video-centric network applications finally resulted in another wave of vast build-outs of broadband access networks such as FTTH, DOCSIS 3.0 and WI-FI systems, which in turn also drove up the bandwidth demands in metro and regional WDM networks. These new developments have rekindled research interests on technologies not only to meet the surging demand, but also to upgrade legacy network infrastructures in an evolutionary manner without disrupting existing services and incurring significant capital penalties. Standard bodies such as IEEE, ITU and OIF have formed task forces to ratify 100Gb/s interface standards. Thanks to the seemingly unlimited bandwidth in single-mode fibers, advances in optical networks has traditionally been fueled by more capable physical components such as more powerful laser, cleaner and wider bandwidth optical amplifier, faster modulator and photo-detectors, etc. In the meanwhile, the mainstream modulation technique for fiber optic communication systems has remained the most rudimentary form of on-off keying (OOK) and direct power detection for a very long period of time because spectral efficiency had never been a concern. This scenario, however, is no longer valid as demand for bandwidth is pushing the limit of current of current WDM technologies. In terms of spectral use, all the 100-GHz ITU grids in the C-band have been populated with 10Gb/s wavelengths in most of the WDM transport networks, and we are exhausting the power and bandwidth offered on existing fiber plant EDFAs. Beyond 10Gb/s, increasing the transmission to 40Gb/s by brute force OOK approach incurs significant penalties due to chromatic and polarization mode dispersion. With conventional modulation schemes, transmission impairments at 40Gb/s speed and above already become such difficult challenges that the efforts to manage these

  16. Indoor optical wireless communication system using beam-steering by cascaded diffractive optical elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oh, C.W.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.; García-Blanco, S.M.; Boller, Kl.J.; Sefunc, M.A.; Geuzebroek, D.

    2014-01-01

    While the radio spectrum continues to struggle with a soaring bandwidth demand, the optical spectrum promises virtually unlimited license-free bandwidth. We report the feasibility of high-capacity point-to-point links for indoor optical wireless communication with cascaded diffractive optical

  17. Optical system design, analysis, and production; Proceedings of the Meeting, Geneva, Switzerland, April 19-22, 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, P. J.; Fischer, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    Topics considered include: optical system requirements, analysis, and system engineering; optical system design using microcomputers and minicomputers; optical design theory and computer programs; optical design methods and computer programs; optical design methods and philosophy; unconventional optical design; diffractive and gradient index optical system design; optical production and system integration; and optical systems engineering. Particular attention is given to: stray light control as an integral part of optical design; current and future directions of lens design software; thin-film technology in the design and production of optical systems; aspherical lenses in optical scanning systems; the application of volume phase holograms to avionic displays; the effect of lens defects on thermal imager performance; and a wide angle zoom for the Space Shuttle.

  18. Choice of optical system is critical for the security of double random phase encryption systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniraj, Inbarasan; Guo, Changliang; Malallah, Ra'ed; Cassidy, Derek; Zhao, Liang; Ryle, James P.; Healy, John J.; Sheridan, John T.

    2017-06-01

    The linear canonical transform (LCT) is used in modeling a coherent light-field propagation through first-order optical systems. Recently, a generic optical system, known as the quadratic phase encoding system (QPES), for encrypting a two-dimensional image has been reported. In such systems, two random phase keys and the individual LCT parameters (α,β,γ) serve as secret keys of the cryptosystem. It is important that such encryption systems also satisfy some dynamic security properties. We, therefore, examine such systems using two cryptographic evaluation methods, the avalanche effect and bit independence criterion, which indicate the degree of security of the cryptographic algorithms using QPES. We compared our simulation results with the conventional Fourier and the Fresnel transform-based double random phase encryption (DRPE) systems. The results show that the LCT-based DRPE has an excellent avalanche and bit independence characteristics compared to the conventional Fourier and Fresnel-based encryption systems.

  19. Flexible mobile robot system for smart optical pipe inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampfer, Wolfram; Bartzke, Ralf; Ziehl, Wolfgang

    1998-03-01

    Damages of pipes can be inspected and graded by TV technology available on the market. Remotely controlled vehicles carry a TV-camera through pipes. Thus, depending on the experience and the capability of the operator, diagnosis failures can not be avoided. The classification of damages requires the knowledge of the exact geometrical dimensions of the damages such as width and depth of cracks, fractures and defect connections. Within the framework of a joint R&D project a sensor based pipe inspection system named RODIAS has been developed with two partners from industry and research institute. It consists of a remotely controlled mobile robot which carries intelligent sensors for on-line sewerage inspection purpose. The sensor is based on a 3D-optical sensor and a laser distance sensor. The laser distance sensor is integrated in the optical system of the camera and can measure the distance between camera and object. The angle of view can be determined from the position of the pan and tilt unit. With coordinate transformations it is possible to calculate the spatial coordinates for every point of the video image. So the geometry of an object can be described exactly. The company Optimess has developed TriScan32, a special software for pipe condition classification. The user can start complex measurements of profiles, pipe displacements or crack widths simply by pressing a push-button. The measuring results are stored together with other data like verbal damage descriptions and digitized images in a data base.

  20. EMI free fiber optic strain sensor system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuchy, N.C.; Caserta, A.L.; Ferrara, A.A.; Squires, R.W.; Sredniawski, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In certain applications, structural components are subjected to loadings in high electromagnetic interference (EMI) environments. The mechanical responses of these components must be monitored under rapidly varying electromagnetic fields. A Fiber Optic Strain Sensor System (FOSSS) is an acceptable solution since it is immune to EMI. Grumman Aerospace Corporation initiated the development of a FOSSS that can be used in high EMI situations where resistive/electronic-based strain measurement systems would not be effective, such as on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during plasma disruption. Tests have indicated that because of their increased sensitivity due to the size of the fiber optic (FO) transducer (1-in. 2 ) and responsiveness due to the areal changes of the FO sensor, the strain tracking capability of FO sensors are excellent. For the TFTR application a jacketed 400-micron fiber capable of operating in a 250 0 C temperature environment was used. Continuous 30 foot lengths of high-temperature FO cables were affixed to 304 LN SS tabs, forming an integrated strain sensor and pigtail unit. By fusion splicing 400-micron room temperature fibers to the pigtails, the required runs (approximately 200 feet) to the TFTR data acquisition room were made with minimum coupling attenuation. Development methodology is discussed and test data presented

  1. Theory of aberration fields for general optical systems with freeform surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2014-11-03

    This paper utilizes the framework of nodal aberration theory to describe the aberration field behavior that emerges in optical systems with freeform optical surfaces, particularly φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, that lie anywhere in the optical system. If the freeform surface is located at the stop or pupil, the net aberration contribution of the freeform surface is field constant. As the freeform optical surface is displaced longitudinally away from the stop or pupil of the optical system, the net aberration contribution becomes field dependent. It is demonstrated that there are no new aberration types when describing the aberration fields that arise with the introduction of freeform optical surfaces. Significantly it is shown that the aberration fields that emerge with the inclusion of freeform surfaces in an optical system are exactly those that have been described by nodal aberration theory for tilted and decentered optical systems. The key contribution here lies in establishing the field dependence and nodal behavior of each freeform term that is essential knowledge for effective application to optical system design. With this development, the nodes that are distributed throughout the field of view for each aberration type can be anticipated and targeted during optimization for the correction or control of the aberrations in an optical system with freeform surfaces. This work does not place any symmetry constraints on the optical system, which could be packaged in a fully three dimensional geometry, without fold mirrors.

  2. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  3. Photosynthetic antennae systems: energy transport and optical absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reineker, P.; Supritz, Ch.; Warns, Ch.; Barvik, I.

    2004-01-01

    The energy transport and the optical line shape of molecular aggregates, modeling bacteria photosynthetic light-harvesting systems (chlorosomes in the case of Chlorobium tepidum or Chloroflexus aurantiacus and LH2 in the case of Rhodopseudomonas acidophila) is investigated theoretically. The molecular units are described by two-level systems with an average excitation energy ε and interacting with each other through nearest-neighbor interactions. For LH2 an elliptical deformation of the ring is also allowed. Furthermore, dynamic and in the case of LH2 also quasi-static fluctuations of the local excitation energies are taken into account, simulating fast molecular vibrations and slow motions of the protein backbone, respectively. The fluctuations are described by Gaussian Markov processes in the case of the chlorosomes and by colored dichotomic Markov processes, with exponentially decaying correlation functions, with small (λ s ) and large (λ) decay constants, in the case of LH2

  4. Biological elements carry out optical tasks in coherent imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, P.; Bianco, V.; Paturzo, M.; Miccio, L.; Memmolo, P.; Merola, F.; Marchesano, V.

    2016-03-01

    We show how biological elements, like live bacteria species and Red Blood Cells (RBCs) can accomplish optical functionalities in DH systems. Turbid media allow coherent microscopy despite the strong light scattering these provoke, acting on light just as moving diffusers. Furthermore, a turbid medium can have positive effects on a coherent imaging system, providing resolution enhancement and mimicking the action of noise decorrelation devices, thus yielding an image quality significantly higher than the quality achievable through a transparent medium in similar recording conditions. Besides, suspended RBCs are demonstrated to behave as controllable liquid micro-lenses, opening new possibilities in biophotonics for endoscopy imaging purposes, as well as telemedicine for point-of-care diagnostics in developing countries and low-resource settings.

