WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical system components

  1. Optical CDMA components requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, James K.

    1998-08-01

    Optical CDMA is a complementary multiple access technology to WDMA. Optical CDMA potentially provides a large number of virtual optical channels for IXC, LEC and CLEC or supports a large number of high-speed users in LAN. In a network, it provides asynchronous, multi-rate, multi-user communication with network scalability, re-configurability (bandwidth on demand), and network security (provided by inherent CDMA coding). However, optical CDMA technology is less mature in comparison to WDMA. The components requirements are also different from WDMA. We have demonstrated a video transport/switching system over a distance of 40 Km using discrete optical components in our laboratory. We are currently pursuing PIC implementation. In this paper, we will describe the optical CDMA concept/features, the demonstration system, and the requirements of some critical optical components such as broadband optical source, broadband optical amplifier, spectral spreading/de- spreading, and fixed/programmable mask.

  2. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs.

  3. Design and component specifications for high average power laser optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neil, R.W.; Sawicki, R.H.; Johnson, S.A.; Sweatt, W.C.

    1987-01-01

    Laser imaging and transport systems are considered in the regime where laser-induced damage and/or thermal distortion have significant design implications. System design and component specifications are discussed and quantified in terms of the net system transport efficiency and phase budget. Optical substrate materials, figure, surface roughness, coatings, and sizing are considered in the context of visible and near-ir optical systems that have been developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for laser isotope separation applications. In specific examples of general applicability, details of the bulk and/or surface absorption, peak and/or average power damage threshold, coating characteristics and function, substrate properties, or environmental factors will be shown to drive the component size, placement, and shape in high-power systems. To avoid overstressing commercial fabrication capabilities or component design specifications, procedures will be discussed for compensating for aberration buildup, using a few carefully placed adjustable mirrors. By coupling an aggressive measurements program on substrates and coatings to the design effort, an effective technique has been established to project high-power system performance realistically and, in the process, drive technology developments to improve performance or lower cost in large-scale laser optical systems. 13 refs

  4. Radiation effects in optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friebele, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    This report discusses components of high performance optical devices may be exposed to high energy radiation environments during their lifetime. The effect of these adverse environments depends upon a large number of parameters associated with the radiation (nature, energy, dose, dose rate, etc.) or the system (temperature, optical performance requirements, optical wavelength, optical power, path length, etc.), as well as the intrinsic susceptibility of the optical component itself to degradation

  5. Optical methods for the optimization of system SWaP-C using aspheric components and advanced optical polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelazny, Amy; Benson, Robert; Deegan, John; Walsh, Ken; Schmidt, W. David; Howe, Russell

    2013-06-01

    We describe the benefits to camera system SWaP-C associated with the use of aspheric molded glasses and optical polymers in the design and manufacture of optical components and elements. Both camera objectives and display eyepieces, typical for night vision man-portable EO/IR systems, are explored. We discuss optical trade-offs, system performance, and cost reductions associated with this approach in both visible and non-visible wavebands, specifically NIR and LWIR. Example optical models are presented, studied, and traded using this approach.

  6. Optical Components for Reconfigurable Photonic Networks and Mobile Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Rodríguez Páez, Juan Sebastián; Rommel, Simon

    communication needs to move to the millimeter-wavelength or sub-terahertz range. Radio-over-Fiber (RoF) technologies have evolved from a blue sky academic topic in the 90s to a main driver within the current quest for the 5th generation mobile systems (5G). A twist in RoF technologies is that it has found along...... processing, high speed modulators and photodiodes and optical switching technologies. A deep overview on the state-of-the-art and current efforts towards optical components enabling photonic reconfigurability will be given during the presentation....

  7. Laser beam soldering of micro-optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, R.

    2003-05-01

    MOTIVATION Ongoing miniaturisation and higher requirements within optical assemblies and the processing of temperature sensitive components demands for innovative selective joining techniques. So far adhesive bonding has primarily been used to assemble and adjust hybrid micro optical systems. However, the properties of the organic polymers used for the adhesives limit the application of these systems. In fields of telecommunication and lithography, an enhancement of existing joining techniques is necessary to improve properties like humidity resistance, laserstability, UV-stability, thermal cycle reliability and life time reliability. Against this background laser beam soldering of optical components is a reasonable joining technology alternative. Properties like: - time and area restricted energy input - energy input can be controlled by the process temperature - direct and indirect heating of the components is possible - no mechanical contact between joining tool and components give good conditions to meet the requirements on a joining technology for sensitive optical components. Additionally to the laser soldering head, for the assembly of optical components it is necessary to include positioning units to adjust the position of the components with high accuracy before joining. Furthermore, suitable measurement methods to characterize the soldered assemblies (for instance in terms of position tolerances) need to be developed.

  8. Advanced optical components for next-generation photonic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S. J. B.

    2003-08-01

    Future networks will require very high throughput, carrying dominantly data-centric traffic. The role of Photonic Networks employing all-optical systems will become increasingly important in providing scalable bandwidth, agile reconfigurability, and low-power consumptions in the future. In particular, the self-similar nature of data traffic indicates that packet switching and burst switching will be beneficial in the Next Generation Photonic Networks. While the natural conclusion is to pursue Photonic Packet Switching and Photonic Burst Switching systems, there are significant challenges in realizing such a system due to practical limitations in optical component technologies. Lack of a viable all-optical memory technology will continue to drive us towards exploring rapid reconfigurability in the wavelength domain. We will introduce and discuss the advanced optical component technologies behind the Photonic Packet Routing system designed and demonstrated at UC Davis. The system is capable of packet switching and burst switching, as well as circuit switching with 600 psec switching speed and scalability to 42 petabit/sec aggregated switching capacity. By utilizing a combination of rapidly tunable wavelength conversion and a uniform-loss cyclic frequency (ULCF) arrayed waveguide grating router (AWGR), the system is capable of rapidly switching the packets in wavelength, time, and space domains. The label swapping module inside the Photonic Packet Routing system containing a Mach-Zehnder wavelength converter and a narrow-band fiber Bragg-grating achieves all-optical label swapping with optical 2R (potentially 3R) regeneration while maintaining optical transparency for the data payload. By utilizing the advanced optical component technologies, the Photonic Packet Routing system successfully demonstrated error-free, cascaded, multi-hop photonic packet switching and routing with optical-label swapping. This paper will review the advanced optical component technologies

  9. Fabrication of optical fiber micro(and nano)-optical and photonic devices and components, using computer controlled spark thermo-pulling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fatemi, H.; Mosleh, A.; Pashmkar, M.; Khaksar Kalati, A.

    2007-01-01

    Fabrication of optical fiber Micro (and Nano)-Optical component and devices, as well as, those applicable for photonic purposes are described. It is to demonstrate the practical capabilities and characterization of the previously reported Computer controlled spark thermo-pulling fabrication system.

  10. Porous silicon based micro-opto-electro-mechanical-systems (MOEMS) components for free space optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Da

    2008-02-01

    One of the major challenges confronting the current integrated circuits (IC) industry is the metal "interconnect bottleneck". To overcome this obstacle, free space optical interconnects (FSOIs) can be used to address the demand for high speed data transmission, multi-functionality and multi-dimensional integration for the next generation IC. One of the crucial elements in FSOIs system is to develop a high performance and flexible optical network to transform the incoming optical signal into a distributed set of optical signals whose direction, alignment and power can be independently controlled. Among all the optical materials for the realization of FSOI components, porous silicon (PSi) is one of the most promising candidates because of its unique optical properties, flexible fabrication methods and integration with conventional IC material sets. PSi-based Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and Fabry-Perot (F-P) structures with unique optical properties are realized by electrochemical etching of silicon. By incorporating PSi optical structures with Micro-Opto-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MOEMS), several components required for FSOI have been developed. The first type of component is the out-of-plane freestanding optical switch. Implementing a PSi DBR structure as an optically active region, the device can realize channel selection by changing the tilting angle of the micromirror supported by the thermal bimorph actuator. All the fabricated optical switches have reached kHz working frequency and life time of millions of cycles. The second type of component is the in-plane tunable optical filter. By introducing PSi F-P structure into the in-plane PSi film, a thermally tunable optical filter with a sensitivity of 7.9nm/V has been realized for add/drop optical signal selection. Also, for the first time, a new type of PSi based reconfigurable diffractive optical element (DOE) has been developed. By using patterned photoresist as a protective mask for electrochemical

  11. 3D-printed optical active components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Nair, S.; Nuding, J.; Heinrich, A.

    2018-02-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has the potential to become a powerful tool in the realization of complex optical components. The primary advantage that meets the eye, is that fabrication of geometrically complicated optical structures is made easier in AM as compared to the conventional fabrication methods (using molds for instance). But this is not the only degree of freedom that AM has to offer. With the multitude of materials suitable for AM in the market, it is possible to introduce functionality into the components one step before fabrication: by altering the raw material. A passive example would be to use materials with varying properties together, in a single manufacturing step, constructing samples with localized refractive indices for instance. An active approach is to blend in materials with distinct properties into the photopolymer resin and manufacturing with this composite material. Our research is currently focused in this direction, with the desired optical property to be introduced being Photoluminescence. Formation of nanocomposite mixtures to produce samples is the current approach. With this endeavor, new sensor systems can be realized, which may be used to measure the absorption spectra of biological samples. Thereby the sample compartment, the optics and the spectral light source (different quantum dots) are 3D-printed in one run. This component can be individually adapted to the biological sample with respect to wavelength, optical and mechanical properties. Here we would like to present our work on the additive manufacturing of an active optical component. Based on the stereolithography method, a monolithic optical component was 3D-printed, showing light emission at different defined wavelengths due to UV excited quantum dots inside the 3D-printed optics.

  12. Lithographic manufacturing of adaptive optics components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, R. Phillip; Jean, Madison; Johnson, Lee; Gatlin, Ridley; Bronson, Ryan; Milster, Tom; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Adaptive optics systems and their laboratory test environments call for a number of unusual optical components. Examples include lenslet arrays, pyramids, and Kolmogorov phase screens. Because of their specialized application, the availability of these parts is generally limited, with high cost and long lead time, which can also significantly drive optical system design. These concerns can be alleviated by a fast and inexpensive method of optical fabrication. To that end, we are exploring direct-write lithographic techniques to manufacture three different custom elements. We report results from a number of prototype devices including 1, 2, and 3 wave Multiple Order Diffractive (MOD) lenslet arrays with 0.75 mm pitch and phase screens with near Kolmogorov structure functions with a Fried length r0 around 1 mm. We also discuss plans to expand our research to include a diffractive pyramid that is smaller, lighter, and more easily manufactured than glass versions presently used in pyramid wavefront sensors. We describe how these components can be produced within the limited dynamic range of the lithographic process, and with a rapid prototyping and manufacturing cycle. We discuss exploratory manufacturing methods, including replication, and potential observing techniques enabled by the ready availability of custom components.

  13. Multi-sensor control for precise assembly of optical components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform an optical assembly accurately, a multi-sensor control strategy is developed which includes an attitude measurement system, a vision system, a loss measurement system and a force sensor. A 3-DOF attitude measuring method using linear variable differential transformers (LVDT is designed to adjust the relation of position and attitude between the spherical mirror and the resonator. A micro vision feedback system is set up to extract the light beam and the diaphragm, which can achieve the coarse positioning of the spherical mirror in the optical assembly process. A rapid self-correlation method is presented to analyze the spectrum signal for the fine positioning. In order to prevent the damage of the optical components and realize sealing of the resonator, a hybrid force-position control is constructed to control the contact force of the optical components. The experimental results show that the proposed multi-sensor control strategy succeeds in accomplishing the precise assembly of the optical components, which consists of parallel adjustment, macro coarse adjustment, macro approach, micro fine adjustment, micro approach and optical contact. Therefore, the results validate the multi-sensor control strategy.

  14. Multi-component optical solitary waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Y. S.; Sukhorukov, A. A.; Ostrovskaya, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    We discuss several novel types of multi-component (temporal and spatial) envelope solitary waves that appear in fiber and waveguide nonlinear optics. In particular, we describe multi-channel solitary waves in bit-parallel-wavelength fiber transmission systems for highperformance computer networks......, multi-color parametric spatial solitary waves due to cascaded nonlinearities of quadratic materials, and quasiperiodic envelope solitons due to quasi-phase-matching in Fibonacci optical superlattices. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  15. Optical transmission through multi-component generalized Thue-Morse superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Guogang [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Yang Xiangbo, E-mail: xbyang@scnu.edu.c [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China); Li Yuhong; Song Huanhuan [MOE Key Laboratory of Laser Life Science and Institute of Laser Life Science, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510631 (China)

    2010-09-01

    In this paper, by the three kinds of basic components (BCs) of three-component Thue-Morse (3CTM) sequence we construct a type of interesting optical basic-structural-units (BSUs) and propose multi-component generalized Thue-Morse (mCGTM) model. Based on the conventional electromagnetic wave theory we investigate the optical transmission vertically through the one-dimensional (1D) mCGTM superlattices. It is found that the optical transmission possesses an interesting pseudo-constant characteristic at the central wavelength. mCGTM sequence exhibits a cantor-set structure which results in the system possessing certain kinds of effective component pairs (ECPs), and each kind of ECP brings about certain contribution towards the optical transmission. The cantor-set structure is the reason that mCGTM multilayers exhibit the optical transmission pseudo-constant property. For the pseudo-constant optical transmission of mCGTM superlattices, there would be a potential application in the designing of some complex optical devices.

  16. Fibre Optic Gyroscope Developments Using Integrated Optic Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minford, W. J.; DePaula, R. M.

    1988-09-01

    The sensing of rotation using counterpropagating optical beams in a fiber loop (the SAGNAC effect) has gone through extensive developments and demonstrations since first proved feasible by Vali and Shorthilll in 1976. The interferometric fiber gyroscope minimum configuration2 which uses a common input-output port and single-mode filter was developed to provide the extreme high stability necessary to reach the sensitivities at low rotation rates attainable with current state-of-the-art detectors. The simplicity and performance of this configuration has led to its acceptance and wide-spread use. In order to increase the mechanical stability of this system, all single-mode fiber components are employed and a further advancement to integrated optics has enabled most of the optical functions to be placed on a single mass-producible substrate. Recent improvements in the components (eg polarization maintaining fiber and low coherence sources) have further enhanced the performance of the minimum configuration gyro. This presentation focused on the impact of LiNbO3 integrated optic components on gyroscope developments. The use of Ti-indiffused LiNbO3 waveguide optical circuits in interferometric fiber optic gyroscopes has taken two directions: to utilize only the phase modulator, or to combine many of the minimum configuration optical functions on the electro-optic substrate. The high-bandwidth phase modulator is the driving force for using LiNbO3 waveguide devices. This device allows both biasing the gyro for maximum sensitivity and closing the loop via frequency shifting, for example, thus increasing the dynamic range of the gyro and the linearity of the scale factor. Efforts to implement most of the minimum configuration optical functions onto a single LiNbO3 substrate have been led by Thomson CSF.3 They have demonstrated an interferometric gyroscope with excellent performance using a LiNbO3 optical circuit containing a Y-splitter, phase modulator, and surface

  17. Specification of optical components for a high average-power laser environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, J.R.; Chow, R.; Rinmdahl, K.A.; Willis, J.B.; Wong, J.N.

    1997-06-25

    Optical component specifications for the high-average-power lasers and transport system used in the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) plant must address demanding system performance requirements. The need for high performance optics has to be balanced against the practical desire to reduce the supply risks of cost and schedule. This is addressed in optical system design, careful planning with the optical industry, demonstration of plant quality parts, qualification of optical suppliers and processes, comprehensive procedures for evaluation and test, and a plan for corrective action.

  18. A Large Aperture, High Energy Laser System for Optics and Optical Component Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nostrand, M.C.; Weiland, T.L.; Luthi, R.L.; Vickers, J.L.; Sell, W.D.; Stanley, J.A.; Honig, J.; Auerbach, J.; Hackel, R.P.; Wegner, P.J.

    2003-01-01

    A large aperture, kJ-class, multi-wavelength Nd-glass laser system has been constructed at Lawrence Livermore National Lab which has unique capabilities for studying a wide variety of optical phenomena. The master-oscillator, power-amplifier (MOPA) configuration of this ''Optical Sciences Laser'' (OSL) produces 1053 nm radiation with shaped pulse lengths which are variable from 0.1-100 ns. The output can be frequency doubled or tripled with high conversion efficiency with a resultant 100 cm 2 high quality output beam. This facility can accommodate prototype hardware for large-scale inertial confinement fusion lasers allowing for investigation of integrated system issues such as optical lifetime at high fluence, optics contamination, compatibility of non-optical materials, and laser diagnostics

  19. Independent component analysis based digital signal processing in coherent optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Luo, Ming; Qiu, Ying; Alphones, Arokiaswami; Zhong, Wen-De; Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Qi

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, channel equalization techniques for coherent optical fiber transmission systems based on independent component analysis (ICA) are reviewed. The principle of ICA for blind source separation is introduced. The ICA based channel equalization after both single-mode fiber and few-mode fiber transmission for single-carrier and orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) modulation formats are investigated, respectively. The performance comparisons with conventional channel equalization techniques are discussed.

  20. Optical coupling of bare optoelectronic components and flexographically printed polymer waveguides in planar optronic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixiao; Wolfer, Tim; Lange, Alex; Overmeyer, Ludger

    2016-05-01

    Large scale, planar optronic systems allowing spatially distributed functionalities can be well used in diverse sensor networks, such as for monitoring the environment by measuring various physical quantities in medicine or aeronautics. In these systems, mechanically flexible and optically transparent polymeric foils, e.g. polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), are employed as carrier materials. A benefit of using these materials is their low cost. The optical interconnections from light sources to light transmission structures in planar optronic systems occupy a pivotal position for the sensing functions. As light sources, we employ the optoelectronic components, such as edgeemitting laser diodes, in form of bare chips, since their extremely small structures facilitate a high integration compactness and ensure sufficient system flexibility. Flexographically printed polymer optical waveguides are deployed as light guiding structures for short-distance communication in planar optronic systems. Printing processes are utilized for this generation of waveguides to achieve a cost-efficient large scale and high-throughput production. In order to attain a high-functional optronic system for sensing applications, one of the most essential prerequisites is the high coupling efficiency between the light sources and the waveguides. Therefore, in this work, we focus on the multimode polymer waveguide with a parabolic cross-section and investigate its optical coupling with the bare laser diode. We establish the geometrical model of the alignment based on the previous works on the optodic bonding of bare laser diodes and the fabrication process of polymer waveguides with consideration of various parameters, such as the beam profile of the laser diode, the employed polymer properties of the waveguides as well as the carrier substrates etc. Accordingly, the optical coupling of the bare laser diodes and the polymer waveguides was simulated

  1. Advanced optical manufacturing digital integrated system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong

    2012-10-01

    It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.

  2. The design of the optical components and gas control systems of the CERN Omega Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Cowell, J.; Flower, P.S.

    1985-06-01

    A large Ring Imaging Cerenkov Detector (RICH) has been commissioned for use at the CERN Omega Spectrometer. The general design of the device is discussed, and the dependence of the attainable spatial resolution and range of particle identification on its optical parameters is illustrated. The construction and performance of the major optical components and gas systems of the detector are also described. (author)

  3. Definition, analysis and development of an optical data distribution network for integrated avionics and control systems. Part 2: Component development and system integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, H. W.; Morrison, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    Fiber optic transmission is emerging as an attractive concept in data distribution onboard civil aircraft. Development of an Optical Data Distribution Network for Integrated Avionics and Control Systems for commercial aircraft will provide a data distribution network that gives freedom from EMI-RFI and ground loop problems, eliminates crosstalk and short circuits, provides protection and immunity from lightning induced transients and give a large bandwidth data transmission capability. In addition there is a potential for significantly reducing the weight and increasing the reliability over conventional data distribution networks. Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) is a candidate method for data communication between the various avionic subsystems. With WDM all systems could conceptually communicate with each other without time sharing and requiring complicated coding schemes for each computer and subsystem to recognize a message. However, the state of the art of optical technology limits the application of fiber optics in advanced integrated avionics and control systems. Therefore, it is necessary to address the architecture for a fiber optics data distribution system for integrated avionics and control systems as well as develop prototype components and systems.

  4. Measurement of wavefront structure from large aperture optical components by phase shifting interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Kellam, M.; Maney, R.T.; Demiris, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of high spatial resolution measurement of the transmitted or reflected wavefront of optical components using phase shifting interferometry with a wavelength of 6328 angstrom. The optical components studied range in size from approximately 50 mm x 100 mm to 400 mm x 750 mm. Wavefront data, in the form of 3-D phase maps, have been obtained for three regimes of scale length: ''micro roughness'', ''mid-spatial scale'', and ''optical figure/curvature.'' Repetitive wavefront structure has been observed with scale lengths from 10 mm to 100 mm. The amplitude of this structure is typically λ/100 to λ/20. Previously unobserved structure has been detected in optical materials and on the surfaces of components. We are using this data to assist in optimizing laser system design, to qualify optical components and fabrication processes under study in our component development program

  5. PERFORMANCE OF ALTERNATIVE COMPONENT PRICING SYSTEMS FOR PORK

    OpenAIRE

    Brorsen, B. Wade; Akridge, Jay T.; Boland, Michael A.; Mauney, Sean; Forrest, John C.

    1998-01-01

    One method of implementing value-based marketing is a component pricing system. This research develops and evaluates alternative component pricing systems for pork. Two electronic technologies for estimating carcass components (optical probe and electromagnetic scanner) were evaluated on two sets of data representing different populations. Model accuracy increased as additional components were added.

  6. Specification and testing of optics for LIS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sunita; Sridhar, G.; Rawat, V.S.; Gantayet, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Optical component specification for the high average power lasers and laser beam transport system used in the laser isotope separation demonstration facility must address demanding system performance requirements. In a typical demonstration facility a few thousand of commercial and custom optical components are required. The optical system is expected to perform at a high level of optical efficiency and reliability. Evaluation and testing of optical components used in LIS plant is critical for qualification of suppliers and assurance of performance in the actual process. The stringent specifications require specialized test equipment and techniques, which are not routine. Careful planning with the optics manufacturer, detailed quality assurance plan, comprehensive procedures for testing and evaluation, and a plan for corrective action are required. The specifications are given on material characteristics, surface quality and flatness, reflectance or transmittance and high average power laser damage. Our approach to specifying, testing the performance characteristics and assuring quality of optical components required for the technology demonstration of laser based isotopic clean-up of 233 U project is presented. (author)

  7. Light scattering techniques for the characterization of optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauptvogel, M.; Schröder, S.; Herffurth, T.; Trost, M.; von Finck, A.; Duparré, A.; Weigel, T.

    2017-11-01

    The rapid developments in optical technologies generate increasingly higher and sometimes completely new demands on the quality of materials, surfaces, components, and systems. Examples for such driving applications are the steadily shrinking feature sizes in semiconductor lithography, nanostructured functional surfaces for consumer optics, and advanced optical systems for astronomy and space applications. The reduction of surface defects as well as the minimization of roughness and other scatter-relevant irregularities are essential factors in all these areas of application. Quality-monitoring for analysing and improving those properties must ensure that even minimal defects and roughness values can be detected reliably. Light scattering methods have a high potential for a non-contact, rapid, efficient, and sensitive determination of roughness, surface structures, and defects.

  8. Diamond machining of micro-optical components and structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gläbe, Ralf; Riemer, Oltmann

    2010-05-01

    Diamond machining originates from the 1950s to 1970s in the USA. This technology was originally designed for machining of metal optics at macroscopic dimensions with so far unreached tolerances. During the following decades the machine tools, the monocrystalline diamond cutting tools, the workpiece materials and the machining processes advanced to even higher precision and flexibility. For this reason also the fabrication of small functional components like micro optics at a large spectrum of geometries became technologically and economically feasible. Today, several kinds of fast tool machining and multi axis machining operations can be applied for diamond machining of micro optical components as well as diffractive optical elements. These parts can either be machined directly as single or individual component or as mold insert for mass production by plastic replication. Examples are multi lens arrays, micro mirror arrays and fiber coupling lenses. This paper will give an overview about the potentials and limits of the current diamond machining technology with respect to micro optical components.

  9. Updated optical read/write memory system components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    A survey of the building blocks of the electro-optic read/write system was made. Critical areas and alternate paths are discussed. The latest PLZT block data composer is analyzed. Stricter controls in the production and fabrication of PLZT are implied by the performance of the BDC. A reverse charge before erase has eliminated several problems observed in the parallel plane charging process for photoconductor-thermoplastic hologram storage.

  10. Optical system storage design with diffractive optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostuk, Raymond K.; Haggans, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    Optical data storage systems are gaining widespread acceptance due to their high areal density and the ability to remove the high capacity hard disk from the system. In magneto-optical read-write systems, a small rotation of the polarization state in the return signal from the MO media is the signal which must be sensed. A typical arrangement used for detecting these signals and correcting for errors in tracking and focusing on the disk is illustrated. The components required to achieve these functions are listed. The assembly and alignment of this complex system has a direct impact on cost, and also affects the size, weight, and corresponding data access rates. As a result, integrating these optical components and improving packaging techniques is an active area of research and development. Most designs of binary optic elements have been concerned with optimizing grating efficiency. However, rigorous coupled wave models for vector field diffraction from grating surfaces can be extended to determine the phase and polarization state of the diffracted field, and the design of polarization components. A typical grating geometry and the phase and polarization angles associated with the incident and diffracted fields are shown. In our current stage of work, we are examining system configurations which cascade several polarization functions on a single substrate. In this design, the beam returning from the MO disk illuminates a cascaded grating element which first couples light into the substrate, then introduces a quarter wave retardation, then a polarization rotation, and finally separates s- and p-polarized fields through a polarization beam splitter. The input coupler and polarization beam splitter are formed in volume gratings, and the two intermediate elements are zero-order elements.

  11. Precision Cleaning and Protection of Coated Optical Components for NIF Small Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, Jim [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-10-19

    The purpose of this procedure shall be to define the precision cleaning of finished, coated, small optical components for NIF at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. The term “small optical components” includes coated optics that are set into simple mounts, as well as coated, un-mounted optics.

  12. Optical components of adaptive systems for improving laser beam quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakhov, Yuri I.; Atuchin, Victor V.; Kudryashov, Aleksis V.; Starikov, Fedor A.

    2008-10-01

    The short overview is given of optical equipment developed within the ISTC activity for adaptive systems of new generation allowing for correction of high-power laser beams carrying optical vortices onto the phase surface. They are the kinoform many-level optical elements of new generation, namely, special spiral phase plates and ordered rasters of microlenses, i.e. lenslet arrays, as well as the wide-aperture Hartmann-Shack sensors and bimorph deformable piezoceramics- based mirrors with various grids of control elements.

  13. Fibre and components induced limitations in high capacity optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe

    2003-01-01

    The design of future all-optical networks relies on the knowledge of the physical layer transport properties. In this thesis, we focus on two types of system impairments: those induced by the non-ideal transfer functions of optical filters to be found in network elements such as optical add...... design in order to maximise the spectral efficiency in a four add-drop node ring network. The concept of "normalised transmission sections" is introduced in order to ease the dimensioning of transparent domains in future all-optical networks. Normalised sections based on standard single mode fibre (SMF......-drop multiplexers (OADM) and optical cross-connects (OXC), as well as those due to the interaction of group-velocity dispersion, optical fibre non-linearities and accumulation of amplifier noise in the transmission path. The dispersion of fibre optics components is shown to limit their cascadability. Dispersion...

  14. High-speed optical feeder-link system using adaptive optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori; Hayano, Yutaka; Klaus, Werner

    1997-05-01

    We propose a satellite laser communication system between a ground station and a geostationary satellite, named high- speed optical feeder link system. It is based on the application of (a) high-speed optical devices, which have been developed for ground-based high-speed fiber-optic communications, and (b) the adaptive optics which compensates wavefront distortions due to atmospheric turbulences using a real time feedback control. A link budget study shows that a system with 10-Gbps bit-rate are available assuming the state-of-the-art device performance of the Er-doped fiber amplifier. We further discuss preliminary measurement results of the atmospheric turbulence at the telescope site in Tokyo, and present current study on the design of the key components for the feeder-link laser transceiver.

  15. Advanced Optoelectronic Components for All-Optical Networks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H

    2002-01-01

    Under APOSR Grant F49620-96-1-0126, 'Advanced Optoelectronic Components for All-Optical Networks', we have worked to develop key technologies and components to substantially improve the performance...

  16. Few-mode fiber, splice and SDM component characterization by spatially-diverse optical vector network analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses spatially diverse optical vector network analysis for space division multiplexing (SDM) component and system characterization, which is becoming essential as SDM is widely considered to increase the capacity of optical communication systems. Characterization of a 108-channel ...... in the few-mode multi-core fiber and their impact on system IL and MDL are analyzed, finding splices to cause significant mode-mixing and to be non-negligible in system capacity analysis.......This paper discusses spatially diverse optical vector network analysis for space division multiplexing (SDM) component and system characterization, which is becoming essential as SDM is widely considered to increase the capacity of optical communication systems. Characterization of a 108-channel...... photonic lantern spatial multiplexer, coupled to a 36-core 3-mode fiber, is experimentally demonstrated, extracting the full impulse response and complex transfer function matrices as well as insertion loss (IL) and mode-dependent loss (MDL) data. Moreover, the mode-mixing behavior of fiber splices...

  17. Optics Supply Planning System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaylord, J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  18. Cleaning Process Versus Laser-Damage Threshold of Coated Optical Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigatti, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The cleaning of optical surfaces is important in the manufacture of high-laser-damage-threshold coatings, which are a key component on peak-power laser systems such as OMEGA located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Since cleaning adds time, labor, and ultimately cost to the final coated component, this experiment was designed to determine the impact of different cleaning protocols on the measured laser-damage performance

  19. Specification of optical components using Wigner distribution function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiancheng; Li Haibo; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun; Fan Changjiang

    2010-01-01

    In order to characterize and specify small-scale local wavefront deformation of optical component, a method based on Wigner distribution function has been proposed, which can describe wavefront deformation in spatial and spatial frequency domain. The relationship between Wigner distribution function and power spectral density is analyzed and thus the specification of small-scale local wavefront deformation is obtained by Wigner distribution function. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The proposed method can not only identify whether the optical component meets the requirement of inertial confinement fusion (ICF), but also determine t he location where small-scale wavefront deformation is unqualified. Thus it provides an effective guide to the revision of unqualified optical components. (authors)

  20. Intelligent Optical Systems Using Adaptive Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, the phrase adaptive optics generally conjured images of large deformable mirrors being integrated into telescopes to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. However, the development of smaller, cheaper devices has sparked interest for other aerospace and commercial applications. Variable focal length lenses, liquid crystal spatial light modulators, tunable filters, phase compensators, polarization compensation, and deformable mirrors are becoming increasingly useful for other imaging applications including guidance navigation and control (GNC), coronagraphs, foveated imaging, situational awareness, autonomous rendezvous and docking, non-mechanical zoom, phase diversity, and enhanced multi-spectral imaging. The active components presented here allow flexibility in the optical design, increasing performance. In addition, the intelligent optical systems presented offer advantages in size and weight and radiation tolerance.

  1. Optical components for the Nova laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallerstein, E.P.; Baker, P.C.; Brown, N.J.

    1982-01-01

    In addition to its other characteristics, the Nova Laser Fusion facility may well be the largest precision optical project ever undertaken. Moreover, during the course of construction, concurrent research and development has been successfully conducted, and has resulted in significant advances in various technical areas, including manufacturing efficiency. Although assembly of the first two beams of Nova is just commencing, the optical production, including construction of the special facilities required for many of the components, has been underway for over three years, and many phases of the optical manufacturing program for the first 10 beams will be completed within the next two years. On the other hand, new requirements for second and third harmonic generation have created the need to initiate new research and development. This work has been accomplished through the enormous cooperation DOE/LLNL has received from commercial industry on this project. In many cases, industry, where much of the optical component research and development and virtually all of the manufacturing is being done, has made substantial investment of its own funds in facilities, equipment, and research and development, in addition to those supplied by DOE/LLNL

  2. Dynamical components in the heavy-ion optical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1980-03-01

    Dynamical components in the heavy-ion optical potential are calculated. Special emphasis is given to the dynamical components resulting from coupling to inelastic channels at sub-barrier energies. The component arising from both Coulomb and nuclear coupling is calculated to lowest order using the one-energy-shell approximation for the channel Green's function. A similar approximation is used to calculate the dynamical components arising from particle transfer coupling. (Author) [pt

  3. Thin film technologies for optoelectronic components in fiber optic communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinati, Agostino

    1998-02-01

    will grow at an annual average rate of 22 percent from 1.3 million fiber-km in 1995 to 3.5 million fiber-km in 2000. The worldwide components market-cable, transceivers and connectors - 6.1 billion in 1994, is forecasted to grow and show a 19 percent combined annual growth rate through the year 2000 when is predicted to reach 17.38 billion. Fiber-in-the-loop and widespread use of switched digital services will dominate this scenario being the fiber the best medium for transmitting multimedia services. As long as communication will partially replace transportation, multimedia services will push forward technology for systems and related components not only for higher performances but for lower cost too in order to get the consumers wanting to buy the new services. In the long distance transmission area (trunk network) higher integration of electronic and optoelectronic functions are required for transmitter and receiver in order to allow for higher system speed, moving from 2.5 Gb/s to 5, 10, 40 Gb/s; narrow band wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) filters are required for higher transmission capacity through multiwavelength technique and for optical amplifier. In the access area (distribution network) passive components as splitters, couplers, filters are needed together with optical amplifiers and transceivers for point-to-multipoint optical signal distribution: main issue in this area is the total cost to be paid by the customer for basic and new services. Multimedia services evolution, through fiber to the home and to the desktop approach, will be mainly affected by the availability of technologies suitable for component consistent integration, high yield manufacturing processes and final low cost. In this paper some of the optoelectronic components and related thin film technologies expected to mainly affect the fiber optic transmission evolution, either for long distance telecommunication systems or for subscriber network, are presented.

  4. Vacuum system for applying reflective coatings on large-size optical components using the method of magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azerbaev, Alexander A.; Abdulkadyrov, Magomed A.; Belousov, Sergey P.; Ignatov, Aleksandr N.; Mukhammedzyanov, Timur R.

    2016-10-01

    Vacuum system for reflective coatings deposition on large-size optical components up to 4.0 m diameter using the method of magnetron sputtering was built at JSC LZOS. The technological process for deposition of reflective Al coating with protective SiO2 layer was designed and approved. After climatic tests the lifetime of such coating was estimated as 30 years. Uniformity of coating thickness ±5% was achieved on maximum diameter 4.0 m.

  5. Optical components and systems for synchrotron radiation: an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the nature and origins of synchrotron radiation is given with special reference to its geometrical optical properties and the use of storage rings as light souces. The geographical distribution of SR sources in the world is reviewed and some discussion of the level of experimental activity is given. Estimates of future levels of experimental activity are also made both for existing storage rings and those planned for the future. Calculations of the approximate number of mirrors and gratings that will be required are offered. Some general considerations are outlined showing how synchrotron radiation optical systems couple to the light source and indicating which parameters need to be maximized for best overall performance

  6. Standard measurement procedures for the characterization of fs-laser optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starke, Kai; Ristau, Detlev; Welling, Herbert

    2003-05-01

    Ultra-short pulse laser systems are considered as promising tools in the fields of precise micro-machining and medicine applications. In the course of the development of reliable table top laser systems, a rapid growth of ultra-short pulse applications could be observed during the recent years. The key for improving the performance of high power laser systems is the quality of the optical components concerning spectral characteristics, optical losses and the power handling capability. In the field of ultra-short pulses, standard measurement procedures in quality management have to be validated in respect to effects induced by the extremely high peak power densities. The present work, which is embedded in the EUREKA-project CHOCLAB II, is predominantly concentrated on measuring the multiple-pulse LIDT (ISO 11254-2) in the fs-regime. A measurement facility based on a Ti:Sapphire-CPA system was developed to investigate the damage behavior of optical components. The set-up was supplied with an improved pulse energy detector discriminating the influence of pulse-to-pulse energy fluctuations on the incidence of damage. Aditionally, a laser-calorimetric measurement facility determining the absorption (ISO 11551) utilizing a fs-Ti:Sapphire laser was accomplished. The investigation for different pulse durations between 130 fs and 1 ps revealed a drastic increase of absorption in titania coatings for ultra-short pulses.

  7. An automatic chip structure optical inspection system for electronic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhichao; Xue, Bindang; Liang, Jiyuan; Wang, Ke; Chen, Junzhang; Liu, Yunhe

    2018-01-01

    An automatic chip structure inspection system based on machine vision is presented to ensure the reliability of electronic components. It consists of four major modules, including a metallographic microscope, a Gigabit Ethernet high-resolution camera, a control system and a high performance computer. An auto-focusing technique is presented to solve the problem that the chip surface is not on the same focusing surface under the high magnification of the microscope. A panoramic high-resolution image stitching algorithm is adopted to deal with the contradiction between resolution and field of view, caused by different sizes of electronic components. In addition, we establish a database to storage and callback appropriate parameters to ensure the consistency of chip images of electronic components with the same model. We use image change detection technology to realize the detection of chip images of electronic components. The system can achieve high-resolution imaging for chips of electronic components with various sizes, and clearly imaging for the surface of chip with different horizontal and standardized imaging for ones with the same model, and can recognize chip defects.

  8. Improvements in or relating to optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    Optical components e.g. mirrors are prepared by ion implanting glass or fused silica with aluminium, chromium, gold, mercury or silver ions so that the optical layer is formed at least in part within the substance of the substrate. Applications include a master mask for use in the production of microcircuits. (UK)

  9. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-01

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  10. Deep Proton Writing for the rapid prototyping of polymer micro-components for optical interconnects and optofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Erps, Jürgen, E-mail: jurgen.van.erps@vub.ac.be; Vervaeke, Michael; Ottevaere, Heidi; Hermanne, Alex; Thienpont, Hugo

    2013-07-15

    The use of photonics in data communication and numerous other industrial applications brought plenty of prospects for innovation and opened up different unexplored market opportunities. This is a major driving force for the fabrication of micro-optical and micro-mechanical structures and their accurate alignment and integration into opto-mechanical modules and systems. To this end, we present Deep Proton Writing (DPW) as a powerful rapid prototyping technology for such micro-components. The DPW process consists of bombarding polymer samples (PMMA or SU-8) with swift protons, which results after chemical processing steps in high-quality micro-optical components. One of the strengths of the DPW micro-fabrication technology is the ability to fabricate monolithic building blocks that include micro-optical and mechanical functionalities which can be precisely integrated into more complex photonic systems. In this paper we comment on how we shifted from using 8.3 to 16.5 MeV protons for DPW and give some examples of micro-optical and micro-mechanical components recently fabricated through DPW, targeting applications in optical interconnections and in optofluidics.

  11. Optical design and tolerancing of an ophthalmological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Ingo; Martin, Thomas; Yi, Allen; Li, Likai; Rübenach, Olaf

    2014-09-01

    Tolerance analysis by means of simulation is an essential step in system integration. Tolerance analysis allows for predicting the performance of a system setup of real manufactured parts and for an estimation of the yield with respect to evaluation figures, such as performance requirements, systems specification or cost demands. Currently, optical freeform optics is gaining importance in optical systems design. The performance of freeform optics often strongly depends on the manufacturing accuracy of the surfaces. For this reason, a tolerance analysis with respect to the fabrication accuracy is of crucial importance. The characterization of form tolerances caused by the manufacturing process is based on the definition of straightness, flatness, roundness, and cylindricity. In case of freeform components, however, it is often impossible to define a form deviation by means of this standard classification. Hence, prediction of the impact of manufacturing tolerances on the optical performance is not possible by means of a conventional tolerance analysis. To carry out a tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem, including freeform optics, metrology data of the fabricated surfaces have to be integrated into the optical model. The focus of this article is on design for manufacturability of freeform optics with integrated alignment structures and on tolerance analysis of the optical subsystem based on the measured surface data of manufactured optical freeform components with respect to assembly and manufacturing tolerances. This approach will be reported here using an ophthalmological system as an example.

  12. Camera System MTF: combining optic with detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Torben B.; Granger, Zachary A.

    2017-08-01

    MTF is one of the most common metrics used to quantify the resolving power of an optical component. Extensive literature is dedicated to describing methods to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) for stand-alone optical components such as a camera lens or telescope, and some literature addresses approaches to determine an MTF for combination of an optic with a detector. The formulations pertaining to a combined electro-optical system MTF are mostly based on theory, and assumptions that detector MTF is described only by the pixel pitch which does not account for wavelength dependencies. When working with real hardware, detectors are often characterized by testing MTF at discrete wavelengths. This paper presents a method to simplify the calculation of a polychromatic system MTF when it is permissible to consider the detector MTF to be independent of wavelength.

  13. PDSM characterization for fabrication of free-space OXC optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argueta, Victor; Fitzpatrick, Brianna

    2017-11-01

    In 2007 Dr Khine et al published a paper where they presented a technique using thermoplastics and PDMS to create microfluidic patterns1. Their technique involves printing a pattern in a polystyrene sheet using a laser printer. Once the pattern is transfer the polystyrene sheets they are heated to reduce their size. By printing the same pattern of the plastic sheets before heating, it is possible to control the height up to 80 μm and the width as thin as 65 μm1, 2. This technique is attractive to be used in optical fabrication due to its versatility, low cost and fast prototyping. However, in order to fabricate optical systems, we will need to control the refractive index of PDMS to allow design of basic optical components like waveguides, beam splitter, or diffuse reflectors; or more complex structures like interferometers, optical microfluidic lab-on-chip, micro-lens arrays. Several techniques exist to control the refractive index for PDMS either by controlling the curing temperature, the ratio between the base and curing agent, or by curing using UV light3-5. In this paper, we present the changes on refractive index by changing the curing temperature for different base/reaction agent ratios. We then apply these results to fabricate an optical component for a free-space optical cross-connect (OXC). Optical cross-connects are an important network element for constructing the next generation of optical networks, where provisioning (reconfiguration), scalability, and fast restoration will be needed6-8. The main attraction of all-optical switching is that it enables routing of optical data signals without the need for conversion to electrical signals, and therefore, is independent of data rate and data protocols. We have proposed previously9, 11 a new approach for an OXC. Our architecture is a free-space 3-D while still using digital MEMS. Our system is based on the optical White cell12, which consists of three spherical mirrors among which light can circulate. In

  14. Large aperture components for solid state laser fusion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Solid state lasers for fusion experiments must reliably deliver maximum power to small (approximately .5 mm) targets from stand-off focal distances of 1 m or more. This requirement places stringent limits upon the optical quality, resistance to damage, and overall performance of the several major components--amplifiers, Faraday isolators, spatial filters--in each amplifier train. Component development centers about achieving (1) highest functional material figure of merit, (2) best optical quality, and (3) maximum resistance to optical damage. Specific examples of the performance of large aperture components will be presented within the context of the Argus and Shiva laser systems, which are presently operational at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. Shiva comprises twenty amplifiers, each of 20 cm output clear aperture. Terawatt beams from these amplifiers are focused through two opposed, nested clusters of f/6 lenses onto such targets. Design requirements upon the larger aperture Nova laser components, up to 35 cm in clear aperture, will also be discussed; these pose a significant challenge to the optical industry

  15. Electroforming of Tool Inserts for Injection Molding of Optical or Microfluidic Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.; Jensen, Martin F.

    2004-01-01

    monitoring) and environmental (waste water monitoring) applications. Optical components in polymer materials can be used for consumer electronics and for sensor systems. The presentation will include the complete fabrication scheme for tool inserts based on machining and electroforming. Electroforming...

  16. A database of wavefront measurements for laser system modeling, optical component development and fabrication process qualification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, C.R.; Lawson, J.K.; Aikens, D.M.; English, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    In the second half of the 1990's, LLNL and others anticipate designing and beginning construction of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The NIF will be capable of producing the worlds first laboratory scale fusion ignition and bum reaction by imploding a small target. The NIF will utilize approximately 192 simultaneous laser beams for this purpose. The laser will be capable of producing a shaped energy pulse of at least 1.8 million joules (MJ) with peak power of at least 500 trillion watts (TV). In total, the facility will require more than 7,000 large optical components. The performance of a high power laser of this kind can be seriously degraded by the presence of low amplitude, periodic modulations in the surface and transmitted wavefronts of the optics used. At high peak power, these phase modulations can convert into large intensity modulations by non-linear optical processes. This in turn can lead to loss in energy on target via many well known mechanisms. In some cases laser damage to the optics downstream of the source of the phase modulation can occur. The database described here contains wavefront phase maps of early prototype optical components for the NIF. It has only recently become possible to map the wavefront of these large aperture components with high spatial resolution. Modem large aperture static fringe and phase shifting interferometers equipped with large area solid state detectors have made this possible. In a series of measurements with these instruments, wide spatial bandwidth can be detected in the wavefront

  17. Optical system for trapping particles in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R; Chall, A K; Kleindienst, R; Sinzinger, S

    2014-02-01

    An innovative optical system for trapping particles in air is presented. We demonstrate an optical system specifically optimized for high precision positioning of objects with a size of several micrometers within a nanopositioning and nanomeasuring machine (NPMM). Based on a specification sheet, an initial system design was calculated and optimized in an iterative design process. By combining optical design software with optical force simulation tools, a highly efficient optical system was developed. Both components of the system, which include a refractive double axicon and a parabolic ring mirror, were fabricated by ultra-precision turning. The characterization of the optical elements and the whole system, especially the force simulations based on caustic measurements, represent an important interim result for the subsequently performed trapping experiments. The caustic of the trapping beam produced by the system was visualized with the help of image processing techniques. Finally, we demonstrated the unique efficiency of the configuration by reproducibly trapping fused silica spheres with a diameter of 10 μm at a distance of 2.05 mm from the final optical surface.

  18. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert J.

    1991-02-01

    Fiber optic technology is expected to be used in future advanced weapons platforms as well as commercial aerospace applications. Fiber optic waveguides will be used to transmit noise free high speed data between a multitude of computers as well as audio and video information to the flight crew. Passive optical sensors connected to control computers with optical fiber interconnects will serve both control and monitoring functions. Implementation of fiber optic technology has already begun. Both the military and NASA have several programs in place. A cooperative program called FOCSI (Fiber Optic Control System Integration) between NASA Lewis and the NAVY to build environmentally test and flight demonstrate sensor systems for propul sion and flight control systems is currently underway. Integrated Optical Circuits (IOC''s) are also being given serious consideration for use in advanced aircraft sys tems. IOC''s will result in miniaturization and localization of components to gener ate detect optical signals and process them for use by the control computers. In some complex systems IOC''s may be required to perform calculations optically if the technology is ready replacing some of the electronic systems used today. IOC''s are attractive because they will result in rugged components capable of withstanding severe environments in advanced aerospace vehicles. Manufacturing technology devel oped for microelectronic integrated circuits applied to IOC''s will result in cost effective manufacturing. This paper reviews the current FOCSI program and describes the role of IOC''s in FOCSI applications.

  19. Automated packaging platform for low-cost high-performance optical components manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Robert T.

    2004-05-01

    Delivering high performance integrated optical components at low cost is critical to the continuing recovery and growth of the optical communications industry. In today's market, network equipment vendors need to provide their customers with new solutions that reduce operating expenses and enable new revenue generating IP services. They must depend on the availability of highly integrated optical modules exhibiting high performance, small package size, low power consumption, and most importantly, low cost. The cost of typical optical system hardware is dominated by linecards that are in turn cost-dominated by transmitters and receivers or transceivers and transponders. Cost effective packaging of optical components in these small size modules is becoming the biggest challenge to be addressed. For many traditional component suppliers in our industry, the combination of small size, high performance, and low cost appears to be in conflict and not feasible with conventional product design concepts and labor intensive manual assembly and test. With the advent of photonic integration, there are a variety of materials, optics, substrates, active/passive devices, and mechanical/RF piece parts to manage in manufacturing to achieve high performance at low cost. The use of automation has been demonstrated to surpass manual operation in cost (even with very low labor cost) as well as product uniformity and quality. In this paper, we will discuss the value of using an automated packaging platform.for the assembly and test of high performance active components, such as 2.5Gb/s and 10 Gb/s sources and receivers. Low cost, high performance manufacturing can best be achieved by leveraging a flexible packaging platform to address a multitude of laser and detector devices, integration of electronics and handle various package bodies and fiber configurations. This paper describes the operation and results of working robotic assemblers in the manufacture of a Laser Optical Subassembly

  20. Reliability of optical fibres and components final report of COST 246

    CERN Document Server

    Griffioen, Willem; Gadonna, Michel; Limberger, Hans; Heens, Bernard; Knuuttila, Hanna; Kurkjian, Charles; Mirza, Shehzad; Opacic, Aleksandar; Regio, Paola; Semjonov, Sergei

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of Optical Fibres and Components reports the findings of COST 246 (1993-1998) - European research initiative in the field of optical telecommunications. Experts in the materials and reliability field of optical fibres and components have contributed to this unique study programme. The results, conclusions and achievements of their work have been obtained through joint experimentation and discussion with representatives from manufacturing and research groups. Topics covered include: Lifetime estimation; Failure mechanisms; Ageing test methods; Field data and service environments for components. For the first time the reader can explore the reliability of products and examine the results and conclusions in published form. This comprehensive volume is intended to provide a deeper understanding of the reliability of optical fibres and components. The book will be extremely useful to all scientists and practitioners involved in the industry.

