WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical storage studies

  1. Health information management using optical storage technology: case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohn, D

    1992-05-01

    All the health care facilities examined in the case studies addressed several important organizational issues before and during the installation of their systems. All the facilities examined employee commitment. The prudent managers considered how easily their employees adapt to changes in their jobs and work environment. They considered how enthusiastic cooperation can be fostered in the creation of a liberated and reengineered office. This was determined not only by each individual's reaction to change, but also by the health care facility's track record with other system installations. For example, document image, diagnostic image, and coded data processing systems allow the integration of divergent health care information systems within complex institutions. Unfortunately, many institutions are currently struggling with how to create an information management architecture that will integrate their mature systems, such as their patient care and financial systems. Information managers must realize that if optical storage technology-based systems are used in a strategic and planned fashion, these systems can act as focal points for systems integration, not as promises to further confuse the issue. Another issue that needed attention in all the examples was the work environment. The managers considered how the work environment was going to affect the ability to integrate optical image and data systems into the institution. For example, many of these medical centers have created alliances with clinics, HMOs, and large corporate users of medical services. This created a demand for all or part of the health information outside the confines of the original institution. Since the work environment is composed of a handful of factors such as merged medical services, as many work environment factors as possible were addressed before application of the optical storage technology solution in the institutions. And finally, the third critical issue was the organization of work

  2. Holographic Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timucin, Dogan A.; Downie, John D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Although the basic idea may be traced back to the earlier X-ray diffraction studies of Sir W. L. Bragg, the holographic method as we know it was invented by D. Gabor in 1948 as a two-step lensless imaging technique to enhance the resolution of electron microscopy, for which he received the 1971 Nobel Prize in physics. The distinctive feature of holography is the recording of the object phase variations that carry the depth information, which is lost in conventional photography where only the intensity (= squared amplitude) distribution of an object is captured. Since all photosensitive media necessarily respond to the intensity incident upon them, an ingenious way had to be found to convert object phase into intensity variations, and Gabor achieved this by introducing a coherent reference wave along with the object wave during exposure. Gabor's in-line recording scheme, however, required the object in question to be largely transmissive, and could provide only marginal image quality due to unwanted terms simultaneously reconstructed along with the desired wavefront. Further handicapped by the lack of a strong coherent light source, optical holography thus seemed fated to remain just another scientific curiosity, until the field was revolutionized in the early 1960s by some major breakthroughs: the proposition and demonstration of the laser principle, the introduction of off-axis holography, and the invention of volume holography. Consequently, the remainder of that decade saw an exponential growth in research on theory, practice, and applications of holography. Today, holography not only boasts a wide variety of scientific and technical applications (e.g., holographic interferometry for strain, vibration, and flow analysis, microscopy and high-resolution imagery, imaging through distorting media, optical interconnects, holographic optical elements, optical neural networks, three-dimensional displays, data storage, etc.), but has become a prominent am advertising

  3. Optical information storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woike, T. [Koeln Univ., Inst. fuer Kristallography, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-11-01

    In order to increase storage capacity and data transfer velocity by about three orders of magnitude compared to CD or magnetic disc it is necessary to work with optical techniques, especially with holography. About 100 TByte can be stored in a waver of an area of 50 cm{sup 2} via holograms which corresponds to a density of 2.10{sup 9} Byte/mm{sup 2}. Every hologram contains data of 1 MByte, so that parallel-processing is possible for read-out. Using high-speed CCD-arrays a read-out velocity of 1 MByte/{mu}sec can be reached. Further, holographic technics are very important in solid state physics. We will discuss the existence of a space charge field in Sr{sub 1-x}Ba{sub x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6} doped with cerium and the physical properties of metastable states, which are suited for information storage. (author) 19 figs., 9 refs.

  4. Optical information storage and processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiwen

    Optical information storage and optical information processing are the two themes of this thesis. Chapter two and three discuss the issue of storage while the final two chapters investigate the topic of optical computing. In the second chapter, we demonstrate a holographic system which is able to record phenomena in nanosecond speed. Laser induced shock wave propagation is recorded by angularly multiplexing pulsed holograms. Five frames can be recorded with frame interval of 12ns and time resolution of 5.9ns. We also demonstrate a system which can record fast events holographically on a CCD camera. Carrier multiplexing is used to store 3 frames in a single CCD frame with frame interval of 12ns. This technique can be extended to record femtosecond events. Information storage in subwavelength structures is discussed in the third chapter. A 2D simulation tool using the FDTD algorithm is developed and applied to calculate the far field scattering from subwavelength trenches. The simulation agrees with the experimental data very well. Width, depth and angle multiplexing is investigated to encode information in subwavelength features. An eigenfunction approach is adopted to analyze how much information can be stored given the length of the feature. Finally we study the effect of non-linear buffer layer. We switch gear to holographic correlators in the fourth chapter. We study various properties of the defocused correlator which can control the shift invariance conveniently. An approximate expression of the shift selectivity is derived. We demonstrate a real time correlator with 480 templates. The cross talk of the correlators is also analyzed. Finally, in the fifth chapter we apply the optical correlator to fingerprint identification and study the performance of the correlation based algorithms. The windowed correlation can improve the rotation and distortion tolerance.

  5. Optical storage studies on the trapping states of BaFCl:Eu sup 2 sup +

    CERN Document Server

    Meng Xian Guo; Sun Li; Jin Hui; Zhang Li

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of BaF sub 2 sub - sub x Cl sub x :Eu in different states of optical storage were measured to clarify the electron trapping mechanism for its optical storage and photo-stimulated luminescence (PSL). Based on the absorption spectra and difference absorption spectra, the electron transfer processes after ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation were investigated. This demonstrates that (1) Eu sup 3 sup + ions are formed upon UV light irradiation at room temperature; (2) the two absorption bands in the visible region (400-600 nm) should be assigned to two different F centres, both of which contribute to the optical storage and PSL, and (3) a third broad difference absorption band around approx 650 nm, which matches the common laser better, was observed.

  6. Nanomaterials for optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Min; Zhang, Qiming; Lamon, Simone

    2016-12-01

    The growing amount of data that is generated every year creates an urgent need for new and improved data storage methods. Nanomaterials, which have unique mechanical, electronic and optical properties owing to the strong confinement of electrons, photons and phonons at the nanoscale, are enabling the development of disruptive methods for optical data storage with ultra-high capacity, ultra-long lifetime and ultra-low energy consumption. In this Review, we survey recent advancements in nanomaterials technology towards the next generation of optical data storage systems, focusing on metallic nanoparticles, graphene and graphene oxide, semiconductor quantum dots and rare-earth-doped nanocrystals. We conclude by discussing the use of nanomaterials in data storage systems that do not rely on optical mechanisms and by surveying the future prospects for the field.

  7. Multi-dimensional optical storage

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Duanyi

    2016-01-01

    This book presents principles and applications to expand the storage space from 2-D to 3-D and even multi-D, including gray scale, color (light with different wavelength), polarization and coherence of light. These actualize the improvements of density, capacity and data transfer rate for optical data storage. Moreover, the applied implementation technologies to make mass data storage devices are described systematically. Some new mediums, which have linear absorption characteristics for different wavelength and intensity to light with high sensitivity, are introduced for multi-wavelength and multi-level optical storage. This book can serve as a useful reference for researchers, engineers, graduate and undergraduate students in material science, information science and optics. .

  8. Multiwavelength optical storage of diarylethene PMMA films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haobo; Zhang, Fushi; Sun, Fan; Pu, Shouzhi; Zhou, Xinhong

    2003-04-01

    Current applied optical storage technologies are all based on the heat effect of the recording laser, i.e., heat-mode optical storage. In the present work, photon-mode optical storage using photochromic diarylethene materials was investigated. Two diarylethene molecules dispersed into PMMA together was used as storage material. The recording layer was spin-coated on a glass substrate with Al reflective layer. Two laser beams of 532 nm and 650 nm were used in recording and readout by simultaneously writing and reading, and the reading lasers detected signals with high S/N ratio. Multi-wavelength storage was realized with the diarylethene PMMA film.

  9. Calibration of the linear optics in the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shunqiang; LIU Guimin; ZHANG Wenzhi; LI Haohu; ZHANG Manzhou; HOU Jie; CHEN Guangling

    2008-01-01

    Phase Ⅰ commissioning of the SSRF storage ring at 3.0 GeV was ended with encouraging results. Distortions and calibrations of the linear optics during the storage ring commissioning are discussed in this paper. The calibration procedure has reduced sextupole-additional focusing effects by minimizing closed orbit deviation and corrected quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the linear optics from closed orbit (LOCO) technique. After fitting the closed orbit response matrix, linear optics of the storage ring is substantially corrected, and the measured parameters agree well with the design. Four optics modes were commissioned, and relevant machine physics studies were carried out. Their results are summarized.

  10. ICI optical data storage tape: An archival mass storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddick, Andrew J.

    1993-01-01

    At the 1991 Conference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, ICI Imagedata presented a paper which introduced ICI Optical Data Storage Tape. This paper placed specific emphasis on the media characteristics and initial data was presented which illustrated the archival stability of the media. More exhaustive analysis that was carried out on the chemical stability of the media is covered. Equally important, it also addresses archive management issues associated with, for example, the benefits of reduced rewind requirements to accommodate tape relaxation effects that result from careful tribology control in ICI Optical Tape media. ICI Optical Tape media was designed to meet the most demanding requirements of archival mass storage. It is envisaged that the volumetric data capacity, long term stability and low maintenance characteristics demonstrated will have major benefits in increasing reliability and reducing the costs associated with archival storage of large data volumes.

  11. Liquid crystals for holographic optical data storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    A tutorial review is presented to inform and inspire the reader to develop and integrate strong scientific links between liquid crystals and holographic data storage, from a materials scientist's viewpoint. The principle of holographic data storage as a means of providing a solution...... to the information storage demands of the 21st century is detailed. Holography is a small subset of the much larger field of optical data storage and similarly, the diversity of materials used for optical data storage is enormous. The theory of polarisation holography which produces holograms of constant intensity......, is discussed. Polymeric liquid crystals play an important role in the development of materials for holographic storage and photoresponsive materials based on azobenzene are targeted for discussion due to their ease of photo- reversion between trans- and cis- states. Although the final polymer may not be liquid...

  12. Optical Digital Image Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-18

    This could be accomplished even if the files were artificially determined. " Super files," composed of a number of files, could be artificially created...in order to expedite transfer through the scanning process. These " super files" could later be broken down into their actual component files. Another...hesitant about implementing an optical disk system. While Sandra Napier believed it "looks promising," she felt an optical disk replacement of microfilm

  13. Optical CDMA system using bacteriorhodopsin for optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae; Yang; Jin; Lee; Park

    1999-11-01

    An optical CDMA (code division multiple access) system for the optical data storage using bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is reported as an application of the BR materials. The desired signal of multiple input can be recorded and reconstructed by use of orthogonal codes. An experimental setup is proposed and demonstrated.

  14. Scanning Techniques For Optical Data Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, David K.

    1987-01-01

    It seems almost paradoxical that beams of light can be moved and steered at very high speeds using a variety of scanning methods, yet the optical disk drives now being designed and marketed for data storage applications have comparatively long access times. Knowing that optical data storage has unrealized potential is of interest, but of more immediate concern is the recognition that poor access performance is a serious design issue. Magnetic disk drives offer average seek times in the 15-25ms range, compared to about 80-500ms (or more, for CD ROMS) for current optical drives. This performance disparity exists, in part, because the relatively massive "optical heads" in use today cannot be transported across the radius of a disk as quickly as a stack of much lighter magnetic heads. Any potential distance advantage that the optical drive might have, due to its substantially higher track density, is offset by the magnetic drive's use of a multi-disk stack. As a result, the drive must achieve similar radial accelerations during seeks if it is to have similar average access times. The inability of current optical drives to approach the access speeds of comparable magnetic drives significantly reduces the competitiveness of optical products in major segments of the very large data storage market. This shortcoming is especially disturbing when we know that opto-mechanical scanners typically operate in the 1-10ms range and that non-mechanical scanning techniques can be substantially faster than that.

  15. Theoretical study on optical storage of the transmitted-aperture type super-RENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Quanhong; Xu, Duanyi; Ma, Jianshe; Liu, Rong; Qi, Guosheng

    2005-09-01

    In this paper, theoretical work on the transmitted-aperture (TA) type super-RENS was introduced. Firstly, the forming of transmitted-aperture in the mask layer was studied based on laser-induced thermal model with Gauss assumption. A numerical simulation was carried out by FEMLAB. The simulation results showed that transmitted aperture would not be formed until the exposure power exceeded a threshold within a certain pulse time and vice versa. Secondly, a calculation model of electromagnetic field of TA type super-RENS disk was presented based on the three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method (3D-FDTD) together with a vector method of Gaussian beam. Lorenz dispersive model was employed for mask layer and reflective layer. The distributions of electric field for TA type super-RENS were theoretically analyzed. Lastly, the static writing experiment for TA type Super-RENS was carried out with different power and pulse time, as well as for conventional CD-R/W. The experiment results well satisfied the simulation.

  16. Side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Holme, Christian; Hvilsted, Søren

    1996-01-01

    Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyester structures suitable for permanent optical storage are described. The synthesis and characterization of the polyesters together with differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray investigations are discussed. Optical anisotropic investigations...... and holographic storage in one particular polyester are described in detail and polarized Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic data complementing the optical data are presented. Optical and atomic force microscope investigations point to a laser-induced aggregation as responsible for permanent optical storage....

  17. NGLW RCRA Storage Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. J. Waters; R. Ochoa; K. D. Fritz; D. W. Craig

    2000-06-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory contains radioactive liquid waste in underground storage tanks at the INTEC Tank Farm Facility (TFF). INTEC is currently treating the waste by evaporation to reduce the liquid volume for continued storage, and by calcination to reduce and convert the liquid to a dry waste form for long-term storage in calcine bins. Both treatment methods and activities in support of those treatment operations result in Newly Generated Liquid Waste (NGLW) being sent to TFF. The storage tanks in the TFF are underground, contained in concrete vaults with instrumentation, piping, transfer jets, and managed sumps in case of any liquid accumulation in the vault. The configuration of these tanks is such that Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) regulations apply. The TFF tanks were assessed several years ago with respect to the RCRA regulations and they were found to be deficient. This study considers the configuration of the current tanks and the RCRA deficiencies identified for each. The study identifies four potential methods and proposes a means of correcting the deficiencies. The cost estimates included in the study account for construction cost; construction methods to minimize work exposure to chemical hazards, radioactive contamination, and ionizing radiation hazards; project logistics; and project schedule. The study also estimates the tank volumes benefit associated with each corrective action to support TFF liquid waste management planning.

  18. Coherent Harmonic Generation using the Elettra Storage-Ring Optical Klystron A Numerical Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Curbis, F

    2005-01-01

    Coherent harmonic generation can be obtained by means of frequency up-conversion of a high-power external laser focused into the first undulator of an optical klystron. The standard configuration is based on a single-pass device, where the seed laser is synchronized with an electron beam entering the first undulator of the optical klystron after being accelerated using a linear accelerator. As an alternative, the optical klystron may be installed on a storage ring, where it is normally used as interaction region for an oscillator free-electron laser. In this case, removing the optical cavity and using an external seed, one obtains a configuration which is similar to the standard one but also presents some peculiar characteristics. In this paper we investigate the possibility of harmonic generation using the Elettra storage-ring optical klystron. We explore different experimental set-ups varying the beam energy, the seed characteristics and the strength of the optical-klystron dispersive section. We also study...

  19. The Azobenzene Optical Storage Puzzle - Demands on the Polymer Scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, PS

    2001-01-01

    The basic mechanism of optical information storage utilizing the azobenzene photoaddressable moiety will briefly be introduced. A synthetically flexible polyester matrix covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains is particularly well suited for holographic storage. Not...

  20. Multi-wavelength optical storage of diarylethene PMMA film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haobo; Zhang, Fushi; Wu, Guo-shi; Sun, Fan; Pu, Shouzhi; Mai, Xuesong; Qi, Guosheng

    2003-05-01

    Current commercial optical storage technologies are all based on the heat effect of the recording laser, i.e., heat-mode optical storage. In the present work, photon-mode optical storage using photochromic diarylethene materials was investigated. Two diarylethene derivatives were dispersed into PMMA solution, and spin-coated on a glass substrate with Al reflective layer as the recording layer. Two laser beams of 532 and 650 nm were used in recording and readout simultaneously, and signals with high S/ N ratio were detected. Multi-wavelength optical storage was realized with the diarylethene PMMA film.

  1. Maui energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Karlson, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    This report investigates strategies to mitigate anticipated wind energy curtailment on Maui, with a focus on grid-level energy storage technology. The study team developed an hourly production cost model of the Maui Electric Company (MECO) system, with an expected 72 MW of wind generation and 15 MW of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation in 2015, and used this model to investigate strategies that mitigate wind energy curtailment. It was found that storage projects can reduce both wind curtailment and the annual cost of producing power, and can do so in a cost-effective manner. Most of the savings achieved in these scenarios are not from replacing constant-cost diesel-fired generation with wind generation. Instead, the savings are achieved by the more efficient operation of the conventional units of the system. Using additional storage for spinning reserve enables the system to decrease the amount of spinning reserve provided by single-cycle units. This decreases the amount of generation from these units, which are often operated at their least efficient point (at minimum load). At the same time, the amount of spinning reserve from the efficient combined-cycle units also decreases, allowing these units to operate at higher, more efficient levels.

  2. Polymer scaffolds bearing azobenzene - Potential for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental optical storage mechanism of the laser light addressable azobenzene moiety is briefly introduced. A modular and flexible synthesis design furnishes polyester matrices covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains. Thin films of these materials are particul......The fundamental optical storage mechanism of the laser light addressable azobenzene moiety is briefly introduced. A modular and flexible synthesis design furnishes polyester matrices covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains. Thin films of these materials...

  3. Southern company energy storage study :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, James; Bhatnagar, Dhruv; Black, Clifton; Jenkins, Kip

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluates the business case for additional bulk electric energy storage in the Southern Company service territory for the year 2020. The model was used to examine how system operations are likely to change as additional storage is added. The storage resources were allowed to provide energy time shift, regulation reserve, and spinning reserve services. Several storage facilities, including pumped hydroelectric systems, flywheels, and bulk-scale batteries, were considered. These scenarios were tested against a range of sensitivities: three different natural gas price assumptions, a 15% decrease in coal-fired generation capacity, and a high renewable penetration (10% of total generation from wind energy). Only in the elevated natural gas price sensitivities did some of the additional bulk-scale storage projects appear justifiable on the basis of projected production cost savings. Enabling existing peak shaving hydroelectric plants to provide regulation and spinning reserve, however, is likely to provide savings that justify the project cost even at anticipated natural gas price levels. Transmission and distribution applications of storage were not examined in this study. Allowing new storage facilities to serve both bulk grid and transmission/distribution-level needs may provide for increased benefit streams, and thus make a stronger business case for additional storage.

  4. Delivery of video-on-demand services using local storages within passive optical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeywickrama, Sandu; Wong, Elaine

    2013-01-28

    At present, distributed storage systems have been widely studied to alleviate Internet traffic build-up caused by high-bandwidth, on-demand applications. Distributed storage arrays located locally within the passive optical network were previously proposed to deliver Video-on-Demand services. As an added feature, a popularity-aware caching algorithm was also proposed to dynamically maintain the most popular videos in the storage arrays of such local storages. In this paper, we present a new dynamic bandwidth allocation algorithm to improve Video-on-Demand services over passive optical networks using local storages. The algorithm exploits the use of standard control packets to reduce the time taken for the initial request communication between the customer and the central office, and to maintain the set of popular movies in the local storage. We conduct packet level simulations to perform a comparative analysis of the Quality-of-Service attributes between two passive optical networks, namely the conventional passive optical network and one that is equipped with a local storage. Results from our analysis highlight that strategic placement of a local storage inside the network enables the services to be delivered with improved Quality-of-Service to the customer. We further formulate power consumption models of both architectures to examine the trade-off between enhanced Quality-of-Service performance versus the increased power requirement from implementing a local storage within the network.

  5. Interim storage study report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rawlins, J.K.

    1998-02-01

    High-level radioactive waste (HLW) stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) in the form of calcine and liquid and liquid sodium-bearing waste (SBW) will be processed to provide a stable waste form and prepare the waste to be transported to a permanent repository. Because a permanent repository will not be available when the waste is processed, the waste must be stored at ICPP in an Interim Storage Facility (ISF). This report documents consideration of an ISF for each of the waste processing options under consideration.

  6. Study of thermal effects and optical properties of an innovative absorber in integrated collector storage solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, Yaser; Alimardani, Kazem; Ziapour, Behrooz M.

    2015-10-01

    Solar passive water heaters are potential candidates for enhanced heat transfer. Solar water heaters with an integrated water tank and with the low temperature energy resource are used as the simplest and cheapest recipient devices of the solar energy for heating and supplying hot water in the buildings. The solar thermal performances of one primitive absorber were determined by using both the experimental and the simulation model of it. All materials applied for absorber such as the cover glass, the black colored sands and the V shaped galvanized plate were submerged into the water. The water storage tank was manufactured from galvanized sheet of 0.0015 m in thickness and the effective area of the collector was 0.67 m2. The absorber was installed on a compact solar water heater. The constructed flat-plate collectors were tested outdoors. However the simulation results showed that the absorbers operated near to the gray materials and all experimental results showed that the thermal efficiencies of the collector are over than 70 %.

  7. Autumn study on storage rings

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The first two weeks of October have seen storage ring people from accelerator Laboratories throughout the world at CERN to study the fundamental problems of very high energy protonproton colliding beam machines.

  8. Multiscale degradations of storage ring FEL optics

    CERN Document Server

    Gatto, A; Amra, C; Boccara, C; Couprie, Marie Emmanuelle; De Ninno, G; Feigl, T; Garzella, D; Grewe, M; Kaiser, N; Marsi, M; Paoloni, S; Reita, V; Roger, J P; Torchio, P; Trovò, M; Walker, R; Wille, K

    2002-01-01

    The advanced understanding of the complete degradation phenomena is crucial in order to develop robust optics for FEL. Under very harsh Synchrotron Radiation conditions, results show that multiscale wavelength damages could be observed, inducing local crystalline structure modifications of the high optical index material with a severe increase of the surface roughness.

  9. Novel Polymer Architectures for Optical Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Forcén, Patrica; Oriol, Luis

    2007-01-01

    Azobenzene containing polymers have been shown to have a large potential for high capacity olographic information storage. However, it has been difficult to fabricate thick films of the polymers with good op~ical quality so far. Liquid crystalline block copolymers prepared by Atom Transfer Radica...

  10. The Azobenzene Optical Storage Puzzle - Demands on the Polymer Scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, PS

    2001-01-01

    The basic mechanism of optical information storage utilizing the azobenzene photoaddressable moiety will briefly be introduced. A synthetically flexible polyester matrix covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains is particularly well suited for holographic storage...... of the nature of the main chain on polyester morphology and on the permanency of the induced anisotropy are discussed. Arguments for the design and methods of preparation of other very different polymer scaffolds supporting the cyanoazobenzene are elucidated. Whereas oligopeptides invariably form amorphous...

  11. The azobenzene optical storage puzzle - Demands on the polymer scaffold?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The basic mechanism of optical information storage utilizing the azobenzene photoaddressable moiety will briefly be introduced. A synthetically flexible polyester matrix covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains is particularly well suited for holographic storage...... of the nature of the main chain on polyester morphology and on the permanency of the induced anisotropy are discussed. Arguments for the design and methods of preparation of other very different polymer scaffolds supporting the cyanoazobenzene are elucidated. Whereas oligopeptides invariably form amorphous...

  12. Thermal stresses in multilayer optical-storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, M. A.; Evans, K. E.

    1989-07-01

    Previously, it has been shown that thermal stresses may have a significant role to play in optical-storage media. Calculations have shown that thermal stresses are produced in single-layer optical-storage thin films sufficient to cause interlayer failure and blister formation. In this paper, more realistic multilayer thin films are modeled and it is shown that considerably higher stresses can be produced depending on the layer geometry and material properties. These effects are important both in the initial writing process and in subsequent reading or writing processes, and may result in long-term-accumulated, stress-induced damage.

  13. A new diarylethene and its application in optical storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Weijun; Jiang Duohua; Pu Shouzhi; Cui Shiqiang, E-mail: pushouzhi@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A new blue photochromic diarylethene compound, 1-[5-(3-methoxyphenyl)-2-methyl-3-thienyl]-2-[5-(3-cyanophenyl) -2-methyl-3-thienyl]perfluoroclopentene (1a), was synthesized and its photochemical properties were investigated in detail. The measurement results demonstrated that the compound has good photochromism in solution and in PMMA amorphous film, fluorescence and optical storage properties.

  14. Modeling delamination due to thermal stress in optical storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkansah, M. A.; Evans, K. E.

    1990-04-01

    Finite element analysis is used to calculate the shape of blisters formed in bilayer optical storage media due to the buildup of thermal stresses during laser writing. It is shown that practically usable blisters may be expected to form in a time period of about 15 ns. Such a thermal stress delamination process may also precede melting in conventional pit formation processes.

  15. Current developments in optical data storage with organic dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustroph, Heinz; Stollenwerk, Manfred; Bressau, Volker

    2006-03-20

    The main motivation for the development of digital data storage has been the improvement in play-back quality and the increase in storage capacity. In 1982 Philips and Sony introduced the first technically and economically successful system based on this-the compact disc (CD) and a compatible player. A very broad diversity of optical data recording formats are available today, and a difference is drawn between prerecorded, recordable, and rewritable media. This Review gives an overview of the systems used, the main features of production, and then concentrates on the properties of the organic dyes that are used in recordable systems. Dyestuffs chemistry has gained the reputation of having become a mature field of activity. Is this prejudice or a justified swan song for dyestuffs chemistry? When applications in optical data storage are considered, it is evident that even today progresses such as CD-R and DVD/R would not be feasible without functional dyes.

  16. All-optical signal processing data communication and storage applications

    CERN Document Server

    Eggleton, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the art of optical signal processing technologies and devices. It presents breakthrough solutions for enabling a pervasive use of optics in data communication and signal storage applications. It presents presents optical signal processing as solution to overcome the capacity crunch in communication networks. The book content ranges from the development of innovative materials and devices, such as graphene and slow light structures, to the use of nonlinear optics for secure quantum information processing and overcoming the classical Shannon limit on channel capacity and microwave signal processing. Although it holds the promise for a substantial speed improvement, today’s communication infrastructure optics remains largely confined to the signal transport layer, as it lags behind electronics as far as signal processing is concerned. This situation will change in the near future as the tremendous growth of data traffic requires energy efficient and ful...

  17. Enhanced energy storage in chaotic optical resonators

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Changxu

    2013-05-05

    Chaos is a phenomenon that occurs in many aspects of contemporary science. In classical dynamics, chaos is defined as a hypersensitivity to initial conditions. The presence of chaos is often unwanted, as it introduces unpredictability, which makes it difficult to predict or explain experimental results. Conversely, we demonstrate here how chaos can be used to enhance the ability of an optical resonator to store energy. We combine analytic theory with ab initio simulations and experiments in photonic-crystal resonators to show that a chaotic resonator can store six times more energy than its classical counterpart of the same volume. We explain the observed increase by considering the equipartition of energy among all degrees of freedom of the chaotic resonator (that is, the cavity modes) and discover a convergence of their lifetimes towards a single value. A compelling illustration of the theory is provided by enhanced absorption in deformed polystyrene microspheres. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Cycloaddition in peptides for high-capacity optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Berg, Rolf Henrik; Hvilsted, Søren

    2006-01-01

    Photodimerization of chromophores attached to a short peptide chain is investigated for high-capacity optical digital storage with UV lasers. The length and rigidity of the peptide chain assure an optimal distance and orientation of the chromophores for effective photodimerization. Using a theory...... developed by Tomlinson, the absorption cross section for the dimerization process in a uracil-ornithine-based hexamer is determined to be 9 x 10(-20) cm(2). A large change in the transmission due to irradiation in the UV area may make it possible to realize multilevel storage in a thin film of the peptides....

  19. Diffused holographic information storage and retrieval using photorefractive optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Deanna Kay

    Holography offers a tremendous opportunity for dense information storage, theoretically one bit per cubic wavelength of material volume, with rapid retrieval, of up to thousands of pages of information simultaneously. However, many factors prevent the theoretical storage limit from being reached, including dynamic range problems and imperfections in recording materials. This research explores new ways of moving closer to practical holographic information storage and retrieval by altering the recording materials, in this case, photorefractive crystals, and by increasing the current storage capacity while improving the information retrieved. As an experimental example of the techniques developed, the information retrieved is the correlation peak from an optical recognition architecture, but the materials and methods developed are applicable to many other holographic information storage systems. Optical correlators can potentially solve any signal or image recognition problem. Military surveillance, fingerprint identification for law enforcement or employee identification, and video games are but a few examples of applications. A major obstacle keeping optical correlators from being universally accepted is the lack of a high quality, thick (high capacity) holographic recording material that operates with red or infrared wavelengths which are available from inexpensive diode lasers. This research addresses the problems from two positions: find a better material for use with diode lasers, and reduce the requirements placed on the material while maintaining an efficient and effective system. This research found that the solutions are new dopants introduced into photorefractive lithium niobate to improve wavelength sensitivities and the use of a novel inexpensive diffuser that reduces the dynamic range and optical element quality requirements (which reduces the cost) while improving performance. A uniquely doped set of 12 lithium niobate crystals was specified and

  20. Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byoung S

    2008-09-01

    A method of reversible quantum optical data storage is presented using resonant Raman field excited spin coherence, where the spin coherence is stored in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble. Unlike the photon echo method, in the present technique, a 2pi Raman optical rephasing pulse area is used and multimode (parallel) optical channels are available in which the multimode access gives a great benefit to quantum information processors such as quantum repeaters.

  1. Analysis and correction of linear optics errors, and operational improvements in the Indus-2 storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Riyasat; Ghodke, A. D.

    2017-08-01

    Estimation and correction of the optics errors in an operational storage ring is always vital to achieve the design performance. To achieve this task, the most suitable and widely used technique, called linear optics from closed orbit (LOCO) is used in almost all storage ring based synchrotron radiation sources. In this technique, based on the response matrix fit, errors in the quadrupole strengths, beam position monitor (BPM) gains, orbit corrector calibration factors etc. can be obtained. For correction of the optics, suitable changes in the quadrupole strengths can be applied through the driving currents of the quadrupole power supplies to achieve the desired optics. The LOCO code has been used at the Indus-2 storage ring for the first time. The estimation of linear beam optics errors and their correction to minimize the distortion of linear beam dynamical parameters by using the installed number of quadrupole power supplies is discussed. After the optics correction, the performance of the storage ring is improved in terms of better beam injection/accumulation, reduced beam loss during energy ramping, and improvement in beam lifetime. It is also useful in controlling the leakage in the orbit bump required for machine studies or for commissioning of new beamlines.

  2. Prompting booming development of world optical storage industry together

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Ladies and Gentlemen: Good Morning! Replication Expo and Conference 2003 hold once each year finally open today. We say "finally", because of SARS and Iraq war this year, our Expo and conference 2003 delayed from August till today. But it did not affect holistic size and level of our Expo. According to our statistics, there are 107 exhibitors from 21 countries attending to the Expo and 24 presentations in our Conference. It is the largest size of Expo and conference in last five years. The interesting in "optical storage" proves that our Expo and Conference is one of most influencing Expo and Conference in the Asia, even in the world. This is the reason we can believe optical storage industry has an attractive future and expansive development space. China is a develoning country After foundation of S A

  3. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses in optical storage media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.; Abbott, S. J.

    1988-10-01

    Finite element techniques are used to calculate the thermal stresses generated in single-layer, optical storage thin films. The calculations predict that the thermal stresses generated by laser heating may reach values well beyond the strength of the media in times much less than that for pit formation by melting. Both dye-polymer and metal-based systems are considered with either air or substrate incident laser sources.

  4. Photodimerization in dipeptides for high capacity optical digital storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Berg, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed peptide materials with chromophores that undergo cycloaddition, suitable for terabit optical digital storage in a 5.25 in. disc. The rationale behind this design is that the length and rigidity of the backbone can be adjusted to facilitate the formation of a photodimer without...... enable data to be written and read at the same wavelength. (C) 2004 American Institute of Physics....

  5. Information Storage and Retrieval for Probe Storage using Optical Diffraction Patterns

    CERN Document Server

    van Honschoten, Joost; Koelmans, Wabe W; Parnell, Thomas P; Zaboronski, Oleg V

    2011-01-01

    A novel method for fast information retrieval from a probe storage device is considered. It is shown that information can be stored and retrieved using the optical diffraction patterns obtained by the illumination of a large array of cantilevers by a monochromatic light source. In thermo-mechanical probe storage, the information is stored as a sequence of indentations on the polymer medium. To retrieve the information, the array of probes is actuated by applying a bending force to the cantilevers. Probes positioned over indentations experience deflection by the depth of the indentation, probes over the flat media remain un-deflected. Thus the array of actuated probes can be viewed as an irregular optical grating, which creates a data-dependent diffraction pattern when illuminated by laser light. We develop a low complexity modulation scheme, which allows the extraction of information stored in the pattern of indentations on the media from Fourier coefficients of the intensity of the diffraction pattern. We th...

  6. Optical Disc Utilized As A Data Storage System For Reconnaissance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Donald G.

    1984-01-01

    Electra-optic and Radar sensing reconnaissance systems have many advantages including remote transmission and image data processing that conventional film camera systems do not have. However, data storage and retrieval that was naturally and easily accomplished with film must now be accommodated by other techniques. The optical disc data storage and retrieval systems offer significant advantage towards fulfilling this need. This paper will provide an overview description of the technology, some of the fundamental alternatives of configuration approach, and some examples of where it may be considered in the reconnaissance system. Silver halide film has been and still is the work horse of the image based reconnaissance field. It will not be replaced in the near future either, but rather a gradual transition to total electronic systems is expected. It is not the intent of this paper to debase film, because in fact it has its advantages. We have learned to optimize its advantages and minimize its disadvantages. However optical disc systems have a definite role to play in the reconnaissance field.

  7. Rewritable three-dimensional holographic data storage via optical forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K.; Montelongo, Yunuen; Butt, Haider

    2016-08-01

    The development of nanostructures that can be reversibly arranged and assembled into 3D patterns may enable optical tunability. However, current dynamic recording materials such as photorefractive polymers cannot be used to store information permanently while also retaining configurability. Here, we describe the synthesis and optimization of a silver nanoparticle doped poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) recording medium for reversibly recording 3D holograms. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate organizing nanoparticles into 3D assemblies in the recording medium using optical forces produced by the gradients of standing waves. The nanoparticles in the recording medium are organized by multiple nanosecond laser pulses to produce reconfigurable slanted multilayer structures. We demonstrate the capability of producing rewritable optical elements such as multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, 1D photonic crystals, and 3D multiplexed optical gratings. We also show that 3D virtual holograms can be reversibly recorded. This recording strategy may have applications in reconfigurable optical elements, data storage devices, and dynamic holographic displays.

  8. Rewritable three-dimensional holographic data storage via optical forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yetisen, Ali K., E-mail: ayetisen@mgh.harvard.edu [Harvard Medical School and Wellman Center for Photomedicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Montelongo, Yunuen [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Butt, Haider [Nanotechnology Laboratory, School of Engineering Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-08

    The development of nanostructures that can be reversibly arranged and assembled into 3D patterns may enable optical tunability. However, current dynamic recording materials such as photorefractive polymers cannot be used to store information permanently while also retaining configurability. Here, we describe the synthesis and optimization of a silver nanoparticle doped poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid) recording medium for reversibly recording 3D holograms. We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate organizing nanoparticles into 3D assemblies in the recording medium using optical forces produced by the gradients of standing waves. The nanoparticles in the recording medium are organized by multiple nanosecond laser pulses to produce reconfigurable slanted multilayer structures. We demonstrate the capability of producing rewritable optical elements such as multilayer Bragg diffraction gratings, 1D photonic crystals, and 3D multiplexed optical gratings. We also show that 3D virtual holograms can be reversibly recorded. This recording strategy may have applications in reconfigurable optical elements, data storage devices, and dynamic holographic displays.

  9. Optical properties of a photopolymer film for digital holographic storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Changwon; Kim, Junghoi; Kim, Nam; Lee, Hyojin; Kim, Eunkyoung

    2005-09-01

    Tir- and mono functional monomers were dispersed in a solution of polysulfone in organic solvent containing a photo initiator and other additives. New photopolymer film was prepared by dispersing acrylic monomer in a polysulfone matrix. The Polysulfone was adopted as a binder since it affords transparent thick films with low dimensional changes during holographic recording. Optical property of the photopolymer showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized optical condition at 532nm laser. The angular selectivity for angular multiplexing page oriented holographic memories (POHMs), the maximum diffraction efficiency of the material during holographic recording, the diffraction efficiency of the films as a function of an incident angle of two beams, exposure energy for saturation of the holographic material and application for holographic data storage will be discussed.

  10. Eternal 5D optical data storage in glass (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazansky, Peter G.; Cerkauskaite, Ausra; Drevinskas, Rokas; Zhang, Jingyu

    2016-09-01

    A decade ago it has been discovered that during femtosecond laser writing self-organized subwavelength structures with record small features of 20 nm, could be created in the volume of silica glass. On the macroscopic scale the self-assembled nanostructure behaves as a uniaxial optical crystal with negative birefringence. The optical anisotropy, which results from the alignment of nano-platelets, referred to as form birefringence, is of the same order of magnitude as positive birefringence in crystalline quartz. The two independent parameters describing birefringence, the slow axis orientation (4th dimension) and the strength of retardance (5th dimension), are explored for the optical encoding of information in addition to three spatial coordinates. The slow axis orientation and the retardance are independently manipulated by the polarization and intensity of the femtosecond laser beam. The data optically encoded into five dimensions is successfully retrieved by quantitative birefringence measurements. The storage allows unprecedented parameters including hundreds of terabytes per disc data capacity and thermal stability up to 1000°. Even at elevated temperatures of 160oC, the extrapolated decay time of nanogratings is comparable with the age of the Universe - 13.8 billion years. The recording of the digital documents, which will survive the human race, including the eternal copies of Universal Declaration of Human Rights, Newton's Opticks, Kings James Bible and Magna Carta, is a vital step towards an eternal archive. Additionally, a number of projects (such as Time Capsule to Mars, MoonMail, and the Google Lunar XPRIZE) could benefit from the technique's extreme durability, which fulfills a crucial requirement for storage on the Moon or Mars.

  11. Ion Optics of the HESR storage ring at FAIR for operation with heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr; Dolinskyy, Oleksiy; Litvinov, Yuri; Stoehlker, Thomas [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    High Energy Storage Ring (HESR) of the FAIR project is primarily designed for internal target experiments with stored and cooled antiprotons, which is the main objective of the PANDA collaboration. However, the HESR storage ring also appears to have remarkable properties to carry out physics experiments with heavy ions. This paper proposes a new ion optical design allowing for the heavy ion operation mode of the HESR. The main goal was to provide an optics which meets the requirements of the future experiments with heavy ion beams. In connection, issues like closed orbit correction, dynamic aperture as well as other characteristics of beam dynamics of the new ion optical setup are under analysis in this study.

  12. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  13. First principles study of hydrogen storage material NaBH4 and LiAlH4 compounds: electronic structure and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghellab, T.; Charifi, Z.; Baaziz, H.; Uğur, Ş.; Uğur, G.; Soyalp, F.

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive study of structure, phase stability, optical and electronic properties of LiAlH4 and NaBH4 light-metal hydrides is presented. The calculations are carried out within density functional theory using the full potential linear augmented plane wave method. The exchange-correlation potential is treated within the local density approximation and the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to calculate the total energy. Furthermore, the Engel-Vosko GGA approach is employed to compute electronic and optical properties such as reflectivity spectra. The phases α, β and γ of LiAlH4 and NaBH4 hydrides are investigated, the phase transition from the β to the high-pressure γ phase is determined for NaBH4 and is accompanied by a 1% volume decrease. For LiAlH4, no phase transition is detected. The materials under consideration are classified as wide band gap compounds. From the analysis of the structures at different phases, it is deduced that the hydrides show strong covalent interaction between B (Al) and H in the [BH4]- ([AlH4]-) anions and ionic bonding character between [BH4]- and Na+ for NaBH4, and [AlH4]- and Li+ for LiAlH4. The complex dielectric function, absorption coefficient and the reflectivity spectra are also computed and analyzed in different phases.

  14. Research on the Design of an Optical Information Storage Sensing System Using a Diffractive Optical Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Gu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a compact optical information storage sensing system. Applications of this system include longitudinal surface plasmon resonance detection of gold nanorods with a single femtosecond laser in three-dimensional space as well as data storage. A diffractive optical element (DOE is applied in the system to separate the recording-reading beam from the servo beam. This allows us to apply a single laser and one objective lens in a single optical path for the servo beam and the recording-reading beam. The optical system has a linear region of 8 λ, which is compatible with current DVD servo modules. The wavefront error of the optical system is below 0.03 λrms. The minimum grating period of the DOE is 13.4 µm, and the depth of the DOE is 1.2 µm, which makes fabrication of it possible. The DOE is also designed to conveniently control the layer-selection process, as there is a linear correlation between the displacement of the DOE and the layer-selection distance. The displacement of DOE is in the range of 0–6.045 mm when the thickness of the layer-selection is 0.3 mm. Experiments were performed and the results have been verified.

  15. OPTICAL STORAGE MECHANISM AND HIGH-ORDER DIFFRACTION PROPERTIES OF NITROAZOBENZENE-CONTAINING POLYESTER FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Using Nd:YAG second harmonic pulse (100 ps), the optical storage properties of two novel polyesters, poly [4'-bis (N, N-oxyethylene) imino-4-nitroazobenzene succinyl] and poly [2'-chloro-4'-bis (N, N-oxyethylene) imino-4-nitroazobenzene succinyl] have been studied by multiwave mixing. The high-order diffractions of the orientation gratingsinduced by anisotropy via the reorientation of nitroazobenzene groups and optical information storage with long-term stability have been realized by multiwave mixing in their films. Up to 3rd order forward diffraction was detected in two wave mixing, while up to 4th order backward diffraction was observed in degenerated four wave mixing. The recording mechanism was explained by the trans-cis-trans isomerization cycles of azobenzene groups.The isomerization of these azobenzene groups probably undergoes with inversion mechanism under the experimental conditions. The information recorded in these films has been kept for more than 6 months.