  5. Optics System Design of Microwave Imaging Reflectometry for the EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yilun; Zhao Zhenling; Tong Li; Chen Dongxu; Xie Jinlin; Liu Wandong

    2016-01-01

    A front-end optics system has been developed for the EAST microwave imaging reflectometry for 2D density fluctuation measurement. Via the transmitter optics system, a combination of eight transmitter beams with independent frequencies is employed to illuminate wide poloidal regions on eight distinct cutoff layers. The receiver optics collect the reflected wavefront and project them onto the vertical detector array with 12 antennas. Utilizing optimized Field Curvature adjustment lenses in the receiver optics, the front-end optics system provides a flexible and perfect matching between the image plane and a specified cutoff layer in the plasma, which ensures the correct data interpretation of density fluctuation measurement. (paper)

  6. Optical properties of CAD-CAM ceramic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Nogueira, Audrea D; Pecho, Oscar E

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the direct transmittance (T%), translucency, opacity and opalescence of CAD-CAM ceramic systems and the correlation between the translucency parameter (TP) and the contrast ratio (CR). Specimens of shades A1, A2 and A3 (n=5) were fabricated from CAD-CAM ceramic blocks (IPS e.max(®) CAD HT and LT, IPS Empress(®) CAD HT and LT, Paradigm™ C, and VITABLOCS(®) Mark II) and polished to 1.0±0.01mm in thickness. A spectrophotometer (Lambda 20) was used to measure T% on the wavelength range of 400-780nm. Another spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade(®) Advance) was used to measure the CIE L(*)a(*)b(*) coordinates and the reflectance value (Y) of samples on white and black backgrounds. TP, CR and the opalescence parameter (OP) were calculated. Data were statistically analysed using VAF (variance accounting for) coefficient with Cauchy-Schwarz inequality, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's test, Bonferroni correction and Pearson's correlation. T% of some ceramic systems is dependent on the wavelength. The spectral behaviour showed a slight and constant increase in T% up to approximately 550nm, then some ceramics changed the behaviour as the wavelength gets longer. TP and CR values ranged, respectively, from 16.79 to 21.69 and from 0.52 to 0.64 (r(2)=-0.97). OP values ranged from 3.01 to 7.64. The microstructure of CAD-CAM ceramic systems influenced the optical properties. TP and CR showed a strong correlation for all ceramic systems evaluated. Yet, all ceramics showed some degree of light transmittance. In addition to shade, this study showed that other optical properties influence on the natural appearance of dental ceramics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Compound Tension Control of an Optical-Fiber Coil System: A Cyber-Physical System View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Peng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment is a complex electromechanical system which contains signal acquisition, data processing, communications, and motor control. In the complex electromechanical system, the subsystems rely on wired or wireless network technology to complete the real-time perception, coordinate, accurate, and dynamitic control, and information exchange services. The paper points to the full-automatic optical-fiber coil winding equipment with the characteristics of cyber-physical system to research its numerical design. We present a novel compound tension control system based on the experimental platform dSPACE to achieve semiphysical simulation of compound tension control system and examine the functions of control system.

  8. Optical interconnection networks for high-performance computing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biberman, Aleksandr; Bergman, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Enabled by silicon photonic technology, optical interconnection networks have the potential to be a key disruptive technology in computing and communication industries. The enduring pursuit of performance gains in computing, combined with stringent power constraints, has fostered the ever-growing computational parallelism associated with chip multiprocessors, memory systems, high-performance computing systems and data centers. Sustaining these parallelism growths introduces unique challenges for on- and off-chip communications, shifting the focus toward novel and fundamentally different communication approaches. Chip-scale photonic interconnection networks, enabled by high-performance silicon photonic devices, offer unprecedented bandwidth scalability with reduced power consumption. We demonstrate that the silicon photonic platforms have already produced all the high-performance photonic devices required to realize these types of networks. Through extensive empirical characterization in much of our work, we demonstrate such feasibility of waveguides, modulators, switches and photodetectors. We also demonstrate systems that simultaneously combine many functionalities to achieve more complex building blocks. We propose novel silicon photonic devices, subsystems, network topologies and architectures to enable unprecedented performance of these photonic interconnection networks. Furthermore, the advantages of photonic interconnection networks extend far beyond the chip, offering advanced communication environments for memory systems, high-performance computing systems, and data centers. (review article)

  9. Implementation of an Optical Coherence Tomography system for painting characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Hannah U. K. S.; Mota, Claudia C. B. O.; Kyotoku, Bernardo B. C.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.; Santos-Filho, Plinio B.

    2009-01-01

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a new but well established imaging technique for medical diagnosis, which can produce two- or three-dimensional images of bio-tissues with a few μm spatial resolution. Its potential as a non-invasive tool for art conservation of paintings and other objects has been realized recently. In this work, we report the implementation of two OCT systems applied to painting characterization. One system operates in the so-called spectral domain, with a central wavelength of 840 nm and axial resolution of 10 μm. The second system has its central wavelength at 1280 nm, with spatial resolution of 20 μm, and operates in the time domain. Both systems are independently controlled and have imaging software developed in-house using Lab View. Using both systems, a 15 years old acrylic portrait has been analyzed, where the paint layers, light and dark colors, and the cotton treads of the canvas could be identified. (Author)

  10. Study on portable optical 3D coordinate measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Tongqun; Zhu, Jigui; Guo, Yinbiao

    2009-05-01

    A portable optical 3D coordinate measuring system based on digital Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) technology and binocular stereo vision theory is researched. Three ultra-red LED with high stability is set on a hand-hold target to provide measuring feature and establish target coordinate system. Ray intersection based field directional calibrating is done for the intersectant binocular measurement system composed of two cameras by a reference ruler. The hand-hold target controlled by Bluetooth wireless communication is free moved to implement contact measurement. The position of ceramic contact ball is pre-calibrated accurately. The coordinates of target feature points are obtained by binocular stereo vision model from the stereo images pair taken by cameras. Combining radius compensation for contact ball and residual error correction, object point can be resolved by transfer of axes using target coordinate system as intermediary. This system is suitable for on-field large-scale measurement because of its excellent portability, high precision, wide measuring volume, great adaptability and satisfying automatization. It is tested that the measuring precision is near to +/-0.1mm/m.

  11. Development of optically stimulated luminescence reader systems in BARC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    BARC has very vast experience in the development of thermoluminescence (TL) reader systems both for routine personnel monitoring and research application. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) related instrumentation is a recent development in BARC. The increasing popularity of OSL technique in the radiation dosimetry applications in the recent past has driven investigation and developmental programme in the OSL measurement facilities at BARC. As the consequence of the efforts directed towards the indigenous development of OSL reader system, OSL readers with various readout modes like continuous wave (CW) OSL mode, linear intensity modulated OSL (LM-OSL), pulsed OSL (POSL) have been developed. In addition to these conventional modes of operation a novel non-linear OSL mode (NL-OSL) has also been developed for the OSL measurements. This paper reviews the details of the development of OSL reader system including experience with high intensity blue/green LED stimulation light source and detection system. Also discussed are recently developed versatile integrated TL/OSL reader systems for TL and OSL measurements. (author)

  12. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  13. Optical Synchronization Systems for Femtosecond X-Ray Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Russell; Staples, John W

    2005-01-01

    In femtosecond pump/probe experiments using short x-ray and optical pulses, precise synchronization must be maintained between widely separated lasers in a synchrotron or FEL facility. We are developing synchronization systems using optical signals for applications requiring different ranges of timing error. For the sub-100fs range we use an amplitude modulated CW laser at 1GHz to transmit RF phase information, and control the delay through a 100m fiber by observing the retroreflected signal. Initial results show 40fs peak-to-peak error above 10Hz, and 200fs long term drift, mainly due to amplitude sensitivity in the analog mixers. For the sub-10fs range we will lock two single-frequency lasers separated by several teraHertz to a master modelocked fiber laser, transmit the two frequencies over fiber, and lock two comb lines of a slave laser to these frequencies, thus synchronizing the two modelocked laser envelopes. For attosecond synchronization we propose a stabilized, free space link using bulk lens wavegu...

  14. Macaque accessory optic system: II. Connections with the pretectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleydier, C.; Magnin, M.; Cooper, H.M.

    1990-01-01

    Connections of the accessory optic system (AOS) with the pretectum are described in the macaque monkey. Injections of tritiated amino acids in the pretectum demonstrate a major contralateral projection to the dorsal (DTN), lateral (LTN), and medial (MTN) terminal nuclei of the AOS and a sparser projection to the ipsilateral LTN. Injections of retrograde tracers, Fast Blue (FB), or wheat germ agglutinin horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) plus nonconjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in the LTN show that the pretectal-LTN projection originates from two nuclei. The main source of pretectal efferents to the LTN is from the pretectal olivary nucleus (OPN) and is entirely contralateral. This projection, which appears unique to primates, originates from the large multipolar cells of the OPN. In addition to this projection, the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT) projects to the ipsilateral LTN, as in nonprimates. Injection of WGA-HRP in the pretectum shows a reciprocal predominantely ipsilateral projection from the LTN to the pretectum. Retinas were observed after injection of FB in the LTN. The retinal ganglion cells projecting to the AOS are mainly distributed near the fovea and in the nasal region of the contralateral eye, suggesting a nasotemporal pattern of decussation. The demonstration of a direct connection between LTN and OPN forces to a reconsideration of the functional role of the AOS. Previous descriptions of luminance responsive cells in the LTN support a possible participation of this nucleus in the control of the pupillary light reflex

  15. Simulation of optical soliton control in micro- and nanoring resonator systems

    CERN Document Server

    Daud, Suzairi; Ali, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces optical soliton control in micro- and nanoring resonator systems. It describes how the ring resonator systems can be optimized as optical tweezers for photodetection by controlling the input power, ring radii and coupling coefficients of the systems. Numerous arrangements and configurations of micro and nanoring resonator systems are explained. The analytical formulation and optical transfer function for each model and the interaction of the optical signals in the systems are discussed. This book shows that the models designed are able to control the dynamical behaviour of generated signals.

  16. Generalized optomechanics and its applications quantum optical properties of generalized optomechanical system

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jin Jin

    2013-01-01

    A mechanical oscillator coupled to the optical field in a cavity is a typical cavity optomechanical system. In our textbook, we prepare to introduce the quantum optical properties of optomechanical system, i.e. linear and nonlinear effects. Some quantum optical devices based on optomechanical system are also presented in the monograph, such as the Kerr modulator, quantum optical transistor, optomechanical mass sensor, and so on. But most importantly, we extend the idea of typical optomechanical system to coupled mechanical resonator system and demonstrate that the combined two-level structure

  17. 75 FR 34988 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive Patent License; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ...; Fiber Optic Sensor Systems Technology Corporation AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to Fiber Optic Sensor... inventions described in U.S. Patent No. 7,149,374: Fiber Optic Pressure Sensor, Navy Case No. 84,557.//U.S...