  1. Solid State Lighting Reliability Components to Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, XJ

    2013-01-01

    Solid State Lighting Reliability: Components to Systems begins with an explanation of the major benefits of solid state lighting (SSL) when compared to conventional lighting systems including but not limited to long useful lifetimes of 50,000 (or more) hours and high efficacy. When designing effective devices that take advantage of SSL capabilities the reliability of internal components (optics, drive electronics, controls, thermal design) take on critical importance. As such a detailed discussion of reliability from performance at the device level to sub components is included as well as the integrated systems of SSL modules, lamps and luminaires including various failure modes, reliability testing and reliability performance. This book also: Covers the essential reliability theories and practices for current and future development of Solid State Lighting components and systems Provides a systematic overview for not only the state-of-the-art, but also future roadmap and perspectives of Solid State Lighting r...

  2. Fiber optic coherent laser radar 3d vision system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sebastian, R.L.; Clark, R.B.; Simonson, D.L.

    1994-01-01

    Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic of coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system

  3. Development of Optical System for ARGO-M

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakyoung Nah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ARGO-M is a satellite laser ranging (SLR system developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute with the consideration of mobility and daytime and nighttime satellite observation. The ARGO-M optical system consists of 40 cm receiving telescope, 10 cm transmitting telescope, and detecting optics. For the development of ARGO-M optical system, the structural analysis was performed with regard to the optics and optomechanics design and the optical components. To ensure the optical performance, the quality was tested at the level of parts using the laser interferometer and ultra-high-precision measuring instruments. The assembly and alignment of ARGO-M optical system were conducted at an auto-collimation facility. As the transmission and reception are separated in the ARGO-M optical system, the pointing alignment between the transmitting telescope and receiving telescope is critical for precise target pointing. Thus, the alignment using the ground target and the radiant point observation of transmitting laser beam was carried out, and the lines of sight for the two telescopes were aligned within the required pointing precision. This paper describes the design, structural analysis, manufacture and assembly of parts, and entire process related with the alignment for the ARGO-M optical system.

  4. Simple method based on intensity measurements for characterization of aberrations from micro-optical components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Stephane; Baranski, Maciej; Froehly, Luc; Albero, Jorge; Passilly, Nicolas; Gorecki, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    We report a simple method, based on intensity measurements, for the characterization of the wavefront and aberrations produced by micro-optical focusing elements. This method employs the setup presented earlier in [Opt. Express 22, 13202 (2014)] for measurements of the 3D point spread function, on which a basic phase-retrieval algorithm is applied. This combination allows for retrieval of the wavefront generated by the micro-optical element and, in addition, quantification of the optical aberrations through the wavefront decomposition with Zernike polynomials. The optical setup requires only an in-motion imaging system. The technique, adapted for the optimization of micro-optical component fabrication, is demonstrated by characterizing a planoconvex microlens.

  5. Automated alignment of optical components for high-power diode lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecher, C.; Pyschny, N.; Haag, S.; Guerrero Lule, V.

    2012-03-01

    Despite major progress in developing brilliant laser sources a huge potential for cost reductions can be found in simpler setups and automated assembly processes, especially for large volume applications. In this presentation, a concept for flexible automation in optics assembly is presented which is based on standard micro assembly systems with relatively large workspace and modular micromanipulators to enhance the system with additional degrees of freedom and a very high motion resolution. The core component is a compact flexure-based micromanipulator especially designed for the alignment of micro optical components which will be described in detail. The manipulator has been applied in different scenarios to develop and investigate automated alignment processes. This paper focuses on the automated alignment of fast axis collimation (FAC) lenses which is a crucial step during the production of diode lasers. The handling and positioning system, the measuring arrangement for process feedback during active alignment as well as the alignment strategy will be described. The fine alignment of the FAC lens is performed with the micromanipulator under concurrent analysis of the far and the near field intensity distribution. An optimization of the image processing chains for the alignment of a FAC in front of a diode bar led to cycle times of less than 30 seconds. An outlook on other applications and future work regarding the development of automated assembly processes as well as new ideas for flexible assembly systems with desktop robots will close the talk.

  6. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Institution... certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing... optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same that...

  7. Heterogeneous wireless/wireline optical access networks with the R-EAT as backend component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Klaus; Gindera, Ralf; Stohr, Andreas; Jager, Dieter

    2004-09-01

    A heterogeneous wireless/wireline optical transmission link using a reflection type electroabsorption transceiver (R-EAT) is presented. Simultaneous transmission of full-duplex broadband wireless LAN (WLAN) channels and 1Gb/s base band data is experimentally demonstrated. The system link employs sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and two optical channels for full duplex transmission of various analog WLAN channels and downlink digital base band data. The developed link architecture is suitable for simultaneous transmission of broadband wireline and wireless signals, it enables the coexistence and interoperability between wireline and wireless access technologies. The developed R-EAT component employed in this wireline/wireless access system, features "single-chip-component" base stations in access networks with star type topology where only a single optical fiber is used for bidirectional optical transmission. The R-EAT can be used within the optical C-band (1530- 1560nm) and is suitable for (D)WDM networks. Bit error rate measurements demonstrate the capabilities of the R-EAT for 1Gb/s base band transmission. The analog performance for WLAN transmission is characterised by a spurious free dynamic range (SFDR) of more than 75dB and 90dB for uplink and downlink transmission, respectively. The link gain for uplink and downlink transmission is -42dB and -37dB, respectively. The demonstrates the analog performances of the R-EAT for being used in wireless access networks such as W-LAN.

  8. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  9. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase II SBIR proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for aspheric optical components and optics that are not easily inspected...

  10. An Instrument for Inspecting Aspheric Optical Surfaces and Components, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a Phase I proposal to develop an extremely versatile optical inspection tool for determining the optical figure of aspheric optical components, such as test...

  11. Low cost, small form factor, and integration as the key features for the optical component industry takeoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattone, Francesco; Bonino, Stefano; Gobbi, Luigi; Groppi, Angelamaria; Marazzi, Marco; Musio, Maurizio

    2003-04-01

    In the past the optical component market has been mainly driven by performances. Today, as the number of competitors has drastically increased, the system integrators have a wide range of possible suppliers and solutions giving them the possibility to be more focused on cost and also on footprint reduction. So, if performances are still essential, low cost and Small Form Factor issues are becoming more and more crucial in selecting components. Another evolution in the market is the current request of the optical system companies to simplify the supply chain in order to reduce the assembling and testing steps at system level. This corresponds to a growing demand in providing subassemblies, modules or hybrid integrated components: that means also Integration will be an issue in which all the optical component companies will compete to gain market shares. As we can see looking several examples offered by electronic market, to combine low cost and SFF is a very challenging task but Integration can help in achieving both features. In this work we present how these issues could be approached giving examples of some advanced solutions applied to LiNbO3 modulators. In particular we describe the progress made on automation, new materials and low cost fabrication methods for the parts. We also introduce an approach in integrating optical and electrical functionality on LiNbO3 modulators including RF driver, bias control loop, attenuator and photodiode integrated in a single device.

  12. Scatter from optical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    This book is covered under the following topics: measurement and analysis techniques; BRDF standards, comparisons, and anomalies; scatter measurement of several materials; scatter from contaminations; and optical system contamination: effects, measurement, and control

  13. Integrated Optical Interconnect Architectures for Embedded Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolescu, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    This book provides a broad overview of current research in optical interconnect technologies and architectures. Introductory chapters on high-performance computing and the associated issues in conventional interconnect architectures, and on the fundamental building blocks for integrated optical interconnect, provide the foundations for the bulk of the book which brings together leading experts in the field of optical interconnect architectures for data communication. Particular emphasis is given to the ways in which the photonic components are assembled into architectures to address the needs of data-intensive on-chip communication, and to the performance evaluation of such architectures for specific applications.   Provides state-of-the-art research on the use of optical interconnects in Embedded Systems; Begins with coverage of the basics for high-performance computing and optical interconnect; Includes a variety of on-chip optical communication topologies; Features coverage of system integration and opti...

  14. Development of the optical components of an alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmann, P.

    1994-09-01

    In the framework of the development of an electro-optical alignment system for the muon spectrometer of the ATLAS detector different types of optical sensors as well as components of a glass fiber network for the light distribution were studied for their suitability for a possible application. For the sensors a resolution of 10-20 μm in one and about 100 μm in the other coordinate is required. Especially for the application in the ATLAS detector developed silicon strip detectors permit in their current state of development a position resolution of 5-7 μm in the strip coordinate and 30 μm in the ohter coordinate (with current division on the strip). In the combination of several sensors in a beam the beam deviation by light refraction has been proved as additional error source. as much promising alternative strip sensors of amorphous silicon have been proved. These sensors allow in both directions an equally high position resolution. With a not transparent prototype resolutions of 1.8 μm in one and 2.3 μm in the second coordinate were reached without corrections. Additionally it is possible to fabricate these sensors in transparent form on glass substrates with optical quality, which may permit a complet abandonment on corrections of the beam deviation. The transmission of these sensors amounts at a wavelength of 690 nm currently to about 60%. By optimization of the layer thicknesses however transmission rates of up to 80% should be reachable. The studied components for the light distribution via glass fibers corresponded to their specifications. The application of one-mode fibers guarantees thereby the Gaussian profile of the laser beams collimated with objectives desirable for the position measurement with strip detectors

  15. New education system for construction of optical holography setup – Tangible learning with Augmented Reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Takeshi; Yoshikawa, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In case of teaching optical system construction, it is difficult to prepare the optical components for the attendance student. However the tangible learning is very important to master the optical system construction. It helps learners understand easily to use an inexpensive learning system that provides optical experiments experiences. Therefore, we propose the new education system for construction of optical setup with the augmented reality. To use the augmented reality, the proposed system can simulate the optical system construction by the direct hand control. Also, this system only requires an inexpensive web camera, printed makers and a personal computer. Since this system does not require the darkroom and the expensive optical equipments, the learners can study anytime, anywhere when they want to do. In this paper, we developed the system that can teach the optical system construction of the Denisyuk hologram and 2-step transmission type hologram. For the tangible learning and the easy understanding, the proposed system displays the CG objects of the optical components on the markers which are controlled by the learner's hands. The proposed system does not only display the CG object, but also display the light beam which is controlled by the optical components. To display the light beam that is hard to be seen directly, the learners can confirm about what is happening by the own manipulation. For the construction of optical holography setup, we arrange a laser, mirrors, a PBS (polarizing beam splitter), lenses, a polarizer, half-wave plates, spatial filters, an optical power meter and a recording plate. After the construction, proposed system can check optical setup correctly. In comparison with the learners who only read a book, the learners who use the system can construct the optical holography setup more quickly and correctly.

  16. Fabrication of Complex Optical Components From Mold Design to Product

    CERN Document Server

    Riemer, Oltmann; Gläbe, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    High quality optical components for consumer products made of glass and plastic are mostly fabricated by replication. This highly developed production technology requires several consecutive, well-matched processing steps called a "process chain" covering all steps from mold design, advanced machining and coating of molds, up to the actual replication and final precision measurement of the quality of the optical components. Current market demands for leading edge optical applications require high precision and cost effective parts in large volumes. For meeting these demands it is necessary to develop high quality process chains and moreover, to crosslink all demands and interdependencies within these process chains. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Process chains for the replication of complex optical elements" at Bremen, Aachen and Stillwater worked extensively and thoroughly in this field from 2001 to 2012. This volume will present the latest scientific results for the complete process chain...

  17. Optics Elements for Modeling Electrostatic Lenses and Accelerator Components: III. Electrostatic Deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.A.; Gillespie, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Ion-beam optics models for simulating electrostatic prisms (deflectors) of different geometries have been developed for the computer code TRACE 3-D. TRACE 3-D is an envelope (matrix) code, which includes a linear space charge model, that was originally developed to model bunched beams in magnetic transport systems and radiofrequency (RF) accelerators. Several new optical models for a number of electrostatic lenses and accelerator columns have been developed recently that allow the code to be used for modeling beamlines and accelerators with electrostatic components. The new models include a number of options for: (1) Einzel lenses, (2) accelerator columns, (3) electrostatic prisms, and (4) electrostatic quadrupoles. A prescription for setting up the initial beam appropriate to modeling 2-D (continuous) beams has also been developed. The models for electrostatic prisms are described in this paper. The electrostatic prism model options allow the modeling of cylindrical, spherical, and toroidal electrostatic deflectors. The application of these models in the development of ion-beam transport systems is illustrated through the modeling of a spherical electrostatic analyzer as a component of the new low energy beamline at CAMS

  18. Thermal management evaluation of the complex electro-optical system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijemčević Srećko S.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal management of a complex electro-optical system aimed for outdoor application is challenging task due to the requirement of having an air-sealed enclosure, harsh working environment, and an additional thermal load generated by sunlight. It is essential to consider the effect of heating loads in the system components, as well as the internal temperature distribution, that can have influence on the system life expectancy, operational readiness and parameters, and possibility for catastrophic failure. The main objective of this paper is to analyze internal temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system component operation capability. The electro-optical system simplified model was defined and related thermal balance simulation model based on Solid Works thermal analysis module was set and applied for temperature distribution calculation. Various outdoor environment scenarios were compared to evaluate system temperature distribution and evaluate its influence on system operation, reliability, and life time in application environment. This work was done during the design process as a part of the electro-optical system optimization. The results show that temperature distribution will not be cause for catastrophic failure and malfunction operation during operation in the expected environment.

  19. Optical multicast system for data center networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadi, Payman; Gupta, Varun; Xu, Junjie; Wang, Howard; Zussman, Gil; Bergman, Keren

    2015-08-24

    We present the design and experimental evaluation of an Optical Multicast System for Data Center Networks, a hardware-software system architecture that uniquely integrates passive optical splitters in a hybrid network architecture for faster and simpler delivery of multicast traffic flows. An application-driven control plane manages the integrated optical and electronic switched traffic routing in the data plane layer. The control plane includes a resource allocation algorithm to optimally assign optical splitters to the flows. The hardware architecture is built on a hybrid network with both Electronic Packet Switching (EPS) and Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) networks to aggregate Top-of-Rack switches. The OCS is also the connectivity substrate of splitters to the optical network. The optical multicast system implementation requires only commodity optical components. We built a prototype and developed a simulation environment to evaluate the performance of the system for bulk multicasting. Experimental and numerical results show simultaneous delivery of multicast flows to all receivers with steady throughput. Compared to IP multicast that is the electronic counterpart, optical multicast performs with less protocol complexity and reduced energy consumption. Compared to peer-to-peer multicast methods, it achieves at minimum an order of magnitude higher throughput for flows under 250 MB with significantly less connection overheads. Furthermore, for delivering 20 TB of data containing only 15% multicast flows, it reduces the total delivery energy consumption by 50% and improves latency by 55% compared to a data center with a sole non-blocking EPS network.

  20. Few-mode fiber, splice and SDM component characterization by spatially-diverse optical vector network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel, Simon; Mendinueta, José Manuel Delgado; Klaus, Werner; Sakaguchi, Jun; Olmos, Juan José Vegas; Awaji, Yoshinari; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur; Wada, Naoya

    2017-09-18

    This paper discusses spatially diverse optical vector network analysis for space division multiplexing (SDM) component and system characterization, which is becoming essential as SDM is widely considered to increase the capacity of optical communication systems. Characterization of a 108-channel photonic lantern spatial multiplexer, coupled to a 36-core 3-mode fiber, is experimentally demonstrated, extracting the full impulse response and complex transfer function matrices as well as insertion loss (IL) and mode-dependent loss (MDL) data. Moreover, the mode-mixing behavior of fiber splices in the few-mode multi-core fiber and their impact on system IL and MDL are analyzed, finding splices to cause significant mode-mixing and to be non-negligible in system capacity analysis.

  1. Development of a NDI system using the magneto-optical method. 2. Remote sensing using the novel magneto-optical inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jinyi; Shoji, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    A new remote sensing system using the magneto-optical method is developed for inspection of flaws introduced during service operation where routine inspection is difficult because of difficult inaccessibility to the components. Among the advantages of non-destructive inspection (NDI) based on the magneto-optical sensor are: real time inspection, elimination of electrical noise and high spatial resolution. Remote sensing of flaws is achieved using the basic principles of Faraday effect, optical permeability, and diffraction of a laser by the domain walls. This paper describes a novel remote NDI system using the principles of optics and LMF. The main characteristic of the system is that image data and LMF information can be obtained simultaneously. It is possible to carry out remote and high speed inspection of cracks from the intensity of reflected light, and to estimate the size of a crack effectively with their diverse data. The advantages of this NDI system are demonstrated using two specimens. (author)

  2. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. V. Anitropov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures of its optimization were proposed. Method. We investigated the applicability of the theory of composition and synthesis of non-imaging optical systems. The main provisions of the theory of composition are based on the division of all available optical elements in four types depending on their functionality, which corresponds to a modular design. Similar items were identified in non-imaging optical systems and adaptation of composition theory to their design became possible. Main Results. General design patterns of imaging and non-imaging optical systems were studied. Classification of systems, components, as well as technical and generic characteristics of imaging and non-imaging optical systems was determined. Search mechanism of the initial optical system by means of structural and parametric synthesis of non-imaging optical system was formalized. The basic elements were determined included in non-imaging systems and their classification by functionality was done. They were subdivided into basic, corrective, wide angle and high aperture ones. The rules for formation of these elements and their composition were determined: surface reflecting, refracting, spherical and nonspherical elements with total internal reflection. The foundations of composition theory for non-imaging optical systems were laid. The approbation of this method was carried out on the example of the illumination system calculation for surgical room. A 3D model of an illumination optical

  3. Biochemical component identification by plasmonic improved whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetchnikov, Vladimir A.; Tcherniavskaia, Elina A.; Saetchnikov, Anton V.; Schweiger, Gustav; Ostendorf, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    Experimental data on detection and identification of variety of biochemical agents, such as proteins, microelements, antibiotic of different generation etc. in both single and multi component solutions under varied in wide range concentration analyzed on the light scattering parameters of whispering gallery mode optical resonance based sensor are represented. Multiplexing on parameters and components has been realized using developed fluidic sensor cell with fixed in adhesive layer dielectric microspheres and data processing. Biochemical component identification has been performed by developed network analysis techniques. Developed approach is demonstrated to be applicable both for single agent and for multi component biochemical analysis. Novel technique based on optical resonance on microring structures, plasmon resonance and identification tools has been developed. To improve a sensitivity of microring structures microspheres fixed by adhesive had been treated previously by gold nanoparticle solution. Another technique used thin film gold layers deposited on the substrate below adhesive. Both biomolecule and nanoparticle injections caused considerable changes of optical resonance spectra. Plasmonic gold layers under optimized thickness also improve parameters of optical resonance spectra. Biochemical component identification has been also performed by developed network analysis techniques both for single and for multi component solution. So advantages of plasmon enhancing optical microcavity resonance with multiparameter identification tools is used for development of a new platform for ultra sensitive label-free biomedical sensor.

  4. Optical interconnect technologies for high-bandwidth ICT systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chujo, Norio; Takai, Toshiaki; Mizushima, Akiko; Arimoto, Hideo; Matsuoka, Yasunobu; Yamashita, Hiroki; Matsushima, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The bandwidth of information and communication technology (ICT) systems is increasing and is predicted to reach more than 10 Tb/s. However, an electrical interconnect cannot achieve such bandwidth because of its density limits. To solve this problem, we propose two types of high-density optical fiber wiring for backplanes and circuit boards such as interface boards and switch boards. One type uses routed ribbon fiber in a circuit board because it has the ability to be formed into complex shapes to avoid interfering with the LSI and electrical components on the board. The backplane is required to exhibit high density and flexibility, so the second type uses loose fiber. We developed a 9.6-Tb/s optical interconnect demonstration system using embedded optical modules, optical backplane, and optical connector in a network apparatus chassis. We achieved 25-Gb/s transmission between FPGAs via the optical backplane.

  5. Digital optical computers at the optoelectronic computing systems center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Harry F.

    1991-01-01

    The Digital Optical Computing Program within the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center for Opto-electronic Computing Systems has as its specific goal research on optical computing architectures suitable for use at the highest possible speeds. The program can be targeted toward exploiting the time domain because other programs in the Center are pursuing research on parallel optical systems, exploiting optical interconnection and optical devices and materials. Using a general purpose computing architecture as the focus, we are developing design techniques, tools and architecture for operation at the speed of light limit. Experimental work is being done with the somewhat low speed components currently available but with architectures which will scale up in speed as faster devices are developed. The design algorithms and tools developed for a general purpose, stored program computer are being applied to other systems such as optimally controlled optical communication networks.

  6. Towards micro-assembly of hybrid MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargiel, S; Gorecki, C; Rabenorosoa, K; Clévy, C; Lutz, P

    2010-01-01

    The 3D integration of hybrid chips is a viable approach for the micro-optical technologies to reduce the costs of assembly and packaging. In this paper a technology platform for the hybrid integration of MOEMS components on a reconfigurable silicon free-space micro-optical bench (FS-MOB) is presented. In this approach a desired optical component (e.g. micromirror, microlens) is integrated with a removable and adjustable silicon holder which can be manipulated, aligned and fixed in the precisely etched rail of the silicon baseplate by use of a robotic micro-assembly station. An active-based gripping system allows modification of the holder position on the baseplate with nanometre precision. The fabrication processes of the micromachined parts of the micro-optical bench, based on bulk micromachining of standard silicon wafer and SOI wafer, are described. The successful assembly of the holders, equipped with a micromirror and a refractive glass ball microlens, on the baseplate rail is demonstrated.

  7. Laser Transmitters for the optical link systems used in CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    In the CMS experiment of the now new flagship LHC optical links will be used for the tracker readout system. One part of this components will be semiconductor laser (~50.000 !!!), named correctly: 1310 nm InGaAsP (DCPBH-MQW) edge-emitting laser. They are foreseen as transmitter in the Tx Hybrid part of the optical link system.

  8. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang

    2001-10-01

    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  9. Optical fiber telecommunications components and subsystems

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  10. Measurement of small dispersion values in optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Liu, Fenghai; Pedersen, Rune Johan Skullerud

    1999-01-01

    It is reported that small dispersion values in optical components can be measured using the RF modulation method originally restricted to large dispersions. Using a constant dispersion offset, arbitrarily small dispersion values can be measured with a resolution as good as 1.2 ps/nm....

  11. Power Transmission by Optical Fibers for Component Inherent Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Dumke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of optical fibers for power transmission has been investigated intensely. An optically powered device combined with optical data transfer offers several advantages compared to systems using electrical connections. Optical transmission systems consist of a light source, a transmission medium and a light receiver. The overall system performance depends on the efficiency of opto-electronic converter devices, temperature and illumination dependent losses, attenuation of the transmission medium and coupling between transmitter and fiber. This paper will summarize the state of the art for optically powered systems and will discuss reasons for negative influences on efficiency. Furthermore, an outlook on power transmission by the use of a new technology for creating polymer optical fibers (POF via micro dispensing will be given. This technology is capable to decrease coupling losses by direct contacting of opto-electronic devices.

  12. Organo-erbium systems for optical amplification at telecommunications wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, H Q; Li, Z; Peng, Y; Wang, C C; Li, T Y; Zheng, Y X; Sapelkin, A; Adamopoulos, G; Hernández, I; Wyatt, P B; Gillin, W P

    2014-04-01

    Modern telecommunications rely on the transmission and manipulation of optical signals. Optical amplification plays a vital part in this technology, as all components in a real telecommunications system produce some loss. The two main issues with present amplifiers, which rely on erbium ions in a glass matrix, are the difficulty in integration onto a single substrate and the need of high pump power densities to produce gain. Here we show a potential organic optical amplifier material that demonstrates population inversion when pumped from above using low-power visible light. This system is integrated into an organic light-emitting diode demonstrating that electrical pumping can be achieved. This opens the possibility of direct electrically driven optical amplifiers and optical circuits. Our results provide an alternative approach to producing low-cost integrated optics that is compatible with existing silicon photonics and a different route to an effective integrated optics technology.

  13. All-Optical Regeneration System for Optical Wavelength Division Multiplexed Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an all-optical regeneration system for regeneration of optical wavelength division multiplexed WDM data signals in an optical WDM communication system. The system comprises a WDM-to-Optical time domain multiplexing OTDM, WDM-to-OTDM, converter, capable of converting....... The system additionally comprises an OTDM-to-WDM converter for converting the output OTDM data signal to an output WDM data signal. An input of the all-optical regenerator unit is in optical communication with an output of the WDM-to-OTDM converter, and an output of the all-optical regenerator unit...... an input WDM data signal comprising multiple wavelength channels into an input OTDM data signal comprising multiple time multiplexed time channels. The system further comprises an all-optical regenerator unit being configured for regenerating the input OTDM data signal into an output OTDM data signal...

  14. Radiation effects on optical data transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-01-01

    The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides and receivers in both steady state and pulsed radiation environments is reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of irradiation on the performance of light emitting and laser diodes, optical fiber waveguides and photodiodes. The influence of radiation-induced attenuation of optical fibers due to total dose, dose rate, time after irradiation, temperature, radiation history, photobleaching, OH and impurity content, dopant type and concentration is described. The performance of candidate components of the transmission system intended for deployment in the Superconducting Super Collider Detector and primary beam tunnel nuclear environment is discussed

  15. Optical fibres for fusion plasma diagnostics systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brichard, B.

    2005-01-01

    The condition to achieve and maintain the ignition of a thermonuclear fusion plasma ignition calls for the construction of a large scale fusion reactor, namely ITER. This reactor is designed to deliver an average fusion power of 500 MW. The burning of fusion plasma at such high power level will release a tremendous amount of energy in the form of particle fluxes and ionising radiation. This energy release, primarily absorbed by the plasma facing components, can significantly degrade the performances of the plasma diagnostic equipment surrounding the machine. To ensure a correct operation of the Tokamak we need to develop highly radiation-resistance devices. In plasma diagnostic systems, optical fibre is viewed as a convenient tool to transport light from the plasma edge to the diagnostic area. Radiation affects the optical performances of the fibre mainly by the occurrence of radiation-induced absorption and luminescence. Both effects degrade the light signal used for plasma diagnostic. SCK-CEN is currently assessing radiation-resistant glasses for optical fibres and is developing the associated qualification procedure. The main objectives of this study were to increase the lifetime of optical components in high radiation background and to develop a radiation resistance optical fibre capable to operate in the radiation background of ITER

  16. Noise and signal interference in optical fiber transmission systems an optimum design approach

    CERN Document Server

    Bottacchi, Stefano

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive reference to noise and signal interference in optical fiber communications Noise and Signal Interference in Optical Fiber Transmission Systems is a compendium on specific topics within optical fiber transmission and the optimization process of the system design. It offers comprehensive treatment of noise and intersymbol interference (ISI) components affecting optical fiber communications systems, containing coverage on noise from the light source, the fiber and the receiver. The ISI is modeled with a statistical approach, leading to new useful computational m

  17. Optical system for laser triggering of PBFA II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamil, R.A.; Seamons, L.O.; Schanwald, L.P.; Gerber, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    The PBFA II laser triggering optical system consists of nearly 300 optical components. These optics must be sufficiently precise to preserve the laser beam quality, as well as to equally distribute the energy of the UV laser beam to the 36, 5.5 MV gas-filled switches at precisely the same instant. Both index variation and cleanliness of the air long the laser path must be controlled. The manual alignment system is capable of alignment to better than the acceptable error of 200 microradians (laser to switches). A technique has been devised to ease the alignment procedure by using a special high gain video camera and a tool alignment telescope to view retroreflective tape targets having optical brightness gains over white surfaces of 10/sup 3/. The camera is a charge-coupled detector intensified by a double microchannel plate having an optical gain of between 10/sup 4/ and 10/sup 5/

  18. Wave optics modeling of real-time holographic wavefront compensation systems using OSSim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Margarita A.; Guthals, Dennis M.; Logan, Jerry D.

    2005-08-01

    OSSim (Optical System Simulation) is a wave-optics, time-domain simulation toolbox with both optical and data processing components developed for adaptive optics (AO) systems. Diffractive wavefront control elements have recently been added that accurately model optically and electrically addressed spatial light modulators as real time holographic (RTH) devices in diffractive wavefront control systems. The developed RTH toolbox has found multiple applications for a variety of Boeing programs in solving problems of AO system analysis and design. Several complex diffractive wavefront control systems have been modeled for compensation of static and dynamic aberrations such as imperfect segmented primary mirrors and atmospheric and boundary layer turbulence. The results of OSSim simulations of RTH wavefront compensation show very good agreement with available experimental data.

  19. Fiber Optic Telemetry System for LLL High-Voltage Test Stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.P.

    1977-01-01

    This paper describes the Fiber Optic Telemetry System designed to operate in the hostile particle and electromagnetic radiation environment of the High Voltage Test Stand. It discusses system criteria, components, packaging, and performance. In all tests to date, the system exceeds its design goals with very comfortable margins. It is well advanced into the fabrication stages with all crucial components tested and only straightforward TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic) circuitry to be completed

  20. Electro-optic architecture for servicing sensors and actuators in advanced aircraft propulsion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppel, G. L.; Glasheen, W. M.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed design of a fiber optic propulsion control system, integrating favored sensors and electro-optics architecture is presented. Layouts, schematics, and sensor lists describe an advanced fighter engine system model. Components and attributes of candidate fiber optic sensors are identified, and evaluation criteria are used in a trade study resulting in favored sensors for each measurand. System architectural ground rules were applied to accomplish an electro-optics architecture for the favored sensors. A key result was a considerable reduction in signal conductors. Drawings, schematics, specifications, and printed circuit board layouts describe the detailed system design, including application of a planar optical waveguide interface.

  1. The chemistry of two-component fluoride crystalline optical media for heavy, fast, radiation hard scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, B.P.; Krivandina, E.A.; Fedorov, P.P.; Vasilchenko, V.G.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for preparation of two-component dense optical materials for scintillators are shown, using data on phase diagrams of about 300 MF m - RF n (m, n ≤ 4) type systems, formed by metal fluorides. Primary characteristics (decay time and light output of luminescence, radiation hardness, etc.) of some multicomponent crystals are reported

  2. Performance comparison of optical interference cancellation system architectures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Maddie; Chang, Matt; Deng, Yanhua; Prucnal, Paul R

    2013-04-10

    The performance of three optics-based interference cancellation systems are compared and contrasted with each other, and with traditional electronic techniques for interference cancellation. The comparison is based on a set of common performance metrics that we have developed for this purpose. It is shown that thorough evaluation of our optical approaches takes into account the traditional notions of depth of cancellation and dynamic range, along with notions of link loss and uniformity of cancellation. Our evaluation shows that our use of optical components affords performance that surpasses traditional electronic approaches, and that the optimal choice for an optical interference canceller requires taking into account the performance metrics discussed in this paper.

  3. Optical components based on two-photon absorption process in functionalized polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, S.; Barsella, A.; Taupier, G.; Stortz, V.; Fort, A.; Dorkenoo, K.D.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of basic elements needed in optical circuits in a photopolymerizable resin, using a two-photon absorption (TPA) process to perform a selective polymerization. By taking advantage of the high spatial selectivity of the TPA approach, we can control the value of the local index of refraction in the material and realize permanent optical pathways in the bulk of photopolymerizable matrices. The computer-controlled design of such pathways allows creating optical circuits. As an example of application, optical fibers separated by millimetric distances and placed in arbitrary positions have been connected with moderate losses. Moreover, active components, such as electro-optical Mach-Zehnder interferometers, can be fabricated using photopolymers functionalized with non-linear optical chromophores, in order to be integrated in micro-optical circuits

  4. A FEMTOSECOND-LEVEL FIBER-OPTICS TIMING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM USING FREQUENCY-OFFSET INTERFEROMETRY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staples, J.W.; Byrd, J.; Doolittle, L.; Huang, G.; Wilcox, R.

    2008-01-01

    An optical fiber-based frequency and timing distribution system based on the principle of heterodyne interferometry has been in development at LBNL for several years. The fiber drift corrector has evolved from an RF-based to an optical-based system, from mechanical correctors (piezo and optical trombone) to fully electronic, and the electronics from analog to fully digital, all using inexpensive off-the-shelf commodity fiber components. Short-term optical phase jitter and long-term phase drift are both in the femtosecond range over distribution paths of 2 km or more

  5. Raman Spectroscopy with simple optic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, Mario; Cunya, Eduardo; Olivera, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is .a high resolution photonics technique that provides chemical and structural information of almost any material, organic or inorganic compound. In this report we describe the implementation of a system based on the principle of Raman scattering, developed to analyze solid samples. The spectrometer integrates an optical bench coupled to an optical fiber and a green laser source of 532 nm. The spectrometer was tested obtaining the Naphthalene and the Yellow 74 Pigment Raman patterns. (authors).

  6. Small Explorer Data System MIL-STD-1773 fiber optic bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanegan, Mark; Label, Ken

    1992-01-01

    The MIL-STD-1773 Fiber Optic Data Bus as implemented in the GSFC Small Explorer Data System (SEDS) for the Small Explorer Program is described. It provides an overview of the SEDS MIL-STD-1773 bus components system design considerations, reliability figures, acceptance and qualification testing requirements, radiation requirements and tests, error handling considerations, and component heritage. The first mission using the bus will be launched in June of 1992.

  7. Development of Nanostructured Antireflection Coatings for Infrared and Electro-Optical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gopal G. Pethuraja

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Electro-optic infrared technologies and systems operating from ultraviolet (UV to long-wave infrared (LWIR spectra are being developed for a variety of defense and commercial systems applications. Loss of a significant portion of the incident signal due to reflection limits the performance of electro-optic infrared (IR sensing systems. A critical technology being developed to overcome this limitation and enhance the performance of sensing systems is advanced antireflection (AR coatings. Magnolia is actively involved in the development and advancement of nanostructured AR coatings for a wide variety of defense and commercial applications. Ultrahigh AR performance has been demonstrated for UV to LWIR spectral bands on various substrates. The AR coatings enhance the optical transmission through optical components and devices by significantly minimizing reflection losses, a substantial improvement over conventional thin-film AR coating technologies. Nanostructured AR coatings have been fabricated using a nanomanufacturable self-assembly process on substrates that are transparent for a given spectrum of interest ranging from UV to LWIR. The nanostructured multilayer structures have been designed, developed and optimized for various optoelectronic applications. The optical properties of optical components and sensor substrates coated with AR structures have been measured and the process parameters fine-tuned to achieve a predicted high level of performance. In this paper, we review our latest work on high quality nanostructure-based AR coatings, including recent efforts on the development of nanostructured AR coatings on IR substrates.

  8. Research algorithm for synthesis of double conjugation optical systems in the Gauss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Ostrun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article focuses on the research of variable magnification optical systems of sophistic class - so-called double conjugation systems. When the magnification changes, they provide two pairs of fixed conjugate planes, namely object and image, as well as entrance and exit pupils. Similar systems are used in microscopy and complex schemes, where it is necessary to conform the pupils of contiguous removable optical components. Synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region is not an easy task. To ensure complete immobility of the exit pupil in the system there should be three movable components or components with variable optical power.Analysis of the literature shows that the design of double conjugation optical system in the paraxial region has been neglected, all methods are not completely universal and suitable for automation.Based on the foregoing, the research and development of a universal method for automated synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region formulated as an objective of the present work seem to be a challenge.To achieve this goal a universal algorithm is used. It is based on the fact that the output coordinates of paraxial rays are multilinear functions of optical surfaces and of axial thicknesses between surfaces. It allows us to create and solve a system of multilinear equations in semi-automatic mode to achieve the chosen values of paraxial characteristics.As a basic scheme for the synthesis a five-component system has been chosen with extreme fixed components and three mobile "internal" ones. The system was considered in two extreme states of moving parts. Initial values of axial thicknesses were taken from Hopkins' patent. Optical force five components were considered unknown. For calculation the system of five equations was created, which allowed us to obtain a certain back focal length, to provide the specified focal length and a fixed position of the exit pupil at a fixed entrance pupil.The scheme

  9. Vacuum component subsystem of TV Thomson scattering system in JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiina, Tomio; Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Fujisawa, Atsushi; Hanawa, Osamu; Dimock, D.; Takahashi, Akira; Inomata, Shinji.

    1991-03-01

    The vacuum component subsystem, which is one of six subsystems in TV Thomson scattering (TVTS) system for the JFT-2M tokamak, is completed under a US-JAPAN cooperative program. This subsystem is composed of top and bottom flanges, side flange, beam dump, viewing dump and so on. These components are fitted in the existing 13-point Thomson scattering system as well as the TVTS optics newly developed by Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in USA. New feedback system of laser beam alignment was designed and developed. (author)

  10. Simultaneous Replication of both Refractive and Diffractive Optical Components using Electroformed Tools and Injection Moulding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Christensen, Thomas R.

    2003-01-01

    This research project has demonstrated that with carefully selected processes it is possible to fabricate tools for injection moulding of both diffractive and refractive optical components. The fabrication procedure is based on an aluminium disc on which selected optical components (gratings and ...

  11. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F

    2008-01-01

    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  12. Design considerations for multi component molecular-polymeric nonlinear optical materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, K.D. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kuzyk, M.G. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Fang, T.; Holland, W.R. (AT and T Bell Labs., Princeton, NJ (USA)); Cahill, P.A. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1990-01-01

    We review our work on multi component polymeric nonlinear optical materials. These materials consist of nonlinear optical molecules incorporated in a polymeric host. A cross-linked triazine polymer incorporating a dicyanovinyl terminated azo dye was found to be relatively stable at 85{degree} and posses an electro-optic coefficient of 11pm/V. We have also observed the zero dispersion condition in a new anomalous dispersion dye for phase matched second harmonic generation, and expect efficient conversion to the blue. A squarylium dye, ISQ, has been found to posses a large third order nonlinearity, and may display two-level behavior. 24 refs., 11 figs.

  13. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  14. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzolini, Andrea; Gherardi, Marco; Caselle, Michele; Cosentino Lagomarsino, Marco; Osella, Matteo

    2018-04-01

    Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as "component systems," i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf's law. Such "laws" affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the "core" genome in bacteria.

  15. A scalable, self-analyzing digital locking system for use on quantum optics experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparkes, B M; Chrzanowski, H M; Parrain, D P; Buchler, B C; Lam, P K; Symul, T

    2011-07-01

    Digital control of optics experiments has many advantages over analog control systems, specifically in terms of the scalability, cost, flexibility, and the integration of system information into one location. We present a digital control system, freely available for download online, specifically designed for quantum optics experiments that allows for automatic and sequential re-locking of optical components. We show how the inbuilt locking analysis tools, including a white-noise network analyzer, can be used to help optimize individual locks, and verify the long term stability of the digital system. Finally, we present an example of the benefits of digital locking for quantum optics by applying the code to a specific experiment used to characterize optical Schrödinger cat states.

  16. XUV synchrotron optical components for the Advanced Light Source: Summary of the requirements and the developmental program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, W.; Irick, S.; Lunt, D.

    1992-07-01

    We give a brief summary of the requirements for water cooled optical components for the Advanced Light Source (ALS), a third generation synchrotron radiation source under construction at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL). Materials choices, surface figure and smoothness specifications, and metrology systems for measuring the plated metal surfaces are discussed. Results from a finished water cooled copper alloy mirror will be used to demonstrate the state of the art in optical metrology with the Takacs Long Trace Profiler (LTP II)

  17. The orbit of Phi Cygni measured with long-baseline optical interferometry - Component masses and absolute magnitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. T.; Hummel, C. A.; Quirrenbach, A.; Buscher, D. F.; Mozurkewich, D.; Vivekanand, M.; Simon, R. S.; Denison, C. S.; Johnston, K. J.; Pan, X.-P.

    1992-01-01

    The orbit of the double-lined spectroscopic binary Phi Cygni, the distance to the system, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of its components are presented via measurements with the Mar III Optical Interferometer. On the basis of a reexamination of the spectroscopic data of Rach & Herbig (1961), the values and uncertainties are adopted for the period and the projected semimajor axes from the present fit to the spectroscopic data and the values of the remaining elements from the present fit to the Mark III data. The elements of the true orbit are derived, and the masses and absolute magnitudes of the components, and the distance to the system are calculated.

  18. Testing methodologies and systems for semiconductor optical amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowski, Michael

    Semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA's) are gaining increased prominence in both optical communication systems and high-speed optical processing systems, due primarily to their unique nonlinear characteristics. This in turn, has raised questions regarding their lifetime performance reliability and has generated a demand for effective testing techniques. This is especially critical for industries utilizing SOA's as components for system-in-package products. It is important to note that very little research to date has been conducted in this area, even though production volume and market demand has continued to increase. In this thesis, the reliability of dilute-mode InP semiconductor optical amplifiers is studied experimentally and theoretically. The aging characteristics of the production level devices are demonstrated and the necessary techniques to accurately characterize them are presented. In addition, this work proposes a new methodology for characterizing the optical performance of these devices using measurements in the electrical domain. It is shown that optical performance degradation, specifically with respect to gain, can be directly qualified through measurements of electrical subthreshold differential resistance. This metric exhibits a linear proportionality to the defect concentration in the active region, and as such, can be used for prescreening devices before employing traditional optical testing methods. A complete theoretical analysis is developed in this work to explain this relationship based upon the device's current-voltage curve and its associated leakage and recombination currents. These results are then extended to realize new techniques for testing semiconductor optical amplifiers and other similarly structured devices. These techniques can be employed after fabrication and during packaged operation through the use of a proposed stand-alone testing system, or using a proposed integrated CMOS self-testing circuit. Both methods are capable

  19. Statistics of Shared Components in Complex Component Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mazzolini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Many complex systems are modular. Such systems can be represented as “component systems,” i.e., sets of elementary components, such as LEGO bricks in LEGO sets. The bricks found in a LEGO set reflect a target architecture, which can be built following a set-specific list of instructions. In other component systems, instead, the underlying functional design and constraints are not obvious a priori, and their detection is often a challenge of both scientific and practical importance, requiring a clear understanding of component statistics. Importantly, some quantitative invariants appear to be common to many component systems, most notably a common broad distribution of component abundances, which often resembles the well-known Zipf’s law. Such “laws” affect in a general and nontrivial way the component statistics, potentially hindering the identification of system-specific functional constraints or generative processes. Here, we specifically focus on the statistics of shared components, i.e., the distribution of the number of components shared by different system realizations, such as the common bricks found in different LEGO sets. To account for the effects of component heterogeneity, we consider a simple null model, which builds system realizations by random draws from a universe of possible components. Under general assumptions on abundance heterogeneity, we provide analytical estimates of component occurrence, which quantify exhaustively the statistics of shared components. Surprisingly, this simple null model can positively explain important features of empirical component-occurrence distributions obtained from large-scale data on bacterial genomes, LEGO sets, and book chapters. Specific architectural features and functional constraints can be detected from occurrence patterns as deviations from these null predictions, as we show for the illustrative case of the “core” genome in bacteria.

  20. Flexible optical network components based on densely integrated microring resonators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuzebroek, D.H.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis addresses the design, realization and characterization of reconfigurable optical network components based on multiple microring resonators. Since thermally tunable microring resonators can be used as wavelength selective space switches, very compact devices with high complexity and

  1. Application of Fiber Optic Instrumentation (Validation des systemes d’instrumentation a fibres optiques)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    gratings per system. The O/E amplifier module combines negatively biased photodiodes with transimpedence SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT 3 - 4 RTO-AG-160-V22...3a). The sub-components that make up the system are as follows: c-band tunable laser, optical network, Optical-to-Electrical (O/E) amplifier ...resides on the cPCI bus and is configured, controlled, and monitored via the host cPCI processor. The optical network and the O/E amplifier were designed

  2. Component and system tests of the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P.; Bird, F.; Aston, D.; Dasu, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Muller, D.; Williams, S.; Bienz, T.; Dolinsky, S.; Solodov, E.; Coyle, P.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The components of the SLD barrel Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) are now built and are being installed. This paper reports on tests of these components, including tests of the fiber optic calibration system, detailed studies of electron drift paths on production drift boxes and detectors, tests of the dynamic gating system and its effect on drift path distortions due to space-charge, and a measurement of the electron lifetime in a production drift box. In addition, the authors report on the UV transmission of recirculated liquid freon and on the effects of CRID construction materials on electron lifetime

  3. Component and system tests of the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va'vra, J.; Williams, S.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; d'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.

    1990-10-01

    The components of the SLD barrel Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) are now built and are being installed. We report on tests of these components, including tests of the fiber optic calibration system, detailed studies of electron drift paths on production drift boxes and detectors, tests of the dynamic gating systems and its effect on drift path distortions due to space-charge, and a measurement of the electron lifetime in a production drift box. In addition, we report on the UV transmission of recirculated liquid freon and on the effects of CRID construction materials on electron lifetime. 16 refs., 12 figs

  4. Slide-position errors degrade machined optical component quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Burleson, R.R.

    1975-01-01

    An ultraprecision lathe is being developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to fabricate optical components for use in high-energy laser systems. The lathe has the capability to produce virtually any shape mirror which is symmetrical about an axis of revolution. Two basic types of mirrors are fabricated on the lathe, namely: (1) mirrors which are machined using a single slide motion (such as flats and cylinders), and (2) mirrors which are produced by two-coordinated slide motions (such as hyperbolic reflectors; large, true-radius reflectors, and other contoured-surface reflectors). The surface-finish quality of typical mirrors machined by a single axis of motion is better than 13 nm, peak to valley, which is an order of magnitude better than the surface finishes of mirrors produced by two axes of motion. Surface finish refers to short-wavelength-figure errors that are visibly detectable. The primary cause of the inability to produce significantly better surface finishes on contoured mirrors has been determined as positional errors which exist in the slide positioning systems. The correction of these errors must be accomplished before contoured surface finishes comparable to the flat and cylinder can be machined on the lathe

  5. A 4π scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system for neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Distante, A.; Guerriero, L.; Niccolini, C.; Posa, F.; Walder, F.; Chen, G.T.Y.; Fletcher, C.R.; Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Thornton, R.K.; Barton, D.S.; Lyons, T.; Marx, M.; Rosenson, L.; Thern, R.

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a scintillation counter-optical spark chamber system developed for the detection of high energy gamma rays and neutrons. They describe the system components and their use in two completed experiments. (Auth.)

  6. Development of measuring and control systems for underwater cutting of radioactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Fuchs, K.

    1990-01-01

    Shutdown and dismantling of nuclear power plants requires special techniques to decommission the radioactive components involved. For reasons of safety, decommissioning of components under water can be advantageous because of the radioactive shielding effect of water. In this project, research activities and developmental works focused on the realization of different sensor systems and their adaptation to cutting tasks. A new image-processing system has been developed in addition to the use of a modified underwater TV camera for optical cutting process control (plasma and abrasive wheel cutting). For control of process parameters, different inductive, ultrasonic and optical sensors have been modified and tested. The investigations performed are aimed at assuring high-quality underwater cutting with the help of sensor systems specially adapted to cutting tasks, with special signal procession and evaluation through microcomputer control. It is important that special attention be paid to the reduction of interferences in image pick-up and procession. The measuring system has been designed and realized according to the consideration of the demands for underwater cutting processes. The reliability of the system was tested in conjunction with a four-axes handling system

  7. An Evaluation of PC-Based Optical Character Recognition Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, E. M.; Uslan, M. M.

    1991-01-01

    The review examines six personal computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems designed for use by blind and visually impaired people. Considered are OCR components and terms, documentation, scanning and reading, command structure, conversion, unique features, accuracy of recognition, scanning time, speed, and cost. (DB)

  8. Performance of an optical identification and interrogation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venugopalan, A.; Ghosh, A. K.; Verma, P.; Cheng, S.

    2008-04-01

    A free space optics based identification and interrogation system has been designed. The applications of the proposed system lie primarily in areas which require a secure means of mutual identification and information exchange between optical readers and tags. Conventional RFIDs raise issues regarding security threats, electromagnetic interference and health safety. The security of RF-ID chips is low due to the wide spatial spread of radio waves. Malicious nodes can read data being transmitted on the network, if they are in the receiving range. The proposed system provides an alternative which utilizes the narrow paraxial beams of lasers and an RSA-based authentication scheme. These provide enhanced security to communication between a tag and the base station or reader. The optical reader can also perform remote identification and the tag can be read from a far off distance, given line of sight. The free space optical identification and interrogation system can be used for inventory management, security systems at airports, port security, communication with high security systems, etc. to name a few. The proposed system was implemented with low-cost, off-the-shelf components and its performance in terms of throughput and bit error rate has been measured and analyzed. The range of operation with a bit-error-rate lower than 10-9 was measured to be about 4.5 m. The security of the system is based on the strengths of the RSA encryption scheme implemented using more than 1024 bits.