  16. Battery energy storage market feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-07-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed energy storage as an important enabling technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  17. Experimental investigation of parallel optical data storage using pyrrylfulgide photochromic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Ming; CHEN Guofu; YAO Baoli; CHEN Yi; HAN Yong; WANG Yingli; MENKE Neimule; ZHENG Yuan; WANG Congmin; FAN Meigong

    2003-01-01

    The optical storage characteristics of a new kind of organic photochromic material--pyrrylfulgide were experimentally investigated in the established parallel optical data storage system. Using the pyrrylfulgide/PMMA film as a photon-mode recording medium, micro-images and encoded binary digital data were recorded, readout and erased in this parallel system. The storage density currently reaches 3×107 bit/cm2. The recorded information on the film can be kept for years in darkness at room temperature.

  18. Optical data storage in nonphotosensitive media by femtosecond laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrashort lasers have become powerful tools by inducing extremely nonlinear effects in a wide variety of materials.Femtosecond laser data storage in non-photosensitive media is promising for its high density and fast retrieval. We reviewed the progress of three types of femtosecond laser storage in transparent materials: three-dimensional bit-oriented storage by micro-voids, holographic data storage by two beam interference and storage by computer-generated holograms.

  19. Review of ultra-high density optical storage technologies for big data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ruan; Liu, Jie

    2016-10-01

    In big data center, optical storage technologies have many advantages, such as energy saving and long lifetime. However, how to improve the storage density of optical storage is still a huge challenge. Maybe the multilayer optical storage technology is the good candidate for big data center in the years to come. Due to the number of layers is primarily limited by transmission of each layer, the largest capacities of the multilayer disc are around 1 TB/disc and 10 TB/ cartridge. Holographic data storage (HDS) is a volumetric approach, but its storage capacity is also strictly limited by the diffractive nature of light. For a holographic disc with total thickness of 1.5mm, its potential capacities are not more than 4TB/disc and 40TB/ cartridge. In recent years, the development of super resolution optical storage technology has attracted more attentions. Super-resolution photoinduction-inhibition nanolithography (SPIN) technology with 9 nm feature size and 52nm two-line resolution was reported 3 years ago. However, turning this exciting principle into a real storage system is a huge challenge. It can be expected that in the future, the capacities of 10TB/disc and 100TB/cartridge can be achieved. More importantly, due to breaking the diffraction limit of light, SPIN technology will open the door to improve the optical storage capacity steadily to meet the need of the developing big data center.

  20. Investigations of Optical Coherence Properties in an Erbium-doped Silicate Fiber for Quantum State Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Staudt, M U; Afzelius, M; Jaccard, D; Tittel, W; Gisin, Nicolas; Staudt, Matthias U.; Hastings-Simon, Sara R.; Afzelius, Mikael; Jaccard, Didier; Tittel, Wolfgang; Gisin, Nicolas

    2006-01-01

    We studied optical coherence properties of the 1.53 $\\mu$m telecommunication transition in an Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate optical fiber through spectral holeburning and photon echoes. We find decoherence times of up to 3.8 $\\mu$s at a magnetic field of 2.2 Tesla and a temperature of 150 mK. A strong magnetic-field dependent optical dephasing was observed and is believed to arise from an interaction between the electronic Er$^{3+}$ spin and the magnetic moment of tunneling modes in the glass. Furthermore, we observed fine-structure in the Erbium holeburning spectrum originating from superhyperfine interaction with $^{27}$Al host nuclei. Our results show that Er$^{3+}$-doped silicate fibers are promising material candidates for quantum state storage.

  1. Faithful solid state optical memory with dynamically decoupled spin wave storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovrić, Marko; Suter, Dieter; Ferrier, Alban; Goldner, Philippe

    2013-07-12

    We report a high fidelity optical memory in which dynamical decoupling is used to extend the storage time. This is demonstrated in a rare-earth doped crystal in which optical coherences were transferred to nuclear spin coherences and then protected against environmental noise by dynamical decoupling, leading to storage times of up to 4.2 ms. An interference experiment shows that relative phases of input pulses are preserved through the whole storage and retrieval process with a visibility ≈1, demonstrating the usefulness of dynamical decoupling for extending the storage time of quantum memories. We also show that dynamical decoupling sequences insensitive to initial spin coherence increase retrieval efficiency.

  2. The Volume Holographic Optical Storage Potential in Azobenzene Containing Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Sanchez, Carlos; Alcalá, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Volume holographic data storage is one of the most promising techniques to improve both the storage capacity of devices and the transfer data rate. Among the materials proposed as storage data media, azobenzene containing polymers have received much attention. Some of their properties seem to be ...

  3. Study on Hydrogen Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Jun

    2016-09-01

    Complex hydrides have been heavily investigated as a hydrogen storage material, particularly for future vehicular applications. The present major problem of such complex hydrides is their relatively high hydrogen desorption temperature (Td). In order to find a predominant parameter for determining Td, we have investigated internal nuclear magnetic fields in several complex hydrides, such as, lithium and sodium alanates, borohydrides, and magnesium hydrides, with a muon spin rotation and relaxation (μ+SR) technique. At low temperatures, the μ+SR spectrum obtained in a zero external field (ZF) exhibits a clear oscillation due to the formation of a three spin 1/2 system, HμH, besides Mg(BH4)2 and Sc(BH4)2. Such oscillatory signal becomes weaker and weaker with increasing temperature, and finally disappears above around room temperature. However, the volume fraction of the HμH signal to the whole asymmetry at 5 K is found to be a good indicator for Td in borohydrides. At high temperatures, on the contrary, the ZF-spectrum for MgH2 shows a Kubo-Toyabe like relaxation due to a random nuclear magnetic field of 1H. Such nuclear magnetic field becomes dynamic well below Td in the milled MgH2, indicating a significant role on H-diffusion in solids for determining Td.

  4. Beam dynamics simulations in laser electron storage rings and optical stochastic cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duru, Alper

    Laser-electron storage rings are potential compact X-ray sources. Longitudinal dynamics in laser-electron storage rings is studied including the effects of both laser interaction and synchrotron radiation. It is shown that the steady state energy spread can reach as high as a few percent. The main reason is the wide spread in the energy loss by electrons to laser photons. Optical stochastic cooling has been studied numerically. The effects of the finite bandwidth of the amplifier are mixing and signal distortion. Both are included in the simulations and the results are compared to theoretical results. It is shown that the beam can be cooled both in transverse and longitudinal phase phase spaces simultaneously.

  5. Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ookie Ma, Kerry Cheung

    2016-03-01

    Demand response and energy storage resources present potentially important sources of bulk power system services that can aid in integrating variable renewable generation. While renewable integration studies have evaluated many of the challenges associated with deploying large amounts of variable wind and solar generation technologies, integration analyses have not yet fully incorporated demand response and energy storage resources. This report represents an initial effort in analyzing the potential integration value of demand response and energy storage, focusing on the western United States. It evaluates two major aspects of increased deployment of demand response and energy storage: (1) Their operational value in providing bulk power system services and (2) Market and regulatory issues, including potential barriers to deployment.

  6. Kauai Island Utility Cooperative energy storage study.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, Abbas Ali; Yamane, Mike (Kauai Island Utility Cooperative, Lihu' e, HI); Murray, Aaron T.

    2009-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories performed an assessment of the benefits of energy storage for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative. This report documents the methodology and results of this study from a generation and production-side benefits perspective only. The KIUC energy storage study focused on the economic impact of using energy storage to shave the system peak, which reduces generator run time and consequently reduces fuel and operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. It was determined that a 16-MWh energy storage system would suit KIUC's needs, taking into account the size of the 13 individual generation units in the KIUC system and a system peak of 78 MW. The analysis shows that an energy storage system substantially reduces the run time of Units D1, D2, D3, and D5 - the four smallest and oldest diesel generators at the Port Allen generating plant. The availability of stored energy also evens the diurnal variability of the remaining generation units during the off- and on-peak periods. However, the net economic benefit is insufficient to justify a load-leveling type of energy storage system at this time. While the presence of storage helps reduce the run time of the smaller and older units, the economic dispatch changes and the largest most efficient unit in the KIUC system, the 27.5-MW steam-injected combustion turbine at Kapaia, is run for extra hours to provide the recharge energy for the storage system. The economic benefits of the storage is significantly reduced because the charging energy for the storage is derived from the same fuel source as the peak generation source it displaces. This situation would be substantially different if there were a renewable energy source available to charge the storage. Especially, if there is a wind generation resource introduced in the KIUC system, there may be a potential of capturing the load-leveling benefits as well as using the storage to dampen the dynamic instability that the wind generation could introduce

  7. Design study of the storage ring EUTERPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Boling; Botman, J. I. M.; Timmermans, C. J.; Hagedoorn, H. L.

    1992-05-01

    At present the 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is being constructed at the Eindhoven University of Technology. It is a university project set up for studies of charged particle beam dynamics and applications of synchroton radiation, and for the education of students in these fields. The design of the ring is described in this paper. Considering the requirements of users in different fields, a lattice based on a so-called triple bend achromat structure with a high flexibility has been chosen. With this lattice, different optical options, including the HBSB (high brightness, small beam), the SBL (short bunch length) and the HLF (high light flux) modes can be realized. A small emittance of 7 nm rad and a short bunch length of the order of several mm can be achieved. In the first phase the synchrotron radiation in the UV and XUV region (the critical wavelength is 8.3 nm) will be provided from the regular dipole magnets. Later on, a 10 T wiggler magnet and other special inserters will be added, and other applications and beam dynamics studies will be feasible. Bending magnets are of the parallel faced C configuration. The effective aperture of the vacuum chamber is 2.3 cm (vertical) in the bending magnets and 4.7 cm elsewhere with a working vacuum condition of 10-9 Torr. Collective effects have been studied initially. First calculations indicate that a lifetime of several hours, influenced by the Touschek effect and residual gas scattering will be achievable for a 200 mA beam in the HLF mode for the standard rf parameters. A 70 MeV racetrack microtron will serve as injector for the ring.

  8. Optics for the lattice of the compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Pei-Cheng; WANG Yu; SHEN Xiao-zhe; HUANG Wen-Hui; YAN Li-xin; DU Ying-Chao; LI Ren-Kai; TANG Chuan-Xiang

    2009-01-01

    We present two types of optics for the lattice of a compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source.The optics design for different operation modes of the storage ring are discussed in detail.For the pulse mode optics,an IBS-suppression scheme is applied to optimize the optics for lower IBS emittance growth rate;as for the steady mode,the method to control momentum compact factor is adopted[Gladkikh P,Phys.Rev.ST Accel.Beams 8,050702]to obtain stability of the electron beam.

  9. Canister storage building trade study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the impact of several technical issues related to the usage of the Canister Storage Building (CSB) to safely stage and store N-Reactor spent fuel currently located at K-Basin 100KW and 100KE. Each technical issue formed the basis for an individual trade study used to develop the ROM cost and schedule estimates. The study used concept 2D from the Fluor prepared ``Staging and Storage Facility (SSF) Feasibility Report`` as the basis for development of the individual trade studies.

  10. Rewritable 3D bit optical data storage in a PMMA-based photorefractive polymer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, D.; Gu, M. [Swinburne Univ. of Tech., Hawthorn, Vic. (Australia). Centre for Micro-Photonics; Smallridge, A. [Victoria Univ., Melbourne (Australia). School of Life Sciences and Technology

    2001-07-04

    A cheap, compact, and rewritable high-density optical data storage system for CD and DVD applications is presented by the authors. Continuous-wave illumination under two-photon excitation in a new poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) based photorefractive polymer allows 3D bit storage of sub-Tbyte data. (orig.)

  11. Optical Disks Compete with Videotape and Magnetic Storage Media: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrows, Henry; Urrows, Elizabeth

    1988-01-01

    Describes capabilities of Digi-Data's high-capacity computer storage tape drive, Gigastore, and FileTek's Storage Machine/1. Optical digital disk (ODD) leaders' reactions, opinions, and new products are reported. A directory of 13 ODD sources is included. (MES)

  12. KEYNOTE ADDRESS: The role of standards in the emerging optical digital data disk storage systems market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bainbridge, Ross C.

    1984-09-01

    The Institute for Computer Sciences and Technology at the National Bureau of Standards is pleased to cooperate with the International Society for Optical Engineering and to join with the other distinguished organizations in cosponsoring this conference on applications of optical digital data disk storage systems.

  13. Coherent Optical Memory with High Storage Efficiency and Large Fractional Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Wang, I-Chung; Du, Shengwang; Chen, Yong-Fan; Chen, Ying-Cheng; Yu, Ite A

    2012-01-01

    A high-storage efficiency and long-live quantum memory for photons is an essential component in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation. Here, we report a 78% storage efficiency of light pulses in a cold atomic medium based on the effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). At 50% storage efficiency, we obtain a fractional delay of 74, which is the best up-to-date record. The classical fidelity of the recalled pulse is better than 90% and nearly independent of the storage time, as confirmed by the direct measurement of phase evolution of the output light pulse with a beat-note interferometer. Such excellent phase coherence between the stored and recalled light pulses suggests that the current result can be readily applied to single photon wave packets. Our work significantly advances the technology of EIT-based optical memory and may find practical applications in long-distance quantum communication and optical quantum computation.

  14. Light storage in a cold atomic ensemble with a high optical depth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Chough, Young-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2017-06-01

    A quantum memory with a high storage efficiency and a long coherence time is an essential element in quantum information applications. Here, we report our recent development of an optical quantum memory with a rubidium-87 cold atom ensemble. By increasing the optical depth of the medium, we have achieved a storage efficiency of 65% and a coherence time of 51 μs for a weak laser pulse. The result of a numerical analysis based on the Maxwell-Bloch equations agrees well with the experimental results. Our result paves the way toward an efficient optical quantum memory and may find applications in photonic quantum information processing.

  15. 光纤周界传感系统数据采集存储与传输网络化的研究%Study on Optic Sensing System for Data Acquisition and Storage and Transmission Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄金棋

    2016-01-01

    With the rapid development of optical fiber and optical fiber communication technology, fiber optic sensing technology is also developing rapidly. Optical fiber perimeter sensing due to has the advantages of high sensitivity, quick response speed, anti electromagnetic interference ability strong, intrinsically safe, easy sensor has many advantages such as composition. Fiber optic sensor system in security, water conservancy and electric power, highway, shipping, oil and gas pipeline leakage monitoring, optical monitoring and other fields has been widely used. This paper mainly introduces the realization of the fiber perimeter sensing system for data acquisition, storage and network transmission, the scheme makes use of the existing mature platform, than the traditional more economic, more energy saving, miniaturization of system. Mainly uses the VPN router, the NAS network storage, the embedded collection is composed of the data collection and storage and the transmission network.%随着光纤及光纤通信技术的飞速发展,光纤传感技术也蓬勃发展。光纤周界传感由于具有灵敏度高、相应速度快,抗电磁干扰能力强,本质安全、便于组成传感网络等优点。光纤周界传感器系统在安防、水利电力、公路、船舶、油气管道泄漏监测、光缆监测等领域被广泛应用。本文主要介绍光纤周界传感系统数据采集存储与网络化传输的具体实现,该方案利用现有的成熟平台,比传统的平台更经济、更稳定、更节能、更小型化。主要采用VPN路由器、NAS网络存储器、嵌入式采集系统。

  16. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C. [and others

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  17. Preparation and Characteristics of Optical Storage Material CaS:Ce3+, Sm3+

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Liping; Zhang Xiyan; Liu Quansheng; Mi Xiaoyun; Xiao Zhiyi

    2004-01-01

    CaS: Ce3+, Sm3 + optical storage material was prepared by wet-method under the reducing atmosphere. Influence of sintering atmosphere on luminescence intensity was studied to get the result that active-carbon reducing atmosphere is better. XRD analysis shows that CaS crystal structure was formed at 700 ℃. The excitation spectrum is in the range of 250 ~ 500 nm with peaks at 260.2, 353.4 and 461.2 nm, the fluorescence spectrum shows a broadband spectrum with peaks at 503, 568 and 604 nm and the emission spectrum of the sample stimulated by 980 nm laser also shows a broadband spectrum with peaks at 508,565 and 600 nm. The result of spectra analysis indicates that this material can absorb and "trap" incoming light energy from ultraviolet and visible light (Information write-in), and release that stored energy in the form of green luminescence (information read-out) upon stimulation from a longer IR wavelength. The optical storage physical mechanism was also discussed.

  18. Physics and technology of optical storage in polymer thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren; Ujhelyi, F.

    2001-01-01

    system based on polarization holography is described. A storage density of greater than 10MB/cm2 has been achieved so far, with a potential increase to 100MB/cm(2) using multiplexing techniques and software correction. Finally the role of surface relief in azobenzene polymers on irradiation...

  19. Synthesis and optical storage properties of a thiophene-based holographic recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matharu, Avtar; Jeeva, S.; Huddleston, P.R.;

    2007-01-01

    The results of the fabrication and optical data storage characteristics of a novel azothiophene polyester 9 for potential holographic storage are reported. The polyester is derived from an azothiophene diol 1 and diphenyl phthalate 8 via in vacuo melt transesterification. Inclusion of a 5-methoxy-2......-thienyl moiety generates a trans pi-pi* transition centered close to 405 nm. An investigation of the optical data storage characteristics of a solution cast film of azopolyester with a thickness of 65 mm is summarised. The optical anisotropy induced by a 532 nm frequency doubled YAG laser and probed...... at a wavelength of 633 nm outside the absorption band with a polarimeter reveals a very high induced anisotropy of 7 rad ( laser intensity, 250 mW cm(-2)). The calculated birefringence of the film is 0.02 per micron. Maximum anisotropy is reached after approximately 70 s of irradiation. The induced anisotropy...

  20. Non-dispersive optics using storage of light

    CERN Document Server

    Karpa, Leon

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the non-dispersive deflection of an optical beam in a Stern-Gerlach magnetic field. An optical pulse is initially stored as a spin-wave coherence in thermal rubidium vapour. An inhomogeneous magnetic field imprints a phase gradient onto the spin wave, which upon reacceleration of the optical pulse leads to an angular deflection of the retrieved beam. We show that the obtained beam deflection is non-dispersive, i.e. its magnitude is independent of the incident optical frequency. Compared to a Stern-Gerlach experiment carried out with propagating light under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency, the estimated suppression of the chromatic aberration reaches 10 orders of magnitude.

  1. Acoustic emission detection with fiber optical sensors for dry cask storage health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number, size, and complexity of nuclear facilities deployed worldwide are increasing the need to maintain readiness and develop innovative sensing materials to monitor important to safety structures (ITS). In the past two decades, an extensive sensor technology development has been used for structural health monitoring (SHM). Technologies for the diagnosis and prognosis of a nuclear system, such as dry cask storage system (DCSS), can improve verification of the health of the structure that can eventually reduce the likelihood of inadvertently failure of a component. Fiber optical sensors have emerged as one of the major SHM technologies developed particularly for temperature and strain measurements. This paper presents the development of optical equipment that is suitable for ultrasonic guided wave detection for active SHM in the MHz range. An experimental study of using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as acoustic emission (AE) sensors was performed on steel blocks. FBG have the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easily embeddable into composite structures as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and optically multiplexed. The temperature effect on the FBG sensors was also studied. A multi-channel FBG system was developed and compared with piezoelectric based AE system. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  2. Risk Assessment Study for Storage Explosive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Azhar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, there has been rapidly increasing usage in amount of explosives due to widely expansion in quarrying and mining industries. The explosives are usually stored in the storage where the safety precaution had given high attention. As the storage of large quantity of explosive can be hazardous to workers and nearby residents in the events of accidental denotation of explosives, a risk assessment study for storage explosive (magazine had been carried out. Risk assessment study had been conducted in Kimanis Quarry Sdn. Bhd, located in Sabah. Risk assessment study had been carried out with the identification of hazards and failure scenarios and estimation of the failure frequency of occurrence. Analysis of possible consequences of failure and the effects of blast waves due to the explosion was evaluated. The risk had been estimated in term of fatalities and eardrum rupture to the workers and public. The average individual voluntary risk for fatality to the workers at the quarry is calculated to be 5.75 x 10-6 per person per year, which is much lower than the acceptable level. Eardrum rupture risk calculated to be 3.15 x 10-6 per person per year for voluntary risk. There is no involuntary risk found for fatality but for eardrum rupture it was calculated to be 6.98 x 10-8 per person per year, as given by Asian Development Bank.

  3. Design of Super-resolution Filters with a Gaussian Beam in Optical Data Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Sha-Sha; ZHAO Xiao-Feng; LI Cheng-Fang; RUAN Hao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Super-resolution filters based on a Ganssian beam are proposed to reduce the focusing spot in optical data storage systems.Both of amplitude filters and pure-phase filters are designed respectively to gain the desired intensity distributions.Their performances are analysed and compared with those based on plane wave in detail.The energy utilizations are presented.The simulation results show that our designed super-resolution filters are favourable for use in optical data storage systems in terms of performance and energy utilization.

  4. A review of methods for experimentally determining linear optics in storage rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safranek, J.

    1995-12-31

    In order to maximize the brightness and provide sufficient dynamic aperture in synchrotron radiation storage rings, one must understand and control the linear optics. Control of the horizontal beta function and dispersion is important for minimizing the horizontal beam size. Control of the skew gradient distribution is important for minimizing the vertical size. In this paper, various methods for experimentally determining the optics in a storage ring will be reviewed. Recent work at the National Synchrotron Light Source X-Ray Ring will be presented as well as work done at laboratories worldwide.

  5. Synthesis and applications of photochromic fulgides in optical information storages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于联合; 明阳福; 樊美公; 于泓涛; 叶倩青

    1996-01-01

    A pyrryl substituted photocbromic fulgide, (1-p-methoxyphenyl-2-methyl-5-phenyl)-3-pyrryl-ethylidene (isopropylidene) succinic anhydride, was synthesized. Its chemical structure was identified by IR, 1H NMR MS and elemental analysis. The title compound was used to prepare the optical disks by the spin coating method and the vacuum evaporation method. The results of the static state examination show that the optical disks prepared with this kind of molecules possess excellent thermal stability and fatigue resistance, i.e. over 450 writing-erasing recycles, the relative contrast between writing state and erasing state remains at 40%.

  6. Storage and control of optical photons using Rydberg polaritons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, D; Szwer, D J; Paredes-Barato, D; Busche, H; Pritchard, J D; Gauguet, A; Weatherill, K J; Jones, M P A; Adams, C S

    2013-03-08

    We use a microwave field to control the quantum state of optical photons stored in a cold atomic cloud. The photons are stored in highly excited collective states (Rydberg polaritons) enabling both fast qubit rotations and control of photon-photon interactions. Through the collective read-out of these pseudospin rotations it is shown that the microwave field modifies the long-range interactions between polaritons. This technique provides a powerful interface between the microwave and optical domains, with applications in quantum simulations of spin liquids, quantum metrology and quantum networks.

  7. Second Approximation Model for Optical Head in Super High Density Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents second approximation model for optical head in super high-density storage technology firstly and it is an important part for three grades approximate model of ultra-small-size quantum well corn-shaped laser and simulative calculations. It supplies the important and useful results for the NFOD optical head design with ultra thin active layer and ultra small spot laser.

  8. Controllable high bandwidth storage of optical information in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Schultz, Justin T.; Murphree, Joseph D.; Hansen, Azure; Bigelow, Nicholas P.

    2016-05-01

    The storage and retrieval of optical information has been of interest for a variety of applications including quantum information processing, quantum networks and quantum memories. Several schemes have been investigated and realized with weak, narrowband pulses, including techniques using EIT in solid state systems and both hot and cold atomic vapors. In contrast, we investigate the storage and manipulation of strong, high bandwidth pulses in a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) of ultracold 87 Rb atoms. As a storage medium for optical pulses, BECs offer long storage times and preserve the coherence properties of the input information, suppressing unwanted thermal decoherence effects. We present numerical simulations of nanosecond pulses addressing a three-level lambda system on the D2 line of 87 Rb. The signal pulse is stored as a localized spin excitation in the condensate and can be moved or retrieved by reapplication of successive control pulses. The relative Rabi frequencies and areas of the pulses and the local atomic density in the condensate determine the storage location and readout of the signal pulse. Extending this scheme to use beams with a variety of spatial modes such as Hermite- and Laguerre-Gaussian modes offers an expanded alphabet for information storage.

  9. Up-Conversion Photostimulated Luminescence of Mg2SnO4 for Optical Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jia-Chi; QIN Qing-Song; YU Ming-Hui; SUN Jia-Yao; SHI Liu-Rong; MA Xin-Long

    2011-01-01

    @@ We report the first observation of up-conversion photostimulated luminescence in non-doped Mg2SnO4.Stimulated by 980 nm infrared laser (reading) after ultraviolet irradiation (writing), the phosphor shows photostimulated emission band covering 470-550nm, which is due to the recombination of F centers with holes.After ceasing ultraviolet irradiation, the storage intensity would rapidly decrease to 59% of its original storage intensity in 2.5h and then would not degrade anymore.It is suggested that the Mg2SnO4 has potential applications for optical storage.Accordingly, the possible photostimulated luminescence mechanisms of Mg2SnO4 are proposed.%We report the first observation of up-conversion photostimulated luminescence in non-doped Mg2SnO4. Stimulated by 980 nm infrared laser (reading) after ultraviolet irradiation (writing), the phosphor shows photostimulated emission band covering 470-550nm, which is due to the recombination of F centers with holes. After ceasing ultraviolet irradiation, the storage intensity would rapidly decrease to 59% of its original storage intensity in 2.5 h and then would not degrade anymore. It is suggested that the Mg2SnO4 has potential applications for optical storage. Accordingly, the possible photostimulated luminescence mechanisms of Mg2SnO4 are proposed.

  10. Implementing Optical Storage: How to Select a Document Image Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Mary Ann

    1991-01-01

    Describes document image management systems that are used for optical storage to facilitate information retrieval. Document image management applications are described, considerations in evaluating system features and functions are presented, and criteria for evaluating vendors of document image management systems are suggested. (two references)…

  11. Some considerations of organic materials for high density optical disk data storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The application possibilities of organic materials for high density optical disk data storage are discussed.Several points,such as physical and chemical stabilities,wavelength match and reversible property changes,which should be taken into consideration,are presented.

  12. Azobenzene side-chain liquid crystalline polyesters with outstanding optical storage properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Pedersen, M; Holme, NCR

    1998-01-01

    on azobenzene, iii- the methylene main-chain segment length, and iv-the polyester molecular mass, all influence the optical storage properties. A general synthetic route to novel mesogenic azobenzene diols comprising parameters i and ii is outlined. Polyesters with molecular masses (parameter iv) up to 100...

  13. Solar energy storage researchers information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1981-03-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on solar energy storage are described. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from 2 groups of researchers are analyzed: DOE-Funded Researchers and Non-DOE-Funded Researchers. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  14. Storage and recall of weak coherent optical pulses with an efficiency of 25%

    CERN Document Server

    Sabooni, M; Walther, A; Lin, N; Amari, A; Huang, M; Kröll, S

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a quantum memory scheme for the storage of weak coherent light pulses in an inhomogeneously broadened optical transition in a Pr^{3+}: YSO crystal at 2.1 K. Precise optical pumping using a frequency stable (about 1kHz linewidth) laser is employed to create a highly controllable Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) structure. We report single photon storage and retrieval efficiencies of 25%, based on coherent photon echo type re-emission in the forward direction. The coherence property of the quantum memory is proved through interference between a super Gaussian pulse and the emitted echo. Backward retrieval of the photon echo emission has potential for increasing storage and recall efficiency.

  15. Solar optics-based active panel for solar energy storage and disinfection of greywater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, W; Song, J; Son, J H; Gutierrez, M P; Kang, T; Kim, D; Lee, L P

    2016-09-01

    Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously. Solar collector efficiency of energy storage and disinfection rate of greywater have been investigated. Due to the light focusing by microlens, the solar collector efficiency is enhanced from 25% to 65%, compared to that without the microlens. The simulation of greywater sterilization shows that 100% disinfection can be accomplished by our SOAP for different types of bacteria including Escherichia coli. Numerical simulation reveals that our SOAP as a lab-on-a-wall system can resolve the water and energy problem in future sustainable building systems.

  16. Threshold response using modulated continuous wave illumination for multilayer 3D optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, A.; Christenson, C. W.; Khattab, T. A.; Wang, R.; Twieg, R. J.; Singer, K. D.

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve a high capacity 3D optical data storage medium, a nonlinear or threshold writing process is necessary to localize data in the axial dimension. To this end, commercial multilayer discs use thermal ablation of metal films or phase change materials to realize such a threshold process. This paper addresses a threshold writing mechanism relevant to recently reported fluorescence-based data storage in dye-doped co-extruded multilayer films. To gain understanding of the essential physics, single layer spun coat films were used so that the data is easily accessible by analytical techniques. Data were written by attenuating the fluorescence using nanosecond-range exposure times from a 488 nm continuous wave laser overlapping with the single photon absorption spectrum. The threshold writing process was studied over a range of exposure times and intensities, and with different fluorescent dyes. It was found that all of the dyes have a common temperature threshold where fluorescence begins to attenuate, and the physical nature of the thermal process was investigated.

  17. Linear optics calibration and nonlinear optimization during the commissioning of the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shun-Qiang; ZHANG Wen-Zhi; LI Hao-Hu; ZHANG Man-Zhou; HOU Jie; ZHOU xue-Mei; LIU Gui-Min

    2009-01-01

    Phase Ⅰ commissioning of the SSRF storage ring on 3.0 GeV beam energy was started at the end of December 2007.A lot of encouraging results have been obtained so far.In this paper,calibrations of the linear optics during the commissioning are discussed,and some measured results about the nonlinearity given.Calibration procedure emphasizes correcting quadrupole magnetic coefficients with the Linear Optics from Closed Orbit(LOCO)technique.After fitting the closed orbit response matrix,the linear optics of the four test modes is substantially corrected,and the measured physical parameters agree well with the designed ones.

  18. Storage studies on mustard oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chugh, Bhawna; Dhawan, Kamal

    2014-04-01

    Mustard oil blends were investigated for fatty acid composition and oxidative stability during storage for 3 months at room temperature (15 °C to 35 °C). The blends were prepared using raw mustard oil with selected refined vegetable oils namely; palm, safflower, soybean, rice bran, sunflower and sesame oil (raw). The fatty acid compositions of all these blends were studied using GLC. The developed blends were found to obey the ideal fatty acid ratio as laid down by health agencies i.e. 1:2:1:: SFA:MUFA:PUFA. The oxidative stability of blends was studied by measuring peroxide value (PV), Kries and Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test. Blends MPSu (mustard oil, palm oil and sunflower oil), MPT (mustard oil, palm oil and sesame oil) and MPGr (mustard oil, palm oil and groundnut oil) were more stable than other blends during storage. The presence of mustard oil in all blends might make them a healthier option for many consumers as it is a rich source of ω-3 fatty acids and has anti-carcinogenic properties.

  19. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  20. Structural and optical properties of In doped Se-Te phase-change thin films: A material for optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, H. P.; Shukla, Nitesh; Kumar, Vipin; Dwivedi, D. K.

    2016-02-01

    Se75-xTe25Inx (x = 0, 3, 6, & 9) bulk glasses were obtained by melt quench technique. Thin films of thickness 400 nm were prepared by thermal evaporation technique at a base pressure of 10-6 Torr onto well cleaned glass substrate. a-Se75-xTe25Inx thin films were annealed at different temperatures for 2 h. As prepared and annealed films were characterized by X-ray diffraction and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction results show that the as-prepared films are of amorphous nature while it shows some poly-crystalline structure in amorphous phases after annealing. The optical absorption spectra of these films were measured in the wavelength range 400-1100 nm in order to derive the extinction and absorption coefficient of these films. It was found that the mechanism of optical absorption follows the rule of allowed non-direct transition. The optical band gap of as prepared and annealed films as a function of photon energy has been studied. The optical band gap is found to decrease with increase in annealing temperature in the present glassy system. It happens due to crystallization of amorphous films. The decrease in optical band gap due to annealing is an interesting behavior for a material to be used in optical storage. The optical band gap has been observed to decrease with the increase of In content in Se-Te glassy system.

  1. Design studies for the electron storage ring EUTERPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi Boling

    1995-05-18

    The 400 MeV electron storage ring EUTERPE is under construction at Eindhoven University of Technology. The ring is to be used as an experimental tool for accelerator physics studies and synchroton radiation applications. The main task of the current research work is the electron optical design of the ring. Lattice design is a basis for machine design as a whole. Design aspects regarding the basic lattice, based on single particle dynamics, include determination of the equilibrium beam size and bunch length, design of achromatic bending sections, selection of tune values, correction of chromaticity, and minimization of the natural emittance in the ring. The basic lattice designed for the EUTERPE ring has a high flexibility so that different electron optical modes can be realized easily. In low energy storage rings with a high beam current, collective effects can cause a significant change in the bunch length, the transverse emittance and the beam lifetime. In order to ensure a good optical performance for the ring, the choice of suitable parameters concerning the vacuum and RF system are essential as far as collective effects are concerned. An estimation of the collective effects in the ring is given. The injector for EUTERPE is a 75 MeV racetrack microtron which is injected from a 10 MeV linac. In order to get sufficient beam current in the ring, a special procedure of continuous injection with an adjustable locally shifted closed orbit has been presented. Details of the injection procedure and numerical simulations are given. (orig./HSI).

  2. Storage of optical excitations in colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals; Speicherung optischer Anregungen in kolloidalen Halbleiter-Nanokristallen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraus, Robert

    2009-07-22

    In the present theis it is described, how colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals can be used under influence of an electric field to store optical excitation energy at room temperature, to alter, and to supply controlledly. For this the photoluminescence emission of an ensemble of heterogeneous nanocrystals was manipulated and spectroscopically studied. The applied od-shaped particles consist of a spherical core of CdSe, on which an elongated shell of CdS is monocrystallinely be grown. The electron is in such an asymmetric geometry delocalized over the hole nanorod, whereas the hole because of the high potential barrier remains bound in the CdSe core. The wave-function overlap of the charge carriers can therefore be influenced both by the length of the nanorod and by an external electric field. In the regime of prompt fluorescence the manipulation of the charge-carrier separation by an electric field led to a suppression of the radiative recombination. As consequence a fluorescence suppression of about 40% could be observed. After the removal of the electric field the separation was reduced and the stored energy is in an fluorescence increasement directedly liberated again. The strength of the storage efficiency lies with the strength of the electric field in a linear connection. Furthermore in this time range a quantum-confined Stark effect of upt o 14 meV could be detected at room temperature, although the effect is complicated by the different orientations and sizes of the nanorods in the ensemble. Hereby it is of advance to can adress with the applied detection technique a subensemble of nanocrystals. Furthermore a significant storage of the ensmble emission by up to 100 {mu}s conditioned by the electric electric fieldcould be demonstrated, which exceeds the fluorescence lifetime of these particles by the 10{sup 5} fold. As also could be shown by experiments on CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals surface states play a relevent role for the emission dynamics of nanocrystals

  3. Applying Study of Hydrogen Storage Alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xin-ming; JIANG Hai; YIN Shao-hui; TIAN Zhi-gang

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is an important source of energy. The natural resouces of hydrogen is plenty and it gives us lots of heat, and it is clean. One of difficulties of developing hydrogen sources of energy is hydrogen storage. Hydrogen storage tank is either dangous or a little of capacity. Liquid hydrogen occupys small space. Liquefaction temprature of hydrogen is - 253℃and need better heat insulation protection, the volumn and weight of heat insulation layer are equal to hydrogen storage tank. Hydrogen storage utillizing hydrogen storage material is a very safety、 economical and effective method. Hydrogen storage material is either a medium of solid hydrogen storage or is negative pole active material of Ni-H battery,and is the one of key technoloy of fuel and Ni-H battery, it is an important material of new sources of energy too. Nanotechnology is introduced Mg-matrix hydrogen storage alloy and is achieved progress gteatly,but hydrogen storage alloy need be mede further improvment on applying investigation.

  4. Electric field selective optical data storage using persistent spectral hole burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogner, U.; Beck, K.; Maier, Max

    1985-03-01

    The electric field domain is used as a storage dimension in optical data storage by persistent spectral hole burning. The memory locations in the electric field domain are addressed with the voltage applied to the sample consisting of the amorphous polymer polyvinyl-butyral doped with the dye 9-amino acridine. The information is written by burning spectral holes at different electric field strengths with a HeCd laser and read by detecting the presence or absence of holes with weak laser intensity.

  5. Green-Light Static Rewritable Optical Storage Properties of a Novel CuTCNQ Derivative Thin Film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄伍桥; 吴谊群; 顾冬红; 干福熹

    2003-01-01

    A novel charge-transfer complex film: copper-(n-propyl ester 7,7,8,8- tetracyanoquinodimethane-2,5-ylene-(3-propionic acid)) (Cu-TCNQ(C2H4COOC3H7)2) was prepared by spin-coating. Absorption spectra, green-light (514.5nm) static rewritable optical recording properties and rewritable mechanism of this film were studied.The results show that there are two strong absorption peaks at 388 nm and 675 nm, which can be assigned to electronic transitions in anion radical TCNQ(C2H4 COOC3H7)-2. Green-light optical storage experimental results of this film were as follows: write-in power was 9mW, pulse duration was 80ns; erasing power was 4mW, pulse duration was 500ns; the reflectivity contrast C≥15%; number of write-erase cycles N ≥100. It is found that the realization of rewritable optical storage of the Cu-TCNQ(C2H4 COOC3H7)2 film is related to the reversible changes of the optical properties, which is caused by the reversible charge transfer between copper and n-propyl ester 7,7,8,8- tetracyanoquinodimethane-2,5-ylene-(3-propionic acid) in the complex through inducement of laser irradiation.

  6. Nonlinear optical studies of single gold nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Meindert Alexander van

    2007-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are spherical clusters of gold atoms, with diameters typically between 1 and 100 nanometers. The applications of these particles are rather diverse, from optical labels for biological experiments to data carrier for optical data storage. The goal of my project was to develop new

  7. A study on the safety evaluation of concentrated tritium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. J.; Kim, K. K.; Lee, S. Y.; Lee, Y. E.; Hong, D. S.; Jung, H. Y.; Song, M. C.; Hwang, K. H.; Kim, S. I.; Yook, D. S.; Sheen, J. J. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-03-01

    In this study, hazards of hydrogen and the risk due to storage of tritium are reviewed. The safety related factors are suggested in terms of classification of hydrogen hazards and problems related to the tritium storage. The major design parameters of the vessel of foreign countries for the storage and transport of tritium are reviewed. By review of major safety parameters related to the tritium storage, the results of this study can be applied and helpful to the development and design of tritium storage vessel in Korea. Also, the results can be useful at design of the tritium treatment facility. The integrity of tritium storage vessel material was evaluated with considering the embrittlement of metal material in hydrogen environment. The tritium storage is one of the most important problems for the safety of tritium removal facility. The research for tritium storage could be divided into two parts, one is for the metal getter of tritium and the other is for the integrity of tritium storage vessel. Especially, the integrity of tritium storage vessel is up to the tritium embrittlement of vessel materials, for tritium vessel is mostly made of metal material. In this work, the evaluation of the tritium embrittlement for the tritium storage vessel material is performed with the equipment that is made for high temperature and high vacuum. 33 refs., 56 figs., 23 tabs. (Author)

  8. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Jin, Jeongwan; Verma, Varun B.; Shaw, Matthew D.; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2015-02-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires the processing and storage of quantum information at local nodes and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory, has been reported. Here, we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1,532 nm wavelength photon entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20-m-long silica fibre, using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality.

  9. Photoinduced anisotropy in a family of amorphous azobenzene polyesters for optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedelchev, Lian; Matharu, Avtar S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    2003-01-01

    We investigate parameters associated with optical data storage in a variety of amorphous side-chain azobenzene-containing polyesters denoted as E1aX. The polyesters possess a common cyano-substituted azobenzene chromophore as a side chain, but differ in their main-chain polyester composition....... Seventeen different polymers from the E1aX family divided into four classes, depending on the type of the main-chain substituent (one-, two-, and three-ring aromatic or alicyclic) have been thoroughly investigated. Various parameters characterizing the photoinduced birefringence in these materials...... of E1aX polymers characterized by two-ring aromatic substituent in the main chain is a good candidate for optical data storage media. A recording energy of approximately 2 J/cm(2) is sufficient to induce high refractive-index modulations of Deltan = 0.13 in these materials, which is retained even...

  10. Liquid-crystalline polymer holograms for high-density optical storage and photomechanical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, A.; Akamatsu, N.

    2012-10-01

    We report linear and crosslinked azobenzene containing liquid-crystalline polymers which can be applied to high-density optical storage and photomechanical analysis. We introduced a molecular design concept of multicomponent systems composed of photoresponse, refactive-index change amplification, and transparency units. Taking advantage of characteristics of liquid crystals (optical anisotropy and cooperative motion), polarization holograms were recorded, which enabled us higher-density holographic storage. On the other hand, crosslinked liquid-crystalline azobenzene polymer films were fabricated to investigate the photomechanical behavior. We have found that a large change in Young's modulus is induced by several mol%-cis form production. Furthermore, a unique bending behavior, which cannot be explained by the conventional bending mechanism, was observed in the crosslinked liquid-crystalline polymer films with azobenzene in the side chain.

  11. Pit Depth and Width Modulation Multilevel Run-Length Limited Read-Only Optical Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Jie; PEI Jing; XU Duan-Yi; XIONG Jian-Ping; CHEN Ken; PAN Long-Ea

    2006-01-01

    When the techniques of integrating the variation of the pit depth and width simultaneously are adopted to conventional DVD, the high-density multilevel run-length limited read-only optical storage method is achieved. The dynamic range of readout signal is greatly enlarged in comparison with keeping one parameter varied, and the recording levels number can be obviously increased. The discs can be manufactured using standard photoresist mastering and replication techniques with great compatibility to conventional binary read-only discs. Experimental results show that eight-level read-only optical disc can be realized and the capacity can be increased to 20 GB.

  12. Simulation of an apodizer's effect for high-density optical storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiumin Gao; Wendong Xu; Fuxi Gan

    2005-01-01

    @@ The effect of an apodizer with two parallel taper refractive surfaces is theoretically investigated for highdensity optical storage. The apodizer may modulate an incident Gaussian beam into an annular beam. Simulation shows that with the increasing inner radius of the modulated beam, the focal spot shrinks obviously. The depolarization effect gets strong simultaneously, which induces the circular symmetry loss of the focal spot. In this process, pattern density of the orthogonal and longitudinal diffractive fields increases remarkably.

  13. Influence of the substituent on azobenzene side-chain polyester optical storage materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M; Hvilsted, Søren; Holme, NCR;

    1999-01-01

    , chloro, and bromo. C-13 NMR spectroscopic and molecular mass investigations substantiate good film forming characteristics. The optical storage performance of thin polyester films are investigated through polarization holography. The resulting diffraction efficiency is mapped and discussed as a function...... of irradiation power and exposure time. Polytetradecanedioates with cyano-, nitro-, methyl-, fluoro-, or trinuoromethyl-azobenzene reach more than 50% diffraction efficiency. Investigations of anisotropy induced at different temperatures reveal that the polyesters are only photosensitive in a narrow temperature...