  18. Novel flat datacenter network architecture based on scalable and flow-controlled optical switch system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, W.; Luo, J.; Di Lucente, S.; Dorren, H.J.S.; Calabretta, N.

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate an optical flat datacenter network based on scalable optical switch system with optical flow control. 4×4 dynamic switch operation at 40 Gb/s reported 300ns minimum end-to-end latency (including 25m transmission link) and

  19. Optical memory system technology. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstracts data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zollars, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    Approximately 213 citations from the international literature which concern the development of the optical data storage system technology are presented. Topics covered include holographic computer storage devices, crystal, magneto, and electro-optics, imaging techniques, in addition to optical data processing and storage.

  20. Interferometric interrogation concepts for integrated electro-optical sensor systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ikkink, T.J.; Ikkink, Teunis Jan

    1998-01-01

    Integrated optical sensors have a high potential in the measurement of a large variety of measurands. Research on integrated optical sensors enjoys increasing interest. In order to reach accurate performance and to facilitate the use of integrated optical sensors, electronic functions for sensor

  1. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  2. Flux density calibration in diffuse optical tomographic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Samir Kumar; Rajan, Kanhirodan; Vasu, Ram M

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the forward equation that models the transport of light through a highly scattering tissue material in diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using the finite element method gives flux density (Φ) at the nodal points of the mesh. The experimentally measured flux (Umeasured) on the boundary over a finite surface area in a DOT system has to be corrected to account for the system transfer functions (R) of various building blocks of the measurement system. We present two methods to compensate for the perturbations caused by R and estimate true flux density (Φ) from Umeasuredcal. In the first approach, the measurement data with a homogeneous phantom (Umeasuredhomo) is used to calibrate the measurement system. The second scheme estimates the homogeneous phantom measurement using only the measurement from a heterogeneous phantom, thereby eliminating the necessity of a homogeneous phantom. This is done by statistically averaging the data (Umeasuredhetero) and redistributing it to the corresponding detector positions. The experiments carried out on tissue mimicking phantom with single and multiple inhomogeneities, human hand, and a pork tissue phantom demonstrate the robustness of the approach.

  3. Control code for laboratory adaptive optics teaching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Moonseob; Luder, Ryan; Sanchez, Lucas; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    By sensing and compensating wavefront aberration, adaptive optics (AO) systems have proven themselves crucial in large astronomical telescopes, retinal imaging, and holographic coherent imaging. Commercial AO systems for laboratory use are now available in the market. One such is the ThorLabs AO kit built around a Boston Micromachines deformable mirror. However, there are limitations in applying these systems to research and pedagogical projects since the software is written with limited flexibility. In this paper, we describe a MATLAB-based software suite to interface with the ThorLabs AO kit by using the MATLAB Engine API and Visual Studio. The software is designed to offer complete access to the wavefront sensor data, through the various levels of processing, to the command signals to the deformable mirror and fast steering mirror. In this way, through a MATLAB GUI, an operator can experiment with every aspect of the AO system's functioning. This is particularly valuable for tests of new control algorithms as well as to support student engagement in an academic environment. We plan to make the code freely available to the community.

  4. Dispersion Compensation of Fiber Optic Systems for KSC Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaitis, Samuel P.; Hand, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Installed fibers such as those at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are optimized for use at 1310 nm because they have zero dispersion at that wavelength. An installed fiber system designed to operate at 1310 nm will operate at a much lower data rate when operated at 1550 nm because the dispersion is not zero at 1550 nm. Using dispersion measurements of both installed and dispersion compensating fibers, we compensated a 21.04 km length of installed fiber with 4.25 km of dispersion compensating fiber. Using the compensated fiber-optic link, we reduced the dispersion to 0.494 ps/nm-km, from an uncompensated dispersion of 16.8 ps/nm-km. The main disadvantage of the compensated link using DC fiber was an increase in attenuation. Although the increase was not necessarily severe, it could be significant when insertion losses, connector losses, and fiber attenuation are taken into account.

  5. Optical performance and metallic absorption in nanoplasmonic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Matthew D; Blaber, Martin G

    2009-03-02

    Optical metrics relating to metallic absorption in representative plasmonic systems are surveyed, with a view to developing heuristics for optimizing performance over a range of applications. We use the real part of the permittivity as the independent variable; consider strengths of particle resonances, resolving power of planar lenses, and guiding lengths of planar waveguides; and compare nearly-free-electron metals including Al, Cu, Ag, Au, Li, Na, and K. Whilst the imaginary part of metal permittivity has a strong damping effect, field distribution is equally important and thus factors including geometry, real permittivity and frequency must be considered when selecting a metal. Al performs well at low permittivities (e.g. sphere resonances, superlenses) whereas Au & Ag only perform well at very negative permittivities (shell and rod resonances, LRSPP). The alkali metals perform well overall but present engineering challenges.

  6. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-01-01

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability

  7. [The eye, the optic system and its anomalies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, S Y

    1993-09-15

    The eye is a perceptive system with extremely complex physiology, although its optical properties can be assimilated to those of spherical diopters. Various approximations make it possible to reduce the eyeball to a single convex diopter. With a normal eye the image of an object situated ad infinitum focuses on the retina. The normal eye is called emmetropic. Otherwise, the eye is called ametropic. Several types of ametropy exist. When the image focuses in front of the retina the eye is said to be myopic. When the image focuses behind the retina the eye is called hypermetropic (or hyperopic). When the image of an object differs according to various focusing axes, the eye is said to be astigmatic.

  8. Influence of changes in an eye's optical system on refraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkowska, Janina

    1998-10-01

    The optical system of eye is composed of cornea, lens, anterior chamber, and vitreous body. In the standard schematic eye there are 6 refracting surfaces. The changes of the curvature radii, of the distances between them, of the refractive indices influence the ametropia, refractive power of the eye and retinal image size. The influence of these changes can be appreciated by ray tracing or by an analytical method. There are presented simplified formulae for the differentials of ametropia and refractive power of the eye with respect to the surfaces curvatures, refracting power of cornea and lens, refractive indices. The relations are valid too for bigger changes if ametropia is measured in the cornea vertex. The formulae for the differentials with respect to distances, lens translation, eye axis length are valid if ametropia is measured in the object focus of the eye.

  9. A readout system for the wavelength-shifting optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foesig, Carl-Christian; Boeser, Sebastian [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet, Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The success of IceCube and the plans for an IceCube-Gen2 stimulate the development of new photo sensors. The approach of the Wavelength-shifting Optical Module is to provide a device which has a low dark noise rate combined with a high detection efficiency. A small PMT is used to detect red shifted photons guided in a coated PMMA tube, originally emitted by a wavelength shifting coating that absorbs photons in the UV Region. We have studied several PMTs for their usability with the IceCube-Gen2 readout system. Relevant parameters are the pulse widths in relation to the bandwidth of the IceCube-Gen2 readout electronics and the dark noise rates.

  10. Simple optical readout for ethanol-chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB) or Dvornik dosimetry system is based on the development of the coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance one displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It is shown that by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of this reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  11. Simple optical readout for ethanol - chlorobenzene dosimetry system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilijas, B.; Razem, D.

    1999-01-01

    Optical readout of the ethanol-chlorobenzene (ECB or Dvornik dosimetry system) is based on the development of coloured secondary complex of ferric thiocyanate which has a maximum absorption at 485 nm. The applicability of a rugged, hand-held, battery powered filter colorimeter operating at 480 nm has been investigated as a reader for this purpose. This simple reader performs very well within absorbance displaying an excellent linearity of absorbance with the concentration of Cl - ions. It was shown, by choosing the appropriate dilution factor when preparing the secondary complex solution, the entire useful dose range of the dosimeter up to 2 MGy can be covered. The applicability of the same reader to some other liquid chemical dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  12. Simplied formula for the illuminance in an optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, D.G.; Shealy, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    A formula is derived for the illuminance at any surface in an optical system. By tracing a single ray one can compute the flux density at the image plane or any other position along the ray. The formula involves the ratio of the products of the principal curvatures of the wave front as it approaches each surface to products of the same qualitities after the wave front is refracted at each surface. A procedure is presented for determining the required principal curvatures by generalizing the Coddinton equations to multiple surfaces for both meridional and skew rays. Results are applicable to both sphreical and aspherical surfaces. Since principal radii of curvature specify points on the caustic surfaces, the formula and computation procedure automatically yields the equations for caustic surfaces as a by-product. To illustrate the computation procedure the illuminance and caustic surfaces are derived for an aspherical singlet

  13. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  14. Advanced free space optics (FSO) a systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Arun K

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive, unified tutorial covering the most recent advances in the technology of free-space optics (FSO). It is an all-inclusive source of information on the fundamentals of FSO as well as up-to-date information on the state-of-the-art in technologies available today. This text is intended for graduate students, and will also be useful for research scientists and engineers with an interest in the field. FSO communication is a practical solution for creating a three dimensional global broadband communications grid, offering bandwidths far beyond what is possible in the Radio Frequency (RF) range. However, the attributes of atmospheric turbulence and scattering impose perennial limitations on availability and reliability of FSO links. From a systems point-of-view, this groundbreaking book provides a thorough understanding of channel behavior, which can be used to design and evaluate optimum transmission techniques that operate under realistic atmospheric conditions. Topics addressed...