  9. Generalized statistical criterion for distinguishing random optical groupings from physical multiple systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anosova, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    A statistical criterion is proposed for distinguishing between random and physical groupings of stars and galaxies. The criterion is applied to nearby wide multiple stars, triplets of galaxies in the list of Karachentsev, Karachentseva, and Shcherbanovskii, and double galaxies in the list of Dahari, in which the principal components are Seyfert galaxies. Systems that are almost certainly physical, probably physical, probably optical, and almost certainly optical are identified. The limiting difference between the radial velocities of the components of physical multiple galaxies is estimated

  10. Beam transport optics for high-power laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    Beam transport optics receive output energy from the laser cavity and deliver it to the work site. Depending on the application, this may require a few simple elements or large complex systems. Collection of the laser energy depends on the spatial and temporal energy distribution as well as the wavelength and polarization of the laser cavity and output coupler. Transport optics can perform a variety of functions, including beam formatting, frequency doubling, and distribution to one or more work sites while maintaining or even improving the beam quality. The beam may be delivered to work sites as focused spots or images, projected to distant targets, or propagated through various media for sensing or photochemical processing. Design may involve optical modeling of the system, including diffraction effects and thermal management. A Gaussian beam profile is often used for convenience in modeling. When deviations from this ideal profile need to be considered, it is necessary to characterize the laser beam in detail. Design of the transport system requires understanding of the interaction of the laser energy with optical materials and components. Practical considerations include mounting the optics without stress and with the stability suitable for the intended application. Requirements for beam direction, stability, size, shape, and quality dictate the design approach for each specific situation. Attention also must be given to reliability, environmental, and commercial requirements. Damage to optics in high-power laser systems is a common concern. Environmental problems such as atmospheric turbulence, contamination by dust or vapor from the work site or other sources, or absorption of water vapor can directly degrade beam quality. Other potentially significant optical performance effects may result from instability and aging of the optics, temperature, humidity, pressure, transmitted vibration, and contamination from the work site or other sources

  11. Embedded 100 Gbps Photonic Components:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznia, Charlie

    2018-04-26

    This innovation to fiber optic component technology increases the performance, reduces the size and reduces the power consumption of optical communications within dense network systems, such as advanced distributed computing systems and data centers. VCSEL technology is enabling short-reach (< 100 m) and >100 Gbps optical interconnections over multi-mode fiber in commercial applications.

  12. 2-component heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, W

    1987-03-01

    The knowledge accumulated only recently of the damage to buildings and the hazards of formaldehyde, radon and hydrocarbons has been inducing louder calls for ventilation, which, on their part, account for the fact that increasing importance is being attached to the controlled ventilation of buildings. Two-component heating systems provide for fresh air and thermal comfort in one. While the first component uses fresh air blown directly and controllably into the rooms, the second component is similar to the Roman hypocaustic heating systems, meaning that heated outer air is circulating under the floor, thus providing for hot surfaces and thermal comfort. Details concerning the two-component heating system are presented along with systems diagrams, diagrams of the heating system and tables identifying the respective costs. Descriptions are given of the two systems components, the fast heat-up, the two-component made, the change of air, heat recovery and control systems. Comparative evaluations determine the differences between two-component heating systems and other heating systems. Conclusive remarks are dedicated to energy conservation and comparative evaluations of costs. (HWJ).

  13. Optical readout and control systems for the CMS tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Troska, Jan K; Faccio, F; Gill, K; Grabit, R; Jareno, R M; Sandvik, A M; Vasey, F

    2003-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Experiment will be installed at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2007. The readout system for the CMS Tracker consists of 10000000 individual detector channels that are time-multiplexed onto 40000 unidirectional analogue (40 MSample /s) optical links for transmission between the detector and the 65 m distant counting room. The corresponding control system consists of 2500 bi-directional digital (40 Mb/s) optical links based as far as possible upon the same components. The on-detector elements (lasers and photodiodes) of both readout and control links will be distributed throughout the detector volume in close proximity to the silicon detector elements. For this reason, strict requirements are placed on minimal package size, mass, power dissipation, immunity to magnetic field, and radiation hardness. It has been possible to meet the requirements with the extensive use of commercially available components with a minimum of customization. The project has now entered its vol...

  14. Flux resistance of the various optical components of neodymium laser networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaro, M.; Lauriou, J.; Chesnot, J.

    1978-01-01

    Flux resistance of optical components used in Nd +++ doped glass power laser networks is the main point. We tried to explain here the degradation processes of these different components: bare glass, metallic mirrors, multidielectric mirrors and polarizers, apodisors. Measurement data on a lot of samples are presented. Comparison between different proceedings allowing reflection and polarization of a laser beam shows the advantage of multidielectric coatings [fr

  15. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  16. A 10 Gb/s passive-components-based WDM-TDM reconfigurable optical access network architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, N.C.; Jung, H.D.; Okonkwo, C.M.; Tangdiongga, E.; Koonen, A.M.J.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a cost-effective, reconfigurable optical access network by employing passive components in the remote node and dual conventional optical transceivers in ONUs. The architecture is demonstrated with bidirectional transmission at 10 Gb/s.

  17. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po

    2005-01-01

    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  18. Holographic spectrum-splitting optical systems for solar photovoltaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Deming

    Solar energy is the most abundant source of renewable energy available. The relatively high cost prevents solar photovoltaic (PV) from replacing fossil fuel on a larger scale. In solar PV power generation the cost is reduced with more efficient PV technologies. In this dissertation, methods to improve PV conversion efficiency with holographic optical components are discussed. The tandem multiple-junction approach has achieved very high conversion efficiency. However it is impossible to manufacture tandem PV cells at a low cost due to stringent fabrication standards and limited material types that satisfy lattice compatibility. Current produced by the tandem multi-junction PV cell is limited by the lowest junction due to series connection. Spectrum-splitting is a lateral multi-junction concept that is free of lattice and current matching constraints. Each PV cell can be optimized towards full absorption of a spectral band with tailored light-trapping schemes. Holographic optical components are designed to achieve spectrum-splitting PV energy conversion. The incident solar spectrum is separated onto multiple PV cells that are matched to the corresponding spectral band. Holographic spectrum-splitting can take advantage of existing and future low-cost technologies that produces high efficiency thin-film solar cells. Spectrum-splitting optical systems are designed and analyzed with both transmission and reflection holographic optical components. Prototype holograms are fabricated and high optical efficiency is achieved. Light-trapping in PV cells increases the effective optical path-length in the semiconductor material leading to improved absorption and conversion efficiency. It has been shown that the effective optical path length can be increased by a factor of 4n2 using diffusive surfaces. Ultra-light-trapping can be achieved with optical filters that limit the escape angle of the diffused light. Holographic reflection gratings have been shown to act as angle

  19. Optical measuring system with an interrogator and a polymer-based single-mode fibre optic sensor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical measuring system comprising a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system (102), an optical interrogator (101), and an optical arrangement (103) interconnecting the optical interrogator (101) and the polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor...... system (102). The invention further relates to an optical interrogator adapted to be connected to a polymer-based single-mode fibre-optic sensor system via an optical arrangement. The interrogator comprises a broadband light source arrangement (104) and a spectrum analysing arrangement which receives...

  20. 78 FR 16296 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-14

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing Same; Commission Determination... United States after importation of certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications... Fiber IP (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. of Singapore (``Avago Fiber IP''); Avago General IP and Avago...

  1. Advanced MEMS systems for optical communication and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horenstein, M N; Sumner, R; Freedman, D S; Datta, M; Kani, N; Miller, P; Stewart, J B; Cornelissen, S

    2011-01-01

    Optical communication and adaptive optics have emerged as two important uses of micro-electromechanical (MEMS) devices based on electrostatic actuation. Each application uses a mirror whose surface is altered by applying voltages of up to 300 V. Previous generations of adaptive-optic mirrors were large (∼1 m) and required the use of piezoelectric transducers. Beginning in the mid-1990s, a new class of small MEMS mirrors (∼1 cm) were developed. These mirrors are now a commercially available, mature technology. This paper describes three advanced applications of MEMS mirrors. The first is a mirror used for corona-graphic imaging, whereby an interferometric telescope blocks the direct light from a distant star so that nearby objects such as planets can be seen. We have developed a key component of the system: a 144-channel, fully-scalable, high-voltage multiplexer that reduces power consumption to only a few hundred milliwatts. In a second application, a MEMS mirror comprises part of a two-way optical communication system in which only one node emits a laser beam. The other node is passive, incorporating a retro-reflective, electrostatic MEMS mirror that digitally encodes the reflected beam. In a third application, the short (∼100-ns) pulses of a commercially-available laser rangefinder are returned by the MEMS mirror as a digital data stream. Suitable low-power drive systems comprise part of the system design.

  2. Nanomechanical characterization of adaptive optics components in microprojectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacio, Manuel; Bhushan, Bharat

    2010-01-01

    Compact microprojectors are being developed for information display in mobile electronic devices. A key component of the microprojector is the green laser package, which consists of an adaptive optics component with a drive mechanism. A crucial concern is the mechanical wear of key drive mechanism components, such as the carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) driving rod, the Zn alloy body and the stainless steel friction plate, after prolonged operation. Since friction and wear are dependent on the mechanical properties, nanoindentation experiments were conducted on these drive mechanism components using a depth-sensing nanoindenter at room and elevated temperatures up to 100 °C. The hardness and elastic modulus of all the materials studied decrease at increasing test temperatures. From plasticity index analysis, a correlation between the tendency for plastic deformation and the mechanical properties was obtained. Nanoscratch studies were also conducted in order to simulate wear, as well as examine the scratch resistance and deformation modes of these materials, where it was found that the CFRP rod exhibited the highest scratch resistance. The CFRP rod undergoes mostly brittle deformation, while the Zn alloy body and friction plate undergo plastic deformation.

  3. The effect of the optical system on the electrical performance of III–V concentrator triple junction solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.D., E-mail: S206029578@nmmu.ac.za; Dyk, E.E. van; Vorster, F.J.

    2016-01-01

    High Concentrated Photovoltaic (H-CPV) technologies utilize relatively inexpensive reflective and refractive optical components for concentration to achieve high energy yield. The electrical performance of H-CPV systems is, however, dependent on the properties and configuration of the optical components. The focus of this paper is to summarize the effect of the properties of the optical system on the electrical performance of a Concentrator Triple Junction (CTJ) InGaP/InGaAs/Ge cell. Utilizing carefully designed experiments that include spectral measurements and intensity profiles in the optical plane of the CTJ cell, the influence of photon absorption, Fresnel lens properties and chromatic aberration created by the optical system on the electrical performance of a CTJ cell is shown. From the results obtained, it is concluded that good characterization and understanding of the optical system’s properties may add to improved design of future multi-junction devices.

  4. Distributed fiber optic system for oil pipeline leakage detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranjape, R.; Liu, N.; Rumple, C.; Hara, Elmer H.

    2003-02-01

    We present a novel approach for the detection of leakage in oil pipelines using methods of fiber optic distributed sensors, a presence-of-oil based actuator, and Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR). While the basic concepts of our approach are well understood, the integration of the components into a complete system is a real world engineering design problem. Our focus has been on the development of the actuator design and testing using installed dark fiber. Initial results are promising, however environmental studies into the long term effects of exposure to the environment are still pending.

  5. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu

  6. Acousto-optic pointing and tracking systems for free-space laser communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, V.; Khandekar, R.; Sofka, J.; Tartakovsky, G.

    2005-08-01

    Implementation of long-range laser communication systems holds great promise for high-bandwidth applications. They are viewed as a technology that in the nearest future will handle most of the "last mile" communication traffic for the individual subscribers, corporate offices, military, and possibly deep space probes. Indeed, lasers allow for concentration of energy within tightly focused beams and narrow spectral interval, thus offering high throughput, information security, weight and size of components and power requirements that could not be matched by RF systems. However, the advantages of optical communication systems come in the same package with several major challenges. In particular, high data rates should be complemented by high-precision wide-bandwidth position control of a laser beam. In many applications the ability to maintain a link is affected by the complex maneuvers performed by mobile communication platforms, resident vibrations, and atmospheric effects. The search for the most effective and reliable way to shape and steer the laser beam is an on-going effort. This paper is focused on the application of acousto-optic technology as an alternative to electro-mechanical devices. With realization that an acousto-optic Bragg cell is only a component of the entire communication system, which should perform complex tasks of acquisition, pointing, and tracking of the remote terminal, we present an attempt to consider this problem from the "systems" point of view.

  7. Water absorption length measurement with the ANTARES optical beacon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yepes-Ramirez, Harold

    2011-01-01

    ANTARES is a neutrino telescope located in the Mediterranean Sea with the aim of detecting high energy neutrinos of extra-terrestrial origin. It consists of a three dimensional array on 12 detection lines of photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) able to detect the Cherenkov light induced by muons produced in the interaction of neutrinos with the surrounding water and seabed. To reach the best angular resolution, good time and positioning calibrations are required. The propagation of Cherenkov photons strongly depends on the optical properties of the sea water, which has an impact on the reconstruction efficiency. The determination of the optical parameters, as the absorption and scattering lengths, is crucial to calculate properly the effective area and the angular resolution of the detector. The ANTARES optical beacon system consists of pulsed and fast, well controlled light sources distributed throughout the detector to carry out in situ the relative time calibration of the detector components. In this contribution we show some results on the sea water optical properties and their stability measured with the optical beacon system.

  8. Optically stimulated luminescence of electronic components for forensic, retrospective, and accident dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inrig, E.L.; Godfrey-Smith, D.I.; Khanna, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) response of electronic components found within portable electronic devices such as cell phones and pagers, portable computers, music and video players, global positioning system receivers, cameras, and digital watches. The analysis of components extracted from these ubiquitous devices was proposed for applications ranging from rapid accident dose reconstruction to the tracking and attribution of gamma-emitting radiological materials. Surface-mount resistors with alumina porcelain substrates consistently produced OSL following irradiation, with minimum detectable doses on the order of 10 mGy for a typical sample. Since the resistor ceramics were found to exhibit anomalous fading, dose reconstruction procedures were developed to correct for this using laboratory measurements of fading rates carried out over approximately 3 months. Two trials were conducted in which cellular phones were affixed to an anthropomorphic phantom and irradiated using gamma-ray sources; ultimately, analysis of the devices used in these trials succeeded in reconstructing doses in the range of 0.1-0.6Gy

  9. Fluidic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.

    2006-09-01

    Fluidic optics is a new class of optical system with real-time tunability and reconfigurability enabled by the introduction of fluidic components into the optical path. We describe the design, fabrication, operation of a number of fluidic optical systems, and focus on three devices, liquid-core/liquid-cladding (L2) waveguides, microfluidic dye lasers, and diffraction gratings based on flowing, crystalline lattices of bubbles, to demonstrate the integration of microfluidics and optics. We fabricate these devices in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) with soft-lithographic techniques. They are simple to construct, and readily integrable with microanalytical or lab-on-a-chip systems.

  10. ADVANTAGES OF DIFFRACTIVE OPTICAL ELEMENTS APPLICATION IN SIMPLE OPTICAL IMAGING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Zoric

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the influence of diffractive optical elements on the optical aberrations. The correction of optical aberrations was investigated in the simple optical systems with one and two lenses (singlet and doublet. The advantages of diffractive optical elements are their ability to generate arbitrary complex wave fronts from a piece of optical material that is essentially flat. The optical systems consisting of the standard surfaces were designed and optimized by using the same starting points. Further, the diffractive and aspheric surfaces were introduced into the developed systems. The resulting hybrid systems were optimized. To compare the complicity of the development of narrow field systems and wide field optical systems, the optimization has been done separately for these two types of the instruments. The optical systems were designed by using special Optical Design Software. Тhe characteristics of designed diffractive surfaces were controlled in Software DIFSYS 2.30. Due to the application of diffractive optical elements the longitudinal chromatic aberration was 5 times reduced for the narrow field systems. The absolute value of Seidel coefficient related to the spherical aberration was reduced in the range of 0.03. Considering that diffractive optical elements have the known disadvantages, like possible parasitic diffraction orders and probable decrease of the transmission, we also developed and analyzed the optical systems with combined aspheric and diffractive surfaces. A combination of the aspheric and diffractive surfaces in the optical disk system of the disk reading lens, gave cutting down of the longitudinal color aberrations almost 15 times on-axis, comparing to the lens consisting of the aspherical and standard surfaces. All of the designed diffractive optical elements possess the parameters within the fabrication limits.

  11. FIBER OPTIC LIGHTING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munir BATUR

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently there have been many important and valuable developments in the communication industry. The huge increase in the sound, data and visual communications has caused a parallel increase in the demand for systems with wider capacity, higher speed and higher quality. Communication systems that use light to transfer data are immensely increased. There have recently many systems in which glass or plastic fiber cables were developed for light wave to be transmitted from a source to a target place. Fiber optic systems, are nowadays widely used in energy transmission control systems, medicine, industry and lighting. The basics of the system is, movement of light from one point to another point in fiber cable with reflections. Fiber optic lighting systems are quite secure than other lighting systems and have flexibility for realizing many different designs. This situation makes fiber optics an alternative for other lighting systems. Fiber optic lighting systems usage is increasing day-by-day in our life. In this article, these systems are discussed in detail.

  12. Optical activity of oriented molecular systems in terms of the magnetoelectric tensor of gyrotropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteaga, Oriol

    2014-01-01

    The optical activity of oriented molecular systems is investigated using bianisotropic material constitutives for Maxwell's equations. It is shown that the circular birefringence and circular dichroism for an oriented system can be conveniently expressed in terms of the two components of the symmetric magnetoelectric tensor of gyrotropy that are perpendicular to this direction of light propagation. This description establishes a direct link between the optical activity measured at a certain direction and the tensors that describe the oscillating electric and magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments induced by the optical wave. (paper)

  13. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V; Kazaryan, M A; Mokrushin, Yu M; Shakin, O V

    2015-01-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  14. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  15. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulyaev, Yu V [V.A.Kotel' nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kazaryan, M A [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mokrushin, Yu M [D.V. Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus (Russian Federation); Shakin, O V [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation. (review)

  16. Digital optical correlator x-ray telescope alignment monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Tomasz; Gaskin, Jessica; Jasper, John; Gregory, Don A.

    2018-01-01

    The High-Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) program is a balloon-borne x-ray telescope mission to observe hard x-rays (˜20 to 70 keV) from the sun and multiple astrophysical targets. The payload consists of eight mirror modules with a total of 114 optics that are mounted on a 6-m-long optical bench. Each mirror module is complemented by a high-pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counter. Attached to the payload is a camera that acquires star fields and then matches the acquired field to star maps to determine the pointing of the optical bench. Slight misalignments between the star camera, the optical bench, and the telescope elements attached to the optical bench may occur during flight due to mechanical shifts, thermal gradients, and gravitational effects. These misalignments can result in diminished imaging and reduced photon collection efficiency. To monitor these misalignments during flight, a supplementary Bench Alignment Monitoring System (BAMS) was added to the payload. BAMS hardware comprises two cameras mounted directly to the optical bench and rings of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) mounted onto the telescope components. The LEDs in these rings are mounted in a predefined, asymmetric pattern, and their positions are tracked using an optical/digital correlator. The BAMS analysis software is a digital adaption of an optical joint transform correlator. The aim is to enhance the observational proficiency of HEROES while providing insight into the magnitude of mechanically and thermally induced misalignments during flight. Results from a preflight test of the system are reported.

  17. Flight Demonstration of X-33 Vehicle Health Management System Components on the F/A-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Keith A.; Richards, W. Lance; Theisen, John; Mouyos, William; Garbos, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    The X-33 reusable launch vehicle demonstrator has identified the need to implement a vehicle health monitoring system that can acquire data that monitors system health and performance. Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company, has designed and developed a COTS-based open architecture system that implements a number of technologies that have not been previously used in a flight environment. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and Sanders teamed to demonstrate that the distributed remote health nodes, fiber optic distributed strain sensor, and fiber distributed data interface communications components of the X-33 vehicle health management (VHM) system could be successfully integrated and flown on a NASA F-18 aircraft. This paper briefly describes components of X-33 VHM architecture flown at Dryden and summarizes the integration and flight demonstration of these X-33 VHM components. Finally, it presents early results from the integration and flight efforts.

  18. Temperature control system for optical elements in astronomical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verducci, Orlando; de Oliveira, Antonio C.; Ribeiro, Flávio F.; Vital de Arruda, Márcio; Gneiding, Clemens D.; Fraga, Luciano

    2014-07-01

    Extremely low temperatures may damage the optical components assembled inside of an astronomical instrument due to the crack in the resin or glue used to attach lenses and mirrors. The environment, very cold and dry, in most of the astronomical observatories contributes to this problem. This paper describes the solution implemented at SOAR for remotely monitoring and controlling temperatures inside of a spectrograph, in order to prevent a possible damage of the optical parts. The system automatically switches on and off some heat dissipation elements, located near the optics, as the measured temperature reaches a trigger value. This value is set to a temperature at which the instrument is not operational to prevent malfunction and only to protect the optics. The software was developed with LabVIEWTM and based on an object-oriented design that offers flexibility and ease of maintenance. As result, the system is able to keep the internal temperature of the instrument above a chosen limit, except perhaps during the response time, due to inertia of the temperature. This inertia can be controlled and even avoided by choosing the correct amount of heat dissipation and location of the thermal elements. A log file records the measured temperature values by the system for operation analysis.

  19. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  20. Holographic optical security systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagan, William F.

    1990-06-01

    One of the most successful applications of Holography,in recent years,has been its use as an optical security technique.Indeed the general public's awareness of holograms has been greatly enhanced by the incorporation of holographic elements into the VISA and MASTERCHARGE credit cards.Optical techniques related to Holography,are also being used to protect the currencies of several countries against the counterfeiter. The mass production of high quality holographic images is by no means a trivial task as a considerable degree of expertise is required together with an optical laboratory and embossing machinery.This paper will present an overview of the principal holographic and related optical techniques used for security purposes.Worldwide, over thirty companies are involved in the production of security elements utilising holographic and related optical technologies.Counterfeiting of many products is a major criminal activity with severe consequences not only for the manufacturer but for the public in general as defective automobile parts,aircraft components,and pharmaceutical products, to cite only a few of the more prominent examples,have at one time or another been illegally copied.

  1. Optical Airborne Tracker System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Airborne Tracker System (OATS) is an airborne dual-axis optical tracking system capable of pointing at any sky location or ground target.  The objectives...

  2. Optical switching systems using nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stubkjær, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems.......High capacity multiservice optical networks require compact and efficient switches. The potential benefits of optical switch elements based on nanostructured material are reviewed considering various material systems....

  3. Multistability in an optomechanical system with a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong Ying; Ye Jinwu; Pu Han

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a system consisting of a two-component Bose-Einstein condensate interacting dispersively with a Fabry-Perot optical cavity where the two components of the condensate are resonantly coupled to each other by another classical field. The key feature of this system is that the atomic motional degrees of freedom and the internal pseudospin degrees of freedom are coupled to the cavity field simultaneously, hence an effective spin-orbital coupling within the condensate is induced by the cavity. The interplay among the atomic center-of-mass motion, the atomic collective spin, and the cavity field leads to a strong nonlinearity, resulting in multistable behavior in both matter wave and light wave at the few-photon level.

  4. Optical signal processing for enabling high-speed, highly spectrally efficient and high capacity optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazal, Muhammad Irfan

    may be possible. Recently, interest has increased in exploring the spatial dimension of light to increase capacity, both in fiber as well as free-space communication channels. The orbital angular momentum (OAM) of light, carried by Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams have the interesting property that, in theory, an infinite number of OAMs can be transmitted; which due to its inherent orthogonality will not affect each other. Thus, in theory, one can increase the channel capacity arbitrarily. However, in practice, the device dimensions will reduce the number of OAMs used. In addition to advanced modulation formats, it is expected that optical signal processing may play a role in the future development of more efficient optical transmission systems. The hope is that performing signal processing in the optical domain may reduce optical-to-electronic conversion inefficiencies, eliminate bottlenecks and take advantage of the ultrahigh bandwidth inherent in optics. While 40 to 50 Gbit/s electronic components are the peak of commercial technology and 100 Gbit/s capable RF components are still in their infancy, optical signal processing of these high-speed data signals may provide a potential solution. Furthermore, any optical processing system or sub-system must be capable of handling the wide array of data formats and data rates that networks may employ. The work presented in this Ph.D. dissertation attempts at addressing the issue of optical processing for advanced optical modulation formats, and particularly explores the state of the art in increasing the capacity of an optical link by a combination of wavelength/phase/polarization/OAM dimensions of light. Spatial multiplexing and demultiplexing of both coherently and directly detected signals at the 100 Gbit/s Ethernet standard is addressed. The application of a continuously tunable all-optical delay for all-optical functionality like time-slot interchange at high data-rates is presented. Moreover the interplay of chirp

  5. Report on the Radiation Effects Testing of the Infrared and Optical Transition Radiation Camera Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Presented in this report are the results tests performed at Argonne National Lab in collaboration with Los Alamos National Lab to assess the reliability of the critical 99Mo production facility beam monitoring diagnostics. The main components of the beam monitoring systems are two cameras that will be exposed to radiation during accelerator operation. The purpose of this test is to assess the reliability of the cameras and related optical components when exposed to operational radiation levels. Both X-ray and neutron radiation could potentially damage camera electronics as well as the optical components such as lenses and windows. This report covers results of the testing of component reliability when exposed to X-ray radiation. With the information from this study we provide recommendations for implementing protective measures for the camera systems in order to minimize the occurrence of radiation-induced failure within a ten month production run cycle.

  6. Cooling system for auxiliary reactor component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihira, Tomoko.

    1991-01-01

    A cooling system for auxiliary reactor components comprises three systems, that is, two systems of reactor component cooling water systems (RCCW systems) and a high pressure component cooling water system (HPCCW system). Connecting pipelines having partition valves are intervened each in a cooling water supply pipeline to an emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water return pipeline from the emmergency component of each of the RCCW systems, a cooling water supply pipeline to each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system and a cooling water return pipeline from each of the emmergency components of one of the RCCW system and the HPCCW system. With such constitution, cooling water can be supplied also to the emmergency components in the stand-by system upon periodical inspection or ISI, thereby enabling to improve the backup performance of the emmergency cooling system. (I.N.)

  7. Component Control System for a Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser-Chanpong, Nathan (Inventor); Spain, Ivan (Inventor); Dawson, Andrew D. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Waligora, Thomas M. (Inventor); Akinyode, Akinjide Akinniyi (Inventor); Reed, Ryan M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A vehicle includes a chassis, a modular component, and a central operating system. The modular component is supported by the chassis. The central operating system includes a component control system, a primary master controller, and a secondary master controller. The component control system is configured for controlling the modular component. The primary and secondary master controllers are in operative communication with the component control system. The primary and secondary master controllers are configured to simultaneously transmit commands to the component control system. The component control system is configured to accept commands from the secondary master controller only when a fault occurs in the primary master controller.

  8. Interferogram reduction and interpretation as applied to the optical analysis of a laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Sollid, J.E.; Hall, W.S.; Liberman, I.; Lawrence, G.

    1978-01-01

    The 10 kJ Eight-Beam CO 2 Laser Fusion System, currently under construction at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), has approximately 100 optical elements per beam. The nominal system is diffraction limited and degradations in performance are caused primarily by imperfect components and alignment errors. Consequently, analysis and predictions for the system are very much dependent on the proper description of the imperfect components. The approach taken at LASL has been to characterize the components interferometrically. An example of this procedure, using an actual interferogram of a manufactured component, will be presented and the various limitations will be discussed

  9. The effect of jitter on the performance of space coherent optical communication system with Costas loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Hong, Yifeng; Wang, Jinfang; Liu, Yang; Sun, Xun; Li, Mi

    2018-01-01

    Numerous communication techniques and optical devices successfully applied in space optical communication system indicates a good portability of it. With this good portability, typical coherent demodulation technique of Costas loop can be easily adopted in space optical communication system. As one of the components of pointing error, the effect of jitter plays an important role in the communication quality of such system. Here, we obtain the probability density functions (PDF) of different jitter degrees and explain their essential effect on the bit error rate (BER) space optical communication system. Also, under the effect of jitter, we research the bit error rate of space coherent optical communication system using Costas loop with different system parameters of transmission power, divergence angle, receiving diameter, avalanche photodiode (APD) gain, and phase deviation caused by Costas loop. Through a numerical simulation of this kind of communication system, we demonstrate the relationship between the BER and these system parameters, and some corresponding methods of system optimization are presented to enhance the communication quality.

  10. Examination of a duo-collection optics design for the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) Thomson scattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seungtae; Lee, Jong Ha

    2011-01-01

    The comparison of collective optic designs is described for the Thomson scattering system of the Korea superconducting tokamak advanced research (KSTAR) device. The optical systems collecting the light emission induced through the interaction between the plasma electrons and a laser beam are the key components for the Thomson scattering system. In the first conceptual design of the collection optics for the KSTAR Thomson scattering system, a duo-lens system covering individually the core and the edge regions of the KSTAR plasma with two optical lens modules was proposed. In optical designs, the number of optical modules is a great concern in the case of limited system space. Here, the duo-lens system is evaluated through a comparison with a uni-lens system covering the whole region of the plasma with a single optical module. The duo-lens system turned out to have 2.0 times and 4.73 times higher light collections of the plasma core and edge compared with the uni-lens system

  11. Optical actuation of micromechanical components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koehler, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electromagnetic momentum is a fundamental physical concept that has been demonstrated experimentally and incorporated theoretically in various areas of physics. In spite of the weak character of the electromagnetic momentum transfer process, the combination of latter-day, high-energy laser light sources and microminiature mechanical elements suggested the possibility of optical excitation of these structures. One outcome of the present theoretical analysis is the prediction of an optopiezic effect wherein electromagnetic momentum causes a mechanical stress on a dielectric layer. If this is a valid prediction, such an optically induced, expansional pressure effect could be utilized as an extensional optical-to-mechanical transduction means. copyright 1997 Optical Society of America

  12. National Ingition Facility subsystem design requirements optics subsystems SSDR 1.6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This Subsystems Design Requirement (SSDR) document specifies the functions to be performed and the subsystems design requirements for the major optical components. These optical components comprise those custom designed and fabricated for amplification and transport of the full aperture NIF beam and does not include those off-the-shelf components that may be part of other optical sub-systems (i.e. alignment or diagnostic systems). This document also describes the optical component processing requirements and the QA/damage testing necessary to ensure that the optical components meet or exceed the requirements

  13. Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems

    CERN Document Server

    Arrasmith, William Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA

  14. Interactive educational technologies as a method of communicative competency development of optical and fiber optic communication systems specialists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, Tatiana U.; Osadchiy, Igor S.; Husnutdinova, Marina N.

    2017-04-01

    The article examines the process of formation of communicative competencies of optic and fiber optic communication systems specialists; the role of communicative competencies is examined in the structure of professionally important skills, together with the contents of professional activity. The stages of empirical research into formation of communicative competencies have been presented, and the values of statistical reliability of data have been provided. The model of formation of communicative competency using interactive technology has been developed based on the research done, and main stages of model implementation and motives of formation of communicative competency have been highlighted. A scheme of "Communicative competence as a base of future success" training session has been suggested as one of the basic interactive technologies. Main components of education that are used during the stages of the training cycle have been examined. The statistical data on the effectiveness of use of interactive educational technologies has been presented; it allowed development of communicative competency of specialists in the field of optical and fiber optic communication system.

  15. Electro-optics laboratory evaluation: Deutsch optical waveguide connectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A description of a test program evaluating the performance of an optical waveguide connector system is presented. Both quality and effectiveness of connections made in an optical fiber, performance of the equipment used and applicability of equipment and components to field conditions are reviewed.

  16. Electro-optically actuated liquid-lens zoom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pütsch, O.; Loosen, P.

    2012-06-01

    Progressive miniaturization and mass market orientation denote a challenge to the design of dynamic optical systems such as zoom-lenses. Two working principles can be identified: mechanical actuation and application of active optical components. Mechanical actuation changes the focal length of a zoom-lens system by varying the axial positions of optical elements. These systems are limited in speed and often require complex coupled movements. However, well established optical design approaches can be applied. In contrast, active optical components change their optical properties by varying their physical structure by means of applying external electric signals. An example are liquidlenses which vary their curvatures to change the refractive power. Zoom-lenses benefit from active optical components in two ways: first, no moveable structures are required and second, fast response characteristics can be realized. The precommercial development of zoom-lenses demands simplified and cost-effective system designs. However the number of efficient optical designs for electro-optically actuated zoom-lenses is limited. In this paper, the systematic development of an electro-optically actuated zoom-lens will be discussed. The application of aberration polynomials enables a better comprehension of the primary monochromatic aberrations at the lens elements during a change in magnification. This enables an enhanced synthesis of the system behavior and leads to a simplified zoom-lens design with no moving elements. The change of focal length is achieved only by varying curvatures of targeted integrated electro-optically actuated lenses.

  17. Nonlinear light scattering in a two component medium: optical limiting application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joudrier, Valerie

    1998-01-01

    Scattering is a fundamental manifestation of the interaction between matter and radiation, resulting from inhomogeneities in the refractive index, which decrease transmission. This phenomenon is then especially attractive for sensor protection from laser light by optical limiting. One of the methods to induce scattering at high incident energy is to make use of the Kerr effect where the index of refraction is intensity dependent. Thus, the idea is to use a two component medium with a good index matching between the two components at low intensity, resulting in the medium transparency, and to modify it, at high intensity, due to the non linearity of one component making the medium highly scattering. Some of the experimental and theoretical investigations concerning a new material (here, a cell containing some liquid with small silica particles as inclusion in it) are presented in the visible domain (I=532 nm), for the nanosecond protection regime, beginning, with the chemical synthesis of the sample. The experimental results concerning the optical limiting process are presented, showing that nonlinear scattering is clearly the dominant mechanism in confrontation with other potential nonlinear effects. Several complementary experiments are then performed to complete the nonlinear scattering characterization, involving the measurement of the angular distribution of scattered energy and the integrating sphere measurement. Further information are also gained by studying the time response of the nonlinearities with a dual-beam (pulsed-pump, cw probe) technique. The previous experimental data is also analyzed with some simple theoretical models to evaluate the nonlinearity of the material from optical limiting, the angular scattering and the total scattering energy measurements. The good match between all the analytical results permits to delineate the physical mechanisms responsible for the nonlinear scattering effect and to direct the final conclusion. (author) [fr

  18. Modulation transfer function estimation of optical lens system by adaptive neuro-fuzzy methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Pavlović, Nenad T.; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Kiah, Miss Laiha Mat

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy (ANFIS) estimator is designed and adapted to estimate MTF value of the actual optical system. Neural network in ANFIS adjusts parameters of membership function in the fuzzy logic of the fuzzy inference system. The back propagation learning algorithm is used for training this network. This intelligent estimator is implemented using Matlab/Simulink and the performances are investigated. The simulation results presented in this paper show the effectiveness of the developed method.

  19. Integrated Optical Circuit Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, S.

    1985-04-01

    Implementation of single-mode optical fiber systems depends largely on the availability of integrated optical components for such functions as switching, multiplexing, and modulation. The technology of integrated optics is maturing very rapidly, and its growth justifies the optimism that now exists in the optical community.

  20. MORTICIA, a statistical analysis software package for determining optical surveillance system effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramkilowan, A.; Griffith, D. J.

    2017-10-01

    Surveillance modelling in terms of the standard Detect, Recognise and Identify (DRI) thresholds remains a key requirement for determining the effectiveness of surveillance sensors. With readily available computational resources it has become feasible to perform statistically representative evaluations of the effectiveness of these sensors. A new capability for performing this Monte-Carlo type analysis is demonstrated in the MORTICIA (Monte- Carlo Optical Rendering for Theatre Investigations of Capability under the Influence of the Atmosphere) software package developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). This first generation, python-based open-source integrated software package, currently in the alpha stage of development aims to provide all the functionality required to perform statistical investigations of the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems in specific or generic deployment theatres. This includes modelling of the mathematical and physical processes that govern amongst other components of a surveillance system; a sensor's detector and optical components, a target and its background as well as the intervening atmospheric influences. In this paper we discuss integral aspects of the bespoke framework that are critical to the longevity of all subsequent modelling efforts. Additionally, some preliminary results are presented.

  1. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  2. Optical computer switching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clymer, B.; Collins, S. A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The design for an optical switching system for minicomputers that uses an optical spatial light modulator such as a Hughes liquid crystal light valve is presented. The switching system is designed to connect 80 minicomputers coupled to the switching system by optical fibers. The system has two major parts: the connection system that connects the data lines by which the computers communicate via a two-dimensional optical matrix array and the control system that controls which computers are connected. The basic system, the matrix-based connecting system, and some of the optical components to be used are described. Finally, the details of the control system are given and illustrated with a discussion of timing.

  3. Problems of Aero-optics and Adaptive Optical Systems: Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. I. Shanin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical review gives the basic concepts of the aero-optics problem arising from the radiation propagation in the region of the boundary layers of a laser installation carrier aircraft. Estimates the radiation wave front distortions at its propagation in the near and far field. Presents main calculation approaches and methods to solve the gas-dynamic and optical problems in propagating laser radiation. Conducts a detailed analysis of the flows and their generating optical aberrations introduced by the aircraft turret (a projection platform of the on-board laser. Considers the effect of various factors (shock wave, difference in wall and flow temperatures on the flow pattern and the optical aberrations. Provides research data on the aero-optics obtained in the flying laboratory directly while in flight. Briefly considers the experimental research methods, diagnostic equipment, and synthesis of results while studying the aero-optics problem. Discusses some methods for mitigating the aerodynamic effects on the light propagation under flight conditions. Presents data about the passive, active, and hybrid effects on the flow in the boundary layers in order to reduce aberrations through improving the flow aerodynamics.The paper considers operation of adaptive optical systems under conditions of aero-optical distortions. Presents the study results concerning the reduction of the aero-optics effect on the characteristics of radiation in far field. Gives some research results regarding the effect on the efficiency of the adaptive system of a laser beam jitter and a time delay in the feedback signal transmission, which occur under application conditions. Provides data on adaptive correction of aero-optical wave fronts of radiation. Considers some application aspects in control systems of the on-board adaptive optics of adaptive filtration as a way to improve the efficiency of adaptive optical systems. The project in mind is to use obtained results

  4. Virtual commissioning of automated micro-optical assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlette, Christian; Losch, Daniel; Haag, Sebastian; Zontar, Daniel; Roßmann, Jürgen; Brecher, Christian

    2015-02-01

    In this contribution, we present a novel approach to enable virtual commissioning for process developers in micro-optical assembly. Our approach aims at supporting micro-optics experts to effectively develop assisted or fully automated assembly solutions without detailed prior experience in programming while at the same time enabling them to easily implement their own libraries of expert schemes and algorithms for handling optical components. Virtual commissioning is enabled by a 3D simulation and visualization system in which the functionalities and properties of automated systems are modeled, simulated and controlled based on multi-agent systems. For process development, our approach supports event-, state- and time-based visual programming techniques for the agents and allows for their kinematic motion simulation in combination with looped-in simulation results for the optical components. First results have been achieved for simply switching the agents to command the real hardware setup after successful process implementation and validation in the virtual environment. We evaluated and adapted our system to meet the requirements set by industrial partners-- laser manufacturers as well as hardware suppliers of assembly platforms. The concept is applied to the automated assembly of optical components for optically pumped semiconductor lasers and positioning of optical components for beam-shaping

  5. Design and Development of Nonlinear Optical Microscope System: Simple Implementation with epi-Illumination Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryu Jiheun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available During the research using fluorescence-tagged or auto-fluorescence molecules, meaningful information is often buried deep inside the tissue, not its surface. Therefore, especially in the field of biomedical imaging, acquiring optically sectioned images from deep inside the tissue is very important. As well know already, confocal laser scanning microscopy (the most well-known optical sectioning microscopy gives axially-resolved fluorescence information using the physical background blocking component called pinhole. However, the axial range of imaging is practically limited due to such optical phenomena as the light scattered and absorbed in the tissue. However, nonlinear optical microscopy (e.g. Multiphoton microscopy, harmonic generation microscopy, coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy realized by the development of ultrafast light sources has been used for visualizing various tissues, especially in vivo, because of their low sensitivity to the limitation caused by the scattering and the absorption of light. Although nonlinear optical microscopy gives deep tissue image, it is not easy for many researcher to build customized nonlinear system. Here, we introduce an easy and simple way designing and developing such nonlinear optical microscope with upright or inverted epi-illumination platform using commercial optical components only.

  6. Use of Zernike polynomials and interferometry in the optical design and assembly of large carbon-dioxide laser systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the need for non-raytracing schemes in the optical design and analysis of large carbon-dioxide lasers like the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios lasers currently operational at Los Alamos, and the Antares laser fusion system under construction. The scheme currently used at Los Alamos involves characterizing the various optical components with a Zernike polynomial set obtained by the digitization of experimentally produced interferograms of the components. A Fast Fourier Transform code then propagates the complex amplitude and phase of the beam through the whole system and computes the optical parameters of interest. The analysis scheme is illustrated through examples of the Gigawatt, Gemini, and Helios systems. A possible way of using the Zernike polynomials in optical design problems of this type is discussed. Comparisons between the computed values and experimentally obtained results are made and it is concluded that this appears to be a valid approach. As this is a review article, some previously published results are also used where relevant

  7. Systems and methods for enhancing optical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVore, Peter Thomas Setsuda; Chou, Jason T.

    2018-01-02

    An Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System includes a first system for producing an information bearing first optical wave that is impressed with a first information having a first information strength wherein the first optical wave has a first shape. A second system produces a second optical wave. An information strength enhancer module receives the first and said second optical waves and impresses the first optical wave upon the second optical wave via cross-phase modulation (XPM) to produce an information-strength-enhanced second optical wave having a second information strength that is greater than the first information strength of the first optical wave. Following a center-wavelength changer by an Optical Information Transfer Enhancer System improves its performance.

  8. Comparison of Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) from Fiber-Optic Cable to Three Component Geophones in an Underground Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Nesladek, N. J.; Kammerer, C.; Maclaughlin, M.; Wang, H. F.; Lord, N. E.

    2017-12-01

    We conducted experiments in the Underground Education Mining Center on the Montana Tech campus, Butte, Montana, to make a direct comparison between Digital Acoustic Sensing (DAS) and three-component geophones in a mining setting. The sources used for this project where a vertical sledgehammer, oriented shear sledgehammer, and blasting caps set off in both unstemmed and stemmed drillholes. Three-component Geospace 20DM geophones were compared with three different types of fiber-optic cable: (1) Brugg strain, (2) Brugg temperature, and (3) Optical Cable Corporation strain. We attached geophones to the underground mine walls and on the ground surface above the mine. We attached fiber-optic cables to the mine walls and placed fiber-optic cable in boreholes drilled through an underground pillar. In addition, we placed fiber-optic cables in a shallow trench at the surface of the mine. We converted the DAS recordings from strain rate to strain prior to comparison with the geophone data. The setup of the DAS system for this project led to a previously unknown triggering problem that compromised the early samples of the DAS traces often including the first-break times on the DAS records. Geophones clearly recorded the explosives; however, the large amount of energy and its close distance from the fiber-optic cables seemed to compromise the entire fiber loop. The underground hammer sources produced a rough match between the DAS records and the geophone records. However, the sources on the surface of the mine, specifically the sources oriented inline with the fiber-optic cables, produced a close match between the fiber-optic traces and the geophone traces. All three types of fiber-optic cable that were in the mine produced similar results, and one type did not clearly outperform the others. Instead, the coupling of the cable to rock appears to be the most important factor determining DAS data quality. Moreover, we observed the importance of coupling in the boreholes, where

  9. UV-cured polymer optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñón, Victor; Santiago, Freddie; Vogelsberg, Ashten; Davenport, Amelia; Cramer, Neil

    2017-10-01

    Although many optical-quality glass materials are available for use in optical systems, the range of polymeric materials is limited. Polymeric materials have some advantages over glass when it comes to large-scale manufacturing and production. In smaller scale systems, they offer a reduction in weight when compared to glass counterparts. This is especially important when designing optical systems meant to be carried by hand. We aimed to expand the availability of polymeric materials by exploring both crown-like and flint-like polymers. In addition, rapid and facile production was also a goal. By using UV-cured thiolene-based polymers, we were able to produce optical materials within seconds. This enabled the rapid screening of a variety of polymers from which we down-selected to produce optical flats and lenses. We will discuss problems with production and mitigation strategies in using UV-cured polymers for optical components. Using UV-cured polymers present a different set of problems than traditional injection-molded polymers, and these issues are discussed in detail. Using these produced optics, we integrated them into a modified direct view optical system, with the end goal being the development of drop-in replacements for glass components. This optical production strategy shows promise for use in lab-scale systems, where low-cost methods and flexibility are of paramount importance.

  10. A design of a wavelength-hopping time-spreading incoherent optical code division multiple access system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glesk, I.; Baby, V.

    2005-01-01

    We present the architecture and code design for a highly scalable, 2.5 Gb/s per user optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system. The system is scalable to 100 potential and more than 10 simultaneous users, each with a bit error rate (BER) of less than 10 -9 . The system architecture uses a fast wavelength-hopping, time-spreading codes. Unlike frequency and phase sensitive coherent OCDMA systems, this architecture utilizes standard on off keyed optical pulses allocated in the time and wavelength dimensions. This incoherent OCDMA approach is compatible with existing WDM optical networks and utilizes off the shelf components. We discuss the novel optical subsystem design for encoders and decoders that enable the realization of a highly scalable incoherent OCDMA system with rapid reconfigurability. A detailed analysis of the scalability of the two dimensional code is presented and select network deployment architectures for OCDMA are discussed (Authors)

  11. Component reliability criticality or importance metrics for systems with degrading components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, H.; Coit, D.W.; Feng, Q.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes two new importance measures: one new importance measure for systems with -independent degrading components, and another one for systems with -correlated degrading components. Importance measures in previous research are inadequate for systems with degrading components because

  12. Electro-optical system for the nondestructive evaluation of bioengineering materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciammarella, Cesar A.; Bhat, Gopalakrishna K.; Albertazzi, Armando, Jr.

    1991-08-01

    The paper presents a system that may be used in a wide range of biomedical fields. The system can be applied in conjunction with different optical techniques: (a) holography, (b) moire method, (c) speckle techniques, (d) photoelasticity. The system has been built in such a way that an operator with average skills will be able to use it; data acquisition and processing are fast and almost automatic. A brief description of the system, its main components and the basic theory behind it, are given. The use of the system is illustrated with examples in orthopedics and in the cardio-vascular area.

  13. Optical Manipulation System Using a Plurality of Optical Traps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to an optical manipulation system (10) for generation of a plurality of optical traps for manipulation of micro-objects including nano-objects using electromagnetic radiation forces in a micro-object manipulation volume (14), the system comprising a spatially modulat...

  14. Student laboratory experiments exploring optical fibre communication systems, eye diagrams, and bit error rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Douglas; Moodie, David; Mauchline, Iain; Conner, Steve; Johnstone, Walter; Culshaw, Brian

    2005-06-01

    Optical fibre communications has proved to be one of the key application areas, which created, and ultimately propelled the global growth of the photonics industry over the last twenty years. Consequently the teaching of the principles of optical fibre communications has become integral to many university courses covering photonics technology. However to reinforce the fundamental principles and key technical issues students examine in their lecture courses and to develop their experimental skills, it is critical that the students also obtain hands-on practical experience of photonics components, instruments and systems in an associated teaching laboratory. In recognition of this need OptoSci, in collaboration with university academics, commercially developed a fibre optic communications based educational package (ED-COM). This educator kit enables students to; investigate the characteristics of the individual communications system components (sources, transmitters, fibre, receiver), examine and interpret the overall system performance limitations imposed by attenuation and dispersion, conduct system design and performance analysis. To further enhance the experimental programme examined in the fibre optic communications kit, an extension module to ED-COM has recently been introduced examining one of the most significant performance parameters of digital communications systems, the bit error rate (BER). This add-on module, BER(COM), enables students to generate, evaluate and investigate signal quality trends by examining eye patterns, and explore the bit-rate limitations imposed on communication systems by noise, attenuation and dispersion. This paper will examine the educational objectives, background theory, and typical results for these educator kits, with particular emphasis on BER(COM).