  14. Coumarin-Containing Polymers for High Density Non-Linear Optical Data Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Gindre

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Optical data storage was performed with various thin polymer films containing coumarin-based derivatives and by using femtosecond laser pulses as well as two-photon absorption processes. Exploring the photodimerization attribute of coumarin derivatives and using appropriate irradiation wavelengths, recording/erasing processes could be carried out in the same area. Second harmonic generation microscopy was used to read the stored information.

  15. Atmospheric studies by optical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Åke

    The 19th Annual European Meeting on Atmospheric Studies by Optical Methods was held in Kiruna, Sweden, from August 10 to 14. About 120 scientists from thirteen countries contributed talks and posters to eight topical sessions.The annual optical meeting, which was first held in Stockholm in 1972, provides a platform for the exchange of ideas, scientific results, and instrumental information on atmospheric studies collected by optical methods. Although the primary objective is to stimulate high-level scientific discussions, social activities are included in the conference program to expose participants to the host city's local culture, industry, and sights. Participants from all parts of the world are welcome to attend.

  16. Controllable all-optical stochastic logic gates and their delay storages based on the cascaded VCSELs with optical-injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dongzhou; Luo, Wei; Xu, Geliang

    2016-09-01

    Using the dynamical properties of the polarization bistability that depends on the detuning of the injected light, we propose a novel approach to implement reliable all-optical stochastic logic gates in the cascaded vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with optical-injection. Here, two logic inputs are encoded in the detuning of the injected light from a tunable CW laser. The logic outputs are decoded from the two orthogonal polarization lights emitted from the optically injected VCSELs. For the same logic inputs, under electro-optic modulation, we perform various digital signal processing (NOT, AND, NAND, XOR, XNOR, OR, NOR) in the all-optical domain by controlling the logic operation of the applied electric field. Also we explore their delay storages by using the mechanism of the generalized chaotic synchronization. To quantify the reliabilities of these logic gates, we further demonstrate their success probabilities. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61475120) and the Innovative Projects in Guangdong Colleges and Universities, China (Grant Nos. 2014KTSCX134 and 2015KTSCX146).

  17. Ultra-high density optical data storage in common transparent plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallepalli, Deepak L. N.; Alshehri, Ali M.; Marquez, Daniela T.; Andrzejewski, Lukasz; Scaiano, Juan C.; Bhardwaj, Ravi

    2016-05-01

    The ever-increasing demand for high data storage capacity has spurred research on development of innovative technologies and new storage materials. Conventional GByte optical discs (DVDs and Bluray) can be transformed into ultrahigh capacity storage media by encoding multi-level and multiplexed information within the three dimensional volume of a recording medium. However, in most cases the recording medium had to be photosensitive requiring doping with photochromic molecules or nanoparticles in a multilayer stack or in the bulk material. Here, we show high-density data storage in commonly available plastics without any special material preparation. A pulsed laser was used to record data in micron-sized modified regions. Upon excitation by the read laser, each modified region emits fluorescence whose intensity represents 32 grey levels corresponding to 5 bits. We demonstrate up to 20 layers of embedded data. Adjusting the read laser power and detector sensitivity storage capacities up to 0.2 TBytes can be achieved in a standard 120 mm disc.

  18. LIGHT SOURCE: Optics for the lattice of the compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pei-Cheng; Wang, Yu; Shen, Xiao-Zhe; Huang, Wen-Hui; Yan, Li-Xin; Du, Ying-Chao; Li, Ren-Kai; Tang, Chuan-Xiang

    2009-06-01

    We present two types of optics for the lattice of a compact storage ring for a Compton X-ray source. The optics design for different operation modes of the storage ring are discussed in detail. For the pulse mode optics, an IBS-suppression scheme is applied to optimize the optics for lower IBS emittance growth rate; as for the steady mode, the method to control momentum compact factor is adopted [Gladkikh P, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 8, 050702] to obtain stability of the electron beam.

  19. Optical characterization of multilayer stacks used as phase-change media of optical disk data storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Rongguang; Peng, Chubing; Nagata, Kenichi; Daly-Flynn, Kelly; Mansuripur, Masud

    2002-01-10

    We report results of measurements of the optical constants of the dielectric layer (ZnS-SiO2), reflecting layer (aluminum-chromium alloy), and phase-change layer (GeSbTe, AgInSbTe) used as the media of phase-change optical recording. The refractive index n and the absorption coefficient k of these materials vary to some extent with the film thickness and with the film deposition environment. We report the observed variations of optical constants among samples of differing structure and among samples fabricated in different laboratories.

  20. New optical architecture for holographic data storage system compatible with Blu-ray Disc™ system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Ken-ichi; Ide, Tatsuro; Shimano, Takeshi; Anderson, Ken; Curtis, Kevin

    2014-02-01

    A new optical architecture for holographic data storage system which is compatible with a Blu-ray Disc™ (BD) system is proposed. In the architecture, both signal and reference beams pass through a single objective lens with numerical aperture (NA) 0.85 for realizing angularly multiplexed recording. The geometry of the architecture brings a high affinity with an optical architecture in the BD system because the objective lens can be placed parallel to a holographic medium. Through the comparison of experimental results with theory, the validity of the optical architecture was verified and demonstrated that the conventional objective lens motion technique in the BD system is available for angularly multiplexed recording. The test-bed composed of a blue laser system and an objective lens of the NA 0.85 was designed. The feasibility of its compatibility with BD is examined through the designed test-bed.

  1. Squeezing red blood cells on an optical waveguide to monitor cell deformability during blood storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Balpreet Singh; McCourt, Peter; Oteiza, Ana; Wilkinson, James S; Huser, Thomas R; Hellesø, Olav Gaute

    2015-01-07

    Red blood cells squeeze through micro-capillaries as part of blood circulation in the body. The deformability of red blood cells is thus critical for blood circulation. In this work, we report a method to optically squeeze red blood cells using the evanescent field present on top of a planar waveguide chip. The optical forces from a narrow waveguide are used to squeeze red blood cells to a size comparable to the waveguide width. Optical forces and pressure distributions on the cells are numerically computed to explain the squeezing process. The proposed technique is used to quantify the loss of blood deformability that occurs during blood storage lesion. Squeezing red blood cells using waveguides is a sensitive technique and works simultaneously on several cells, making the method suitable for monitoring stored blood.

  2. From the surface to volume: concepts for the next generation of optical-holographic data-storage materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Friedrich-Karl; Hagen, Rainer; Rölle, Thomas; Weiser, Marc-Stephan; Fäcke, Thomas

    2011-05-09

    Optical data storage has had a major impact on daily life since its introduction to the market in 1982. Compact discs (CDs), digital versatile discs (DVDs), and Blu-ray discs (BDs) are universal data-storage formats with the advantage that the reading and writing of the digital data does not require contact and is therefore wear-free. These formats allow convenient and fast data access, high transfer rates, and electricity-free data storage with low overall archiving costs. The driving force for development in this area is the constant need for increased data-storage capacity and transfer rate. The use of holographic principles for optical data storage is an elegant way to increase the storage capacity and the transfer rate, because by this technique the data can be stored in the volume of the storage material and, moreover, it can be optically processed in parallel. This Review describes the fundamental requirements for holographic data-storage materials and compares the general concepts for the materials used. An overview of the performance of current read-write devices shows how far holographic data storage has already been developed.

  3. Investigation of Hg/sub 2/ as a discharge pumped optical storage medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrlich, D J; Osgood, Jr, R M

    1978-12-01

    The report describes work performed in the period 1 October 1977 to 30 September 1978 on the extraction of energy from metastable Hg/sub 2/ by optical techniques. The major accomplishments have included: (1) assessment of optical extraction techniques for laser fusion applications; (2) demonstration of 20X enhancements in the population of the UV-radiating level by optical pumping with mid-IR lasers; (3) analysis of the IR optical pumping process through the induced emission spectrum; (4) parametric studies of the excitation wavelength, temperature and pressure dependences of extraction by optical pumping; (5) studies of the saturation of mid-IR optical pumping; (6) modeling of large-scale extraction for laser fusion applications; (7) studies of optical pumping of Hg/sub 2/ by high power ArF laser (193 nm) radiation; and (8) studies of Hg/sub 2/ excimer structure and collisional destruction rates.

  4. Feasibility Study Contract Signed for Underground Gas Storage in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ On December 22, 2005, CNPC and Gazprom signed the feasibility study service contract on constructing the underground gas storage in Ren 11 reservoir of CNPC's Renqiu Oilfield. According to the contract terms, Gazprom will provide feasibility study services on the construction of the gas storage for CNPC. CNPC Vice President Zhou Jiping attended the signing ceremony held in Beijing.

  5. Securing Internet Protocol (IP) Storage: A Case Study

    CERN Document Server

    Somayaji, Siva Rama Krishnan; 10.5121/ijngn.2010.2102

    2010-01-01

    Storage networking technology has enjoyed strong growth in recent years, but security concerns and threats facing networked data have grown equally fast. Today, there are many potential threats that are targeted at storage networks, including data modification, destruction and theft, DoS attacks, malware, hardware theft and unauthorized access, among others. In order for a Storage Area Network (SAN) to be secure, each of these threats must be individually addressed. In this paper, we present a comparative study by implementing different security methods in IP Storage network.

  6. Dry Well Storage Facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Dry Well Storage Facility described is assumed to be located adjacent to or near a Spent Fuel Receiving and Packaging Facility and/or a Packaged Fuel Transfer Facility. Performance requirements, quality levels and codes and standards, schedule and methods of performance, special requirements, quality assurance program, and cost estimate are discussed. Appendices on major mechanical equipment and electric power requirements are included.

  7. Staging and storage facility feasibility study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, C.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This study was performed to investigate the feasibility of adapting the design of the HWVP Canister Storage Building (CSB) to meet the needs of the WHC Spent Nuclear Fuel Project for Staging and Storage Facility (SSF), and to develop Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost and schedule estimates.

  8. X-ray-sensitive storage phosphors with the optically stable luminescent centres

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, G B; Zvezdova, N P; Kochubey, D I; Sedova, Y G; Kochubey, D I; Kulipanov, G N; Lyakh, V V; Pindyurin, V F

    2000-01-01

    NaCl, KCl, KBr and LiF crystals doped by In, Tl, Ni, Pd and Ca were investigated as X-ray-sensitive materials. Influence of the way of doping of an impurity and growing of a crystal on such parameters of a material as: sensitivity to ionising radiation; radiative, optical and thermal stability of the image, obtained after an irradiation is investigated. As a result of the work, media for recording of the X-ray images are developed. These allow to reproduce the images in a mode of a photoluminescence. Spatial resolution and the dynamic range of registration of the developed materials concede to similar parameters of commercial storage luminophores like 'Image Plates' based on BaFBr : La. At the same time, as distinct from 'Image Plates', the developed radiophotoluminophores allow a long storage and multiple readout of the information recorded.

  9. Battery energy storage market feasibility study -- Expanded report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraft, S. [Frost and Sullivan, Mountain View, CA (United States); Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Dept.

    1997-09-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) contracted Frost and Sullivan to conduct a market feasibility study of energy storage systems. The study was designed specifically to quantify the battery energy storage market for utility applications. This study was based on the SNL Opportunities Analysis performed earlier. Many of the groups surveyed, which included electricity providers, battery energy storage vendors, regulators, consultants, and technology advocates, viewed battery storage as an important technology to enable increased use of renewable energy and as a means to solve power quality and asset utilization issues. There are two versions of the document available, an expanded version (approximately 200 pages, SAND97-1275/2) and a short version (approximately 25 pages, SAND97-1275/1).

  10. Economic and technical feasibility study of compressed air storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-03-01

    The results of a study of the economic and technical feasibility of compressed air energy storage (CAES) are presented. The study, which concentrated primarily on the application of underground air storage with combustion turbines, consisted of two phases. In the first phase a general assessment of the technical alternatives, economic characteristics and the institutional constraints associated with underground storage of compressed air for utility peaking application was carried out. The goal of this assessment was to identify potential barrier problems and to define the incentive for the implementation of compressed air storage. In the second phase, the general conclusions of the assessment were tested by carrying out the conceptual design of a CAES plant at two specific sites, and a program of further work indicated by the assessment study was formulated. The conceptual design of a CAES plant employing storage in an aquifer and that of a plant employing storage in a conventionally excavated cavern employing a water leg to maintain constant pressure are shown. Recommendations for further work, as well as directions of future turbo-machinery development, are made. It is concluded that compressed air storage is technically feasible for off-peak energy storage, and, depending on site conditions, CAES plants may be favored over simple cycle turbine plants to meet peak demands. (LCL)

  11. AMESCO General Study Environmental Impacts CO2-storage. Public summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    The AMESCO study aims to supply environmental background information on CO2-storage in the Netherlands for the broad group of initiators and other stakeholders. By bringing together the information from the scientific world, companies and authorities and by analysing relevant policies it is intended to eludicate: which are the possible environmental effects of CO2-injection and storage; which are the possibilities for risk reduction or mitigation; which existing legislation is of relevance for CO2-storage in the deep surface; where are the gaps in knowledge and legislation with regard to CO2-storage. The report produced during the AMESCO study should be seen as a broad answer to the four questions mentioned above. In specific projects the report can be used as a background document during permitting procedures. This background information has to be supplemented with location specific information. The report can also be used as input for an environmental impact assessment (EIA). For practical reasons the AMESCO study was performed with the following scope limitations: (1) Focus on potential impacts and risks resulting from the storage of CO2; (2) Only consider CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; (3) Only consider onshore projects; (4) Only consider permanent storage; (5) Consider alternative options for CO2-storage in gas reservoirs; but not other forms of CO2-emission reduction. The scope is limited to depleted gas fields, from which the economically recoverable resources have already been taken.

  12. Synthesis and Application for polarization Optical Storage of a New Photochromic compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui Shiqiang; Pu Shouzhi; Liu Weijun; Liu Gang, E-mail: pushouzhi@tsinghua.org.cn [Jiangxi Key Lab of Organic Chemistry, Jiangxi Science and Technology Normal University, Nanchang 330013 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A new photochromic compound 1-[2-methyl-5-(4-methyl-phenyl)-3-thienyl]-2-[2-methyl-5- (4-fluor-phenyl)-3-thienyl]perfluoroyclopentene (1a) was synthesized, its photochromic properties were examined, the result indicated that the color of the compound 1a changed from colorless to a blue one upon irradiation with 297 nm UV light, a new absorption maxima were observed at 577 and 581 nm in hexane and PMMA film, respectively. This new photochromic compound also exhibited remarkable optical storage character.

  13. Development of a software interface for optical disk archival storage for a new life sciences flight experiments computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartram, Peter N.

    1989-01-01

    The current Life Sciences Laboratory Equipment (LSLE) microcomputer for life sciences experiment data acquisition is now obsolete. Among the weaknesses of the current microcomputer are small memory size, relatively slow analog data sampling rates, and the lack of a bulk data storage device. While life science investigators normally prefer data to be transmitted to Earth as it is taken, this is not always possible. No down-link exists for experiments performed in the Shuttle middeck region. One important aspect of a replacement microcomputer is provision for in-flight storage of experimental data. The Write Once, Read Many (WORM) optical disk was studied because of its high storage density, data integrity, and the availability of a space-qualified unit. In keeping with the goals for a replacement microcomputer based upon commercially available components and standard interfaces, the system studied includes a Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) for interfacing the WORM drive. The system itself is designed around the STD bus, using readily available boards. Configurations examined were: (1) master processor board and slave processor board with the SCSI interface; (2) master processor with SCSI interface; (3) master processor with SCSI and Direct Memory Access (DMA); (4) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board; and (5) master processor controlling a separate STD bus SCSI board with DMA.

  14. Study of optical Laue diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakravarthy, Giridhar, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Allam, Srinivasa Rao, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Satyanarayana, S. V. M., E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com; Sharan, Alok, E-mail: cgiridhar84@gmail.com, E-mail: aloksharan@email.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry-605014 (India)

    2014-10-15

    We present the study of the optical diffraction pattern of one and two-dimensional gratings with defects, designed using desktop pc and printed on OHP sheet using laser printer. Gratings so prepared, using novel low cost technique provides good visual aid in teaching. Diffraction pattern of the monochromatic light (632.8nm) from the grating so designed is similar to that of x-ray diffraction pattern of crystal lattice with point defects in one and two-dimensions. Here both optical and x-ray diffractions are Fraunhofer. The information about the crystalline lattice structure and the defect size can be known.

  15. Rapid production of structural color images with optical data storage capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Mohamad; Jiang, Hao; Qarehbaghi, Reza; Naghshineh, Mohammad; Kaminska, Bozena

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we present novel methods to produce structural color image for any given color picture using a pixelated generic stamp named nanosubstrate. The nanosubstrate is composed of prefabricated arrays of red, green and blue subpixels. Each subpixel has nano-gratings and/or sub-wavelength structures which give structural colors through light diffraction. Micro-patterning techniques were implemented to produce the color images from the nanosubstrate by selective activation of subpixels. The nano-grating structures can be nanohole arrays, which after replication are converted to nanopillar arrays or vice versa. It has been demonstrated that visible and invisible data can be easily stored using these fabrication methods and the information can be easily read. Therefore the techniques can be employed to produce personalized and customized color images for applications in optical document security and publicity, and can also be complemented by combined optical data storage capabilities.

  16. Achieve both multiwavelength and multilevel optical storage on compact disk by diarylethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuedong; Pu, Shouzhi; Zhao, Fuqun; Qi, Guosheng; Zhang, Fushi

    2005-01-01

    The novel photochromism, diarylethene derivatives, 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethyl-thien-3-yl)perfluoro cyclopentene (1a) and 1,2-bis(2-methyl-5-carbonylphenyl)-thien-3-yl) perfluorocyclo pentene(2a) were synthesized. And the PC discs of these two diarylethenes were prepared by spin-coating and vacuum evaporating method. To some extent, the high density recording was carried out the multi-wavelength and multi-level optical storage system. On the PC disc, single-wavelength and eight-level recording was realized by 2a, and two laser beams of 532nm and 650nm were used in two-wavelength eight-level recording and readout simultaneously. The results show that the reflectivity differences between the recording region and unrecording region is greater than 50%. The creation is that the two-wavelength and four-step optical recording on the PC disc achieved first time.

  17. Coupling field maps of combined function bending magnets to linear optics for the SESAME storage ring

    CERN Document Server

    Milanese, A

    2013-01-01

    This note provides several analyses of the combined function bending magnets of the SESAME storage ring. The objective is to develop tools to couple the magnetic design to the linear optics specifications. Such tools can be used to carry out a 3D field optimization, at the design phase and following magnetic measurements, in particular in order to fine tune the end shims on the poles. The analyses take as input field maps on the midplane, which are then processed in different ways to obtain linear transfer matrices for the optics, in the horizontal and vertical planes. Some peculiarities of this kind of magnet are also highlighted, for example, the slight variation of gradient along the arc. For convenience, the relative codes and scripts are included in the appendix.

  18. The SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS): Current Architecture and Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werdell, P. Jeremy; Fargion, Giulietta S. (Editor); McClain, Charles R. (Editor); Bailey, Sean W.

    2002-01-01

    Satellite ocean color missions require an abundance of high-quality in situ measurements for bio-optical and atmospheric algorithm development and post-launch product validation and sensor calibration. To facilitate the assembly of a global data set, the NASA Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view (SeaWiFS) Project developed the Seafaring Bio-optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS), a local repository for in situ data regularly used in their scientific analyses. The system has since been expanded to contain data sets collected by the NASA Sensor Intercalibration and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project, as part of NASA Research Announcements NRA-96-MTPE-04 and NRA-99-OES-99. SeaBASS is a well moderated and documented hive for bio-optical data with a simple, secure mechanism for locating and extracting data based on user inputs. Its holdings are available to the general public with the exception of the most recently collected data sets. Extensive quality assurance protocols, comprehensive data and system documentation, and the continuation of an archive and relational database management system (RDBMS) suitable for bio-optical data all contribute to the continued success of SeaBASS. This document provides an overview of the current operational SeaBASS system.

  19. Experimental Study of Natural Gas Storage in Hydrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙志高; 王如竹; 郭开华; 樊栓狮

    2004-01-01

    Hydrate formation rate plays an important role in the making of hydrates for natural gas storage. The effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), alkyl polysaccharide glycoside (APG) and cyclopentane (CP) on natural gas hydrate formation rate, induction time and storage capacity was studied. Micellar surfactant solutions were found to increase hydrate formation rate in a quiescent system and improve hydrate formation rate and natural gas storage capacity. The process of hydrate formation includes two stages with surfactant presence. Hydrate forms quickly in the first stage, and then the formation rate is slowed down. Surfactants (SDS or APG) reduce the induction time of hydrate formation. The effect of an anionic surfactant (SDS) on gas storage in hydrates is more pronounced compared to a nonionic surfactant (APG). CP also reduces the induction time of hydrate formation, but can not improve the natural gas storage capacity in hydrates.

  20. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  1. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Peltola, Esa; Sipila, Kari; Vaatainen, Anne

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were estimated, and this information was used to calculate the economics of CAES. An analysis of the different possible systems is given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with CAES system. In the second system wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straightforward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  2. A STUDY ON THE FLOOD STORAGE CAPACITY IN DONGTING LAKE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yitian LI; Jinyun DENG; Zhaohua SUN

    2003-01-01

    Using field data from the 1950's to 1990's, the flood storage capacity of Dongting Lake was analyzed.The impacts of sediment deposition in Dongting Lake and in the reach of the Yangtze River from Chenglingji to Hankou were analyzed. The effects of land reclamation in the lake region on the flood storage capacity also were analyzed on annual and other time scales. The study shows that sediment deposition in the downstream reach is the main reason of flood storage increases under the same inflow condition.

  3. Study of an acrylamide-based photopolymer for use as a holographic data storage medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherif, H.; Naydenova, I.; Martin, S.; McGinn, C.; Berger, G.; Denz, C.; Toal, V.

    2005-06-01

    An acrylamide-based photopolymer formulated in the Centre for Industrial and Engineering Optics has been investigated with a view to further optimisation for holographic optical storage. Series of 15 to 30 gratings were angularly multiplexed in a volume of the photopolymer layers with different thickness at a spatial frequency of 1500 lines/mm. Since the photopolymer is a saturable material, an exposure scheduling method was used to exploit the entire dynamic range of the material and allow equal strength gratings to be recorded. From this investigation the photopolymer layer's M/# was determined with regard to the recording geometry used. The temporal stability of photopolymer layers was studied in terms of diffraction efficiency and change of the reconstructed angle due to material shrinkage. In addition, the potential of the photopolymer as a holographic data storage medium was demonstrated by recording bit data-pages.

  4. Study of Heat Transfer in Ice-storage Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anding He; Huanqun Qian; Zhihua Hu; Fangde Zhou

    2001-01-01

    The heat transfer process of ice formation on the outside of coil pipe in the ice storage tank with glycol solution as the second refrigerant was studied in this paper analytically and experimentally. A model was developed for the charging process and the conduction shape factor was applied. Also, the result obtained from the model was compared with the experimental data, both data were in agreement. The simple model is useful for the operation, design and optimization of the ice storage tank.

  5. Storage-Intensive Supercomputing Benchmark Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, J; Dossa, D; Gokhale, M; Hysom, D; May, J; Pearce, R; Yoo, A

    2007-10-30

    Critical data science applications requiring frequent access to storage perform poorly on today's computing architectures. This project addresses efficient computation of data-intensive problems in national security and basic science by exploring, advancing, and applying a new form of computing called storage-intensive supercomputing (SISC). Our goal is to enable applications that simply cannot run on current systems, and, for a broad range of data-intensive problems, to deliver an order of magnitude improvement in price/performance over today's data-intensive architectures. This technical report documents much of the work done under LDRD 07-ERD-063 Storage Intensive Supercomputing during the period 05/07-09/07. The following chapters describe: (1) a new file I/O monitoring tool iotrace developed to capture the dynamic I/O profiles of Linux processes; (2) an out-of-core graph benchmark for level-set expansion of scale-free graphs; (3) an entity extraction benchmark consisting of a pipeline of eight components; and (4) an image resampling benchmark drawn from the SWarp program in the LSST data processing pipeline. The performance of the graph and entity extraction benchmarks was measured in three different scenarios: data sets residing on the NFS file server and accessed over the network; data sets stored on local disk; and data sets stored on the Fusion I/O parallel NAND Flash array. The image resampling benchmark compared performance of software-only to GPU-accelerated. In addition to the work reported here, an additional text processing application was developed that used an FPGA to accelerate n-gram profiling for language classification. The n-gram application will be presented at SC07 at the High Performance Reconfigurable Computing Technologies and Applications Workshop. The graph and entity extraction benchmarks were run on a Supermicro server housing the NAND Flash 40GB parallel disk array, the Fusion-io. The Fusion system specs are as follows

  6. Theoretical Studies of Hydrogen Storage Alloys.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, Hannes

    2012-03-22

    Theoretical calculations were carried out to search for lightweight alloys that can be used to reversibly store hydrogen in mobile applications, such as automobiles. Our primary focus was on magnesium based alloys. While MgH{sub 2} is in many respects a promising hydrogen storage material, there are two serious problems which need to be solved in order to make it useful: (i) the binding energy of the hydrogen atoms in the hydride is too large, causing the release temperature to be too high, and (ii) the diffusion of hydrogen through the hydride is so slow that loading of hydrogen into the metal takes much too long. In the first year of the project, we found that the addition of ca. 15% of aluminum decreases the binding energy to the hydrogen to the target value of 0.25 eV which corresponds to release of 1 bar hydrogen gas at 100 degrees C. Also, the addition of ca. 15% of transition metal atoms, such as Ti or V, reduces the formation energy of interstitial H-atoms making the diffusion of H-atoms through the hydride more than ten orders of magnitude faster at room temperature. In the second year of the project, several calculations of alloys of magnesium with various other transition metals were carried out and systematic trends in stability, hydrogen binding energy and diffusivity established. Some calculations of ternary alloys and their hydrides were also carried out, for example of Mg{sub 6}AlTiH{sub 16}. It was found that the binding energy reduction due to the addition of aluminum and increased diffusivity due to the addition of a transition metal are both effective at the same time. This material would in principle work well for hydrogen storage but it is, unfortunately, unstable with respect to phase separation. A search was made for a ternary alloy of this type where both the alloy and the corresponding hydride are stable. Promising results were obtained by including Zn in the alloy.

  7. Monolayer optical memory cells based on artificial trap-mediated charge storage and release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Juwon; Pak, Sangyeon; Lee, Young-Woo; Cho, Yuljae; Hong, John; Giraud, Paul; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Morris, Stephen M.; Sohn, Jung Inn; Cha, Seungnam; Kim, Jong Min

    2017-03-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are considered to be promising candidates for flexible and transparent optoelectronics applications due to their direct bandgap and strong light-matter interactions. Although several monolayer-based photodetectors have been demonstrated, single-layered optical memory devices suitable for high-quality image sensing have received little attention. Here we report a concept for monolayer MoS2 optoelectronic memory devices using artificially-structured charge trap layers through the functionalization of the monolayer/dielectric interfaces, leading to localized electronic states that serve as a basis for electrically-induced charge trapping and optically-mediated charge release. Our devices exhibit excellent photo-responsive memory characteristics with a large linear dynamic range of ~4,700 (73.4 dB) coupled with a low OFF-state current (<4 pA), and a long storage lifetime of over 104 s. In addition, the multi-level detection of up to 8 optical states is successfully demonstrated. These results represent a significant step toward the development of future monolayer optoelectronic memory devices.

  8. VUV optical ring resonator for Duke storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S.H.; Litvinenko, V.N.; Madey, J.M.J. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The conceptual design of the multifaceted-mirror ring resonator for Duke storage ring VUV FEL is presented. The expected performance of the OK-4 FEL with ring resonator is described. We discuss in this paper our plans to study reflectivity of VUV mirrors and their resistivity to soft X-ray spontaneous radiation from OK-4 undulator.

  9. Study for Possible Storage Solutions for Kloe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donno, F.; Pace, E.

    The requirements of KLOE represent a challenge in this field, since we have to deal with data rates (about 1011 events/year) considerably higher than those of typical collider experiments such as LEP or TEV-1, albeit a factor ten smaller then those foreseen at the LHC. It is estimated that the average event size is 5 kbytes, corresponding to a total bandwidth requirement of 50 Mbytes/s. The amount of data collected each year of running is then of the order of 500 Tbytes. The total storage requirements are even greater due to the MonteCarlo data that will be required and could only be managed with special robotics and a good computer organization. In this paper we discuss the characteristics of actual tape drive systems and robotic libraries that could be of interest for KLOE (DLT, IBM 3590, STK Redwood, AMPEX DST 310) and results of test are shown for DLT's (under HP UX and Digital UNIX). The software that will be used for reading/writing data is also described. Home made software will be employed to drive the robotic parts.

  10. Neutrino beam line optics study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ming-Jen

    1996-09-01

    A study was done to understand the beam line optics from the beginning of Switchyard all the way to the end of Neutrino beam line. All available SWIC data were taken to get the beam centroid and width to be used in the analysis. The beam emittance and lattice function at the beginning of beam line can also be inferred from the study. The result indicated that the normalized 95% emittance to be around 15 {pi}-mm-mr for the vertical plane and about 28 {pi}-mm-mr for the horizontal plane.

  11. Novel side-chain liquid crystalline polyester architecture for reversible optical storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Andruzzi, Fulvio; Kulinna, Chrisian

    1995-01-01

    for the cyanoazobenzene mesogens calculated. FTIR is also utilized to follow the temperature-dependent erasure of the induced orientation. Optical storage properties of thin unoriented polyester films are examined through measurements of polarization anisotropy and holography. A resolution of over 5000 lines...... scanning calorimetry for the hexamethylene spacer architecture with different molecular masses. Using FTIR polarization spectroscopy, the segmental orientation in unoriented polyester films induced by argon ion laser irradiation has been followed and an irradiation-dependent order parameter....../mm and diffraction efficiencies of about 40% have been achieved. Lifetimes greater than 30 months for information stored have been obtained, even though the glass transition temperatures are about 20 degrees C. Complete erasure of the information can be obtained by heating the films to about 80 degrees C...

  12. Quantum storage of entangled telecom-wavelength photons in an erbium-doped optical fibre

    CERN Document Server

    Saglamyurek, Erhan; Verma, Varun B; Shaw, Matthew D; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    The realization of a future quantum Internet requires processing and storing quantum information at local nodes, and interconnecting distant nodes using free-space and fibre-optic links. Quantum memories for light are key elements of such quantum networks. However, to date, neither an atomic quantum memory for non-classical states of light operating at a wavelength compatible with standard telecom fibre infrastructure, nor a fibre-based implementation of a quantum memory has been reported. Here we demonstrate the storage and faithful recall of the state of a 1532 nm wavelength photon, entangled with a 795 nm photon, in an ensemble of cryogenically cooled erbium ions doped into a 20 meter-long silicate fibre using a photon-echo quantum memory protocol. Despite its currently limited efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface brings fibre-based quantum networks one step closer to reality. Furthermore, it facilitates novel tests of light-matter interaction and collective atomic effects in u...

  13. Simulation study of transverse optical klystron radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XuHong-Liang; DiaoCao-Zheng; 等

    1997-01-01

    The radiation from a transverse optical klystron(TOK) is calculated by far field approximation and numerical integration,in which the effects of electron-beam emittance and energy spread are considered.Accurate electron-beam profiles have been experimentally determined and modeled by the Monte Carlo method.The calculated spectra illustrate the emittance of Hefei storage ring imposes on the spontaneous radiation of TOK.

  14. Semiconductor/Solid Electrolyte Junctions for Optical Information Storage. Electrochromic Effects on Heptylviologen Incorporated within a Solid Polymer Electrolyte Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-15

    cathode5 . Electrochromic devices based upon these electrochemically reversible viologen redox couples would greatly benefit by their incorporation...electrolyte analogs. Here we wish to discuss some recent work from our laboratory on solid- state electrochromic cells in which heptyl viologen (HV2+) was...OPTICAL INFORMATION STORAGE. ELECTROCHROMIC EFFECTS QN HEPTYLVIOLOGEN INCORPORATED WITHIN A SOLID POLYMER ELECTROLYTE CELL By Anthony F. Sammells and

  15. Additive, modular functionalization of reactive self-assembled monolayers: toward the fabrication of multilevel optical storage media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentili, Denis; Barbalinardo, Marianna; Manet, Ilse; Durso, Margherita; Brucale, Marco; Mezzi, Alessio; Melucci, Manuela; Cavallini, Massimiliano

    2015-04-28

    We report a novel strategy based on iterative microcontact printing, which provides additive, modular functionalization of reactive SAMs by different functional molecules. We demonstrate that after printing the molecules form an interpenetrating network at the SAM surface preserving their individual properties. We exploited the process by fabricating new optical storage media that consist of a multilevel TAG.

  16. Acridizinium-Substituted Dendrimers As a New Potential Rewritable Optical Data Storage Material for Blu-ray

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Vestberg, Robert; Ivanov, Mario T.

    2008-01-01

    . This provides an alternative chromophore for rewritable optical data storage media to the existing dye materials such as azo, cyanine, and phthalocyanine dyes for Blu-ray recording. The compound was initially tested in ethanol, showing good reversible properties and photoinduced degree of dimerization...

  17. Java-Library for the Access, Storage and Editing of Calibration Metadata of Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firlej, M.; Kresse, W.

    2016-06-01

    The standardization of the calibration of optical sensors in photogrammetry and remote sensing has been discussed for more than a decade. Projects of the German DGPF and the European EuroSDR led to the abstract International Technical Specification ISO/TS 19159-1:2014 "Calibration and validation of remote sensing imagery sensors and data - Part 1: Optical sensors". This article presents the first software interface for a read- and write-access to all metadata elements standardized in the ISO/TS 19159-1. This interface is based on an xml-schema that was automatically derived by ShapeChange from the UML-model of the Specification. The software interface serves two cases. First, the more than 300 standardized metadata elements are stored individually according to the xml-schema. Secondly, the camera manufacturers are using many administrative data that are not a part of the ISO/TS 19159-1. The new software interface provides a mechanism for input, storage, editing, and output of both types of data. Finally, an output channel towards a usual calibration protocol is provided. The interface is written in Java. The article also addresses observations made when analysing the ISO/TS 19159-1 and compiles a list of proposals for maturing the document, i.e. for an updated version of the Specification.

  18. Studies on spent nuclear fuel evolution during storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinella, V.V.; Wiss, T.A.G.; Papaioannou, D.; Nasyrow, R. [European Commission Joint Research Centre, Karlsruhe (Germany). Inst. for Transuranium Elements

    2015-07-01

    Initially conceived to last only a few decades (40 years in Germany), extended storage periods have now to be considered for spent nuclear fuel due to the expanding timeline for the definition and implementation of the disposal in geologic repository. In some countries, extended storage may encompass a timeframe of the order of centuries. The safety assessment of extended storage requires predicting the behavior of the spent fuel assemblies and the package systems over a correspondingly long timescale, to ensure that the mechanical integrity and the required level of functionality of all components of the containment system are retained. Since no measurement of ''old'' fuel can cover the ageing time of interest, spent fuel characterization must be complemented by studies targeting specific mechanisms that may affect properties and behavior of spent fuel during extended storage. Tests conducted under accelerated ageing conditions and other relevant simulations are useful for this purpose. During storage, radioactive decay determines the overall conditions of spent fuel and generates heat that must be dissipated. Alpha-decay damage and helium accumulation are key processes affecting the evolution of properties and behavior of spent fuel. The radiation damage induced by a decay event during storage is significantly lower than that caused by a fission during in-pile operation: however, the duration of the storage is much longer and the temperature levels are different. Another factor potentially affecting the mechanical integrity of spent fuel rods during storage and handling / transportation is the behavior of hydrogen present in the cladding. At the Institute for Transuranium Elements, part of the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission, spent fuel alterations as a function of time and activity are monitored at different scales, from the microstructural level (defects and lattice parameter swelling) up to macroscopic properties such as

  19. Characterization and assessment of novel bulk storage technologies : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huff, Georgianne; Tong, Nellie (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Fioravanti, Richard (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA); Gordon, Paul (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Markel, Larry (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Agrawal, Poonum (Sentech/SRA International, Bethesda, MD); Nourai, Ali (KEMA Consulting, Fairfax, VA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a high-level study to assess the technological readiness and technical and economic feasibility of 17 novel bulk energy storage technologies. The novel technologies assessed were variations of either pumped storage hydropower (PSH) or compressed air energy storage (CAES). The report also identifies major technological gaps and barriers to the commercialization of each technology. Recommendations as to where future R&D efforts for the various technologies are also provided based on each technology's technological readiness and the expected time to commercialization (short, medium, or long term). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commissioned this assessment of novel concepts in large-scale energy storage to aid in future program planning of its Energy Storage Program. The intent of the study is to determine if any new but still unproven bulk energy storage concepts merit government support to investigate their technical and economic feasibility or to speed their commercialization. The study focuses on compressed air energy storage (CAES) and pumped storage hydropower (PSH). It identifies relevant applications for bulk storage, defines the associated technical requirements, characterizes and assesses the feasibility of the proposed new concepts to address these requirements, identifies gaps and barriers, and recommends the type of government support and research and development (R&D) needed to accelerate the commercialization of these technologies.

  20. Depleted uranium storage and disposal trade study: Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hightower, J.R.; Trabalka, J.R.

    2000-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to: identify the most desirable forms for conversion of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6) for extended storage, identify the most desirable forms for conversion of DUF6 for disposal, evaluate the comparative costs for extended storage or disposal of the various forms, review benefits of the proposed plasma conversion process, estimate simplified life-cycle costs (LCCs) for five scenarios that entail either disposal or beneficial reuse, and determine whether an overall optimal form for conversion of DUF6 can be selected given current uncertainty about the endpoints (specific disposal site/technology or reuse options).

  1. Simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  2. Study of biogas storage; Biogas no chozo ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, I.; Kimura, T.; Umeda, H. [Meiji University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Study was made on the storage method of a methane component in biogas mainly composed of CO2 and methane gases. Methane clathrate as molecular complex is one kind of clathrate compounds. Eight methane gas molecules are absorbed into 46 water molecules, or methane gas of 216 l is absorbed into water of 1 l, resulting in considerable compact methane storage. Although methane clathrate is usually stable only under a condition of low temperature and high pressure, its formation equilibrium shifts toward a low pressure/high temperature side by adding additives such as amine, ether and ketone. Acetone can shift formation pressure from 30 to 10atm at 1degC, and formation temperature from 1 to 10degC at 30atm. Although methane liquefaction is also an efficient storage method, it requires liquefaction temperature and pressure of -83degC and 45.6atm, respectively. The distance between methane molecules in clathrate lattice can be more shortened than that in high- pressure charged gas, suggesting higher storage efficiency. The study result showed that the handling of methane clathrate is possible around room temperature and pressure. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Experiments on the data recording of optical waveguide multilayer storage devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhongcheng; Ding, Dongyan; Xie, Haiyan; Gu, Minfen; Chen, Jiabi; Zhuang, Songlin

    2005-12-01

    The basic principles of optical waveguide multilayer storage (WMS) device include recording data in the form of waveguide defects, reading data by collecting the scatter light from the waveguide defects, and restraining the cross talk between layers by taking the benefit of the waveguide structure. In this paper, we give some experimental results obtained by three different approaches of data recording. They are laser direct writing, photolithography and hot embossing. In the first method, a laser beam is focused on the top of a polymer film. The thermal effect alters the medium property locally at the focus point, which acts as the defect in the waveguide structure. The second method resorts to the processes of photolithography to record pits on the photoresist layer. The process of hot embossing is similar to the fabrication of CD-ROM, however, the data pits deeper than the wavelength are embossed on the polymer surface to increase the scattering efficiency. WMS devices based on different data writing methods are presented and the data scattering patterns are observed. The comparison between the different data writing approaches is made and discussed as well.

  4. Storage Media: A Neglected Variable for in vitro Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjit Kumar Reena

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion : Storage media have an effect on bond strength results. Distilled water and isotonic saline storage produced comparable bond strength. Formalin and ethanol storage produced extreme variation in SBS values.

  5. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  6. Corrosion studies on casing steel in CO2 storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, X.; Zevenbergen, J.F.; Benedictus, T.

    2013-01-01

    The corrosion behavior of casing steel N80 in brine plus CO2 was studied in autoclave to simulate the CO2 storage environment. The brine solution used in the study contained 130 g/l NaCl, 22.2 g/l CaCl2 and 4 g/l MgCl2. The CO2 was charged in the autoclave at different pressures (60, 80 and 100 bar)

  7. Improving Recording Density of All-Optical Magnetic Storage by Using High-Pass Angular Spectrum Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANG You-Yi; ZHANG Yao-Ju

    2009-01-01

    A new design is presented to improve the magnetic recording density in all-optical magnetic storage.By using the high numerical lens with a high-pass angular spectrum filter, circularly polarized laser pulses are focused into the magneto-optic film with the perpendicular anisotropy.Magnetization of the film is induced by the inverse Faraday effect.As the obstructed angle of the filter increases the magnetic recording density increases evidently.The magnetization intensity and the sidelobe effect are also discussed.

  8. Economic Analysis Case Studies of Battery Energy Storage with SAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiOrio, Nicholas [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dobos, Aron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Janzou, Steven [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Interest in energy storage has continued to increase as states like California have introduced mandates and subsidies to spur adoption. This energy storage includes customer sited behind-the-meter storage coupled with photovoltaics (PV). This paper presents case study results from California and Tennessee, which were performed to assess the economic benefit of customer-installed systems. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued. Different dispatch strategies, including manual scheduling and automated peak-shaving were explored to determine ideal ways to use the storage system to increase the system value and mitigate demand charges. Incentives, complex electric tariffs, and site specific load and PV data were used to perform detailed analysis. The analysis was performed using the free, publically available System Advisor Model (SAM) tool. We find that installation of photovoltaics with a lithium-ion battery system priced at $300/kWh in Los Angeles under a high demand charge utility rate structure and dispatched using perfect day-ahead forecasting yields a positive net-present value, while all other scenarios cost the customer more than the savings accrued.

  9. High Capacity High Speed Optical Data Storage System Based on Diffraction-Free Nanobeam. Final Report, 09-02-98 to 03-17-99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tin Aye

    1999-06-16

    Physical Optics Corporation (POC) investigated the development of an optical data storage system built around a current well-engineered high-speed optical disk system with an innovative diffraction-free micro-optical element to produce a beam {approximately}250 nm wide with {approximately}4-5 mm depth of focus, allowing the system to address data at {approximately}100 Mbits/second and to store it 100 to 1,000 times more densely ({approximately}10 Gbit/in.{sup 2}) than in present systems. In Phase 1 of this project POC completed a thorough feasibility study by system design and analysis, successfully demonstrated fabrication of the key components, and conducted a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. Specifically, production of a subwavelength ({approximately}380 nm) large depth of focus ({approximately}4-5 mm) addressing beam was demonstrated by fabricating a special microdiffractive optical element and recording this beam on a standard optical recording disk coated with a photopolymer material.