  15. Optical pulsations in AM Her systems. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    The AM Her systems are widely believed to be mass transfer binaries containing a white dwarf primary accreting from a red dwarf secondary. The magnetic field of the white dwarf is so strong that it prevents the formation of an accretion disk and funnels the accretion flow into the polar caps of the white dwarf. The accreting matter is decelerated from free fall by passage through a standoff shock located somewhat above the surface of the white dwarf. The hot postshock gas radiates hard x-rays and electron cyclotron emission and cools until it settles onto the photosphere. Middleditch (1982) reported the discovery of a broad feature between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz in the power spectrum of AN UMa and E1405-451. Observations of AM Her and of AN UMa in its faint state did not show similar features. This feature was tentatively identified with the instability discovered by LCS, but it was clear that improved observations and models were both required to confirm the identification. Recent observations by Larsson (1985) confirm the presence of the feature in the power spectrum of E1405-451 and show clearly visible pulsations in the light curves as well as demonstrating that the pulsation is predominantly in red light. As a result it seems worthwhile to present theoretical predictions for optical pulsations. The model of the system is described, emphasizing the general physics of the problem at the expense of details about the numerical aspects. Some of the expected properties of the optical emission are presented, and the observations and model improvements that are of the most immediate interest are suggested. 16 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Optical pulsations in AM Her systems. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langer, S.H.

    1985-06-01

    The AM Her systems are widely believed to be mass transfer binaries containing a white dwarf primary accreting from a red dwarf secondary. The magnetic field of the white dwarf is so strong that it prevents the formation of an accretion disk and funnels the accretion flow into the polar caps of the white dwarf. The accreting matter is decelerated from free fall by passage through a standoff shock located somewhat above the surface of the white dwarf. The hot postshock gas radiates hard x-rays and electron cyclotron emission and cools until it settles onto the photosphere. Middleditch (1982) reported the discovery of a broad feature between 0.4 and 0.8 Hz in the power spectrum of AN UMa and E1405-451. Observations of AM Her and of AN UMa in its faint state did not show similar features. This feature was tentatively identified with the instability discovered by LCS, but it was clear that improved observations and models were both required to confirm the identification. Recent observations by Larsson (1985) confirm the presence of the feature in the power spectrum of E1405-451 and show clearly visible pulsations in the light curves as well as demonstrating that the pulsation is predominantly in red light. As a result it seems worthwhile to present theoretical predictions for optical pulsations. The model of the system is described, emphasizing the general physics of the problem at the expense of details about the numerical aspects. Some of the expected properties of the optical emission are presented, and the observations and model improvements that are of the most immediate interest are suggested. 16 refs., 4 figs

  17. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  18. System engineering of complex optical systems for mission assurance and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees

    2017-08-01

    Affordability and reliability are equally important as the performance and development time for many optical systems for military, space and commercial applications. These characteristics are even more important for the systems meant for space and military applications where total lifecycle costs must be affordable. Most customers are looking for high performance optical systems that are not only affordable but are designed with "no doubt" mission assurance, reliability and maintainability in mind. Both US military and commercial customers are now demanding an optimum balance between performance, reliability and affordability. Therefore, it is important to employ a disciplined systems design approach for meeting the performance, cost and schedule targets while keeping affordability and reliability in mind. The US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) now requires all of their systems to be engineered, tested and produced according to the Mission Assurance Provisions (MAP). These provisions or requirements are meant to ensure complex and expensive military systems are designed, integrated, tested and produced with the reliability and total lifecycle costs in mind. This paper describes a system design approach based on the MAP document for developing sophisticated optical systems that are not only cost-effective but also deliver superior and reliable performance during their intended missions.

  19. Numerical Investigations on a Distributed Fiber-Optic Lighting System with an End Reflector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhua; Gong Huaping; Tu Yumeng; Meng Ying

    2011-01-01

    A novel distributed fiber-optic decorative lighting system with the reflection coating on the extremity of fiber-optic is designed, which used the multi-mold optical fiber made up of large core diameter(Diameter of core and cladding is 105μm and 125μm, respectly). After introducing the distributional optical fiber decorative lighting system briefly, the ralationship between corrosion depth of the optical fiber core and the leakage of fiber-optic has been analyzed with the Rsoft, and then the relationship of the lighting power and the uniformity of lighting power with the leakage rate of optical fiber lamp, the reflective of reflection coating has been discussed.The simulation analysis shows that, when the core diameter is corroded to 80∼85 μm, the leakage rate of optical fiber may achieve 5.0%, which suits the optical fiber decorative lighting. Considering all kinds of factors, when optical fiber lamp's quantity is 20, the coating index of reflection is 95%, optical fiber lamp's leakage of light rate is 5.0%, and the optical fiber lamp's distance is 1 meter, the quite high illuminating power may be achieved, as well as the good lighting uniformity.Finally the experimental study of decorative lighting system is given. And the experimental result is in keeping well with the theory simulation conclusion.

  20. The research of optical windows used in aircraft sensor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Feng; Li Yan; Tang Tian-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The optical windows used in aircrafts protect their imaging sensors from environmental effects. Considering the imaging performance, flat surfaces are traditionally used in the design of optical windows. For aircrafts operating at high speeds, the optical windows should be relatively aerodynamic, but a flat optical window may introduce unacceptably high drag to the airframes. The linear scanning infrared sensors used in aircrafts with, respectively, a flat window, a spherical window and a toric window in front of the aircraft sensors are designed and compared. Simulation results show that the optical design using a toric surface has the integrated advantages of field of regard, aerodynamic drag, narcissus effect, and imaging performance, so the optical window with a toric surface is demonstrated to be suited for this application. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  1. Optimization of an Optical Parametric Chirped Pulse Amplification System for the OMEGA EP Laser System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begishev, I.; Bagnoud, V.; Guardalben, M.; Waxer, L.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.

    2003-01-01

    OAK B204 We report on the experimental achievements of the optical parametric chirped-pulse amplification (OPCPA) system, including 29% pump-to-signal conversion efficiency and 107 gain using two LBO crystals configured as a single amplification stage. Temporal and spatial shaping of the pump laser pulse is required to achieve both high-gain and high-conversion efficiency

  2. Quantum Optics with Nanomechanical and Solid State Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaehne, K.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents theoretical studies in an interfacing field of quantum optics, nanomechanics and mesoscopic solid state physics and proposes new methods for the generation of particular quantum states and quantum state transfer for selected hybrid systems. The first part of this thesis focuses on the quantum limit of a macroscopic object, a nanomechanical resonator. This is studied for two different physical systems. The first one is a nanomechanical beam incorporated in a superconducting circuit, in particular a loop-shaped Cooper pair box (CPB) - circuit. We present a scheme for ground state cooling of the flexural mode of the nanomechanical beam. Via the Lorentz force coupling of the beam motion to circulating CPB-circuit currents, energy is transferred to the CPB qubit which acts as a dissipative two-level system. The cooling process is driven by a detuned gate-voltage drive acting on the CPB. We analyze the cooling force spectrum and present analytical expressions for the cooling rate and final occupation number for a wide parameter regime. In particular, we find that cooling is optimized in a strong drive regime, and we present the necessary conditions for ground-state cooling. In a second system, we investigate the creation of squeezed states of a mechanical oscillator (a vibrating membrane or a movable mirror) in an optomechanical setup. An optical cavity is driven by squeezed light and couples via radiation pressure to the mechanical oscillator, effectively providing a squeezed heat-bath for the mechanical oscillator. Under the conditions of laser cooling to the ground state, we find an efficient transfer of squeezing with roughly 60% of light squeezing conveyed to the mechanical oscillator (on a dB scale). We determine the requirements on the carrier frequency and the bandwidth of squeezed light. Beyond the conditions for ground state cooling, we predict mechanical squashing to be observable in current systems. The second part of the thesis is

  3. Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.

    2017-08-01

    The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.

  4. A hybrid optical system for broadband imaging in guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yuesong; Shen, Chunyan; Zhao, Yiming

    2006-11-01

    A binary optics method has been adopted to improve upon a conventional optical system in guidance and control, and a hybrid broadband imaging system that includes a binary surface is analyzed and evaluated by optical design software ZEMAX. The practical design shows that the introduction of binary optics can simplify the structure of the imaging system and reduce the size and weight of the broadband guidance and control system. Moreover, it can help to acquire images of radiation of different wavelengths from targets; hence it will result in improved overall performance of missiles in wars.

  5. Next-generation fabrication technologies for optical pickup devices in high-density optical disk storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoe, Shigeru

    1999-05-01

    This paper shows a direction of friction technologies to make aspherical plastic objective lens with higher optical performance for high density optical disk storage systems. Specifically, a low birefringence and low water absorption (less than 0.1%) optical resin, low tool abrasion mold material, high circularity diamond tool which nose circularity is less than 30 nm, and 1 nm axis resolution precision lathe which tool position is stabilized against drift by environmental change are referred. Cut optical surface of a mold sample was constantly attained in less than 5 nmRtm surface roughness. Using these new technologies, aspherical plastic objective lens (NA0.6) for DVD which wave aberration is less than 35 m (lambda) rms was realized.

  6. Optical coherence tomography using the Niris system in otolaryngology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Marc; Armstrong, William B.; Djalilian, Hamid R.; Crumley, Roger L.; Kim, Jason H.; Nguyen, Quoc A.; Foulad, Allen I.; Ghasri, Pedram E.; Wong, Brian J. F.

    2009-02-01

    Objectives: To determine the feasibility and accuracy of the Niris Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) system in imaging of the mucosal abnormalities of the head and neck. The Niris system is the first commercially available OCT device for applications outside ophthalmology. Methods: We obtained OCT images of benign, premalignant and malignant lesions throughout the head and neck, using the Niris OCT imaging system (Imalux, Cleveland, OH). This imaging system has a tissue penetration depth of approximately 1-2mm, a scanning range of 2mm and a spatial depth resolution of approximately 10-20μm. Imaging was performed in the outpatient setting and in the operating room using a flexible probe. Results: High-resolution cross-sectional images from the oral cavity, nasal cavity, ears and larynx showed distinct layers and structures such as mucosa layer, basal membrane and lamina propria, were clearly identified. In the pathology images disruption of the basal membrane was clearly shown. Device set-up took approximately 5 minutes and the image acquisition was rapid. The system can be operated by the person performing the exam. Conclusions: The Niris system is non invasive and easy to incorporate into the operating room and the clinic. It requires minimal set-up and requires only one person to operate. The unique ability of the OCT offers high-resolution images showing the microanatomy of different sites. OCT imaging with the Niris device potentially offers an efficient, quick and reliable imaging modality in guiding surgical biopsies, intra-operative decision making, and therapeutic options for different otolaryngologic pathologies and premalignant disease.