  15. Component and system tests of the SLD Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antilogus, P.; Aston, D.; Bienz, T.; Bird, F.; Dasu, S.; Dolinsky, S.; Dunwoodie, W.; Hallewell, G.; Kawahara, H.; Kwon, Y.; Leith, D.; Muller, D.; Nagamine, T.; Pavel, T.; Ratcliff, B.; Rensing, P.; Schultz, D.; Shapiro, S.; Simopoulos, C.; Solodov, E.; Toge, N.; Va'vra, J.; Williams, S.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Coyle, P.; Coyne, D.; Gagnon, P.; Liu, X.; Williams, D.A.; Whitaker, J.S.; Wilson, R.J.; Bean, A.; Caldwell, D.; Duboscq, J.; Huber, J.; Lu, A.; Mathys, L.; McHugh, S.; Witherell, M.; Yellin, S.; D'Oliveira, A.; Johnson, R.A.; Martinez, J.L.; Meadows, B.; Nussbaum, M.; Santha, A.K.S.; Shoup, A.; Stockdale, I.; Baird, K.; Jacques, P.; Kalelkar, M.; Plano, R.; Stamer, P.; Word, G.; Abe, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Suekane, F.; Yuta, H.

    1991-02-01

    The components of the SLD barrel Cerenkov Ring Imaging Detector (CRID) are now built and are being installed. We report on tests of these, including tests of the fiber optic calibration system, detailed studies of electron drift paths on production drift boxes and detectors, tests of the dynamic gating system and its effect on drift path distortions due to space-charge, and a measurement of the electron lifetime in a production drift box. In addition, we report on the UV transmission of recirculated liquid C 6 F 14 and on the effects of CRID construction materials on electron lifetime. 9 refs., 11 figs

  16. Influence of nuclear radiation and laser beams on optical fibers and components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelić Slađana N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of nuclear radiation and particles has been the object of investigation for a long time. For new materials and systems the research should be continued. Human activities in various environments, including space, call for more detailed research. The role of fibers in contemporary communications, medicine, and industry increases. Fibers, their connections and fused optics components have one type of tasks - the transmission of information and power. The other type of tasks is reserved for fiber lasers: quantum generators and amplifiers. The third type of tasks is for fiber sensors, including high energy nuclear physics. In this paper we present some chosen topics in the mentioned areas as well as our experiments with nuclear radiation and laser beams to fiber and bulk materials of various nature (glass, polymer, metallic, etc..

  17. Photonic Beamformer Model Based on Analog Fiber-Optic Links’ Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, V A; Gordeev, D A; Ivanov, S I; Lavrov, A P; Saenko, I I

    2016-01-01

    The model of photonic beamformer for wideband microwave phased array antenna is investigated. The main features of the photonic beamformer model based on true-time-delay technique, DWDM technology and fiber chromatic dispersion are briefly analyzed. The performance characteristics of the key components of photonic beamformer for phased array antenna in the receive mode are examined. The beamformer model composed of the components available on the market of fiber-optic analog communication links is designed and tentatively investigated. Experimental demonstration of the designed model beamforming features includes actual measurement of 5-element microwave linear array antenna far-field patterns in 6-16 GHz frequency range for antenna pattern steering up to 40°. The results of experimental testing show good accordance with the calculation estimates. (paper)

  18. EMI free fiber optic strain sensor system for TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szuchy, N.C.; Caserta, A.L.; Ferrara, A.A.; Squires, R.W.; Sredniawski, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    In certain applications, structural components are subjected to loadings in high electromagnetic interference (EMI) environments. The mechanical responses of these components must be monitored under rapidly varying electromagnetic fields. A Fiber Optic Strain Sensor System (FOSSS) is an acceptable solution since it is immune to EMI. Grumman Aerospace Corporation initiated the development of a FOSSS that can be used in high EMI situations where resistive/electronic-based strain measurement systems would not be effective, such as on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during plasma disruption. Tests have indicated that because of their increased sensitivity due to the size of the fiber optic (FO) transducer (1-in. 2 ) and responsiveness due to the areal changes of the FO sensor, the strain tracking capability of FO sensors are excellent. For the TFTR application a jacketed 400-micron fiber capable of operating in a 250 0 C temperature environment was used. Continuous 30 foot lengths of high-temperature FO cables were affixed to 304 LN SS tabs, forming an integrated strain sensor and pigtail unit. By fusion splicing 400-micron room temperature fibers to the pigtails, the required runs (approximately 200 feet) to the TFTR data acquisition room were made with minimum coupling attenuation. Development methodology is discussed and test data presented

  19. A fiber-optic strain measurement and quench localization system for use in superconducting accelerator dipole magnets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, J.M.; Scanlan, Ronald M.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.

    1995-01-01

    A novel fiber-optic measurement system for superconducting accelerator magnets is described. The principal component is an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometer to determine localized strain and stress in coil windings. The system can be used either as a sensitive relative strain measurement system

  20. Integrated-Optics Components Utilizing Long-Range Surface Plasmon Polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes a new class of components for integrated optics, based on the propagation of long-range surface plasmon polaritons (LR-SPPs) along metal stripes embedded in a dielectric. These novel components can provide guiding of light as well as coupling and splitting from/into a number...... with experimental results is obtained. The interaction of LR-SPPs with photonic crystals (PCs) is also studied. The PC structures are formed by periodic arrays of gold bumps that are arranged in a triangular lattice and placed symmetrically on both sides of a thin gold film. The LR-SPP transmission through...... of channels with good performance. Guiding of LR-SPPs along nm-thin and µm-wide gold stripes embedded in polymer is investigated in the wavelength range of 1250 – 1650 nm. LR-SPP guiding properties, such as the propagation loss and mode field diameter, are studied for different stripe widths and thicknesses...

  1. Reliability for systems of degrading components with distinct component shock sets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Sanling; Coit, David W.; Feng, Qianmei

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies reliability for multi-component systems subject to dependent competing risks of degradation wear and random shocks, with distinct shock sets. In practice, many systems are exposed to distinct and different types of shocks that can be categorized according to their sizes, function, affected components, etc. Previous research primarily focuses on simple systems with independent failure processes, systems with independent component time-to-failure, or components that share the same shock set or type of shocks. In our new model, we classify random shocks into different sets based on their sizes or function. Shocks with specific sizes or function can selectively affect one or more components in the system but not necessarily all components. Additionally the shocks from the different shock sets can arrive at different rates and have different relative magnitudes. Preventive maintenance (PM) optimization is conducted for the system with different component shock sets. Decision variables for two different maintenance scheduling problems, the PM replacement time interval, and the PM inspection time interval, are determined by minimizing a defined system cost rate. Sensitivity analysis is performed to provide insight into the behavior of the proposed maintenance policies. These models can be applied directly or customized for many complex systems that experience dependent competing failure processes with different component shock sets. A MEMS (Micro-electro mechanical systems) oscillator is a typical system subject to dependent and competing failure processes, and it is used as a numerical example to illustrate our new reliability and maintenance models

  2. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, M; Jensen, A S; Fedorov, D V; Zinner, N T

    2015-01-01

    We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the recombination rate. The Efimov scaling between recombination peaks is calculated and shown to depend on both scattering lengths. Recombination is predicted to be largest for heavy–heavy–light systems. Universal properties of the optical parameters are indicated. We compare to available experiments and find in general very satisfactory agreement. (paper)

  3. Fiber optics in adverse environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyous, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    Radiation effects in optical fibers are considered, taking into account recent progress in the investigation of radiation resistant optical fibers, radiation damage in optical fibers, radiation-induced transient absorption in optical fibers, X-ray-induced transient attenuation at low temperatures in polymer clad silica (PCS) fibers, optical fiber composition and radiation hardness, the response of irradiated optical waveguides at low temperatures, and the effect of ionizing radiation on fiber-optic waveguides. Other topics explored are related to environmental effects on components of fiber optic systems, and radiation detection systems using optical fibers. Fiber optic systems in adverse environments are also discussed, giving attention to the survivability of Army fiber optics systems, space application of fiber optics systems, fiber optic wavelength multiplexing for civil aviation applications, a new fiber optic data bus topology, fiber optics for aircraft engine/inlet control, and application of fiber optics in high voltage substations

  4. Component reliability for electronic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bajenescu, Titu-Marius I

    2010-01-01

    The main reason for the premature breakdown of today's electronic products (computers, cars, tools, appliances, etc.) is the failure of the components used to build these products. Today professionals are looking for effective ways to minimize the degradation of electronic components to help ensure longer-lasting, more technically sound products and systems. This practical book offers engineers specific guidance on how to design more reliable components and build more reliable electronic systems. Professionals learn how to optimize a virtual component prototype, accurately monitor product reliability during the entire production process, and add the burn-in and selection procedures that are the most appropriate for the intended applications. Moreover, the book helps system designers ensure that all components are correctly applied, margins are adequate, wear-out failure modes are prevented during the expected duration of life, and system interfaces cannot lead to failure.

  5. Micro-optical-mechanical system photoacoustic spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotovsky, Jack; Benett, William J.; Tooker, Angela C.; Alameda, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    All-optical photoacoustic spectrometer sensing systems (PASS system) and methods include all the hardware needed to analyze the presence of a large variety of materials (solid, liquid and gas). Some of the all-optical PASS systems require only two optical-fibers to communicate with the opto-electronic power and readout systems that exist outside of the material environment. Methods for improving the signal-to-noise are provided and enable mirco-scale systems and methods for operating such systems.

  6. Theoretical comparison of light scattering and guided wave coupling in multilayer coated optical components with random interface roughness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elson, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, we use first-order perturbation theory to calculate and then compare the (1) angular distribution of incident light scattered from a multilayer-coated optical component and (2) the angular distribution of incident light coupled into guided waves supported by the multilayer component. The incident beam is assumed to be a monochromatic plane wave and the scattering/coupling is assumed to be caused by roughness at the interfaces of the optical component. Numerical results show that for high quality (low root mean square roughness) optical components, comparison of the relative amounts of incident energy (1) scattered out of the specular beam and (2) coupled into guided waves are comparable. It follows that the guided wave energy will further contribute to the scattered field via radiative decay or be converted to heat. Thus, this work can help provide an estimation of when guided wave coupling can occur along with the expected magnitude. (orig.)

  7. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  8. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P

    1986-01-01

    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  9. Development of fiber-delivered laser peening system to prevent stress corrosion cracking of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sano, Y.; Kimura, M.; Yoda, M.; Mukai, N.; Sato, K.; Uehara, T.; Ito, T.; Shimamura, M.; Sudo, A.; Suezono, N.

    2001-01-01

    The authors have developed a system to deliver water-penetrable intense laser pulses of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser through optical fiber. The system is capable of improving a residual stress on water immersed metal material remotely, which is effective to prevent the initiation of stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of reactor components. Experimental results showed that a compressive residual stress with enough amplitude and depth was built in the surface layer of type 304 stainless steel (SUS304) by irradiating laser pulses through optical fiber with diameter of 1 mm. A prototype peening head with miniaturized dimensions of 88 mm x 46 mm x 25 mm was assembled to con-firm the accessibility to the heat affected zone (HAZ) along weld lines of a reactor core shroud. The accessibility was significantly improved owing to the flexible optical fiber and the miniaturized peening head. The fiber delivered system opens up the possibility of new applications of laser peening. (author)

  10. Stereoscopic optical viewing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, C.S.

    1986-05-02

    An improved optical system which provides the operator with a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  11. Fiber optic components compatibility with the PWR containment radiation field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuze, G.; Serre, J.

    1990-01-01

    Present and future applications of fiber optics transmission in the nuclear industrial field are emphasized. Nuclear acceptance criteria for relevant electronic equipments in terms of radiation dose rate, integrated dose and required reliability are given. Ambient conditions of PWR containment are especially considered in the present paper. Experimental results of optical fibers and end-components exposed to 60 Co gamma rays are successively shown. Main radiation response characteristics up to 10 4 Gy (with dose rates of about 100 Gy.h -1 ) of both multimodal fiber families (step index and gradient index fibers) are compared. Predominant features of pure silica core fibers are: * an efficient photobleaching with near IR light from LED and LD commonly used in transmission data links, * a radiation hardening reducing induced losses down to 10 dB.km -1 in fine fibers up to date with latest developments. Dose rate effect on induced losses is also outlined for these fibers. Optoelectronic fiber-end components radiation response is good only for special LED (AsGa) and PD (Si). Radiation behavior of complex pigtailed LDM (laser diode + photodiode + Peltier element + thermistor) is not fully acceptable and technological improvements were made. Preliminary results are given. Two applications of fiber links transmitting data in a PWR containment and a hot cell are described. Hardening levels obtained and means required are given

  12. Development of the optical system for the SST-1M telescope of the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Ostrowski, Michael; Błocki, J.; Bogacz, L.; Bulik, T.; Cadoux, F.; Christov, A.; Curyło, M.; della Volpe, D.; Dyrda, M.; Favre, Y.; Frankowski, A.; Grudnik, Ł.; Grudzińska, M.; Heller, M.; Idźkowski, B.; Jamrozy, M.; Janiak, M.; Kasperek, J.; Lalik, K.; Lyard, E.; Mach, E.; Mandat, D.; Marszałek, A.; Michałowski, J.; Moderski, R.; Montaruli, T.; Neronov, A.; Niemiec, J.; Paśko, P.; Pech, M.; Porcelli, A.; Prandini, E.; Pueschel, E.; Rajda, P.; Rameez, M.; Schioppa, E. jr; Schovanek, P.; Skowron, K.; Sliusar, V.; Sowiński, M.; Stawarz, Ł.; Stodulska, M.; Stodulski, M.; Toscano, S.; Troyano Pujadas, I.; Walter, R.; Wiȩcek, M.; Zagdański, A.; Ziȩtara, K.; Żychowski, P.; Barciński, T.; Karczewski, M.; Kukliński, J. Nicolau; Płatos, Ł.; Rataj, M.; Wawer, P.; Wawrzaszek, R.

    2016-01-01

    The prototype of a Davies-Cotton small size telescope (SST-1M) has been designed and developed by a consortium of Polish and Swiss institutions and proposed for the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) observatory. The main purpose of the optical system is to focus the Cherenkov light emitted by extensive air showers in the atmosphere onto the focal plane detectors. The main component of the system is a dish consisting of 18 hexagonal mirrors with a total effective collection area of 6.47 m2 (including the shadowing and estimated mirror reflectivity). Such a solution was chosen taking into account the analysis of the Cherenkov light propagation and based on optical simulations. The proper curvature and stability of the dish is ensured by the mirror alignment system and the isostatic interface to the telescope structure. Here we present the design of the optical subsystem together with the performance measurements of its components.

  13. Optical data transmission at the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leskovar, B.

    1989-02-01

    Digital and analog data transmissions via fiber optics for the Superconducting Super Collider have been investigated. The state of the art of optical transmitters, low loss fiber waveguides, receivers and associated electronics components are reviewed and summarized. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the radiation environment on the performance of an optical data transmission system components. Also, the performance of candidate components of the wide band digital and analog transmission systems intended for deployment of the Superconducting Super Collider Detector is discussed. 27 refs., 15 figs

  14. Advances in lasers and optical micro-nano-systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, F.; Fazio, E.

    2010-09-01

    Lasers represent a well consolidated technology: nevertheless, research in this field remains very active and productive, in both basic and applied directions. At the moment significant attention is given to those sources that bring together high power and compactness. Such high power lasers find important applications for material treatments and such applications are presented by Ehsani et al and Saiedeh Saghafi et al, in the treatment of dielectric thin films (Alteration of optical and morphological properties of polycarbonate illuminated by visible/IR laser beams) or of biological tissues like pistachio seeds (Investigating the effects of laser beams (532 and 660 nm) in annihilation of pistachio mould fungus using spectrophotometry analysis). In particular the latter paper show how laser sources can find very important applications in new domains, preserving goods and food without the need for preservatives or pesticides by simply sterilizing them using light. Optical Micro and Nano Systems presents a new domain for exploration. In this framework this special issue is very attractive, because it assembles papers reporting new results in three directions: new techniques for monitoring integrated micro- and nano-systems, new integrated systems and novel high performance metamaterial configurations. Integrated micro-components can be monitored and controlled using reflectance measurements as presented by Piombini et al (Toward the reflectance measurement of micro components). Speckle formation during laser beam reflection can also be a very sophisticated tool for detecting ultra-precise displacements, as presented by Filter et al (High resolution displacement detection with speckles : accuracy limits in linear displacement speckle metrology). Three dimensional integrated optical structures is indeed a big challenge and a peculiarity of photonics, they can be formed through traditional holography or using more sophisticated and novel ! technologies. Thus, special

  15. Over 10 dB Net Coding Gain Based on 20% Overhead Hard Decision Forward Error Correction in 100G Optical Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bomin; Larsen, Knud J.; Zibar, Darko

    2011-01-01

    We propose a product code with shortened BCH component codes for 100G optical communication systems. Simulation result shows that 10 dB net coding gain is promising at post- FEC BER of 1E-15.......We propose a product code with shortened BCH component codes for 100G optical communication systems. Simulation result shows that 10 dB net coding gain is promising at post- FEC BER of 1E-15....

  16. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: An update of clinical demonstrations with the Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Boyer, J.; Johnson, T.M.; Lacey, J.; Mourant, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bohorfoush, A. [Wisconsin Medical School, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    1994-10-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory has continued the development of the Optical Biopsy System (OBS) for noninvasive, real-time in situ diagnosis of tissue pathologies. Our clinical studies have expanded since the last Biomedical Optics Europe conference (Budapest, September 1993), and we report here on the latest results of clinical tests in gastrointestinal tract. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength-dependence of elastic scattering. The OBS employs a small fiberoptic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope or catheter, or to direct surface examination. The probe is designed to be used in optical contact with the tissue under examination and has separate illuminating and collecting fibers. Thus, the light that is collected and transmitted to the analyzing spectrometer must first scatter through a small volume of the tissue before entering the collection fiber(s). Consequently, the system is also sensitive to the optical absorption spectrum of the tissue, over an effective operating range of <300 to 950 nm, and such absorption adds valuable complexity to the scattering spectral signature.

  17. High pressure fiber optic sensor system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guida, Renato; Xia, Hua; Lee, Boon K; Dekate, Sachin N

    2013-11-26

    The present application provides a fiber optic sensor system. The fiber optic sensor system may include a small diameter bellows, a large diameter bellows, and a fiber optic pressure sensor attached to the small diameter bellows. Contraction of the large diameter bellows under an applied pressure may cause the small diameter bellows to expand such that the fiber optic pressure sensor may measure the applied pressure.

  18. A flexible continuous-variable QKD system using off-the-shelf components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandar, Lucian C.; Brunner, Hans H.; Bettelli, Stefano; Fung, Fred; Karinou, Fotini; Hillerkuss, David; Mikroulis, Spiros; Wang, Dawei; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Xie, Changsong; Poppe, Andreas; Peev, Momtchil

    2017-10-01

    We present the development of a robust and versatile CV-QKD architecture based on commercially available optical and electronic components. The system uses a pilot tone for phase synchronization with a local oscillator, as well as local feedback loops to mitigate frequency and polarization drifts. Transmit and receive-side digital signal processing is performed fully in software, allowing for rapid protocol reconfiguration. The quantum link is complemented with a software stack for secure-key processing, key storage and encrypted communication. All these features allow for the system to be at the same time a prototype for a future commercial product and a research platform.

  19. Hybrid electronic/optical synchronized chaos communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toomey, J P; Kane, D M; Davidović, A; Huntington, E H

    2009-04-27

    A hybrid electronic/optical system for synchronizing a chaotic receiver to a chaotic transmitter has been demonstrated. The chaotic signal is generated electronically and injected, in addition to a constant bias current, to a semiconductor laser to produce an optical carrier for transmission. The optical chaotic carrier is photodetected to regenerate an electronic signal for synchronization in a matched electronic receiver The system has been successfully used for the transmission and recovery of a chaos masked message that is added to the chaotic optical carrier. Past demonstrations of synchronized chaos based, secure communication systems have used either an electronic chaotic carrier or an optical chaotic carrier (such as the chaotic output of various nonlinear laser systems). This is the first electronic/optical hybrid system to be demonstrated. We call this generation of a chaotic optical carrier by electronic injection.

  20. Non-Hermitian optics in atomic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Ma, Danmeng; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-04-01

    A wide class of non-Hermitian Hamiltonians can possess entirely real eigenvalues when they have parity-time (PT) symmetric potentials. Recently, this family of non-Hermitian systems has attracted considerable attention in diverse areas of physics due to their extraordinary properties, especially in optical systems based on solid-state materials, such as coupled gain-loss waveguides and microcavities. Considering the desired refractive index can be effectively manipulated through atomic coherence, it is important to realize such non-Hermitian optical potentials and further investigate their distinct properties in atomic systems. In this paper, we review the recent theoretical and experimental progress of non-Hermitian optics with coherently prepared multi-level atomic configurations. The realizations of (anti-) PT symmetry with different schemes have extensively demonstrated the special optical properties of non-Hermitian optical systems with atomic coherence.

  1. Optical spring effect in nanoelectromechanical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Feng; Zhou, Guangya; Du, Yu; Chau, Fook Siong; Deng, Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this Letter, we report a hybrid system consisting of nano-optical and nano-mechanical springs, in which the optical spring effect works to adjust the mechanical frequency of a nanoelectromechanical systems resonator. Nano-scale folded beams are fabricated as the mechanical springs and double-coupled one-dimensional photonic crystal cavities are used to pump the “optical spring.” The dynamic characteristics of this hybrid system are measured and analyzed at both low and high input optical powers. This study leads the physical phenomenon of optomechanics in complex nano-opto-electro-mechanical systems (NOEMS) and could benefit the future applications of NOEMS in chip-level communication and sensing

  2. Miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy system using frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Mills, Arthur K; Zhao, Yuan; Jones, David J; Tang, Shuo

    2016-05-01

    We report on a miniature fiber-optic multiphoton microscopy (MPM) system based on a frequency-doubled femtosecond Er-doped fiber laser. The femtosecond pulses from the laser source are delivered to the miniature fiber-optic probe at 1.58 µm wavelength, where a standard single mode fiber is used for delivery without the need of free-space dispersion compensation components. The beam is frequency-doubled inside the probe by a periodically poled MgO:LiNbO3 crystal. Frequency-doubled pulses at 786 nm with a maximum power of 80 mW and a pulsewidth of 150 fs are obtained and applied to excite intrinsic signals from tissues. A MEMS scanner, a miniature objective, and a multimode collection fiber are further used to make the probe compact. The miniature fiber-optic MPM system is highly portable and robust. Ex vivo multiphoton imaging of mammalian skins demonstrates the capability of the system in imaging biological tissues. The results show that the miniature fiber-optic MPM system using frequency-doubled femtosecond fiber laser can potentially bring the MPM imaging for clinical applications.

  3. Fiber Optic Augmented Reality System (FOARS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Innovation: Fiber Optics Augmented Reality System. This system in form of a mobile app interacts real time with the actual FOSS(Fiber Optics Sensing System) data and...

  4. The whispering gallery as an optical component in the X-ray region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howells, M.R.

    1995-08-01

    The whispering gallery phenomenon in acoustics has been known and studied for more than a century, and the same effect has been observed to take place with waves other than sound waves. In this paper we review the theoretical basis and attractive features of the whispering gallery as a soft x-ray optical component and indicate some of its potential applications. We then describe what may be its most unique capability which, in favorable cases, is to provide a way. to manipulate the phase difference between the s and p polarization components and thus to generate circularly or elliptically polarized soft x-rays

  5. Optical Verification Laboratory Demonstration System for High Security Identification Cards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram

    1997-01-01

    Document fraud including unauthorized duplication of identification cards and credit cards is a serious problem facing the government, banks, businesses, and consumers. In addition, counterfeit products such as computer chips, and compact discs, are arriving on our shores in great numbers. With the rapid advances in computers, CCD technology, image processing hardware and software, printers, scanners, and copiers, it is becoming increasingly easy to reproduce pictures, logos, symbols, paper currency, or patterns. These problems have stimulated an interest in research, development and publications in security technology. Some ID cards, credit cards and passports currently use holograms as a security measure to thwart copying. The holograms are inspected by the human eye. In theory, the hologram cannot be reproduced by an unauthorized person using commercially-available optical components; in practice, however, technology has advanced to the point where the holographic image can be acquired from a credit card-photographed or captured with by a CCD camera-and a new hologram synthesized using commercially-available optical components or hologram-producing equipment. Therefore, a pattern that can be read by a conventional light source and a CCD camera can be reproduced. An optical security and anti-copying device that provides significant security improvements over existing security technology was demonstrated. The system can be applied for security verification of credit cards, passports, and other IDs so that they cannot easily be reproduced. We have used a new scheme of complex phase/amplitude patterns that cannot be seen and cannot be copied by an intensity-sensitive detector such as a CCD camera. A random phase mask is bonded to a primary identification pattern which could also be phase encoded. The pattern could be a fingerprint, a picture of a face, or a signature. The proposed optical processing device is designed to identify both the random phase mask and the

  6. Optical design and analysis of carbon dioxide laser fusion systems using interferometry and fast Fourier transform techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.

    1979-01-01

    The optical design and analysis of the LASL carbon dioxide laser fusion systems required the use of techniques that are quite different from the currently used method in conventional optical design problems. The necessity for this is explored and the method that has been successfully used at Los Alamos to understand these systems is discussed with examples. This method involves characterization of the various optical components in their mounts by a Zernike polynomial set and using fast Fourier transform techniques to propagate the beam, taking diffraction and other nonlinear effects that occur in these types of systems into account. The various programs used for analysis are briefly discussed

  7. New optical sensor systems for high-resolution satellite, airborne and terrestrial imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckardt, Andreas; Börner, Anko; Lehmann, Frank

    2007-10-01

    The department of Optical Information Systems (OS) at the Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics of the German Aerospace Center (DLR) has more than 25 years experience with high-resolution imaging technology. The technology changes in the development of detectors, as well as the significant change of the manufacturing accuracy in combination with the engineering research define the next generation of spaceborne sensor systems focusing on Earth observation and remote sensing. The combination of large TDI lines, intelligent synchronization control, fast-readable sensors and new focal-plane concepts open the door to new remote-sensing instruments. This class of instruments is feasible for high-resolution sensor systems regarding geometry and radiometry and their data products like 3D virtual reality. Systemic approaches are essential for such designs of complex sensor systems for dedicated tasks. The system theory of the instrument inside a simulated environment is the beginning of the optimization process for the optical, mechanical and electrical designs. Single modules and the entire system have to be calibrated and verified. Suitable procedures must be defined on component, module and system level for the assembly test and verification process. This kind of development strategy allows the hardware-in-the-loop design. The paper gives an overview about the current activities at DLR in the field of innovative sensor systems for photogrammetric and remote sensing purposes.

  8. Multiplane optical microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongcang; Ota, Sadao; Kim, Jeongmin; Wang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiang

    2017-11-21

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to optical microscopy. In one aspect, an apparatus includes a sample holder, a first objective lens, a plurality of optical components, a second objective lens, and a mirror. The apparatus may directly image a cross-section of a sample oblique to or parallel to the optical axis of the first objective lens, without scanning.

  9. Precision-analog fiber-optic transmission system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stover, G.

    1981-06-01

    This article describes the design, experimental development, and construction of a DC-coupled precision analog fiber optic link. Topics to be covered include overall electrical and mechanical system parameters, basic circuit organization, modulation format, optical system design, optical receiver circuit analysis, and the experimental verification of the major design parameters

  10. Statistical measurement of power spectrum density of large aperture optical component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiancheng; Xu Qiao; Chai Liqun

    2010-01-01

    According to the requirement of ICF, a method based on statistical theory has been proposed to measure the power spectrum density (PSD) of large aperture optical components. The method breaks the large-aperture wavefront into small regions, and obtains the PSD of the large-aperture wavefront by weighted averaging of the PSDs of the regions, where the weight factor is each region's area. Simulation and experiment demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. They also show that, the obtained PSDs of the large-aperture wavefront by statistical method and sub-aperture stitching method fit well, when the number of small regions is no less than 8 x 8. The statistical method is not sensitive to translation stage's errors and environment instabilities, thus it is appropriate for PSD measurement during the process of optical fabrication. (authors)

  11. Aurora laser optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanlon, J.A.; McLeod, J.

    1987-01-01

    Aurora is the Los Alamos short-pulse high-power krypton fluoride laser system. It is primarily an end-to-end technology demonstration prototype for large-scale UV laser systems of interest for short-wavelength inertial confinement fusion (ICF) investigations. The system is designed to employ optical angular multiplexing and aerial amplification by electron-beam-driven KrF laser amplifiers to deliver to ICF targets a stack of pulses with a duration of 5 ns containing several kilojoules at a wavelength of 248 nm. A program of high-energy density plasma physics investigations is now planned, and a sophisticated target chamber was constructed. The authors describe the design of the optical system for Aurora and report its status. This optical system was designed and is being constructed in two phases. The first phase carries only through the amplifier train and does not include a target chamber or any demultiplexing. Installation should be complete, and some performance results should be available. The second phase provides demultiplexing and carries the laser light to target. The complete design is reported

  12. Global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaoyang

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with global existence and blow-up phenomena for two-component Degasperis-Procesi system and two-component b-family system. The strategy relies on our observation on new conservative quantities of these systems. Several new global existence results and a new blowup result of strong solutions to the two-component Degasperis- Procesi system and the two-component b-family system are presented by using these new conservative quantities.

  13. Configuration of electro-optic fire source detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Ram Z.; Steiner, Zeev; Hofman, Nir

    2007-04-01

    The recent fighting activities in various parts of the world have highlighted the need for accurate fire source detection on one hand and fast "sensor to shooter cycle" capabilities on the other. Both needs can be met by the SPOTLITE system which dramatically enhances the capability to rapidly engage hostile fire source with a minimum of casualties to friendly force and to innocent bystanders. Modular system design enable to meet each customer specific requirements and enable excellent future growth and upgrade potential. The design and built of a fire source detection system is governed by sets of requirements issued by the operators. This can be translated into the following design criteria: I) Long range, fast and accurate fire source detection capability. II) Different threat detection and classification capability. III) Threat investigation capability. IV) Fire source data distribution capability (Location, direction, video image, voice). V) Men portability. ) In order to meet these design criteria, an optimized concept was presented and exercised for the SPOTLITE system. Three major modular components were defined: I) Electro Optical Unit -Including FLIR camera, CCD camera, Laser Range Finder and Marker II) Electronic Unit -including system computer and electronic. III) Controller Station Unit - Including the HMI of the system. This article discusses the system's components definition and optimization processes, and also show how SPOTLITE designers successfully managed to introduce excellent solutions for other system parameters.

  14. Metasurface optics for full-color computational imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, Shane; Zhan, Alan; Majumdar, Arka

    2018-02-01

    Conventional imaging systems comprise large and expensive optical components that successively mitigate aberrations. Metasurface optics offers a route to miniaturize imaging systems by replacing bulky components with flat and compact implementations. The diffractive nature of these devices, however, induces severe chromatic aberrations, and current multiwavelength and narrowband achromatic metasurfaces cannot support full visible spectrum imaging (400 to 700 nm). We combine principles of both computational imaging and metasurface optics to build a system with a single metalens of numerical aperture ~0.45, which generates in-focus images under white light illumination. Our metalens exhibits a spectrally invariant point spread function that enables computational reconstruction of captured images with a single digital filter. This work connects computational imaging and metasurface optics and demonstrates the capabilities of combining these disciplines by simultaneously reducing aberrations and downsizing imaging systems using simpler optics.

  15. Hybrid solar collector using nonimaging optics and photovoltaic components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Yablonovitch, Eli; Jiang, Lun; Widyolar, Bennett K.; Abdelhamid, Mahmoud; Scranton, Gregg; Cygan, David; Kozlov, Alexandr

    2015-08-01

    The project team of University of California at Merced (UC-M), Gas Technology Institute, and Dr. Eli Yablonovitch of University of California at Berkeley developed a novel hybrid concentrated solar photovoltaic thermal (PV/T) collector using nonimaging optics and world record single-junction Gallium arsenide (GaAs) PV components integrated with particle laden gas as thermal transfer and storage media, to simultaneously generate electricity and high temperature dispatchable heat. The collector transforms a parabolic trough, commonly used in CSP plants, into an integrated spectrum-splitting device. This places a spectrum-sensitive topping element on a secondary reflector that is registered to the thermal collection loop. The secondary reflector transmits higher energy photons for PV topping while diverting the remaining lower energy photons to the thermal media, achieving temperatures of around 400°C even under partial utilization of the solar spectrum. The collector uses the spectral selectivity property of Gallium arsenide (GaAs) cells to maximize the exergy output of the system, resulting in an estimated exergy efficiency of 48%. The thermal media is composed of fine particles of high melting point material in an inert gas that increases heat transfer and effectively stores excess heat in hot particles for later on-demand use.

  16. Multiple component codes based generalized LDPC codes for high-speed optical transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Ivan B; Wang, Ting

    2014-07-14

    A class of generalized low-density parity-check (GLDPC) codes suitable for optical communications is proposed, which consists of multiple local codes. It is shown that Hamming, BCH, and Reed-Muller codes can be used as local codes, and that the maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) decoding of these local codes by Ashikhmin-Lytsin algorithm is feasible in terms of complexity and performance. We demonstrate that record coding gains can be obtained from properly designed GLDPC codes, derived from multiple component codes. We then show that several recently proposed classes of LDPC codes such as convolutional and spatially-coupled codes can be described using the concept of GLDPC coding, which indicates that the GLDPC coding can be used as a unified platform for advanced FEC enabling ultra-high speed optical transport. The proposed class of GLDPC codes is also suitable for code-rate adaption, to adjust the error correction strength depending on the optical channel conditions.

  17. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan

    2003-01-01

    Some of the most important components required for enabling optical networking are investigated through both experiments and modelling. These all-optical components are the wavelength converter, the regenerator and the space switch. When these devices become "off-the-shelf" products, optical cross......, it is expected that the optical solution will offer an economical benefit for hight bit rate networks. This thesis begins with a discussion of the expected impact on communications systems from the rapidly growing IP traffic, which is expected to become the dominant source for traffic. IP traffic has some...... characteristics, which are best supported by an optical network. The interest for such an optical network is exemplified by the formation of the ACTS OPEN project which aim was to investigate the feasibility of an optical network covering Europe. Part of the work presented in this thesis is carried out within...

  18. 78 FR 77166 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-860] Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Request for Statements on the Public Interest AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY...

  19. Fiber-optic communication systems

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive account of fiber-optic communication systems. The 3rd edition of this book is used worldwide as a textbook in many universities. This 4th edition incorporates recent advances that have occurred, in particular two new chapters. One deals with the advanced modulation formats (such as DPSK, QPSK, and QAM) that are increasingly being used for improving spectral efficiency of WDM lightwave systems. The second chapter focuses on new techniques such as all-optical regeneration that are under development and likely to be used in future communication systems. All othe

  20. Optically selected GRB afterglows, a real time analysis system at the CFHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malacrino, F.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We attempt to detect optical GRB afterglows on images taken by the Canada France Hawaii Telescope for the Very Wide survey, component of the Legacy Survey. To do so, a Real Time Analysis System called Optically Selected GRB Afterglows has been installed on a dedicated computer in Hawaii. This pipeline automatically and quickly analyzes Mega cam images and extracts from them a list of variable objects which is displayed on a web page far validation by a member of the collaboration. The Very Wide survey covers 1200 square degrees down to i 1 = 23.5. This paper briefly explain the RTAS process

  1. Micro-optics for microfluidic analytical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Gijs, Martin A M

    2018-02-19

    This critical review summarizes the developments in the integration of micro-optical elements with microfluidic platforms for facilitating detection and automation of bio-analytical applications. Micro-optical elements, made by a variety of microfabrication techniques, advantageously contribute to the performance of an analytical system, especially when the latter has microfluidic features. Indeed the easy integration of optical control and detection modules with microfluidic technology helps to bridge the gap between the macroscopic world and chip-based analysis, paving the way for automated and high-throughput applications. In our review, we start the discussion with an introduction of microfluidic systems and micro-optical components, as well as aspects of their integration. We continue with a detailed description of different microfluidic and micro-optics technologies and their applications, with an emphasis on the realization of optical waveguides and microlenses. The review continues with specific sections highlighting the advantages of integrated micro-optical components in microfluidic systems for tackling a variety of analytical problems, like cytometry, nucleic acid and protein detection, cell biology, and chemical analysis applications.

  2. Analysis of near-field components of a plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Guiru; Vaillancourt, Jarrod; Lu, Xuejun

    2014-10-20

    In this paper, we analyze near-field vector components of a metallic circular disk array (MCDA) plasmonic optical antenna and their contribution to quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) enhancement. The near-field vector components of the MCDA optical antenna and their distribution in the QD active region are simulated. The near-field overlap integral with the QD active region is calculated at different wavelengths and compared with the QDIP enhancement spectrum. The x-component (E(x)) of the near-field vector shows a larger intensity overlap integral and stronger correlation with the QDIP enhancement than E(z) and thus is determined to be the major near-field component to the QDIP enhancement.

  3. Evolution of optical fibre cabling components at CERN: Performance and technology trends analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaie, Mohammad Amin; Meroli, Stefano; Machado, Simao; Ricci, Daniel

    2018-05-01

    CERN optical fibre infrastructure has been growing constantly over the past decade due to ever increasing connectivity demands. The provisioning plan and fibre installation of this vast laboratory is performed by Fibre Optics and Cabling Section at Engineering Department. In this paper we analyze the procurement data for essential fibre cabling components during a five-year interval to extract the existing trends and anticipate future directions. The analysis predicts high contribution of LC connector and an increasing usage of multi-fibre connectors. It is foreseen that single-mode fibres become the main fibre type for mid and long-range installations while air blowing would be the major installation technique. Performance assessment of various connectors shows that the expanded beam ferrule is favored for emerging on-board optical interconnections thanks to its scalable density and stable return-loss.

  4. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce"3"+ doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Lu, Wei; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-01-01

    A simple strategy of Ce"3"+ doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF_5:Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ (Ln"3"+ = Gd"3"+, Y"3"+, Yb"3"+) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb"3"+/Ho"3"+ composition by doping Ce"3"+, providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce"3"+-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce"3"+, arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce"3"+ and Ho"3"+. UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba"2"+, Gd"3"+, and Ce"3"+ in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce"3"+-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging. (paper)

  5. Multicolor tuning towards single red-emission band of upconversion nanoparticles for tunable optical component and optical/x-ray imaging agents via Ce(3+) doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhigao; Zeng, Tianmei; Xu, Yaru; Lu, Wei; Qian, Chao; Liu, Hongrong; Zeng, Songjun; Hao, Jianhua

    2015-09-25

    A simple strategy of Ce(3+) doping is proposed to realize multicolor tuning and predominant red emission in BaLnF5:Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) (Ln(3+) = Gd(3+), Y(3+), Yb(3+)) systems. A tunable upconversion (UC) multicolor output from green/yellow to red can be readily achieved in a fixed Yb(3+)/Ho(3+) composition by doping Ce(3+), providing an effective route for multicolor tuning widely used for various optical components. Moreover, compared with Ce(3+)-free UC nanoparticles (UCNPs), a remarkable enhancement of the red-to-green (R/G) ratio is observed by doping 30% Ce(3+), arising from the two largely promoted cross-relaxation (CR) processes between Ce(3+) and Ho(3+). UCNPs with pure red emission are selected as in vivo UC bioimaging agents, demonstrating the merits of deep penetration depth, the absence of autofluorescence and high contrast in small animal bioimaging. Moreover, such fluorescence imaging nanoprobes can also be used as contrast agents for three-dimensional (3D) x-ray bioimaging by taking advantage of the high K-edge values and x-ray absorption coefficients of Ba(2+), Gd(3+), and Ce(3+) in our designed nanoprobes. Thus, the simultaneous realization of multicolor output, highly enhanced R/G ratio, and predominant red emission makes the Ce(3+)-doped UCNPs very useful for widespread applications in optical components and bioimaging.

  6. The optical system of the proposed Chinese 12-m optical/infrared telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ding-qiang; Liang, Ming; Yuan, Xiangyan; Bai, Hua; Cui, Xiangqun

    2017-08-01

    The lack of a large-aperture optical/infrared telescope has seriously affected the development of astronomy in China. In 2016, the authors published their concept study and suggestions for a 12-m telescope optical system. This article presents the authors' further research and some new results. Considering that this telescope should be a general-purpose telescope for a wide range of scientific goals and could be used for frontier scientific research in the future, the authors studied and designed a variety of 12-m telescope optical systems for comparison and final decision-making. In general, we still adopt our previous configuration, but the Nasmyth and prime-focus corrector systems have been greatly improved. In this article, the adaptive optics is given special attention. Ground-layer adaptive optics (GLAO) is adopted. It has a 14-arcmin field of view. The secondary mirror is used as the adaptive optical deformable mirror. Obviously, not all the optical systems in this telescope configuration will be used or constructed at the same stage. Some will be for the future and some are meant for research rather than for construction.

  7. Beyond the Alphabet Soup: Molecular Properties of Aerosol Components Influence Optics. (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, J. E.

    2013-12-01

    Components within atmospheric aerosols exhibit almost every imaginable model of chemical bonding and physical diversity. The materials run the spectrum from crystalline to amorphous, covalent to ionic, and have varying viscosities, phase, and hygroscopicity. This seminar will focus on the molecular properties of materials that influence the optical behavior of aerosols. Special focus will be placed on the polarizability of materials, hygroscopic growth, and particle phase.

  8. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene monolayer system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@126.com [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Sun, Zhaoyu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Ding, Chunling [School of Physics and Electronics, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yu, Rong [School of Science, Hubei Province Key Laboratory of Intelligent Robot, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-02-15

    We theoretically investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) in a graphene monolayer system driven by an elliptically polarized control field and a right-hand circularly polarized probe field. Our numerical results show that it is easy to realize the transition from OB to OM or vice versa by adjusting the frequency detunings of the probe field and the control field, as well as the polarization-dependent phase difference between the two components of the control laser field. The influences of the intensity of the control field and the cooperation parameter on the OB behavior are also discussed in detail. These results may provide some new possibilities for technological applications in optoelectronics and solid-state quantum information science.

  9. Radiation effects on optical components of a laser radar sensor designed for remote metrology in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Grann, E.B.; Slotwinski, A.

    1997-09-01

    A frequency modulated laser radar is being developed for in-vessel metrology and viewing of plasma-facing surfaces. Some optical components of this sensor must withstand intense gamma radiation (3 x 10 6 rad/h) during operation. The authors have tested the effect of radiation on a silica core polarization maintaining optical fiber and on TeO 2 crystals at doses up to ∼ 10 9 rad. Additional tests are planned for evaluating the performance of a complete acousto-optic (AO) scanning device. The progress made in these tests is also described

  10. Laser-Induced Damage Growth on Larger-Aperture Fused Silica Optical Components at 351 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan-Qing, Huang; Wei, Han; Fang, Wang; Yong, Xiang; Fu-Quan, Li; Bin, Feng; Feng, Jing; Xiao-Feng, Wei; Wan-Guo, Zheng; Xiao-Min, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Laser-induced damage is a key lifetime limiter for optics in high-power laser facility. Damage initiation and growth under 351 nm high-fluence laser irradiation are observed on larger-aperture fused silica optics. The input surface of one fused silica component is damaged most severely and an explanation is presented. Obscurations and the area of a scratch on it are found to grow exponentially with the shot number. The area of damage site grows linearly. Micrographs of damage sites support the micro-explosion damage model which could be used to qualitatively explain the phenomena

  11. An inexpensive optical sensor system for monitoring total suspended solids in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sami Gumaan Daraigan; Mohd Zubir Matjafri; Khiruddin Abdullah; Azlan Abdul Aziz; Abdul Aziz Tajuddin; Mohd Firdaus Othman

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to design and develop an optical transsmissometer sensor for measuring total suspended solids TSS concentrations in water samples. The proposed optical sensor has the advantages of being relatively inexpensive, and easy to make and operate. An optical algorithm has been developed and used for the measurement of total suspended solids concentrations. The developed optical sensor components include light emitting diodes LEDs that are used for measuring transmitted light. The concentrations of total suspended solids TSS are determined from transmitted light through the water samples. The transmitted light is measured in terms of the output voltage of the photodetector of the sensor system. The readings are measured using a digital multimeter. The results indicate that the level of the photocurrent is linearly proportional to the total suspended solids concentration. The proposed algorithm produces a high correlation coefficient and low root mean square error. (Author)

  12. The Connective Tissue Components of Optic Nerve Head Cupping in Monkey Experimental Glaucoma Part 1: Global Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongli; Ren, Ruojin; Lockwood, Howard; Williams, Galen; Libertiaux, Vincent; Downs, Crawford; Gardiner, Stuart K.; Burgoyne, Claude F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To characterize optic nerve head (ONH) connective tissue change within 21 monkey experimental glaucoma (EG) eyes, so as to identify its principal components. Methods Animals were imaged three to five times at baseline then every 2 weeks following chronic unilateral IOP elevation, and euthanized early through end-stage confocal scanning laser tomographic change. Optic nerve heads were serial-sectioned, three-dimensionally (3D) reconstructed, delineated, and quantified. Overall EG versus control eye differences were assessed by general estimating equations (GEE). Significant, animal-specific, EG eye change was required to exceed the maximum physiologic intereye differences in six healthy animals. Results Overall EG eye change was significant (P connective tissue components of ONH “cupping” in monkey EG which serve as targets for longitudinally staging and phenotyping ONH connective tissue alteration within all forms of monkey and human optic neuropathy. PMID:26641545

  13. Interferogram reduction and interpretation as applied to the optical analysis of the 10 kJ LASL laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hall, W.S.; Liberman, I.; Lawrence, G.

    1978-01-01

    The LASL 10 kJ Eight-Beam CO 2 Laser Fusion System, currently under construction, has approximately one hundred optical elements per beam. The nominal system is diffraction limited and degradations in performance are primarily caused by imperfect components as well as alignment errors. Consequently, analysis and predictions for the system are very much dependent on the proper description of the imperfect components. The approach taken at LASL has been to characterize the components interferometrically. Interferograms of the various components are made at the 633 nm He--Ne wavelength. Detailed results of the analysis for one complete leg of the eight-beam system is presented

  14. Opto-mechanical design and gravity-deformation analysis on optical telescope in laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sen; Du, Jindan; Song, Yiwei; Gao, Tianyu; Zhang, Daqing; Wang, Yongzhi

    2017-11-01

    In space laser communication, optical antennas are one of the main components and the precision of optical antennas is very high. In this paper, it is based on the R-C telescope and it is carried out that the design and simulation of optical lens and supporting truss, according to the parameters of the systems. And a finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the deformation of the optical lens. Finally, the Zernike polynomial was introduced to fit the primary mirror with a diameter of 250mm. The objective of this study is to determine whether the wave-front aberration of the primary mirror can meet the imaging quality. The results show that the deterioration of the imaging quality caused by the gravity deformation of primary and secondary mirrors. At the same time, the optical deviation of optical antenna increase with the diameter of the pupil.

  15. Self-imaging in first-order optical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Guota, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar

    1998-01-01

    The structure and main properties of coherent and partially coherent optical fields that are self-reproducible under propagation through a first-order optical system are investigated. A phase space description of self-imaging in first-order optical systems is presented. The Wigner distribution

  16. Optics elements for modeling electrostatic lenses and accelerator components: III. Electrostatic deflectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.A.; Gillespie, G.H.

    2000-01-01

    Ion-beam optics models for simulating electrostatic prisms (deflectors) of different geometries have been developed for the envelope (matrix) computer code TRACE 3-D as a part of the development of a suite of electrostatic beamline element models which includes lenses, acceleration columns, quadrupoles and prisms. The models for electrostatic prisms are described in this paper. The electrostatic prism model options allow the first-order modeling of cylindrical, spherical and toroidal electrostatic deflectors. The application of these models in the development of ion-beam transport systems is illustrated through the modeling of a spherical electrostatic analyzer as a component of the new low-energy beamline at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Although initial tests following installation of the new beamline showed that the new spherical electrostatic analyzer was not behaving as predicted by these first-order models, operational conditions were found under which the analyzer now works properly as a double-focusing spherical electrostatic prism

  17. Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT) II: component systems update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Brian A.; Bolcar, Matthew R.; Helmbrecht, Michael A.; Petrone, Peter; Burke, Elliot; Corsetti, James; Dillon, Thomas; Lea, Andrew; Pellicori, Samuel; Sheets, Teresa; Shiri, Ron; Agolli, Jack; DeVries, John; Eberhardt, Andrew; McCabe, Tyler

    2017-09-01

    This work presents updates to the coronagraph and telescope components of the Segmented Aperture Interferometric Nulling Testbed (SAINT). The project pairs an actively-controlled macro-scale segmented mirror with the Visible Nulling Coronagraph (VNC) towards demonstrating capabilities for the future space observatories needed to directly detect and characterize a significant sample of Earth-sized worlds around nearby stars in the quest for identifying those which may be habitable and possibly harbor life. Efforts to improve the VNC wavefront control optics and mechanisms towards repeating narrowband results are described. A narrative is provided for the design of new optical components aimed at enabling broadband performance. Initial work with the hardware and software interface for controlling the segmented telescope mirror is also presented.