  10. THE STUDY OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION FOR ANIMAL FATS DURING STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Pop; Cornel Laslo

    2009-01-01

    In this article the chemical composition for 3 types of animal fats (pork fat, beef tallow and buffalo tallow), following the variation of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids proportion during freezing storage was studied. Determination of chemical composition of animal fats is important in establishing organoleptic and physico-chemical parameters, the variation of them in time, nature and proportion of fatty acids conferring specific characteristics to them. For pork fat was determined the...

  11. A circumzenithal arc to study optics concepts with geometrical optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isik, Hakan

    2017-05-01

    This paper describes the formation of a circumzenithal arc for the purpose of teaching light and optics. A circumzenithal arc, an optic formation rarely witnessed by people, is formed in this study using a water-filled cylindrical glass illuminated by sunlight. Sunlight refracted at the top and side surfaces of the glass of water is dispersed into its constituent colours. First, multi-colour arcs are observed on paper at the bottom of the glass. Then, a single arc for each colour is observed on the floor when the rays are allowed to propagate to the furthest points from the glass. The change in observations is explained by formulating an equation for the geometry of the situation. The formula relates each point on the first refracting surface for an incoming light ray to a point further from the second refracting surface. Then, a parallel graph is drawn to visualize the superposition of colours to the formation of a single arc. The geometrical optics studies in this paper exemplify the concept of Snell’s law, total internal reflection and dispersion. The duration of the observation on a circumzenithal arc is limited by the altitude of the Sun in the sky. This study depends on the use of astronomy software to track solar altitude. Pedagogical aspects of the study are discussed for inquiry-based teaching and learning of light and optics concepts.

  12. Optical Nanofiber Integrated into Optical Tweezers for In Situ Fiber Probing and Optical Binding Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Gusachenko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofiber and optical tweezers system. We show that consistent and reversible transmission modulations arise when individual silica microspheres are introduced to the nanofiber surface using the optical tweezers. The observed transmission changes depend on both particle and fiber diameter and can be used as a reference point for in situ nanofiber or particle size measurement. Thence, we combine scanning electron microscope (SEM size measurements with nanofiber transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fiber assessment. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  13. A comparative study of preservation and storage of Haemophilus influenzae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga C Aulet de Saab

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of conservation by freezing the strains of Haemophilus influenzae at -20ºC and -70ºC. Skim milk supplemented with glucose, yeast extract and glycerol allowed highest viability of H. influenzae both at -20ºC and -70ºC from the media analyzed. Trypticase soy broth and brain heart infusion broth supplemented with glycerol, allowed excellent recovery. Use of cotton swaps as supporting material, with or without addition of cryoprotective agents, did not modify H. influenzae viability after six months of storage. Concentration of the initial inoculum positively affected viability when stored at -20ºC. Initial concentration did not influence survival after storage at -70ºC. Thawing at room temperature should not exceed 3 h as to get highest survival percentage.

  14. Lattice study for the HLS-Ⅱ storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Zheng-He; WANG Lin; JIA Qi-Ka; LI Wei-Min

    2013-01-01

    The Hefei Light Source (HLS) is undergoing a major upgrade project,named HLS-Ⅱ,in order to obtain lower emittance and more insertion device straight sections.Undulators are the main insertion devices in the HLS-Ⅱstorage ring.In this paper,based on the database of lattice parameters built for the HLS-Ⅱ storage ring obtained by the global scan method,we use the quantity related to the undulator radiation brightness to more directly search for high brightness lattices.Lattice solutions for achromatic and non-achromatic modes are easily found with lower emittance,smaller beta functions at the center of the insertion device straight sections and lower dispersion in nonzero dispersion straight sections compared with the previous lattice solutions.In this paper,the superperiod lattice with alternating high and low horizontal beta functions in long straight sections for the achromatic mode is studied using the multiobjective particle swarm optimization algorithm.

  15. Studies of Bistable Optical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-15

    Alternate Switching, and Subharmonic Generation in Bistable Optical Devices" (J. A. Goldstone, P.-T. Ho, E. Garmire) Appl. Phys. Lett. 37, 126 (1980). 7...demonstrated with modulators which are inherently slow, but have useful features. This includes driving a thin Fabry-Perot with a piezo -electric (McCall, Appl

  16. Optical cell for combinatorial in situ Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at high pressures and temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R.; Hurst, Wilbur S.; Srinivasan, Sesha S.; Maslar, James E.

    2011-03-01

    An optical cell is described for high-throughput backscattering Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 823 K. High throughput is obtained by employing a 60 mm diameter × 9 mm thick sapphire window, with a corresponding 50 mm diameter unobstructed optical aperture. To reproducibly seal this relatively large window to the cell body at elevated temperatures and pressures, a gold o-ring is employed. The sample holder-to-window distance is adjustable, making this cell design compatible with optical measurement systems incorporating lenses of significantly different focal lengths, e.g., microscope objectives and single element lenses. For combinatorial investigations, up to 19 individual powder samples can be loaded into the optical cell at one time. This cell design is also compatible with thin-film samples. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, in situ measurements of the Ca(BH4)2 and nano-LiBH4-LiNH2-MgH2 hydrogen storage systems at elevated temperatures and pressures are reported.

  17. Optical cell for combinatorial in situ Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at high pressures and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattrick-Simpers, Jason R; Hurst, Wilbur S; Srinivasan, Sesha S; Maslar, James E

    2011-03-01

    An optical cell is described for high-throughput backscattering Raman spectroscopic measurements of hydrogen storage materials at pressures up to 10 MPa and temperatures up to 823 K. High throughput is obtained by employing a 60 mm diameter × 9 mm thick sapphire window, with a corresponding 50 mm diameter unobstructed optical aperture. To reproducibly seal this relatively large window to the cell body at elevated temperatures and pressures, a gold o-ring is employed. The sample holder-to-window distance is adjustable, making this cell design compatible with optical measurement systems incorporating lenses of significantly different focal lengths, e.g., microscope objectives and single element lenses. For combinatorial investigations, up to 19 individual powder samples can be loaded into the optical cell at one time. This cell design is also compatible with thin-film samples. To demonstrate the capabilities of the cell, in situ measurements of the Ca(BH(4))(2) and nano-LiBH(4)-LiNH(2)-MgH(2) hydrogen storage systems at elevated temperatures and pressures are reported.

  18. Using geometric algebra to study optical aberrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanlon, J.; Ziock, H.

    1997-05-01

    This paper uses Geometric Algebra (GA) to study vector aberrations in optical systems with square and round pupils. GA is a new way to produce the classical optical aberration spot diagrams on the Gaussian image plane and surfaces near the Gaussian image plane. Spot diagrams of the third, fifth and seventh order aberrations for square and round pupils are developed to illustrate the theory.

  19. Evaluation of Periodontal Ligament Cell Viability in Three Different Storage Media: An in Vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenakshi Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study was undertaken to evaluate the viability of periodontal ligament (PDL cells of avulsed teeth in three different storage media.Materials and Methods: Forty-five premolars extracted for orthodontic therapeutic purposes were randomly and equally divided into three groups based on storage media used [Group I: milk (control; Group II: aloe vera (experimental; Group III: egg white (experimental]. Following extractions, the teeth were placed in one of the three different storage media for 30 minutes, following which the scrapings of the PDL from these teeth were collected in Falcon tubes containing collagenase enzyme in 2.5 mL of phosphate buffered saline. The tubes were subsequently incubated for 30 minutes and centrifuged for five minutes at 800 rpm. The obtained PDL cells were stained with Trypan Blue and were observed under optical microscope. The percentage of viable cells was calculated.Results: Aloe vera showed the highest percentage of viable cells (114.3±8.0, followed by egg white (100.9±6.3 and milk (101.1±7.3.Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it appears that aloe vera maintains PDL cell viability better than egg white or milk.

  20. Diffractive super-resolution elements applied to near-field optical data storage with solid immersion lens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yaoju [Department of Physics, Wenzhou Normal College, Wenzhou 325027 (China); Xiao Huaceng [Department of Biology, Wenzhou Normal College, Wenzhou 325027 (China); Zheng Chongwei [Department of Physics, Wenzhou Normal College, Wenzhou 325027 (China)

    2004-07-01

    The intensity distribution in near-field optical data storage with a solid immersion lens (SIL) and a binary phase-only diffractive super-resolution element (DSE) is expressed in a single definite integral by using angular spectrum theory. The super-resolution of binary two-zone phase DSEs for SIL systems is numerically studied for low and high numerical aperture (NA) systems. The results for the low-NA systems show that optimizing the zone boundary and phase of binary two-zone phase DSEs can decrease the spot size. The Strehl ratio, sidelobe intensity and axial characteristic length are also discussed. In addition, a binary two-zone phase filter can change the position of focus that shifts from the SIL-air interface to air, but the spot size increases. For the high-NA systems, the y- and z-polarized components of the transmitted field increase as the boundary and depth of phase of the DSE increase. When the phase boundary is smaller and the depth of phase depth is close to {pi}, super-resolving effect of DSE is more obvious but the intensity of sidelobes is larger for the high-NA system. In this way, it may be possible to improve both the resolution and focal depth of the SIL with high-NA systems.

  1. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  2. Literature review of market studies of thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattrup, M.P.

    1988-02-01

    This report presents the results of a review of market studies of thermal energy storage (TES). This project was conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). PNL staff reviewed and consolidated the findings of existing TES market studies conducted in the industrial, commercial, and residential sectors. The purpose of this project was to review and assess previous work and to use the information obtained to help provide direction for future technology transfer planning activities and to identify additional economic research needed within those three sectors. 37 refs.

  3. Beam loss studies at the ANKA storage ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertle, Edmund; Smale, Nigel; Goetsch, Tobias; Mueller, Anke-Susanne; Wegh, Frans; Worms, Kai [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The real time study and the post mortem analysis of beam loss are powerful tools for the optimization of a storage ring's performance. It allows, for example, a fast identification of failing hardware components or can be used to improve the beam lifetime by a reduction of the losses. This needs a sophisticated beam loss monitor system with appropriate spatial and temporal resolution. This presentation gives an overview of the loss monitor system under study at the ANKA synchrotron radiation facility of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology.

  4. Ion optics and beam dynamics optimization at the HESR storage ring for the SPARC experiments with highly charged heavy ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalenko, Oleksandr

    2015-06-24

    The High-Energy Storage Ring (HESR) is a part of an upcoming International Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR) at GSI in Darmstadt. A key part of a scientific program, along with antiproton physics, will be physics with highly-charged heavy ions. Phase-space cooled beams together with fixed internal target will provide an excellent environment for storage ring experiments at the HESR for the SPARC collaboration. Until recently, however, the existing ion optical lattice for the HESR was designed only for the experiments with antiproton beams. The thesis presents a new ion optical mode developed specifically for the operation of the HESR with highly charged heavy ions. The presence of the errors, such as beam momentum spread, magnetic field impurities or magnets misalignments, leads to disruption of beam dynamics: exciting of resonant motion and loss of beam stability. Within the paper, these effects are investigated with the help of numerical codes for particle accelerator design and simulation MAD-X and MIRKO. A number of correction techniques are applied to minimize the nonlinear impact on the beam dynamics and improve the experimental conditions. The application of the analytical and numerical tools is demonstrated in the experiment with uranium U{sup 90+} beam at the existing storage ring ESR, GSI.

  5. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  6. TSC STUDIES ON SUB-Tg STORAGE OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; TONG Gang; ZHOU Yiqin; QI Zongneng

    1987-01-01

    The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) spectra of a series of Sub-Tg annealed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) specimens have been measured. It is found that there is only one peak at 80℃ above room temperature, which related to the thermo-relaxation of frozen-in dipoles. The activation energy of such dipole motion has been calculated. The relation between the maximum current and the storage time can be explained by the free volume theory and agrees with the results from the excess thermodynamic properties. Compared with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and tensile stress-strain method, TSC is a simpler and more sensitive method in studying Sub-Tg annealed polymers.

  7. Study of orbit stability in the SSRF storage ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Zhi-Min; LIU Gui-Min; HUANG Nan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, analysis of the beam orbit stability and conceptual study of the dynamic orbit feedback inthe SSRF storage ring are presented. It is shown that beam orbit position movement at the photon source points issmaller than the orbit stability requirements in horizontal plane, but exceeds the orbit stability requirements in verticalplane. A dynamic global orbit feedback system, which consists of 38 high-bandwidth air-coil correctors and 40high-precise BPMs, is proposed to suppress the vertical beam orbit position movement. Numerical simulations showthat this dynamic orbit feedback system can stabilize the vertical beam orbit position movement in the frequencyrange up to 100 Hz.

  8. The use of orbital angular momentum of light beams for optical data storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd, R.J.; Singh, M.; Braat, J.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    We present a method to optically store multiple information in one location by having angular momentum imparted to the scanning beam by optical phase objects that make up the information areas on a surface. We show that the light beam thus perturbed carries an optical vortex, the rotation of which c

  9. Photon storage in ¿-type optically dense atomic media. IV. Optimal control using gradient ascent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorshkov, Alexey V.; Calarco, Tomasso; Lukin, Mikhail D.

    2008-01-01

    We use the numerical gradient ascent method from optimal control theory to extend efficient photon storage in -type media to previouslyinaccessible regimes and to provide simple intuitive explanations for our optimization techniques. In particular, by using gradient ascent to shape classical...... control pulses used to mediate photon storage, we open up the possibility of high efficiency photon storage in thenonadiabatic limit, in which analytical solutions to the equations of motion do not exist. This control shaping technique enables an order-of-magnitude increase in the bandwidth of the memory...

  10. Water Storage Instead of Energy Storage for Desalination Powered by Renewable Energy—King Island Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Tafech

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we scrutinized the energy storage options used in mitigation of the intermittent nature of renewable energy resources for desalination process. In off-grid islands and remote areas, renewable energy is often combined with appropriate energy storage technologies (ESTs to provide a consistent and reliable electric power source. We demonstrated that in developing a renewable energy scheme for desalination purposes, product (water storage is a more reliable and techno-economic solution. For a King Island (Southeast Australia case-study, electric power production from renewable energy sources was sized under transient conditions to meet the dynamic demand of freshwater throughout the year. Among four proposed scenarios, we found the most economic option by sizing a 13 MW solar photovoltaic (PV field to instantly run a proportional RO desalination plant and generate immediate freshwater in diurnal times without the need for energy storage. The excess generated water was stored in 4 × 50 ML (mega liter storage tanks to meet the load in those solar deficit times. It was also demonstrated that integrating well-sized solar PV with wind power production shows more consistent energy/water profiles that harmonize the transient nature of energy sources with the water consumption dynamics, but that would have trivial economic penalties caused by larger desalination and water storage capacities.

  11. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki [‘Materials - Technologies’ Group, Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Polytechnic School, Universidad País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, Pza Europa 1, 20018 Donostia-San Sebastián (Spain); Sanfelice, Rafaela C.; Pavinatto, Felippe J.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. [Instituto de Física de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense, 400, Centro, CEP 13560-970, São Carlos (Brazil); Oyanguren, Patricia [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina); Galante, María J., E-mail: galant@fi.mdp.edu.ar [Institute of Materials Science and Technology (INTEMA), University of Mar del Plata and National Research Council (CONICET), J. B. Justo 4302, 7600 Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n = 0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery. Highlights: ► Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films of epoxy-based azopolymers were obtained and analyzed. ► Optical properties of LB and spin coated (SC) films were compared. ► Azo content, structure, laser power and number of layers were main factors studied. ► LB films had larger free volume for the azobenzenes isomerization than SC. ► LB films led to higher birefringence and faster dynamics compared to SC.

  12. Transsynaptic retinal degeneration in optic neuropathies: optical coherence tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Prema; Graham, Stuart L; Wang, Chenyu; Yiannikas, Con; Garrick, Raymond; Klistorner, Alexander

    2012-03-09

    Recently demonstrated neuronal loss in the inner nuclear layer of the retina in multiple sclerosis (MS) and glaucoma raises the question of a primary (possibly immune-mediated) or secondary (transsynaptic) mechanism of retinal damage in these diseases. In the present study we used optical coherence tomography to investigate retrograde retinal transsynaptic degeneration in patients with long-standing and severe loss of ganglion cells due to optic neuropathy. Fifteen eyes of glaucoma patients with visual field defect limited to upper hemifield and 15 eyes of MS patients with previous episode of optic neuritis (ON) and extensive loss of ganglion cells were imaged using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography and compared with two groups of age-matched controls. Combined retinal ganglion cell layer/inner plexiform layer (GCL/IPL) thickness and inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness were analyzed. In the glaucoma group there was a significant (P = 0.0005) reduction of GCL/IPL thickness in the lower (affected) retina compared with normal controls; however INL thickness was not statistically reduced (P = 0.49). In the MS group reduction of GCL/IPL thickness in both hemifields of ON eyes was also significant (P = 0.0001 and P < 0.0001 for inferior and superior retina respectively). However, similar to the glaucomatous eyes, there was no significant reduction of INL thickness in both hemifields (P = 0.25 and P = 0.45). This study demonstrates no significant loss of INL thickness in parts of the retina with long-standing and severe loss of retinal ganglion cells.

  13. Computational study of sodium magnesium hydride for hydrogen storage applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto Valle, Fernando Antonio

    Hydrogen offers considerable potential benefits as an energy carrier. However, safe and convenient storage of hydrogen is one of the biggest challenges to be resolved in the near future. Sodium magnesium hydride (NaMgH 3) has attracted attention as a hydrogen storage material due to its light weight and high volumetric hydrogen density of 88 kg/m3. Despite the advantages, hydrogen release in this material occurs at approximately 670 K, which is well above the operable range for on-board hydrogen storage applications. In this regard, hydrogen release may be facilitated by substitution doping of transition-metals. This dissertation describes first-principles computational methods that enable an examination of the hydrogen storage properties of NaMgH3. The novel contribution of this dissertation includes a combination of crystal, supercell, and surface slab calculations that provides new and relevant insights about the thermodynamic and kinetic properties of NaMgH3. First-principles calculations on the pristine crystal structure provide a starting reference point for the study of this material as a hydrogen storage material. To the best of our knowledge, it is reported for the first time that a 25% mol doping concentration of Ti, V, Cu, and Zn dopants reduce the reaction enthalpy of hydrogen release for NaMgH3. The largest decrease in the DeltaH(298 K) value corresponds to the Zn-doped model (67.97 kJ/(mol H2)). Based on cohesive energy calculations, it is reported that at the 6.25% mol doping concentration, Ti and Zn dopants are the only transition metals that destabilize the NaMgH3 hydride. In terms of hydrogen removal energy, it is quantified that the energy cost to remove a single H from the Ti-doped supercell model is 0.76 eV, which is lower with respect to the pristine model and other prototypical hydrogen storage materials. From the calculation of electronic properties such as density of states, electron density difference, and charge population analysis

  14. Femtosecond optical studies of cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael L.; Rast, S.; Onellion, Marshall; Demsar, Jure; Taylor, Antoinette J.; Glinka, Yu D.; Tolk, Norman H.; Ren, Yuhang; Luepke, Gunter; Klimov, A.; Xu, Ying; Sobolewski, Roman; Si, Weidong; Zeng, X. H.; Soukiassian, A.; Xi, Xiaoxing; Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, Daniel; Pavuna, Davor; Manzke, Recardo; Printz, J. O.; Parkhurst, D. K.; Downum, K. E.; Guptasarma, P.; Bozovic, Ivan

    2002-11-01

    Femtosecond optical reflectivity measurements of La2-xSrxCuO4, La2CuO4+y, Bi2Sr2CuO6+z and Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ thin films and single crystal samples indicate qualitative changes with fluence. At the lowest fluencies, there is a power law divergence in the relaxation time. The divergence has an onset temperature of 55+/-15K, independent of whether the sample is in the superconducting or normal states. At slightly higher fluencies, still perturbative, the additional response does not exhibit this power law divergence. At quite high fluencies- no longer perturbative- the metallic samples exhibit oscillations in the reflectivity amplitude. The period of these oscillations varies with the probe wavelength but not with the pump wavelength. The oscillations exhibit a decay time as long as 10 nsec.

  15. Synthesis and optical properties studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. El-Ghamaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 4-(4-Amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-phenol (L1 and 4-(4-Amino-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-1,2-dihydro-pyrazol-3-ylideneamino-benzoic acid (L2 have been synthesized by the condensation reaction of 4-aminoantipyrine (4-AAP and 4-aminophenol or 4-aminobenzoic acid in ethanolic solution and are characterized by various physico-chemical techniques. Thin films of L1 and L2 have been prepared by the conventional spin coating technique. X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD show an amorphous nature for both powder and thin films for L1 and L2 ligands. The optical absorption and refraction properties of L1 and L2 are investigated by spectrophotometric techniques at normal incidence of light in the wavelength range of 200–2500 nm. The absorption spectra show two peaks in the UV region which correspond to π → π∗ transition and a peak in UV–Vis region which may correspond to n → π∗ transition. The values of dispersion parameters Eo, Ed, εL, ε∞ and N/m* are calculated according to the single oscillator model. The presence of the OH group increases the value of ε∞ from 3.21 to 3.32 and the value of N/m* from 7.38 × 1053 to 2.08 × 1054 m−3Kg−1. The optical band transition is found to be indirect allowing fundamental energy gap values of 3.4 and 3.9 eV and onset energy gap values of 2.1 and 2.6 eV for L1 and L2, respectively.

  16. Storage study and quality evaluation of coconut protein powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Aduja; Prakash, Maya; R, Ravi; Raghavarao, Ksms

    2013-11-01

    Coconut skim milk and insoluble protein are 2 major byproducts in the production of virgin coconut oil. Coconut skim milk was homogenized along with insoluble protein and spray dried to obtain a value-added product, namely, coconut protein powder (CPP). This study deals with the storage study of CPP under different conditions (refrigerated [control], ambient and accelerated). CPP samples were withdrawn periodically at designated intervals of 15 d for accelerated and control, and 30 d for ambient condition. CPP stored at different conditions exhibited marginal moisture uptake (by 0.74 % w/w for control, 0.76 % w/w for ambient, and 1.26 % w/w for accelerated condition) and as a result, had very little effect on the functional properties of the powder. Withdrawn CPP was tested for sensory quality aspects and subjected to instrumental analysis as well. Withdrawn CPP was incorporated as a milk substitute in dessert (Kheer). Quantitative descriptive analysis of the powder and product (Kheer) showed no significant difference in attributes of CPP during the storage period of 2 mo. Electronic nose analysis revealed that CPP samples were not much different with respect to aroma pattern matching, respectively.

  17. Study of hydrogen vehicle storage in enclosed parking facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belzile, M.A. [Transport Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles; Cook, S. [Canadian Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Association, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper reported on a coordinated research program between Transport Canada and Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Canada that examines issues of hydrogen vehicle storage. The ecoTECHNOLOGY for Vehicles (eTV) program focuses on the safety issues of operating and storing hydrogen fuelled vehicles in enclosed parking facilities. The aim of the program is to review existing research, current building standards applied in Canada, standards applied to natural gas vehicles, and standards and recommended practices for the design of fuel cell vehicles. Any potential gaps in safety will be considered in the design of CFD modeling scenarios. Considerations that extend beyond previously performed studies include the effect of Canadian climate on vehicle safety and leak detection equipment, fail-safe mechanism performance, as well as analyses of the frequency of hydrogen leak occurrences and the probability of ignition. The results of the study will facilitate policy makers and authorities in making decisions regarding the storage of hydrogen fuelled vehicles as they become more popular.

  18. Systems for the Storage of Molecular Oxygen - A Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-25

    recent studies of oxygen binding by some cobalt - Schiff base complexes reported by Tsumaki in 1937 (59). This last general class of compounds has...1721. 66. E. Cesarotti, M. Gullotti, A. Pasini, and R. Ugo, "Optically active com- plexes of Schiff bases . Part 5. An investigation of some solvent...and conformational effects on the equilibria between cobalt(II) Schiff base complexes and dioxygen," J. Chem. Soc., Dalton Trans. (1977) 757-763. 67

  19. Sol-gels with fiber-optic chemical sensor potential: Effects of preparation, aging, and long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badini, G. E.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Tseung, A. C. C.

    1995-08-01

    The features of sol-gels, incorporating pH-sensitive dyes, designed as potential substrates for fiber-optic chemical sensors, have been investigated in terms of a variety of characteristics resulting from the preparation methods used and following the storage of samples for a period of several years. These materials, organically doped sol-gels, have been used as the heart of a number of prototype chemical sensing instruments, and a key issue in their effective use in instrumentation is their long-term durability and stability. In this work, it has been shown that such aged gel substrates can withstand immersion in water, drying, and reimmersion without fragmenting. Such impregnated gels were shown to still exhibit strong fluorescence, although some changes to the gel structure, determined from microhardness measurements, were observed and reported, reflecting their potential for use in chemically sensitive fiber optic-based instruments.

  20. Carbon/ternary alloy/carbon optical stack on mylar as an optical data storage medium to potentially replace magnetic tape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lunt, Barry M; Gates, Richard J; Asplund, Matthew C; Shutthanandan, V; Davis, Robert C; Linford, Matthew R

    2013-09-11

    A novel write-once-read-many (WORM) optical stack on Mylar tape is proposed as a replacement for magnetic tape for archival data storage. This optical tape contains a cosputtered bismuth-tellurium-selenium (BTS) alloy as the write layer sandwiched between thin, protective films of reactively sputtered carbon. The composition and thickness of the BTS layer were confirmed by Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The C/BTS/C stack on Mylar was written to/marked by 532 nm laser pulses. Under the same conditions, control Mylar films without the optical stack were unaffected. Marks, which showed craters/movement of the write material, were characterized by optical microscopy and AFM. The threshold laser powers for making marks on C/BTS/C stacks with different thicknesses were explored. Higher quality marks were made with a 60× objective compared to a 40× objective in our marking apparatus. The laser writing process was simulated with COMSOL.

  1. Optical storage in azobenzene-containing epoxy polymers processed as Langmuir Blodgett films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Raquel; Mondragon, Iñaki; Sanfelice, Rafaela C; Pavinatto, Felippe J; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Oyanguren, Patricia; Galante, María J

    2013-04-01

    In this study, azocopolymers containing different main-chain segments have been synthesized with diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA, DER 332, n=0.03) and the azochromophore Disperse Orange 3 (DO3) cured with two monoamines, viz. benzylamine (BA) and m-toluidine (MT). The photoinduced birefringence was investigated in films produced with these azopolymers using the spin coating (SC) and Langmuir Blodgett (LB) techniques. In the LB films, birefringence increased with the content of azochromophore and the film thickness, as expected. The nanostructured nature of the LB films led to an enhanced birefringence and faster dynamics in the writing process, compared to the SC films. In summary, the combination of azocopolymers and the LB method may allow materials with tuned properties for various optical applications, including in biological systems were photoisomerization may be used to trigger actions such as drug delivery.

  2. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Zokti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE. To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD, gum arabic (GA and chitosan (CTS and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%–88.04%, 19.32–24.90 (g GAE/100 g, and 29.52%–38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%–5.11%, 0.28–0.36, 3.22%–4.71%, 0.22–0.28 g/cm3 and 40.43–225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF was determined as 142.00%–188.63% and 207.55%–231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05 under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35–60, 34–65 and 231–288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  3. Green Tea Leaves Extract: Microencapsulation, Physicochemical and Storage Stability Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zokti, James A; Sham Baharin, Badlishah; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Abas, Faridah

    2016-07-26

    Green tea polyphenols have been reported to possess many biological properties. Despite the many potential benefits of green tea extracts, their sensitivity to high temperature, pH and oxygen is a major disadvantage hindering their effective utilization in the food industry. Green tea leaves from the Cameron Highlands Malaysia were extracted using supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). To improve the stability, green tea extracts were encapsulated by spray-drying using different carrier materials including maltodextrin (MD), gum arabic (GA) and chitosan (CTS) and their combinations at different ratios. Encapsulation efficiency, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity were determined and were found to be in the range of 71.41%-88.04%, 19.32-24.90 (g GAE/100 g), and 29.52%-38.05% respectively. Further analysis of moisture content, water activity, hygroscopicity, bulk density and mean particles size distribution of the microparticles were carried out and the results ranged from; 2.31%-5.11%, 0.28-0.36, 3.22%-4.71%, 0.22-0.28 g/cm³ and 40.43-225.64 µm respectively. The ability of the microparticles to swell in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) and simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) was determined as 142.00%-188.63% and 207.55%-231.77%, respectively. Release of catechin polyphenol from microparticles in SIF was higher comparable to that of SGF. Storage stability of encapsulated catechin extracts under different temperature conditions was remarkably improved compared to non-encapsulated extract powder. This study showed that total catechin, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity did not decrease significantly (p ≥ 0.05) under 4 °C storage conditions. The half-life study results were in the range of 35-60, 34-65 and 231-288 weeks at storage temperatures of 40 °C, 25 °C and 4 °C respectively, therefore, for improved shelf-life stability we recommend that microparticles should be stored at temperatures below 25 °C.

  4. The Realization and Study of Optical Wings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artusio-Glimpse, Alexandra Brae

    Consider the airfoil: a carefully designed structure capable of stable lift in a uniform air flow. It so happens that air pressure and radiation (light) pressure are similar phenomena because each transfer momentum to flow-disturbing objects. This, then, begs the question: does an optical analogue to the airfoil exist? Though an exceedingly small effect, scientists harness radiation pressure in a wide gamut of applications from micromanipulation of single biological particles to the propulsion of large spacecrafts called solar sails. We introduce a cambered, refractive rod that is subjected to optical forces analogous to those seen in aerodynamics, and I call this analogue the optical wing. Flight characteristics of optical wings are determined by wing shape and material in a uniform radiation field. Theory predicts the lift force and axial torque are functions of the wing's angle of attack with stable and unstable orientations. These structures can operate as intensity-dependent, parametrically driven oscillators. In two-dimensions, the wings exhibit bistability when analyzed in an accelerating frame. In three-dimensions, the motion of axially symmetric spinning hemispherical wings is analogous to a spinning top. Experiments on semi-buoyant wings in water found semicylindrically shaped, refractive microparticles traversed a laser beam and rotated to an illumination-dependent stable orientation. Preliminary tests aid in the development of a calibrated force measurement experiment to directly evaluate the optical forces and torque on these samples. A foundational study of the optical wing, this work contributes to future advancements of flight-by-light.

  5. Optical precursor with four-wave mixing and storage based on a cold-atom ensemble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong-Sheng; Jiang, Yun Kun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-03-06

    We observed optical precursors in four-wave mixing based on a cold-atom gas. Optical precursors appear at the edges of pulses of the generated optical field, and propagate through the atomic medium without absorption. Theoretical analysis suggests that these precursors correspond to high-frequency components of the signal pulse, which means the atoms cannot respond quickly to rapid changes in the electromagnetic field. In contrast, the low-frequency signal components are absorbed by the atoms during transmission. We also showed experimentally that the backward precursor can be stored using a Raman transition of the atomic ensemble and retrieved later.

  6. Formulation & Storage Studies on Hydrazine-Based Gelled Propellants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Verma

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in the area of high energy storable liquid rocket propellant research is to develop gelled/metallized systems and to explore the feasibility of their application in rocket motors. The idea stems from the fact that the conversion of a conventional liquid propellant to a gelled state and its subsequent metallization has the potential to significantly enhance the performance and density specific impulse. However, it is mandatory that the gelation of the liquid propellant be brought about with a minimum concentration of gellant and the gel formed should show a shear-thinning behaviour and good storage life. Keeping this in view, an experimental program to prepare thixotropic gels of hydrazine and its methyl substitutedderivatives like monomethyl hydrazineand unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazinewas conducted under ambient conditions. The gellants investigated included particulate, chemical and synthetic materials. The gelation of the liquid fuels ..ould be brought about with gellant concentration as low as I wt per cent in some cases. Metallized gels using up to 40 wt per cent of AlIMg metal powders could be formulated. These heterogeneous systems showed a reduction in critical gellant concentration with degree of metallization. Further, less gelation time is observed if the gellant concentration is kept fixed and metal content is increased. The storage studies on gelled systems conducted over a period of three months showed good stability. The metallized systems, however, showed the settling of metal powders in meagre concentration which does not pose a major problem as these gels could be re-homogenized with stirring.

  7. Comparison of storage conditions for human vaginal microbiome studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyun Bai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of storage conditions on the microbiome and metabolite composition of human biological samples has not been thoroughly investigated as a potential source of bias. We evaluated the effect of two common storage conditions used in clinical trials on the bacterial and metabolite composition of the vaginal microbiota using pyrosequencing of barcoded 16S rRNA gene sequencing and (1H-NMR analyses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eight women were enrolled and four mid-vaginal swabs were collected by a physician from each woman. The samples were either processed immediately, stored at -80°C for 4 weeks or at -20°C for 1 week followed by transfer to -80°C for another 4 weeks prior to analysis. Statistical methods, including Kolmogorovo-Smirnov and Wilcoxon tests, were performed to evaluate the differences in vaginal bacterial community composition and metabolites between samples stored under different conditions. The results showed that there were no significant differences between samples processed immediately after collection or stored for varying durations. (1H-NMR analysis of the small molecule metabolites in vaginal secretions indicated that high levels of lactic acid were associated with Lactobacillus-dominated communities. Relative abundance of lactic acid did not appear to correlate with relative abundance of individual Lactobacillus sp. in this limited sample, although lower levels of lactic acid were observed when L. gasseri was dominant, indicating differences in metabolic output of seemingly similar communities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings benefit large-scale, field-based microbiome and metabolomic studies of the vaginal microbiota.

  8. Comparative Ab-Initio Study of Substituted Norbornadiene-Quadricyclane Compounds for Solar Thermal Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Mikael J; Lundin, Angelica M; Moth-Poulsen, Kasper; Hyldgaard, Per; Erhart, Paul

    2016-02-25

    Molecular photoswitches that are capable of storing solar energy, so-called molecular solar thermal storage systems, are interesting candidates for future renewable energy applications. In this context, substituted norbornadiene-quadricyclane systems have received renewed interest due to recent advances in their synthesis. The optical, thermodynamic, and kinetic properties of these systems can vary dramatically depending on the chosen substituents. The molecular design of optimal compounds therefore requires a detailed understanding of the effect of individual substituents as well as their interplay. Here, we model absorption spectra, potential energy storage, and thermal barriers for back-conversion of several substituted systems using both single-reference (density functional theory using PBE, B3LYP, CAM-B3LYP, M06, M06-2x, and M06-L functionals as well as MP2 calculations) and multireference methods (complete active space techniques). Already the diaryl substituted compound displays a strong red-shift compared to the unsubstituted system, which is shown to result from the extension of the conjugated π-system upon substitution. Using specific donor/acceptor groups gives rise to a further albeit relatively smaller red-shift. The calculated storage energy is found to be rather insensitive to the specific substituents, although solvent effects are likely to be important and require further study. The barrier for thermal back-conversion exhibits strong multireference character and as a result is noticeably correlated with the red-shift. Two possible reaction paths for the thermal back-conversion of diaryl substituted quadricyclane are identified and it is shown that among the compounds considered the path via the acceptor side is systematically favored. Finally, the present study establishes the basis for high-throughput screening of norbornadiene-quadricyclane compounds as it provides guidelines for the level of accuracy that can be expected for key properties from

  9. Optical Security System Based on the Biometrics Using Holographic Storage Technique with a Simple Data Format

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Won AN

    2006-01-01

    We implement a first practical holographic security system using electrical biometrics that combines optical encryption and digital holographic memory technologies. Optical information for identification includes a picture of face, a name, and a fingerprint, which has been spatially multiplexed by random phase mask used for a decryption key. For decryption in our biometric security system, a bit-error-detection method that compares the digital bit of live fingerprint with of fingerprint information extracted from hologram is used.

  10. A study on EUV reticle surface molecular contamination under different storage conditions in a HVM foundry fab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, SherJang; Yatzor, Brett; Taylor, Ron; Wood, Obert; Mangat, Pawitter

    2017-03-01

    The prospect of EUVL (Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography) insertion into HVM (High Volume Manufacturing) has never been this promising. As technology is prepared for "lab to fab" transition, it becomes important to comprehend challenges associated with integrating EUVL infrastructure within existing high volume chip fabrication processes in a foundry fab. The existing 193nm optical lithography process flow for reticle handling and storage in a fab atmosphere is well established and in-fab reticle contamination concerns are mitigated with the reticle pellicle. However EUVL reticle pellicle is still under development and if available, may only provide protection against particles but not molecular contamination. HVM fab atmosphere is known to be contaminated with trace amounts of AMC's (Atmospheric Molecular Contamination). If such contaminants are organic in nature and get absorbed on the reticle surface, EUV photon cause photo-dissociation resulting into carbon generation which is known to reduce multilayer reflectivity and also degrades exposure uniformity. Chemical diffusion and aggregation of other ions is also reported under the e-beam exposure of a EUV reticle which is known to cause haze issues in optical lithography. Therefore it becomes paramount to mitigate absorbed molecular contaminant concerns on EUVL reticle surface. In this paper, we have studied types of molecular contaminants that are absorbed on an EUVL reticle surface under HVM fab storage and handling conditions. Effect of storage conditions (gas purged vs atmospheric) in different storage pods (Dual pods, Reticle Clamshells) is evaluated. Absorption analysis is done both on ruthenium capping layer as well as TaBN absorber. Ru surface chemistry change as a result of storage is also studied. The efficacy of different reticle cleaning processes to remove absorbed contaminant is evaluated as well.

  11. Long- vs. short-term energy storage technologies analysis : a life-cycle cost study : a study for the DOE energy storage systems program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M.; Hassenzahl, William V. (, - Advanced Energy Analysis, Piedmont, CA)

    2003-08-01

    This report extends an earlier characterization of long-duration and short-duration energy storage technologies to include life-cycle cost analysis. Energy storage technologies were examined for three application categories--bulk energy storage, distributed generation, and power quality--with significant variations in discharge time and storage capacity. More than 20 different technologies were considered and figures of merit were investigated including capital cost, operation and maintenance, efficiency, parasitic losses, and replacement costs. Results are presented in terms of levelized annual cost, $/kW-yr. The cost of delivered energy, cents/kWh, is also presented for some cases. The major study variable was the duration of storage available for discharge.

  12. The role of Sm ions in optical storage of SrS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Zhiyi

    2001-01-01

    ., Wampler, E. J., Gaskell, C. M., Emission-line properties of optically and radio-selected complete quasars samples, Astrophys. J., 1989, 338: 630.[13]Yong, P., Sargent, W. L. W. A., High-resolution study of the absorption spectra of three QSOs: evidence for cosmological evolution in the lyman-alpha lines, Astrophys. J., 1982, 252: 10.[14]Lawrence, J., Zucker, J. R., Readhead, A. C. S. et al., Optical spectra of a complete sample of radio sources I. The spectra, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1996, 107: 541.[15]Junkkarinen, V. T. , Burbidge E. M. , Smith, H. E. , Spectrophyotometry of six broad absoption line QSOs, Astrophys. J. ,1987, 317, 460.[16]Laor, A., Babcall, J. N., Jannuzi, B. T. et al., The ultraviolet emission properties of 13 quasars, Astrophys. J. Suppl.,1995, 99: 1.[17]Baldwin, J. A., Rees, M. J., Longair, M. S. et al., QSOs with narrow emission lines, Astrophys. J., 1988, 327: 103.[18]Shaver, P. A. , Boksenberg A. , Robertson, J. G. , Spectroscopy of the QSO pair Q0028 + 003/Q0029 + 003, Astrophys.J., 1982, 261: L7.[19]Baldwin, J. A., Netzer, H., The emission-line regions of high-redshift QSOs, Astrophys. J., 1978, 226: 1.[20]Wills, B. J., Thompson, K. L., Han, M. et al. , The Hubble space telescope sample of radio-loud quasars: Ultraviolet spectra of the first 31 quasars, Astrophys. J., 1995, 447: 139.[21]Osmer, P. S., Smith, M. G. , Discovery and spectroscopic observations of 27 optical selected quasars with 1.4 < z < 2.5,Astrophys. J., 1977, 213: 607.[22]Storrie-Lombardi, L. J., McMabon, R. G., Irwin, M. J. et al., APM Z > = 4 QSO Survey: Spectra and Intervening Ab-sorption Systems, Astrophys. J., 1996, 468: 121.[23]Young, P. , Sargent, W. L. W. , Boksenberg, A. , Clv absorption in an unbiased sample of 33 QSOs: evidence for the inter-vening galaxy hypothesis, Astrophys. J. Suppl., 1982, 48: 455.[24]Zitelli, V., Mignoli, M., Zarano, B. et al., A spectroscopically complete sample of quasars with Bj ≤ 22

  13. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  14. Nonlinear optical studies of organic monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Y.R.

    1988-02-01

    Second-order nonlinear optical effects are forbidden in a medium with inversion symmetry, but are necessarily allowed at a surface where the inversion summary is broken. They are often sufficiently strong so that a submonolayer perturbation of the surface can be readily detected. They can therefore be used as effective tools to study monolayers adsorbed at various interfaces. We discuss here a number of recent experiments in which optical second harmonic generation (SHG) and sum-frequency generation (SFG) are employed to probe and characterize organic monolayers. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Studying Charged Particle Optics: An Undergraduate Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovalle, V.; Otomar, D. R.; Pereira, J. M.; Ferreira, N.; Pinho, R. R.; Santos A. C. F.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal…

  16. Hydrogen storage studies of palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinayan, B P; Sethupathi, K; Ramaprabhu, S

    2012-08-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is of significant importance in the present scenario of depleting conventional energy sources. Porous solids such as activated carbon or nanostructured carbon materials have promising future as hydrogen storage media. The hydrogen storage capacity in nanostructured carbon materials can be further enhanced by atomic hydrogen spillover from a supported catalyst. In the present work, the hydrogen storage properties of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets (N-GNP) and palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets (Pd/N-GNP) have been investigated. The results show that hydrogen uptake capacity of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets and palladium decorated nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets at pressure 32 bar and temperature 25 degrees C is 0.42 wt% and 1.25 wt% respectively. The dispersion of palladium nanoparticles increases the hydrogen storage capacity of nitrogen doped graphene nanoplatelets by 0.83 wt%. This may be due to high dispersion of palladium nanoparticles and strong adhesion between metal and graphene nanoplatelets over the surface of N-GNP, which enhances the spillover mechanism. Thus, an increase in the hydrogen spillover effect and the binding energy between metal nanoparticles and supporting material achieved by nitrogen doping has been observed to result in a higher hydrogen storage capacity of pristine GNP.