  7. Reducing aberration effect of Fourier transform lens by modifying Fourier spectrum of diffractive optical element in beam shaping optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zhu, Jing; Song, Qiang; Yue, Weirui; Liu, Jingdan; Wang, Jian; Situ, Guohai; Huang, Huijie

    2015-10-20

    In general, Fourier transform lenses are considered as ideal in the design algorithms of diffractive optical elements (DOEs). However, the inherent aberrations of a real Fourier transform lens disturb the far field pattern. The difference between the generated pattern and the expected design will impact the system performance. Therefore, a method for modifying the Fourier spectrum of DOEs without introducing other optical elements to reduce the aberration effect of the Fourier transform lens is proposed. By applying this method, beam shaping performance is improved markedly for the optical system with a real Fourier transform lens. The experiments carried out with a commercial Fourier transform lens give evidence for this method. The method is capable of reducing the system complexity as well as improving its performance.

  8. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems SIG summary and database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Optical Systems Special Investigative Group (SIG) Discipline are to develop a database of experimental findings on LDEF optical systems and elements hardware, and provide an optical system overview. Unlike the electrical and mechanical disciplines, the optics effort relies primarily on the testing of hardware at the various principal investigator's laboratories, since minimal testing of optical hardware was done at Boeing. This is because all space-exposed optics hardware are part of other individual experiments. At this time, all optical systems and elements testing by experiment investigator teams is not complete, and in some cases has hardly begun. Most experiment results to date, document observations and measurements that 'show what happened'. Still to come from many principal investigators is a critical analysis to explain 'why it happened' and future design implications. The original optical system related concerns and the lessons learned at a preliminary stage in the Optical Systems Investigations are summarized. The design of the Optical Experiments Database and how to acquire and use the database to review the LDEF results are described.

  9. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems SIG summary and database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-09-01

    The main objectives of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Optical Systems Special Investigative Group (SIG) Discipline are to develop a database of experimental findings on LDEF optical systems and elements hardware, and provide an optical system overview. Unlike the electrical and mechanical disciplines, the optics effort relies primarily on the testing of hardware at the various principal investigator's laboratories, since minimal testing of optical hardware was done at Boeing. This is because all space-exposed optics hardware are part of other individual experiments. At this time, all optical systems and elements testing by experiment investigator teams is not complete, and in some cases has hardly begun. Most experiment results to date, document observations and measurements that 'show what happened'. Still to come from many principal investigators is a critical analysis to explain 'why it happened' and future design implications. The original optical system related concerns and the lessons learned at a preliminary stage in the Optical Systems Investigations are summarized. The design of the Optical Experiments Database and how to acquire and use the database to review the LDEF results are described.

  10. Non-statistical behavior of coupled optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, G.; Pando Lambruschini, C.; Sinha, S.; Cerdeira, H.A.

    1991-10-01

    We study globally coupled chaotic maps modeling an optical system, and find clear evidence of non-statistical behavior: the mean square deviation (MSD) of the mean field saturates with respect to increase in the number of elements coupled, after a critical value, and its distribution is clearly non-Gaussian. We also find that the power spectrum of the mean field displays well defined peaks, indicating a subtle coherence among different elements, even in the ''turbulent'' phase. This system is a physically realistic model that may be experimentally realizable. It is also a higher dimensional example (as each individual element is given by a complex map). Its study confirms that the phenomena observed in a wide class of coupled one-dimensional maps are present here as well. This gives more evidence to believe that such non-statistical behavior is probably generic in globally coupled systems. We also investigate the influence of parametric fluctuations on the MSD. (author). 10 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  11. MFTF-B quasi-optical ECRH transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yugo, J.J.; Shearer, J.W.; Ziolkowski, R.W.

    1983-01-01

    The microwave transmission system for ERCH on MFTF-B will utilize quasi-optical transmission techniques. The system consists of ten gyrotron oscillators: two gyrotrons at 28 GHz, two at 35 GHz, and six at 56 GHz. The 28 and 35 GHz gyrotrons both heat the electrons in the end plug (potential peak) while the 56 GHz sources heat the minimum-B anchor region (potential minimum). Microwaves are launched into a pair of cylindrical mirrors that form a pseudo-cavity which directs the microwaves through the plasma numerous times before they are lost out of the cavity. The cavity allows the microwave beam to reach the resonance zone over a wide range of plasma densities and temperatures. The fundamental electron cyclotron resonance moves to higher axial positions as a result of beta-depression of the magnetic field, doppler shifting of the resonance, and relativistic mass corrections for the electrons. With this system the microwave beam will reach the resonance surface at the correct angle of incidence for any density or temperature without active aiming of the antennas. The cavity also allows the beam to make multiple passes through the plasma to increase the heating efficiency at low temperatures and densities when the single pass absorption is low. In addition, neutral beams and diagnostics have an unobstructed view of the plasma

  12. Dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretyagin, Vladimir S.; Pavlenko, Nikita A.

    2017-09-01

    Scientific and technological progress of recent years in the production of the light emitting diodes (LEDs) has led to the expansion of areas of their application from the simplest systems to high precision lighting devices used in various fields of human activity. However, development and production (especially mass production) of LED lighting devices are impossible without a thorough analysis of its parameters and characteristics. There are many ways and devices for analysis the spatial, energy and colorimetric parameters of LEDs. The most methods are intended for definition only one parameter (for example, luminous flux) or one characteristic (for example, the angular distribution of energy or the spectral characteristics). Besides, devices used these methods are intended for measuring parameters in only one point or plane. This problem can be solved by using a dome diagnostics system of optical parameters and characteristics of LEDs, developed by specialists of the department OEDS chair of ITMO University in Russia. The paper presents the theoretical aspects of the analysis of LED's spatial (angular), energy and color parameters by using mentioned of diagnostics system. The article also presents the results of spatial), energy and color parameters measurements of some LEDs brands.

  13. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction Optical System Using Shadows Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barba, J. Leiner; Vargas, Q. Lorena; Torres, M. Cesar; Mattos, V. Lorenzo

    2008-04-01

    In this work is developed a three-dimensional reconstruction system using the Shades3D tool of the Matlab® Programming Language and materials of low cost, such as webcam camera, a stick, a weak structured lighting system composed by a desk lamp, and observation plane in which the object is located. The reconstruction is obtained through a triangulation process that is executed after acquiring a sequence of images of the scene with a shadow projected on the object; additionally an image filtering process is done for obtaining only the part of the scene that will be reconstructed. Previously, it is necessary to develop a calibration process for determining the internal camera geometric and optical characteristics (intrinsic parameters), and the 3D position and orientation of the camera frame relative to a certain world coordinate system (extrinsic parameters). The lamp and the stick are used to produce a shadow which scans the object; in this technique, it is not necessary to know the position of the light source, instead the triangulation is obtained using shadow plane produced by intersection between the stick and the illumination pattern. The webcam camera captures all images with the shadow scanning the object, and Shades3D tool processes all information taking into account captured images and calibration parameters. Likewise, this technique is evaluated in the reconstruction of parts of the human body and its application in the detection of external abnormalities and elaboration of prosthesis or implant.

  14. Automated alignment system for optical wireless communication systems using image recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandl, Paul; Weiss, Alexander; Zimmermann, Horst

    2014-07-01

    In this Letter, we describe the realization of a tracked line-of-sight optical wireless communication system for indoor data distribution. We built a laser-based transmitter with adaptive focus and ray steering by a microelectromechanical systems mirror. To execute the alignment procedure, we used a CMOS image sensor at the transmitter side and developed an algorithm for image recognition to localize the receiver's position. The receiver is based on a self-developed optoelectronic integrated chip with low requirements on the receiver optics to make the system economically attractive. With this system, we were able to set up the communication link automatically without any back channel and to perform error-free (bit error rate <10⁻⁹) data transmission over a distance of 3.5 m with a data rate of 3 Gbit/s.

  15. Development of a NDI system using the magneto-optical method. 2. Remote sensing using the novel magneto-optical inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinyi; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    A new remote sensing system using the magneto-optical method is developed for inspection of flaws introduced during service operation where routine inspection is difficult because of difficult inaccessibility to the components. Among the advantages of non-destructive inspection (NDI) based on the magneto-optical sensor are: real time inspection, elimination of electrical noise and high spatial resolution. Remote sensing of flaws is achieved using the basic principles of Faraday effect, optical permeability, and diffraction of a laser by the domain walls. This paper describes a novel remote NDI system using the principles of optics and LMF. The main characteristic of the system is that image data and LMF information can be obtained simultaneously. It is possible to carry out remote and high speed inspection of cracks from the intensity of reflected light, and to estimate the size of a crack effectively with their diverse data. The advantages of this NDI system are demonstrated using two specimens. (author)

  16. Code division multiple-access techniques in optical fiber networks. II - Systems performance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Jawad A.; Brackett, Charles A.

    1989-08-01

    A technique based on optical orthogonal codes was presented by Salehi (1989) to establish a fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (FO-CDMA) communications system. The results are used to derive the bit error rate of the proposed FO-CDMA system as a function of data rate, code length, code weight, number of users, and receiver threshold. The performance characteristics for a variety of system parameters are discussed. A means of reducing the effective multiple-access interference signal by placing an optical hard-limiter at the front end of the desired optical correlator is presented. Performance calculations are shown for the FO-CDMA with an ideal optical hard-limiter, and it is shown that using a optical hard-limiter would, in general, improve system performance.

  17. A Mitigation Technique of High-Power MAI in the Multimedia Optical CDMA System with the Optical Power Selector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Kohki; Miyazawa, Takaya; Sasase, Iwao

    In this paper, we propose a mitigation system of high-level multiple access interference (MAI) for multimedia optical Code-Division Multiple-Access (CDMA) systems using the optical power selector (OPS). The proposed system can eliminate high-intensity MAI at the receiver for low-priority users. Moreover, the proposed system can reduce by half the required number of code sequences compared to the conventional scheme. As a result, the proposed system can increase the number of weights at the same code-length and, thus, obtain higher code spreading gain. We analyze performances of the proposed system and show that both high-priority users and low-priority users achieve lower bit error rates in comparison to the conventional scheme.