  18. Refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity at 3-4 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Li-Juan; Yin, Zheng-Qin; Ke, Ning; Chen, Xin-Ke; Liu, Qin; Fang, Jing; Chen, Lin; Chen, Xiu-Rong; Shi, Hui; Tang, Ling; Pi, Lian-Hong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the refractive status and optical components of premature babies with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) at 3-4 years old, and to explore the influence of prematurity and ROP on the refractive status and optical components. Premature babies receiving fundus examination were recruited into ROP group and non-ROP group, with age-matched full-term babies as controls. The incidence of myopia was the highest in ROP (3/59, 5.08%). The incidence of astigmatism was significantly different between ROP (37.29%, 22/59) and controls (17.86%, 15/84). The corneal refractive power in ROP and non-ROP was more potent compared with controls (PPremature babies with or without ROP are susceptible to myopia and astigmatism. ROP, prematurity and low birth-weight synergistically influence the development of refractive status and optical components, of which the prematurity and low birth-weight are more important.

  19. Packaging-induced failure of semiconductor lasers and optical telecommunications components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharps, J.A. [Corning Inc., NY (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Telecommunications equipment for field deployment generally have specified lifetimes of > 100,000 hr. To achieve this high reliability, it is common practice to package sensitive components in hermetic, inert gas environments. The intent is to protect components from particulate and organic contamination, oxidation, and moisture. However, for high power density 980 nm diode lasers used in optical amplifiers, the authors found that hermetic, inert gas packaging induced a failure mode not observed in similar, unpackaged lasers. They refer to this failure mode as packaging-induced failure, or PIF. PIF is caused by nanomole amounts of organic contamination which interact with high intensity 980 nm light to form solid deposits over the emitting regions of the lasers. These deposits absorb 980 nm light, causing heating of the laser, narrowing of the band gap, and eventual thermal runaway. The authors have found PIF is averted by packaging with free O{sub 2} and/or a getter material that sequesters organics.

  20. Optical Biosensor with Multienzyme System Immobilized onto Hybrid Membrane for Pesticides Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyubov Yotova

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A construction of optical biosensor based on simultaneous immobilization of acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase enzymes for the detection of pesticides residues is described. Different kinds of novel SiO2 hybrid membranes were synthesized to be suitable for optical biosensors using sol-gel techniques. The bioactive component of the sensor consists of a multi-enzyme system including acetylcholinesterase and choline oxidase covalently immobilized on new hybrid membranes. The sensor exhibited a linear response to acetylcholine in a concentration range of 2.5 - 30 mM. Inhibition plots obtained from testing carbamate (carbofuran pesticides exhibited concentration dependent behaviour and showed linear profiles in concentration ranges between 5x10-8 - 5x10-7 M for carbofuran. The factors affecting the constructed optical biosensors were investigated.

  1. Optical design of the adaptive optics laser guide star system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bissinger, H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The design of an adaptive optics package for the 3 meter Lick telescope is presented. This instrument package includes a 69 actuator deformable mirror and a Hartmann type wavefront sensor operating in the visible wavelength; a quadrant detector for the tip-tile sensor and a tip-tilt mirror to stabilize atmospheric first order tip-tile errors. A high speed computer drives the deformable mirror to achieve near diffraction limited imagery. The different optical components and their individual design constraints are described. motorized stages and diagnostics tools are used to operate and maintain alignment throughout observation time from a remote control room. The expected performance are summarized and actual results of astronomical sources are presented.

  2. Applications of fiber optics in physical protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckle, T.H.

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of this NUREG is to provide technical information useful for the development of fiber-optic communications and intrusion detection subsystems relevant to physical protection. There are major sections on fiber-optic technology and applications. Other topics include fiber-optic system components and systems engineering. This document also contains a glossary, a list of standards and specifications, and a list of fiber-optic equipment vendors

  3. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limitedshort-wavelength optical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman,Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli,Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-08-03

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-{angstrom} and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date.

  4. Discovery Channel Telescope active optics system early integration and test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venetiou, Alexander J.; Bida, Thomas A.

    2012-09-01

    The Discovery Channel Telescope (DCT) is a 4.3-meter telescope with a thin meniscus primary mirror (M1) and a honeycomb secondary mirror (M2). The optical design is an f/6.1 Ritchey-Chrétien (RC) with an unvignetted 0.5° Field of View (FoV) at the Cassegrain focus. We describe the design, implementation and performance of the DCT active optics system (AOS). The DCT AOS maintains collimation and controls the figure of the mirror to provide seeing-limited images across the focal plane. To minimize observing overhead, rapid settling times are achieved using a combination of feed-forward and low-bandwidth feedback control using a wavefront sensing system. In 2011, we mounted a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor at the prime focus of M1, the Prime Focus Test Assembly (PFTA), to test the AOS with the wavefront sensor, and the feedback loop. The incoming wavefront is decomposed using Zernike polynomials, and the mirror figure is corrected with a set of bending modes. Components of the system that we tested and tuned included the Zernike to Bending Mode transformations. We also started open-loop feed-forward coefficients determination. In early 2012, the PFTA was replaced by M2, and the wavefront sensor moved to its normal location on the Cassegrain instrument assembly. We present early open loop wavefront test results with the full optical system and instrument cube, along with refinements to the overall control loop operating at RC Cassegrain focus.

  5. Optically coupled CAMAC analog input output system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Katsuzo; Kanazawa, Shuhei; Minehara, Eisuke; Hanashima, Susumu

    1985-08-01

    In an accelerator system, especially in ion sources, signals are exchanged between devices at different potentials. We have four ion sources in the negative ion injector for the JAERI tandem accelerator. Voltage to frequency conversion technic and optical fiber were used in the previous system. When we intended to extend the injector, we decided to revise the system to improve accuracy and reliability. For the purpose, we developed a new CAMAC module. It is an interface device between CAMAC dataway and optical fiber. The module has frequency synthesizers, frequency counters, optical transmitters and optical receivers in it. Accuracy, reliability and maintenability of the system were greatly improved by the module. (author)

  6. Optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukcelebi, Doruk

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the optical design of an athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical system in MWIR (3.7μm - 4.8μm) is described. The dual field of view infrared optical system is designed based on the principle of passive athermalization method not only to achieve athermal optical system but also to keep the high image quality within the working temperature between -40°C and +60°C. The infrared optical system used in this study had a 320 pixel x 256 pixel resolution, 20μm pixel pitch size cooled MWIR focal plane array detector. In this study, the step zoom mechanism, which has the axial motion due to consisting of a lens group, is considered to simplify mechanical structure. The optical design was based on moving a single lens along the optical axis for changing the optical system's field of view not only to reduce the number of moving parts but also to athermalize for the optical system. The optical design began with an optimization process using paraxial optics when first-order optics parameters are determined. During the optimization process, in order to reduce aberrations, such as coma, astigmatism, spherical and chromatic aberrations, aspherical surfaces were used. As a result, athermalised dual field of view step zoom optical design is proposed and the performance of the design using proposed method was verified by providing the focus shifts, spot diagrams and MTF analyzes' plots.

  7. New dynamic silicon photonic components enabled by MEMS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errando-Herranz, Carlos; Edinger, Pierre; Colangelo, Marco; Björk, Joel; Ahmed, Samy; Stemme, Göran; Niklaus, Frank; Gylfason, Kristinn B.

    2018-02-01

    Silicon photonics is the study and application of integrated optical systems which use silicon as an optical medium, usually by confining light in optical waveguides etched into the surface of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) wafers. The term microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) refers to the technology of mechanics on the microscale actuated by electrostatic actuators. Due to the low power requirements of electrostatic actuation, MEMS components are very power efficient, making them well suited for dense integration and mobile operation. MEMS components are conventionally also implemented in silicon, and MEMS sensors such as accelerometers, gyros, and microphones are now standard in every smartphone. By combining these two successful technologies, new active photonic components with extremely low power consumption can be made. We discuss our recent experimental work on tunable filters, tunable fiber-to-chip couplers, and dynamic waveguide dispersion tuning, enabled by the marriage of silicon MEMS and silicon photonics.

  8. Optimized systems for energy efficient optical tweezing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kampmann, R.; Kleindienst, R.; Grewe, A.; Bürger, Elisabeth; Oeder, A.; Sinzinger, S.

    2013-03-01

    Compared to conventional optics like singlet lenses or even microscope objectives advanced optical designs help to develop properties specifically useful for efficient optical tweezers. We present an optical setup providing a customized intensity distribution optimized with respect to large trapping forces. The optical design concept combines a refractive double axicon with a reflective parabolic focusing mirror. The axicon arrangement creates an annular field distribution and thus clears space for additional integrated observation optics in the center of the system. Finally the beam is focused to the desired intensity distribution by a parabolic ring mirror. The compact realization of the system potentially opens new fields of applications for optical tweezers such as in production industries and micro-nano assembly.

  9. Automatic design of optical systems by digital computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casad, T. A.; Schmidt, L. F.

    1967-01-01

    Computer program uses geometrical optical techniques and a least squares optimization method employing computing equipment for the automatic design of optical systems. It evaluates changes in various optical parameters, provides comprehensive ray-tracing, and generally determines the acceptability of the optical system characteristics.

  10. System for testing optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, John E. [Olathe, KS; Looney, Larry D. [Los Alamos, NM; Lyons, Peter B. [Los Alamos, NM; Nelson, Melvin A. [Santa Barbara, CA; Davies, Terence J. [Santa Barbara, CA

    1980-07-15

    A system for measuring a combination of optical transmission properties of fiber optic waveguides. A polarized light pulse probe is injected into one end of the optical fiber. Reflections from discontinuities within the fiber are unpolarized whereas reflections of the probe pulse incident to its injection remain polarized. The polarized reflections are prevented from reaching a light detector whereas reflections from the discontinuities reaches the detector.

  11. Ultralow power all-optical switch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, H.; Grange, T.; Reznychenko, B.

    2017-01-01

    Optical logic down to the single photon level holds the promise of data processing with a better energy efficiency than electronic devices [1]. In addition, preservation of quantum coherence in such logical components could lead to optical quantum logical gates [2--4]. Optical logic requires......-level systems coupled to light via a tailored photonic environment [8--13]. However optical logic requires two-mode non-linearities [14, 15]. Here we take advantage of the large coupling efficiency and the broadband operation of a photonic wire containing a semiconductor quantum dot (QD) [16] to implement...... an all-optical logical component, wherein as few as 10 photons per QD lifetime in one mode control the reflectivity of another, spectrally distinct, mode. Whether classical or quantum, optical communication has proven to be the best choice for long distance information distribution. All-optical data...

  12. Optimisation of optical receiver for 10 Gbit/s optical duobinary transmission system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Xueyan; Liu, Fenghai; Jeppesen, Palle

    2001-01-01

    Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified.......Optimisation of a receiver for an optical duobinary signal is studied numerically. It is shown that a conventional receiver is not optimum neither when a DCF is used before the receiver nor without a DCF being used. The optimum receiver for an optical duobinary system is identified....

  13. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  14. Tunable all-optical photonic crystal channel drop filter for DWDM systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibiyan, H.; Ghafoori-Fard, H.; Rostami, A.

    2009-06-01

    In this paper we propose a tunable channel drop filter in a two-dimensional photonic crystal, based on coupled-cavity waveguides with alternating small and large defects and an electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon. By utilizing this phenomenon a narrower linewidth is obtained and also the frequency of the dropped signal becomes tunable. Simulation results show that the proposed filter is suitable for dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) systems with 0.8 nm channel spacing. Using this novel component, two ultrasmall eight-channel double-sided and single-sided demultiplexers are introduced. The properties of these devices are investigated using the finite-difference time-domain method. For the single-sided device, transmission loss is 1.5 ± 0.5 dB, the cross-talk level between adjacent channels is better than -18 dB and the average 3 dB optical passband is 0.36 nm. Using planar silicon-on-insulator technology, the physical area for the single-sided component is 700 µm2 and for the double-sided component is 575 µm2. To the best of our knowledge, these are the smallest all-optical demultiplexers with this spectral resolution reported to date. Malfunction of the proposed device due to fabrication errors is modeled and its tunable characteristic is demonstrated.

  15. Component Reification in Systems Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendisposto, Jens; Hallerstede, Stefan

    When modelling concurrent or distributed systems in Event-B, we often obtain models where the structure of the connected components is specified by constants. Their behaviour is specified by the non-deterministic choice of event parameters for events that operate on shared variables. From a certain......? These components may still refer to shared variables. Events of these components should not refer to the constants specifying the structure. The non-deterministic choice between these components should not be via parameters. We say the components are reified. We need to address how the reified components get...... reflected into the original model. This reflection should indicate the constraints on how to connect the components....

  16. Optical readout in a multi-module system test for the ATLAS pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flick, Tobias; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Gerlach, Peter; Kersten, Susanne; Maettig, Peter; Nderitu Kirichu, Simon; Reeves, Kendall; Richter, Jennifer; Schultes, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    The innermost part of the ATLAS experiment at the LHC, CERN, will be a pixel detector, which is presently under construction. The command messages and the readout data of the detector are transmitted over an optical data path. The readout chain consists of many components which are produced at several locations around the world, and must work together in the pixel detector. To verify that these parts are working together as expected a system test has been built up. It consists of detector modules, optoboards, optical fibres, Back of Crate cards, Readout Drivers, and control computers. In this paper, the system test setup and the operation of the readout chain are described. Also, some results of tests using the final pixel detector readout chain are given

  17. VPIsystems industry training program on computer-aided design of fiber optic communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Andre; Chan, David K. C.

    2002-05-01

    In industry today, professional Photonic Design Automation (PDA) tools are a necessity to enable fast development cycles for the design of optical components, systems and networks. The training of industrial personnel is of great importance in facilitating the full usability of PDA tools tailored to meet these demands. As the market leader of design and planning tools for system integrators and manufacturers of optical transmission systems and components, VPIsystems offers a set of two-day training courses. Attendees are taught on the design of metro WDM networks, high speed DWDM and ultra long-haul WDM systems, analogue and digital cable access systems, EDFA and Raman amplifiers, as well as active devices and circuits. The course work compromises of: (1) lectures on physical and modeling background topics; (2) creation of typical simulation scenarios and; (3) the analysis of results. This course work is facilitated by guided, hands-on lab exercises using VPIsystems software for a variety of practical design situations. In classes of up to 15, each attendee is allocated a computer, thereby allowing for a thorough and speedy training for the individual in all of the covered topics as well as for any extra-curriculum topics to be covered. Since 1999, more than 750 people have graduated from over 60 training courses. In this paper, details of VPIsystems Industry training program will be presented.

  18. Interchip link system using an optical wiring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Kui; Ryu, Jin-Hwa; Jeong, Myung-Yung

    2008-08-15

    A chip-scale optical link system is presented with a transmitter/receiver and optical wire link. The interchip link system consists of a metal optical bench, a printed circuit board module, a driver/receiver integrated circuit, a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser/photodiode array, and an optical wire link composed of plastic optical fibers (POFs). We have developed a downsized POF and an optical wiring method that allows on-site installation with a simple annealing as optical wiring technologies for achieving high-density optical interchip interconnection within such devices. Successful data transfer measurements are presented.

  19. Designing generalized conic concentrators for conventional optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichhorn, W. L.

    1985-01-01

    Generalized nonimaging concentrators can be incorporated into conventional optical systems in situations where flux concentration rather than imaging is required. The parameters of the concentrator for maximum flux concentration depend on the design of the particular optical system under consideration. Rationale for determining the concentrator parameters is given for one particular optical system and the procedure used for calculation of these parameters is outlined. The calculations are done for three concentrators applicable to the optical system.

  20. Research on Retro-reflecting Modulation in Space Optical Communication System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yifeng; Wang, Guannan

    2018-01-01

    Retro-reflecting modulation space optical communication is a new type of free space optical communication technology. Unlike traditional free space optical communication system, it applys asymmetric optical systems to reduce the size, weight and power consumption of the system and can effectively solve the limits of traditional free space optical communication system application, so it can achieve the information transmission. This paper introduces the composition and working principle of retro-reflecting modulation optical communication system, analyzes the link budget of this system, reviews the types of optical system and optical modulator, summarizes this technology future research direction and application prospects.

  1. Microcomputer-based real-time optical signal processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, F. T. S.; Cao, M. F.; Ludman, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    A microcomputer-based real-time programmable optical signal processing system utilizing a Magneto-Optic Spatial Light Modulator (MOSLM) and a Liquid Crystal Light Valve (LCLV) is described. This system can perform a myriad of complicated optical operations, such as image correlation, image subtraction, matrix multiplication and many others. The important assets of this proposed system must be the programmability and the capability of real-time addressing. The design specification and the progress toward practical implementation of this proposed system are discussed. Some preliminary experimental demonstrations are conducted. The feasible applications of this proposed system to image correlation for optical pattern recognition, image subtraction for IC chip inspection and matrix multiplication for optical computing are demonstrated.

  2. All-optical virtual private network and ONUs communication in optical OFDM-based PON system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chongfu; Huang, Jian; Chen, Chen; Qiu, Kun

    2011-11-21

    We propose and demonstrate a novel scheme, which enables all-optical virtual private network (VPN) and all-optical optical network units (ONUs) inter-communications in optical orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing-based passive optical network (OFDM-PON) system using the subcarrier bands allocation for the first time (to our knowledge). We consider the intra-VPN and inter-VPN communications which correspond to two different cases: VPN communication among ONUs in one group and in different groups. The proposed scheme can provide the enhanced security and a more flexible configuration for VPN users compared to the VPN in WDM-PON or TDM-PON systems. The all-optical VPN and inter-ONU communications at 10-Gbit/s with 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (16 QAM) for the proposed optical OFDM-PON system are demonstrated. These results verify that the proposed scheme is feasible. © 2011 Optical Society of America

  3. Development Of The Drexler Optical-Card Reader/Writer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Gerald A.

    1988-06-01

    An optical-card reader/writer optical and electronic breadboard system, developed by SRI International under contract to Drexler Technology, is described. The optical card, which is the same size as a credit card, can contain more than 2 megabytes of digital user data, which may also include preformatted tracking information and preformatted data. The data layout on the card is similar to that on a floppy disk, with each track containing a header and clocking information. The design of this optical reader/writer system for optical cards is explained. Design of the optical card system entails a number of unique issues: To accommodate both laser-recorded and mass-duplicated information, the system must be compatible with preencoded information, which implies a larger-than-normal spot size (5 gm) and a detection system that can read both types of optical patterns. Cost-reduction considerations led to selection of a birefringent protection layer, which dictated a nonstandard optical system. The non-polarization-sensitive optics use an off-axis approach to detection. An LED illumination system makes it possible to read multiple tracks.

  4. Evaluations of fiber optic sensors for interior applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandoval, M.W.; Malone, T.P.

    1996-02-01

    This report addresses the testing and evaluation of commercial fiber optic intrusion detection systems in interior applications. The applications include laying optical fiber cable above suspended ceilings to detect removal of ceiling tiles, embedding optical fibers inside a tamper or item monitoring blanket that could be placed over an asset, and installing optical fibers on a door to detect movement or penetration. Detection capability of the fiber optic sensors as well as nuisance and false alarm information were focused on during the evaluation. Fiber optic sensor processing, system components, and system setup are described.

  5. Ultra-high accuracy optical testing: creating diffraction-limited short-wavelength optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Naulleau, Patrick P.; Rekawa, Senajith B.; Denham, Paul E.; Liddle, J. Alexander; Gullikson, Eric M.; Jackson, KeithH.; Anderson, Erik H.; Taylor, John S.; Sommargren, Gary E.; Chapman, Henry N.; Phillion, Donald W.; Johnson, Michael; Barty, Anton; Soufli, Regina; Spiller, Eberhard A.; Walton, Christopher C.; Bajt, Sasa

    2005-01-01

    Since 1993, research in the fabrication of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) optical imaging systems, conducted at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), has produced the highest resolution optical systems ever made. We have pioneered the development of ultra-high-accuracy optical testing and alignment methods, working at extreme ultraviolet wavelengths, and pushing wavefront-measuring interferometry into the 2-20-nm wavelength range (60-600 eV). These coherent measurement techniques, including lateral shearing interferometry and phase-shifting point-diffraction interferometry (PS/PDI) have achieved RMS wavefront measurement accuracies of 0.5-1-(angstrom) and better for primary aberration terms, enabling the creation of diffraction-limited EUV optics. The measurement accuracy is established using careful null-testing procedures, and has been verified repeatedly through high-resolution imaging. We believe these methods are broadly applicable to the advancement of short-wavelength optical systems including space telescopes, microscope objectives, projection lenses, synchrotron beamline optics, diffractive and holographic optics, and more. Measurements have been performed on a tunable undulator beamline at LBNL's Advanced Light Source (ALS), optimized for high coherent flux; although many of these techniques should be adaptable to alternative ultraviolet, EUV, and soft x-ray light sources. To date, we have measured nine prototype all-reflective EUV optical systems with NA values between 0.08 and 0.30 (f/6.25 to f/1.67). These projection-imaging lenses were created for the semiconductor industry's advanced research in EUV photolithography, a technology slated for introduction in 2009-13. This paper reviews the methods used and our program's accomplishments to date

  6. Digital Components in Swedish NPP Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlsson, Mattias; Eriksson, Tage

    2015-01-01

    Swedish nuclear power plants have over the last 20 years of operation modernised or exchanged several systems and components of the electrical power system. Within these works, new components based on digital technology have been employed in order to realize functionality that was previously achieved by using electro-mechanical or analogue technology. Components and systems such as relay protection, rectifiers, inverters, variable speed drives and diesel-generator sets are today equipped with digital components. Several of the systems and components fulfil functions with a safety-role in the NPP. Recently, however, a number of incidents have occurred which highlight deficiencies in the design or HMI of the equipment, which warrants questions whether there are generic problems with some applications of digital components that needs to be addressed. The use of digital components has presented cost effective solutions, or even the only available solution on the market enabling a modernisation. The vast majority of systems using digital components have been operating without problems and often contribute to improved safety but the challenge of non-detectable, or non-identifiable, failure modes remain. In this paper, the extent to which digital components are used in Swedish NPP power systems will be presented including a description of typical applications. Based on data from maintenance records and fault reports, as well as interviews with designers and maintenance personnel, the main areas where problems have been encountered and where possible risks have been identified will be described. The paper intends to investigate any 'tell-tales' that could give signals of unwanted behaviour. Furthermore, particular benefits experienced by using digital components will be highlighted. The paper will also discuss the safety relevance of these findings and suggest measures to improve safety in the application of digital components in power systems. (authors)

  7. Optical Character Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Converso, L.; Hocek, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes computer-based optical character recognition (OCR) systems, focusing on their components (the computer, the scanner, the OCR, and the output device); how the systems work; and features to consider in selecting a system. A list of 26 questions to ask to evaluate systems for potential purchase is included. (JDD)

  8. Calculating the shrapnel generation and subsequent damage to first wall and optics components for the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokheim, R.E.; Seaman, L.; Cooper, T.; Lew, B.; Curran, D.R.; Sanchez, J.; Anderson, A.; Tobin, M.

    1996-01-01

    This study computationally assesses the threat from shrapnel generation on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) first wall, final optics, and ultimately other target chamber components. Motion of the shrapnel is determined both by particle velocities resulting from the neutron deposition and by x-ray and ionic debris loading arising from explosion of the hohlraum. Material responses of different target area components are computed from one-dimensional and two-dimensional stress wave propagation codes. Well developed rate-dependent spall computational models are used for stainless steel spall and splitting. Severe cell distortion is accounted for in shine-shield and hohlraum-loading computations. Resulting distributions of shrapnel particles are traced to the first wall and optics and damage is estimated for candidate materials. First wall and optical material damage from shrapnel includes crater formation and associated extended cracking. 5 refs., 10 figs

  9. Optical performance of the Gemini carbon dioxide laser fusion system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viswanathan, V.K.; Hayden, J.J.; Liberman, I.

    1979-01-01

    The performance of the Gemini two beam carbon dioxide laser fusion system was recently upgraded by installation of optical components with improved quality in the final amplifier. A theoretical analysis was conducted in conjunction with measurements of the new performance. The analysis and experimental procedures, and results obtained are reported and compared. Good agreement was found which was within the uncertainties of the analysis and the inaccuracies of the experiments. The focal spot Strehl ratio was between 0.24 and 0.3 for both beams

  10. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length......We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... is usually related to the non-equal two-body systems. We account for temperature smearing which tends to wipe out the higher-lying Efimov peaks. The range and the strength of the imaginary potential determine positions and shapes of the Efimov peaks as well as the absolute value of the recombination rate...

  11. Space optical materials and space qualification of optics; Proceedings of the Meeting, Orlando, FL, Mar. 30, 31, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert R.

    1989-10-01

    The present conference on space optical materials discusses current metals and nonmetals-related processing R&D efforts, investigations of space optical effects, and the spaceborne qualification of optical components and systems. Attention is given to CVD SiC for optical applications, optical materials for space-based lasers, the high-efficiency acoustooptic and optoelectronic crystalline material Tl3AsSe3, HIPed Be for low-scatter cryogenic optics, durable solar-reflective surfacing for Be optics, thermal effects on Be mirrors, contamination effects on optical surfaces in the monolayer regime, and IR background signature survey experiment results. Also discussed are the contamination-control program for the EUE instrument, an optical multipass radiation system for the heating of levitated samples, optical sample-position sensing for electrostatic levitation, and the qualification of space lighting systems.

  12. Optical transfection using an endoscope-like system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Nan; Gunn-Moore, Frank; Dholakia, Kishan

    2011-02-01

    Optical transfection is a powerful method for targeted delivery of therapeutic agents to biological cells. A tightly focused pulsed laser beam may transiently change the permeability of a cell membrane to facilitate the delivery of foreign genetic material into cells. We report the first realization of an endoscope-like integrated system for optical transfection. An imaging fiber (coherent optical fiber bundle) with ∼ 6000 cores (pixels) embedded in a fiber cladding of ∼ 300 μm in diameter, produces an image circle (area) of ∼ 270 μm diam. This imaging fiber, with an ordered axicon lens array chemically etched at its exit face, is used for the delivery of a femtosecond laser to the cell membrane for optical transfection along with subcellular resolution imaging. A microcapillary-based microfluidic system for localized drug delivery was also combined in this miniature, flexible system. Using this novel system, a plasmid transfection efficiency up to ∼ 72% was obtained for CHO-K1 cells. This endoscope-like system opens a range of exciting applications, in particular, in the targeted in vivo optical microsurgery area.

  13. Standards development for fiber optic spectroscopic components for adverse environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggese, Steven J.; Greenwell, Roger A.

    1994-09-01

    Optical fiber sensors are finding wider use in all types of applications involving adverse environments, including exposure to radiation. In order to effectively characterize and evaluate the performance of a fiber sensor system for a radiation environment, such as within a nuclear power plant or in a radioactive waste storage/disposal facility, it is beneficial to develop standard test procedures. Science & Engineering Associates (SEA) has developed two such procedures for the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) which address the testing of optical fibers for remote Raman spectroscopic and broadband sensor applications in a steady state radiation environment.

  14. A radiometric model of an earth radiation budget radiometer optical system with diffuse-specular surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luther, M. R.

    1981-01-01

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) is to fly on NASA's Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) and on NOAA F and NOAA G. Large spatial scale earth energy budget data will be derived primarily from measurements made by the ERBE nonscanning instrument (ERBE-NS). A description is given of a mathematical model capable of simulating the radiometric response of any of the ERBE-NS earth viewing channels. The model uses a Monte Carlo method to accurately account for directional distributions of emission and reflection from optical surfaces which are neither strictly diffuse nor strictly specular. The model computes radiation exchange factors among optical system components, and determines the distribution in the optical system of energy from an outside source. Attention is also given to an approach for implementing the model and results obtained from the implementation.

  15. Fault detection of flywheel system based on clustering and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Rixin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the nonlinear, multifunctional properties of double-flywheel with closed-loop control, a two-step method including clustering and principal component analysis is proposed to detect the two faults in the multifunctional flywheels. At the first step of the proposed algorithm, clustering is taken as feature recognition to check the instructions of “integrated power and attitude control” system, such as attitude control, energy storage or energy discharge. These commands will ask the flywheel system to work in different operation modes. Therefore, the relationship of parameters in different operations can define the cluster structure of training data. Ordering points to identify the clustering structure (OPTICS can automatically identify these clusters by the reachability-plot. K-means algorithm can divide the training data into the corresponding operations according to the reachability-plot. Finally, the last step of proposed model is used to define the relationship of parameters in each operation through the principal component analysis (PCA method. Compared with the PCA model, the proposed approach is capable of identifying the new clusters and learning the new behavior of incoming data. The simulation results show that it can effectively detect the faults in the multifunctional flywheels system.

  16. Gas Bubbles Investigation in Contaminated Water Using Optical Tomography Based on Independent Component Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Taufiq Mohd Khairi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of concentration profiles for gas bubble flow in a vertical pipeline containing contaminated water using an optical tomography system. The concentration profiles for the bubble flow quantities are investigated under five different flows conditions, a single bubble, double bubbles, 25% of air opening, 50% of air opening, and 100% of air opening flow rates where a valve is used to control the gas flow in the vertical pipeline. The system is aided by the independent component analysis (ICA algorithm to reconstruct the concentration profiles of the liquid-gas flow. The behaviour of the gas bubbles was investigated in contaminated water in which the water sample was prepared by adding 25 mL of colour ingredients to 3 liters of pure water. The result shows that the application of ICA has enabled the system to detect the presence of gas bubbles in contaminated water. This information provides vital information on the flow inside the pipe and hence could be very significant in increasing the efficiency of the process industries.

  17. Fiber optic neutron imaging system: calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malone, R.M.; Gow, C.E.; Thayer, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    Two neutron imaging experiments using fiber optics have been performed at the Nevada Test Site. In each experiment, an array of scintillator fluor tubes is exposed to neutrons. Light is coupled out through radiation resistant PCS fibers (8-m long) into high-bandwidth, graded index fibers. For image reconstruction to be accurate, common timing differences and transmission variations between fiber optic channels are needed. The calibration system featured a scanning pulsed dye laser, a specially designed fiber optic star coupler, a tektronix 7912AD transient digitizer, and a DEC PDP 11/34 computing system

  18. The design of an ultra-thin and multiple channels optical receiving antenna system with freeform lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyun; Cheng, Dewen; Hu, Yuan; Song, Weitao; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-11-01

    Visible Light Communications (VLC) has become an emerging area of research since it can provide higher data transmission speed and wider bandwidth. The white LEDs are very important components of the VLC system, because it has the advantages of higher brightness, lower power consumption, and a longer lifetime. More importantly, their intensity and color are modulatable. Besides the light source, the optical antenna system also plays a very important role in the VLC system since it determines the optical gain, effective working area and transmission rate of the VLC system. In this paper, we propose to design an ultra-thin and multiple channels optical antenna system by tiling multiple off-axis lenses, each of which consists of two reflective and two refractive freeform surfaces. The tiling of multiple systems and detectors but with different band filters makes it possible to design a wavelength division multiplexing VLC system to highly improve the system capacity. The field of view of the designed antenna system is 30°, the entrance pupil diameter is 1.5mm, and the thickness of the system is under 4mm. The design methods are presented and the results are discussed in the last section of this paper. Besides the optical gain is analyzed and calculated. The antenna system can be tiled up to four channels but without the increase of thickness.

  19. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  20. To the application of TV and optical equipment for in-service inspection of reactor vessel and primary circuit component materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afonin, Eh.M.; Bachelis, I.M.; Tokarev, E.A.; Yastrebov, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    Some problems of application of TV and optical equipment for inspection of reactor vessel and primary circuit component materials are considered taking the most widespread WWER-440 type reactor as an example. The most advanrageous objects of the inspection and typical zones of equipment arrangement are shown. Methods and peculiarities of the inspection with the use of TV and optical equipment are presented. Recommendations on rational application of the equipment for the inspection of WWER-440 reactor vessel components are given

  1. Optical performance monitoring in high-speed optical fiber communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changyuan; Yang, Jing; Hu, Junhao; Zhang, Banghong

    2011-11-01

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) becomes an attractive topic as the rapid growth of data rate in optical communication networks. It provides improved operation of the high capacity optical transmission systems. Among the various impairments, chromatic dispersion (CD) is one of major factors limiting the transmission distance in high-speed communication systems. Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) also becomes a degrading effect in the system with data rate larger than 40 Gbit/s. In this paper, we summarize several CD and PMD monitoring methods based on RF spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling. By using a narrow band fiber Bragg grating (FBG) notch filter, centered at 10 GHz away from the optical carrier, 10-GHz RF power can be used as a CD-insensitive PMD monitoring signal. By taking the 10-GHz RF power ratio of non-filtered and filtered signal, PMD-insensitive CD monitoring can be achieved. If the FBG notch filter is placed at optical carrier, the RF clock power ratio between non-filtered and filtered signal is also a PMDinsensitive CD monitoring parameter, which has larger RF power dynamic range and better measurement resolution. Both simulation and experiment results show that the proposed methods are efficient on measuring CD and PMD values in 57-Gbit/s D8PSK systems. Delay-tap sampling is another efficient method of measuring residual CD. Amplitude ratio of asynchronous delay-tap sampling plot decreases with CD monotonously, and the amplitude ratio can be obtained by using low bandwidth balanced receiver. The simulated results show that our method is efficient on residual CD measurement in 50-Gbit/s 50% RZ DQPSK systems with a 12-GHz balanced receiver. Since no modification on the transmitter or receiver is required, the proposed scheme is simple and cost effective.

  2. Multiaperture Optical System Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-11-06

    pp. 179-185 (1965). 6. Welford, W. T. and Winston , R., The Optics of Nonimaging Concentrators , P. 3, Academic Press, New York (1978). 7. Schneider, R...Welford and Winston investigated it was a possible concentrator for solar energy. They came up with the "ideal concentrator ", which has walls shaped...MULTIAPZRTURE OPTICAL SYSTEM RESEARCH ." Office of Naval Research Contract Number N00014-85-C-0862 . FINAL REPORT by RTS LABORATORIES, INC. 1663

  3. Optical two-beam traps in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg-Sørensen, Kirstine

    2016-01-01

    An attractive solution for optical trapping and stretching by means of two counterpropagating laser beams is to embed waveguides or optical fibers in a microfluidic system. The microfluidic system can be constructed in different materials, ranging from soft polymers that may easily be cast...... written waveguides and in an injection molded polymer chip with grooves for optical fibers. (C) 2016 The Japan Society of Applied Physics....

  4. OPTICAL WIRELESS COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSHUA L.Y. CHIENG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand of bandwidth in this modern internet age has been testing the existing telecommunication infrastructures around the world. With broadband speeds moving towards the region of Gbps and Tbps, many researches have begun on the development of using optical wireless technology as feasible and future methods to the current wireless technology. Unlike the existing radio frequency wireless applications, optical wireless uses electromagnetic spectrums that are unlicensed and free. With that, this project aim to understand and gain better understanding of optical wireless communication system by building an experimental and simulated model. The quality of service and system performance will be investigated and reviewed. This project employs laser diode as the propagation medium and successfully transferred audio signals as far as 15 meters. On its quality of service, results of the project model reveal that the bit error rate increases, signal-to-noise ratio and quality factor decreases as the link distance between the transmitter and receiver increases. OptiSystem was used to build the simulated model and MATLAB was used to assist signal-to-noise ratio calculations. By comparing the simulated and experimental receiver’s power output, the experimental model’s efficiency is at 66.3%. Other than the system’s performance, challenges and factors affecting the system have been investigated and discussed. Such challenges include beam divergence, misalignment and particle absorption.

  5. Non-contact measurement machine for freeform optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henselmans, R.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of high-precision optical systems using spherical optics is limited by aberrations. By applying aspherical and freeform optics, the geometrical aberrations can be reduced or eliminated while at the same time also reducing the required number of components, the size and the weight of

  6. Imaging Freeform Optical Systems Designed with NURBS Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    reflective, anastigmat 1 Introduction The imaging freeform optical systems described here are designed using non-uniform rational basis-spline (NURBS...code, but to succeed in designing NURBS freeform optical systems an optimization code is required. The motivation for developing the optical design

  7. PMMA to SU-8 bonding for polymer based lab-on-a-chip systems with integrated optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Brian Bilenberg; Nielsen, Theodor; Clausen, Bjarne Hans

    2004-01-01

    We present an adhesive bonding technique developed for SU-8 based "lab-on-a-chip"- systems with integrated optical components. Microfluidic channels and optical components (e.g. wave-guides) are defined in SU-8 photoresist on a Pyrex glass substrate. The microfluidic channels are sealed by a second...... Pyrex substrate, bonded on top of the cross-linked SU-8 structure using an inter- mediate layer of 950K molecular weight poly-methylmethacrylate (PMMA). Due to a lower refractive index of PMMA, this bonding technique offers optical waveguiding in the SU-8 structures in combination with good sealing...... of the microfluidic channels. The bonding technique is investigated with respect to bonding temperature in the range of 50 - 150 degr. C and at bonding forces of 1000 N and 2000 N on a 4-inch wafer. A maximum bonding strength of 16 MPa is achieved for the PMMA to SU-8 bonding at a bonding temperature of 110 degr. C...

  8. New generation all-silica based optical elements for high power laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolenis, T.; GrinevičiÅ«tÄ--, L.; Melninkaitis, A.; Selskis, A.; Buzelis, R.; MažulÄ--, L.; Drazdys, R.

    2017-08-01

    Laser resistance of optical elements is one of the major topics in photonics. Various routes have been taken to improve optical coatings, including, but not limited by, materials engineering and optimisation of electric field distribution in multilayers. During the decades of research, it was found, that high band-gap materials, such as silica, are highly resistant to laser light. Unfortunately, only the production of anti-reflection coatings of all-silica materials are presented to this day. A novel route will be presented in materials engineering, capable to manufacture high reflection optical elements using only SiO2 material and GLancing Angle Deposition (GLAD) method. The technique involves the deposition of columnar structure and tailoring the refractive index of silica material throughout the coating thickness. A numerous analysis indicate the superior properties of GLAD coatings when compared with standard methods for Bragg mirrors production. Several groups of optical components are presented including anti-reflection coatings and Bragg mirrors. Structural and optical characterisation of the method have been performed and compared with standard methods. All researches indicate the possibility of new generation coatings for high power laser systems.

  9. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  10. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E

    2013-01-01

    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  11. Bridge SHM system based on fiber optical sensing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sheng; Fan, Dian; Fu, Jiang-hua; Huang, Xing; Jiang, De-sheng

    2015-09-01

    The latest progress of our lab in recent 10 years on the area of bridge structural health monitoring (SHM) based on optical fiber sensing technology is introduced. Firstly, in the part of sensing technology, optical fiber force test-ring, optical fiber vibration sensor, optical fiber smart cable, optical fiber prestressing loss monitoring method and optical fiber continuous curve mode inspection system are developed, which not only rich the sensor types, but also provides new monitoring means that are needed for the bridge health monitoring system. Secondly, in the optical fiber sensing network and computer system platform, the monitoring system architecture model is designed to effectively meet the integration scale and effect requirement of engineering application, especially the bridge expert system proposed integration of sensing information and informatization manual inspection to realize the mode of multi index intelligence and practical monitoring, diagnosis and evaluation. Finally, the Jingyue bridge monitoring system as the representative, the research on the technology of engineering applications are given.

  12. Two component systems: physiological effect of a third component.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldiri Salvado

    Full Text Available Signal transduction systems mediate the response and adaptation of organisms to environmental changes. In prokaryotes, this signal transduction is often done through Two Component Systems (TCS. These TCS are phosphotransfer protein cascades, and in their prototypical form they are composed by a kinase that senses the environmental signals (SK and by a response regulator (RR that regulates the cellular response. This basic motif can be modified by the addition of a third protein that interacts either with the SK or the RR in a way that could change the dynamic response of the TCS module. In this work we aim at understanding the effect of such an additional protein (which we call "third component" on the functional properties of a prototypical TCS. To do so we build mathematical models of TCS with alternative designs for their interaction with that third component. These mathematical models are analyzed in order to identify the differences in dynamic behavior inherent to each design, with respect to functionally relevant properties such as sensitivity to changes in either the parameter values or the molecular concentrations, temporal responsiveness, possibility of multiple steady states, or stochastic fluctuations in the system. The differences are then correlated to the physiological requirements that impinge on the functioning of the TCS. This analysis sheds light on both, the dynamic behavior of synthetically designed TCS, and the conditions under which natural selection might favor each of the designs. We find that a third component that modulates SK activity increases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible, if SK is monofunctional, but decreases it when the SK is bifunctional. The presence of a third component that modulates RR activity decreases the parameter space where a bistable response of the TCS module to signals is possible.

  13. Optical Energy Transfer and Conversion System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Bartholomew P. (Inventor); Stone, William C. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    An optical energy transfer and conversion system comprising a fiber spooler and an electrical power extraction subsystem connected to the spooler with an optical waveguide. Optical energy is generated at and transferred from a base station through fiber wrapped around the spooler, and ultimately to the power extraction system at a remote mobility platform for conversion to another form of energy. The fiber spooler may reside on the remote mobility platform which may be a vehicle, or apparatus that is either self-propelled or is carried by a secondary mobility platform either on land, under the sea, in the air or in space.

  14. Design of optically stable image reflector system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-Yu

    2013-08-01

    The design of a partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, in which the exit ray direction and image pose are unchanged as the reflector system rotates about a specific directional vector, was presented in an earlier study by the current group [Appl. Phys. B100, 883-890 (2010)]. The present study further proposes an optically stable image (OSI) reflector system, in which not only is the optical stability property of the POS system retained, but the image position and total ray path length are also fixed. An analytical method is proposed for the design of OSI reflector systems comprising multiple reflectors. The validity of the proposed approach is demonstrated by means of two illustrative examples.

  15. Towards standardized testing methodologies for optical properties of components in concentrating solar thermal power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallaberry, Fabienne; Fernández-García, Aránzazu; Lüpfert, Eckhard; Morales, Angel; Vicente, Gema San; Sutter, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Precise knowledge of the optical properties of the components used in the solar field of concentrating solar thermal power plants is primordial to ensure their optimum power production. Those properties are measured and evaluated by different techniques and equipment, in laboratory conditions and/or in the field. Standards for such measurements and international consensus for the appropriate techniques are in preparation. The reference materials used as a standard for the calibration of the equipment are under discussion. This paper summarizes current testing methodologies and guidelines for the characterization of optical properties of solar mirrors and absorbers.

  16. New generation of optical fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dianov, E M; Semjonov, S L; Bufetov, I A [Fiber Optics Research Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-31

    The growing need for information in contemporary society is the motivating force behind the development of fibre optics in general and optical fibre communications in particular. Intensive research effort has been concentrated on designing new types of optical fibres and extending their application field. This paper reviews results of research on new types of optical fibres: bismuthdoped active fibres, multicore fibres and hollow-core fibres, which can be used as key components of systems that ensure further increase in optical information transfer rate. (invited paper)

  17. Optical fiber inspection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Francis W.

    1987-01-01

    A remote optical inspection system including an inspection head. The inspection head has a passageway through which pellets or other objects are passed. A window is provided along the passageway through which light is beamed against the objects being inspected. A plurality of lens assemblies are arranged about the window so that reflected light can be gathered and transferred to a plurality of coherent optical fiber light guides. The light guides transfer the light images to a television or other image transducer which converts the optical images into a representative electronic signal. The electronic signal can then be displayed on a signal viewer such as a television monitor for inspection by a person. A staging means can be used to support the objects for viewing through the window. Routing means can be used to direct inspected objects into appropriate exit passages for accepted or rejected objects. The inspected objects are advantageously fed in a singular manner to the staging means and routing means. The inspection system is advantageously used in an enclosure when toxic or hazardous materials are being inspected.

  18. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contalbrigo, M.; Baltzell, N.; Benmokhtar, F.; Barion, L.; Cisbani, E.; El Alaoui, A.; Hafidi, K.; Hoek, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Lagamba, L.; Lucherini, V.; Malaguti, R.; Mirazita, M.; Montgomery, R.; Movsisyan, A.; Musico, P.; Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A.; Pappalardo, L.L.; Pereira, S.

    2014-01-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures

  19. The large-area hybrid-optics CLAS12 RICH detector: Tests of innovative components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contalbrigo, M., E-mail: contalbrigo@fe.infn.it [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Baltzell, N. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Benmokhtar, F. [Christopher Newport University, VA (United States); Duquesne University, PA (United States); Barion, L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Cisbani, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma – Gruppo Collega to Sanità (Italy); Italian National Institute of Health (Italy); El Alaoui, A. [Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile); Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hafidi, K. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States); Hoek, M. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); J. Gutenberg Universität, Mainz (Germany); Kubarovsky, V. [Thomas Jefferson National Laboratory, VA (United States); Lagamba, L. [INFN Sezione di Bari, University of Bari (Italy); Lucherini, V. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Malaguti, R. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Mirazita, M. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Montgomery, R. [Glasgow University (United Kingdom); INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Movsisyan, A. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Musico, P. [INFN Sezione di Genova (Italy); Orecchini, D.; Orlandi, A. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Pappalardo, L.L. [INFN Sezione di Ferrara and University of Ferrara (Italy); Pereira, S. [INFN Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); and others

    2014-12-01

    A large area ring-imaging Cherenkov detector has been designed to provide clean hadron identification capability in the momentum range from 3 GeV/c to 8 GeV/c for the CLAS12 experiments at the upgraded 12 GeV continuous electron beam accelerator facility of Jefferson Lab to study the 3D nucleon structure in the yet poorly explored valence region by deep-inelastic scattering, and to perform precision measurements in hadronization and hadron spectroscopy. The adopted solution foresees a novel hybrid optics design based on an aerogel radiator, composite mirrors and densely packed and highly segmented photon detectors. Cherenkov light will either be imaged directly (forward tracks) or after two mirror reflections (large angle tracks). The preliminary results of individual detector component tests and of the prototype performance at test-beams are reported here. - Highlights: • A novel hybrid-optics configuration was proven to work with a large RICH prototype. • Innovative RICH components were studied both in laboratory tests and test-beams. • Aerogel of large Rayleigh scattering length at n=1.05 was characterized. • Novel vs commercially available multi-anode photomultipliers were compared. • The response of SiPM matrices to Cherenkov light was tested at various temperatures.

  20. A Microscopic Optically Tracking Navigation System That Uses High-resolution 3D Computer Graphics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshino, Masanori; Saito, Toki; Kin, Taichi; Nakagawa, Daichi; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-01-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) computer graphics (CG) are useful for preoperative planning of neurosurgical operations. However, application of 3D CG to intraoperative navigation is not widespread because existing commercial operative navigation systems do not show 3D CG in sufficient detail. We have developed a microscopic optically tracking navigation system that uses high-resolution 3D CG. This article presents the technical details of our microscopic optically tracking navigation system. Our navigation system consists of three components: the operative microscope, registration, and the image display system. An optical tracker was attached to the microscope to monitor the position and attitude of the microscope in real time; point-pair registration was used to register the operation room coordinate system, and the image coordinate system; and the image display system showed the 3D CG image in the field-of-view of the microscope. Ten neurosurgeons (seven males, two females; mean age 32.9 years) participated in an experiment to assess the accuracy of this system using a phantom model. Accuracy of our system was compared with the commercial system. The 3D CG provided by the navigation system coincided well with the operative scene under the microscope. Target registration error for our system was 2.9 ± 1.9 mm. Our navigation system provides a clear image of the operation position and the surrounding structures. Systems like this may reduce intraoperative complications.

  1. Fiber-Optic Monitoring System of Particle Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Titov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers development of a fiber-optic system to monitor the counters of particles. Presently, optical counters of particles, which are often arranged at considerable distance from each other, are used to study the saltation phenomenon. For monitoring the counters, can be used electric communication lines.However, it complicates and raises the price of system Therefore, we offered a fiber-optic system and the counter of particles, free from these shortcomings. The difference between the offered counter of particles and the known one is that the input of radiation to the counter and the output of radiation scattering on particles are made by the optical fibers, and direct radiation is entered the optical fiber rather than is delayed by a light trap and can be used for lighting the other counters thereby allowing to use their connection in series.The work involved a choice of the quartz multimode optical fiber for communication, defining the optical fiber and lenses parameters of the counter of particles, and a selection of the radiation source and the photo-detector.Using the theory of light diffraction on a particle, a measuring range of the particle sizes has been determined. The system speed has been estimated, and it has been shown that a range of communication can reach 200km.It should be noted that modulation noise of counters of particles connected in series have the impact on the useful signal. To assess the extent of this influence we have developed a calculation procedure to illustrate that with ten counters connected in series this influence on the signal-to-noise ratio will be insignificant.Thus, it has been shown that the offered fiber-optic system can be used for monitoring the counters of particles across the desertified territories. 