  17. Three-dimensional optical storage in fused silica using modulated femtosecond pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Liu(刘青); Guanghua Cheng(程光华); Yishan Wang(王屹山); Zhao Cheng(程昭); Wei Zhao(赵卫); Guofu Chen(陈国夫)

    2004-01-01

    Three-dimensional bitwise optical recording with a density of 500 Gb/cm3 in fused silica using a Ti:sapphire femtosecond laser modulated by binary digits is demonstrated. Laser pulses modulation is realized by modulating two circuits of trigger pulses signal which are used to control laser pulses trapping and switching out from cavity, respectively. Bits are optically readout in both a parallel reading (phase-contrast) and a serial reading (confocal-type) methods. The method for modulating laser pulses can also be used in all of pulsed laser systems which operate in cavity-dumping configuration.

  18. Single-beam two-photon three-dimensional optical storage in a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    We introduce a high-density three-dimensional optical data storage approach by using a pyrryl-substituted fulgide photochromic material with a method of single-beam two-photon recording and fluorescence confocal readout. The detailed information about the photochromic material and the experimental setup are presented. The experiments about multi-layered recording and readout are carried out with a 100-μm-thick transparent photochromic material film. The results show that the lateral resolution is better than 1 μm, and the longitudinal resolution is about 3 μm. Besides, the readout times for the recorded data are desirable when using a readout laser power smaller than 5 mW.``

  19. N-1-Alkylated Pyrimidine Films as a New Potential Optical Data Storage Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Hvilsted, Søren; Berg, Rolf Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    We investigate several compounds of the type 1,1’-(a,w-alkanediyl)bis[pyrimidinej and 1-(w- bromoalkyl)uracil, which can undergo photoinduced (2jr + 2n) cycloaddition reactions on exposure to UV light at 254 and 257 nm, which have been synthesized for application in high capacity optical data...

  20. Resonant beam behavior studies in the Proton Storage Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cousineau

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available We present studies of space-charge-induced beam profile broadening at high intensities in the Proton Storage Ring (PSR at Los Alamos National Laboratory. We investigate the profile broadening through detailed particle-in-cell simulations of several experiments and obtain results in good agreement with the measurements. We interpret these results within the framework of coherent resonance theory. With increasing intensity, our simulations show strong evidence for the presence of a quadrupole-mode resonance of the beam envelope with the lattice in the vertical plane. Specifically, we observe incoherent tunes crossing integer values, and large amplitude, nearly periodic envelope oscillations. At the highest operating intensities, we observe a continuing relaxation of the beam through space charge forces leading to emittance growth. The increase of emittance commences when the beam parameters encounter an envelope stop band. Once the stop band is reached, the emittance growth balances the intensity increase to maintain the beam near the stop band edge. Additionally, we investigate the potential benefit of a stop band correction to the high intensity PSR beam.

  1. Solid State NMR Studies of Energy Conversion and Storage Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankuru Hennadige, Sohan Roshel De Silva

    NMR (Nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy is utilized to study energy conversion and storage materials. Different types of NMR techniques including Magic Angle Spinning, Cross-polarization and relaxation measurement experiments were employed. Four different projects are discussed in this dissertation. First, three types of CFx battery materials were investigated. Electrochemical studies have demonstrated different electrochemical performances by one type, delivering superior performance over the other two. 13C and 19F MAS NMR techniques are employed to identify the atomic/molecular structural factors that might account for differences in electrochemical performance among different types. Next as the second project, layered polymer dielectrics were investigated by NMR. Previous studies have shown that thin film capacitors are improved by using alternate layers of two polymers with complementary properties: one with a high breakdown strength and one with high dielectric constant as opposed to monolithic layers. 13C to 1H cross-polarization techniques were used to investigate any inter-layer properties that may cause the increase in the dielectric strength. The third project was to study two types of thermoelectric materials. These samples were made of heavily doped phosphorous and boron in silicon by two different methods: ball-milled and annealed. These samples were investigated by NMR to determine the degree of disorder and obtain insight into the doping efficiency. The last ongoing project is on a lithium-ion battery system. The nature of passivating layers or the solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) formed on the electrodes surface is important because of the direct correlation between the SEI and the battery life time/durability. Multinuclear (7Li, 19F, 31P) techniques are employed to identify the composition of the SEI formation of both positive and negative electrodes.

  2. Studying charged particle optics: an undergraduate course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovalle, V [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Otomar, D R [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pereira, J M [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Ferreira, N [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Av. Gal. Milton Tavares de Souza s/n0. Gragoata, Niteroi, 24210-346 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Pinho, R R [Departamento de Fisica-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitario, 36036-900, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Santos, A C F [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68528, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2008-03-12

    This paper describes some computer-based activities to bring the study of charged particle optics to undergraduate students, to be performed as a part of a one-semester accelerator-based experimental course. The computational simulations were carried out using the commercially available SIMION program. The performance parameters, such as the focal length and P-Q curves are obtained. The three-electrode einzel lens is exemplified here as a study case.

  3. Stability studies of Solar Optical Telescope dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Sarma N.; Pal, Parimal K.; Ruthven, Gregory P.

    1987-01-01

    The Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) is designed to operate as an attached payload mounted on the Instrument Pointing System (IPS) in the cargo bay of the Shuttle Orbiter. Pointing and control of SOT is accomplished by an active Articulated Primary Mirror (APM), an active Tertiary Mirror (TM), an elaborate set of optical sensors, electromechanical actuators and programmable controllers. The structural interactions of this complex control system are significant factors in the stability of the SOT. The preliminary stability study results of the SOT dynamical system are presented. Structural transfer functions obtained from the NASTRAN model of the structure were used. These studies apply to a single degree of freedom (elevation). Fully integrated model studies will be conducted in the future.

  4. Feasibility study: Assess the feasibility of siting a monitored retrievable storage facility. Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, J.W.

    1993-08-01

    The purpose of phase one of this study are: To understand the waste management system and a monitored retrievable storage facility; and to determine whether the applicant has real interest in pursuing the feasibility assessment process. Contents of this report are: Generating electric power; facts about exposure to radiation; handling storage, and transportation techniques; description of a proposed monitored retrievable storage facility; and benefits to be received by host jurisdiction.

  5. Five-membered rings as diazo components in optical data storage devices: An ab initio investigation of the lowest singlet excitation energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Åstrand, P.-O.; Sommer-Larsen, P.; Hvilsted, Søren;

    2000-01-01

    been investigated as diazo components for a potential use in optical das storage materials. It is found that the diazo compounds with two heterocyclic five-membered rings have pi --> pi* excitation energies corresponding to laser wavelengths in the region 450-500 nm whereas one five-membered ring...

  6. Study on Storage Reliability Evaluation for Ammunition Using Gibbs Sampler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    For the gradual maturity of Bayesian survival analysis theory, as well as the defects of the traditional methods for storage reliability evaluation, the Bayesian survival analysis method is proposed to build regression models for reliability in the random truncated test. These models can reflect the influences of different environments on the ammunition storage lifetime. As an example, the common exponential distribution is used here, and Markov chain Monte Carlo(MCMC)method based on Gibbs sampling dynamically simulates the Markov chain of the parameters' posterior distribution. Also,the parameters' Bayesian estimations are calculated in the random truncated condition. The simulation results show that the proposed method is effective and directly perceived.

  7. Hardness Changes of Tissue Conditioners in Various Storage Media: An in Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntounis, Athanasios; Kamposiora, Phophi; Papavasiliou, George; Divaris, Kimon; Zinelis, Spiros

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of storage media on the longitudinal hardness changes of tissue conditioning materials. Four tissue-conditioning materials were used for fabrication of 80 disc-shaped specimens and divided in four groups, stored in four storage media. The specimens underwent artificial ageing corresponding to 30 nights of extra-oral storage. Hardness measurements were obtained at nine intervals between 8 and 240 hours after specimen fabrication. To test the effects of storage media on hardness we employed multivariate modelling (Bonferroni correction; α = 0.05). The materials exhibited varying hardness changes, most pronounced when stored in ambient air.

  8. Hydrogen Storage in Magnesium Clusters: Quantum Chemical Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemans, R.W.P.; van Lenthe, J.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068417942; de Jongh, P.E.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/186125372; van Dillen, A.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/111157625; de Jong, K.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06885580X

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium hydride is cheap and contains 7.7 wt % hydrogen, making it one of the most attractive hydrogen storage materials. However, thermodynamics dictate that hydrogen desorption from bulk magnesium hydride only takes place at or above 300 degrees C, which is a major impediment for practical

  9. Study on Tetradecane Nanoemulsion for Thermal Energy Transportation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fumoto, Koji; Kawaji, Masahiro; Kawanami, Tsuyoshi

    Phase change emulsion (PCE) is a novel fluid used for heat storage and transfer. It has the following characteristics: higher apparent specific heat and higher heat transfer ability in the phase-change temperature range as compared to the conventional single-phase heat transfer fluids. In particular, oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions are latent heat storage materials that have low melting points, thus offering attractive opportunities for heat transfer enhancement and thermal energy transportation and storage. In this paper, milky white oil-in-water emulsions have been formed using water, Tween 80, Span 80, and tetradecane by low-energy emulsification methods (e.g., the phase inversion temperature (PIT) method). The relations between the component ratios of the emulsions and both the particle diameters and the stability of the resulting emulsions have been determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and vibration viscometry. The results show that the apparent viscosity of the nanoemulsion is lower than that of an emulsion, which was prepared with the same mixing ratio of surfactant and concentration of phase change material. Moreover, the surfactant concentration is found to contribute to the stability of the phase change nanoemulsion. Results indicate that the phase change nanoemulsion is a promising material for thermal storage applications.

  10. High-performance UV/VUV optics for the Storage Ring FEL at ELETTRA

    CERN Document Server

    Gatto, A; Kaiser, N; Ristau, D; Guenster, S; Kohlhaas, J; Marsi, M; Trovò, M; Walker, R P

    2002-01-01

    Going to shorter wavelengths beyond the deep ultraviolet involves the development of dedicated optics for FEL with devoted coating techniques and characterizations. Low loss, high reflectivity dielectric mirrors with a long lifetime in a strongly harsh synchrotron radiation environment are required. In February 2001, lasing at 189.7 nm was obtained with Al sub 2 O sub 3 /SiO sub 2 Ion Beam Sputtering mirrors, the shortest wavelength obtained so far with FEL oscillators. In July 2001, 330 mW extracted power was measured with optimized transmission mirrors. Coating research and development correlated to lasing performance obtained so far is reported.

  11. Realization of white light cavity for ulra-short optical signal storage and Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Soysal, Ahmet; Pavlov, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that chirped Bragg gratings can compensate for a chromatic dispersion by reflecting different wavelengths at different location along the axis of the gratings. In this paper, we make use of such a dispersion-compensating property to create a white light cavity (WLC) effect that cancels the round trip phase shift due to propagation as the optical frequency is tuned. A pair of LCBGs is used to make the cavity. To fulfill WLC condition, the dispersion profile of the LCBGs is tailored by adjusting parameters such as chirping rate, modulation depth and the length of the grating region. Numerical simulation shows WLC bandwidth is ~10GHz.

  12. Parametric design studies of toroidal magnetic energy storage units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J. Stephen

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) units have a number of advantages as storage devices. Electrical current is the input, output and stored medium, allowing for completely solid-state energy conversion. The magnets themselves have no moving parts. The round trip efficiency is higher than those for batteries, compressed air or pumped hydro. Output power can be very high, allowing complete discharge of the unit within a few seconds. Finally, the unit can be designed for a very large number of cycles, limited basically by fatigue in the structural components. A small systems code was written to produce and evaluate self-consistent designs for toroidal superconducting energy storage units. The units can use either low temperature or high temperature superconductors. The coils have D shape where the conductor and its stabilizer/structure is loaded only in tension and the centering forces are borne by a bucking cylinder. The coils are convectively cooled from a cryogenic reservoir in the bore of the coils. The coils are suspended in a cylindrical metal shell which protects the magnet during rail, automotive or shipboard use. It is important to note that the storage unit does not rely on its surroundings for structural support, other than normal gravity and inertial loads. Designs are presented for toroidal energy storage units produced by the systems code. A wide range of several parameters have been considered, resulting in units storing from 1 MJ to 72 GJ. Maximum fields range from 5 T to 20 T. The masses and volumes of the coils, bucking cylinder, coolant, insulation and outer shell are calculated. For unattended use, the allowable operating time using only the boiloff of the cryogenic fluid for refrigeration is calculated. For larger units, the coils were divided into modules suitable for normal truck or rail transport.

  13. Structure and Magneto-Optical Characteristic Study of Optical Multilayer Thin Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Cheng-tao

    2005-01-01

    @@ Based on the design theory of soft X-ray optical multilayer thin films and magneto-optic multilayer thin films, the metal multilayer thin films for the reflection of soft X-ray and ultraviolet ray, as well as the magneto-optic multilayer thin films for the magneto-optical memories were constructed. The metal multilayer thin films and the magneto-optic multilayer thin films were deposited with magnetron sputtering. The detail of optical reflection characteristics, layered-structure, and surface and interface characteristics were studied. At the same time,the static magneto-optical characteristics and dynamic magneto-optical characteristics of the magneto-optical disk were investigated.

  14. Magneto-optic studies of magnetic oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehring, Gillian A., E-mail: g.gehring@shef.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Alshammari, Marzook S.; Score, David S.; Neal, James R.; Mokhtari, Abbas; Fox, A. Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom)

    2012-10-15

    A brief review of the use of magneto-optic methods to study magnetic oxides is given. A simple method to obtain the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of a thin film on a transparent substrate is described. The method takes full account of multiple reflections in the film and substrate. Examples of the magneto-optic spectra of Co-doped ZnO, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, and GdMnO{sub 3} are given. The Maxwell-Garnett method is used to describe the effects of metallic cobalt inclusions in Co:ZnO samples, and the change of the MCD spectra of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} at the Verwey temperature is discussed. Data showing different MCD signals at different energies is presented for GdMnO{sub 3}.

  15. Statistical analysis for long-term stability studies with multiple storage conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Heuvel, Edwin R.; Almalik, Osama; Nijhuis, Michiel B.; Warner, Edward I.

    2011-01-01

    To determine the shelf life of new medicinal products, long-term stability studies are conducted of at least three registration batches at multiple storage conditions. It is common practice to perform a statistical analysis on the resulting data separately for each storage condition. Although this i

  16. A preliminary study on the heat storage fluxes of a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>In order to discuss the values and daily variation characteristics of heat storage fluxes in a tropical seasonal rain forest in Xishuangbanna, the sensible and latent heat storage flux within air column, canopy heat storage flux, energy storage by photosynthesis and ground heat storage above the soil heat flux plate, as well as the ratios of these heat storage fluxes to the net radiation in the cool-dry, hot-dry and rainy season were compared and analyzed based on the observation data of carbon fluxes, meteorological factors and biomass within this tropical seasonal rain forest from January 2003 to December 2004. The findings showed that heat storage terms ranged significantly in the daytime and weakly in the nighttime, and the absolute values of sensible and latent heat storage fluxes were obviously greater than other heat storage terms in all seasons. In addition, the absolute values of total heat storage fluxes reached the peak in the hot-dry season, then were higher in the rainy season, and reached the minimum in the cool-dry season. The ratios of heat storage fluxes to net radiation generally decreased with time in the daytime, moreover, the sensible and latent heat storage dominated a considerable fraction of net radiation, while other heat storage contents occupied a smaller fraction of the net radiation and the peak value was not above 3.5%. In the daytime, the ratios of the total heat storage to net radiation were greater and differences in these ratios were distinct among seasons before 12:00, and then they became lower and differences were small among seasons after 12:00. The energy closure was improved when the storage terms were considered in the energy balance, which indicated that heat storage terms should not been neglected. The energy closure of tropical seasonal rain forest was not very well due to effects of many factors. The results would help us to further understand energy transfer and mass exchange between tropical forest and atmosphere

  17. Studies of Phase Change Materials and a Latent Heat Storage Unit Used for a Natural Circulation Cooling/Latent Heat Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakitani, Katsumi; Honda, Hiroshi

    Experimental and theoretical studies were made of the heat transfer characteristics of a latent heat storage unit used for a natural circulation cooling /latent heat storage system. Heating and cooling curves of the latent heat storage unit undergoing solid-liquid phase change of a PCM (lauric acid) was obtained by using anatural circulation loop of R22 which consisted of an electrically heated evaporater, a water cooled condenser and the latent heat storage unit. The latent heat storage unit showed a heat transfer performance which was high enough for practical use. An approximate theoretical analysis was conducted to investigate transient behavior of the latent heat storage unit. Predictions of the refrigerant and outer surface temperatures during the melting process were in fair agreement with the experimental data, whereas that of the refrigerant temperature during the solidification process was considerably lower than the measurement.

  18. Stability Comparison of Recordable Optical Discs—A Study of Error Rates in Harsh Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Zheng, Jian; Byers, Fred; Tang, Xiao

    2004-01-01

    The reliability and longevity of any storage medium is a key issue for archivists and preservationists as well as for the creators of important information. This is particularly true in the case of digital media such as DVD and CD where a sufficient number of errors may render the disc unreadable. This paper describes an initial stability study of commercially available recordable DVD and CD media using accelerated aging tests under conditions of increased temperature and humidity. The effect of prolonged exposure to direct light is also investigated and shown to have an effect on the error rates of the media. Initial results show that high quality optical media have very stable characteristics and may be suitable for long-term storage applications. However, results also indicate that significant differences exist in the stability of recordable optical media from different manufacturers. PMID:27366630

  19. Study of fiber optic sugar sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Jayanth Kumar; N M Gowri; R Venkateswara Raju; G Nirmala; B S Bellubbi; T Radha Krishna

    2006-08-01

    Over the last two decades, the fiber optic technology has passed through many analytical stages. Some commercially available fiber optic sensors, though in a small way, are being used for automation in mechanical and industrial environments. They are also used for instrumentation and controls. In the present work, an intensity-modulated intrinsic fiber optic sugar sensor is presented. This type of sensor, with slight modification, can be used for on-line determination of the concentration of sugar content in sugarcane juice in sugar industry. In the present set-up, a plastic fiber made of polymethylmethacrylate is used. A portion of the cladding (1 cm, 2 cm, 3 cm) at the mid-point along the length of the fiber is removed. This portion is immersed in sugar solution of known concentration and refractive index. At one end of the fiber an 850 nm source is used and at the other end a power meter is connected. By varying the concentration of sugar solution, the output power is noted. These studies are made due to the change in refractive index of the fluid. The device was found to be very sensitive which is free from EMI and shock hazards, stable and repeatable and they can be remotely interfaced with a computer to give on-line measurements and thus become useful for application in sugar industries.

  20. Multicapillary optics for materials science studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scardi, P.; Setti, S.; Leoni, M. [Trento Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria dei Materiali

    2000-07-01

    XRD patterns from a standard polycrystalline gold film, collected by a parallel beam goniometer equipped with a conventional cross-slits collimator were compared with those obtained by replacing the incident beam optics with a multicapillary collimator. Considerable improvements can be achieved by using the new optics: (a) a much higher fraction of the X-ray beam produced by a conventional sealed tube can be used to build the diffracted signal, provided that a sufficiently wide sample area is available for measurement (diameter > 1 mm); (b) the limited beam divergence ({approx}0.3 ) gives a good stability and precision, in terms of negligible systematic errors in peak position due to sample {psi}- and {omega}-tilting; (c) instrumental profiles are much narrower than those obtained by the conventional cross-slits collimator; (d) width and shape of the instrumental profile are almost unaffected by sample tilting. The considerable interest in this device is increased by considering that features (b), (c) and (d) were verified also for relatively low 2{theta} angles (30-40 ): this is of great importance for thin film studies, where most of the available information comes from low diffraction order profiles; in addition, the increased signal intensity greatly helps to reduce measurement time (or to improve statistics). Advantages and drawbacks of the new optics are described in this paper, together with some practical examples of use. (orig.)

  1. Helicity-dependent all-optical switching in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures for ultrafast magnetic data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng

    The emerging Big Data era demands the rapidly increasing need for speed and capacity of storing and processing information. Standalone magnetic recording devices, such as hard disk drives (HDDs), have always been playing a central role in modern data storage and continuously advancing. Recognizing the growing capacity gap between the demand and production, industry has pushed the bit areal density in HDDs to 900 Giga-bit/square-inch, a remarkable 450-million-fold increase since the invention of the first hard disk drive in 1956. However, the further development of HDD capacity is facing a pressing challenge, the so-called superparamagnetic effect, that leads to the loss of information when a single bit becomes too small to preserve the magnetization. This requires new magnetic recording technologies that can write more stable magnetic bits into hard magnetic materials. Recent research has shown that it is possible to use ultrafast laser pulses to switch the magnetization in certain types of magnetic thin films. Surprisingly, such a process does not require an externally applied magnetic field that always exists in conventional HDDs. Furthermore, the optically induced magnetization switching is extremely fast, up to sub-picosecond (10 -12 s) level, while with traditional recording method the deterministic switching does not take place shorter than 20 ps. It's worth noting that the direction of magnetization is related to the helicity of the incident laser pulses. Namely, the right-handed polarized laser pulses will generate magnetization pointing in one direction while left-handed polarized laser pulses generate magnetization pointing in the other direction. This so-called helicity-dependent all-optical switching (HD-AOS) phenomenon can be potentially used in the next-generation of magnetic storage systems. In this thesis, I explore the HD-AOS phenomenon in hybrid metal-ferromagnet structures, which consist of gold and Co/Pt multilayers. The experiment results show

  2. Study of the Temperature Turbulences Effect upon Optical Beam in Atmospheric Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dvorak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the effect of temperature turbulences upon the optical beam. The polarization parameters of optical radiation sources and different optical beam states of polarization have been investigated. The obtained polarization parameters are projected on the Poincare sphere by means of Stokes vectors. The optical power distribution curves of optical beams are processed into diagrams. The horizontal and vertical components of linearly and circularly polarized optical beams have been studied. The turbulence flux has vertical direction and the optical beam is propagating through an atmosphere environment with three different states of turbulence. The evaluation of the obtained data was done by means of variance and correlation functions computing. Different rates of effect of temperature turbulences upon horizontal and vertical components were found. To reduce the rate of effect the advantage of an optical beam with circular polarization has been proposed.

  3. A Study on Energy Audit of a Cold Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. N. Mukhopadhyay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption of a cold storage was measured for different storage temperatures. Suction temperature and pressure temperature of the compressor and working time of the compressor were determined to reach evaporator set up temperatures. An axial fan located back of the evaporator was used to distribute the cooled air into the cold store. An electrical heater was used to defrost. The compressor suction temperatures and discharge temperatures varied between 1.80 C - 070 C and 270 C - 350 C respectively. Condenser output temperature is varies 40 C - 100 C. Compressor suction pressure (p1 = 3.5 Kg/cm2 and discharge pressure (p2 = 10.5 Kg/cm2.

  4. Hydrogen Storage in Magnesium Clusters: Quantum Chemical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wagemans, R.W.P.; van Lenthe, J.H.; de Jongh, P.E.; van Dillen, A.J.; de Jong, K. P.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium hydride is cheap and contains 7.7 wt % hydrogen, making it one of the most attractive hydrogen storage materials. However, thermodynamics dictate that hydrogen desorption from bulk magnesium hydride only takes place at or above 300 degrees C, which is a major impediment for practical application. A few results in the literature, related to disordered materials and very thin layers, indicate that lower desorption temperatures are possible. We systematically investigated the effect of...

  5. Energy Storage R&D: Thermal Management Studies and Modeling (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesaran, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Here we summarize NREL's FY09 energy storage R&D studies in the areas of 1. thermal characterization and analysis, 2. cost, life, and performance trade-off studies, and 3. thermal abuse modeling.

  6. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, Long Island, NY 11973 (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao, E-mail: xiahuang@slac.stanford.edu [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2016-08-21

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  7. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, Xiaobiao [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. Furthermore, the fitting results are used for lattice correction. Our method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  8. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  9. Time structure measurement of the storage ring with the time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence method at SSRF

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaohong, Zhang; Zheng, Jiang; Song, Xue; Lifang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence was designed and implemented to do the measurement. This method is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consis...

  10. A method for simultaneous linear optics and coupling correction for storage rings with turn-by-turn beam position monitor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi; Huang, Xiaobiao

    2016-08-01

    We propose a method to simultaneously correct linear optics errors and linear coupling for storage rings using turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. The independent component analysis (ICA) method is used to isolate the betatron normal modes from the measured TbT BPM data. The betatron amplitudes and phase advances of the projections of the normal modes on the horizontal and vertical planes are then extracted, which, combined with dispersion measurement, are used to fit the lattice model. The fitting results are used for lattice correction. The method has been successfully demonstrated on the NSLS-II storage ring.

  11. Study on I/O response time bounds of networked storage systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Bao-jiang; LIU Jun; WANG Gang; LIU Jing

    2006-01-01

    In order to predict and improve the performance of networked storage systems,this paper explored the relationship between the system I/O response time and its performance factors by quantitative analytical method.Through analyzing data flow in networked RAID storage system,we established its analytical model utilizing closed queueing networks and studied the performance bounds of the system I/O response time.Experimental results show that the theoretical bounds are found to be in agreement with the actual performance bounds of the networked RAID storage system and reflect the dynamic trend of its actual performance.Furthermore,it concludes that the CPU processing power and cache hit rate of the central storage server are the key factors affecting the I/O response time as the concurrent jobs are lower,while the network bandwidth and cache hit rate of the central storage server become the key factors as the concurrent jobs go higher.

  12. Color-Coded Batteries - Electro-Photonic Inverse Opal Materials for Enhanced Electrochemical Energy Storage and Optically Encoded Diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Colm

    2016-07-01

    For consumer electronic devices, long-life, stable, and reasonably fast charging Li-ion batteries with good stable capacities are a necessity. For exciting and important advances in the materials that drive innovations in electrochemical energy storage (EES), modular thin-film solar cells, and wearable, flexible technology of the future, real-time analysis and indication of battery performance and health is crucial. Here, developments in color-coded assessment of battery material performance and diagnostics are described, and a vision for using electro-photonic inverse opal materials and all-optical probes to assess, characterize, and monitor the processes non-destructively in real time are outlined. By structuring any cathode or anode material in the form of a photonic crystal or as a 3D macroporous inverse opal, color-coded "chameleon" battery-strip electrodes may provide an amenable way to distinguish the type of process, the voltage, material and chemical phase changes, remaining capacity, cycle health, and state of charge or discharge of either existing or new materials in Li-ion or emerging alternative battery types, simply by monitoring its color change.

  13. OPERATIONAL EXPERIENCE WITH FAST FIBER-OPTIC BEAM LOSS MONITORS FOR THE ADVANCED PHOTON SOURCE STORAGE RING SUPERCONDUCTING UNDULATORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J.; Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Shang, H.

    2017-06-25

    Fast fiber-optic (FFO) beam loss monitors (BLMs) installed with the first two superconducting undulators (SCUs) in the Advanced Photon Source storage ring have proven to be a useful diagnostic for measuring deposited charge (energy) during rapid beam loss events. The first set of FFOBLMs were installed outside the cryostat of the short SCU, a 0.33-m long device, above and below the beam centerline. The second set are mounted with the first 1.1-mlong SCU within the cryostat, on the outboard and inboard sides of the vacuum chamber. The next 1.1-m-long SCU is scheduled to replace the short SCU later in 2016 and will be fitted with FFOBLMs in a manner similar to original 1.1-m device. The FFOBLMs were employed to set timing and voltage for the abort kicker (AK) system. The AK helps to prevent quenching of the SCUs during beam dumps [1] by directing the beam away from the SC magnet windings. The AK is triggered by the Machine Protection System (MPS). In cases when the AK fails to prevent quenching, the FFOBLMs show that losses often begin before detection by the MPS.

  14. A study of the heating and heat storage problems in passive solar heated room with greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENWei; LIUWei

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, heating and heat storage in passive solar heating room with greenhouse has been studied. The unsteady numerical simulation is employed to analyze the performance of the flow and temperature field for the typical sunny day of Wuhan, China, in winter in the heating system. The floor of passive solar heating room with a convective hole or not has great effects on temperature distribution and gas flow in heat storage layer of this system. Properties of the bed worked as solar absorber and storage layer have also been studied.

  15. Optical tweezers for studying taxis in parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Stahl, C. V.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Ayres, D. C.; Almeida, D. B.; Farias, P. M. A.; Santos, B. S.; Santos-Mallet, J.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Giorgio, S.; Feder, D.; Cesar, C. L.

    2011-04-01

    In this work we present a methodology to measure force strengths and directions of living parasites with an optical tweezers setup. These measurements were used to study the parasites chemotaxis in real time. We observed behavior and measured the force of: (i) Leishmania amazonensis in the presence of two glucose gradients; (ii) Trypanosoma cruzi in the vicinity of the digestive system walls, and (iii) Trypanosoma rangeli in the vicinity of salivary glands as a function of distance. Our results clearly show a chemotactic behavior in every case. This methodology can be used to study any type of taxis, such as chemotaxis, osmotaxis, thermotaxis, phototaxis, of any kind of living microorganisms. These studies can help us to understand the microorganism sensory systems and their response function to these gradients.

  16. Hydrogen storage in magnesium clusters: quantum chemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagemans, Rudy W P; van Lenthe, Joop H; de Jongh, Petra E; van Dillen, A Jos; de Jong, Krijn P

    2005-11-30

    Magnesium hydride is cheap and contains 7.7 wt % hydrogen, making it one of the most attractive hydrogen storage materials. However, thermodynamics dictate that hydrogen desorption from bulk magnesium hydride only takes place at or above 300 degrees C, which is a major impediment for practical application. A few results in the literature, related to disordered materials and very thin layers, indicate that lower desorption temperatures are possible. We systematically investigated the effect of crystal grain size on the thermodynamic stability of magnesium and magnesium hydride, using ab initio Hartree-Fock and density functional theory calculations. Also, the stepwise desorption of hydrogen was followed in detail. As expected, both magnesium and magnesium hydride become less stable with decreasing cluster size, notably for clusters smaller than 20 magnesium atoms. However, magnesium hydride destabilizes more strongly than magnesium. As a result, the hydrogen desorption energy decreases significantly when the crystal grain size becomes smaller than approximately 1.3 nm. For instance, an MgH2 crystallite size of 0.9 nm corresponds to a desorption temperature of only 200 degrees C. This predicted decrease of the hydrogen desorption temperature is an important step toward the application of Mg as a hydrogen storage material.

  17. Study of flywheel energy storage for space stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, S.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of flywheel systems for space stations using the Space Operations Center (SOC) as a point of reference is discussed. Comparisons with batteries and regenerative fuel cells are made. In the flywheel energy storage concept, energy is stored in the form of rotational kinetic energy using a spinning wheel. Energy is extracted from the flywheel using an attached electrical generator; energy is provided to spin the flywheel by a motor, which operates during sunlight using solar array power. The motor and the generator may or may not be the same device. Flywheel energy storage systems have a very good potential for use in space stations. This system can be superior to alkaline secondary batteries and regenerable fuel cells in most of the areas that are important in spacecraft applications. Of special impotance relative to batteries, are high energy density (lighter weight), longer cycle and operating life, and high efficiency which minimizes the amount of orbital makeup fuel required. In addition, flywheel systems have a long shelf life, give a precise state of charge indication, have modest thermal control needs, are capable of multiple discharges per orbit, have simple ground handling needs, and have the potential for very high discharge rate. Major disadvantages are noted.

  18. Theoretical study of hydrogen storage in a truncated tetrahedron hydrocarbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shigeru; Yamabe, Tokio

    2017-02-01

    A hydrocarbon molecule, having a truncated tetrahedron shape with a suitable size for the storage of a hydrogen molecule, is designed using quantum chemical methods. The molecule consists of four benzene rings bridged by six vinylene groups at the 1, 3, and 5 carbon positions of each ring, and has a stoichiometry of C36H24. The molecular geometry optimized under T d symmetry by the B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method shows no imaginary frequencies. The size of the molecular cavity, measured by the distance between opposite vinylene groups, is 8.0 Å. The cavity has four openings along each tetrahedron face. The radius of the opening is approximately 2 Å. The system interacting with a hydrogen molecule is optimized by the MP2/cc-pVTZ method. The interaction energy is evaluated by an extrapolation method through increasing the basis set size of the hydrogen molecule from the cc-pVTZ to the cc-pV6Z with counterpoise corrections. The hydrogen molecule enters the opening by overcoming an energy barrier of +730 meV and locates at the center of the cavity with a binding energy of -140 meV. The high barrier arises from the small size of the opening. The binding energy is three times larger than that of a graphite surface and may allow hydrogen storage at milder temperatures and pressures than those required with graphite.

  19. Study on Storage Facilities of Agricultural Products in Courtyard in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Li; LI Xi-Hong; XIA Qiu-Yu; HU Yun-feng; GUAN Wen-qiang

    2002-01-01

    Mini storage facilities applicable in rural areas in China have been developed after nine years of research. Optimal design of structure and refrigeration system, facilities optimization, computer control and management technology are studied and developed.

  20. Time structure measurement of the storage ring with the time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence method at SSRF

    CERN Document Server

    Zhaohong, Zhang; Song, Xue; Lifang, Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Measuring the time structure of the storage ring on the sample spot inside the experimental hutch is a foundational step during the time-resolved experiments using the pulsed synchrotron X-rays with the time structure defined by the storage ring. In this work, the method of time-resolved X-ray excited optical luminescence was designed and implemented to do the measurement. This method is based on the principle of time-correlated single photon counting techniques. The measurement system consists of a spectrometer with a detector of photomultiplier tube, a timing system, a set of Nuclear Instrument Modules and a luminescent material of Zinc Oxide. The measurement was performed on the X-ray absorbed fine structure spectrum beamline at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility. The results show that this system can be used to measure the time structure of the storage ring with a precision of less than 1 ns.

  1. Optical nanofibre integrated into an optical tweezers for particle manipulation, in situ fibre probing, and optical binding studies

    CERN Document Server

    Gusachenko, Ivan; Frawley, Mary C; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Precise control of particle positioning is desirable in many optical propulsion and sorting applications. Here, we develop an integrated platform for particle manipulation consisting of a combined optical nanofibre and optical tweezers system. Individual silica microspheres were introduced to the nanofibre at arbitrary points using the optical tweezers, thereby producing pronounced dips in the fibre transmission. We show that such consistent and reversible transmission modulations depend on both particle and fibre diameter, and can be used as a reference point for in situ nanofibre or particle size measurement. Thence, we combine scanning electron microscope (SEM) size measurements with nanofibre transmission data to provide calibration for particle-based fibre assessment. This integrated optical platform provides a method for selective evanescent field manipulation of micron-sized particles and facilitates studies of optical binding and light-particle interaction dynamics.

  2. A numerical study on the discharging performance of a packing module in a thermal storage tank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Tae; Chung, Jae Dong [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park Hyoung Joon [Dept of.evelopment Center, Janghan Engineers. INC., Dangjin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    In this study, a numerical analysis on the discharging performance of a thermal storage tank completely filled with packing modules is investigated. The enthalpy-porosity method is adopted to analyze phase change phenomenon. Using this method, the melting process of a packing module in the thermal storage tank was studied as the HTF (heat transfer fluid) flows down from the top of the tank at the discharging mode. There are some design factors such as the module arrangement and the number of modules, but this study focuses on the effects of varying the flow rate of the HTF on the outlet temperature of the HTF, molten fraction, and thermal storage density. As the flow rate increases, the outlet temperature of the HTF gets higher and the total melting time of the PCM decreases. Additionally, the thermal storage density is increased so that it reaches about 93% for the desired value.

  3. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fort, James A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  4. Study of thermal energy storage using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T. E.; Shannon, L. J.; Ananth, K. P.

    1980-01-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of fluid bed heat exchangers (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES) in waste heat recovery applications is assessed by analysis of two selected conceptual systems, the rotary cement kiln and the electric arc furnace. It is shown that the inclusion of TES in the energy recovery system requires that the difference in off-peak and on-peak energy rates be large enough so that the value of the recovered energy exceeds the value of the stored energy by a wide enough margin to offset parasitic power and thermal losses. Escalation of on-peak energy rates due to fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  5. Optical manipulation and study of single gold nanoparticles in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijgrok, Paul Victor

    2012-01-01

    We combine optical trapping and far-field optical detection techniques in a novel approach to study single metal nanoparticles in solution. We demonstrate the first measurements of the acoustic vibrations of single gold nanoparticles optically trapped in water, and find evidence for intrinsic dampi

  6. Thermo optical study of nematic liquid crystal doped with ferrofluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessy P., J.; Shalini, M.; Patel, Nainesh; Sarawade, Pradip; Radha, S.

    2017-05-01

    Liquid crystal composite materials with tunable physical properties are of great scientific interest because of optoelectronic and biomedical applications. We report our study of modified optical properties of 5CB Nematic Liquid Crystal (NLC) by doping with ferrofluid at low concentrations of 0.1% by the investigation of thermo optic behaviour. The observed sensitivity of optical response in ferrofluid doped NLC is expected to pave way for several thermo-optic applications.

  7. A Study of Synchronization Techniques for Optical Communication Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagliardi, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    The study of synchronization techniques and related topics in the design of high data rate, deep space, optical communication systems was reported. Data cover: (1) effects of timing errors in narrow pulsed digital optical systems, (2) accuracy of microwave timing systems operating in low powered optical systems, (3) development of improved tracking systems for the optical channel and determination of their tracking performance, (4) development of usable photodetector mathematical models for application to analysis and performance design in communication receivers, and (5) study application of multi-level block encoding to optical transmission of digital data.

  8. Chiro-optic and nonlinear optical studies of bridged triarylamine heterohelicenes; A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Nasarul; Pandith, Altaf Hussain

    2017-08-01

    Density Functional Theory at B3PW91/6-311G (d, p) level was employed to analyze the spectral properties and nonlinear optical response of the oxo and thia-bridged triarylamine heterohelicenes. The energy calculations of optimized geometries reveals that the M and P isomeric forms of heterohelicenes of 1, 2, 3 and 4 are enantiomers, while as for 5, 6 and 7 they are atropisomers. The simulated Infrared and Vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the mid-infrared region (1300-1650 cm-1) display peaks, having contribution from out-of-phase stretching of the three fused aromatic rings and contribution from the three Nsbnd C bond stretching. In addition to these peaks M-7 displays peak corresponds to bending of Hsbnd Csbnd H of terminal methoxy group. In this study we have observed the oxo-bridged heterohelicenes displays higher values of hyperpolarizability as compared to thia-bridged heterohelicenes. In case of M-5, M-6 and M-7 the calculation reveals that with increase in electron donating capacity of substituent the hyperpolarizability increase due to decrease in optical band gap. Therefore, the oxo- and thia-bridged heterohelicenes can act as good raw material for nonlinear optical device and their nonlinear optical response can be enhanced by the extension in π-conjugation or addition of electron donating substituents.

  9. Feasibility Study of Energy Storage Systems in Wind/Diesel Applications Using the HOMER Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Stiel

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available With an increased focus on solutions to the ensuing “climate crisis”, the need for energy storage systems is becoming increasingly important as a means to increase the penetration of renewable technologies such as wind energy. The Vanadium Redox Battery is one such energy storage system showing considerable potential owing to its flexibility in power output and capacity, high efficiency and long operating life. This study models the use of the Vanadium Redox Battery as an integration technology in realistic large-scale remote wind/diesel power systems using the HOMER Micropower Optimization Model computer program developed by the US National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Results from this modelling demonstrate the significant financial and environmental benefits to be gained in installing energy storage in a wind farm. The storage system considered here was a Vanadium Redox Battery.

  10. Experimental study on helium optical electron polarimetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Hai-Bing; Pang Wen-Ning; Liu Yi-Bao; Shang Ren-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Optical electron polarimetry is suitable for calibration of a spin-polarized electron source, especially for measurement of polarization of spin-polarized electron beam. In this paper, a new optical electron polarimeter is described,which is based on the circularly polarized He radiation induced by the bombarding of He atoms with spin-polarized electrons. The theoretical basis of the optical electron polarimetry and the structure of the optical electron polarimeter are discussed. The measurement of polarization of spin-polarized electrons produced from a new GaAs (100) spin-polarized electron source is carried out. The result of polarization of 30.8% for our spin-polarized electron source is obtained using the He optical electron polarimeter.

  11. Electric utility transmission and distribution upgrade deferral benefits from modular electricity storage : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Inc., Livermore, CA)

    2009-06-01

    The work documented in this report was undertaken as part of an ongoing investigation of innovative and potentially attractive value propositions for electricity storage by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Electricity Storage Systems (ESS) Program. This study characterizes one especially attractive value proposition for modular electricity storage (MES): electric utility transmission and distribution (T&D) upgrade deferral. The T&D deferral benefit is characterized in detail. Also presented is a generalized framework for estimating the benefit. Other important and complementary (to T&D deferral) elements of possible value propositions involving MES are also characterized.

  12. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes.

  13. Optomechanical light storage in a silica microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Fiore, Victor; Kuzyk, Mark C; Wang, Hailin

    2013-01-01

    Coherent inter-conversion between an optical and a mechanical excitation in an optomechanical resonator can be used for the storage of an optical pulse as an excitation in a mechanical oscillator. This optomechanical light storage is enabled by external writing and readout pulses at one mechanical frequency below the optical resonance. In this paper, we expand an earlier experimental study [Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 133601 (2011)] on storing an optical pulse as a radial breathing mode in a silica microsphere. We show that the heterodyne beating between a readout pulse and the corresponding retrieved pulse features a periodic oscillation with a well-defined phase and with the beating period given by the mechanical frequency, demonstrating directly the coherent nature of the light storage process. The coherent inter-conversion accelerates with increasing optomechanical coupling rates, providing an effective mechanism for tailoring the temporal profile of the retrieved pulse. Experimental studies on both light stora...

  14. A Compact Light Source: Design and Technical Feasibility Study of a Laser-Electron Storage Ring X-Ray Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loewen, R

    2004-02-02

    Thomson scattering infrared photons off energetic electrons provides a mechanism to produce hard X-rays desirable for applied sciences research. Using a small, modest energy (25MeV) electron storage ring together with a resonantly-driven optical storage cavity, a narrow spectrum of hard X-rays could be produced with the quality and monochromatic intensity approaching that of beamline sources at large synchrotron radiation laboratories. The general design of this X-ray source as well as its technical feasibility are presented. In particular, the requirements of optical pulse gain enhancement in an external cavity are described and experimentally demonstrated using a CW mode-locked laser.

  15. First principles study on defectives BN nanotubes for water splitting and hydrogen storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevilacqua, Andressa C.; Rupp, Caroline J.; Baierle, Rogério J.

    2016-06-01

    First principles calculations within the spin polarized density functional approximation have been addressed to investigate the energetic stability, electronic and optical properties of defective BN nanotubes. Our results show that the presence of carbon impurities interacting with vacancies gives rise to defective electronic levels inside the nanotube band gap. By calculating the absorbance index, we have obtained a strong inter-band optical absorption in the visible region (around 2.1 eV) showing that defective BN nanotubes could be an efficient catalytic semiconductor material to be used within solar energy for water splitting. In addition, we observe that the adsorption energy for one and two H2 molecules on the defective surface is in the desired window for the system to be useful as a hydrogen storage medium.

  16. Studies of beam expansion and distributed Bragg reflector lasers for fiber optics and optical signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmire, E. M.