  18. Anomalous Faraday effect of a system with extraordinary optical transmittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanikaev, Alexander B; Baryshev, Alexander V; Fedyanin, Andrey A; Granovsky, Alexander B; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2007-05-28

    It is shown theoretically that the Faraday rotation becomes anomalously large and exhibits extraordinary behavior near the frequencies of the extraordinary optical transmittance through optically thick perforated metal film with holes filled with a magneto-optically active material. This phenomenon is explained as result of strong confinement of the evanescent electromagnetic field within magnetic material, which occurs due to excitation of the coupled plasmon-polaritons on the opposite surfaces of the film.

  19. Development Of The Drexler Optical-Card Reader/Writer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Gerald A.

    1988-06-01

    An optical-card reader/writer optical and electronic breadboard system, developed by SRI International under contract to Drexler Technology, is described. The optical card, which is the same size as a credit card, can contain more than 2 megabytes of digital user data, which may also include preformatted tracking information and preformatted data. The data layout on the card is similar to that on a floppy disk, with each track containing a header and clocking information. The design of this optical reader/writer system for optical cards is explained. Design of the optical card system entails a number of unique issues: To accommodate both laser-recorded and mass-duplicated information, the system must be compatible with preencoded information, which implies a larger-than-normal spot size (5 gm) and a detection system that can read both types of optical patterns. Cost-reduction considerations led to selection of a birefringent protection layer, which dictated a nonstandard optical system. The non-polarization-sensitive optics use an off-axis approach to detection. An LED illumination system makes it possible to read multiple tracks.

  20. An integral design strategy combining optical system and image processing to obtain high resolution images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaoyang; Wang, Lin; Yang, Ying; Gong, Rui; Shao, Xiaopeng; Liang, Chao; Xu, Jun

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an integral design that combines optical system with image processing is introduced to obtain high resolution images, and the performance is evaluated and demonstrated. Traditional imaging methods often separate the two technical procedures of optical system design and imaging processing, resulting in the failures in efficient cooperation between the optical and digital elements. Therefore, an innovative approach is presented to combine the merit function during optical design together with the constraint conditions of image processing algorithms. Specifically, an optical imaging system with low resolution is designed to collect the image signals which are indispensable for imaging processing, while the ultimate goal is to obtain high resolution images from the final system. In order to optimize the global performance, the optimization function of ZEMAX software is utilized and the number of optimization cycles is controlled. Then Wiener filter algorithm is adopted to process the image simulation and mean squared error (MSE) is taken as evaluation criterion. The results show that, although the optical figures of merit for the optical imaging systems is not the best, it can provide image signals that are more suitable for image processing. In conclusion. The integral design of optical system and image processing can search out the overall optimal solution which is missed by the traditional design methods. Especially, when designing some complex optical system, this integral design strategy has obvious advantages to simplify structure and reduce cost, as well as to gain high resolution images simultaneously, which has a promising perspective of industrial application.

  1. PAPR Reduction in All-optical OFDM Systems Based on Phase Pre-emphasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Zhou; Li, Wei; Shao Jing; Liang Xiaojun; Huang Dexiu [Wuhan National Lab for Optoelectronics, Department of Optoelectronics Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tao Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Wuhan Research Institute of Posts and Telecommunications, Wuhan 430074 (China); Deng Zhuanhua, E-mail: hezhou@wri.com.cn, E-mail: weilee@mail.hust.edu.cn [School of Computer Science and Technology, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan 430205 (China)

    2011-02-01

    This paper investigates the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) theory in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) optical fibre communication systems. We find out that phase pre-emphasis could effectively reduce PAPR in all-optical OFDM communication systems which employ intensity modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) method. An equation is developed and proposed to calculate suitable phasing values for pre-emphasis. Furthermore, we find out that phase pre-emphasis cannot reduce PAPR effectively in all-optical OFDM systems that employ Phase Shift Keying (PSK) or Quadracture Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method.

  2. PAPR Reduction in All-optical OFDM Systems Based on Phase Pre-emphasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zhou; Li, Wei; Shao Jing; Liang Xiaojun; Huang Dexiu; Tao Zhiyong; Deng Zhuanhua

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) theory in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) optical fibre communication systems. We find out that phase pre-emphasis could effectively reduce PAPR in all-optical OFDM communication systems which employ intensity modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) method. An equation is developed and proposed to calculate suitable phasing values for pre-emphasis. Furthermore, we find out that phase pre-emphasis cannot reduce PAPR effectively in all-optical OFDM systems that employ Phase Shift Keying (PSK) or Quadracture Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method.

  3. Navy explosive ordnance disposal project: Optical ordnance system development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merson, J.A.; Salas, F.J.; Helsel, F.M.

    1996-03-01

    An optical ordnance firing system consisting of a portable hand held solid state rod laser and an optically ignited detonator has been developed for use in explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) activities. Solid state rod laser systems designed to have an output of 150 mJ in a 500 microsecond pulse have been produced and evaluated. A laser ignited detonator containing no primary explosives has been designed and fabricated. The detonator has the same functional output as an electrically fired blasting cap. The optical ordnance firing system has demonstrated the ability to reliably detonate Comp C-4 through 1000 meters of optical fiber.

  4. A simple system for 160GHz optical terahertz wave generation and data modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yihan; He, Jingsuo; Sun, Xueming; Shi, Zexia; Wang, Ruike; Cui, Hailin; Su, Bo; Zhang, Cunlin

    2018-01-01

    A simple system based on two cascaded Mach-Zehnder modulators, which can generate 160GHz optical terahertz waves from 40GHz microwave sources, is simulated and tested in this paper. Fiber grating filter is used in the system to filter out optical carrier. By properly adjusting the modulator DC bias voltages and the signal voltages and phases, 4-tupling optical terahertz wave can be generated with fiber grating. This notch fiber grating filter is greatly suitable for terahertz over fiber (TOF) communication system. This scheme greatly reduces the cost of long-distance terahertz communication. Furthermore, 10Gbps digital signal is modulated in the 160GHz optical terahertz wave.

  5. Surface-enhanced raman optical data storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1994-01-01

    An improved Surface-Enhanced Raman Optical Data Storage System (SERODS) is disclosed. In the improved system, entities capable of existing in multiple reversible states are present on the storage device. Such entities result in changed Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) when localized state changes are effected in less than all of the entities. Therefore, by changing the state of entities in localized regions of a storage device, the SERS emissions in such regions will be changed. When a write-on device is controlled by a data signal, such a localized regions of changed SERS emissions will correspond to the data written on the device. The data may be read by illuminating the surface of the storage device with electromagnetic radiation of an appropriate frequency and detecting the corresponding SERS emissions. Data may be deleted by reversing the state changes of entities in regions where the data was initially written. In application, entities may be individual molecules which allows for the writing of data at the molecular level. A read/write/delete head utilizing near-field quantum techniques can provide for a write/read/delete device capable of effecting state changes in individual molecules, thus providing for the effective storage of data at the molecular level.

  6. Development of a distributed radiation detection system using optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, F; Inouchi, Goro; Takada, Eiji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Iguchi, Tetsuo; Nakazawa, Masaharu [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering; Kakuta, Tsunemi

    1996-07-01

    We have confirmed the importance of temperature and dose rate for the response of Ge-doped fibers to radiation. A phenomenological model have been found to account for temperature and dose rate effects. From this model it is possible to make dose predictions from attenuation measurements when the temperature and dose rate are known. Ge-doped fibers have been found to have a relatively low sensitivity to both neutron and gamma radiation. In addition, temperature and dose rate dependencies complicate the analysis. However we point out that these problems may all be solved if we use fibers, such as P-doped fibers, which contain color centers of long lifetime. This would remove both the temperature and dose rate dependencies that complicate the use of Ge-doped fibers, in addition the radiation sensitivity is increased. Finally OTDR has been investigated as a possible read-out method for distributed radiation measurements. For our system the minimum pulse length was 3ns, giving a spatial resolution in the meter range and a response length to radiation of about 10 m if accurate dose values where to be obtained. We found OTDR to be a suitable method for radiation induced attenuation measurements in optical fibers, especially for long fiber lengths and long time scales where questions of light source stability becomes important for other systems. (S.Y.)

  7. Optical neural network system for pose determination of spinning satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Andrew; Casasent, David

    1990-01-01

    An optical neural network architecture and algorithm based on a Hopfield optimization network are presented for multitarget tracking. This tracker utilizes a neuron for every possible target track, and a quadratic energy function of neural activities which is minimized using gradient descent neural evolution. The neural net tracker is demonstrated as part of a system for determining position and orientation (pose) of spinning satellites with respect to a robotic spacecraft. The input to the system is time sequence video from a single camera. Novelty detection and filtering are utilized to locate and segment novel regions from the input images. The neural net multitarget tracker determines the correspondences (or tracks) of the novel regions as a function of time, and hence the paths of object (satellite) parts. The path traced out by a given part or region is approximately elliptical in image space, and the position, shape and orientation of the ellipse are functions of the satellite geometry and its pose. Having a geometric model of the satellite, and the elliptical path of a part in image space, the three-dimensional pose of the satellite is determined. Digital simulation results using this algorithm are presented for various satellite poses and lighting conditions.

  8. Dust Effect on The Performance of Optical Wireless Communication System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadel Abdul-Zahra Murad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper wireless optical communication system (FSO is designed through the use of software (Optisystem . The paper also study  the effect of atmospheric dust on the performance of communication system (FSO, the effect of dust concentration on the visibility by taking a different concentrations of dust (9, 20, 40, 60, 80 100, 120 gm / month / m2 . The effect of the visibility on the attenuation of dust concentration on each of these concentrations , and calculate attenuation of dust for the  wavelengths  (784 nm, 1550 nm. The Paper also deals with effect of the transmitted laser  power on the transmitter range (propagation distance where five different values of transmitted laser power (10mw, 20mw, 30mw, 40mw, 50mw are taken  and the study calculates the maximum transmitter range of  each value of the transmitted power under the influence of attenuation atmospheric dust concentrations for each concentration of dust used and also for the two wavelengths (1550nm, 784nm.