  2. Techniques for preventing damage to high power laser components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Patton, H.G.; Jones, W.A.; Wentworth, D.E.

    1977-09-01

    Techniques for preventing damage to components of the LASL Shiva high power laser system were briefly presented. Optical element damage in the disk amplifier from the combined fluence of the primary laser beam and the Xenon flash lamps that pump the cavity was discussed. Assembly and cleaning techniques were described which have improved optical element life by minimizing particulate and optically absorbing film contamination on assembled amplifier structures. A Class-100 vertical flaw clean room used for assembly and inspection of laser components was also described. The life of a disk amplifier was extended from less than 50 shots to 500 shots through application of these assembly and cleaning techniques

  3. Applying of component system development in object methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Mišovič

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, the concept and implementation of component-based architectures have been promoted in software systems creation. Increasingly complex demands are placed on the software component systems, in particular relating to the dynamic properties. The emergence of such requirements has been gradually enforced by the practice of development and implementation of these systems, especially for information systems software.Just the information systems (robust IS of different types require that target software meets their requirements. Among other things, we mean primarily the adaptive processes of different domains, high distributives due to the possibilities of the Internet 2.0, acceptance of high integrity of life domains (process, data and communications integrity, scalability, and flexible adaptation to process changes, a good context for external devices and transparent structure of the sub-process modules and architectural units.Of course, the target software of required qualities and the type robust cannot be a monolith. As commonly known, development of design toward information systems software has clearly come to the need for the software composition of completely autonomous, but cooperating architectural units that communicate with each other using messages of prescribed formats.Although for such units there were often used the so called subsystems and modules, see (Jac, Boo, Rumbo, 1998 and (Arlo, Neus, 2007, their abstraction being gradually enacted as the term component. In other words, the subsystems and modules are specific types of components.In (Král, Žeml, 2000 and (Král, Žeml, 2003 there are considered two types of target software of information systems. The first type – there are SWC (Software Components, composed of permanently available components, which are thought as services – Confederate software. The second type – SWA (Software Alliance, called semi Confederate, formed during the run-time of the

  4. A low-cost, portable optical sensing system with wireless communication compatible of real-time and remote detection of dissolved ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shijie; Doherty, William; McAuliffe, Michael AP; Salaj-Kosla, Urszula; Lewis, Liam; Huyet, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    A low-cost and portable optical chemical sensor based ammonia sensing system that is capable of detecting dissolved ammonia up to 5 ppm is presented. In the system, an optical chemical sensor is designed and fabricated for sensing dissolved ammonia concentrations. The sensor uses eosin as the fluorescence dye which is immobilized on the glass substrate by a gas-permeable protection layer. A compact module is developed to hold the optical components, and a battery powered micro-controller system is designed to read out and process the data measured. The system operates without the requirement of laboratory instruments that makes it cost effective and highly portable. Moreover, the calculated results in the system can be transmitted to a PC wirelessly, which allows the remote and real-time monitoring of dissolved ammonia.

  5. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam

    2011-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth treatment of both linear fiber-optic systems and their key enabling devices. It presents a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers. To the second edition of this book important new aspects of linear fiber-optic transmission technologies are added, such as high level system architectural issues, algorithms for deriving the optimal frequency assignment, directly modulated or externally modulated laser t...

  6. All-Optical Signal processing using Highly Nonlinear Photonic Crystal Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Andreas

    2006-01-01

    -optical regeneration is the only possible way of regenerating a signal with the current technology. Transforming the current telecommunication network into an all-optical network will require an all-optical regeneration of the optical signal. At the current time (May 2005) all-optical regeneration is a tool only used......The use of HNL-PCF in optical communication systems has been investigated in this thesis. The investigation has been done with respect to the future of telecommunications in an all-optical system. The PCFs used have all been used for all-optical signal processing as part of an optical component...... and the possibility of large differences between the refractive indices of the core and the cladding by using air-holes, makes PCFs suited for custom made components. By testing a HNL-PCF as a medium for supercontinuum generation at various dispersion values and at the same time using that supercontinuum...

  7. Model-based software engineering for an optical navigation system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T.; Lüdtke, D.; Maibaum, O.; Gerndt, A.

    2018-06-01

    The project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing an optical navigation system for future landing missions on celestial bodies such as the moon or asteroids. Image data obtained by optical sensors can be used for autonomous determination of the spacecraft's position and attitude. Camera-in-the-loop experiments in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) laboratory and flight campaigns with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are performed to gather flight data for further development and to test the system in a closed-loop scenario. The software modules are executed in the C++ Tasking Framework that provides the means to concurrently run the modules in separated tasks, send messages between tasks, and schedule task execution based on events. Since the project is developed in collaboration with several institutes in different domains at DLR, clearly defined and well-documented interfaces are necessary. Preventing misconceptions caused by differences between various development philosophies and standards turned out to be challenging. After the first development cycles with manual Interface Control Documents (ICD) and manual implementation of the complex interactions between modules, we switched to a model-based approach. The ATON model covers a graphical description of the modules, their parameters and communication patterns. Type and consistency checks on this formal level help to reduce errors in the system. The model enables the generation of interfaces and unified data types as well as their documentation. Furthermore, the C++ code for the exchange of data between the modules and the scheduling of the software tasks is created automatically. With this approach, changing the data flow in the system or adding additional components (e.g., a second camera) have become trivial.

  8. Model-based software engineering for an optical navigation system for spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, T.; Lüdtke, D.; Maibaum, O.; Gerndt, A.

    2017-09-01

    The project Autonomous Terrain-based Optical Navigation (ATON) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) is developing an optical navigation system for future landing missions on celestial bodies such as the moon or asteroids. Image data obtained by optical sensors can be used for autonomous determination of the spacecraft's position and attitude. Camera-in-the-loop experiments in the Testbed for Robotic Optical Navigation (TRON) laboratory and flight campaigns with unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) are performed to gather flight data for further development and to test the system in a closed-loop scenario. The software modules are executed in the C++ Tasking Framework that provides the means to concurrently run the modules in separated tasks, send messages between tasks, and schedule task execution based on events. Since the project is developed in collaboration with several institutes in different domains at DLR, clearly defined and well-documented interfaces are necessary. Preventing misconceptions caused by differences between various development philosophies and standards turned out to be challenging. After the first development cycles with manual Interface Control Documents (ICD) and manual implementation of the complex interactions between modules, we switched to a model-based approach. The ATON model covers a graphical description of the modules, their parameters and communication patterns. Type and consistency checks on this formal level help to reduce errors in the system. The model enables the generation of interfaces and unified data types as well as their documentation. Furthermore, the C++ code for the exchange of data between the modules and the scheduling of the software tasks is created automatically. With this approach, changing the data flow in the system or adding additional components (e.g., a second camera) have become trivial.

  9. Multi-level predictive maintenance for multi-component systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Kim-Anh; Do, Phuc; Grall, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel predictive maintenance policy with multi-level decision-making is proposed for multi-component system with complex structure. The main idea is to propose a decision-making process considered on two levels: system level and component one. The goal of the decision rules at the system level is to address if preventive maintenance actions are needed regarding the predictive reliability of the system. At component level the decision rules aim at identifying optimally a group of several components to be preventively maintained when preventive maintenance is trigged due to the system level decision. Selecting optimal components is based on a cost-based group improvement factor taking into account the predictive reliability of the components, the economic dependencies as well as the location of the components in the system. Moreover, a cost model is developed to find the optimal maintenance decision variables. A 14-component system is finally introduced to illustrate the use and the performance of the proposed predictive maintenance policy. Different sensitivity analysis are also investigated and discussed. Indeed, the proposed policy provides more flexibility in maintenance decision-making for complex structure systems, hence leading to significant profits in terms of maintenance cost when compared with existing policies. - Highlights: • A predictive maintenance policy for complex structure systems is proposed. • Multi-level decision process based on prognostic results is proposed. • A cost-based group importance measure is introduced for decision-making. • Both positive and negative dependencies between components are investigated. • A cost model and Monte Carlo simulation are developed for optimization process.

  10. Full-duplex optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shay, Thomas M. (Inventor); Hazzard, David A. (Inventor); Horan, Stephen (Inventor); Payne, Jason A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A method of full-duplex electromagnetic communication wherein a pair of data modulation formats are selected for the forward and return data links respectively such that the forward data electro-magnetic beam serves as a carrier for the return data. A method of encoding optical information is used wherein right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations are assigned to optical information to represent binary states. An application for an earth to low earth orbit optical communications system is presented which implements the full-duplex communication and circular polarization keying modulation format.

  11. NHI Component Technical Readiness Evaluation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, S.; Wilson, Dane F.; Pawel, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    A decision process for evaluating the technical readiness or maturity of components (i.e., heat exchangers, chemical reactors, valves, etc.) for use by the U.S. DOE Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative is described. This system is used by the DOE NHI to assess individual components in relation to their readiness for pilot-scale and larger-scale deployment and to drive the research and development work needed to attain technical maturity. A description of the evaluation system is provided, and examples are given to illustrate how it is used to assist in component R and D decisions.

  12. Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D

    2017-05-01

    To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  13. The development of component-based information systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cesare, Sergio de; Macredie, Robert

    2015-01-01

    This work provides a comprehensive overview of research and practical issues relating to component-based development information systems (CBIS). Spanning the organizational, developmental, and technical aspects of the subject, the original research included here provides fresh insights into successful CBIS technology and application. Part I covers component-based development methodologies and system architectures. Part II analyzes different aspects of managing component-based development. Part III investigates component-based development versus commercial off-the-shelf products (COTS), includi

  14. Optical protocols for terabit networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, P. L.; Lambert, J. L.; Morookian, J. M.; Bergman, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new fiber-optic local area network technology providing 100X improvement over current technology, has full crossbar funtionality, and inherent data security. Based on optical code-division multiple access (CDMA), using spectral phase encoding/decoding of optical pulses, networking protocols are implemented entirely in the optical domain and thus conventional networking bottlenecks are avoided. Component and system issues for a proof-of-concept demonstration are discussed, as well as issues for a more practical and commercially exploitable system. Possible terrestrial and aerospace applications of this technology, and its impact on other technologies are explored. Some initial results toward realization of this concept are also included.

  15. Particle damage sources for fused silica optics and their mitigation on high energy laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bude, J; Carr, C W; Miller, P E; Parham, T; Whitman, P; Monticelli, M; Raman, R; Cross, D; Welday, B; Ravizza, F; Suratwala, T; Davis, J; Fischer, M; Hawley, R; Lee, H; Matthews, M; Norton, M; Nostrand, M; VanBlarcom, D; Sommer, S

    2017-05-15

    High energy laser systems are ultimately limited by laser-induced damage to their critical components. This is especially true of damage to critical fused silica optics, which grows rapidly upon exposure to additional laser pulses. Much progress has been made in eliminating damage precursors in as-processed fused silica optics (the advanced mitigation process, AMP3), and very high damage resistance has been demonstrated in laboratory studies. However, the full potential of these improvements has not yet been realized in actual laser systems. In this work, we explore the importance of additional damage sources-in particular, particle contamination-for fused silica optics fielded in a high-performance laser environment, the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser system. We demonstrate that the most dangerous sources of particle contamination in a system-level environment are laser-driven particle sources. In the specific case of the NIF laser, we have identified the two important particle sources which account for nearly all the damage observed on AMP3 optics during full laser operation and present mitigations for these particle sources. Finally, with the elimination of these laser-driven particle sources, we demonstrate essentially damage free operation of AMP3 fused silica for ten large optics (a total of 12,000 cm 2 of beam area) for shots from 8.6 J/cm 2 to 9.5 J/cm 2 of 351 nm light (3 ns Gaussian pulse shapes). Potentially many other pulsed high energy laser systems have similar particle sources, and given the insight provided by this study, their identification and elimination should be possible. The mitigations demonstrated here are currently being employed for all large UV silica optics on the National Ignition Facility.

  16. Optical networks for wideband sensor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Lin Horng

    2011-12-01

    This thesis presents the realization of novel systems for optical sensing networks with an array of long-period grating (LPG) sensors. As a launching point of the thesis, the motivation to implement optical sensing network in precisely catering LPG sensors is presented. It highlights the flexibility of the sensing network to act as the foundation in order to boost the application of the various LPG sensor design in biological and chemical sensing. After the thorough study on the various optical sensing networks, sub-carrier multiplexing (SCM) and optical time division multiplexing (OTDM) schemes are adopted in conjunction with tunable laser source (TLS) to facilitate simultaneous interrogation of the LPG sensors array. In fact, these systems are distinct to have the capability to accommodate wideband optical sensors. Specifically, the LPG sensors which is in 20nm bandwidth are identified to operate in these systems. The working principles of the systems are comprehensively elucidated in this thesis. It highlights the mathematical approach to quantify the experimental setup of the optical sensing network. Additionally, the system components of the designs are identified and methodically characterized so that the components well operate in the designed environment. A mockup has been setup to demonstrate the application in sensing of various liquid indices and analyse the response of the LPG sensors in order to evaluate the performance of the systems. Eventually, the resemblance of the demultiplexed spectral response to the pristine spectral response are quantified to have excellent agreement. Finally, the promising result consistency of the systems is verified through repeatability test.

  17. APPLYING PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS, MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON AND SELF-ORGANIZING MAPS FOR OPTICAL CHARACTER RECOGNITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuat Thanh Tung

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Optical Character Recognition plays an important role in data storage and data mining when the number of documents stored as images is increasing. It is expected to find the ways to convert images of typewritten or printed text into machine-encoded text effectively in order to support for the process of information handling effectively. In this paper, therefore, the techniques which are being used to convert image into editable text in the computer such as principal component analysis, multilayer perceptron network, self-organizing maps, and improved multilayer neural network using principal component analysis are experimented. The obtained results indicated the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.

  18. Biomedical Optical Imaging Technologies Design and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to design of biomedical optical imaging technologies and their applications. The main topics include: fluorescence imaging, confocal imaging, micro-endoscope, polarization imaging, hyperspectral imaging, OCT imaging, multimodal imaging and spectroscopic systems. Each chapter is written by the world leaders of the respective fields, and will cover: principles and limitations of optical imaging technology, system design and practical implementation for one or two specific applications, including design guidelines, system configuration, optical design, component requirements and selection, system optimization and design examples, recent advances and applications in biomedical researches and clinical imaging. This book serves as a reference for students and researchers in optics and biomedical engineering.

  19. Advanced optical signal processing of broadband parallel data signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Hu, Hao; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian

    2016-01-01

    Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration.......Optical signal processing may aid in reducing the number of active components in communication systems with many parallel channels, by e.g. using telescopic time lens arrangements to perform format conversion and allow for WDM regeneration....

  20. Gigahertz Optical Data Transmitters for Laser Communications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Wireless optical communication systems have gone through considerable development in the past few years, as optical components have experiences important technologic...

  1. Forward-backward equations for nonlinear propagation in axially invariant optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrando, Albert; Zacares, Mario; Fernandez de Cordoba, Pedro; Binosi, Daniele; Montero, Alvaro

    2005-01-01

    We present a general framework to deal with forward and backward components of the electromagnetic field in axially invariant nonlinear optical systems, which include those having any type of linear or nonlinear transverse inhomogeneities. With a minimum amount of approximations, we obtain a system of two first-order equations for forward and backward components, explicitly showing the nonlinear couplings among them. The modal approach used allows for an effective reduction of the dimensionality of the original problem from 3+1 (three spatial dimensions plus one time dimension) to 1+1 (one spatial dimension plus one frequency dimension). The new equations can be written in a spinor Dirac-like form, out of which conserved quantities can be calculated in an elegant manner. Finally, these equations inherently incorporate spatiotemporal couplings, so that they can be easily particularized to deal with purely temporal or purely spatial effects. Nonlinear forward pulse propagation and nonparaxial evolution of spatial structures are analyzed as examples

  2. Evaluation of modulation transfer function of optical lens system by support vector regression methodologies - A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petković, Dalibor; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Saboohi, Hadi; Ang, Tan Fong; Anuar, Nor Badrul; Rahman, Zulkanain Abdul; Pavlović, Nenad T.

    2014-07-01

    The quantitative assessment of image quality is an important consideration in any type of imaging system. The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a graphical description of the sharpness and contrast of an imaging system or of its individual components. The MTF is also known and spatial frequency response. The MTF curve has different meanings according to the corresponding frequency. The MTF of an optical system specifies the contrast transmitted by the system as a function of image size, and is determined by the inherent optical properties of the system. In this study, the polynomial and radial basis function (RBF) are applied as the kernel function of Support Vector Regression (SVR) to estimate and predict estimate MTF value of the actual optical system according to experimental tests. Instead of minimizing the observed training error, SVR_poly and SVR_rbf attempt to minimize the generalization error bound so as to achieve generalized performance. The experimental results show that an improvement in predictive accuracy and capability of generalization can be achieved by the SVR_rbf approach in compare to SVR_poly soft computing methodology.

  3. Transceiver optics for interplanetary communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Farr, W. H.; Rider, B.; Sampath, D.

    2017-11-01

    In-situ interplanetary science missions constantly push the spacecraft communications systems to support successively higher downlink rates. However, the highly restrictive mass and power constraints placed on interplanetary spacecraft significantly limit the desired bandwidth increases in going forward with current radio frequency (RF) technology. To overcome these limitations, we have evaluated the ability of free-space optical communications systems to make substantial gains in downlink bandwidth, while holding to the mass and power limits allocated to current state-of-the-art Ka-band communications systems. A primary component of such an optical communications system is the optical assembly, comprised of the optical support structure, optical elements, baffles and outer enclosure. We wish to estimate the total mass that such an optical assembly might require, and assess what form it might take. Finally, to ground this generalized study, we should produce a conceptual design, and use that to verify its ability to achieve the required downlink gain, estimate it's specific optical and opto-mechanical requirements, and evaluate the feasibility of producing the assembly.

  4. Ultra-high Frequency Linear Fiber Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Kam Y

    2009-01-01

    Designed for a one-semester course on fiber-optics systems and communication links, this book provides a concise but rigorous treatment of the theory and practice of analog (linear) fiber-optics links and systems that constitute the foundation of Hybrid Fiber Coax infrastructure in present-day CATV distribution and cable modem Internet access. Emerging applications in remote fiber-optic feed for free-space millimeter wave enterprise campus networks are also described. Issues such as dispersion and interferometric noise are treated quantitatively, and means for mitigating them are explained. This broad but concise text will thus be invaluable not only to students of fiber-optics communication but also to practicing engineers.

  5. An Exploration of Professional Culture Differentials and Their Potential Impact on the Information Assurance Component of Optical Transmission Networks Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthrell, Michael Gerard

    2011-01-01

    Optical transmission networks are an integral component of the critical infrastructures for many nations. Many people believe that optical transmission networks are impenetrable. In actuality, these networks possess weaknesses that can be exploited to bring about harm. An emerging Information Assurance (IA) industry has as its goals: to…

  6. Systems and methods for free space optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Warren W [Benton City, WA; Aker, Pamela M [Richland, WA; Pratt, Richard M [Richland, WA

    2011-05-10

    Free space optical communication methods and systems, according to various aspects are described. The methods and systems are characterized by transmission of data through free space with a digitized optical signal acquired using wavelength modulation, and by discrimination between bit states in the digitized optical signal using a spectroscopic absorption feature of a chemical substance.

  7. Electro-optical fuel pin identification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, T.L.

    1978-09-01

    A prototype Electro-Optical Fuel Pin Identification System referred to as the Fuel Pin Identification System (FPIS) has been developed by the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) in support of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) presently under construction at HEDL. The system is designed to remotely read an alpha-numeric identification number that is roll stamped on the top of the fuel pin end cap. The prototype FPIS consists of four major subassemblies: optical read head, digital compression electronics, video display, and line printer

  8. The Fiber Optic System for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N.; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm. The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  9. The fiber optic system for the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Melanie N; Thomes, Joe; Onuma, Eleanya; Switzer, Robert; Chuska, Richard; Blair, Diana; Frese, Erich; Matyseck, Marc

    2016-08-28

    The Advanced Topographic Laser Altimeter System (ATLAS) Instrument has been in integration and testing over the past 18 months in preparation for the Ice, Cloud and Land Elevation Satellite - 2 (ICESat-2) Mission, scheduled to launch in 2017. ICESat-2 is the follow on to ICESat which launched in 2003 and operated until 2009. ATLAS will measure the elevation of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice or the "cryosphere" (as well as terrain) to provide data for assessing the earth's global climate changes. Where ICESat's instrument, the Geo-Science Laser Altimeter (GLAS) used a single beam measured with a 70 m spot on the ground and a distance between spots of 170 m, ATLAS will measure a spot size of 10 m with a spacing of 70 cm using six beams to measure terrain height changes as small as 4 mm.[1] The ATLAS pulsed transmission system consists of two lasers operating at 532 nm with transmitter optics for beam steering, a diffractive optical element that splits the signal into 6 separate beams, receivers for start pulse detection and a wavelength tracking system. The optical receiver telescope system consists of optics that focus all six beams into optical fibers that feed a filter system that transmits the signal via fiber assemblies to the detectors. Also included on the instrument is a system that calibrates the alignment of the transmitted pulses to the receiver optics for precise signal capture. The larger electro optical subsystems for transmission, calibration, and signal receive, stay aligned and transmitting sufficiently due to the optical fiber system that links them together. The robust design of the fiber optic system, consisting of a variety of multi fiber arrays and simplex assemblies with multiple fiber core sizes and types, will enable the system to maintain consistent critical alignments for the entire life of the mission. Some of the development approaches used to meet the challenging optical system requirements for ATLAS are discussed here.

  10. Towards spectral-domain optical coherence tomography on a silicon chip

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akça, B.I.; Worhoff, Kerstin; Nguyen, V.D.; Kalkman, J.; van Leeuwen, Ton; de Ridder, R.M.; Pollnau, Markus

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used optical imaging technology, particularly in the medical field, since it can provide non-invasive, sub-micrometer resolution diagnostic images of tissue. Current OCT systems contain optical fibers and free-space optical components which make these

  11. Development of neutron optical components at ILL

    CERN Document Server

    Courtois, P; Humblot, H; Alianelli, L; Pfeiffer, F O

    2002-01-01

    The neutron optics laboratory at ILL carries out an innovative research program in various fields of neutron optics with the aim of developing new and improved tools for neutron instrumentation. An overview of some recent highlights is presented, indicating the breadth of the potential applications. (orig.)

  12. Optically stimulated luminescence in electronic components for emergency dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geber-Bergstrand, T.; Bernhardsson, C.; Mattsson, S.; Raeaef, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accidents and, luckily more rarely, attacks involving nuclear or radiological material do occur from time to time. A very possible consequence of an accident or attack of this kind is that nearby people might be exposed to ionising radiation. Since these types of exposure situations, unlike the ones occurring in medicine, are unplanned, there are no radiation-monitoring data available. For several reasons, it is nevertheless of value to find out the dose that these people have received. The first and most urgent reason is after-the-event triage, to be able to carry out proper medical treatments and also to focus the available medical assets to the persons needing it the most. This is where different retrospective dosimetry techniques, such as luminescence, can be employed. Various electronic components from mobile phones and other portable devices have been studied using optically stimulated luminescence for their potential use in retrospective dosimetry. Previous investigations have been performed in laboratory conditions and have showed very promising properties for emergency dosimetry. In this study, the more practical parts of using electronic components in retrospective dosimetry have been considered. In a triage situation, one of the key parameters to consider is time; thus, effort has been made to speed up the readout procedure, yet without the loss of too much accuracy. (authors)

  13. Electronic components and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dennis, W H

    2013-01-01

    Electronic Components and Systems focuses on the principles and processes in the field of electronics and the integrated circuit. Covered in the book are basic aspects and physical fundamentals; different types of materials involved in the field; and passive and active electronic components such as capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. Also covered in the book are topics such as the fabrication of semiconductors and integrated circuits; analog circuitry; digital logic technology; and microprocessors. The monograph is recommended for beginning electrical engineers who would like to kn

  14. Hot gas path component cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Bunker, Ronald Scott; Itzel, Gary Michael

    2014-02-18

    A cooling system for a hot gas path component is disclosed. The cooling system may include a component layer and a cover layer. The component layer may include a first inner surface and a second outer surface. The second outer surface may define a plurality of channels. The component layer may further define a plurality of passages extending generally between the first inner surface and the second outer surface. Each of the plurality of channels may be fluidly connected to at least one of the plurality of passages. The cover layer may be situated adjacent the second outer surface of the component layer. The plurality of passages may be configured to flow a cooling medium to the plurality of channels and provide impingement cooling to the cover layer. The plurality of channels may be configured to flow cooling medium therethrough, cooling the cover layer.

  15. Precision alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Laura Elizabeth

    As techniques for manufacturing and metrology advance, optical systems are being designed with more complexity than ever before. Given these prescriptions, alignment and calibration can be a limiting factor in their final performance. Computer generated holograms (CGHs) have several unique properties that make them powerful tools for meeting these demanding tolerances. This work will present three novel methods for alignment and calibration of optical systems using computer generated holograms. Alignment methods using CGHs require that the optical wavefront created by the CGH be related to a mechanical datum to locate it space. An overview of existing methods is provided as background, then two new alignment methods are discussed in detail. In the first method, the CGH contact Ball Alignment Tool (CBAT) is used to align a ball or sphere mounted retroreflector (SMR) to a Fresnel zone plate pattern with micron level accuracy. The ball is bonded directly onto the CGH substrate and provides permanent, accurate registration between the optical wavefront and a mechanical reference to locate the CGH in space. A prototype CBAT was built and used to align and bond an SMR to a CGH. In the second method, CGH references are used to align axi-symmetric optics in four degrees of freedom with low uncertainty and real time feedback. The CGHs create simultaneous 3D optical references where the zero order reflection sets tilt and the first diffracted order sets centration. The flexibility of the CGH design can be used to accommodate a wide variety of optical systems and maximize sensitivity to misalignments. A 2-CGH prototype system was aligned multiplied times and the alignment uncertainty was quantified and compared to an error model. Finally, an enhanced calibration method is presented. It uses multiple perturbed measurements of a master sphere to improve the calibration of CGH-based Fizeau interferometers ultimately measuring aspheric test surfaces. The improvement in the

  16. Optical diagnostics based on elastic scattering: Recent clinical demonstrations with the Los Alamos Optical Biopsy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigio, I.J.; Loree, T.R.; Mourant, J.; Shimada, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Story-Held, K.; Glickman, R.D. [Texas Univ. Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Ophthalmology; Conn, R. [Lovelace Medical Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Urology

    1993-08-01

    A non-invasive diagnostic tool that could identify malignancy in situ and in real time would have a major impact on the detection and treatment of cancer. We have developed and are testing early prototypes of an optical biopsy system (OBS) for detection of cancer and other tissue pathologies. The OBS invokes a unique approach to optical diagnosis of tissue pathologies based on the elastic scattering properties, over a wide range of wavelengths, of the microscopic structure of the tissue. The use of elastic scattering as the key to optical tissue diagnostics in the OBS is based on the fact that many tissue pathologies, including a majority of cancer forms, manifest significant architectural changes at the cellular and sub-cellular level. Since the cellular components that cause elastic scattering have dimensions typically on the order of visible to near-IR wavelengths, the elastic (Mie) scattering properties will be strongly wavelength dependent. Thus, morphology and size changes can be expected to cause significant changes in an optical signature that is derived from the wavelength dependence of elastic scattering. The data acquisition and storage/display time with the OBS instrument is {approximately}1 second. Thus, in addition to the reduced invasiveness of this technique compared with current state-of-the-art methods (surgical biopsy and pathology analysis), the OBS offers the possibility of impressively faster diagnostic assessment. The OBS employs a small fiber-optic probe that is amenable to use with any endoscope, catheter or hypodermic, or to direct surface examination (e.g. as in skin cancer or cervical cancer). It has been tested in vitro on animal and human tissue samples, and clinical testing in vivo is currently in progress.

  17. Applications Of A Fibre Optic TV Holography System To The Study Of Large Automotive Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jeremy C.; Buckberry, Clive H.

    1990-04-01

    Mono-mode fibre optic components, including directional couplers and piezo-electric phase control elements, have been used to construct a TV holography system. The instrument has advantages of simplicity and ruggedness of construction and, with a 40m fibre optic link to a 600m argon ion laser, has proved to be an ideal tool for studying the structural behaviour of automotive assemblies. The TV holography system is described and two examples presented of its use: analysis of the deformation of a petrol engine cylinder bore due to head bolt forces, and the vibration study of a vehicle bodyshell subjected to wheel induced inputs. Limitations in the application of the technique are identified and future work to address these shortcomings outlined.

  18. Computer programs simplify optical system analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The optical ray-trace computer program performs geometrical ray tracing. The energy-trace program calculates the relative monochromatic flux density on a specific target area. This program uses the ray-trace program as a subroutine to generate a representation of the optical system.

  19. Optical surgical navigation system causes pulse oximeter malfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Masaaki; Hara, Tetsuhito; Tamai, Kenji; Shiba, Juntaro; Hotta, Kunihisa; Takeuchi, Mamoru; Watanabe, Eiju

    2015-01-01

    An optical surgical navigation system is used as a navigator to facilitate surgical approaches, and pulse oximeters provide valuable information for anesthetic management. However, saw-tooth waves on the monitor of a pulse oximeter and the inability of the pulse oximeter to accurately record the saturation of a percutaneous artery were observed when a surgeon started an optical navigation system. The current case is thought to be the first report of this navigation system interfering with pulse oximetry. The causes of pulse jamming and how to manage an optical navigation system are discussed.

  20. Radiation resistance characteristics of optical communication system for single mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohe, Masamoto; Chigusa, Yoshiki; Kyodo, Tomohisa; Tanaka, Gohtaro; Watanabe, Hajime; Okamoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Optical communication has been utilized also for nuclear power stations and fuel reporocessing plants. As the sufficient safety countermeasures are required there, the amount of information becomes enormous, therefore, optical communication, by which the required space is expected to be reduced, becomes more important. Also in the application to submarine cables, attention must be paid to the radiation resistance as there are the effects of potassium contained in large amount in seawater and uranium deposits in sea bottom. Therefore, the reliability of the components of optical communication systems against radiation becomes a problem. In this study, single mode optical fibers and transmission and receipt modules were selected, and high dose rate irradiation supposing the case of using in a cell and low dose rate, long time irradiation supposing the case of submarine cables were carried out to evaluate the radiation resistance characteristics. The fibers tested were SiO 2 core/F-SiO 2 clad type and GeO 2 -SiO 2 core/SiO 2 clad type. The characteristics of increasing loss in irradiation and restoration after irradiation of the former type were superior to those of the latter type. The output of a receipt module was normal during irradiation, and the output power of a transmission module decreases, but other problems did not arise. (K.I.)

  1. Control of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Founds, D.

    1988-01-01

    Some of the current and planned activities at the Air Force Systems Command in structures and controls for optical-type systems are summarized. Many of the activities are contracted to industry; one task is an in-house program which includes a hardware test program. The objective of the in-house program, referred to as the Aluminum Beam Expander Structure (ABES), is to address issues involved in on-orbit system identification. The structure, which appears similar to the LDR backup structure, is about 35 feet tall. The activity to date has been limited to acquisition of about 250 hours of test data. About 30 hours of data per excitation force is gathered in order to obtain sufficient data for a good statistical estimate of the structural parameters. The development of an Integrated Structural Modeling (ISM) computer program is being done by Boeing Aerospace Company. The objective of the contracted effort is to develop a combined optics, structures, thermal, controls, and multibody dynamics simulation code.

  2. Optical polarization modulation by competing atomic coherence effects in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Jong; Park, Chang Yong; Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2005-01-01

    A scheme of optical polarization modulation of a linearly polarized infrared probe field is studied in a degenerate four-level Yb atomic system. We have observed an anomalous transmission spectra of two circular polarization components of the probe field exhibiting an enhanced two-photon absorption and a three-photon gain with comparable magnitude, leading to the lossless transmission and enhanced circular dichroism. We carried out a proof-of-principle experiment of fast optical polarization modulation in such a system by modulating the polarization state of the coupling field. The observed enhanced two-photon absorption and three-photon gain of the probe field are due to the result of competing atomic coherence effects

  3. A study on an object transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Sang Hwa; Kim, Gwang Ho; Choi, Suk Bong; Park, Jun Ho; Cha, Kyoung Rae

    2007-01-01

    The development of information and telecommunication industries leads to the development of semiconductor and optical industries. In recent years, the demand of optical components is growing due to the demand of faster network. On the other hand, conventional transport systems are not adequate for transporting precision optical components and semiconductors. Because the conveyor belt can damage precision optical components with contact force and a magnetic system would destroy the inner structure of semiconductor with magnetic field, a new system for transporting optical components and semiconductors is required. One of the alternatives to the existing systems is a transport system using ultrasonic wave excitation since it can transport precision components such as semiconductors and optical components without damage. In this paper, a transport system using 2-mode ultrasonic wave excitation was developed for transporting optical components and semiconductor, and its performance was evaluated. The relationship between transporting characteristics and flexural beam shapes were evaluated

  4. Optical seismic sensor systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, A. Craig; Cummings, Malcolm E.; Zavriyev, Anton; Christensen, Caleb A.; Lee, Keun

    2015-12-08

    Disclosed is an optical seismic sensor system for measuring seismic events in a geological formation, including a surface unit for generating and processing an optical signal, and a sensor device optically connected to the surface unit for receiving the optical signal over an optical conduit. The sensor device includes at least one sensor head for sensing a seismic disturbance from at least one direction during a deployment of the sensor device within a borehole of the geological formation. The sensor head includes a frame and a reference mass attached to the frame via at least one flexure, such that movement of the reference mass relative to the frame is constrained to a single predetermined path.

  5. FFTF Heat Transport System (HTS) component and system design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.W.; Edwards, P.A.

    1980-01-01

    The FFTF Heat Transport Systems and Components designs have been completed and successfully tested at isothermal conditions up to 427 0 C (800 0 F). General performance has been as predicted in the design analyses. Operational flexibility and reliability have been outstanding throughout the test program. The components and systems have been demonstrated ready to support reactor powered operation testing planned later in 1980

  6. Analysis of the Performance of a PAM/PPM/OOK System Operating with OCDMA, under Nonlinear Optical Effects in Optical Fiber Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, D. G.; Sales, J. C.; Pinto, P. V. F.; Moura, L. P.; Ferreira, A. C.; Menezes, J. W. M.; Guimarães, G. F.; Sombra, A. S. B.

    2016-06-01

    In this article, we present a numerical simulation study of encoding, decoding and propagation performance of short optical pulses and words with modulations OOK, PAM and PPM in OCDMA systems (Optical Code Division Multiple Access). The encoding and decoding of short pulses are obtained through fiber Bragg grating(FBG - FBG optical) devices, where the codes are inserted through discrete jumps in the optical phase (±π) where Gold codes were used. A figure of merit (SNR - Signal to Noise Ratio) was obtained to quantify the interference in propagation of short optical pulses. An increase in the temporal width was observed. For decoded pulses due to the nonlinearity effect, we observed an increase of 1.3 ps considering the propagation with γ=3 W-1 km-1 and γ=24 W-1 km-1. Analysis of coding and decoding words "a" and "w" was done. Considering the propagation (with γ=9 W-1 km-1) of a word "w", an error occurred in all modulations except for simultaneous PPM/PAM modulation, which is associated to the better autocorrelation characteristics obtained with the OOK, PAM and PPM modulations alone, and could double the transmission rate. The nonlinear effects directly affect the process of the autocorrelation codes due to interference from adjacent chip components of the code.

  7. Adaptive Optics System with Deformable Composite Mirror and High Speed, Ultra-Compact Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peter C.; Knowles, G. J.; Shea, B. G.

    2006-06-01

    We report development of a novel adaptive optics system for optical astronomy. Key components are very thin Deformable Mirrors (DM) made of fiber reinforced polymer resins, subminiature PMN-PT actuators, and low power, high bandwidth electronics drive system with compact packaging and minimal wiring. By using specific formulations of fibers, resins, and laminate construction, we are able to fabricate mirror face sheets that are thin (2 KHz. By utilizing QorTek’s proprietary synthetic impendence power supply technology, all the power, control, and signal extraction for many hundreds to 1000s of actuators and sensors can be implemented on a single matrix controller printed circuit board co-mounted with the DM. The matrix controller, in turn requires only a single serial bus interface, thereby obviating the need for massive wiring harnesses. The technology can be scaled up to multi-meter aperture DMs with >100K actuators.

  8. Micro benchtop optics by bulk silicon micromachining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Abraham P.; Pocha, Michael D.; McConaghy, Charles F.; Deri, Robert J.

    2000-01-01

    Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics of bulk silicon and integrating the parallel etch planes of silicon with silicon wafer bonding and impurity doping, enables the fabrication of on-chip optics with in situ aligned etched grooves for optical fibers, micro-lenses, photodiodes, and laser diodes. Other optical components that can be microfabricated and integrated include semi-transparent beam splitters, micro-optical scanners, pinholes, optical gratings, micro-optical filters, etc. Micromachining of bulk silicon utilizing the parallel etching characteristics thereof can be utilized to develop miniaturization of bio-instrumentation such as wavelength monitoring by fluorescence spectrometers, and other miniaturized optical systems such as Fabry-Perot interferometry for filtering of wavelengths, tunable cavity lasers, micro-holography modules, and wavelength splitters for optical communication systems.

  9. Recent research activities on functional ceramics for insulator, breeder and optical sensing systems in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, S., E-mail: nagata@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Katsui, H.; Hoshi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Tsuchiya, B. [Meijo University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Toh, K. [J-PARC Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Zhao, M.; Shikama, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hodgson, E.R. [Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents a brief overview of current research activities on functional ceramic materials for insulating components, tritium breeder and optical sensing systems, mainly carried out at Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University. Topics include recent experimental results related to the electrical degradation and optical changes in typical oxide ceramics (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}) concerning radiolytic effects. Hydrogen effects on the electrical conductivity in the Perovskite-type oxide ceramics and the interaction between hydrogen and irradiation induced defects in ternary Li oxides used as breeder materials, were dynamically observed under the irradiation environment. Further attention is focused on several challenging qualifications required for an advanced sensing system using optical characteristics (e.g., thermoluminescence in SiO{sub 2} core fiber, neutron-induced long lasting emission from oxides doped with rare-earth elements, and gasochromic coloration phenomenon of WO{sub 3})

  10. Raman Spectroscopy with simple optic components; Espectrometria Raman con componentes opticos simples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, Mario; Cunya, Eduardo; Olivera, Paula [Direccion de Investigacion y Desarrollo, Instituto Peruano de Energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru)

    2014-07-01

    Raman Spectroscopy is .a high resolution photonics technique that provides chemical and structural information of almost any material, organic or inorganic compound. In this report we describe the implementation of a system based on the principle of Raman scattering, developed to analyze solid samples. The spectrometer integrates an optical bench coupled to an optical fiber and a green laser source of 532 nm. The spectrometer was tested obtaining the Naphthalene and the Yellow 74 Pigment Raman patterns. (authors).

  11. Aging of systems: theoretical investigations on system and components time behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, M.; Coudray, R.

    1995-01-01

    Being a direct indicator of aging, the systems time-dependent failure rates need to be evaluated using qualified methodologies and starting from basic components time-dependent failure data. Basic component time-dependent failure data are not often available. Components failure data used in the paper are issued from some theoretical considerations rather than from field statistical observations. Four academic cases are presented and their results are discussed. Evaluations result in, very often, systems time-dependent failure rates that require understanding and careful interpretation. Kinetic trends of systems and of components may sometimes be different. (authors). 4 figs., 3 tabs., 3 refs., 1 appendix

  12. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.; Goodman, Joseph W.

    1989-10-01

    The accuracy requirements of optical processors in adaptive optics systems are determined by estimating the required accuracy in a general optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) that results in a smaller average residual aberration than that achieved with a conventional electronic digital processor with some specific computation speed. Special attention is given to an error analysis of a general OLAP with regard to the residual aberration that is created in an adaptive mirror system by the inaccuracies of the processor, and to the effect of computational speed of an electronic processor on the correction. Results are presented on the ability of an OLAP to compete with a digital processor in various situations.

  13. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu

    spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...... wavelength division multiplex (U-DWDM) optical coherent systems based on 10-Gbaud QPSK. We report U-DWDM 1.2-Tb/s QPSK coherent system achieving spectral efficiency of 4.0-bit/s/Hz. In the experimental demonstration, digital decision feed back equalizer (DFE) algorithms and a finite impulse response (FIR......In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing...

  14. Information Optics and Photonics Algorithms, Systems, and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses applications, recent advances, and emerging areas in fields with applications in information optics and photonics systems. The objective of this book is to illustrate and discuss novel approaches, analytical techniques, models, and technologies that enhance sensing, measurement, processing, interpretation, and visualization of information using free space optics and photonics. The material in this book concentrates on integration of diverse fields for cross-disciplinary applications including bio-photonics, digitally enhanced sensing and imaging systems, multi-dimensional optical imaging and image processing, bio-inspired imaging, 3D visualization, 3D displays, imaging on the nano-scale, quantum optics, super resolution imaging, photonics for biological applications, and holographic information systems. As a result, this book is a useful resource for researchers, engineers, and graduate students who work in the diverse fields comprising information optics and photonics.

  15. Laser systems with diamond optical elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    High power laser systems with optical elements of diamond having a thermal conductivity of at least 10 W/cm. 0 K at 300 0 K and an optical absorption at the laser beam wavelength of no more than 10 to 20 percent are described. (U.S.)

  16. Optical Imaging and Microscopy Techniques and Advanced Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Török, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This text on contemporary optical systems is intended for optical researchers and engineers, graduate students and optical microscopists in the biological and biomedical sciences. This second edition contains two completely new chapters. In addition most of the chapters from the first edition have been revised and updated. The book consists of three parts: The first discusses high-aperture optical systems, which form the backbone of optical microscopes. An example is a chapter new in the second edition on the emerging field of high numerical aperture diffractive lenses which seems to have particular promise in improving the correction of lenses. In this part particular attention is paid to optical data storage. The second part is on the use of non-linear optical techniques, including nonlinear optical excitation (total internal reflection fluorescence, second and third harmonic generation and two photon microscopy) and non-linear spectroscopy (CARS). The final part of the book presents miscellaneous technique...

  17. Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soufli, R; Bajt, S; Hudyma, R M; Taylor, J S

    2008-03-21

    EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.

  18. Application of Component Technology to E-commerce System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jianfeng

    2004-01-01

    At present E-commerce system tends to become more complex, and traditional system designing methods can not fufil the need of E-commerce system, thus requiring an effective methodas solution. With this concern, this paper introduces some concepts of component technology, then brings forward the new connotation and basic features of component technology through the analysis of its technological character. This paper finally discusses the application of component technology to E-commerce system.

  19. Optical manipulation with two beam traps in microfluidic polymer systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoury Arvelo, Maria; Matteucci, Marco; Sørensen, Kristian Tølbøl

    2015-01-01

    An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written in the microflui......An optical trapping system with two opposing laser beams, also known as the optical stretcher, are naturally constructed inside a microfluidic lab-on-chip system. We present and compare two approaches to combine a simple microfluidic system with either waveguides directly written...

  20. Integrated Micro-Optical Fluorescence Detection System for Microfluidic Electrochromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALLERMAN, ANDREW A.; ARNOLD, DON W.; ASBILL, RANDOLPH E.; BAILEY, CHRISTOPHER G.; CARTER, TONY RAY; KEMME, SHANALYN A.; MATZKE, CAROLYN M.; SAMORA, SALLY; SWEATT, WILLIAM C.; WARREN, MIAL E.; WENDT, JOEL R.

    1999-01-01

    The authors describe the design and microfabrication of an extremely compact optical system as a key element in an integrated capillary-channel electrochromatograph with laser induced fluorescence detection. The optical design uses substrate-mode propagation within the fused silica substrate. The optical system includes a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) array, two high performance microlenses and a commercial photodetector. The microlenses are multilevel diffractive optics patterned by electron beam lithography and etched by reactive ion etching in fused silica. Two generations of optical subsystems are described. The first generation design is integrated directly onto the capillary channel-containing substrate with a 6 mm separation between the VCSEL and photodetector. The second generation design separates the optical system onto its own module and the source to detector length is further compressed to 3.5 mm. The systems are designed for indirect fluorescence detection using infrared dyes. The first generation design has been tested with a 750 nm VCSEL exciting a 10(sup -4) M solution of CY-7 dye. The observed signal-to-noise ratio of better than 100:1 demonstrates that the background signal from scattered pump light is low despite the compact size of the optical system and meets the system sensitivity requirements

  1. Expert system for accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Sheng; Xie Xi; Liu Chunliang

    1995-01-01

    An expert system by Arity Prolog is developed for accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components. It automatically yields any order approximate analytical solutions for various accelerator single-freedom nonlinear components. As an example, the eighth order approximate analytical solution is derived by this expert system for a general accelerator single-freedom nonlinear component, showing that the design of the expert system is successful

  2. Accuracy requirements of optical linear algebra processors in adaptive optics imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downie, John D.

    1990-01-01

    A ground-based adaptive optics imaging telescope system attempts to improve image quality by detecting and correcting for atmospherically induced wavefront aberrations. The required control computations during each cycle will take a finite amount of time. Longer time delays result in larger values of residual wavefront error variance since the atmosphere continues to change during that time. Thus an optical processor may be well-suited for this task. This paper presents a study of the accuracy requirements in a general optical processor that will make it competitive with, or superior to, a conventional digital computer for the adaptive optics application. An optimization of the adaptive optics correction algorithm with respect to an optical processor's degree of accuracy is also briefly discussed.

  3. Reciprocity in optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potton, R J

    2004-01-01

    The application of reciprocity principles in optics has a long history that goes back to Stokes, Lorentz, Helmholtz and others. Moreover, optical applications need to be seen in the context of applications of reciprocity in particle scattering, acoustics, seismology and the solution of inverse problems, generally. In some of these other fields vector wave propagation is, as it is in optics, of the essence. For this reason the simplified approach to light wave polarization developed by, and named for, Jones is explored initially to see how and to what extent it encompasses reciprocity. The characteristic matrix of a uniform dielectric layer, used in the analysis of interference filters and mirrors, is reciprocal except when the layer is magneto-optical. The way in which the reciprocal nature of a characteristic matrix can be recognized is discussed next. After this, work on the influence of more realistic attributes of a dielectric stack on reciprocity is reviewed. Some of the numerous technological applications of magneto-optic non-reciprocal media are identified and the potential of a new class of non-reciprocal components is briefly introduced. Finally, the extension of the classical reciprocity concept to systems containing components that have nonlinear optical response is briefly mentioned

  4. Advanced infrared optically black baffle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seals, R.D.; Egert, C.M.; Allred, D.D.

    1990-01-01

    Infrared optically black baffle surfaces are an essential component of many advanced optical systems. All internal surfaces in advanced infrared optical sensors that require stray light management to achieve resolution are of primary concern in baffle design. Current industrial materials need improvements to meet advanced optical sensor systems requirements for optical, survivability, and endurability. Baffles are required to survive and operate in potentially severe environments. Robust diffuse-absorptive black surfaces, which are thermally and mechanically stable to threats of x-ray, launch, and in-flight maneuver conditions, with specific densities to allow an acceptable weight load, handleable during assembly, cleanable, and adaptive to affordable manufacturing, are required as optical baffle materials. In this paper an overview of recently developed advanced infrared optical baffle materials, requirements, manufacturing strategies, and the Optics MODIL (Manufacturing Operations Development and Integration Laboratory) Advanced Baffle Program are discussed

  5. TV-acquired optical diagnostics systems on ATA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalibjian, R.; Chong, Y.P.; Cornish, J.P.; Jackson, C.H.; Fessenden, T.J.