    1981-03-01

    Separate studies were performed on beam expansion and on distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) lasers preliminary to monolithic integration on GaAs substrates. These components are proposed for use in optical signal processing, for fiber optic sources and for high brightness lasers.

  17. AD Ejection Line Studies and Optics Improvements

    CERN Document Server

    Belochitskii, P

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a summary of the work we made to understand and improve the AD ejection line optics. In 2011 significant differences were noticed between the optical properties of the AD ejection line and the MAD model. Investigations started to find out the sources of discrepancy. Better understanding of the ejection line optics was obtained and corrections were applied to the model of ejection line. The beam delivery to the experiments is better understood now. The results obtained might be useful as well for the optics design of AD to ELENA transfer line. Potential problems with the fringing field model in MAD were pointed out, when bending magnets with large bending angles and small bending radius are involved.

  18. Steerable optical tweezers for ultracold atom studies

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Kris O.; McKellar, Thomas; Fekete, Julia; Rakonjac, Ana; Deb, Amita B.; Kjærgaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    We report on the implementation of an optical tweezer system for controlled transport of ultracold atoms along a narrow, static confinement channel. The tweezer system is based on high-efficiency acousto-optical deflectors and offers two-dimensional control over beam position. This opens up the possibility for tracking the transport channel when shuttling atomic clouds along the guide, forestalling atom spilling. Multiple clouds can be tracked independently by time-shared tweezer beams addres...

  19. Seasonal thermal energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, R.D.; Kannberg, L.D.; Raymond, J.R.

    1984-05-01

    This report describes the following: (1) the US Department of Energy Seasonal Thermal Energy Storage Program, (2) aquifer thermal energy storage technology, (3) alternative STES technology, (4) foreign studies in seasonal thermal energy storage, and (5) economic assessment.

  20. Surface diffusion studies by optical diffraction techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, X.D.

    1992-11-01

    The newly developed optical techniques have been combined with either second harmonic (SH) diffraction or linear diffraction off a monolayer adsorbate grating for surface diffusion measurement. Anisotropy of surface diffusion of CO on Ni(l10) was used as a demonstration for the second harmonic dim reaction method. The linear diffraction method, which possesses a much higher sensitivity than the SH diffraction method, was employed to study the effect of adsorbate-adsorbate interaction on CO diffusion on Ni(l10) surface. Results showed that only the short range direct CO-CO orbital overlapping interaction influences CO diffusion but not the long range dipole-dipole and CO-NI-CO interactions. Effects of impurities and defects on surface diffusion were further explored by using linear diffraction method on CO/Ni(110) system. It was found that a few percent S impurity can alter the CO diffusion barrier height to a much higher value through changing the Ni(110) surface. The point defects of Ni(l10) surface seem to speed up CO diffusion significantly. A mechanism with long jumps over multiple lattice distance initiated by CO filled vacancy is proposed to explain the observed defect effect.

  1. Microscopic study on lasing characteristics of the UVSOR storage ring free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hama, H. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)]|[Graduate Univ. for Advanced Stuides, Okazaki (Japan); Yamazaki, J.; Kinoshita, T. [Institute for Molecular Science, Okazaki (Japan)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Characteristics of storage ring free electron laser (SRFEL) at a short wavelength region (UV and visible) has been studied at the UVSOR facility, Institute for Molecular Science. We have measured the laser power evolution by using a biplanar photodiode, and the micro-macro temporal structure of both the laser and the electron bunch with a dualsweep streak camera. The saturated energy of the laser micropulse in the gain-switching (Q-switching) mode has been measured as a function of the ring current. We have not observed a limitation of the output power yet within the beam current can be stored. We have analyzed the saturated micropulse energy based on a model of gain reduction due to the bunch-heating. The bunch-heating process seems to be very complicate. We derived time dependent gain variations from the shape of macropulse and the bunch length. Those two gain variations are almost consistent with each other but slightly different in detail. The gain may be not only simply reduced by the energy spread but also affected by the phase space rotation due to synchrotron oscillation of the electron bunch. As reported in previous issue, the lasing macropulse consists of a couple of micropulses that are simultaneously evolved. From high resolution two-dimensional spectra taken by the dual-sweep streak camera, we noticed considerable internal substructures of the laser micropulse in both the time distribution and the spectral shape. There are a couple of peaks separated with almost same distance in a optical bunch. Such substructure does not seem to result from statistical fluctuations of laser seeds. Although the origin of the substructure of macropulse is not dear at the present, we are going to discuss about SRFEL properties.

  2. Laboratory and field studies concerning the long-term storage of elemental sulfur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, P.M.; Clark, P.D.; Bernard, F. [Alberta Sulfur Research Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)]|[Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2004-07-01

    Canadian sour gas processing facilities supply much of the elemental sulfur to the international market. Elemental sulfur is a pure commodity obtained when hydrogen sulfide is removed from raw gases by way of the Claus process. Excess production is usually stored above ground as a bulk solid at the processing facility. It is possible that sulfur may have to be stored in large quantities if a market imbalance may occurs due to expanding exploration in sulfur-bearing formations and increasing regulations on sulfur levels in processing effluents. For that reason, long-term storage methods are being examined in detail. Both above and below ground block storage is considered environmentally acceptable for sulfur storage as long as measures are taken to minimize the physical and biological breakdown of the sulfur. The main concern regarding above ground storage is the generation of sulfur dust from phase transformations within the sulfur itself. Other concerns include acid production from bacterial activity and the weathering of the material when it is exposed to the elements over the long-term. This paper addresses these concerns and presents results from a series of research studies on underground storage of elemental sulfur both in the laboratory and in pilot-scale field studies.

  3. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  4. A Comparative Study on the Alterations of Endocytic Pathways in Multiple Lysosomal Storage Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaport, Jeff; Manthe, Rachel L; Solomon, Melani; Garnacho, Carmen; Muro, Silvia

    2016-02-01

    Many cellular activities and pharmaceutical interventions involve endocytosis and delivery to lysosomes for processing. Hence, lysosomal processing defects can cause cell and tissue damage, as in lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) characterized by lysosomal accumulation of undegraded materials. This storage causes endocytic and trafficking alterations, which exacerbate disease and hinder treatment. However, there have been no systematic studies comparing different endocytic routes in LSDs. Here, we used genetic and pharmacological models of four LSDs (type A Niemann-Pick, type C Niemann-Pick, Fabry, and Gaucher diseases) and evaluated the pinocytic and receptor-mediated activity of the clathrin-, caveolae-, and macropinocytic routes. Bulk pinocytosis was diminished in all diseases, suggesting a generic endocytic alteration linked to lysosomal storage. Fluid-phase (dextran) and ligand (transferrin) uptake via the clathrin route were lower for all LSDs. Fluid-phase and ligand (cholera toxin B) uptake via the caveolar route were both affected but less acutely in Fabry or Gaucher diseases. Epidermal growth factor-induced macropinocytosis was altered in Niemann-Pick cells but not other LSDs. Intracellular trafficking of ligands was also distorted in LSD versus wild-type cells. The extent of these endocytic alterations paralleled the level of cholesterol storage in disease cell lines. Confirming this, pharmacological induction of cholesterol storage in wild-type cells disrupted endocytosis, and model therapeutics restored uptake in proportion to their efficacy in attenuating storage. This suggests a proportional and reversible relationship between endocytosis and lipid (cholesterol) storage. By analogy, the accumulation of biological material in other diseases, or foreign material from drugs or their carriers, may cause similar deficits, warranting further investigation.

  5. A Study on the Storage Reliability of LSINS Based on Step-stress Accelerated Life Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Fei

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the step-stress accelerated life test and the laser strap-down inertial navigation system, this paper studies the accelerated life model and the test method, provides the likelihood function, the likelihood equation and the two-order derivative when the stress level is k, evaluates the effectiveness of the method with the simulation test model established by MATLAB, applies the research findings in the storage reliability study of the XX laser strap-down inertial navigation system, and puts forward an effective evaluation method of the storage life of the inertial navigation system.

  6. Study of all-optical sampling using a semiconductor optical amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen; Wang, Yongjun; Wang, Lina; Wang, Fu

    2016-08-01

    All-optical sampling is an important research content of all-optical signal processing. In recent years, the application of the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in optical sampling has attracted lots of attention because of its small volume and large nonlinear coefficient. We propose an optical sampling model based on nonlinear polarization rotation effect of the SOA. The proposed scheme has the advantages of high sampling speed and small input pump power, and a transfer curve with good linearity was obtained through simulation. To evaluate the performance of sampling, we analyze the linearity and efficiency of sampling pulse considering the impact of pulse width and analog signal frequency. We achieve the sampling of analog signal to high frequency pulse and exchange the positions of probe light and pump light to study another sampling.

  7. A Study of Storage Ring Requirements for an Explosive Detection System Using NRA Method

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Tai-Sen

    2005-01-01

    The technical feasibility of an explosives detection system based on the nuclear resonance absorption (NRA) of gamma rays in nitrogen-rich materials was demonstrated at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in 1993 by using an RFQ proton accelerator and a tomographic imaging prototype.* The study is being continued recently to examine deployment of such an active interrogation system in realistic scenarios. The approach is to use a cyclotron and electron-cooling-equipped storage rings(s) to provide the high quality and high current proton beam needed in a practical application. In this work, we investigate the storage ring requirements for a variant of the airport luggage inspection system considered in the earlier LANL experiments. Estimations are carried out based on the required inspection throughput, the gamma ray yield, the proton beam emittance growth due to scattering with the photon-production target, beam current limit in the storage ring, and the electron cooling rate. Studies using scaling and reas...

  8. Study on storage efficiency of the fresh food e-commerce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Sun, Jie; Li, Huihui

    2017-06-01

    As the last cake in the area of e-commerce industry, the temperature of fresh food e-commerce is always rising starting from about 2014. This paper is based on the imperfection that the existing study about fresh food e-commerce is lack of studies on storage efficiency. And we took some variables in this paper such as consumers’ satisfaction and length for preservation and storage time. On this basis we built the model of storage efficiency of fresh food e-commerce. We find that as the development of fresh food e-commerce, the fresh food e-commerce enterprise will pay more attention to the consumers’ satisfaction. They can take some effective ways like reducing the wastage of fresh food and lengthening the refreshing time of fresh food and so on.

  9. DC Storage Energy Variation Factor Study for Switched Mode Power Converters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of energy conversion in DC switched-mode power converters is studied.The ratio of the energy storage in the systemto the energy put - through is investigated for several converters.A very comprehensive study to identify how the energy is manipulatedby the various types of converters is reported in this paper.

  10. Battery energy storage: A preliminary assessment of national benefits (the Gateway Benefits Study)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zaininger, H. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Hurwitch, J.; Badin, J. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Preliminary estimates of national benefits from electric utility applications of battery energy storage through the year 2010 are presented along with a discussion of the particular applications studied. The estimates in this report were based on planning information reported to DOE by electric utilities across the United States. Future studies are planned to refine these estimates as more application-specific information becomes available.

  11. Beam studies at the SPEAR3 synchrotron using a digital optical mask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H.D., E-mail: hao.zhang@cockcroft.ac.uk [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Fiorito, R.B. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury Sci Tech, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Corbett, J. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94650 (United States); Shkvarunets, A.G. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Tian, K.; Fisher, A. [SLAC, Menlo Park, CA 94650 (United States)

    2016-05-01

    The 3GeV SPEAR3 synchrotron light source operates in top-up injection mode with up to 500 mA circulating in the storage ring (equivalently 392 nC). Each injection pulse contains 40–80 pC producing a contrast ratio between total stored charge and injected charge of about 6500:1. In order to study transient injected beam dynamics during user operations, it is desirable to optically image the injected pulse in the presence of the bright stored beam. In the present work this is done by imaging the visible component of the synchrotron radiation onto a digital micro-mirror-array device (DMD), which is then used as an optical mask to block out light from the bright central core of the stored beam. The physical masking, together with an asynchronously-gated, ICCD imaging camera, makes it possible to observe the weak injected beam component on a turn-by-turn basis. The DMD optical masking system works similar to a classical solar coronagraph but has some distinct practical advantages: i.e. rapid adaption to changes in the shape of the stored beam, a high extinction ratio for unwanted light and minimum scattering from the primary beam into the secondary optics. In this paper we describe the DMD masking method, features of the high dynamic range point spread function for the SPEAR3 optical beam line and measurements of the injected beam in the presence of the stored beam.

  12. Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage In a Restructured Electricity Marketplace, A Study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IANNUCCI, JOE; EYER, JIM; BUTLER, PAUL C.

    2003-02-01

    This report describes the second phase of a project entitled ''Innovative Business Cases for Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace''. During part one of the effort, nine ''Stretch Scenarios'' were identified. They represented innovative and potentially significant uses of electric energy storage. Based on their potential to significantly impact the overall energy marketplace, the five most compelling scenarios were identified. From these scenarios, five specific ''Storage Market Opportunities'' (SMOs) were chosen for an in-depth evaluation in this phase. The authors conclude that some combination of the Power Cost Volatility and the T&D Benefits SMOs would be the most compelling for further investigation. Specifically, a combination of benefits (energy, capacity, power quality and reliability enhancement) achievable using energy storage systems for high value T&D applications, in regions with high power cost volatility, makes storage very competitive for about 24 GW and 120 GWh during the years of 2001 and 2010.

  13. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume I. Study summary and concept screening. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    This study was directed at a review of storage technologies, and particularly those which might be best suited for use in conjunction with wind and photovoltaics. The potential ''worth'' added by incorporating storage was extensively analyzed for both wind and photovoltaics. Energy storage concepts studied include (1) above ground pumped hydro storage, (2) underground pumped hydro storage, (3) thermal storage-oil, (4) thermal storage-steam, (5) underground compressed air storage, (6) pneumatic storage, (7) lead-acid batteries, (8) advanced batteries, (9) inertial storage (flywheel), (10) hydrogen generation and storage, and (11) superconducting magnetic energy storage. The investigations performed and the major results, conclusions, and recommendations are presented in this volume. (WHK)

  14. SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPY STUDIES ON OPTICAL DISC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 顾冬红; 等

    1994-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope(STM) is used to investigate the optical dise.The areas with and without data stampers are all observedcarefully.Three-dimensional images of the disc surface clearly demonstrate the period.depth of the grooves and the shape of data stampers.Some phenomena of STM imaging are also discussed.

  15. SPECTROSCOPIC STUDIES OF MATERIALS FOR ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Steven G.

    2014-03-01

    Several battery materials research projects were undertaken, suing NMR spectroscopy as a primary analytical tool. These include transport proerties of liquid and solid electrolytes and structural studies of Li ion electrodes.

  16. Studies on Tomato Seedling Quality Indices Under Simulated Shipping and Storage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING Wei; GE Xiao-guang; LI Tian-lai

    2004-01-01

    Indices of the tomato seedling quality maintenance level after production before field planting were studied through simulated experiments, small--scale operation, indoor analyses and measurements, and field observation. The results showed that under simulated shipping and storage conditions, seedling quality change following different durations (days) of shipping and storage was correlated significantly or even very significantly with certain physiological and morphological indices. With various measured indices following different periods of shipping and storage treatment subjected to multinomial successive regressive correlation analysis, the principal factors influencing seedling quality maintenance level are identified to be chlorophyll content→dry short weight→ leaf freshness index in order of their importance. Significance analysis with multinomial fitted equation indicated that correlations between any one of above three factors and the growth index after field planting reached very significant difference level.

  17. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites.

  18. A study of thermal, structural and shielding safety analysis for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. H. [Kyungpook Nationl Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    As a replaced method for MRS, the dry storage has been intensively developed by the advanced countries of nuclear power technology. Currently, the domestic technology for the dry storage is also under development. In the present study, the developed technical standards for USNRC and its operation are summarized. Futhermore, the SAR for VECTRA's NUHOMES satisfied with DOE and NRC's requirements is inversely analyzed and combined with both USNRC's regulatory guide and LLNL's SARS. In the safety analysis of a dry storage, the principal design criteria which identifies the structural and mechanical safety criteria is investigated. Based on the design criteria, hypothetical accident analysis as well as off-normal operation analysis are investigated.

  19. An experimental study of enhanced heat transfer in rectangular PCM thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stritih, U. [University of Ljubljana (Slovenia). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    The heat-transfer characteristics of a latent-heat storage unit with a finned surface have been experimentally studied in terms of the solidification and melting processes by comparing them with those of a heat-storage unit with a plain surface. Paraffin with a melting point of 30{sup o}C was used in the investigations because it is appropriate for thermal storage applications in buildings. Time-based variations of the temperature distributions and heat flux are explained from the results of observations of the melting and the solidification layers. The dimensionless Nusselt number was calculated as a function of the Rayleigh number for natural convection in the paraffin for both the melting and the solidification processes. The effectiveness of the fins was calculated from the quotient of the heat flux with fins and the heat flux without fins. (author)

  20. Isolation and storage of DNA for population studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droog, S.; Lakenberg, N.; Meulenbelt, I.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Huisman, L.G.M.; Jie, A.F.H.; Slagboom, P.E.

    1996-01-01

    For genetic population studies, human genomic DNA is commonly isolated from peripheral blood. A fast, non-invasive DNA sampling method is developed involving oral samples taken with cotton swabs. In addition various procedures were compared for isolation of DNA from different sources: whole blood or

  1. Hadoop for EEG Storage and Processing: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, Ghita; Keulen, van Maurice; Habib, Mena B.; Slezak, Dominik; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Peters, James F.; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Lots of heterogeneous complex data are collected for diagnosis purposes. Such data should be shared between all caregivers and, often at least partly automatically processed, due to its complexity, for its full potential to be harnessed. This paper is a feasibility study that assesses the potential

  2. Hadoop for EEG Storage and Processing: A Feasibility Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrada, Ghita; van Keulen, Maurice; Habib, Mena Badieh; Slezak, Dominik; Tan, Ah-Hwee; Peters, James F.; Schwabe, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Lots of heterogeneous complex data are collected for diagnosis purposes. Such data should be shared between all caregivers and, often at least partly automatically processed, due to its complexity, for its full potential to be harnessed. This paper is a feasibility study that assesses the potential

  3. Localization of optical excitations on random surfaces: SNOM studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    1999-01-01

    Localization of optical excitations on nanostructured metal surfaces and fractal colloid silver aggregates are studied by using a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM). The SNOM images obtained in both configurations exhibit spatially localized (within 150 to 250 nm) light intensity...

  4. Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banger, Suman; Nayak, Vikas; Verma, U. P.

    2014-04-01

    First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ˜3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.

  5. Hydrogen storage in LiH: A first principle study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banger, Suman, E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com; Nayak, Vikas, E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com; Verma, U. P., E-mail: sumanphy28@gmail.com [School of Studies in Physics, Jiwaji University, Gwalior-474011 (India)

    2014-04-24

    First principles calculations have been performed on the Lithium hydride (LiH) using the full potential linearized augmented plane wave (FP-LAPW) method within the framework of density functional theory. We have extended our calculations for LiH+2H and LiH+6H in NaCl structure. The structural stability of three compounds have been studied. It is found that LiH with 6 added Hydrogen atoms is most stable. The obtained results for LiH are in good agreement with reported experimental data. Electronic structures of three compounds are also studied. Out of three the energy band gap in LiH is ∼3.0 eV and LiH+2H and LiH+6H are metallic.

  6. Model study of the thermal storage system by FEHM code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenma, N.; Yasukawa, Kasumi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Ibaraki (Japan); Zyvoloski, G. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Science Division

    2003-12-01

    The use of low-temperature geothermal resources is important from the viewpoint of global warming. In order to evaluate various underground projects that use low-temperature geothermal resources, we have estimated the parameters of a typical underground system using the two-well model. By changing the parameters of the system, six different heat extraction scenarios have been studied. One of these six scenarios is recommended because of its small energy loss. (author)

  7. Experimental studies for the cyclability of salt hydrates for thermochemical heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donkers, P.A.J.; Pel, L.; Adan, O.C.G.

    2016-01-01

    Salt hydrates have promising potential as heat storage materials by use of their hydration/dehydration reaction. These hydration/dehydration reactions are studied in this paper for CuCl2, CuSO4, MgCl2 and MgSO4. During a hydration/dehydration reaction, the salt shrinks and expands as a result of the

  8. Study on preparation and application performance of blue sky rare earth light storage and emission material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Shao-hui; NI; Hai-yong; HUANG; Zhao-hui; LI; Xu-bo; DING; Jian-hong; ZHANG; Zhen

    2005-01-01

    Under reduction atmosphere, a blue sky rare earth silicate light storage and emission material was prepared by high temperature solid phase synthesis. The best constituent ratio of this material was determined through orthogonal experiment, and its excitation and emission spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were measured. And a comparative study was conducted on its application properties.

  9. Machine Optics Studies for the LHC Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Trzebiński, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    In this work the properties of scattered protons in the vicinity of the ATLAS Interaction Point (IP1) for various LHC optics settings are discussed. Firstly, the beam elements installed around IP1 are presented. Then the ATLAS forward detector systems: Absolute Luminosity For ATLAS (ALFA) and ATLAS Forward Protons (AFP) are described and their similarities and differences are discussed. Next, the various optics used at Large Hadron Collider (LHC) are described and the beam divergence and width at the Interaction Point as well as at the ATLAS forward detectors locations are calculated. Finally, the geometric acceptance of the ATLAS forward detectors is shown and the impact of the LHC collimators on it is discussed.

  10. Steerable optical tweezers for ultracold atom studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, K O; McKellar, T; Fekete, J; Rakonjac, A; Deb, A B; Kjærgaard, N

    2014-04-01

    We report on the implementation of an optical tweezer system for controlled transport of ultracold atoms along a narrow, static confinement channel. The tweezer system is based on high-efficiency acousto-optic deflectors and offers two-dimensional control over beam position. This opens up the possibility for tracking the transport channel when shuttling atomic clouds along it, forestalling atom spilling. Multiple clouds can be tracked independently by time-shared tweezer beams addressing individual sites in the channel. The deflectors are controlled using a multichannel direct digital synthesizer, which receives instructions on a submicrosecond time scale from a field-programmable gate array. Using the tweezer system, we demonstrate sequential binary splitting of an ultracold 87Rb cloud into 2(5) clouds.

  11. Consensus guidelines for management of glycogen storage disease type 1b - European Study on Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G; Rake, JP; Labrune, P; Leonard, JV; Moses, S; Ullrich, K; Wendel, U; Smit, GPA

    2002-01-01

    Life expectancy in glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) has improved considerably. Its relative rarity implies that no metabolic centre has experience of large series of patients and therefore experience with long-term management and follow-up at each centre is limited. There is wide variation in

  12. Consensus guidelines for management of glycogen storage disease type 1b - European Study on Glycogen Storage Disease Type 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, G; Rake, JP; Labrune, P; Leonard, JV; Moses, S; Ullrich, K; Wendel, U; Smit, GPA

    2002-01-01

    Life expectancy in glycogen storage disease type 1 (GSD-1) has improved considerably. Its relative rarity implies that no metabolic centre has experience of large series of patients and therefore experience with long-term management and follow-up at each centre is limited. There is wide variation in

  13. Studies in Statistical Optics - Theory & Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-29

    page 9. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Coherence and statistical optics; scattering; propagation; reflection and refraction . 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17...Scattering from Quasi-Homogeneous Media”, Opt. Commun., 294, 43-48 (2013). 7. M. Lahiri and E. Wolf, “Theory of Refraction and Reflection with Partially... Refraction and on Reflection ”, JOSA A, 30, 1107-1112 (2013). 9. S. B. Raghunathan, T. D. Visser, and E. Wolf, “Far-zone Properties of Electromagnetic

  14. Low vision goggles: optical design studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ofer; Apter, Boris; Efron, Uzi

    2006-08-01

    Low Vision (LV) due to Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD), Glaucoma or Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP) is a growing problem, which will affect more than 15 million people in the U.S alone in 2010. Low Vision Aid Goggles (LVG) have been under development at Ben-Gurion University and the Holon Institute of Technology. The device is based on a unique Image Transceiver Device (ITD), combining both functions of imaging and Display in a single chip. Using the ITD-based goggles, specifically designed for the visually impaired, our aim is to develop a head-mounted device that will allow the capture of the ambient scenery, perform the necessary image enhancement and processing, and re-direct it to the healthy part of the patient's retina. This design methodology will allow the Goggles to be mobile, multi-task and environmental-adaptive. In this paper we present the optical design considerations of the Goggles, including a preliminary performance analysis. Common vision deficiencies of LV patients are usually divided into two main categories: peripheral vision loss (PVL) and central vision loss (CVL), each requiring different Goggles design. A set of design principles had been defined for each category. Four main optical designs are presented and compared according to the design principles. Each of the designs is presented in two main optical configurations: See-through system and Video imaging system. The use of a full-color ITD-Based Goggles is also discussed.

  15. Polarimetric study of the optical anisotropy of polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyavsky, N.; Korneva, I.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the results of an optical anisotropy study of a polymer film and the effect of temperature on birefringence. A method using a polariscope for the quantitative determination of the optical path difference is offered. The research findings are useful to students of physical and engineering specialities studying electromagnetic theory and optics. The described experiments and theoretical approaches are based on prominent aspects of modern optics. This work can be used to teach students the methods of polarimetry, the method of measuring optical anisotropy, and the basics of colorimetry. Students will learn a color description system to demonstrate the interference of polarized light, as well as being able to make a comparison between the numerical simulation and experiment of the interference pattern.

  16. Transient optical gratings for pulsed ionizing radiation studies

    CERN Document Server

    Fullagar, Wilfred K; Hall, Chris J

    2011-01-01

    Prior to the invention of holography or lasers, Bragg's X-ray microscope opened the door to optical computation in short-wavelength studies using spatially coherent visible light, including phase retrieval methods. This optical approach lost ground to semiconductor detection and digital computing in the 1960s. Since then, visible optics including spatial light modulators (SLMs), array detectors and femtosecond lasers have become widely available, routinely allowing versatile and computer-interfaced imposition of optical phase, molecular coherent control, and detection. Today, high brilliance X-ray sources begin to offer opportunities for atomic resolution and ultrafast pump-probe studies. Correspondingly, this work considers an overlooked aspect of Bragg's X-ray microscope - the incoherent ionizing radiation to coherent visible (IICV) conversion that is a necessary prerequisite for coherent optical computations. Technologies are suggested that can accomplish this conversion. Approaches to holographic data sto...

  17. NATURAL GAS HYDRATES STORAGE PROJECT PHASE II. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN AND ECONOMIC STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.E. Rogers

    1999-09-27

    DOE Contract DE-AC26-97FT33203 studied feasibility of utilizing the natural-gas storage property of gas hydrates, so abundantly demonstrated in nature, as an economical industrial process to allow expanded use of the clean-burning fuel in power plants. The laboratory work achieved breakthroughs: (1) Gas hydrates were found to form orders of magnitude faster in an unstirred system with surfactant-water micellar solutions. (2) Hydrate particles were found to self-pack by adsorption on cold metal surfaces from the micellar solutions. (3) Interstitial micellar-water of the packed particles were found to continue forming hydrates. (4) Aluminum surfaces were found to most actively collect the hydrate particles. These laboratory developments were the bases of a conceptual design for a large-scale process where simplification enhances economy. In the design, hydrates form, store, and decompose in the same tank in which gas is pressurized to 550 psi above unstirred micellar solution, chilled by a brine circulating through a bank of aluminum tubing in the tank employing gas-fired refrigeration. Hydrates form on aluminum plates suspended in the chilled micellar solution. A low-grade heat source, such as 110 F water of a power plant, circulates through the tubing bank to release stored gas. The design allows a formation/storage/decomposition cycle in a 24-hour period of 2,254,000 scf of natural gas; the capability of multiple cycles is an advantage of the process. The development costs and the user costs of storing natural gas in a scaled hydrate process were estimated to be competitive with conventional storage means if multiple cycles of hydrate storage were used. If more than 54 cycles/year were used, hydrate development costs per Mscf would be better than development costs of depleted reservoir storage; above 125 cycles/year, hydrate user costs would be lower than user costs of depleted reservoir storage.

  18. Study of the high temperature characteristics of hydrogen storage alloys

    CERN Document Server

    Rong, Li; Shaoxiong, Zhou; Yan, Qi; 10.1016/j.jallcom.2004.07.006

    2005-01-01

    In this work, the phase structure of as-cast and melt-spun (MmY)/sub 1/(NiCoMnAl)/sub 5/ alloys (the content of yttrium is 0-2.5wt.%) and their electrochemical properties were studied with regard to discharge capacity at different temperatures (30-80 degrees C) and cycling life at 30 degrees C. It is found that the substitution of yttrium increase the electrochemical capacity of the compounds and decrease the difference in capacity between as-cast and as-quenched compounds at 30 degrees C. When increasing the yttrium concentration from 0 to 2.5wt.%, the cycling life of both the as-cast and the melt- spun compounds deteriorated, although the latter have a slightly longer cycle life than the former. The remarkable feature of the alloys obtained by yttrium substitution is the improvement of the high temperature electrochemical properties. It shows that the stability of the hydrides is increased. Compared with the as-cast alloys, the melt-spun ribbons have higher electrochemical charge /discharge capacity in the ...

  19. A central storage facility to reduce pesticide suicides--a feasibility study from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Devika, Shanmugasundaram; Manikandan, Sarojini

    2013-09-16

    Pesticide suicides are considered the single most important means of suicide worldwide. Centralized pesticide storage facilities have the possible advantage of delaying access to pesticides thereby reducing suicides. We undertook this study to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a centralized pesticide storage facility as a preventive intervention strategy in reducing pesticide suicides. A community randomized controlled feasibility study using a mixed methods approach involving a household survey; focus group discussions (FGDs) and surveillance were undertaken. The study was carried out in a district in southern India. Eight villages that engaged in floriculture were identified. Using the lottery method two were randomized to be the intervention sites and two villages constituted the control site. Two centralized storage facilities were constructed with local involvement and lockable storage boxes were constructed. The household survey conducted at baseline and one and a half years later documented information on sociodemographic data, pesticide usage, storage and suicides. At baseline 4446 individuals (1097 households) in the intervention and 3307 individuals (782 households) in the control sites were recruited while at follow up there were 4308 individuals (1063 households) in the intervention and 2673 individuals (632 households) in the control sites. There were differences in baseline characteristics and imbalances in the prevalence of suicides between intervention and control sites as this was a small feasibility study.The results from the FGDs revealed that most participants found the storage facility to be both useful and acceptable. In addition to protecting against wastage, they felt that it had also helped prevent pesticide suicides as the pesticides stored here were not as easily and readily accessible. The primary analyses were done on an Intention to Treat basis. Following the intervention, the differences between sites in changes in combined

  20. Treatability studies for decontamination of Melton Valley Storage Tank supernate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, W.D.; Fowler, V.L.; Perona, J.J.; McTaggart, D.R.

    1992-08-01

    Liquid low-level waste, primarily nitric acid contaminated with radionuclides and minor concentrations of organics and heavy metals, is neutralized with sodium hydroxide, concentrated by evaporation, and stored for processing and disposal. The evaporator concentrate separates into sludge and supernate phases upon cooling. The supernate is 4 to 5 mol/L sodium nitrate contaminated with soluble radionuclides, principally {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 14}C, while the sludge consists of precipitated carbonates and hydroxides of metals and transuranic elements. Methods for treatment and disposal of this waste are being developed. In studies to determine the feasibility of removing {sup 137}Cs from the supernates before solidification campaigns, batch sorption measurements were made from four simulated supernate solutions with four different samples of potassium hexacyanocobalt ferrate (KCCF). Cesium decontamination factors of 1 to 8 were obtained with different KCCF batches from a highly-salted supernate at pH 13. Decontamination factors as high as 50 were measured from supernates with lower salt content and pH, in fact, the pH had a greater effect than the solution composition on the decontamination factors. The decontamination factors were highest after 1 to 2 d of mixing and decreased with longer mixing times due to decomposition of the KCCF in the alkaline solution. The decontamination factors decreased with settling time and were lower for the same total contact time (mixing + settling) for the longer mixing times, indicating more rapid KCCF decomposition during mixing than during settling. There was no stratification of cesium in the tubes as the KCCF decomposed.

  1. Application of the Biospeckle Method for Monitoring Bull’s Eye Rot Development and Quality Changes of Apples Subjected to Various Storage Methods—Preliminary Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rutkowski

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the biospeckle technique was evaluated for monitoring of apple bull’s eye rot development and product quality in general, during storage under various conditions and during subsequent shelf life. This non-destructive optical method is based on the analysis of laser light variations scattered from the sample. Apples of the cultivars ‘Pinova’ and ‘Topaz’, susceptible to bull’s eye rot, were used in two independent experiments. In the first, apples were non-destructively monitored for five months during cold storage. After that time, 34% of ‘Pinova’ and 21% of ‘Topaz’ apples displayed visible surface lesions. The increase of biospeckle activity was observed during the development of fungal disease. In the second experiment various storage conditions were used and apples were tested during their shelf life by non-destructive and destructive methods. This study showed that biospeckle activity decreased during shelf life, irrespective of storage conditions.

  2. Surface properties of hard protective coatings studied by optical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaglarz, Janusz; Wolska, N.; Mitura, K.; Duraj, R.; Marszalek, K. W.; El Kouari, Y.

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes optical study of SiC, C and NiC layers deposited on Si substrates by double beam ion sputtering (DBIS) method. The following optical methods: ellipsometry, bidirectional reflection distribution function (BRDF) and total integrated scattering (TIS) studies have been applied. The obtained results allowed us to determine the refractive indices, extinction coefficients and the roughness parameters of DBIS films. Also surface profiles of optical constants determined from scanning ellipsometric measurements have been presented. The power spectral density functions (PSD) of surface roughness for studied samples have been determined. The influence of the deposition technology on film topography has been discussed.

  3. Photon-Storage in Optical Memory Cells Based on a Semiconductor Quantum Dot-Quantum Well Hybrid Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卞松保; 唐艳; 李桂荣; 李月霞; 杨富华; 郑厚植; 曾一平

    2003-01-01

    We report a new type of photonic memory cell based on a semiconductor quantum dot (QD)-quantum well (QW)hybrid structure, in which photo-generated excitons can be decomposed into separated electrons and holes, and stored in QW and QDs respectively. Storage and retrieval of photonic signals are verified by time-resolved photoluminescence experiments. A storage time in excess of 100ms has been obtained at a temperature of 10K while the switching speed reaches the order of ten megahertz.

  4. Innovative applications of energy storage in a restructured electricity marketplace : Phase III final report : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Erdman, Bill (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (, . Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2005-03-01

    This report describes Phase III of a project entitled Innovative Applications of Energy Storage in a Restructured Electricity Marketplace. For this study, the authors assumed that it is feasible to operate an energy storage plant simultaneously for two primary applications: (1) energy arbitrage, i.e., buy-low-sell-high, and (2) to reduce peak loads in utility ''hot spots'' such that the utility can defer their need to upgrade transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment. The benefits from the arbitrage plus T&D deferral applications were estimated for five cases based on the specific requirements of two large utilities operating in the Eastern U.S. A number of parameters were estimated for the storage plant ratings required to serve the combined application: power output (capacity) and energy discharge duration (energy storage). In addition to estimating the various financial expenditures and the value of electricity that could be realized in the marketplace, technical characteristics required for grid-connected distributed energy storage used for capacity deferral were also explored.

  5. Memory mass storage

    CERN Document Server

    Campardo, Giovanni; Iaculo, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    Covering all the fundamental storage technologies such as semiconductor, magnetic, optical and uncommon, this volume details their core characteristics. In addition, it includes an overview of the 'biological memory' of the human brain and its organization.

  6. Theoretical studies of carbon-based nanostructured materials with applications in hydrogen storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuc, Agnieszka

    2008-07-01

    The main goal of this work is to search for new stable porous carbon-based materials, which have the ability to accommodate and store hydrogen gas. Theoretical and experimental studies suggest a close relation between the nano-scale structure of the material and its storage capacity. In order to design materials with a high storage capacity, a compromise between the size and the shape of the nanopores must be considered. Therefore, a number of different carbon-based materials have been investigated: carbon foams, dislocated graphite, graphite intercalated by C60 molecules, and metal-organic frameworks. The structures of interest include experimentally well-known as well as hypothetical systems. The studies were focused on the determination of important properties and special features, which may result in high storage capacities. Although the variety of possible pure carbon structures and metal-organic frameworks is almost infinite, the materials described in this work possess the main structural characteristics, which are important for gas storage. (orig.)

  7. Study on pure silica core optical fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An optimal refractive index profile of pure silica core optical fiber (PSCF) was designed, in combination with the characters of the modified chemical vapor deposition (MCVD) process. Techniques of preform fabrication by a new furnace round heating MCVD process and fiber drawing process were reviewed. Difficulties in doping fluorine in silica, widening the depressed-index cladding and maintaining the index of fiber core were discussed. Methods used to overcome these difficulties were given at the same time. Additionally, the optimal refractive index profiles of PSCF were presented.

  8. Study on application of optical clearing technique in skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Hao; Liang, Yanmei; Wang, Jingyi; Li, Yan

    2012-11-01

    So far, the study of the optical clearing is almost always about healthy tissue. However, the ultimate goal is to detect diseases for clinical application. Optical clearing on diseased skins is explored. The effect is evaluated by applying a combined liquid paraffin and glycerol mixed solution on several kinds of diseased skins in vitro. Scanning experiments from optical coherence tomography show that it has different effects among fibroma, pigmented nevus, and seborrheic keratosis. Based on the results, we conclude that different skin diseases have different compositions and structures, and their optical parameters and biological characteristics should be different, which implies that the optical clearing technique may have selectivity and may not be suitable for all kinds of skin diseases.

  9. Atomic Storage States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪凯戈; 朱诗尧

    2002-01-01

    We present a complete description of atomic storage states which may appear in the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The result shows that the spatial coherence has been included in the atomic collective operators and the atomic storage states. In some limits, a set of multimode atomic storage states has been established in correspondence with the multimode Fock states of the electromagnetic field. This gives a better understanding of the fact that, in BIT, the optical coherent information can be preserved and recovered.

  10. Experimental study on polarization holographic storage in genetic mutant BR-D96N film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Yuan; YAO; Baoli; WANG; Yingli; LEI; Ming; MENKE; Ne

    2004-01-01

    Recording with both parallel and orthogonal linearly polarized lights, polarization holographic storage in genetic mutant BR-D96N film is reported with both transmission type geometry and reflection type geometry. Polarization properties of diffraction light and scattering light are discussed for two different cases, parallel polarization recording and orthogonal polarization recording. It shows that, compared with recording with parallel polarization lights, orthogonal polarization holography can separate the diffraction light from the scattering noise, therefore improving the signal-to-noise ratio. It also shows that, compared with reconstruction with reference light, reconstruction with phase conjugated wave of the reference light can improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the reconstructed diffraction image, and also the wave-front aberration of the object light introduced by irregular phase object in the optical pass-way can also be corrected effectively, which ensures that the reconstructed diffraction image has a better fidelity. The preliminary angle-multiplexed volume holographic storage multiplexed by transmission type geometry and reflection type geometry is demonstrated in the BR-D96N film. Experiment shows that there is no cross-talk between the two pages of images except for some scattering noises.

  11. Studies of nondegenerate, quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2004-03-18

    We have performed extensive numerical studies of quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification with the aim to improve its nondegenerate spectral bandwidth. Our multi-section fan-out design calculations indicate a 35-fold increase in spectral bandwidth.

  12. Forensic Investigation of Cooperative Storage Cloud Service: Symform as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teing, Yee-Yang; Dehghantanha, Ali; Choo, Kim-Kwang Raymond; Dargahi, Tooska; Conti, Mauro

    2016-11-25

    Researchers envisioned Storage as a Service (StaaS) as an effective solution to the distributed management of digital data. Cooperative storage cloud forensic is relatively new and is an under-explored area of research. Using Symform as a case study, we seek to determine the data remnants from the use of cooperative cloud storage services. In particular, we consider both mobile devices and personal computers running various popular operating systems, namely Windows 8.1, Mac OS X Mavericks 10.9.5, Ubuntu 14.04.1 LTS, iOS 7.1.2, and Android KitKat 4.4.4. Potential artefacts recovered during the research include data relating to the installation and uninstallation of the cloud applications, log-in to and log-out from Symform account using the client application, file synchronization as well as their time stamp information. This research contributes to an in-depth understanding of the types of terrestrial artifacts that are likely to remain after the use of cooperative storage cloud on client devices.

  13. A conceptual study on the use of a regenerator in a hybrid energy storage unit (LIQHYSMES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, F.; Ramalingam, R.; Neumann, H.

    2015-12-01

    Wind and photovoltaic parks raise the issue of a discontinuous electrical generation. As an energy carrier with high volumetric energy density, liquid hydrogen is an inevitable choice for large-scale energy storage. But, since balancing loads or rapidly evolving fluctuations on the grid with just hydrogen is unrealistic due to its slow response, it is necessary to integrate it with an electrical energy storage device that enables rapid response. This approach combines the use of a liquefaction plant for hydrogen, and a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES). Besides, in this case, conventional liquefaction methods are not a viable solution, meaning that a substantial simplification of the process is possible where a regenerator/recuperator is employed and only if temporary/intermediate storage is required. A study is conducted to develop a regenerator (among other parts) for a proof of concept small scale LIQHYSMES system. A 1D model of differential equations is implemented to investigate the regenerator performances, addressing parameters such as regenerator configuration, material and fluid properties, temperature profiles, etc. Results are then analysed and discussed.

  14. Study on the Effect of Ground Heat Storage by Solar Heat Using Numerical Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hwan Oh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy storage techniques using renewable energy efficiently have attracted considerable attention. However, there are several problems when using renewable energy. In the case of solar energy, the energy production time is different from the consumption time, and the use of geothermal energy has high investment costs. In order to solve these problems, it is essential to develop high-efficiency systems using both solar and geothermal energy simultaneously and efficiently. Thus, in this study, the performance of underground heat storage of solar energy was examined by simulation using models of underground heat transfer and heat exchange for the development of an integrated hybrid system exploiting both geothermal and solar energy. As a result, the heat extraction performance was determined to be up to 72.75 W/m. As a result, in Kagoshima, the most southern area in Korea, a case of six hour heat storage operation achieved the highest heat exchange rate of 72.75 W/m, which is approximately 105% higher than the case of operation without heat storage.

  15. Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, William W.

    Described are technological considerations affecting storage of energy, particularly electrical energy. The background and present status of energy storage by batteries, water storage, compressed air storage, flywheels, magnetic storage, hydrogen storage, and thermal storage are discussed followed by a review of development trends. Included are…

  16. Aging study of silica optical fibers under acid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, I.; El Abdi, R.; Poulain, M.