  9. Controlling the optical bistability and multistability in a two-level pumped-probe system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoudi, Mohammad; Sahrai, Mostafa; Masoumeh Mousavi, Seyede

    2010-01-01

    We study the behavior of the optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) in a two-level pumped-probe atomic system by means of a unidirectional ring cavity. We show that the optical bistability in a two-level atomic system can be controlled by adjusting the intensity of the pump field and the detuning between two fields. We find that applying the pumping field decreases the threshold of the optical bistability.

  10. Review of High-Speed Fiber Optic Grating Sensors Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udd, E; Benterou, J; May, C; Mihailov, S J; Lu, P

    2010-03-24

    Fiber grating sensors can be used to support a wide variety of high speed measurement applications. This includes measurements of vibrations on bridges, traffic monitoring on freeways, ultrasonic detection to support non-destructive tests on metal plates and providing details of detonation events. This paper provides a brief overview of some of the techniques that have been used to support high speed measurements using fiber grating sensors over frequency ranges from 10s of kHz, to MHZ and finally toward frequencies approaching the GHz regime. Very early in the development of fiber grating sensor systems it was realized that a high speed fiber grating sensor system could be realized by placing an optical filter that might be a fiber grating in front of a detector so that spectral changes in the reflection from a fiber grating were amplitude modulated. In principal the only limitation on this type of system involved the speed of the output detector which with the development of high speed communication links moved from the regime of 10s of MHz toward 10s of GHz. The earliest deployed systems involved civil structures including measurements of the strain fields on composite utility poles and missile bodies during break tests, bridges and freeways. This was followed by a series of developments that included high speed fiber grating sensors to support nondestructive testing via ultrasonic wave detection, high speed machining and monitoring ship hulls. Each of these applications involved monitoring mechanical motion of structures and thus interest was in speeds up to a few 10s of MHz. Most recently there has been interest in using fiber grating to monitor the very high speed events such as detonations and this has led to utilization of fiber gratings that are consumed during an event that may require detection speeds of hundreds of MHz and in the future multiple GHz.

  11. Optical design for divertor Thomson scattering system for JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Enokuchi, Akito; Hatae, Takaki; Itami, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Takashi; Kado, Shinichiro; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takeyama, Norihide

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A detailed designing for collection optical system of divertor Thomson scattering system in JT-60SA is conducted. •The assessment of the density and temperature errors of the measurement system is conducted. •It is shown that the measurement could be done with the temperature error of 50% when the density was 10 20 m −3 . •The availability of the laser transmission mirrors for the measurement system is discussed. •Several guidelines to improve the measurement system are discussed. -- Abstract: Optical design for divertor Thomson scattering system in JT-60SA has been conducted. The measurement system will use a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and scattered photons are collected by a collection optical system. The collection optics consists of primary mirror, secondary mirror, relay optics, and fiber collection optics. The laser transmission mirror and collection optics were designed to be installed in a slender lower port of JT-60SA. The assessment of the measurement errors in temperature was conducted for the designed collection optical system. Because of spatial limitation, the solid angle from the measurement points would be small especially for the measurement points in high field side, and consequently, the temperature errors in the high field side would be considerably large. The effects of several improvements on the error are discussed. Moreover, an assessment for the in-vessel laser transmission metallic mirrors is conducted for the present design

  12. OPTICAL COMMUNICATION: Simulation of autosoliton optical pulses in high-speed fibreoptic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkin, A. I.

    2005-03-01

    The propagation of a pulse in a fibreoptic communication link with periodically included regenerators — nonlinear optical loop mirrors, is studied. The autosoliton propagation regime of the optical pulse is revealed. It is shown that the inclusion of a ring mirror to the communication link leads to a substantial increase in the transmission distance of the pulse at a small negative average dispersion in the link.

  13. Exploring lipids with nonlinear optical microscopy in multiple biological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Garcia, Alba

    Lipids are crucial biomolecules for the well being of humans. Altered lipid metabolism may give rise to a variety of diseases that affect organs from the cardiovascular to the central nervous system. A deeper understanding of lipid metabolic processes would spur medical research towards developing precise diagnostic tools, treatment methods, and preventive strategies for reducing the impact of lipid diseases. Lipid visualization remains a complex task because of the perturbative effect exerted by traditional biochemical assays and most fluorescence markers. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy enables interrogation of biological samples with minimum disturbance, and is particularly well suited for label-free visualization of lipids, providing chemical specificity without compromising on spatial resolution. Hyperspectral imaging yields large datasets that benefit from tailored multivariate analysis. In this thesis, CRS microscopy was combined with Raman spectroscopy and other label-free nonlinear optical techniques to analyze lipid metabolism in multiple biological systems. We used nonlinear Raman techniques to characterize Meibum secretions in the progression of dry eye disease, where the lipid and protein contributions change in ratio and phase segregation. We employed similar tools to examine lipid droplets in mice livers aboard a spaceflight mission, which lose their retinol content contributing to the onset of nonalcoholic fatty-liver disease. We also focused on atherosclerosis, a disease that revolves around lipid-rich plaques in arterial walls. We examined the lipid content of macrophages, whose variable phenotype gives rise to contrasting healing and inflammatory activities. We also proposed new label-free markers, based on lifetime imaging, for macrophage phenotype, and to detect products of lipid oxidation. Cholesterol was also detected in hepatitis C virus infected cells, and in specific strains of age-related macular degeneration diseased cells by

  14. Fast optical signal processing in high bit rate OTDM systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Henrik Nørskov; Jepsen, Kim Stokholm; Clausen, Anders

    1998-01-01

    As all-optical signal processing is maturing, optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) has also gained interest for simple networking in high capacity backbone networks. As an example of a network scenario we show an OTDM bus interconnecting another OTDM bus, a single high capacity user...

  15. Distributed fiber?optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, J.S.; Thévenaz, L.; Huwald, H.; Mallet, A.; Luxemburg, W.M.J.; Van de Giesen, N.; Stejskal, M.; Zeman, J.; Westhoff, M.; Parlange, M.B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  16. Distributed fiber-optic temperature sensing for hydrologic systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selker, John S.; Thévenaz, Luc; Huwald, Hendrik; Mallet, Alfred; Luxemburg, Wim; van de Giesen, Nick C.; Stejskal, Martin; Zeman, Josef; Westhoff, Martijn; Parlange, Marc B.

    2006-01-01

    Instruments for distributed fiber-optic measurement of temperature are now available with temperature resolution of 0.01°C and spatial resolution of 1 m with temporal resolution of fractions of a minute along standard fiber-optic cables used for communication with lengths of up to 30,000 m. We

  17. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  18. 21 CFR 872.3661 - Optical Impression Systems for CAD/CAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of sensor and a computer with software. (b) Classification. Class II (Special Controls). The device... entitled “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Optical Impression Systems for Computer Assisted.../CAM. (a) Identification. An optical impression system for computer assisted design and manufacturing...

  19. Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen; Chan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this task is to investigate, develop, and demonstrate a low-cost swept lasing light source for NASA DFRC's fiber optics sensing system (FOSS) to perform structural health monitoring on current and future aerospace vehicles. This is the regular update of the Tunable Laser Development for In-flight Fiber Optic Based Structural Health Monitoring Systems website.

  20. Real-time all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain optical fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Kong, Deming; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel simple all-optical OFDM transmission system based on time-domain OFT using time-lenses. A real-time 160 Gbit/s DPSK OFDM transmission with 16 decorrelated data subcarriers is successfully demonstrated over 100 km....

  1. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail: V.I.Davydenko@inp.nsk.su; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  2. Wave optics modeling of real-time holographic wavefront compensation systems using OSSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Margarita A.; Guthals, Dennis M.; Logan, Jerry D.

    2005-08-01

    OSSim (Optical System Simulation) is a wave-optics, time-domain simulation toolbox with both optical and data processing components developed for adaptive optics (AO) systems. Diffractive wavefront control elements have recently been added that accurately model optically and electrically addressed spatial light modulators as real time holographic (RTH) devices in diffractive wavefront control systems. The developed RTH toolbox has found multiple applications for a variety of Boeing programs in solving problems of AO system analysis and design. Several complex diffractive wavefront control systems have been modeled for compensation of static and dynamic aberrations such as imperfect segmented primary mirrors and atmospheric and boundary layer turbulence. The results of OSSim simulations of RTH wavefront compensation show very good agreement with available experimental data.

  3. Improved Optical Flow Algorithm for a Intelligent Traffic Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Yupeng

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available It is known that to get the contours and segmentations of moving cars is the essential step of image processing in intelligent traffic tracking systems. As an effective way, the optical flow algorithm is widely used for this kind of applications. But in traditional gradient-based approaches, in order to make the data responding to the edges of moving objects expand to the area, which gray level is flat, it needs to keep the iteration times large enough. It takes a large amount of calculation time, and the accuracy of the result is not as good as expected. In order to improve the numerical reliability of image gradient data, Hessian matrix distinguishing, Gaussian filtering standard deviation amending, mean model amending and multi-image comparing, the four algorithms were investigated by applying them to track moving objects. From the experimental results, it is shown that both the calculation convergence speed and accuracy of our methods have greatly improved comparing with traditional algorithms, the feasibility and validity of those methods were confirmed.