    1984-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report on optical system developments on the ATA and their applications to ATA beam characterization. Television (TV)-acquired optical diagnostics data provide spatial and temporal properties of the ATA beam that complements recorded information from other types of sensors, such as, beam-wall current monitors, x-ray probes, and rf probes. The ATA beam operates: (1) in the normal mode at 50-MeV, 10-kA at a 1-Hz rate; and (2) in the 1-KHz burst mode (for 10-pulses) at a 0.5 Hz rate. The beam has a 70-ns pulse width in vacuum propagation; however, beam-head erosion will occur in atmospheric propagation, thus limiting the pulse width to less than 50-ns. Various optical systems are used for ATA diagnostics. Optical-imaging provides a convenient measurement in a single pulse of the 2-dimensional profile of the beam intensity. It can also provide multiple 2-D framing in a single pulse. In some studies it may be desirable to study optical events with temporal resolution less than 100-ps with 1-dimensional streak cameras. Spatially integrated data from phototube cameras can also be used for background measurement applications as well as for single pixel monitoring. The optical line-of-sight (LOS) configurations have been made versatile to accommodate a large number of options for the various optical systems

  6. System for optical sorting of microscopic objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for optical sorting of microscopic objects and corresponding method. An optical detection system (52) is capable of determining the positions of said first and/or said second objects. One or more force transfer units (200, 205, 210, 215) are placed...... in a first reservoir, the one or more force units being suitable for optical momentum transfer. An electromagnetic radiation source (42) yields a radiation beam (31, 32) capable of optically displacing the force transfer units from one position to another within the first reservoir (1R). The force transfer...... units are displaced from positions away from the first objects to positions close to the first objects, and then displacing the first objects via a contact force (300) between the first objects and the force transfer units facilitates an optical sorting of the first objects and the second objects....

  7. Optical sensor technology for a noninvasive continuous monitoring of blood components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraitl, Jens; Timm, Ulrich; Lewis, Elfed; Ewald, Hartmut

    2010-02-01

    NIR-spectroscopy and Photoplethysmography (PPG) is used for a measurement of blood components. The absorptioncoefficient of blood differs at different wavelengths. This fact is used to calculate the optical absorbability characteristics of blood which is yielding information about blood components like hemoglobin (Hb), carboxyhemoglobin (CoHb) and arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2). The measured PPG time signals and the ratio between the peak to peak pulse amplitudes are used for a measurement of these parameters. Hemoglobin is the main component of red blood cells. The primary function of Hb is the transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissue and carbon dioxide back to the lungs. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter in evaluating the physiological status of an individual and an essential parameter in every blood count. Currently, invasive methods are used to measure the Hb concentration, whereby blood is taken from the patient and subsequently analyzed. Apart from the discomfort of drawing blood samples, an added disadvantage of this method is the delay between the blood collection and its analysis, which does not allow real time patient monitoring in critical situations. A noninvasive method allows pain free continuous on-line patient monitoring with minimum risk of infection and facilitates real time data monitoring allowing immediate clinical reaction to the measured data.

  8. Component aging evaluation with expert systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesemann, J.S.; Maguire, H.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The age degradation of components involves a complex relationship between a variety of variables. These relationships are typically modeled using probabilistic and deterministic analyses. These methods depend upon a formal understanding of the underlying degradation mechanisms and a database of experience which allows statistical analyses to extract numerical trends. At present, not all age degradation mechanisms are adequately modeled and available data for age degradation is in most cases insufficient. In addition, these methods tend to focus upon answers to isolated questions (e.g., What is the component failure rate?) rather than the more pertinent questions concerning operations and maintenance (e.g., should the component be replaced at the next outage). Fortunately, knowledge in the form of personal experience does exist which allows plant personnel to make decisions concerning operations and maintenance. This knowledge can be modeled using expert systems. This paper discusses CAGES (Component Aging Expert System). It combines expert rules (heuristics), probabilistic models, and deterministic models to make evaluations of component aging; predict the implications for component life extension, operational readiness, maintenance effectiveness, and safety, and make recommendations for maintenance and operation

  9. Application of fuzzy-MOORA method: Ranking of components for reliability estimation of component-based software systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeeshan Ali Siddiqui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Component-based software system (CBSS development technique is an emerging discipline that promises to take software development into a new era. As hardware systems are presently being constructed from kits of parts, software systems may also be assembled from components. It is more reliable to reuse software than to create. It is the glue code and individual components reliability that contribute to the reliability of the overall system. Every component contributes to overall system reliability according to the number of times it is being used, some components are of critical usage, known as usage frequency of component. The usage frequency decides the weight of each component. According to their weights, each component contributes to the overall reliability of the system. Therefore, ranking of components may be obtained by analyzing their reliability impacts on overall application. In this paper, we propose the application of fuzzy multi-objective optimization on the basis of ratio analysis, Fuzzy-MOORA. The method helps us find the best suitable alternative, software component, from a set of available feasible alternatives named software components. It is an accurate and easy to understand tool for solving multi-criteria decision making problems that have imprecise and vague evaluation data. By the use of ratio analysis, the proposed method determines the most suitable alternative among all possible alternatives, and dimensionless measurement will realize the job of ranking of components for estimating CBSS reliability in a non-subjective way. Finally, three case studies are shown to illustrate the use of the proposed technique.

  10. Multi-scale optical metrology for the quality control of polymer microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Marinello, Francesco; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2009-01-01

    Micro injection moulding is a replication technology enabling large scale production of polymer-based micro products. To this respect, optical measuring technologies were selected to perform the quality control of a polymer micro-component: an optical coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and a white...

  11. UniSat-5: a space-based optical system for space debris monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Roberto, Riccardo; Cappelletti, Chantal

    2012-07-01

    Micro-satellite missions, thanks to the miniaturization process of electronic components, now have a broader range of applications. Gauss Group at School of Aerospace Engineering has been a pioneer in educational micro-satellites, namely with UNISAT and EDUSAT missions. Moreover it has been long involved in space debris related studies, such as optical observations as well as mitigation. A new project is under development for a compact digital imaging system. The purpose will be in situ observation of space debris on board Unisat-5 micro-satellite. One of the key elements of observing on orbit is that many atmospheric phenomena would be avoided, such as diffraction and EM absorption. Hence images would gain more contrast and solar spectral irradiance would be higher for the whole visible spectrum Earlier limitations of power and instrument size prevented the inclusion of these payloads in educational satellite missions. The system is composed of an optical tube, a camera, C band and S band transceivers and two antennas. The system is independent from the rest of the spacecraft. The optical tube is a Schmidt-Cassegrain reflector, and the magnitude limit is 13. The camera is equipped with a panchromatic 5Mpix sensor, capable of direct video streaming, as well as local storage of recorded images. The transceivers operate on ISM 2.4GHz and 5 GHz Wi-Fi bands, and they provide stand-alone communication capabilities to the payload, and Unisat-5 OBDH can switch between the two. Both transceivers are connected to their respective custom-designed patch antenna. The ground segment is constituted of a high gain antenna dish, which will use the same transceiver on board the spacecraft as the feed, in order to establish a TCP/IP wireless link. Every component of this system is a consumer grade product. Therefore price reduction of cutting edge imaging technology now allows the use of professional instruments, that combined with the new wireless technology developed for

  12. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF GAMMA-RAY BURST OPTICAL EMISSION. II. AFTERGLOW ONSET AND LATE RE-BRIGHTENING COMPONENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang Enwei; Li Liang; Liang Yunfeng; Tang Qingwen; Chen Jiemin; Lu Ruijing; Lue Lianzhong [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Gao He; Zhang, Bing; Lue Houjun [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Wu Xuefeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Yi Shuangxi; Dai Zigao [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, Jiangsu 210093 (China); Zhang Jin; Wei Jianyan, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2013-09-01

    We continue our systematic statistical study of various components of gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical light curves. We decompose the early onset bump and the late re-brightening bump with empirical fits and analyze their statistical properties. Among the 146 GRBs that have well-sampled optical light curves, the onset and re-brightening bumps are observed in 38 and 26 GRBs, respectively. It is found that the typical rising and decaying slopes for both the onset and re-brightening bumps are {approx}1.5 and {approx} - 1.15, respectively. No early onset bumps in the X-ray band are detected to be associated with the optical onset bumps, while an X-ray re-brightening bump is detected for half of the re-brightening optical bumps. The peak luminosity is anti-correlated with the peak time L{sub p}{proportional_to}t{sub p}{sup -1.81{+-}0.32} for the onset bumps and L{sub p}{proportional_to}t{sub p}{sup -0.83{+-}0.17} for the re-brightening bumps. Both L{sub p} and the isotropic energy release of the onset bumps are correlated with E{sub {gamma},iso}, whereas no similar correlation is found for the re-brightening bumps. These results suggest that the afterglow onset bumps are likely due to the deceleration of the GRB fireballs. Taking the onset bumps as probes for the properties of the fireballs and their ambient medium, we find that the typical power-law index of the relativistic electrons is 2.5 and the medium density profile behaves as n{proportional_to}r {sup -1} within the framework of the synchrotron external shock models. With the medium density profile obtained from our analysis, we also confirm the correlation between the initial Lorentz factor ({Gamma}{sub 0}) and E{sub iso,{gamma}} in our previous work. The jet component that produces the re-brightening bump seems to be on-axis and independent of the prompt emission jet component. Its typical kinetic energy budget would be about one order of magnitude larger than the prompt emission component, but with a lower {Gamma

  13. SPECIAL ASPECTS OF INITIAL OPTICAL SCHEME SELECTION FOR DESIGN OF NON-IMAGING OPTICAL SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    R. V. Anitropov; P. Benitez; I. L. Livshits S. K. Stafeev; S. K. Stafeev; V. N. Vasilev; M. V. Letunovskaya; A. S. Zaitceva

    2016-01-01

    Subject of Research. The research results, structural composition analysis and the parametric synthesis of the projected imaging and non-imaging optical systems were presented. We made an attempt to use the gained experience about imaging systems while designing non-imaging systems, by adapting the composition theory for the calculations of non-imaging systems. Several patterns were revealed, which provide a deeper understanding of the design process of non-imaging optical systems; measures ...

  14. Design of a fiber-optic interrogator module for telecommunication satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Philipp; Koch, Alexander W.; Plattner, Markus; Hurni, Andreas; Manhart, Markus

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present the results of the radiation tests performed on the optical components of the fiber-optic interrogator module as a part of the Hybrid Sensor Bus (HSB) system. The HSB-system is developed in the frame of an ESAARTES program and will be verified as flight demonstrator onboard the German Heinrich Hertz satellite in 2016. The HSB system is based on a modular concept which includes sensor interrogation modules based on I2C electrical and fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fiber-optical sensor elements. Onboard fiber-optic sensing allows the implementation of novel control and monitoring methods. For read-out of multiple FBG sensors, a design based on a tunable laser diode as well as a design based on a spectrometer is considered. The expected and tested total ionizing dose (TID) applicable to the HSB system is in the range between 100 krad and 300 krad inside the satellite in the geostationary orbit over a life time of 15 years. We present radiation test results carried out on critical optical components to be used in the fiber-optic interrogation module. These components are a modulated grating Y-branch (MGY) tunable laser diode acting as light source for the tuning laser approach, the line detector of a spectrometer, photodetectors and the FBG sensors acting as sensor elements. A detailed literature inquiry of radiation effects on optical fibers and FBG sensors, is also included in the paper. The fiber-optic interrogator module implemented in the HSB system is based on the most suitable technology, which sustains the harsh environment in the geostationary orbit.

  15. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhs, Jeffrey D [Lenoir City, TN; Earl, Dennis D [Knoxville, TN; Beshears, David L [Knoxville, TN; Maxey, Lonnie C [Powell, TN; Jordan, John K [Oak Ridge, TN; Lind, Randall F [Lenoir City, TN

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  16. Fabry-Perot confocal resonator optical associative memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Thomas J.; Rogers, Steven K.; Vogel, George A.

    1993-03-01

    A unique optical associative memory architecture is presented that combines the optical processing environment of a Fabry-Perot confocal resonator with the dynamic storage and recall properties of volume holograms. The confocal resonator reduces the size and complexity of previous associative memory architectures by folding a large number of discrete optical components into an integrated, compact optical processing environment. Experimental results demonstrate the system is capable of recalling a complete object from memory when presented with partial information about the object. A Fourier optics model of the system's operation shows it implements a spatially continuous version of a discrete, binary Hopfield neural network associative memory.

  17. Geometric optics theory and design of astronomical optical systems using Mathematica

    CERN Document Server

    Romano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    This text, now in its second edition, presents the mathematical background needed to design many optical combinations that are used in astronomical telescopes and cameras. It uses a novel approach to third-order aberration theory based on Fermat’s principle and the use of particular optical paths (called stigmatic paths) instead of rays, allowing for easier derivation of third-order formulae. Each optical combination analyzed is accompanied by a downloadable Mathematica® notebook that automates its third-order design, eliminating the need for lengthy calculations. The essential aspects of an optical system with an axis of rotational symmetry are introduced first, along with a development of Gaussian optics from Fermat’s principal. A simpler approach to third-order monochromatic aberrations based on both Fermat’s principle and stigmatic paths is then described, followed by a new chapter on fifth-order aberrations and their classification. Several specific optical devices are discussed and analyzed, incl...

  18. Technical Readiness and Gaps Analysis of Commercial Optical Materials and Measurement Systems for Advanced Small Modular Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy); Andersen, Eric S.; Berglin, Eric J.; Bliss, Mary; Cannon, Bret D.; Devanathan, Ramaswami; Mendoza, Albert; Sheen, David M.

    2013-08-06

    This report intends to support Department of Energy’s Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap and industry stakeholders by evaluating optical-based instrumentation and control (I&C) concepts for advanced small modular reactor (AdvSMR) applications. These advanced designs will require innovative thinking in terms of engineering approaches, materials integration, and I&C concepts to realize their eventual viability and deployability. The primary goals of this report include: 1. Establish preliminary I&C needs, performance requirements, and possible gaps for AdvSMR designs based on best available published design data. 2. Document commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) optical sensors, components, and materials in terms of their technical readiness to support essential AdvSMR in-vessel I&C systems. 3. Identify technology gaps by comparing the in-vessel monitoring requirements and environmental constraints to COTS optical sensor and materials performance specifications. 4. Outline a future research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program plan that addresses these gaps and develops optical-based I&C systems that enhance the viability of future AdvSMR designs. The development of clean, affordable, safe, and proliferation-resistant nuclear power is a key goal that is documented in the Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap. This roadmap outlines RD&D activities intended to overcome technical, economic, and other barriers, which currently limit advances in nuclear energy. These activities will ensure that nuclear energy remains a viable component to this nation’s energy security.

  19. A New Instrument for the IRTF: the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System (MORIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Rojas, F. E.; Bus, S. J.; Rayner, J. T.; Stahlberger, W. E.; Tokunaga, A. T.; Adams, E. R.; Person, M. J.

    2010-10-01

    NASA's 3-m Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) on Mauna Kea, HI plays a leading role in obtaining planetary science observations. However, there has been no capability for high-speed, visible imaging from this telescope. Here we present a new IRTF instrument, MORIS, the MIT Optical Rapid Imaging System. MORIS is based on POETS (Portable Occultation Eclipse and Transit Systems; Souza et al., 2006, PASP, 118, 1550). Its primary component is an Andor iXon camera, a 512x512 array of 16-micron pixels with high quantum efficiency, low read noise, low dark current, and full-frame readout rates of between 3.5 Hz (6 e /pixel read noise) and 35 Hz (49 e /pixel read noise at electron-multiplying gain=1). User-selectable binning and subframing can increase the cadence to a few hundred Hz. An electron-multiplying mode can be employed for photon counting, effectively reducing the read noise to sub-electron levels at the expense of dynamic range. Data cubes, or individual frames, can be triggered to nanosecond accuracy using a GPS. MORIS is mounted on the side-facing widow of SpeX (Rayner et al. 2003, PASP, 115, 362), allowing simultaneous near-infrared and visible observations. The mounting box contains 3:1 reducing optics to produce a 60 arcsec x 60 arcsec field of view at f/12.7. It hosts a ten-slot filter wheel, with Sloan g×, r×, i×, and z×, VR, Johnson V, and long-pass red filters. We describe the instrument design, components, and measured characteristics. We report results from the first science observations, a 24 June 2008 stellar occultation by Pluto. We also discuss a recent overhaul of the optical path, performed in order to eliminate scattered light. This work is supported in part by NASA Planetary Major Equipment grant NNX07AK95G. We are indebted to the University of Hawai'i Institute for Astronomy machine shop, in particular Randy Chung, for fabricating instrument components.

  20. Diurnal and seasonal characteristics of the optical properties and direct radiative forcing of different aerosol components in Seoul megacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sang-Keun; Shon, Zang-Ho; Park, Yeon-Hee

    2017-12-01

    The temporal variations (diurnal and seasonal) of the optical properties and direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF) of different aerosol components (water-soluble, insoluble, black carbon (BC), and sea-salt) were analyzed using the hourly resolution data (PM 2.5 ) measured at an urban site in Seoul, Korea during 2010, based on a modeling approach. In general, the water-soluble component was predominant over all other components (with a higher concentration) in terms of its impact on the optical properties (except for absorbing BC) and DARF. The annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD, τ) at 500nm for the water-soluble component was 0.38±0.07 (0.06±0.01 for BC). The forcing at the surface (DARF SFC ) and top of the atmosphere (DARF TOA ), and in the atmosphere (DARF ATM ) for most aerosol components (except for BC) during the daytime were highest in spring and lowest in late fall or early winter. The maximum DARF SFC occurred in the morning during most seasons (except for the water-soluble components showing peaks in the afternoon or noon in summer, fall, or winter), while the maximum DARF TOA occurred in the morning during spring and/or winter and in the afternoon during summer and/or fall. The estimated DARF SFC and DARF ATM of the water-soluble component were in the range of -49 to -84Wm -2 and +10 to +22Wm -2 , respectively. The DARF SFC and DARF ATM of BC were -26 to -39Wm -2 and +32 to +51Wm -2 , respectively, showing highest in summer and lowest in spring, with morning peaks regardless of the season. This positive DARF ATM of BC in this study area accounted for approximately 64% of the total atmospheric aerosol forcing due to strong radiative absorption, thus increasing atmospheric heating by 2.9±1.2Kday -1 (heating rate efficiency of 39K day -1 τ -1 ) and then causing further atmospheric warming. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fiber-optic polarization diversity detection for rotary probe optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony M D; Pahlevaninezhad, Hamid; Yang, Victor X D; Lam, Stephen; MacAulay, Calum; Lane, Pierre

    2014-06-15

    We report a polarization diversity detection scheme for optical coherence tomography with a new, custom, miniaturized fiber coupler with single mode (SM) fiber inputs and polarization maintaining (PM) fiber outputs. The SM fiber inputs obviate matching the optical lengths of the X and Y OCT polarization channels prior to interference and the PM fiber outputs ensure defined X and Y axes after interference. Advantages for this scheme include easier alignment, lower cost, and easier miniaturization compared to designs with free-space bulk optical components. We demonstrate the utility of the detection system to mitigate the effects of rapidly changing polarization states when imaging with rotating fiber optic probes in Intralipid suspension and during in vivo imaging of human airways.

  2. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems SIG summary and database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    The main objectives of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Optical Systems Special Investigative Group (SIG) Discipline are to develop a database of experimental findings on LDEF optical systems and elements hardware, and provide an optical system overview. Unlike the electrical and mechanical disciplines, the optics effort relies primarily on the testing of hardware at the various principal investigator's laboratories, since minimal testing of optical hardware was done at Boeing. This is because all space-exposed optics hardware are part of other individual experiments. At this time, all optical systems and elements testing by experiment investigator teams is not complete, and in some cases has hardly begun. Most experiment results to date, document observations and measurements that 'show what happened'. Still to come from many principal investigators is a critical analysis to explain 'why it happened' and future design implications. The original optical system related concerns and the lessons learned at a preliminary stage in the Optical Systems Investigations are summarized. The design of the Optical Experiments Database and how to acquire and use the database to review the LDEF results are described.

  3. Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) optical systems SIG summary and database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-09-01

    The main objectives of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Optical Systems Special Investigative Group (SIG) Discipline are to develop a database of experimental findings on LDEF optical systems and elements hardware, and provide an optical system overview. Unlike the electrical and mechanical disciplines, the optics effort relies primarily on the testing of hardware at the various principal investigator's laboratories, since minimal testing of optical hardware was done at Boeing. This is because all space-exposed optics hardware are part of other individual experiments. At this time, all optical systems and elements testing by experiment investigator teams is not complete, and in some cases has hardly begun. Most experiment results to date, document observations and measurements that 'show what happened'. Still to come from many principal investigators is a critical analysis to explain 'why it happened' and future design implications. The original optical system related concerns and the lessons learned at a preliminary stage in the Optical Systems Investigations are summarized. The design of the Optical Experiments Database and how to acquire and use the database to review the LDEF results are described.

  4. Infrared optical constants of aqueous sulfate-nitrate-ammonium multi-component tropospheric aerosols from attenuated total reflectance measurements: Part II. An examination of mixing rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boer, Gregory J.; Sokolik, Irina N.; Martin, Scot T.

    2007-01-01

    We examine the performance of several mixing rules that are commonly used in modeling optical constants of aerosol mixtures either in remote sensing or radiation transfer/climate studies employing the new refractive index data reported in Part I. We demonstrate that the optical constants of the considered mixtures are not accurately modeled using pure solute optical constants (e.g., ammonium sulfate optical constants and the optical constants of pure water) due to the complex ion-ion and ion-water interactions. On the other hand, we do find that ternary and quaternary mixtures can be well modeled by applying the mixing rules to lower order multi-component optical constants data, e.g., binary data to determine ternary optical constants, or binary and ternary data to determine quaternary optical constants. By using lower order optical constants data sets, much of the ion-ion and ion-water effects are captured. Both mass-fraction and volume-fraction weighting of the 'component' optical constants yield satisfactory results, performing as well or better than the more complicated mixing rules. These findings will be of practical use in remote sensing and radiation transfer/climate studies as well as help guide the decision on what optical constants measurements will be required

  5. Optical detection in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kutter, Jörg Peter

    2009-01-01

    Optical detection schemes continue to be favoured for measurements in microfluidic systems. A selection of the latest progress mainly within the last two years is critically reviewed. Emphasis is on integrated solutions, such as planar waveguides, coupling schemes to the outside world, evanescent...... to ease commercialisation of the devices. This work will hopefully result in more commercial products that benefit from integrated optics, because the impact on commercial devices so far has been modest....

  6. OSSIM wave-optics toolbox and its use to simulate AEOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carey A.; Forgham, James L.; Jones, Bruce W.; Jones, Kenneth D.

    2001-12-01

    OSSim (Optical System Simulation) is a simulation toolbox of optical and processing components. By using full wave-optics in the time-domain, OSSim simulates diffractive effects and control loop interactions missed by simpler analyses. OSSim also models the atmosphere, with user customizable turbulence strength, wind, and slew. This paper first presents 2 introductory examples: a simple 2-lens imaging system and a simple tilt-control system. Then it presents a simulation of the 3.67-meter AEOS (Advanced Electro-Optics System) telescope on Maui. The OSSim simulation agrees well with the AEOS experimental results.

  7. Computer program for optical systems ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, T. J.; Konn, H.

    1967-01-01

    Program traces rays of light through optical systems consisting of up to 65 different optical surfaces and computes the aberrations. For design purposes, paraxial tracings with astigmation and third order tracings are provided.

  8. Modelling optical fibers acquisition and transmission systems for their use in nuclear environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van-Uffelen, Marco

    2001-01-01

    In order to introduce connections based on optical fibres in the field of civil nuclear activities, it is important to have a good knowledge of their behaviour under irradiation. The objective of this research thesis is thus to develop a tool to predict the lifetime of such an optical connection which would allow a predictive maintenance. The adopted methodology relies on a modular approach and consists in the characterization of the behaviour of individual components under test conditions which are representative of addressed applications. Transfer functions are then chained to obtain the connection predictive model. Various components have been studied: mono- and multi-mode optical fibres, light-emitting diodes, vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser diodes (VCSEL), as well as Si and InGaAs sensors. These components have been submitted to a range of dose rates and cumulated dose under temperatures reaching 85 C. Based on on-line measurements, a pragmatic approach has been assessed to predict the evolution of optical losses induced in optical fibres during several months. The difference between measurements and predictions ranges between 10 and 20 per cent depending on the fibre type and on the wavelength. VCSELs display a high tolerance to gamma radiation and a steady operation at high temperatures, whereas sensors appear to be the weakest link [fr

  9. The LAM space active optics facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, C.; Ferrari, M.; Hugot, E.; Escolle, C.; Bonnefois, A.; Bernot, M.; Bret-Dibat, T.; Carlavan, M.; Falzon, F.; Fusco, T.; Laubier, D.; Liotard, A.; Michau, V.; Mugnier, L.

    2017-11-01

    The next generation of large lightweight space telescopes will require the use of active optics systems to enhance the performance and increase the spatial resolution. Since almost 10 years now, LAM, CNES, THALES and ONERA conjugate their experience and efforts for the development of space active optics through the validation of key technological building blocks: correcting devices, metrology components and control strategies. This article presents the work done so far on active correcting mirrors and wave front sensing, as well as all the facilities implemented. The last part of this paper focuses on the merging of the MADRAS and RASCASSE test-set up. This unique combination will provide to the active optics community an automated, flexible and versatile facility able to feed and characterise space active optics components.

  10. Adjustment of gripping force by optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalba, C. K.; Barz, C.

    2018-01-01

    With increasing automation, robotics also requires ever more intelligent solutions in the handling of various tasks. In this context, many grippers must also be re-designed. For this, they must always be adapted for different requirements. The equipment of the gripper systems with sensors should help to make the gripping process more intelligent. In order to achieve such objectives, optical systems can also be used. This work analyzes how the gripping force can be adjusted by means of an optical recognition. The result of this work is the creation of a connection between optical recognition, tolerances, gripping force and real-time control. In this way, algorithms can be created, with the aid of which robot grippers as well as other gripping systems become more intelligent.

  11. OCSEGen: Open Components and Systems Environment Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachuk, Oksana

    2014-01-01

    To analyze a large system, one often needs to break it into smaller components.To analyze a component or unit under analysis, one needs to model its context of execution, called environment, which represents the components with which the unit interacts. Environment generation is a challenging problem, because the environment needs to be general enough to uncover unit errors, yet precise enough to make the analysis tractable. In this paper, we present a tool for automated environment generation for open components and systems. The tool, called OCSEGen, is implemented on top of the Soot framework. We present the tool's current support and discuss its possible future extensions.

  12. Plastic optical fiber serial communications link for distributed control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Piyush; Sharangpani, K. K.; Vora, H. S.; Nakhe, S. V.; Jain, R.; Shenoy, N. M.; Bhatnagar, R.; Shirke, N. D.

    2001-09-01

    One of the most common interface for communications specified is RS 232C standard. Though widely accepted, RS232 has limited transmission speed, range and networking capabilities. RS 422 standard overcomes limitations by using differential signal lines. In automation of the operation of gas discharge lasers, multiple processors are used for control of lasers, cooling system, vacuum system etc. High EMI generated by lasers interfere through galvanic transmission or by radiation over the length of cables, and hang up operation of processors or control PC. A serial communications link was designed eliminating copper transmission media, using plastic optical fiber cables and components, to connect local controllers with the master PC working on RS232 protocols. The paper discusses the design and implementation of a high ly reliable EMI harden serial communications link.

  13. Integrating the pastoral component in agricultural systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César de Faccio Carvalho

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This paper aims to discuss the impact of the introduction of pastures and grazing animals in agricultural systems. For the purposes of this manuscript, we focus on within-farm integrated crop-livestock systems (ICLS, typical of Southern Brazil. These ICLS are designed to create and enhance the synergisms and emergent properties have arisen from agricultural areas where livestock activities are integrated with crops. We show that the introduction of the crop component will affect less the preceding condition than the introduction of the livestock component. While the introduction of crops in pastoral systems represents increasing diversity of the plant component, the introduction of animals would represent the entry of new flows and interactions within the system. Thus, given the new complexity levels achieved from the introduction of grazing, the probability of arising emergent properties is theoretically much higher. However, grazing management is vital in determining the success or failure of such initiative. The grazing intensity practiced during the pasture phase would affect the canopy structure and the forage availability to animals. In adequate and moderate grazing intensities, it is possible to affirm that livestock combined with crops (ICLS has a potential positive impact. As important as the improvements that grazing animals can generate to the soil-plant components, the economic resilience remarkably increases when pasture rotations are introduced compared with purely agriculture systems, particularly in climate-risk situations. Thus, the integration of the pastoral component can enhance the sustainable intensification of food production, but it modifies simple, pure agricultural systems into more complex and knowledge-demanding production systems.

  14. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  15. Structured Performance Analysis for Component Based Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Salmi , N.; Moreaux , Patrice; Ioualalen , M.

    2012-01-01

    International audience; The Component Based System (CBS) paradigm is now largely used to design software systems. In addition, performance and behavioural analysis remains a required step for the design and the construction of efficient systems. This is especially the case of CBS, which involve interconnected components running concurrent processes. % This paper proposes a compositional method for modeling and structured performance analysis of CBS. Modeling is based on Stochastic Well-formed...

  16. Variable-length code construction for incoherent optical CDMA systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jen-Yung; Jhou, Jhih-Syue; Wen, Jyh-Horng

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the multirate transmission in fiber-optic code-division multiple-access (CDMA) networks. In this article, we propose a variable-length code construction for any existing optical orthogonal code to implement a multirate optical CDMA system (called as the multirate code system). For comparison, a multirate system where the lower-rate user sends each symbol twice is implemented and is called as the repeat code system. The repetition as an error-detection code in an ARQ scheme in the repeat code system is also investigated. Moreover, a parallel approach for the optical CDMA systems, which is proposed by Marić et al., is also compared with other systems proposed in this study. Theoretical analysis shows that the bit error probability of the proposed multirate code system is smaller than other systems, especially when the number of lower-rate users is large. Moreover, if there is at least one lower-rate user in the system, the multirate code system accommodates more users than other systems when the error probability of system is set below 10 -9.

  17. Performance analysis of multiple interference suppression over asynchronous/synchronous optical code-division multiple-access system based on complementary/prime/shifted coding scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieh, Ta-Chun; Yang, Chao-Chin; Huang, Jen-Fa

    2011-08-01

    A complete complementary/prime/shifted prime (CPS) code family for the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) system is proposed. Based on the ability of complete complementary (CC) code, the multiple-access interference (MAI) can be suppressed and eliminated via spectral amplitude coding (SAC) OCDMA system under asynchronous/synchronous transmission. By utilizing the shifted prime (SP) code in the SAC scheme, the hardware implementation of encoder/decoder can be simplified with a reduced number of optical components, such as arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) and fiber Bragg grating (FBG). This system has a superior performance as compared to previous bipolar-bipolar coding OCDMA systems.

  18. Channel correlation of free space optical communication systems with receiver diversity in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Fu, Yulong; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Xie, Xiaolong

    2018-05-01

    Spatial diversity as an effective technique to mitigate the turbulence fading has been widely utilized in free space optical (FSO) communication systems. The received signals, however, will suffer from channel correlation due to insufficient spacing between component antennas. In this paper, the new expressions of the channel correlation coefficient and specifically its components (the large- and small-scale channel correlation coefficients) for a plane wave with aperture effects are derived for horizontal link in moderate-to-strong turbulence, using a non-Kolmogorov spectrum that has a generalized power law in the range of 3-4 instead of the fixed classical Kolmogorov power law of 11/3. And then the influence of power law variations on the channel correlation coefficient and its components are analysed. The numerical results indicated that various value of the power law lead to varying effects on the channel correlation coefficient and its components. This work will help with the further investigation on the fading correlation in spatial diversity systems.

  19. All-optical reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duport, François; Schneider, Bendix; Smerieri, Anteo; Haelterman, Marc; Massar, Serge

    2012-09-24

    Reservoir Computing is a novel computing paradigm that uses a nonlinear recurrent dynamical system to carry out information processing. Recent electronic and optoelectronic Reservoir Computers based on an architecture with a single nonlinear node and a delay loop have shown performance on standardized tasks comparable to state-of-the-art digital implementations. Here we report an all-optical implementation of a Reservoir Computer, made of off-the-shelf components for optical telecommunications. It uses the saturation of a semiconductor optical amplifier as nonlinearity. The present work shows that, within the Reservoir Computing paradigm, all-optical computing with state-of-the-art performance is possible.

  20. Design considerations for highly effective fluorescence excitation and detection optical systems for molecular diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, Axel; Van Hille, Herbert; Kuk, Sola

    2018-02-01

    Modern instruments for molecular diagnostics are continuously optimized for diagnostic accuracy, versatility and throughput. The latest progress in LED technology together with tailored optics solutions allows developing highly efficient photonics engines perfectly adapted to the sample under test. Super-bright chip-on-board LED light sources are a key component for such instruments providing maximum luminous intensities in a multitude of narrow spectral bands. In particular the combination of white LEDs with other narrow band LEDs allows achieving optimum efficiency outperforming traditional Xenon light sources in terms of energy consumption, heat dissipation in the system, and switching time between spectral channels. Maximum sensitivity of the diagnostic system can only be achieved with an optimized optics system for the illumination and imaging of the sample. The illumination beam path must be designed for optimum homogeneity across the field while precisely limiting the angular distribution of the excitation light. This is a necessity for avoiding spill-over to the detection beam path and guaranteeing the efficiency of the spectral filtering. The imaging optics must combine high spatial resolution, high light collection efficiency and optimized suppression of excitation light for good signal-to-noise ratio. In order to achieve minimum cross-talk between individual wells in the sample, the optics design must also consider the generation of stray light and the formation of ghost images. We discuss what parameters and limitations have to be considered in an integrated system design approach covering the full path from the light source to the detector.

  1. The experimental optical burst switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jian-Ping; Wu, Guiling; Wang, Hui; Lu, Jialin; Ye, Ailun

    2005-02-01

    The first optical burst switching (OBS) system has been demonstrated in China, which includes three edge routers and one core-node. A kind of fast wavelength selective optical switching was used in the system. The core OBS node consists of a kind of wavelength selective optical switch we developed. It consists of two SOA switches and one wavelength selective thin film filter with centre wavelength at one wavelength. There are one input optical fiber and two output fibers, each fiber carries two wavelengths. The Dell PE2650 servers act as the edge OBS routers. The wavelength of each data channel is located in C-band and the bit rate is at 1.25Gbps. The control channel uses bit rate of 100Mbps at wavelength of 1310 nm. A novel effective scheme for Just-In-Time (JIT) protocol was proposed and implemented. OBS services, such as Video on Demand (VOD) and file transfer protocol (FTP), have been demonstrated. Assembling and scheduling methods that are capable to guarantee the QoS (quality of service) of the transported service are studied.

  2. Mobile based optical form evaluation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asım Sinan YÜKSEL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Optical forms that contain multiple-choice answers are widely used both for electing students and evaluating student achievements in education systems in our country and worldwide. Optical forms are evaluated by employing optical mark recognition techniques through optical readers. High cost of these machines, limited access to them, long waiting time for evaluation results make the process hard for educationists working in cities or countries. In this study, a mobile application was developed for the educationists who own mobile phones or tablets for the purpose of evaluating students' answer sheets quickly and independent of location and optical readers. Optical form recognition, reading and evaluation processes are done on the image of student's answer sheet that is taken with the mobile phone or tablet of educationist. The Android based mobile application that we developed has a user-friendly interface, high success rate and is the first of our knowledge application that operates on mobile platforms in this field.

  3. Thermo-mechanical analysis of ITER first mirrors and its use for the ITER equatorial visible/infrared wide angle viewing system optical design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joanny, M.; Salasca, S.; Dapena, M.; Cantone, B.; Travère, J. M.; Thellier, C.; Fermé, J. J.; Marot, L.; Buravand, O.; Perrollaz, G.; Zeile, C.

    2012-01-01

    ITER first mirrors (FMs), as the first components of most ITER optical diagnostics, will be exposed to high plasma radiation flux and neutron load. To reduce the FMs heating and optical surface deformation induced during ITER operation, the use of relevant materials and cooling system are foreseen. The calculations led on different materials and FMs designs and geometries (100 mm and 200 mm) show that the use of CuCrZr and TZM, and a complex integrated cooling system can limit efficiently the FMs heating and reduce their optical surface deformation under plasma radiation flux and neutron load. These investigations were used to evaluate, for the ITER equatorial port visible/infrared wide angle viewing system, the impact of the FMs properties change during operation on the instrument main optical performances. The results obtained are presented and discussed.

  4. An optical CDMA system based on chaotic sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-lei; En, De; Wang, Li-guo

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a coherent asynchronous optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) system is proposed, whose encoder/decoder is an all-optical generator. This all-optical generator can generate analog and bipolar chaotic sequences satisfying the logistic maps. The formula of bit error rate (BER) is derived, and the relationship of BER and the number of simultaneous transmissions is analyzed. Due to the good property of correlation, this coherent OCDMA system based on these bipolar chaotic sequences can support a large number of simultaneous users, which shows that these chaotic sequences are suitable for asynchronous OCDMA system.

  5. Student project of optical system analysis API-library development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga

    2017-08-01

    In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.

  6. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit

    2015-04-20

    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  7. Theory of aberration fields for general optical systems with freeform surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerschbach, Kyle; Rolland, Jannick P; Thompson, Kevin P

    2014-11-03

    This paper utilizes the framework of nodal aberration theory to describe the aberration field behavior that emerges in optical systems with freeform optical surfaces, particularly φ-polynomial surfaces, including Zernike polynomial surfaces, that lie anywhere in the optical system. If the freeform surface is located at the stop or pupil, the net aberration contribution of the freeform surface is field constant. As the freeform optical surface is displaced longitudinally away from the stop or pupil of the optical system, the net aberration contribution becomes field dependent. It is demonstrated that there are no new aberration types when describing the aberration fields that arise with the introduction of freeform optical surfaces. Significantly it is shown that the aberration fields that emerge with the inclusion of freeform surfaces in an optical system are exactly those that have been described by nodal aberration theory for tilted and decentered optical systems. The key contribution here lies in establishing the field dependence and nodal behavior of each freeform term that is essential knowledge for effective application to optical system design. With this development, the nodes that are distributed throughout the field of view for each aberration type can be anticipated and targeted during optimization for the correction or control of the aberrations in an optical system with freeform surfaces. This work does not place any symmetry constraints on the optical system, which could be packaged in a fully three dimensional geometry, without fold mirrors.

  8. Design of partially optically stable reflector systems and prisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chuang-Yu

    2010-09-01

    The characteristics and design method of the total optically stable (TOS) reflector systems/prisms were introduced in an early paper (Tsai and Lin in Appl. Opt. 47:4158-4163, 2008), where only two types of TOS reflector system exist, namely preservation or retroreflection. In this paper, we introduce the partially optically stable (POS) reflector system, which is only optically stable about a specific directional vector; nevertheless, the exiting light ray is not restricted to preservation or retroreflection. The proposed paper also presents an analytic method for the design of POS reflector systems comprised of multiple reflectors. Furthermore, it is shown that a POS prism can be obtained by adding two refracting flat boundary surfaces with specific conditions at the entrance and exit positions of the light ray in an optical system with multiple reflectors.

  9. Optical fiber telecommunications systems and networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kaminow, Ivan; Willner, Alan E

    2013-01-01

    Optical Fiber Telecommunications VI (A&B) is the sixth in a series that has chronicled the progress in the R&D of lightwave communications since the early 1970s. Written by active authorities from academia and industry, this edition brings a fresh look to many essential topics, including devices, subsystems, systems and networks. A central theme is the enabling of high-bandwidth communications in a cost-effective manner for the development of customer applications. These volumes are an ideal reference for R&D engineers and managers, optical systems implementers, university researchers and s

  10. Optical devices in adverse environments; Proceedings of the Meeting, Cannes, France, Nov. 19, 20, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwell, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in the design of fiber-optic devices, test equipment, optical sensors, and lasers for operation in hostile environments are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include radiation effects on optical fibers, the effect of H2 treatment and water content on the recovery of undoped core fibers after pulsed and continuous irradiation, the NATO test program for optical fibers and components, alpha-irradiation damage to borosilicate glasses, high-reliability optical components for undersea light-wave systems, the behavior of Si optoelectronic components under gamma irradiation, optical devices and sensors of special-purpose fibers, and a fiber-optic microprobe for interferometric measurements in generators

  11. LUCID - an optical design and raytrace code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholas, D.J.; Duffey, K.P.

    1980-11-01

    A 2D optical design and ray trace code is described. The code can operate either as a geometric optics propagation code or provide a scalar diffraction treatment. There are numerous non-standard options within the code including design and systems optimisation procedures. A number of illustrative problems relating to the design of optical components in the field of high power lasers is included. (author)

  12. The Wigner distribution function and Hamilton's characteristics of a geometric-optical system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaans, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    Four system functions have been defined for an optical system; each of these functions describes the system completely in terms of Fourier optics. From the system functions the Wigner distribution function of an optical system has been defined; although derived from Fourier optics, this Wigner

  13. An optical system for controlling ion source parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Baifang; Liu Zhenhao; Jiang Yi; Xu Zhengjia

    1999-01-01

    An optical control system used for adjusting the source's parameters of an ion separator is described. There are two slice microcomputers at HV terminal and the ground respectively. These microcomputers communicate each other with the full-duplex mode through two pieces of optical fiber, in which many parameters are time-share transmitted in the form of optical pulse. This system can stabilize the arc current and temperature, adjust and display all parameters and has safe-guard ability. At HV terminal, the optical coupling technique is used for connecting the CPU and the ion source, and at the ground the CPU can communicate with a control microcomputer

  14. Feature-based component model for design of embedded systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Xuan Fang; Sriram, Ram D.

    2004-11-01

    An embedded system is a hybrid of hardware and software, which combines software's flexibility and hardware real-time performance. Embedded systems can be considered as assemblies of hardware and software components. An Open Embedded System Model (OESM) is currently being developed at NIST to provide a standard representation and exchange protocol for embedded systems and system-level design, simulation, and testing information. This paper proposes an approach to representing an embedded system feature-based model in OESM, i.e., Open Embedded System Feature Model (OESFM), addressing models of embedded system artifacts, embedded system components, embedded system features, and embedded system configuration/assembly. The approach provides an object-oriented UML (Unified Modeling Language) representation for the embedded system feature model and defines an extension to the NIST Core Product Model. The model provides a feature-based component framework allowing the designer to develop a virtual embedded system prototype through assembling virtual components. The framework not only provides a formal precise model of the embedded system prototype but also offers the possibility of designing variation of prototypes whose members are derived by changing certain virtual components with different features. A case study example is discussed to illustrate the embedded system model.

  15. Alignment and focusing tolerance influences on optical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    Alignment errors among components of an optical system may substantially degrade the image quality. Focus errors also affect system performance. The potential for serious degradation of image quality is substantial and requires that the tolerances for these errors receive significant attention early in system design. The image quality and reconnaissance performance of an all-reflecting Cassegrain is compared to an all-refractive optical system under conditions of zero and anticipated real world misalignments

  16. Progress and Opportunities in Soft Photonics and Biologically Inspired Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolle, Mathias; Lee, Seungwoo

    2018-01-01

    Optical components made fully or partially from reconfigurable, stimuli-responsive, soft solids or fluids-collectively referred to as soft photonics-are poised to form the platform for tunable optical devices with unprecedented functionality and performance characteristics. Currently, however, soft solid and fluid material systems still represent an underutilized class of materials in the optical engineers' toolbox. This is in part due to challenges in fabrication, integration, and structural control on the nano- and microscale associated with the application of soft components in optics. These challenges might be addressed with the help of a resourceful ally: nature. Organisms from many different phyla have evolved an impressive arsenal of light manipulation strategies that rely on the ability to generate and dynamically reconfigure hierarchically structured, complex optical material designs, often involving soft or fluid components. A comprehensive understanding of design concepts, structure formation principles, material integration, and control mechanisms employed in biological photonic systems will allow this study to challenge current paradigms in optical technology. This review provides an overview of recent developments in the fields of soft photonics and biologically inspired optics, emphasizes the ties between the two fields, and outlines future opportunities that result from advancements in soft and bioinspired photonics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. High sensitivity optical molecular imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yu; Yuan, Gao; Huang, Chao; Jiang, Shixin; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Kun; Tian, Jie

    2018-02-01

    Optical Molecular Imaging (OMI) has the advantages of high sensitivity, low cost and ease of use. By labeling the regions of interest with fluorescent or bioluminescence probes, OMI can noninvasively obtain the distribution of the probes in vivo, which play the key role in cancer research, pharmacokinetics and other biological studies. In preclinical and clinical application, the image depth, resolution and sensitivity are the key factors for researchers to use OMI. In this paper, we report a high sensitivity optical molecular imaging system developed by our group, which can improve the imaging depth in phantom to nearly 5cm, high resolution at 2cm depth, and high image sensitivity. To validate the performance of the system, special designed phantom experiments and weak light detection experiment were implemented. The results shows that cooperated with high performance electron-multiplying charge coupled device (EMCCD) camera, precision design of light path system and high efficient image techniques, our OMI system can simultaneously collect the light-emitted signals generated by fluorescence molecular imaging, bioluminescence imaging, Cherenkov luminance and other optical imaging modality, and observe the internal distribution of light-emitting agents fast and accurately.

  18. A 45° saw-dicing process applied to a glass substrate for wafer-level optical splitter fabrication for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, M. J.; Costa, C. G.; Silva, M. F.; Gonçalves, S. B.; Peixoto, A. C.; Ribeiro, A. Fernando; Wolffenbuttel, R. F.; Correia, J. H.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports on the development of a technology for the wafer-level fabrication of an optical Michelson interferometer, which is an essential component in a micro opto-electromechanical system (MOEMS) for a miniaturized optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The MOEMS consists on a titanium dioxide/silicon dioxide dielectric beam splitter and chromium/gold micro-mirrors. These optical components are deposited on 45° tilted surfaces to allow the horizontal/vertical separation of the incident beam in the final micro-integrated system. The fabrication process consists of 45° saw dicing of a glass substrate and the subsequent deposition of dielectric multilayers and metal layers. The 45° saw dicing is fully characterized in this paper, which also includes an analysis of the roughness. The optimum process results in surfaces with a roughness of 19.76 nm (rms). The actual saw dicing process for a high-quality final surface results as a compromise between the dicing blade’s grit size (#1200) and the cutting speed (0.3 mm s-1). The proposed wafer-level fabrication allows rapid and low-cost processing, high compactness and the possibility of wafer-level alignment/assembly with other optical micro components for OCT integrated imaging.

  19. Use of thermal sieve to allow optical testing of cryogenic optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Wook; Cai, Wenrui; Burge, James H

    2012-05-21

    Full aperture testing of large cryogenic optical systems has been impractical due to the difficulty of operating a large collimator at cryogenic temperatures. The Thermal Sieve solves this problem by acting as a thermal barrier between an ambient temperature collimator and the cryogenic system under test. The Thermal Sieve uses a set of thermally controlled baffles with array of holes that are lined up to pass the light from the collimator without degrading the wavefront, while attenuating the thermal background by nearly 4 orders of magnitude. This paper provides the theory behind the Thermal Sieve system, evaluates the optimization for its optical and thermal performance, and presents the design and analysis for a specific system.

  20. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram

    2006-01-01

    Optical and photonic systems and devices have significant potential for homeland security. Optical Imaging Sensors and Systems for Homeland Security Applications presents original and significant technical contributions from leaders of industry, government, and academia in the field of optical and photonic sensors, systems and devices for detection, identification, prevention, sensing, security, verification and anti-counterfeiting. The chapters have recent and technically significant results, ample illustrations, figures, and key references. This book is intended for engineers and scientists in the relevant fields, graduate students, industry managers, university professors, government managers, and policy makers. Advanced Sciences and Technologies for Security Applications focuses on research monographs in the areas of -Recognition and identification (including optical imaging, biometrics, authentication, verification, and smart surveillance systems) -Biological and chemical threat detection (including bios...

  1. Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Roux, FS

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available equally well to both classical and quantum optical systems. A projective measurement, in the context of quantum mechanics, is understood to be the process where a projection operator operates on some input state. Often this projection operator is composed...) Projective measurements in quantum and classical optical systems Filippus S. Roux* and Yingwen Zhang CSIR National Laser Centre, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa (Received 3 July 2014; published 22 September 2014) Experimental setups for the optical...

  2. Multi-slit triode ion optical system with ballistic beam focusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydenko, V., E-mail: V.I.Davydenko@inp.nsk.su; Amirov, V.; Gorbovsky, A.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Kolmogorov, A.; Kapitonov, V.; Mishagin, V.; Shikhovtsev, I.; Sorokin, A.; Stupishin, N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Karpushov, A. N. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Smirnov, A. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Uhlemann, R. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research-Plasma Physics, Research Center Juelich, 52425 Juelich (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Multi-slit triode ion-optical systems with spherical electrodes are of interest for formation of intense focused neutral beams for plasma heating. At present, two versions of focusing multi-slit triode ion optical system are developed. The first ion optical system forms the proton beam with 15 keV energy, 140 A current, and 30 ms duration. The second ion optical system is intended for heating neutral beam injector of Tokamak Configuration Variable (TCV). The injector produces focused deuterium neutral beam with 35 keV energy, 1 MW power, and 2 s duration. In the later case, the angular beam divergence of the neutral beam is 20-22 mrad in the direction across the slits of the ion optical system and 12 mrad in the direction along the slits.