    2005-05-01

    Optical fibers are key components in telecommunication technologies. Apart from optical specifications, optical fibers are expected to keep most of their physical properties for 10 to 20 years in current operating conditions. The reliability and the expected lifetime of optical links are closely related to the action of the chemical environment on the silica network. However, the coating also contributes largely to the mechanical properties of the fibers. The aim of this work was to study the strength and the mechanical behaviour of the silica optical fibers in an acid environment. A container with ammonium bifluoride acid salt was plunged into hot water at different temperatures (55° and 75°C). This emitted acid vapors which attacked the optical fibers for a period of 1 to 18 days. An aging study was performed on silica optical fibers with standard polyacrylate coating and with hermetic carbon coating. A dynamic two-point bending bench at different faceplate velocities (100, 200, 400 and 800 μm/s) was used. For comparison, the same dynamic measurements were also carried out on non-aged fibers. After acid vapor condensation, salt crystal deposits on the fibers were displayed using an electron scanning microscope. These crystals became visible to the naked eye from the 7th day post exposure.

  17. Study of Magnetic Hysteresis Effects in a Storage Ring Using Precision Tune Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wei; Mikhailov, Stepan F; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying K

    2016-01-01

    With advances in accelerator science and technology in the recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example the diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which requires precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in the circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied...

  18. The study on the control strategy of micro grid considering the economy of energy storage operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Yiqun; Wang, Xin; Li, Bei; Zeng, Ming

    2017-08-01

    To optimize the running of micro grid to guarantee the supply and demand balance of electricity, and to promote the utilization of renewable energy. The control strategy of micro grid energy storage system is studied. Firstly, the mixed integer linear programming model is established based on the receding horizon control. Secondly, the modified cuckoo search algorithm is proposed to calculate the model. Finally, a case study is carried out to study the signal characteristic of micro grid and batteries under the optimal control strategy, and the convergence of the modified cuckoo search algorithm is compared with others to verify the validity of the proposed model and method. The results show that, different micro grid running targets can affect the control strategy of energy storage system, which further affect the signal characteristics of the micro grid. Meanwhile, the convergent speed, computing time and the economy of the modified cuckoo search algorithm are improved compared with the traditional cuckoo search algorithm and differential evolution algorithm.

  19. A study of hydro-graphene for energy storage (2) Hydrogen absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokio Yamabe; Mitsuhiro Fujii [Nagasaki Institute ofApplied Science, 536 Aba-machi, Nagasaki 851-0193, (Japan); Yoshio Furuya [Department of Technology, Faculty of Education, Nagasaki University, 1-14 bunkyo-cho, Nagasaki 852-8521, (Japan); Shiro Mori; Shizukuni Yata [Energy Conversion Research Laboratory, KRI Inc., Kyoto Research Park, 134 Chudoji Minami-machi, Shimogyo-ku, Kyoto 600-8813, (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The technology of hydrogen storage is one of the most important challenges in hydrogen energy system for clean environment. Some carbon materials are expected to have such advantage for hydrogen storage. We have studied about PAS and PAHs, which are marginal members of the carbon allotropes containing a significant amount of hydrogen atoms, and which show a variety of interesting properties lacking pure carbon materials. They constituted by graphite sheets terminated by hydrogen atoms, and so it may be called 'hydro-graphene'. In this work, we prepared two kinds of hydro-graphene, such as PAS and PAHs, by the pyrolysis at 550 C. The [H]/[C] molar ratio of PAS was 0.45, and that of PAHs was 0.33. The interlayer distance of PAS was broad, and that of PAH was 3.68 A. We examined their ability of hydrogen storage by two methods. It was measured the amount of equilibrium pressure change of sample room, on the first method of increasing hydrogen pressure at 77 K, and on the second method of temperature increasing to R.T. in vacuum after reducing pressure. On the former method, the hydrogen storage amount of PAS was 0.5 wt-%, and that of PAHs was 0.4 wt-%. On the latter, that of PAS was 0.4 wt-%, and that of PAHs was 0.3 wt-%. Those results indicate that each total capacity of hydrogen storage was estimated 0.5-6 wt-%. We will discuss the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption to hydro-graphene based on the quantum chemical viewpoint. (authors)

  20. Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S. G.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.

  1. Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) study. Volume 1: Feasibility studies. [application of flywheels for power storage and generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notti, J. E.; Cormack, A., III; Schmill, W. C.

    1974-01-01

    An Integrated Power/Attitude Control System (IPACS) concept consisting of an array of spinning flywheels, with or without gimbals, capable of performing the dual function of power storage and generation, as well as attitude control has been investigated. This system provides attitude control through momentum storage, and replaces the storage batteries onboard the spacecraft. The results of the investigation are presented in two volumes. The trade-off studies performed to establish the feasibility, cost effectiveness, required level of development, and boundaries of application of IPACS to a wide variety of spacecraft are discussed. The conceptual designs for a free-flying research application module (RAM), and for a tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) are presented. Results from dynamic analyses and simulations of the IPACS conceptual designs are included.

  2. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  3. [Ca(BH4)2] n clusters as hydrogen storage material: A DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Cuiling; Dong, Yanyun; Wang, Bingqiang; Zhang, Caiyun

    2016-10-01

    Calcium borohydride is widely studied as a hydrogen storage material. However, investigations on calcium borohydride from a cluster perspective are seldom found. The geometric structures and binding energies of [Ca(BH4)2] n ( n = 1-4) clusters are determined using density function theory (DFT). For the most stable structures, vibration frequency, natural bond orbital (NBO) are calculated and discussed. The charge transfer from (BH4) to Ca was observed. Meanwhile, we also study the LUMO-HOMO gap ( E g) and the B-H bond dissociation energies (BDEs). [Ca(BH4)2]3 owns higher E g, revealing that trimer is more stable than the other forms. Structures don't change during optimization after hydrogen radical removal, showing that calcium borohydride could possibly be used as a reversible hydrogen storage material. [Ca(BH4)2]4 has the smallest dissociation energy suggesting it releases hydrogen more easily than others.

  4. Stability and design criteria studies for compressed air energy storage reservoirs. Progress report, FY 1977.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Stottlemyre, J.A.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.; Pincus, H.J.

    1978-03-01

    Progress made during FY-1977 in establishing design criteria to ensure the successful operation and long-term stability of Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) reservoirs in underground porous media, such as aquifers is summarized. The formulation of pertinent criteria is important since the long-term stability of air storage reservoirs is probably the item of greatest risk to the successful demonstration and commercialization of the CAES concept. The study has been divided into four phases: (1) state-of-the-art survey, (2) analytical modeling studies, (3) laboratory studies, and (4) field testing. The first of these phases, the state-of-the-art survey for air storage in porous reservoirs, has been completed on schedule and is reported in Section 2. Sections 3 and 4 are progress reports on Phases 2 and 3. No work has been done on Phase 4. It is planned that the field testing phase of this study will be carried out in conjunction with the Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) CAES Demonstration Program. This phase is not scheduled to begin until FY-1979.

  5. Vapor Sensing Theoretical Study on Optical Microcavities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Le-xin; ZHANG Ran; LI Zhi-quan

    2007-01-01

    When the organic vapors absorbed to the surface of porous silicon(PS), capillary condensation takes place due to the porous structure of the PS layer, accordingly resulting in the effective refractive index changing. For PS multi-layer microcavities, the different resonant peaks shift in the reflectivity spectrum of porous silicon microcavities(PSMs). The optical sensing model is set up by applying Bruggeman effective medium approximation theory, capillary condensation process and transfer matrix theoretically analytical method of one-dimensional photonic crystals. At the same time, comprehensively researched on are the sensing characteristics of PSMs which are exposed to give concentration organic vapors. At last, made is the theoretical simulation for sensing model of the PSMs in case of saturation by using computer numerical calculation, and found is the linearity relation between the refractive index of organic solvent and the peak-shift. At the same time deduced is the peak-shift as a function of the concentration of ethanol vapors.

  6. PRELIMINARY STUDY ON APPLICATION OF MAX PLUS ALGEBRA IN DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEM THROUGH NETWORK CODING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Maman Abadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need in techniques of storing big data presents a new challenge. One way to address this challenge is the use of distributed storage systems. One strategy that implemented in distributed data storage systems is the use of Erasure Code which applied to network coding. The code used in this technique is based on the algebraic structure which is called as vector space. Some studies have also been carried out to create code that is based on other algebraic structures such as module.  In this study, we are going to try to set up a code based on the algebraic structure which is a generalization of the module that is semimodule by utilizing the max operations and sum operations at max plus algebra. The results of this study indicate that the max operation and the addition operation on max plus algebra cannot be used to establish a semimodule code, but by modifying the operation "+" as "min", we get a code based on semimodule. Keywords:   code, distributed storage systems, network coding, semimodule, max plus algebra

  7. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  8. EMG STUDY IN THE DIAGNOSIS AND DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LIPID STORAGE MYOPATHY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽英; 汤晓芙; 张秋滨; 李本红; 杜华; 郭玉璞

    1998-01-01

    Clinical, electromyographic and pathological features were studied in 18 patients with lipid storage myopathy (group I ) and 18 patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis (group Ⅱ ). The results showed a remarhable lower stxmtaneous activity(SA) incidence (14%) in group I than that (55%) in group Ⅱ ;46% and 34% short-duration motor unit potentials(MUAPs) with polyphasic potentials and 74% and 71% short-duration MUAPs without polyphasie potsntials respectively; the percentages of increased polyphasic MUAPs wre same in the Vwo groupa. The reduced or pathologic interfereuce palms accmmted for 61% in the group I and 50% in group Ⅱ. Increased CPK, LDH and HBD were also found in both of them. It is suggested that the lipid storage myopathy may be diagnosed when patients have muscle weakness and myalgia with short-duration and low-amplitude and polyphasic MUAPs without or with occasional spoataneous activitie*, and increased CPK, LDH and HBD.

  9. Study of Photovoltaic Energy Storage by Supercapacitors through Both Experimental and Modelling Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Olivier Logerais

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of photovoltaic energy by supercapacitors is studied by using two approaches. An overview on the integration of supercapacitors in solar energy conversion systems is previously provided. First, a realized experimental setup of charge/discharge of supercapacitors fed by a photovoltaic array has been operated with fine data acquisition. The second approach consists in simulating photovoltaic energy storage by supercapacitors with a faithful and accessible model composed of solar irradiance evaluation, equivalent electrical circuit for photovoltaic conversion, and a multibranch circuit for supercapacitor. Both the experimental and calculated results are confronted, and an error of 1% on the stored energy is found with a correction largely within ±10% of the transmission line capacitance according to temperature.

  10. Ternary Amides Containing Transition Metals for Hydrogen Storage: A Case Study with Alkali Metal Amidozincates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Hujun; Richter, Theresia M M; Pistidda, Claudio; Chaudhary, Anna-Lisa; Santoru, Antonio; Gizer, Gökhan; Niewa, Rainer; Chen, Ping; Klassen, Thomas; Dornheim, Martin

    2015-11-01

    The alkali metal amidozincates Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2 and K2[Zn(NH2)4] were, to the best of our knowledge, studied for the first time as hydrogen storage media. Compared with the LiNH2-2 LiH system, both Li4 [Zn(NH2)4](NH2)2-12 LiH and K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH systems showed improved rehydrogenation performance, especially K2[Zn(NH2)4]-8 LiH, which can be fully hydrogenated within 30 s at approximately 230 °C. The absorption properties are stable upon cycling. This work shows that ternary amides containing transition metals have great potential as hydrogen storage materials.

  11. Numerical and experimental study on heat pump water heater with PCM for thermal storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Jian-You; Zhu, Dong-Sheng [Key Laboratory of Enhanced Heat Transfer and Energy Conservation of the Ministry of Education, Academy of Chemistry and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510640 (China)

    2008-07-01

    An air source heat pump water heater with phase change material (PCM) for thermal storage was designed to take advantage of off-peak electrical energy. The heat transfer model of PCM was based upon a pure conduction formulation. Quasi-steady state method was used to calculate the temperature distribution and phase front location of PCM during thermal storage process. Temperature and thermal resistance iteration approach has been developed for the analysis of temperature variation of heat transfer fluid (HTF) and phase front location of PCM during thermal release process. To test the physical validity of the calculational results, experimental studies about storing heat and releasing heat of PCM were carried. Comparison between the calculational results and the experimental data shows good agreement. Graphical results including system pressure and input power of heat pump, time-wise variation of stored and released thermal energy of PCM were presented and discussed. (author)

  12. Energetic Performances Study of an Integrated Collector Storage Solar Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Helal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Although that the interest attributed to the solar energy remains relatively limited, we attend today to the conception of several installations using the sun as energy source among which we quote the solar water heater. Approach: A study of energetic performances was taken on an integrated collector/storage solar water heater made in the National School of Engineers of Gabes. This water heater is equipped with a concentration system containing a reflector composed of three parabolic branches favorating a better absorption of solar radiance. Results: The comparison between this system and two other systems of solar water heater, composed of a storage ball with asymmetrical CPC and symmetrical CPC, showed important energetic performances despite the simplicity and the little cost of the collector. Conclusion: Several improvements are necessary to increase the direct flow whilst decrease the thermal losses and therefore make the system simpler to be installed on the building roof.

  13. Study of ageing and fading in CR-39 detectors for different storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franci, Daniele; Aureli, Tommaso; Cardellini, Francesco

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ageing and fading on PADC detector response, as a function of the storage time and temperature. Several groups of CR-39 detectors provided by Radosys, Ltd. were exposed at the reference radon chamber of the Istituto Nazionale di Metrologia delle Radiazioni Ionizzanti, at the ENEA centre in Casaccia. The results indicate that low-temperature storage inhibits the effect of both ageing and fading. Finally, the overall reduction in CR-39 sensitivity due to the combined ageing/fading effect was estimated. In particular, the sensitivity of the detectors continuously exposed in air at room temperature over 6 and 3 months was reduced, respectively, by 7.5 and 4 %. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Comparative study of optic disc measurement by Copernicus optical coherence tomography and Heidelberg retinal tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qing-Song; Yu, Ya-Jie; Li, Shu-Ning; Liu, Juan; Hao, Ying-Juan

    2012-08-01

    Copernicus optical coherence tomography (SOCT) is a new, ultra high-speed and high-resolution instrument available for clinical evaluation of optic nerve. The purpose of the study was to compare the agreements between SOCT and Heidelberg retinal tomography (HRT). A total of 44 healthy normal volunteers were recruited in this study. One eye in each subject was selected randomly. Agreement between SOCT and HRT-3 in measuring optic disc area was assessed using Bland-Altman plots. Relationships between measurements of optic nerve head parameter obtained by SOCT and HRT-3 were assessed by Pearson correlation. There was no significant difference in the average cup area (0.306 vs. 0.355 mm, P = 0.766), cup volume (0.158 vs. 0.130 mm, P = 0.106) and cup/disc ration (0.394 vs. 0.349 mm, P = 0.576) measured by the two instruments. However, other optic disc parameters from SOCT were significantly lower compared with HRT-3. The Bland-Altman plot revealed good agreement of cup area and cup volume measured by SOCT and HRT-3. Bad agreement of disc area, rim area, rim volume and cup/disc ratio were found between SOCT and HRT-3. The highest correlations between the two instruments were observed for cup area (r(2) = 0.783, P = 0.000) and cup/disc ratio (r(2) = 0.669, P = 0.000), whereas the lowest correlation was observed for disc area (r(2) = 0.100, P = 0.037), rim area (r(2) = 0.275, P = 0.000), cup volume (r(2) = 0.005, P = 0.391) and rim volume (r(2) = 0.021, P = 0.346). There were poor agreements between SOCT and HRT-3 for measurement of optic nerve parameters except cup area and cup volume. Measurement results of the two instruments are not interchangeable.

  15. Thermal performance sensitivity studies in support of material modeling for extended storage of used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuta, Judith M.; Suffield, Sarah R.; Fort, James A.; Adkins, Harold E.

    2013-08-15

    The work reported here is an investigation of the sensitivity of component temperatures of a storage system, including fuel cladding temperatures, in response to age-related changes that could degrade the design-basis thermal behavior of the system. Three specific areas of interest were identified for this study. • degradation of the canister backfill gas from pure helium to a mixture of air and helium, resulting from postulated leakage due to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of canister welds • changes in surface emissivity of system components, resulting from corrosion or other aging mechanisms, which could cause potentially significant changes in temperatures and temperature distributions, due to the effect on thermal radiation exchange between components • changes in fuel and basket temperatures due to changes in fuel assembly position within the basket cells in the canister The purpose of these sensitivity studies is to provide a realistic example of how changes in the physical properties or configuration of the storage system components can affect temperatures and temperature distributions. The magnitudes of these sensitivities can provide guidance for identifying appropriate modeling assumptions for thermal evaluations extending long term storage out beyond 50, 100, 200, and 300 years.

  16. Lithium and sodium storage on tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) and TCNE-(doped)-graphene complexes: A computational study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yingqian; Manzhos, Sergei, E-mail: mpemanzh@nus.edu.sg

    2015-04-15

    Li and Na attachment to free tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) molecules and TCNE adsorbed on doped graphene is studied using density functional theory. While TCNE is adsorbed only weakly on ideal graphene, we identified a configuration in which TCNE is strongly chemisorbed on Al-doped graphene via molecule's C atom and a surface oxygen atom. Up to four (five) Li and Na atoms can be stored on both free (adsorbed) TCNE with binding energies stronger than cohesive energies of the Li and Na metals. When storing up to three atoms per molecule, it should be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes. TCNE immobilized on a conducting graphene-based substrate could therefore become an efficient anode material for organic Li and Na ion batteries. Importantly, there is no significant difference either in specific capacity (per unit mass of material excluding Li/Na) nor in voltage between Li and Na storage, which makes this kind of approach very promising for post-Li storage in general. - Highlights: • DFT study of Li, Na attachment to free TCNE and TCNE adsorbed on doped graphene. • Up to 5 Li, Na atoms bind to adsorbed TCNE stronger than Li, Na cohesive energies. • Similar specific capacity and voltage predicted for Li and Na storage. • It should be possible to avoid reduction of common battery electrolytes. • TCNE predicted to be efficient anode material for organic Li and Na ion batteries.

  17. Validation of Hydrogenography for the search of promising hydrogen storage materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pivak, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenography is a combinatorial optical thin film technique to study the thermodynamic properties of metal hydride storage materials. It allows to study thousands of compositions simultaneously with exactly the same experimental conditions. Hydrogenography can pin point the most interesting regio

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  19. Performance Study of optical Modulator based on electrooptic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palodiya, V.; Raghuwanshi, S. K.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we have studied and derive performance parameter of highly integrated Lithium Niobate optical modulator. This is a chirp free modulator having low switching voltage and large bandwidth. For an external modulator in which travelling-wave electrodes length L imposed the modulating switching voltage, the product of Vπ and L is fixed for a given electro optic material Lithium Niobate. We investigate to achieve a low Vπ by both magnitude of the electro-optic coefficient for a wide variety of electro-optic materials. A Sellmeier equation for the extraordinary index of congruent lithium niobate is derived. For phase-matching, predictions are accmate for temperature between room temperature 250°C and wavelength ranging from 0.4 to 5µm. The Sellmeier equations predict more accmately refractive indices at long wavelengths. Theoretical result is confirmed by simulated results. We have analysed the various parameters such as switching voltage, device performance index, time constant, transmittance, cut-off frequency, 3-dB bandwidth, power absorption coefficient and transmission bit rate of Lithium Niobate optical Modulator based on electro -optic effect.

  20. Comparative study of optical fiber cure-monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Peter A.; Powell, Graham R.; Fernando, Gerard F.; Waters, David N.; France, Chris M.; Spooncer, Ronald C.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports on a comparative study undertaken for different types of optical fiber sensor developed to monitor the cure of an epoxy resin system. The optical fiber sensors used to monitor the cure process were based on transmission spectroscopy, evanescent wave spectroscopy and refractive index monitoring. The transmission sensor was prepared by aligning two optical fibers within a specially prepared sleeve with a gap between the optical fiber end-faces. During cure, resin from the specimen flowed into the gap between the optical fibers allowing transmission spectra of the resin to be obtained. The evanescent wave sensor was prepared by stripping the cladding from a high refractive index core optical fiber. The prepared sensor was embedded in the sample and attenuated total reflectance spectra recorded from the resin/core boundary. Refractive index monitoring was undertaken using a high refractive index core optical fiber which had a small portion of its cladding removed. The prepared sensor was embedded in the resin specimen and light from a single wavelength source was launched into the fiber. Changes in the guiding characteristics of the sensor due to refractive index changes at the resin/core boundary were used to monitor the progress of the cure reaction. The transmission and evanescent wave spectroscopy sensors were used to follow changes in characteristic near-infrared absorption bands of the resin over the range 1450 - 1700 nm during the cure reaction. Consequently these techniques required tunable wavelength sources covering specific wavelength ranges. However, the refractive index based sensor used a single wavelength source. Therefore the equipment costs for this type of sensor were considerably less. Additionally, the refractive index sensor did not require a single wavelength source at any particular wavelength and could be applied to any spectral region in which the optical fiber would transmit light. The advantages and disadvantages of these

  1. Study of the effectiveness of propolis extract as a storage medium for avulsed teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaroto, Ana Regina; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Sell, Ana Maria; Franco, Selma Lucy; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura; Moreschi, Eduardo; Victorino, Fausto Rodrigo; Steffens, Vânia Antunes; Bersani-Amado, Ciomar Aparecida

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of propolis extract in maintaining the viability of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells, and to radiographically analyze tooth replantation and the adjacent periodontium in dogs after storage in this extract. Human PDL cells were incubated with the experimental media propolis, milk, saliva, Hank's balanced salt solution (HBSS), and Dulbecco's modified Eagles medium (DMEM, positive controls), and distilled water (negative control). Cell viability was determined 0, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h later by colorimetric MTT assay. Thirty incisors from dogs were divided into two storage time blocks (1 and 3 h) and were maintained in the experimental media. HBSS served as a positive control, and dry teeth (on gauze) as a negative control. The replanted teeth were radiographed once per month for 6 months. The radiographic images were standardized by the shortening/lengthening factor, and were both qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The in vitro results showed that the efficacy of propolis in maintaining functional viability of PDL cells was similar to that of milk. Propolis and milk were significantly better than controls from the 6-h time period. The in vivo results showed that teeth maintained in propolis medium exhibited replacement resorption with significant reduction in tooth length, similar to teeth maintained in saliva and dried teeth. This resorption was less intense with the 3-h storage time than the 1-h storage time. Conditions close to normal were found in teeth maintained in milk, similar to the HBSS control. Therefore, although propolis was effective in maintaining the viability of human PDL cells, resorption of the tooth replantation in dogs occurred under these experimental conditions.

  2. Study of the microbial ecology of cold-smoked salmon during storage at 8 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroi, F; Joffraud, J J; Chevalier, F; Cardinal, M

    1998-01-06

    Microbiological, chemical and sensory changes in cold-smoked salmon were studied during 5 weeks of vacuum storage at 8 degrees C. The aerobic 20 degrees C viable count reached its maximum level after 6 days (3 x 10(6) cfu g-1) however, the shelf-life of the product was estimated to be 2 or 3 weeks by the panellists, confirming that there is no correlation between those two factors. Acid, pungent, sour and rancid odours and flavours and pasty texture were the main spoilage characteristics. Trimethylamine did not play a major role in the spoilage mechanisms as only small amounts were produced. Two-hundred and seventy strains were collected over the storage period, purified and characterized. During the first 2 weeks, Gram-negative bacteria were dominant, mainly represented by S. putrefaciens immediately after the smoking process and then P. phosphoreum. Aeromonas spp. were present throughout the storage but in smaller amounts. Gram-negative bacteria then progressively decreased while Gram-positive bacteria, dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), became by far the most common variety found. Carnobacterium piscicola was widely represented (97/155 LAB isolates). A diversification was observed at the end of the storage, with the appearance of L. farciminis, L. sake and L. alimentarius. Occurrence of yeasts and moulds was quite rare. Spoilage potential of the strains was tested on a sterile smoked salmon extract juice. Shewanella putrefaciens, Aeromonas spp. and Brachothrix spp. produced strong off-odours while most of the LAB and P. phosphoreum seemed not to be involved in spoilage.

  3. Nonlinear optical studies of relaxation in semiconductor microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, Jeffrey Thomas

    1990-11-01

    Exposing a semiconductor to optical radiation near the fundamental band gap results in the creation of populations or elementary excitations including electrons, holes, and excitons, and also results in the creation of a superposition state between the ground and excited state of the solid. The relaxation of optically generated excitons and carriers in semiconductor microstructures was studied using four wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopy. The systems studied include CdSSe microcrystallite doped glasses and GaA/AlGaAs multiple quantum well structures (MQWS). First, the nonlinear optical response of simple two level systems is examined in order to provide insight into the types of line shapes expected from semiconductors. It is shown that the line shape is strongly dependent on how the system is coupled to the reservoir and the consequences of coupling to a reservoir are examined in a FWM measurement made in atomic sodium. The first semiconductor system studied is CdSSe microcrystallite doped glass. This system is shown to have a very slow component to the nonlinear response which has an optical intensity dependence and temperature dependence which suggests that the FWM response in these materials is trap mediated. Room temperature FWM measurements in GaAs MQWS enables the measurement of the carrier recombination time and the ambipolar diffusion coefficient. Using the technique of correlated optical fields, a slow component to the nonlinear response was measured showing an interference profile which suggests a possible shift of the exciton resonance due to the optically generated carriers. At low temperatures, measurements of the exciton line shape and relaxation time were made and evidence for exciton spectral diffusion was found. The low temperature line shapes can be qualitatively reproduced using Modified Optical Bloch equations which include the effects of spectral diffusion.

  4. 上海光源储存环线性模型校正%Linear Optics Model Correction at SSRF Storage Ring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张满洲; 后接; 李浩虎; 陈建辉; 田顺强; 张文志

    2011-01-01

    上海光源是我国刚刚建成的一台第三代中能同步辐射光源。为使得上海光源能够严格工作在设计状态下,在调试过程中进行了一系列线性模型的校正,主要包括闭轨校正、基于束流准直(BBA)校正、LOCO参数校正和线性耦合校正。经过反复的线性模型校正以后,上海光源储存环的闭轨畸变均方根误差在水平和垂直两个方向可以分别控制到50和60μm的水平,包络函数畸变和色散函数畸变都可以控制到小于1%的状态,工作点和束流发射度基本上校正到了设计值。线性耦合校正能够方便地将储存环的耦合度从0.02%调节到2%左右。调试结果表明,上海光源采取的这一套线性模型校正方法,能够有效地将上海光源的工作状态校正到设计状态,并且为其他模式的调节奠定了基础。%In the commissioning stage of Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF) storage ring,several methods were used to correct the linear optics.Beam Based Alignment(BBA) was used for BPM-Quadrupole offsets measurement;Response matrix was used for orbit correction;LOCO was used for linear optics fitting,and quadrupoles strength were adjusted to correction the beta function;coupling was measured and corrected by skew quadrupoles.After correction,closed orbit are reduced to 50/60 μm in hortizontal and vertical plane;β beating and dispersion errors are less than 1%;betatron tune and emmittance are closed to the design value;betatron coupling also can be adjusted from 0.02% to 2%.These methods have been proved to be useful for storage ring calibrations,with the help of these methods,SSRF storage ring can be tuned to the design model and other model easily.

  5. Dense Descriptors for Optical Flow Estimation: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Baghaie

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Estimating the displacements of intensity patterns between sequential frames is a very well-studied problem, which is usually referred to as optical flow estimation. The first assumption among many of the methods in the field is the brightness constancy during movements of pixels between frames. This assumption is proven to be not true in general, and therefore, the use of photometric invariant constraints has been studied in the past. One other solution can be sought by use of structural descriptors rather than pixels for estimating the optical flow. Unlike sparse feature detection/description techniques and since the problem of optical flow estimation tries to find a dense flow field, a dense structural representation of individual pixels and their neighbors is computed and then used for matching and optical flow estimation. Here, a comparative study is carried out by extending the framework of SIFT-flow to include more dense descriptors, and comprehensive comparisons are given. Overall, the work can be considered as a baseline for stimulating more interest in the use of dense descriptors for optical flow estimation.

  6. Improving the precision of linear optics measurements based on turn-by-turn beam position monitor data after a pulsed excitation in lepton storage rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malina, L.; Coello de Portugal, J.; Persson, T.; Skowroński, P. K.; Tomás, R.; Franchi, A.; Liuzzo, S.

    2017-08-01

    Beam optics control is of critical importance for machine performance and protection. Nowadays, turn-by-turn (TbT) beam position monitor (BPM) data are increasingly exploited as they allow for fast and simultaneous measurement of various optics quantities. Nevertheless, so far the best documented uncertainty of measured β -functions is of about 10‰ rms. In this paper we compare the β -functions of the ESRF storage ring measured from two different TbT techniques—the N-BPM and the Amplitude methods—with the ones inferred from a measurement of the orbit response matrix (ORM). We show how to improve the precision of TbT techniques by refining the Fourier transform of TbT data with properly chosen excitation amplitude. The precision of the N-BPM method is further improved by refining the phase advance measurement. This represents a step forward compared to standard TbT measurements. First experimental results showing the precision of β -functions pushed down to 4‰ both in TbT and ORM techniques are reported and commented.

  7. Beam dynamics studies on BEPC-Ⅱstorage rings at the commissioning stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qing; HUANG Nan; LIU Wei-Bin; LIU Yu-Dong; PENG Yue-Mei; QIU Jing; WANG Dou; WANG Xin-Hao; WANG Na; WANG Jiu-Qing; WEI Yuan-Yuan; WEN Xue-Mei; XING Jun; XU Gang; Yu Cheng-Hui; ZHANG Chuang; ZHANG Yuan; ZHAO Zheng; ZHOU De-Min

    2009-01-01

    During the 1st and 2nd stages of the commissioning of the upgrade project of the Beijing Electron Positron Collider(BEPC Ⅱ),which started on Nov.12,2006 and Oct.24,2007,respectively,we got the luminosity one tenth of its design value,provided beams to synchrotron radiation users for about 4 months,and studied beam dynamics as well.In this paper,some beam dynamics studies on the storage rings and their preliminary results are given.

  8. Design and experimental study of an integrated vapor chamber-thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Krishna M.

    Future defense, aerospace and automotive technologies involve electronic systems that release high pulsed waste heat like during high power microwave and laser diode applications in tactical and combat aircraft, and electrical and electronic systems in hybrid electric vehicles, which will require the development of an efficient thermal management system. A key design issue is the need for fast charging so as not to overheat the key components. The goal of this work is to study the fabrication and technology implementation feasibility of a novel high energy storage, high heat flux passive heat sink. Key focus is to verify by theory and experiments, the practicability of using phase change materials as a temporary storage of waste heat for heat sink applications. The reason for storing the high heat fluxes temporarily is to be able to reject the heat at the average level when the heat source is off. Accordingly, a concept of a dual latent heat sink intended for moderate to low thermal duty cycle electronic heat sink applications is presented. This heat sink design combines the features of a vapor chamber with rapid thermal energy storage employing graphite foam inside the heat storage facility along with phase change materials and is attractive owing to its passive operation unlike some of the current thermal management techniques for cooling of electronics employing forced air circulation or external heat exchangers. In addition to the concept, end-application dependent criteria to select an optimized design for this dual latent heat sink are presented. A thermal resistance concept based design tool/model has been developed to analyze and optimize the design for experiments. The model showed that it is possible to have a dual latent heat sink design capable of handling 7 MJ of thermal load at a heat flux of 500 W/cm2 (over an area of 100 cm 2) with a volume of 0.072 m3 and weighing about 57.5 kg. It was also found that with such high heat flux absorption capability

  9. A fiber optic approach for in vivo minimally invasive study of tissue optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilev, Ilko K.; Waynant, Ronald W.; Byrnes, Kimberly R.; Anders, Juanita

    2004-06-01

    Based on a fiber-optic approach, we present a fundamental in vivo study of optical properties and light transmission characteristics of single and multiple tissue layers and blood in a Sprague Dawley rat model. In our experiments, we utilize either coherent laser sources with various energy and spectral characteristics or incoherent light sources in a broadband spectral range covering the visible and near-infrared (from 400 nm to 1200 nm). The measurement techniques are based on a simple minimally invasive fiber-optic light delivery system that provides an effective method for homogeneously and precisely controlling the light irradiation of the tissue medium as well as being a highly sensitive detector of the tissue's scattered light. The delivery-sensor probes are placed into different tissue layers (skin, sub-cutaneous connective and deep connective tissue, back muscle, bone and spinal cord) and blood, and broadband spectral transmission characteristics of these media are measured in vivo. The transmission spectra are analyzed in order to determine the specificity of interaction of different tissues with light. The main goal is to determine the most effective coherent or incoherent light sources and their optimal parameters that might be used for minimally invasive therapeutic and optical diagnostics techniques.

  10. Optical information capacity of silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitropoulos, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Modern computing and data storage systems increasingly rely on parallel architectures where processing and storage load is distributed within a cluster of nodes. The necessity for high-bandwidth data links has made optical communication a critical constituent of modern information systems and silicon the leading platform for creating the necessary optical components. While silicon is arguably the most extensively studied material in history, one of its most important attributes, an analysis of its capacity to carry optical information, has not been reported. The calculation of the information capacity of silicon is complicated by nonlinear losses, phenomena that emerge in optical nanowires as a result of the concentration of optical power in a small geometry. Nonlinear losses are absent in silica glass optical fiber and other common communication channels. While nonlinear loss in silicon is well known, noise and fluctuations that arise from it have never been considered. Here we report sources of fluctuations...

  11. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  12. Natural analogue study of CO2 storage monitoring using probability statistics of CO2-rich groundwater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. K.; Hamm, S. Y.; Kim, S. O.; Yun, S. T.

    2016-12-01

    For confronting global climate change, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is one of several very useful strategies as using capture of greenhouse gases like CO2 spewed from stacks and then isolation of the gases in underground geologic storage. CO2-rich groundwater could be produced by CO2 dissolution into fresh groundwater around a CO2 storage site. As consequence, natural analogue studies related to geologic storage provide insights into future geologic CO2 storage sites as well as can provide crucial information on the safety and security of geologic sequestration, the long-term impact of CO2 storage on the environment, and field operation and monitoring that could be implemented for geologic sequestration. In this study, we developed CO2 leakage monitoring method using probability density function (PDF) by characterizing naturally occurring CO2-rich groundwater. For the study, we used existing data of CO2-rich groundwaters in different geological regions (Gangwondo, Gyeongsangdo, and Choongchungdo provinces) in South Korea. Using PDF method and QI (quantitative index), we executed qualitative and quantitative comparisons among local areas and chemical constituents. Geochemical properties of groundwater with/without CO2 as the PDF forms proved that pH, EC, TDS, HCO3-, Ca2+, Mg2+, and SiO2 were effective monitoring parameters for carbonated groundwater in the case of CO2leakage from an underground storage site. KEY WORDS: CO2-rich groundwater, CO2 storage site, monitoring parameter, natural analogue, probability density function (PDF), QI_quantitative index Acknowledgement This study was supported by the "Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF), which is funded by the Ministry of Education (NRF-2013R1A1A2058186)" and the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from KEITI (Project number: 2014001810003).

  13. A study of hydro-graphene for energy storage (2) hydrogen absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokio, Yamabe; Mitsuhiro, Fujii [Nagasaki Institute of Applied Science, Nagasaki (Japan); Yoshio, Furuya [Faculty of Education, Dept. of Technology, Nagasaki (Japan); Shiro, Mori; Shizukuni, Yata [Energy Conversion Research Lab., KRI Inc., Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The technology of hydrogen storage is one of the most important challenges in hydrogen energy system for clean environment [1]. Some carbon materials are expected to have such advantage for hydrogen storage. We have studied about PAS and PAHs, which are marginal members of the carbon allotropes containing a significant amount of hydrogen atoms, and which show a variety of interesting properties lacking pure carbon materials [2-9]. They constituted by graphite sheets terminated by hydrogen atoms, and so it may be called 'hydro-graphene' [10]. In this work, we prepared two kinds of hydro-graphene, such as PAS [8,9] and PAHs [7], by the pyrolysis at 550 C. The [H]/[C] molar ratio of PAS was 0.45, and that of PAHs was 0.33. The interlayer distance of PAS was broad, and that of PAH was 3.68 A. We examined their ability of hydrogen storage by two methods. It was measured the amount of equilibrium pressure change of sample room, on the first method of increasing hydrogen pressure at 77 K, and on the second method of temperature increasing to R.T. in vacuum after reducing pressure. On the former method, the hydrogen storage amount of PAS was 0.5 wt-%, and that of PAHs was about 0.4 wt-%. On the latter, that of PAS was 0.4 wt-%, d that of PAHs was 0.3 wt-%. Those results indicate that each total capacity of hydrogen storage was estimated 0.5-0.6 wt%. We will discuss the mechanism of hydrogen adsorption to hydro-graphene based on the quantum chemical viewpoint. [1] DOE Hydrogen Program: www.hydrogen.energy.gov. [2] P. Novac, K. Muller, K. S. V. Santhanam, O. Haas: Chem. Rev., 97, 270, 1997; [3] T. Yamabe, K. Tanaka, K. Ohzeki, S. Yata: Solid State Commun., 44, 823, 1982; [4] S. Yata, Y. Hato, K. Sakurai, H. Satake, K. Mukai, K. Tanaka, T. Yamabe: Synth. Met., 38, 169, 1990; [5] S. Yata, H. Kinoshita, M. Komori, N. Ando, T. Kashiwamura, T. Harada, K Tanaka, T. Yamabe: Synth. Met., 62, 153, 1994; [6] J. R. Dahn, T. Zheng, Y. Liu, J. S. Xue: Science, 270, 590, 1995

  14. The simulation study on optical target laser active detection performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-chun; Hou, Zhao-fei; Fan, Youchen

    2014-12-01

    According to the working principle of laser active detection system, the paper establishes the optical target laser active detection simulation system, carry out the simulation study on the detection process and detection performance of the system. For instance, the performance model such as the laser emitting, the laser propagation in the atmosphere, the reflection of optical target, the receiver detection system, the signal processing and recognition. We focus on the analysis and modeling the relationship between the laser emitting angle and defocus amount and "cat eye" effect echo laser in the reflection of optical target. Further, in the paper some performance index such as operating range, SNR and the probability of the system have been simulated. The parameters including laser emitting parameters, the reflection of the optical target and the laser propagation in the atmosphere which make a great influence on the performance of the optical target laser active detection system. Finally, using the object-oriented software design methods, the laser active detection system with the opening type, complete function and operating platform, realizes the process simulation that the detection system detect and recognize the optical target, complete the performance simulation of each subsystem, and generate the data report and the graph. It can make the laser active detection system performance models more intuitive because of the visible simulation process. The simulation data obtained from the system provide a reference to adjust the structure of the system parameters. And it provides theoretical and technical support for the top level design of the optical target laser active detection system and performance index optimization.

  15. Demand management of city gas per season and study of estimating proper size of LNG storage facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Y.H.; Kim, S.D. [Korea Energy Economics Institute, Euiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-09-01

    LNG storage facilities are indispensable to satisfy demand throughout the year by saturating the time difference of supply and demand that appears due to seasonal factors. The necessity of storage facilities is more important in a country like Korea where LNG is not produced at all and imports are relied upon. The problem of deciding how much storage facilities to keep and in what pattern to import LNG is a question to solve in order to minimize the costs related to the construction of LNG storage facilities while not causing any problem in the supply and demand of LNG. This study analyzes how the import of LNG and the consumption pattern of LNG for power generation affect the decision on the size of storage facilities. How the shipping control, and how LNG demand for power generation affect the decision of requirement of storage facilities, and why the possibility of shipping control should be investigated in the aspect of costs is investigated. As a result of this study, I presented necessary basic data for drafting a policy by assessing the minimum requirements of storage facilities needed for balancing the supply and demand with the various shipping control and LNG consumption patterns through simulation up to the year 2010. 10 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  16. Performance Analysis and Parametric Study of a Natural Convection Solar Air Heater With In-built Oil Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhote, Yogesh; Thombre, Shashikant

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents the thermal performance of the proposed double flow natural convection solar air heater with in-built liquid (oil) sensible heat storage. Unused engine oil was used as thermal energy storage medium due to its good heat retaining capacity even at high temperatures without evaporation. The performance evaluation was carried out for a day of the month March for the climatic conditions of Nagpur (India). A self reliant computational model was developed using computational tool as C++. The program developed was self reliant and compute the performance parameters for any day of the year and would be used for major cities in India. The effect of change in storage oil quantity and the inclination (tilt angle) on the overall efficiency of the solar air heater was studied. The performance was tested initially at different storage oil quantities as 25, 50, 75 and 100 l for a plate spacing of 0.04 m with an inclination of 36o. It has been found that the solar air heater gives the best performance at a storage oil quantity of 50 l. The performance of the proposed solar air heater is further tested for various combinations of storage oil quantity (50, 75 and 100 l) and the inclination (0o, 15o, 30o, 45o, 60o, 75o, 90o). It has been found that the proposed solar air heater with in-built oil storage shows its best performance for the combination of 50 l storage oil quantity and 60o inclination. Finally the results of the parametric study was also presented in the form of graphs carried out for a fixed storage oil quantity of 25 l, plate spacing of 0.03 m and at an inclination of 36o to study the behaviour of various heat transfer and fluid flow parameters of the solar air heater.

  17. Improvement of Three-Dimensional Resolution in Optical Data Storage by Combination of Two Annular Binary Phase Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiao-Feng; LI Cheng-Fang; RUAN Hao

    2004-01-01

    @@ We present an improved confocal readout system to achieve three-dimensional superresolution. This improved system is based on a combination of two different annular binary phase filters, the one designed for increasing the transverse superresolution and the other for achieving axial superresolution. By adjusting the pupil parameters,each pupil can be well designed. The simulation results show that with this improved system, the area of the central lobe of the three-dimensional point spread function of the read optics is greatly reduced. Moreover, the side-lobes are extinguished.