  4. Encryption and validation of multiple signals for optical identification systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Cabre, E [Universitat PoliteGcnica de Catalunya, Department Optica i Optometria, Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Millan, M S [Universitat PoliteGcnica de Catalunya, Department Optica i Optometria, Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain); Javidi, B [University of Connecticut, Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, 371 Fairfield Road, CT 06269 Storrs (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Multifactor encryption-authentication technique reinforces optical security by allowing the simultaneous A N D-verification of more than one primary image. Instead of basing the identification on a unique signature or piece of information, our goal is to authenticate a given person, object, vehicle by the simultaneous recognition of several factors. Some of them are intrinsic to the person and object or vehicle under control. Other factors, act as keys of the authentication step. Such a system is proposed for situations such as the access control to restricted areas, where the demand of security is high. The multifactor identification method involves double random-phase encoding, fully phase-based encryption and a combined nonlinear joint transform correlator and a classical 4f-correlator for simultaneous recognition and authentication of multiple images. The encoded signal fulfils the general requirements of invisible content, extreme difficulty in counterfeiting and real-time automatic verification. Four reference double-phase encoded images are compared with the retrieved input images obtained in situ from the person or the vehicle whose authentication is wanted and from a database. A recognition step based on the correlation between the signatures and the stored references determines the authentication or rejection of the person and object under surveillance.

  5. Encryption and validation of multiple signals for optical identification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Cabre, E; Millan, M S; Javidi, B

    2007-01-01

    Multifactor encryption-authentication technique reinforces optical security by allowing the simultaneous A N D-verification of more than one primary image. Instead of basing the identification on a unique signature or piece of information, our goal is to authenticate a given person, object, vehicle by the simultaneous recognition of several factors. Some of them are intrinsic to the person and object or vehicle under control. Other factors, act as keys of the authentication step. Such a system is proposed for situations such as the access control to restricted areas, where the demand of security is high. The multifactor identification method involves double random-phase encoding, fully phase-based encryption and a combined nonlinear joint transform correlator and a classical 4f-correlator for simultaneous recognition and authentication of multiple images. The encoded signal fulfils the general requirements of invisible content, extreme difficulty in counterfeiting and real-time automatic verification. Four reference double-phase encoded images are compared with the retrieved input images obtained in situ from the person or the vehicle whose authentication is wanted and from a database. A recognition step based on the correlation between the signatures and the stored references determines the authentication or rejection of the person and object under surveillance

  6. Real Time Decoding of Color Symbol for Optical Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Waheed Malik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and real-time decoding of a color symbol that can be used as a reference marker for optical navigation. The designed symbol has a circular shape and is printed on paper using two distinct colors. This pair of colors is selected based on the highest achievable signal to noise ratio. The symbol is designed to carry eight bit information. Real time decoding of this symbol is performed using a heterogeneous combination of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA and a microcontroller. An image sensor having a resolution of 1600 by 1200 pixels is used to capture images of symbols in complex backgrounds. Dynamic image segmentation, component labeling and feature extraction was performed on the FPGA. The region of interest was further computed from the extracted features. Feature data belonging to the symbol was sent from the FPGA to the microcontroller. Image processing tasks are partitioned between the FPGA and microcontroller based on data intensity. Experiments were performed to verify the rotational independence of the symbols. The maximum distance between camera and symbol allowing for correct detection and decoding was analyzed. Experiments were also performed to analyze the number of generated image components and sub-pixel precision versus different light sources and intensities. The proposed hardware architecture can process up to 55 frames per second for accurate detection and decoding of symbols at two Megapixels resolution. The power consumption of the complete system is 342mw.

  7. Bilateral Non-arteritic Anterior Ischaemic Optic Neuropathy as the Presentation of Systemic Amyloidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaan, M Z; Lorenzi, A R; Thampy, N; Pandit, R; Dayan, Margaret

    2017-12-01

    A 75-year-old hypertensive female with stable idiopathic intermediate uveitis presented with bilateral sequential optic neuropathy with optic disc swelling. The optic neuropathy in the first affected eye (right) was thought to be due to non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION). Asymptomatic left optic disc swelling was found at routine review 2 months later, and a diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA) was sought. Temporal artery duplex ultrasound showed the "halo sign," but a subsequent temporal artery biopsy showed light-chain (AL) amyloidosis with no signs of giant cell arteritis. In this case, bilateral sequential ischaemic optic neuropathy mimicking non-arteritic anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy was the presenting sign of systemic amyloidosis involving the temporal arteries.

  8. Optical Amplication for Terabit-per-Second Ultra-High Speed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lali-Dastjerdi, Zohreh

    The present thesis is concerned with fiber optical parametric amplification and regeneration for high-speed optical communication systems. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) have multi-functional applications depending on their implementation in optical systems. Based on a few femtosecond...... and saturation effect in order to assess the degradation of the amplified signal. In a very good agreement with the performed experiments, it is shown that the noise transferred to the signal can be effectively suppressed by operating in the saturation regime. The amplification of short few picosecond...

  9. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Wilcox, R.

    2008-01-01

    An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more

  10. Second-Order Statistics for Wave Propagation through Complex Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1989-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for various statistical functions that arise in optical propagation through arbitrary optical systems that can be characterized by a complex ABCD matrix in the presence of distributed random inhomogeneities along the optical path. Specifically, within the second......-order Rytov approximation, explicit general expressions are presented for the mutual coherence function, the log-amplitude and phase correlation functions, and the mean-square irradiance that are obtained in propagation through an arbitrary paraxial ABCD optical system containing Gaussian-shaped limiting...

  11. Real-time validation of receiver state information in optical space-time block code systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamia, John; Kurzweg, Timothy

    2014-06-15

    Free space optical interconnect (FSOI) systems are a promising solution to interconnect bottlenecks in high-speed systems. To overcome some sources of diminished FSOI performance caused by close proximity of multiple optical channels, multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems implementing encoding schemes such as space-time block coding (STBC) have been developed. These schemes utilize information pertaining to the optical channel to reconstruct transmitted data. The STBC system is dependent on accurate channel state information (CSI) for optimal system performance. As a result of dynamic changes in optical channels, a system in operation will need to have updated CSI. Therefore, validation of the CSI during operation is a necessary tool to ensure FSOI systems operate efficiently. In this Letter, we demonstrate a method of validating CSI, in real time, through the use of moving averages of the maximum likelihood decoder data, and its capacity to predict the bit error rate (BER) of the system.

  12. A 4π scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system for neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Distante, A.; Guerriero, L.; Niccolini, C.; Posa, F.; Walder, F.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Fletcher, C.R.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Thornton, R.K.; Barton, D.S.; Lyons, T.; Marx, M.; Rosenson, L.; Thern, R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system developed for the detection of high energy gamma rays and neutrons. They describe the system components and their use in two completed experiments. (Auth.)

  13. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  14. Creation of an anti-imaging system using binary optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haifeng; Lin, Jian; Zhang, Dawei; Wang, Yang; Gu, Min; Urbach, H. P.; Gan, Fuxi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2016-01-01

    We present a concealing method in which an anti-point spread function (APSF) is generated using binary optics, which produces a large-scale dark area in the focal region that can hide any object located within it. This result is achieved by generating two identical PSFs of opposite signs, one consisting of positive electromagnetic waves from the zero-phase region of the binary optical element and the other consisting of negative electromagnetic waves from the pi-phase region of the binary optical element. PMID:27620068

  15. Hybrid catadioptric system for advanced optical cavity velocimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frayer, Daniel K.

    2018-02-06

    A probe including reflector is disclosed to measure the velocity distribution of a moving surface along many lines of sight. Laser light, directed to the surface by the probe and then reflected back from the surface, is Doppler shifted by the moving surface, collected into probe, and then directed to detection equipment through optic fibers. The received light is mixed with reference laser light and using photonic Doppler velocimetry, a continuous time record of the surface movement is obtained. An array of single-mode optical fibers provides an optic signal to one or more lens groups and a reflector, such as a parabolic reflector having a mirrored interior surface.

  16. Planck pre-launch status: The optical system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tauber, J. A.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, Hans Ulrik; Ade, P. A. R.

    2010-01-01

    Planck is a scientific satellite that represents the next milestone in space-based research related to the cosmic microwave background, and in many other astrophysical fields. Planck was launched on 14 May of 2009 and is now operational. The uncertainty in the optical response of its detectors......, based on the knowledge available at the time of launch. We also briefly describe the impact of the major systematic effects of optical origin, and the concept of in-flight optical calibration. Detailed discussions of related areas are provided in accompanying papers....

  17. Optical Properties of the Self-Assembling Polymeric Colloidal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Mocanu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, optical materials have gained much interest due to the high number of possible applications involving path or intensity control and filtering of light. The continuous emerging technology in the field of electrooptical devices or medical applications allowed the development of new innovative cost effective processes to obtain optical materials suited for future applications such as hybrid/polymeric solar cells, lasers, polymeric optical fibers, and chemo- and biosensing devices. Considering the above, the aim of this review is to present recent studies in the field of photonic crystals involving the use of polymeric materials.

  18. New fiber optics illumination system for application to electronics holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.

    1995-08-01

    The practical application of electronic holography requires the use of fiber optics. The need of employing coherent fiber optics imposes restrictions in the efficient use of laser light. This paper proposes a new solution to this problem. The proposed method increases the efficiency in the use of the laser light and simplifies the interface between the laser source and the fiber optics. This paper will present the theory behind the proposed method. A discussion of the effect of the different parameters that influence the formation of interference fringes is presented. Limitations and results that can be achieved are given. An example of application is presented.

  19. Optical Properties of Nanoparticle Systems Mie and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Quinten, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Unlike other books who concentrate on metallic nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm, the author discusses optical properties of particles with (a) larger size and (b) of any material. The intention of this book is to fill the gap in the description of the optical properties of small particles with sizes less than 1000 nm and to provide a comprehensive overview on the spectral behavior of nanoparticulate matter. The author concentrates on the linear optical properties elastic light scattering and absorption of single nanoparticles and on reflectance and transmittance of nanoparticle matter

  20. Analogies between dark solitons in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates and optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proukakis, N P; Parker, N G; Frantzeskakis, D J; Adams, C S

    2004-01-01

    Dark solitons have been observed in optical systems (optical fibres, dielectric guides and bulk media), and, more recently, in harmonically confined atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. This paper presents an overview of some of the common features and analogies experienced by these two intrinsically nonlinear systems, with emphasis on the stability of dark solitons in such systems and their decay via emission of radiation. The closely related issue of vortex dynamics in such systems is also briefly discussed