  3. Dynamic k-out-of-n system reliability with component partnership

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coit, David W.; Chatwattanasiri, Nida; Wattanapongsakorn, Naruemon; Konak, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new k-out-of-n system reliability model that is appropriate for certain design problems when the minimum number of required components, k, changes dynamically in response to failures to maximize the utility of the available collection of functioning components. This new model shares some distinct similarities with weighted k-out-of-n models and for some problems they produce the same result. However, there are subtle and distinct differences, and in practice, there are some complex applications have not been properly explained or modeled by traditional or extended k-out-of-n system models. For this application, components are arranged in a k-out-of-n configuration of heterogeneous components with different performance levels. Component performance is indicated by a component-specific component partnership level; the fewer partners required to operate successfully implies higher performance. The components can work collectively with partners at the same level to maintain system reliability, or they can create a partnership group with components at higher performance levels which serve as replacements to provide the necessary number of working components. When components fail, the dynamic k-out-of-n configuration maintains reliability of the system with changing k by having components create partnerships with other components at the same level or above. To demonstrate the model, a system replacement maintenance policy based on a replacement interval variable is applied to an example system to obtain the optimal replacement time. - Highlights: • A new k-out-of-n system reliability model is presented. • Components can form partnerships with other components. • The new k-out-of-n model is presented with a dynamic or changing k. • The new model is for systems with components that must work together in a group

  4. High-quality MOVPE butt-joint integration of InP/AlGaInAs/InGaAsP-based all-active optical components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulkova, Irina; Kadkhodazadeh, Shima; Kuznetsova, Nadezda

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the applicability of MOVPE butt-joint regrowth for integration of all-active InP/AlGaAs/InGaAsP optical components and the realization of high-functionality compact photonic devices. Planar high-quality integration of semiconductor optical amplifiers of various epi...

  5. A new approach for the verification of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Umair; Aravantinos, Vincent; Tahar, Sofiène

    2013-09-01

    Optical systems are increasingly used in microsystems, telecommunication, aerospace and laser industry. Due to the complexity and sensitivity of optical systems, their verification poses many challenges to engineers. Tra­ditionally, the analysis of such systems has been carried out by paper-and-pencil based proofs and numerical computations. However, these techniques cannot provide perfectly accurate results due to the risk of human error and inherent approximations of numerical algorithms. In order to overcome these limitations, we propose to use theorem proving (i.e., a computer-based technique that allows to express mathematical expressions and reason about them by taking into account all the details of mathematical reasoning) as an alternative to computational and numerical approaches to improve optical system analysis in a comprehensive framework. In particular, this paper provides a higher-order logic (a language used to express mathematical theories) formalization of ray optics in the HOL Light theorem prover. Based on the multivariate analysis library of HOL Light, we formalize the notion of light ray and optical system (by defining medium interfaces, mirrors, lenses, etc.), i.e., we express these notions mathematically in the software. This allows us to derive general theorems about the behavior of light in such optical systems. In order to demonstrate the practical effectiveness, we present the stability analysis of a Fabry-Perot resonator.

  6. Air driven fiber optic coupled pulser system for ZT-40

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunnally, W.C.; Brousseau, A.T.

    1977-01-01

    The design, construction, and operation of an air powered fiber optic coupled pulser system for initiating various high-voltage systems in the ZT-40 experiment is displayed. The air fiber optic system provides complete electrical isolation of the experimental high-voltage circuits from the digital timing and control circuits. In addition, this pulser system prevents cross talk between individual output channels and eliminates trigger system ground loops. The system uses an additional fiber optic bundle to confirm pulser output in the screen room

  7. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.; Pastine, Stefan J.; Moreton, Jessica C.; Frechet, Jean

    2011-01-01

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Thermally activated, single component epoxy systems

    KAUST Repository

    Unruh, David A.

    2011-08-23

    A single component epoxy system in which the resin and hardener components found in many two-component epoxies are combined onto the same molecule is described. The single molecule precursor to the epoxy resin contains both multiple epoxide moieties and a diamine held latent by thermally degradable carbamate linkages. These bis-carbamate "single molecule epoxies" have an essentially infinite shelf life and access a significant range in curing temperatures related to the structure of the carbamate linkages used. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  9. Fiber optical parametric amplifiers in optical communication systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marhic (†), Michel E; Andrekson, Peter A; Petropoulos, Periklis; Radic, Stojan; Peucheret, Christophe; Jazayerifar, Mahmoud

    2015-01-01

    The prospects for using fiber optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) in optical communication systems are reviewed. Phase-insensitive amplifiers (PIAs) and phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSAs) are considered. Low-penalty amplification at/or near 1 Tb/s has been achieved, for both wavelength- and time-division multiplexed formats. High-quality mid-span spectral inversion has been demonstrated at 0.64 Tb/s, avoiding electronic dispersion compensation. All-optical amplitude regeneration of amplitude-modulated signals has been performed, while PSAs have been used to demonstrate phase regeneration of phase-modulated signals. A PSA with 1.1-dB noise figure has been demonstrated, and preliminary wavelength-division multiplexing experiments have been performed with PSAs. 512 Gb/s have been transmitted over 6,000 km by periodic phase conjugation. Simulations indicate that PIAs could reach data rate x reach products in excess of 14,000 Tb/s × km in realistic wavelength-division multiplexed long-haul networks. Technical challenges remaining to be addressed in order for fiber OPAs to become useful for long-haul communication networks are discussed. PMID:25866588

  10. Cartesian oval representation of freeform optics in illumination systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, D; Schreiber, P; Bräuer, A

    2011-03-15

    The geometrical method for constructing optical surfaces for illumination purpose developed by Oliker and co-workers [Trends in Nonlinear Analysis (Springer, 2003)] is generalized in order to obtain freeform designs in arbitrary optical systems. The freeform is created by a set of primitive surface elements, which are generalized Cartesian ovals adapted to the given optical system. Those primitives are determined by Hamiltonian theory of ray optics. The potential of this approach is demonstrated by some examples, e.g., freeform lenses with collimating front elements.

  11. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanto, D; Ula, R K

    2017-01-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor. (paper)

  12. Characterization of transimpedance amplifier as optical to electrical converter on designing optical instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanto, D.; Ula, R. K.

    2017-05-01

    Optical to electrical converter is the main components for designing of the optical instrumentations. In addition, this component is also used as signal conditioning. This component usually consists of a photo detector and amplifier. In this paper, characteristics of commercial amplifiers from Thorlabs PDA50B-EC has been observed. The experiment was conducted by diode laser with power of -5 dBm and wavelength 1310 nm; the optical attenuator to vary optical power from 0 to 60 dB, optical to electrical converter from Thorlabs Amplifier PDA50B-EC; multimode optical fiber to guide the laser; and digital voltmeter to measure the output of converter. The results of the characterization indicate that each channel amplification has a non-linear correlation between optical and electrical parameter; optical conversion measurement range of 20-23 dB to full scale; and different measurement coverage area. If this converter will be used as a part component of optical instrumentation so it should be adjusted suitably with the optical power source. Then, because of the correlation equation is not linear so calculation to determine the interpretation also should be considered in addition to the transfer function of the optical sensor.

  13. Passive thermo-optic feedback for robust athermal photonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakich, Peter T.; Watts, Michael R.; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-06-23

    Thermal control devices, photonic systems and methods of stabilizing a temperature of a photonic system are provided. A thermal control device thermally coupled to a substrate includes a waveguide for receiving light, an absorption element optically coupled to the waveguide for converting the received light to heat and an optical filter. The optical filter is optically coupled to the waveguide and thermally coupled to the absorption element. An operating point of the optical filter is tuned responsive to the heat from the absorption element. When the operating point is less than a predetermined temperature, the received light is passed to the absorption element via the optical filter. When the operating point is greater than or equal to the predetermined temperature, the received light is transmitted out of the thermal control device via the optical filter, without being passed to the absorption element.

  14. Design of a multimodal fibers optic system for small animal optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinelli, Antonello E; Pagliazzi, Marco; Boschi, Federico

    2015-02-01

    Small animals optical imaging systems are widely used in pre-clinical research to image in vivo the bio-distribution of light emitting probes using fluorescence or bioluminescence modalities. In this work we presented a set of simulated results of a novel small animal optical imaging module based on a fibers optics matrix, coupled with a position sensitive detector, devoted to acquire bioluminescence and Cerenkov images. Simulations were performed using GEANT 4 code with the GAMOS architecture using the tissue optics plugin. Results showed that it is possible to image a 30 × 30 mm region of interest using a fiber optics array containing 100 optical fibers without compromising the quality of the reconstruction. The number of fibers necessary to cover an adequate portion of a small animal is thus quite modest. This design allows integrating the module with magnetic resonance (MR) in order to acquire optical and MR images at the same time. A detailed model of the mouse anatomy, obtained by segmentation of 3D MRI images, will improve the quality of optical 3D reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Adhesive Bonding for Optical Metrology Systems in Space Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohlke, Martin; Schuldt, Thilo; Braxmaier, Claus; Döringshoff, Klaus; Peters, Achim; Johann, Ulrich; Weise, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Laser based metrology systems become more and more attractive for space applications and are the core elements of planned missions such as LISA (NGO, eLISA) or NGGM where laser interferometry is used for distance measurements between satellites. The GRACE-FO mission will for the first time demonstrate a Laser Ranging Instrument (LRI) in space, starting 2017. Laser based metrology also includes optical clocks/references, either as ultra-stable light source for high sensitivity interferometry or as scientific payload e.g. proposed in fundamental physics missions such as mSTAR (mini SpaceTime Asymmetry Research), a mission dedicated to perform a Kennedy-Thorndike experiment on a satellite in a low-Earth orbit. To enable the use of existing optical laboratory setups, optimization with respect to power consumption, weight and dimensions is necessary. At the same time the thermal and structural stability must be increased. Over the last few years we investigated adhesive bonding of optical components to thermally highly stable glass ceramics as an easy-to-handle assembly integration technology. Several setups were implemented and tested for potential later use in space applications. We realized a heterodyne LISA related interferometer with demonstrated noise levels in the pm-range for translation measurement and nano-radiant-range for tilt measurements and two iodine frequency references on Elegant Breadboard (EBB) and Engineering Model (EM) level with frequency stabilities in the 10 -15 range for longer integration times. The EM setup was thermally cycled and vibration tested. (paper)

  16. Optical detection system for MEMS-type pressure sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sareło, K; Górecka-Drzazga, A; Dziuban, J A

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a special optical detection system designed for a MEMS-type (micro-electro-mechanical system) silicon pressure sensor is presented. The main part of the optical system—a detection unit with a perforated membrane—is bonded to the silicon sensor, and placed in a measuring system. An external light source illuminates the membrane of the pressure sensor. Owing to the light reflected from the deflected membrane sensor, the optical pattern consisting of light points is visible, and pressure can be estimated. The optical detection unit (20   ×   20   ×   20.4 mm 3 ) is fabricated using microengineering techniques. Its dimensions are adjusted to the dimensions of the pressure sensor (5   ×   5 mm 2 silicon membrane). Preliminary tests of the optical detection unit integrated with the silicon pressure sensor are carried out. For the membrane sensor from 15 to 60 µm thick, a repeatable detection of the differential pressure in the range of 0 to 280 kPa is achieved. The presented optical microsystem is especially suitable for the pressure measurements in a high radiation environment. (paper)

  17. MEMS: A new approach to micro-optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.

    1997-12-31

    MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and their fabrication technologies provide great opportunities for application to micro-optical systems (MOEMS). Implementing MOEMS technology ranges from simple, passive components to complicated, active systems. Here, an overview of polysilicon surface micromachining MEMS combined with optics is presented. Recent advancements to the technology, which may enhance its appeal for micro-optics applications are emphasized. Of all the MEMS fabrication technologies, polysilicon surface micromachining technology has the greatest basis in and leverages the most the infrastructure for silicon integrated circuit fabrication. In that respect, it provides the potential for very large volume, inexpensive production of MOEMS. This paper highlights polysilicon surface micromachining technology in regards to its capability to provide both passive and active mechanical elements with quality optical elements.

  18. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region. (2017) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  19. Building electro-optical systems making it all work

    CERN Document Server

    Hobbs, Philip C D

    2009-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition ""Now a new laboratory bible for optics researchers has joined the list: it is Phil Hobbs's Building Electro-Optical Systems: Making It All Work.""-Tony Siegman, Optics & Photonics News Building a modern electro-optical instrument may be the most interdisciplinary job in all of engineering. Be it a DVD player or a laboratory one-off, it involves physics, electrical engineering, optical engineering, and computer science interacting in complex ways. This book will help all kinds of technical people sort through the complexit

  20. Optical design of an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolong; Abdolmalaki, Reza Yazdanpanah; Mancini, Gregory J.; Tan, Jindong

    2017-12-01

    This paper proposes an in vivo laparoscopic lighting system design to address the illumination issues, namely poor lighting uniformity and low optical efficiency, existing in the state-of-the-art in vivo laparoscopic cameras. The transformable design of the laparoscopic lighting system is capable of carrying purposefully designed freeform optical lenses for achieving lighting performance with high illuminance uniformity and high optical efficiency in a desired target region. To design freeform optical lenses for extended light sources such as LEDs with Lambertian light intensity distributions, we present an effective and complete freeform optical design method. The procedures include (1) ray map computation by numerically solving a standard Monge-Ampere equation; (2) initial freeform optical surface construction by using Snell's law and a lens volume restriction; (3) correction of surface normal vectors due to accumulated errors from the initially constructed surfaces; and (4) feedback modification of the solution to deal with degraded illuminance uniformity caused by the extended sizes of the LEDs. We employed an optical design software package to evaluate the performance of our laparoscopic lighting system design. The simulation results show that our design achieves greater than 95% illuminance uniformity and greater than 89% optical efficiency (considering Fresnel losses) for illuminating the target surgical region.

  1. Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Dane (Inventor); Wang, Guoan (Inventor); Kingsley, Nickolas D. (Inventor); Papapolymerou, Ioannis (Inventor); Tentzeris, Emmanouil M. (Inventor); Bairavasubramanian, Ramanan (Inventor); DeJean, Gerald (Inventor); Li, RongLin (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Multilayer electronic component systems and methods of manufacture are provided. In this regard, an exemplary system comprises a first layer of liquid crystal polymer (LCP), first electronic components supported by the first layer, and a second layer of LCP. The first layer is attached to the second layer by thermal bonds. Additionally, at least a portion of the first electronic components are located between the first layer and the second layer.

  2. Self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer as a laser system diagnostic: Active and adaptive optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, M.; Mockler, D.J.; English, R.E. Jr.; Byrd, J.L.; Salmon, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    We are incorporating a novel self-referencing Mach-Zehnder interferometer into a large scale laser system as a real time, interactive diagnostic tool for wavefront measurement. The instrument is capable of absolute wavefront measurements accurate to better than λ/10 pv over a wavelength range > 300 nm without readjustment of the optical components. This performance is achieved through the design of both refractive optics and catadioptric collimator to achromatize the Mach-Zehnder reference arm. Other features include polarization insensitivity through the use of low angles of incidence on all beamsplitters as well as an equal path length configuration that allows measurement of either broad-band or closely spaced laser-line sources. Instrument accuracy is periodically monitored in place by means of a thermally and mechanically stable wavefront reference source that is calibrated off-line with a phase conjugate interferometer. Video interferograms are analyzed using Fourier transform techniques on a computer that includes dedicated array processor. Computer and video networks maintain distributed interferometers under the control of a single analysis computer with multiple user access. 7 refs., 11 figs

  3. Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) Components and Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Minihan; Ed Schmidt; Greg Enserro; Melissa Thompson

    2008-06-30

    The purpose of the project was to develop the processes for using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) parts for WR production and to put in place a system for implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. Much of the effort was devoted to determining if the use of COTS parts was possible. A basic question: How does the Nuclear Weapons Complex (NWC) begin to use COTS in the weapon Stockpile Life Extension Programs with high reliability, affordability, while managing risk at acceptable levels? In FY00, it was determined that a certain weapon refurbishment program could not be accomplished without the use of COTS components. The elements driving the use of COTS components included decreased cost, greater availability, and shorter delivery time. Key factors that required implementation included identifying the best suppliers and components, defining life cycles and predictions of obsolescence, testing the feasibility of using COTS components with a test contractor to ensure capability, as well as quality and reliability, and implementing the data management tools required to disseminate, store, track procurement, and qualify vendors. The primary effort of this project then was to concentrate on the risks involved in the use of COTS and address the issues of part and vendor selection, procurement and acceptance processes, and qualification of the parts via part and sample testing. The Enterprise Component Information System (eCIS) was used to manage the information generated by the COTS process. eCIS is a common interface for both the design and production of NWC components and systems integrating information between SNL National Laboratory (SNL) and the Kansas City Plant (KCP). The implementation of COTS components utilizes eCIS from part selection through qualification release. All part related data is linked across an unclassified network for access by both SNL and KCP personnel. The system includes not

  4. Optical fiber-applied radiation detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiura, Ryuichi; Uranaka, Yasuo; Izumi, Nobuyuki

    2001-01-01

    A technique to measure radiation by using plastic scintillation fibers doped radiation fluorescent (scintillator) to plastic optical fiber for a radiation sensor, was developed. The technique contains some superiority such as high flexibility due to using fibers, relatively easy large area due to detecting portion of whole of fibers, and no electromagnetic noise effect due to optical radiation detection and signal transmission. Measurable to wide range of and continuous radiation distribution along optical fiber cable at a testing portion using scintillation fiber and flight time method, the optical fiber-applied radiation sensing system can effectively monitor space radiation dose or apparatus operation condition monitoring. And, a portable type scintillation optical fiber body surface pollution monitor can measure pollution concentration of radioactive materials attached onto body surface by arranging scintillation fiber processed to a plate with small size and flexibility around a man to be tested. Here were described on outline and fundamental properties of various application products using these plastic scintillation fiber. (G.K.)

  5. An Optical Receiver Post Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  6. An Optical Receiver Post-Processing System for the Integrated Radio and Optical Communications Software Defined Radio Test Bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Tokars, Roger P.; Wroblewski, Adam C.

    2016-01-01

    The Integrated Radio and Optical Communications (iROC) project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Glenn Research Center is investigating the feasibility of a hybrid radio frequency (RF) and optical communication system for future deep space missions. As a part of this investigation, a test bed for a radio frequency (RF) and optical software defined radio (SDR) has been built. Receivers and modems for the NASA deep space optical waveform are not commercially available so a custom ground optical receiver system has been built. This paper documents the ground optical receiver, which is used in order to test the RF and optical SDR in a free space optical communications link.

  7. Flow diagnostics using fibre optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hypersonic vehicle with a 2-component fibre-optic strain-gauge balance. ... ment suffers a fall in accuracy to uncomfortable levels (more than 5%) and the measurement .... 15 kW motor with an associated thyristor speed-control system.

  8. Creating an optical spectroscopy system for use in a primary care clinical setting (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshein, Adam; Nguyen, The-Quyen; Radosevich, Andrew J.; Gould, Bradley; Wu, Wenli; Konda, Vani; Yang, Leslie W.; Koons, Ann; Feder, Seth; Valuckaite, Vesta; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    While there are a plethora of in-vivo spectroscopic techniques that have demonstrated the ability to detect a number of diseases in research trials, very few techniques have successfully become a fully realized clinical technology. This is primarily due to the stringent demands on a clinical device for widespread implementation. Some of these demands include: simple operation requiring minimal or no training, safe for in-vivo patient use, no disruption to normal clinic workflow, tracking of system performance, warning for measurement abnormality, and meeting all FDA guidelines for medical use. Previously, our group developed a fiber optic probe-based optical sensing technique known as low-coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy (LEBS) to quantify tissue ultrastructure in-vivo. Now we have developed this technique for the application of prescreening patients for colonoscopy in a primary care (PC) clinical setting. To meet the stringent requirements for a viable medical device used in a PC clinical setting, we developed several novel components including an automated calibration tool, optical contact sensor for signal acquisition, and a contamination sensor to identify measurements which have been affected by debris. The end result is a state-of-the-art medical device that can be realistically used by a PC physician to assess a person's risk for harboring colorectal precancerous lesions. The pilot study of this system shows great promise with excellent stability and accuracy in identifying high-risk patients. While this system has been designed and optimized for our specific application, the system and design concepts are universal to most in-vivo fiber optic based spectroscopic techniques.

  9. Misalignment corrections in optical interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Deqiang

    Optical interconnects are considered a promising solution for long distance and high bitrate data transmissions, outperforming electrical interconnects in terms of loss and dispersion. Due to the bandwidth and distance advantage of optical interconnects, longer links have been implemented with optics. Recent studies show that optical interconnects have clear advantages even at very short distances---intra system interconnects. The biggest challenge for such optical interconnects is the alignment tolerance. Many free space optical components require very precise assembly and installation, and therefore the overall cost could be increased. This thesis studied the misalignment tolerance and possible alignment correction solutions for optical interconnects at backplane or board level. First the alignment tolerance for free space couplers was simulated and the result indicated the most critical alignments occur between the VCSEL, waveguide and microlens arrays. An in-situ microlens array fabrication method was designed and experimentally demonstrated, with no observable misalignment with the waveguide array. At the receiver side, conical lens arrays were proposed to replace simple microlens arrays for a larger angular alignment tolerance. Multilayer simulation models in CodeV were built to optimized the refractive index and shape profiles of the conical lens arrays. Conical lenses fabricated with micro injection molding machine and fiber etching were characterized. Active component VCSOA was used to correct misalignment in optical connectors between the board and backplane. The alignment correction capability were characterized for both DC and AC (1GHz) optical signal. The speed and bandwidth of the VCSOA was measured and compared with a same structure VCSEL. Based on the optical inverter being studied in our lab, an all-optical flip-flop was demonstrated using a pair of VCSOAs. This memory cell with random access ability can store one bit optical signal with set or

  10. FTTA System Demo Using Optical Fiber-Coupled Active Antennas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Neumann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The convergence of optical and wireless systems such as Radio-over-Fiber (RoF networks is the key to coping with the increasing bandwidth demands due to the increasing popularity of video and other high data rate applications. A high level of integration of optical technologies enables simple base stations with a fiber-to-the-antenna (FTTA approach. In this paper, we present a complete full-duplex RoF–FTTA system consisting of integrated active fiber-coupled optical receiving and transmitting antennas that are directly connected to a standard single mode fiber optical link. Data rates up to 1 Gbit/s could be shown without advanced modulation formats on a 1.5 GHz carrier frequency. The antennas as well as the whole system are explained and the results of the system experiments are discussed.

  11. Compact super-wideband optical antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen C.; Forber, Richard; Bui, Kenneth

    2009-05-01

    We present progress on advanced optical antennas, which are compact, small size-weight-power units capable to receive super wideband radiated RF signals from 30 MHz to over 3 GHz. Based on electro-optical modulation of fiber-coupled guided wave light, these dielectric E-field sensors exhibit dipole-like azimuthal omni directionality, and combine small size (channels, and high EO sensing materials. The antenna system photonic link consists of a 1550 nm PM fiber-pigtailed laser, a specialized optical modulator antenna in channel waveguide format, a wideband photoreceiver, and optical phase stabilizing components. The optical modulator antenna design employs a dielectric (no electrode) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) arranged so that sensing RF bandwidth is not limited by optical transit time effects, and MZI phase drift is bias stabilized. For a prototype optical antenna system that is < 100 in3, < 10 W, < 5 lbs, we present test data on sensitivity (< 20 mV/m-Hz1/2), RF bandwidth, and antenna directionality, and show good agreement with theoretical predictions.

  12. Simulation of optical soliton control in micro- and nanoring resonator systems

    CERN Document Server

    Daud, Suzairi; Ali, Jalil

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces optical soliton control in micro- and nanoring resonator systems. It describes how the ring resonator systems can be optimized as optical tweezers for photodetection by controlling the input power, ring radii and coupling coefficients of the systems. Numerous arrangements and configurations of micro and nanoring resonator systems are explained. The analytical formulation and optical transfer function for each model and the interaction of the optical signals in the systems are discussed. This book shows that the models designed are able to control the dynamical behaviour of generated signals.

  13. Cost-Effective Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Analysis Sensor Using a Single Optical Source and Passive Optical Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Iribas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a simplified configuration for distributed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors that aims to reduce the cost of the sensor by reducing the number of components required for the generation of the two optical waves involved in the sensing process. The technique is based on obtaining the pump and probe waves by passive optical filtering of the spectral components generated in a single optical source that is driven by a pulsed RF signal. The optical source is a compact laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator and the optical filters are based on fiber Bragg gratings. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate 1 m spatial resolution over a 20 km sensing fiber with a 0.9 MHz precision in the measurement of the Brillouin frequency shift, a performance similar to that of much more complex setups. Furthermore, we discuss the factors limiting the sensor performance, which are basically related to residual spectral components in the filtering process.

  14. National Ignition Facility system design requirements Laser System SDR002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, D.W.; Bowers, J.M.; Bliss, E.S.; Karpenko, V.P.; English, E.

    1996-01-01

    This System Design Requirement document establishes the performance, design, development, and test requirements for the NIP Laser System. The Laser System generates and delivers high-power optical pulses to the target chamber, and is composed of all optical puke creating and transport elements from Puke Generation through Final Optics as well as the special equipment that supports, energizes and controls them. The Laser System consists of the following WBS elements: 1.3 Laser System 1.4 Beam Transport System 1.6 Optical Components 1.7 Laser Control 1.8.7 Final Optics

  15. Algorithmic fault tree construction by component-based system modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majdara, Aref; Wakabayashi, Toshio

    2008-01-01

    Computer-aided fault tree generation can be easier, faster and less vulnerable to errors than the conventional manual fault tree construction. In this paper, a new approach for algorithmic fault tree generation is presented. The method mainly consists of a component-based system modeling procedure an a trace-back algorithm for fault tree synthesis. Components, as the building blocks of systems, are modeled using function tables and state transition tables. The proposed method can be used for a wide range of systems with various kinds of components, if an inclusive component database is developed. (author)

  16. Athermalization of infrared dual field optical system based on wavefront coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Kai; Jiang, Bo; Liu, Kai; Yan, Peipei; Duan, Jing; Shan, Qiu-sha

    2017-02-01

    Wavefront coding is a technology which combination of the optical design and digital image processing. By inserting a phase mask closed to the pupil plane of the optical system the wavefront of the system is re-modulated. And the depth of focus is extended consequently. In reality the idea is same as the athermalization theory of infrared optical system. In this paper, an uncooled infrared dual field optical system with effective focal as 38mm/19mm, F number as 1.2 of both focal length, operating wavelength varying from 8μm to 12μm was designed. A cubic phase mask was used at the pupil plane to re-modulate the wavefront. Then the performance of the infrared system was simulated with CODEV as the environment temperature varying from -40° to 60°. MTF curve of the optical system with phase mask are compared with the outcome before using phase mask. The result show that wavefront coding technology can make the system not sensitive to thermal defocus, and then realize the athermal design of the infrared optical system.

  17. Control systems in optical fibre industry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostka, František

    1998-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 4 (1998), s. 195-200 ISSN 1405-5546 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) KSK1067601 Projekt 10/96/K:4107 Keywords : control systems * real time systems * microcomputers * optical fibres Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. Fiber optics in the BNL Booster radiation environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beadle, E.R.

    1991-01-01

    The Booster instrumentation uses analog and digital fiber optic links, designed to withstand at least 50 krads without performance degradation. The links use inexpensive and commercially available components that operate at a center wavelength of 820 nm. The analog link operates to 30 MHz over a 200 m fiber and can provide insertion gain. The digital link provides 60 ns timing pulses without the dispersive effects of coaxial cables. The optical fiber is a step-index hard clad silica type with a 200 micron core. This paper presents the component selection criteria, link design, installation, testing and performance for the optical links in the Booster instrumentation systems

  19. Impact of optical hard limiter on the performance of an optical overlapped-code division multiple access system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaty, Elie; Raad, Robert; Tablieh, Nicole

    2011-08-01

    Throughout this paper, a closed form expression of the multiple access interference (MAI) limited bit error rate (BER) is provided for the multiwavelength optical code-division multiple-access system when the system is working above the nominal transmission rate limit imposed by the passive encoding-decoding operation. This system is known in literature as the optical overlapped code division multiple access (OV-CDMA) system. A unified analytical framework is presented emphasizing the impact of optical hard limiter (OHL) on the BER performance of such a system. Results show that the performance of the OV-CDMA system may be highly improved when using OHL preprocessing at the receiver side.

  20. Optical design for divertor Thomson scattering system for JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Enokuchi, Akito; Hatae, Takaki; Itami, Kiyoshi; Hamano, Takashi; Kado, Shinichiro; Ohno, Noriyasu; Takeyama, Norihide

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A detailed designing for collection optical system of divertor Thomson scattering system in JT-60SA is conducted. •The assessment of the density and temperature errors of the measurement system is conducted. •It is shown that the measurement could be done with the temperature error of 50% when the density was 10 20 m −3 . •The availability of the laser transmission mirrors for the measurement system is discussed. •Several guidelines to improve the measurement system are discussed. -- Abstract: Optical design for divertor Thomson scattering system in JT-60SA has been conducted. The measurement system will use a Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm, and scattered photons are collected by a collection optical system. The collection optics consists of primary mirror, secondary mirror, relay optics, and fiber collection optics. The laser transmission mirror and collection optics were designed to be installed in a slender lower port of JT-60SA. The assessment of the measurement errors in temperature was conducted for the designed collection optical system. Because of spatial limitation, the solid angle from the measurement points would be small especially for the measurement points in high field side, and consequently, the temperature errors in the high field side would be considerably large. The effects of several improvements on the error are discussed. Moreover, an assessment for the in-vessel laser transmission metallic mirrors is conducted for the present design

  1. Study on measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades based on optical scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Bi; Liu, Hongguang; Bao, Longxiang; Li, Di

    2017-10-01

    In the field of aeronautics, the geometry and dimensional accuracy of the blade edges has a large influence on the aerodynamic performance of aero engine. Therefore, a non-contact optical scanning system is established to realize the measurement of leading and trailing edges of blades in a rapid, precise and efficient manner in the paper. Based on the mechanical framework of a traditional CMM, the system is equipped with a specified sensing device as the scanning probe, which is made up by two new-style laser scanning sensors installed at a certain angle to each other by a holder. In the measuring procedure, the geometric dimensions of the measured blade edges on every contour plane are determined by the contour information on five transversals at the leading or trailing edges, which can be used to determine the machining allowance of the blades. In order to verify the effectiveness and practicality of the system set up, a precision forging blade after grinded is adopted as the measured object and its leading and trailing edges are measured by the system respectively. In the experiment, the thickness of blade edges on three contour planes is measured by the optical scanning system several times. As the experiment results show, the repeatability accuracy of the system can meet its design requirements and the inspecting demands of the blade edges. As a result, the optical scanning system could serve as a component of the intelligent manufacturing system of blades to improve the machining quality of the blade edges.

  2. Optical methods and integrated systems for brain imaging in awake, untethered animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murari, Kartikeya

    Imaging is a powerful tool for biomedical research offering non-contact and minimally or non-invasive means of investigating at multiple scales---from single molecules to large populations of cells. Imaging in awake, behaving animals is an emerging field that offers the additional advantage of being able to study physiological processes and structures in a more natural state than what is possible in tissue slices or even in anesthetized animals. To date, most imaging in awake animals has used optical fiber bundles or electrical cables to transfer signals to traditional imaging-system components. However, the fibers or cables tether the animal and greatly limit the kind and duration of animal behavior that can be studied using imaging methods. This work involves three distinct yet related approaches to fulfill the goal of imaging in unanesthetized, unrestrained animals---optical techniques for functional and structural imaging, development of novel photodetectors and the design of miniaturized imaging systems. I hypothesized that the flow within vessels might act as a contrast-enhancing agent and improve the visualization of vascular architecture using laser speckle imaging. When imaging rodent cerebral vasculature I saw a two to four fold increase in the contrast-to-noise ratios and was able to visualize 10--30% more vascular features over reflectance techniques. I designed a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) photodetector array that was comparable in sensitivity and noise performance to cooled CCD sensors, able to image fluorescence from a single cell, while running at faster frame rates. Next, I designed an imaging system weighing under 6 grams and occupying less than 4 cm3. The system incorporated multispectral illumination, adjustable focusing optics and the high-sensitivity CMOS imager. I was able to implement a variety of optical modalities with the system and performed reflectance, fluorescence, spectroscopic and laser speckle imaging with my

  3. Phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, Ehud; Hofstetter, Walter; Demler, Eugene; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2003-01-01

    We present a theoretical analysis of the phase diagram of two-component bosons on an optical lattice. A new formalism is developed which treats the effective spin interactions in the Mott and superfluid phases on the same footing. Using this new approach we chart the phase boundaries of the broken spin symmetry states up to the Mott to superfluid transition and beyond. Near the transition point, the magnitude of spin exchange can be very large, which facilitates the experimental realization of spin-ordered states. We find that spin and quantum fluctuations have a dramatic effect on the transition, making it first order in extended regions of the phase diagram. When each species is at integer filling, an additional phase transition may occur, from a spin-ordered insulator to a Mott insulator with no broken symmetries. We determine the phase boundaries in this regime and show that this is essentially a Mott transition in the spin sector

  4. Component-Based Approach in Learning Management System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitseva, Larisa; Bule, Jekaterina; Makarov, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    The paper describes component-based approach (CBA) for learning management system development. Learning object as components of e-learning courses and their metadata is considered. The architecture of learning management system based on CBA being developed in Riga Technical University, namely its architecture, elements and possibilities are…

  5. Application for surveying technology for the alignment of large optical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauke, W.

    1984-01-01

    Precise alignment of optical elements in large optical systems is difficult if many elements are positioned such that direct alignment or boresighting becomes impossible. A practical approach is to identify discrete optical path segments and align these using standard surveying or optical-tooling instrumentation. One simply has to develop an alignment theory in which the alignment optical path duplicates or closely approximates the optical path of the operational device. The surveying instruments can then be used to simulate the optical input beams to the system segments to be aligned. Auxiliary targets and reflectors may be added, and the alignment procedure may be augmented by standard optical test instrumentation and techniques. Examples are given using theodolites, transits, and levels with autocollimating capability and micrometer adaptors to perform boresighting and autocollimation techniques on segments of the optical train of the Antares Laser Fusion System at Los Alamos National Laboratory

  6. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-01

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  7. Fiber laser master oscillators for optical synchronization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, A.

    2008-04-15

    New X-ray free electron lasers (e.g. the European XFEL) require a new generation of synchronization system to achieve a stability of the FEL pulse, such that pump-probe experiments can fully utilize the ultra-short pulse duration (50 fs). An optical synchronization system has been developed based on the distribution of sub-ps optical pulses in length-stabilized fiber links. The synchronization information is contained in the precise repetition frequency of the optical pulses. In this thesis, the design and characterization of the laser serving as laser master oscillator is presented. An erbium-doped mode-locked fiber laser was chosen. Amplitude and phase noise were measured and record-low values of 0.03 % and 10 fs for the frequency range of 1 kHz to the Nyquist frequency were obtained. Furthermore, an initial proof-of-principle experiment for the optical synchronization system was performed in an accelerator environment. In this experiment, the fiber laser wase phase-locked to a microwave reference oscillator and a 500 meter long fiber link was stabilized to 12 fs rms over a range of 0.1 Hz to 20 kHz. RF signals were obtained from a photodetector without significant degradation at the end of the link. Furthermore, the laser master oscillator for FLASH was designed and is presently in fabrication and the initial infrastructure for the optical synchronization system was setup. (orig.)

  8. System engineering of complex optical systems for mission assurance and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees

    2017-08-01

    Affordability and reliability are equally important as the performance and development time for many optical systems for military, space and commercial applications. These characteristics are even more important for the systems meant for space and military applications where total lifecycle costs must be affordable. Most customers are looking for high performance optical systems that are not only affordable but are designed with "no doubt" mission assurance, reliability and maintainability in mind. Both US military and commercial customers are now demanding an optimum balance between performance, reliability and affordability. Therefore, it is important to employ a disciplined systems design approach for meeting the performance, cost and schedule targets while keeping affordability and reliability in mind. The US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) now requires all of their systems to be engineered, tested and produced according to the Mission Assurance Provisions (MAP). These provisions or requirements are meant to ensure complex and expensive military systems are designed, integrated, tested and produced with the reliability and total lifecycle costs in mind. This paper describes a system design approach based on the MAP document for developing sophisticated optical systems that are not only cost-effective but also deliver superior and reliable performance during their intended missions.

  9. Integrability Aspects and Soliton Solutions for a System Describing Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in an Inhomogeneous Multi-Component Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Rui; Tian Bo; Lue Xing; Zhang Haiqiang; Xu Tao

    2010-01-01

    For the propagation of the ultrashort pulses in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium, a system of coupled equations is analytically studied in this paper. Painleve analysis shows that this system admits the Painleve property under some constraints. By means of the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur procedure, the Lax pair of this system is derived, and the Darboux transformation (DT) is constructed with the help of the obtained Lax pair. With symbolic computation, the soliton solutions are obtained by virtue of the DT algorithm. Figures are plotted to illustrate the dynamical features of the soliton solutions. Characteristics of the solitons propagating in an inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear medium are discussed: (i) Propagation of one soliton and two-peak soliton; (ii) Elastic interactions of the parabolic two solitons; (iii) Overlap phenomenon between two solitons; (iv) Collision of two head-on solitons and two head-on two-peak solitons; (v) Two different types of interactions of the three solitons; (vi) Decomposition phenomenon of one soliton into two solitons. The results might be useful in the study on the ultrashort-pulse propagation in the inhomogeneous multi-component nonlinear media. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. Imprecise system reliability and component importance based on survival signature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Geng; Patelli, Edoardo; Beer, Michael; Coolen, Frank P.A.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of the survival signature has recently attracted increasing attention for performing reliability analysis on systems with multiple types of components. It opens a new pathway for a structured approach with high computational efficiency based on a complete probabilistic description of the system. In practical applications, however, some of the parameters of the system might not be defined completely due to limited data, which implies the need to take imprecisions of component specifications into account. This paper presents a methodology to include explicitly the imprecision, which leads to upper and lower bounds of the survival function of the system. In addition, the approach introduces novel and efficient component importance measures. By implementing relative importance index of each component without or with imprecision, the most critical component in the system can be identified depending on the service time of the system. Simulation method based on survival signature is introduced to deal with imprecision within components, which is precise and efficient. Numerical example is presented to show the applicability of the approach for systems. - Highlights: • Survival signature is a novel way for system reliability and component importance • High computational efficiency based on a complete description of system. • Include explicitly the imprecision, which leads to bounds of the survival function. • A novel relative importance index is proposed as importance measure. • Allows to identify critical components depending on the service time of the system.

  11. Printed polymer photonic devices for optical interconnect systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Harish; Pan, Zeyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiaochu; Guo, L. J.; Chen, Ray T.

    2016-03-01

    Polymer photonic device fabrication usually relies on the utilization of clean-room processes, including photolithography, e-beam lithography, reactive ion etching (RIE) and lift-off methods etc, which are expensive and are limited to areas as large as a wafer. Utilizing a novel and a scalable printing process involving ink-jet printing and imprinting, we have fabricated polymer based photonic interconnect components, such as electro-optic polymer based modulators and ring resonator switches, and thermo-optic polymer switch based delay networks and demonstrated their operation. Specifically, a modulator operating at 15MHz and a 2-bit delay network providing up to 35.4ps are presented. In this paper, we also discuss the manufacturing challenges that need to be overcome in order to make roll-to-roll manufacturing practically viable. We discuss a few manufacturing challenges, such as inspection and quality control, registration, and web control, that need to be overcome in order to realize true implementation of roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible polymer photonic systems. We have overcome these challenges, and currently utilizing our inhouse developed hardware and software tools, <10μm alignment accuracy at a 5m/min is demonstrated. Such a scalable roll-to-roll manufacturing scheme will enable the development of unique optoelectronic devices which can be used in a myriad of different applications, including communication, sensing, medicine, security, imaging, energy, lighting etc.

  12. Defense Strategies for Asymmetric Networked Systems with Discrete Components

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nageswara S. V. Rao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We consider infrastructures consisting of a network of systems, each composed of discrete components. The network provides the vital connectivity between the systems and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. The individual components of the systems can be attacked by cyber and physical means and can be appropriately reinforced to withstand these attacks. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure performance as a game between an attacker and a provider, who choose the numbers of the components of the systems and network to attack and reinforce, respectively. The costs and benefits of attacks and reinforcements are characterized using the sum-form, product-form and composite utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a component cost term. We present a two-level characterization of the correlations within the infrastructure: (i the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network, and (ii the survival probabilities of the systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations using multiplier functions. We derive Nash equilibrium conditions that provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities and also the expected infrastructure capacity specified by the total number of operational components. We apply these results to derive and analyze defense strategies for distributed cloud computing infrastructures using cyber-physical models.

  13. Defense Strategies for Asymmetric Networked Systems with Discrete Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Nageswara S V; Ma, Chris Y T; Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei; Yau, David K Y; Zhuang, Jun

    2018-05-03

    We consider infrastructures consisting of a network of systems, each composed of discrete components. The network provides the vital connectivity between the systems and hence plays a critical, asymmetric role in the infrastructure operations. The individual components of the systems can be attacked by cyber and physical means and can be appropriately reinforced to withstand these attacks. We formulate the problem of ensuring the infrastructure performance as a game between an attacker and a provider, who choose the numbers of the components of the systems and network to attack and reinforce, respectively. The costs and benefits of attacks and reinforcements are characterized using the sum-form, product-form and composite utility functions, each composed of a survival probability term and a component cost term. We present a two-level characterization of the correlations within the infrastructure: (i) the aggregate failure correlation function specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual system or network, and (ii) the survival probabilities of the systems and network satisfy first-order differential conditions that capture the component-level correlations using multiplier functions. We derive Nash equilibrium conditions that provide expressions for individual system survival probabilities and also the expected infrastructure capacity specified by the total number of operational components. We apply these results to derive and analyze defense strategies for distributed cloud computing infrastructures using cyber-physical models.

  14. Multicasting based optical inverse multiplexing in elastic optical network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bingli; Xu, Yingying; Zhu, Paikun; Zhong, Yucheng; Chen, Yuanxiang; Li, Juhao; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi

    2014-06-16

    Optical multicasting based inverse multiplexing (IM) is introduced in spectrum allocation of elastic optical network to resolve the spectrum fragmentation problem, where superchannels could be split and fit into several discrete spectrum blocks in the intermediate node. We experimentally demonstrate it with a 1-to-7 optical superchannel multicasting module and selecting/coupling components. Also, simulation results show that, comparing with several emerging spectrum defragmentation solutions (e.g., spectrum conversion, split spectrum), IM could reduce blocking performance significantly but without adding too much system complexity as split spectrum. On the other hand, service fairness for traffic with different granularity of these schemes is investigated for the first time and it shows that IM performs better than spectrum conversion and almost as well as split spectrum, especially for smaller size traffic under light traffic intensity.

  15. Dynamic optical coupled system employing Dammann gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Caihui; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi

    2004-10-01

    With the increasing of the number of users in optical fiber communications, fiber-to-home project has a larger market value. Then the need of dynamic optical couplers, especially of N broad-band couplers, becomes greater. Though some advanced fiber fusion techniques have been developed, they still have many shortcomings. In this paper we propose a dynamic optical coupled system employing even-numbered Dammann gratings, which have the characteristic that the phase distribution in the first half-period accurately equals to that in the second-period with π phase inversion. In our experiment, we divide a conventional even-numbered Dammann grating into two identical gratings. The system can achieve the beam splitter and combiner as the switch between them according to the relative shift between two complementary gratings. When there is no shift between the gratings, the demonstrated 1×8 dynamic optical coupler achieves good uniformity of 0.06 and insertion loss of around 10.8 dB for each channel as a splitter. When the two gratings have an accurate shift of a half-period between them, our system has a low insertion loss of 0.46 dB as a combiner at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  16. A hybrid optical system for broadband imaging in guidance and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaofang; Jiang, Yuesong; Shen, Chunyan; Zhao, Yiming

    2006-11-01

    A binary optics method has been adopted to improve upon a conventional optical system in guidance and control, and a hybrid broadband imaging system that includes a binary surface is analyzed and evaluated by optical design software ZEMAX. The practical design shows that the introduction of binary optics can simplify the structure of the imaging system and reduce the size and weight of the broadband guidance and control system. Moreover, it can help to acquire images of radiation of different wavelengths from targets; hence it will result in improved overall performance of missiles in wars.

  17. Gated frequency-resolved optical imaging with an optical parametric amplifier for medical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, S.M.; Bliss, D.E.

    1997-02-01

    Implementation of optical imagery in a diffuse inhomogeneous medium such as biological tissue requires an understanding of photon migration and multiple scattering processes which act to randomize pathlength and degrade image quality. The nature of transmitted light from soft tissue ranges from the quasi-coherent properties of the minimally scattered component to the random incoherent light of the diffuse component. Recent experimental approaches have emphasized dynamic path-sensitive imaging measurements with either ultrashort laser pulses (ballistic photons) or amplitude modulated laser light launched into tissue (photon density waves) to increase image resolution and transmissive penetration depth. Ballistic imaging seeks to compensate for these {open_quotes}fog-like{close_quotes} effects by temporally isolating the weak early-arriving image-bearing component from the diffusely scattered background using a subpicosecond optical gate superimposed on the transmitted photon time-of-flight distribution. The authors have developed a broadly wavelength tunable (470 nm -2.4 {mu}m), ultrashort amplifying optical gate for transillumination spectral imaging based on optical parametric amplification in a nonlinear crystal. The time-gated image amplification process exhibits low noise and high sensitivity, with gains greater than 104 achievable for low light levels. We report preliminary benchmark experiments in which this system was used to reconstruct, spectrally upcovert, and enhance near-infrared two-dimensional images with feature sizes of 65 {mu}m/mm{sup 2} in background optical attenuations exceeding 10{sup 12}. Phase images of test objects exhibiting both absorptive contrast and diffuse scatter were acquired using a self-referencing Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor in combination with short-pulse quasi-ballistic gating. The sensor employed a lenslet array based on binary optics technology and was sensitive to optical path distortions approaching {lambda}/100.

  18. Spectrally and Energy Efficient OFDM (SEE-OFDM) for Intensity Modulated Optical Wireless Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lam, Emily; Wilson, Sarah Kate; Elgala, Hany; Little, Thomas D. C.

    2015-01-01

    Spectrally and energy efficient orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (SEE-OFDM) is an optical OFDM technique based on combining multiple asymmetrically clipped optical OFDM (ACO-OFDM) signals into one OFDM signal. By summing different components together, SEE-OFDM can achieve the same spectral efficiency as DC-biased optical OFDM (DCO-OFDM) without an energy-inefficient DC-bias. This paper introduces multiple methods for decoding a SEE-OFDM symbol and shows that an iterative decoder wit...

  19. Novel Ontologies-based Optical Character Recognition-error Correction Cooperating with Graph Component Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarunya Kanjanawattana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available literature. Extracting graph information clearly contributes to readers, who are interested in graph information interpretation, because we can obtain significant information presenting in the graph. A typical tool used to transform image-based characters to computer editable characters is optical character recognition (OCR. Unfortunately, OCR cannot guarantee perfect results, because it is sensitive to noise and input quality. This becomes a serious problem because misrecognition provides misunderstanding information to readers and causes misleading communication. In this study, we present a novel method for OCR-error correction based on bar graphs using semantics, such as ontologies and dependency parsing. Moreover, we used a graph component extraction proposed in our previous study to omit irrelevant parts from graph components. It was applied to clean and prepare input data for this OCR-error correction. The main objectives of this paper are to extract significant information from the graph using OCR and to correct OCR errors using semantics. As a result, our method provided remarkable performance with the highest accuracies and F-measures. Moreover, we examined that our input data contained less of noise because of an efficiency of our graph component extraction. Based on the evidence, we conclude that our solution to the OCR problem achieves the objectives.

  20. Coherent systems with multistate components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.

    1980-01-01

    The basic rules of the Boolean algebra with restrictions on variables are briefly recalled. This special type of Boolean algebra allows one to handle fault trees of systems made of multistate (two or more than two states) components. Coherent systems are defined in the case of multistate components. This definition is consistent with that originally suggested by Barlow in the case of binary (two states) components. The basic properties of coherence are described and discussed. Coherent Boolean functions are also defined. It is shown that these functions are irredundant, that is they have only one base which is at the same time complete and irredundant. However, irredundant functions are not necessarily coherent. Finally a simplified algorithm for the calculation of the base of a coherent function is described. In the case that the function is not coherent, the algorithm can be used to reduce the size of the normal disjunctive form of the function. This in turn eases the application of the Nelson algorithm to calculate the complete base of the function. The simplified algorithm has been built in the computer program MUSTAFA-1. In a sample case the use of this algorithm caused a reduction of the CPU time by a factor of about 20. (orig.)