  18. Quantitative (stereological) study on the spermatozoal storage capacity of epididymis in rats and monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-HongWEN; Zheng-WeiYANG

    2000-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the spermatozoal production rate of the testis and the spermatozoal storage capacity of the epididyrnis in monkeys and rats. Methods: The number of the late spermatids (steps 13 - 14 in the monkey or steps 15 - 19 in the rat) per testis and the number of spermatozoa per epididymis were estimated in 6 normal adult monkeys (Macaca fascicularis ) and 6 normal adult SD rats on 25 μm-thick methacrylate-embedded sections using a contemporary unbiased and efficient stereological method-the optical disector. The diameter and length of the efferent ductules and ductus epididyrnidis and the volume of the epididymal fluid in the tubules were also estimated. Results: The total number of the late spermatids per testis was 2902 ± 749 (million, x ± s ) in the monkey, or 179 ± 31 in the rat; the number of spermatozoa per epididymis was 3235 ± 1835 in the monkey, or 241 ± 76 in the rat. Conclusion: A large number of spermatozoa was densely packed and stored in the ductus epididymidis; the epididymal transit time for spermatozoa was around 5 days in monkeys or 11 days in rats. (Asian J Androl 2000; 2:73 - 77)

  19. A Numerical Study of a Double Pipe Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tonny

    Solar energy is an intermittent supply source of energy. To efficiently utilize this free renewable energy source some form of thermal energy storage devices are necessary. Phase change materials (PCMs), because of their high energy density storage capacity and near isothermal phase change characteristics, have proven to be promising candidates for latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) devices. Among the various LHTES devices for low temperature residential heating and cooling applications, the shell-and-tube type heat exchanging devices are the most simple to operate and can be easily fabricated. This work numerically investigates the buoyancy driven heat transfer process during melting (charging) of a commercial paraffin wax as PCM filling the annulus of a horizontal double pipe heat exchanger. The heated working fluid (water) is passing through the central tube of the annulus at a sufficiently high flow-rate and thereby maintaining an almost isothermal wall temperature at the inner pipe which is higher than the melting temperature of the PCM. The transient, two-dimensional coupled laminar momentum and energy equations for the model are suitably non-dimensionalized and are solved numerically using the enthalpy-porosity approach. Time-wise evolutions of the flow patterns and temperature distributions are presented through velocity vector fields and isotherm plots. In this study, two types of PCM filled annuli, a plain annulus and a strategically placed longitudinal finned annulus, are studied. The total energy stored, the total liquid fraction and the energy efficiency at different melting times are evaluated for three different operating conditions and the results are compared between the plain and finned annuli. The present study will provide guidelines for system thermal performance and design optimization of the shell-and-tube LHTES devices. .

  20. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  1. Optical Studies on Rare Earth Lasting Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Tandon

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Neodymium-doped borate and phosphate glass specimens have been prepared by melt-quenching technique. Their absorption spectra have been recorded in the region 400 -900 nm. From observed absorption spectra,Judd Ofelt (J0, Omega/sub t/, parameters (t = 2, 4 and 6 have been computed. They have been used to calculate the laser parameters, viz., spontaneous emission probability (A, fluorescence branching ratio (Beeta and stimulated emission cross-section (Sigma. They exhibit the suitability of the present glass specimen for laser action. The effects of composition and concentration of the dopant on these parameters have been discussed. A comparative study of stimulated emission cross-section of different types of doped glasses has also been made.

  2. Experimental Studies on a Compact Storage Scheme for Wavelet-based Multiresolution Subregion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulakidas, A.; Srinivasan, A.; Egecioglu, O.; Ibarra, O.; Yang, T.

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet transforms, when combined with quantization and a suitable encoding, can be used to compress images effectively. In order to use them for image library systems, a compact storage scheme for quantized coefficient wavelet data must be developed with a support for fast subregion retrieval. We have designed such a scheme and in this paper we provide experimental studies to demonstrate that it achieves good image compression ratios, while providing a natural indexing mechanism that facilitates fast retrieval of portions of the image at various resolutions.

  3. Nanoroses of nickel oxides: Synthesis, electron tomography study, and application in CO oxidation and energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Fihri, Aziz

    2012-04-11

    Nickel oxide and mixed-metal oxide structures were fabricated by using microwave irradiation in pure water. The nickel oxide self-assembled into unique rose-shaped nanostructures. These nickel oxide roses were studied by performing electron tomography with virtual cross-sections through the particles to understand their morphology from their interior to their surface. These materials exhibited promising performance as nanocatalysts for CO oxidation and in energy storage devices. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equiment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaowei Wang; Zhenyan Liu [Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ. (China). School of Mechanical and Power Engineering; Yuan Li; Keke Zhao; Zhigang Wang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd. (China)

    2005-11-01

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users. (author)

  5. Experimental study on split air conditioner with new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Shaowei [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)]. E-mail: wswtop@sjtu.edu.cn; Liu Zhenyan [School of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li Yuan [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Zhao Keke [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China); Wang Zhigang [Qingdao Hisense Group Co. Ltd., Qingdao 266030 (China)

    2005-11-15

    This paper presents a split air conditioner with a new hybrid equipment of energy storage and water heater all year round (ACWES). The authors made a special design on the storage tank to adjust the refrigerant capacity in the storage coils under different functions, instead of adding an accumulator to the system. An ACWES prototype, rebuilt from an original split air conditioner, has been finished, and experimental study of the operation processes of the prototype was done from which some important conclusions and suggestions have been made, which were helpful in the primary design and improvement of an ACWES system for potential users.

  6. Study on Optical Absorption Behavior of Dyestuff in Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong-ying; ZHU Su-kang; ZUO Lei; ZHU Ping-ping; PAN Ning

    2008-01-01

    Fabric is a kind of turbid materials with strong light scattering,to which the Kubelka-Munk theory can be applied to describe it optical behavior.In this paper,the light absorption coefficients of dyestuff in fabrics are obtained by test and calculation thnmgh a special method proposed by the authors.Then the optical behaviours of dyestuff in fabric are studied.Results show that,the absorption coeffident of dye in fabric is non-scalable and exponential to dye concentrafion in fabric which is totally different from that of the dye in transparent medm like water.

  7. A study of optical vortices inside the Talbot interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Panthong, Pituk; Pattanaporkratana, Apichart; Chiangga, Surasak; Deachapunya, Sarayut

    2015-01-01

    The optical Talbot interferometer has been used to explore the topological charges of optical vortices. We recorded the self-imaging of a diffraction grating in the near-field regime with the optical vortex of several topological charges. Our twisted light was generated by a spatial light modulator (SLM). Previous studies showed that interferometric methods can determine the particular orbital angular momentum (OAM) states, but a large number of OAM eigenvalues are difficult to distinguish from the interference patterns. Here, we show that the Talbot patterns can distinguish the charges as well as the OAM of the vortices with high orders. Owing to high sensitivity and self-imaging of Talbot effect, several OAM eigenvalues can be distinguished by direct measurement. We assure the experimental results with our theory. The present results are useful for classical and quantum metrology as well as future implementations of quantum communications.

  8. Optical studies of high-temperature superconducting cuprates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Setsuko

    2016-09-01

    The optical studies of high-temperature superconducting cuprates (HTSC) are reviewed. From the doping dependence of room temperature spectra, a dramatic change of the electronic state from a Mott (charge transfer) insulator to a Fermi liquid has been revealed. Additionally, the unusual 2D nature of the electronic state has been found. The temperature dependence of the optical spectra provided a rich source of information on the pseudogap, superconducting gap, Josephson plasmon, transverse Josephson plasma mode and precursory superconductivity. Among these issues, Josephson plasmons and transverse Josephson plasma mode were experimentally discovered by optical measurements, and thus are unique to HTSC. The effect of the spin/charge stripe order is also unique to HTSC, reflecting the conducting nature of the stripe order in this system. The pair-breaking due to the stripe order seems stronger in the out-of-plane direction than in the in-plane one.

  9. Optical tweezers force measurements to study parasites chemotaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thomaz, A. A.; Pozzo, L. Y.; Fontes, A.; Almeida, D. B.; Stahl, C. V.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.; Ayres, D. C.; Giorgio, S.; Cesar, C. L.

    2009-07-01

    In this work, we propose a methodology to study microorganisms chemotaxis in real time using an Optical Tweezers system. Optical Tweezers allowed real time measurements of the force vectors, strength and direction, of living parasites under chemical or other kinds of gradients. This seems to be the ideal tool to perform observations of taxis response of cells and microorganisms with high sensitivity to capture instantaneous responses to a given stimulus. Forces involved in the movement of unicellular parasites are very small, in the femto-pico-Newton range, about the same order of magnitude of the forces generated in an Optical Tweezers. We applied this methodology to investigate the Leishmania amazonensis (L. amazonensis) and Trypanossoma cruzi (T. cruzi) under distinct situations.

  10. Optical timing studies of isolated neutron stars: Current Status

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P

    2010-01-01

    Being fast rotating objects, Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) are natural targets for high-time resolution observations across the whole electromagnetic spectrum. With the number of objects detected at optical (plus ultraviolet and infrared) wavelengths now increased to 24, high-time resolution observations of INSs at these wavelengths are becoming more and more important. While classical rotation-powered radio pulsars, like the Crab and Vela pulsars, have been the first INSs studied at high-time resolution in the optical domain, observations performed in the last two decades have unveiled potential targets in other types of INSs which are not rotation powered, although their periodic variability is still related to the neutron star rotation. In this paper I review the current status of high-time resolution observations of INSs in the optical domain for different classes of objects: rotation-powered pulsars, magnetars, thermally emitting neutron stars, and rapid radio transients, I describe their timing properti...

  11. Studies of Neutron Stars at Optical/IR Wavelengths

    CERN Document Server

    Mignani, R P; De Luca, A; Israel, G L; Curto, G L; Motch, C; Perna, R; Rea, N; Turolla, R; Zane, S

    2006-01-01

    In the last years, optical studies of Isolated Neutron Stars (INSs) have expanded from the more classical rotation-powered ones to other categories, like the Anomalous X-ray Pulsars (AXPs) and the Soft Gamma-ray Repeaters (SGRs), which make up the class of the magnetars, the radio-quiet INSs with X-ray thermal emission and, more recently, the enigmatic Compact Central Objects (CCOs) in supernova remnants. Apart from 10 rotation-powered pulsars, so far optical/IR counterparts have been found for 5 magnetars and for 4 INSs. In this work we present some of the latest observational results obtained from optical/IR observations of different types of INSs.

  12. Experiment Study of Fiber Optic Sensing in Railway Security Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dian Fan; De-Sheng Jiang; Wei-Lai Li

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at some security problems in railway running and the application condition of existing technology, this paper studies some issues of using fiber optic sensing technology in railway security monitoring. Through field experiment measuring the strain of the rail and analyzing the experiment data, the method of diagnosing the health condition of rail and wheel is investigated.

  13. Optical studies of directly synthesized trans-polyacetylene films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, T. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Suruga, K. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Natsume, N. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Ishikawa, K. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Takezoe, H. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan); Fukuda, A. [Department of Organic and Polymeric Materials, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152 (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    We studied optical spectra of directly synthesized trans-polyacetylene films. Reflection and resonance Raman spectra show that effective conjugation length distribution has longer average length and narrower width than that of ordinary thermoisomerized films. Moreover, ESR spectra show that directly synthesized films have fewer defects than ordinary thermoisomerized films. (orig.)

  14. A population-based prospective study of optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, K; Jarius, S; Skejoe, Hanne Pernille Bro

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Optic neuritis (ON) is often associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Early diagnosis is critical to optimal patient management. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the incidence of acute ON and the rates of conversion to MS and antibody-mediated ON. METHOD: Population-based prospective study was ...

  15. Ultrafast electron diffraction studies of optically excited thin bismuth films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkovic, Ivan

    2008-10-21

    This thesis contains work on the design and the realization of an experimental setup capable of providing sub-picosecond electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction experiments, and performing the study of ultrafast dynamics in bismuth after optical excitation using this setup. (orig.)

  16. OPTICAL-PROPERTIES OF DISORDERED MOLECULAR AGGREGATES - A NUMERICAL STUDY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FIDDER, H; KNOESTER, J; WIERSMA, DA

    1991-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations on optical properties of linear molecular aggregates with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. In contrast to previous studies, we introduce off-diagonal disorder indirectly through Gaussian randomness in the molecular positions; this results in a strongly

  17. Optical properties of disordered molecular aggregates : A numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fidder, Henk; Knoester, Jasper; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1991-01-01

    We present results of numerical simulations on optical properties of linear molecular aggregates with diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. In contrast to previous studies, we introduce off-diagonal disorder indirectly through Gaussian randomness in the molecular positions; this results in a strongly

  18. Finite Element Studies Of Tangent Mounted Conical Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, J.; Casstevens, J.; Stillman, D.

    1982-12-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical results from a study investigating the effect of centrifugal force and gravity on two candidate mirror fixture designs to be used on a diamond-turning ma-chine. The authors illustrate and discuss the use of the finite element method as an aid in the design and fabrication of high precision metallic optical components.

  19. IP storage : a performance and security study, LDRD 04-1021.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Randwyk, Jamie A.; Bierbaum, Neal Robert; Chen, Helen Y.; Bielecki, Frank T.

    2005-02-01

    Effective, high-performance, networked file systems and storage is needed to solve I/O bottlenecks between large compute platforms. Frequently, parallel techniques such as PFTP, are employed to overcome the adverse effect of TCP's congestion avoidance algorithm in order to achieve reasonable aggregate throughput. These techniques can suffer from end-system bottlenecks due to the protocol processing overhead and memory copies involved in moving large amounts of data during I/O. Moreover, transferring data using PFTP requires manual operation, lacking the transparency to allow for interactive visualization and computational steering of large-scale simulations from distributed locations. This paper evaluates the emerging Internet SCSI (iSCSI) protocol [2] as the file/data transport in order that remote clients can transparently access data through a distributed global file system available to local clients. We started our work characterizing the performance behavior of iSCSI in Local Area Networks (LANs). We then proceeded to study the effect of propagation delay on throughput using remote iSCSI storage and explored optimization techniques to mitigate the adverse effects of long delay in high-bandwidth Wide Area Networks (WANs). Lastly, we evaluated iSCSI in a Storage Area Network (SAN) for a Global Parallel Filesystem. We conducted our benchmark based on typical usage model of large-scale scientific applications at Sandia. We demonstrated the benefit of high-performance parallel VO to scientific applications at the IEEE 2004 Supercomputing Conference, using experiences and knowledge gained from this study.

  20. Study on the Mechanism of Browning of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.cv. Ganesh) Peel in Different Storage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Peel browning of pomegranate fruit is the key problem during storage. The mechanism of it during storage in relation to the technology of the browning control was studied in this paper. The effects of storage temperature, gas component and Ph value on peel browning of sweet pomegranate fruit in Lintong, Shaanxi Province, China, were investigated. Change in tannin content was measured and the relationship between the activities of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), polypenoloxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and peel browning was analysed. The results showed tannin was the basic substance of pomegranate peel browning. The activities of the browning index of peel were correlated positively with AAO, PPO and POD, correlated negatively with CAT activity. Application of intermittent warming for 24 h at (15 ±0.5)℃ every 5 days for pomegranate fruit storage under the conditions of Ph 4.0, (5.0 ± 0.5)℃ and 5.0% CO2 + 8.0% O2 +87.0% N2 gas component could delay browning, with the browning index being 0.15 after 120 days of storage. Enzymatic tannin denaturation was the main cause that led to peel browning of pomegranate fruit during storage. The browning control of pomegranate fruit peel was effective using intermittent warming storage with suitable Ph, temperature and gas component.

  1. Study of magnetic hysteresis effects in a storage ring using precision tune measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Hao, Hao; Mikhailov, Stepan F.; Xu, Wei; Li, Jing-Yi; Li, Wei-Min; Wu, Ying. K.

    2016-12-01

    With the advances in accelerator science and technology in recent decades, the accelerator community has focused on the development of next-generation light sources, for example diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs), which require precision control of the electron beam energy and betatron tunes. This work is aimed at understanding magnet hysteresis effects on the electron beam energy and lattice focusing in circular accelerators, and developing new methods to gain better control of these effects. In this paper, we will report our recent experimental study of the magnetic hysteresis effects and their impacts on the Duke storage ring lattice using the transverse feedback based precision tune measurement system. The major magnet hysteresis effects associated with magnet normalization and lattice ramping are carefully studied to determine an effective procedure for lattice preparation while maintaining a high degree of reproducibility of lattice focusing. The local hysteresis effects are also studied by measuring the betatron tune shifts which result from adjusting the setting of a quadrupole. A new technique has been developed to precisely recover the focusing strength of the quadrupole by returning it to a proper setting to overcome the local hysteresis effect. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11175180, 11475167) and US DOE (DE-FG02-97ER41033)

  2. Experimental studies on an indigenous coconut shell based activated carbon suitable for natural gas storage

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SATYABRATA SAHOO; M RAMGOPAL

    2016-04-01

    Experimental studies are carried out to characterize an indigenous, coconut shell based, activated carbon suitable for storage of natural gas. Properties such as BET surface area, micropore volume, average pore diameter and pore size distribution are obtained by using suitable instruments and techniques. An experimental setup is developed to estimate the equilibrium methane adsorption capacity and adsorption/desorption kinetics. The experimental isothermal uptake data is used to fit four different isotherm models. Using the constants obtained for the D–A isotherm model the variation of heat of adsorption and adsorbed phase specific heat with equilibrium pressure and temperature are obtained. Similarly Henry’s Law coefficients, important at low pressure and low uptake regime are also obtained. Finally using the kinetic data and a linear driving force model,constants in the kinetic equation are obtained. Results show that the indigenous material used in this study offers reasonably high natural gas storage capacity and fast kinetics and is suitable for adsorbed natural gas (ANG)applications. It is expected that this study will be useful in the design and development of ANG systems based on this indigenous material.

  3. Study of optical properties and proteoglycan content of tendons by polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ying; Rupani, Asha; Bagnaninchi, Pierre; Wimpenny, Ian; Weightman, Alan

    2012-08-01

    The highly orientated collagen fibers in tendons play a critical role for transferring tensile stress, and they demonstrate birefringent optical properties. However, the influence that proteoglycans (PGs) have on the optical properties of tendons is yet to be fully elucidated. PGs are the essential components of the tendon extracellular matrix; the changes in their quantities and compositions have been associated with tendinopathies. In this study, polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) has been used to reveal the relationship between PG content/location and birefringence properties of tendons. Fresh chicken tendons were imaged at regular intervals by PS-OCT and polarization light microscopy during the extraction of PGs, using guanidine hydrochloride (GuHCl). Complementary time-lapsed images taken from the two modalities mutually demonstrated that the extraction of PGs disturbed the local organization of collagen bundles. This corresponded with a decrease in birefringence and associated banding pattern observed by PS-OCT. Furthermore, this study revealed there was a higher concentration of PGs in the outer sheath region than in the fascicles, and therefore the change in birefringence was reduced when extraction was performed on unsheathed tendons. The results provide new insights of tendon structure and the role of PGs on the structural stability of tendons, which also demonstrates the great potential for using PS-OCT as a diagnostic tool to examine tendon pathology.

  4. Optical closure study on light-absorbing aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Andreas; Bundke, Ulrich; Freedman, Andrew; Onasch, Timothy B.; Massoli, Paola; Andrews, Elizabeth; Hallar, Anna G.

    2014-05-01

    The in situ measurement of atmospheric aerosol optical properties is an important component of quantifying climate change. In particular, the in-situ measurement of the aerosol single-scattering albedo (SSA), which is the ratio of aerosol scattering to aerosol extinction, is identified as a key challenge in atmospheric sciences and climate change research. Ideally, the complete set of aerosol optical properties is measured through optical closure studies which simultaneous measure aerosol extinction, scattering and absorption coefficients. The recent development of new optical instruments have made real-time in situ optical closure studies attainable, however, many of these instruments are state-of-the-art but not practical for routine monitoring. In our studies we deployed a suit of well-established and recently developed instruments including the cavity attenuated phase shift (CAPS) method for aerosol light extinction, multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP) and particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP) for aerosol light absorption, and an integrating nephelometer (NEPH) for aerosol light scattering measurements. From these directly measured optical properties we calculated light absorption from extinction minus scattering (difference method), light extinction from scattering plus absorption, and aerosol single-scattering albedo from combinations CAPS + MAAP, NEPH + PSAP, NEPH + MAAP, CAPS + NEPH. Closure studies were conducted for laboratory-generated aerosols composed of various mixtures of black carbon (Regal 400R pigment black, Cabot Corp.) and ammonium sulphate, urban aerosol (Billerica, MA), and background aerosol (Storm Peak Lab.). Key questions addressed in our closure studies are: (1) how well can we measure aerosol light absorption by various methods, and (2) how well can we measure the aerosol single-scattering albedo by various instrument combinations? In particular we investigated (3) whether the combination of a CAPS and NEPH provides a reasonable

  5. Feasibility study of a Green Power Plant. Final report. [Offshore pumped hydro storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-03-15

    This project is a technical evaluation and a feasibility study of a concept called the Green Power Plant (GPP), developed by Seahorn Energy Aps. The Green Power Plant is an offshore pumped hydro storage facility constructed from prefabricated elements and with integrated renewable energy production. Pumped hydro storage is a known technology with a proven roundtrip energy storage efficiency of 80%. The focus of the GPP project is on simplifying and industrializing the construction of the reservoir wall, thereby achieving a cost efficient solution. The reservoir structure is dependent on the site on which the reservoir is established, thus Kriegers Flak in the Baltic Sea has been chosen as basis for the technical evaluation. As soil conditions vary, the technical evaluations have been based on a general soil profile. A water depth of 25m has been chosen as basis for the evaluation. A reservoir with a diameter of 2 km has been evaluated as baseline scenario. Feasibility of the GPP was evaluated based on the cost and income estimates. For the baseline scenario an internal rate of return of 6.6% was found for a period of 35 years. A sensitivity analysis reveals internal rates of return over 35 years varying from 4.9% to 10.9%. Especially larger reservoir diameters increase profitability of the GPP. The results from this project will be utilized in raising funds for further development of the GPP concept. Seahorn Energy Aps aims at optimizing the wind turbine integration, the steel pile wall structure and the pump-turbine integration in a future project towards construction of a demonstration facility. (LN)

  6. Comparative study of lossy and lossless data compression in distributed optical fiber sensing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atubga, David; Wu, Huijuan; Lu, Lidong; Sun, Xiaoyan

    2017-02-01

    Typical fully distributed optical fiber sensors (DOFS) with dozens of kilometers are equivalent to tens of thousands of point sensors along the whole monitoring line, which means tens of thousands of data will be generated for one pulse launching period. Therefore, in an all-day nonstop monitoring, large volumes of data are created thereby triggering the demand for large storage space and high speed for data transmission. In addition, when the monitoring length and channel numbers increase, the data also increase extensively. The task of mitigating large volumes of data accumulation, large storage capacity, and high-speed data transmission is, therefore, the aim of this paper. To demonstrate our idea, we carried out a comparative study of two lossless methods, Huffman and Lempel Ziv Welch (LZW), with a lossy data compression algorithm, fast wavelet transform (FWT) based on three distinctive DOFS sensing data, such as Φ-OTDR, P-OTDR, and B-OTDA. Our results demonstrated that FWT yielded the best compression ratio with good consumption time, irrespective of errors in signal construction of the three DOFS data. Our outcomes indicate the promising potentials of FWT which makes it more suitable, reliable, and convenient for real-time compression of the DOFS data. Finally, it was observed that differences in the DOFS data structure have some influence on both the compression ratio and computational cost.

  7. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Christine Men [UNESP; Hamanaka,Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida,Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; HIDALGO Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira,Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto [UNESP

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional a...

  8. A Study on Applicability of Distributed Energy Generation, Storage and Consumption within Small Scale Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Rodríguez-Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation and storage of energy, conceived as one of the prominent applications of the Smart Grid, has become one of the most popular ways for generation and usage of electricity. Not only does it offer environmental advantages and a more decentralized way to produce energy, but it also enables former consumers to become producers (thus turning them into prosumers. Alternatively, regular power production and consumption is still widely used in most of the world. Unfortunately, accurate business models representations and descriptive use cases for small scale facilitates, either involved in distributed energy or not, have not been provided in a descriptive enough manner. What is more, the possibilities that electricity trade and its storage and consumption activities offer for small users to obtain profits are yet to be addressed and offered to the research community in a thorough manner, so that small consumers will use them to their advantage. This paper puts forward a study on four different business models for small scale facilities and offers an economical study on how they can be deployed as a way to offer profitability for end users and new companies, while at the same time showing the required technological background to have them implemented.

  9. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangfei Kong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP. The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP, which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC, scanning electron microscope (SEM, best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1 the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2 the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3 in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  10. Building Energy Storage Panel Based on Paraffin/Expanded Perlite: Preparation and Thermal Performance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangfei; Zhong, Yuliang; Rong, Xian; Min, Chunhua; Qi, Chengying

    2016-01-25

    This study is focused on the preparation and performance of a building energy storage panel (BESP). The BESP was fabricated through a mold pressing method based on phase change material particle (PCMP), which was prepared in two steps: vacuum absorption and surface film coating. Firstly, phase change material (PCM) was incorporated into expanded perlite (EP) through a vacuum absorption method to obtain composite PCM; secondly, the composite PCM was immersed into the mixture of colloidal silica and organic acrylate, and then it was taken out and dried naturally. A series of experiments, including differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), best matching test, and durability test, have been conducted to characterize and analyze the thermophysical property and reliability of PCMP. Additionally, the thermal performance of BESP was studied through a dynamic thermal property test. The results have showed that: (1) the surface film coating procedure can effectively solve the leakage problem of composite phase change material prepared by vacuum impregnation; (2) the optimum adsorption ratio for paraffin and EP was 52.5:47.5 in mass fraction, and the PCMP has good thermal properties, stability, and durability; and (3) in the process of dynamic thermal performance test, BESP have low temperature variation, significant temperature lagging, and large heat storage ability, which indicated the potential of BESP in the application of building energy efficiency.

  11. Long term storage of dry versus frozen RNA for next generation molecular studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Seelenfreund

    Full Text Available The standard method for the storage and preservation of RNA has been at ultra-low temperatures. However, reliance on liquid nitrogen and freezers for storage of RNA has multiple downsides. Recently new techniques have been developed for storing RNA at room temperature utilizing desiccation and are reported to be an effective alternative for preserving RNA integrity. In this study we compared frozen RNA samples stored for up to one year to those which had been desiccated using RNAstable (Biomatrica, Inc., San Diego, CA and stored at room temperature. RNA samples were placed in aliquots and stored after desiccation or frozen (at -80°C, and were analyzed for RNA Integrity Number (RIN, and by qPCR, and RNA sequencing. Our study shows that RNAstable is able to preserve desiccated RNA samples at room temperature for up to one year, and that RNA preserved by desiccation is comparable to cryopreserved RNA for downstream analyses including real-time-PCR and RNA sequencing.

  12. A genome-wide association study of optic disc parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wishal D Ramdas

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The optic nerve head is involved in many ophthalmic disorders, including common diseases such as myopia and open-angle glaucoma. Two of the most important parameters are the size of the optic disc area and the vertical cup-disc ratio (VCDR. Both are highly heritable but genetically largely undetermined. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA data to identify genetic variants associated with optic disc area and VCDR. The gene discovery included 7,360 unrelated individuals from the population-based Rotterdam Study I and Rotterdam Study II cohorts. These cohorts revealed two genome-wide significant loci for optic disc area, rs1192415 on chromosome 1p22 (p = 6.72x10(-19 within 117 kb of the CDC7 gene and rs1900004 on chromosome 10q21.3-q22.1 (p = 2.67x10(-33 within 10 kb of the ATOH7 gene. They revealed two genome-wide significant loci for VCDR, rs1063192 on chromosome 9p21 (p = 6.15x10(-11 in the CDKN2B gene and rs10483727 on chromosome 14q22.3-q23 (p = 2.93x10(-10 within 40 kbp of the SIX1 gene. Findings were replicated in two independent Dutch cohorts (Rotterdam Study III and Erasmus Rucphen Family study; N = 3,612, and the TwinsUK cohort (N = 843. Meta-analysis with the replication cohorts confirmed the four loci and revealed a third locus at 16q12.1 associated with optic disc area, and four other loci at 11q13, 13q13, 17q23 (borderline significant, and 22q12.1 for VCDR. ATOH7 was also associated with VCDR independent of optic disc area. Three of the loci were marginally associated with open-angle glaucoma. The protein pathways in which the loci of optic disc area are involved overlap with those identified for VCDR, suggesting a common genetic origin.

  13. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  14. HEAT STORAGE SYSTEM WITH PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS IN COGENERATION UNITS: STUDY OF PRELIMINARY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Caprara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous increase in the mechanization of farm activities, the rise in fuel prices and the environmental aspects concerning gas emissions are the main driving forces behind efforts toward more effective use of renewable energy sources and cogeneration systems even in agricultural and cattle farms. Nevertheless these systems are still not very suitable for this purpose because of their little flexibility in following the changing energy demand as opposed to the extremely various farm load curves, both in daytime and during the year. In heat recovery systems, the available thermal energy supply is always linked to power production, thus it does not usually coincide in time with the heat demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES is necessary in order to reach the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the modelling of a packed bed latent heat TES unit, integrating a cogeneration system made up of a reciprocating engine. The TES unit contains phase change materials (PCMs filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. Water is used as heat transfer fluid (HTF to transfer heat from the tank to the final uses, and exhausts from the engine are used as thermal source. PCMs are considered especially for their large heat storage capacity and their isothermal behaviour during the phase change processes. Despite their high energy storage density, most of them have an unacceptably low thermal conductivity, hence PCMs encapsulation technique is adopted in order to improve heat transfer. The special modular configuration of heat exchange tubes and the possibility of changing water flow through them allow to obtain the right amount of thermal energy from the tank, according to the hourly demand of the day. The model permits to choose the electrical load of the engine, the dimensions of the tank and the spheres, thickness and diameter of heat exchanger and the nature of

  15. Modeling the spatiotemporal organization of velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex by optokinetic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raphan, T.; Sturm, D.; Cohen, B. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    upright. It also predicted the cross-coupling in the side down position. The trajectories in velocity space were also accurately simulated. 5. One of the predictions of the model is that when the stimulus direction is along an eigenvector, the trajectory in velocity space is a straight line. Using the "spectral width" of the residuals from a straight line sequence during OKAN, we developed a methodology to estimate how close the OKAN decay was to an eigenvector trajectory. 6. Thus we have developed a model-based approach for studying and interpreting the response characteristics of velocity storage in three dimensions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS).

  16. Structural and optical studies on selected web spinning spider silks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyani, R.; Divya, A.; Mathavan, T.; Asath, R. Mohamed; Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Muthuchelian, K.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the structural and optical properties in the cribellate silk of the sheet web spider Stegodyphus sarasinorum Karsch (Eresidae) and the combined dragline, viscid silk of the orb-web spiders Argiope pulchella Thorell (Araneidae) and Nephila pilipes Fabricius (Nephilidae). X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were used to study these three spider silk species. X-ray diffraction data are consistent with the amorphous polymer network which is arising from the interaction of larger side chain amino acid contributions due to the poly-glycine rich sequences known to be present in the proteins of cribellate silk. The same amorphous polymer networks have been determined from the combined dragline and viscid silk of orb-web spiders. From FTIR spectra the results demonstrate that, cribellate silk of Stegodyphus sarasinorum, combined dragline viscid silk of Argiope pulchella and Nephila pilipes spider silks are showing protein peaks in the amide I, II and III regions. Further they proved that the functional groups present in the protein moieties are attributed to α-helical and side chain amino acid contributions. The optical properties of the obtained spider silks such as extinction coefficients, refractive index, real and imaginary dielectric constants and optical conductance were studied extensively from UV-Vis analysis. The important fluorescent amino acid tyrosine is present in the protein folding was investigated by using fluorescence spectroscopy. This research would explore the protein moieties present in the spider silks which were found to be associated with α-helix and side chain amino acid contributions than with β-sheet secondary structure and also the optical relationship between the three different spider silks are investigated. Successful spectroscopic knowledge of the internal protein structure and optical properties of the spider silks could

  17. Non-linear optical studies of adsorbates: Spectroscopy and dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiangdong.

    1989-08-01

    In the first part of this thesis, we have established a systematic procedure to apply the surface optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) technique to study surface dynamics of adsorbates. In particular, we have developed a novel technique for studies of molecular surface diffusions. In this technique, the laser-induced desorption with two interfering laser beams is used to produce a monolayer grating of adsorbates. The monolayer grating is detected with diffractions of optical SHG. By monitoring the first-order second-harmonic diffraction, we can follow the time evolution of the grating modulation from which we are able to deduce the diffusion constant of the adsorbates on the surface. We have successfully applied this technique to investigate the surface diffusion of CO on Ni(111). The unique advantages of this novel technique will enable us to readily study anisotropy of a surface diffusion with variable grating orientation, and to investigate diffusion processes of a large dynamic range with variable grating spacings. In the second part of this work, we demonstrate that optical infrared-visible sum-frequency generation (SFG) from surfaces can be used as a viable surface vibrational spectroscopic technique. We have successfully recorded the first vibrational spectrum of a monolayer of adsorbates using optical infrared-visible SFG. The qualitative and quantitative correlation of optical SFG with infrared absorption and Raman scattering spectroscopies are examined and experimentally demonstrated. We have further investigated the possibility to use transient infrared-visible SFG to probe vibrational transients and ultrafast relaxations on surfaces. 146 refs.

  18. [The Autocad system for planimetric study of the optic disc in glaucoma: technique and reproducibility study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Pérez, A; Honrubia López, F M; Larrosa Poves, J M; Polo Llorens, V; Melcon Sánchez-Frieras, B

    2001-09-01

    To develop a lens planimetry technique for the optic disc using AutoCAD. To determine variability magnitude of the optic disc morphological measurements. We employed AutoCAD R.14.0 Autodesk: image acquisition, contour delimitation by multiple lines fitting or ellipse adjustment, image sectorialization and measurements quantification (optic disc and excavation, vertical diameters, optic disc area, excavation area, neuroretinal sector area and Beta atrophy area). Intraimage or operator and interimage o total reproducibility was studied by coefficient of variability (CV) (n=10) in normal and myopic optic discs. This technique allows to obtain optic disc measurement in 5 to 10 minutes time. Total or interimage variability of measurements introduced by one observer presents CV range from 1.18-4.42. Operator or intraimage measurement presents CV range from 0.30-4.21. Optic disc contour delimitation by ellipse adjustment achieved better reproducibility results than multiple lines adjustment in all measurements. Computer assisted AutoCAD planimetry is an interactive method to analyse the optic disc, feasible to incorporate to clinical practice. Reproducibility results are comparable to other analyzers in quantification optic disc morphology. Ellipse adjustment improves results in optic disc contours delimitation.

  19. Optical studies of cubic III-nitride structures

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Ross E L

    2014-01-01

    The properties of cubic nitrides grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on GaAs (001) have been studied using optical and electrical techniques. The aim of these studies was the improvement of the growth techniques in order to improve the quality of grown nitrides intended for bulk substrate and optoelectronic device applications. We have also characterised hexagonal nanocolumn structures incorporating indium. Firstly, bulk films of cubic AlxGa1-xN with aluminium fractions (x) spanning the ...

  20. Study on the fire-protection-system for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel and transportation ships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S. O; Choi, M. H.; Lee, S. C. and others [Dongbang Electron Industry Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-12-15

    This study consists of : the fire risk and it's fire protection for the storage facilities and transportation equipments of dangerous goods, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, the fire risk and it's fire protection for the dangerous goods transportation ships, the necessary equipment for safety of ships and regulations of fire fighting equipment for ships, technical specification of spent nuclear fuel transportation ships which are operated in foreign countries, draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel, inspection items of fire fighting equipment, scope of education and training. On the basis of the aforementioned, a draft of fire protection guideline for interim storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel is proposed and the regulations for ship engaged in the a carrage of dangerous goods that should be considered in design and operation stage are proposed.

  1. Experiment study and FEM simulation on erythrocytes under linear stretching of optical micromanipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Song, Huadong; Zhu, Panpan; Lu, Hao; Tang, Qi

    2017-08-01

    The elasticity of erythrocytes is an important criterion to evaluate the quality of blood. This paper presents a novel research on erythrocytes' elasticity with the application of optical tweezers and the finite element method (FEM) during blood storage. In this work, the erythrocytes with different in vitro times were linearly stretched by trapping force using optical tweezers and the time dependent elasticity of erythrocytes was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane shear moduli of erythrocytes increased with the increasing in vitro time, namely the elasticity was decreasing. Simultaneously, an erythrocyte shell model with two parameters (membrane thickness h and membrane shear modulus H) was built to simulate the linear stretching states of erythrocytes by the FEM, and the simulations conform to the results obtained in the experiment. The evolution process was found that the erythrocytes membrane thicknesses were decreasing. The analysis assumes that the partial proteins and lipid bilayer of erythrocyte membrane were decomposed during the in vitro preservation of blood, which results in thin thickness, weak bending resistance, and losing elasticity of erythrocyte membrane. This study implies that the FEM can be employed to investigate the inward mechanical property changes of erythrocyte in different environments, which also can be a guideline for studying the erythrocyte mechanical state suffered from different diseases.

  2. Experiment study and FEM simulation on erythrocytes under linear stretching of optical micromanipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The elasticity of erythrocytes is an important criterion to evaluate the quality of blood. This paper presents a novel research on erythrocytes’ elasticity with the application of optical tweezers and the finite element method (FEM during blood storage. In this work, the erythrocytes with different in vitro times were linearly stretched by trapping force using optical tweezers and the time dependent elasticity of erythrocytes was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the membrane shear moduli of erythrocytes increased with the increasing in vitro time, namely the elasticity was decreasing. Simultaneously, an erythrocyte shell model with two parameters (membrane thickness h and membrane shear modulus H was built to simulate the linear stretching states of erythrocytes by the FEM, and the simulations conform to the results obtained in the experiment. The evolution process was found that the erythrocytes membrane thicknesses were decreasing. The analysis assumes that the partial proteins and lipid bilayer of erythrocyte membrane were decomposed during the in vitro preservation of blood, which results in thin thickness, weak bending resistance, and losing elasticity of erythrocyte membrane. This study implies that the FEM can be employed to investigate the inward mechanical property changes of erythrocyte in different environments, which also can be a guideline for studying the erythrocyte mechanical state suffered from different diseases.

  3. Study of in vitro RBCs membrane elasticity with AOD scanning optical tweezers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Huadong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Bin; Tian, Kangzhen; Zhu, Panpan; Lu, Hao; Tang, Qi

    2017-01-01

    The elasticity of red cell membrane is a critical physiological index for the activity of RBC. Study of the inherent mechanism for RBCs membrane elasticity transformation is attention-getting all along. This paper proposes an optimized measurement method of erythrocytes membrane shear modulus incorporating acousto-optic deflector (AOD) scanning optical tweezers system. By use of this method, both membrane shear moduli and sizes of RBCs with different in vitro times were determined. The experimental results reveal that the RBCs membrane elasticity and size decline with in vitro time extension. In addition, semi quantitative measurements of S-nitrosothiol content in blood using fluorescent spectrometry during in vitro storage show that RBCs membrane elasticity change is positively associated with the S-nitrosylation level of blood. The analysis considered that the diminished activity of the nitric oxide synthase makes the S-nitrosylation of in vitro blood weaker gradually. The main reason for worse elasticity of the in vitro RBCs is that S-nitrosylation effect of spectrin fades. These results will provide a guideline for further study of in vitro cells activity and other clinical applications.

  4. Document Indexing for Image-Based Optical Information Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of image-based information retrieval systems focuses on indexing. Highlights include computerized information retrieval; multimedia optical systems; optical mass storage and personal computers; and a case study that describes an optical disk system which was developed to preserve, access, and disseminate military documents. (19…

  5. Dragon's Blood Sap (Croton Lechleri) As Storage Medium For Avulsed Teeth: In Vitro Study Of Cell Viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Christine Men; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Hoshida, Thayse Yumi; Sell, Ana Maria; Hidalgo, Mirian Marubayashi; Silveira, Catarina Soares; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Tooth replantation success depends on the condition of cementum periodontal ligament after tooth avulsion; which is influenced by storage medium. The dragon's blood (Croton lechleri) sap has been suggested as a promising medium because it supports collagen formation and exhibits healing, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dragon's blood sap as a storage medium for avulsed teeth through evaluation of functional and metabolic cell viability. This in vitro study compared the efficacy of different storage media to maintain the viability of human peripheral blood mononuclear and periodontal ligament cells. A 10% dragon's blood sap was tested while PBS was selected as its control. Ultra pasteurized whole milk was used for comparison as a commonly used storage medium. DMEM and distilled water were the positive and negative controls, respectively. The viability was assessed through trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay after 1, 3, 6, 10 and 24 h of incubation. The dragon's blood sap showed promising results due to its considerable maintenance of cell viability. For trypan blue test, the dragon's blood sap was similar to milk (pdragon's blood sap showed better results than all storage media, even better than milk (pdragon's blood sap was as effective as milk, the gold standard for storage medium. The experimental sap preserved the membrane of all cells and the functional viability of periodontal ligament cells.

  6. Efficient sodium storage: Experimental study of anode with additive-free ether-based electrolyte system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Prasit Kumar; Mitra, Sagar

    2017-05-01

    Widely used conductive carbon is found to be a major capacity contributor towards the sodium storage while used in electrode composition, in conjunction with NaClO4-PC electrolyte. Experimental studies show that the surface adsorbed sodium is present, confirmed by microscopic and XRD analysis. This unexpected property towards sodium storage in electrode conceals the electrochemical contributions expected from an active material. As the conductive carbon is a desirable component in sodium battery development, therefore this contribution needs to be optimized with respect to Coulombic efficiency. In order to investigate and optimize the unwanted capacity contribution from carbon containing electrode, we introduce an electrolyte system comprise of NaClO4-TEGDME, a low-cost electrolyte over extensively used PC-based compositions. This electrolyte composition controls the reversible capacity contribution to a minimum from the conductive carbon, and showed up to ∼97% reversibility with adequate stability till 100 cycles, within the potential range from 0.1 to 3 V. A detailed experimental analysis has been carried out to establish the electrolyte composition against conductive carbon.

  7. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  8. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  9. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2011-02-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and SBO, respectively in the preparation of high protein and low sugar chocolate without impairing the sensory attributes. Lecithin was found to be optimum at 0.32% (w/w) level of chocolate mix. Protein content of optimized formulation increased by 21.8% over control. Storage study of the product indicated an increase in hardness, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, total plate count, yeast and mold count, whereas a decrease in moisture content, pH value and sensory scores. The optimized chocolate was found acceptable (score ≥7.0) after 90 days of storage at 16 ± 1°C and ~65% RH.

  10. A comparative study for Hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Jinlian [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Guo, Yanhua [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhang, Yun; Tang, Yingru [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Cao, Juexian, E-mail: jxcao@xtu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, Hunan 411105 (China); Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-11-15

    A comparative study for hydrogen storage in metal decorated graphyne nanotubes and graphyne monolayers has been investigated within the framework of first-principle calculations. Our results show that the binding energies of Li, Ca, Sc, Ti on graphyne nanotubes are stronger than that on graphyne monolayers. Such strong binding would prevent the formation of metal clusters on graphyne nanotubes. From the charge transfer and partial density of states, it is found that the curvature effect of nanotubes plays an important role for the strong binding strength of metal on graphyne nanotubes. And the hydrogen storage capacity is 4.82 wt%, 5.08 wt%, 4.88 wt%, 4.76 wt% for Li, Ca, Sc, Ti decorated graphyne nanotubes that promise a potential material for storing hydrogen. - Graphical abstract: Metal atoms (Li, Ca, Sc and Ti) can strongly bind to graphyne nanotubes to avoid the formation of metal clusters, and a capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015. Twenty-four hydrogen molecules absorb to Ti-decorated graphyne nanotube. - Highlights: • The binding strength for metal on graphyne nanotubes is much stronger than that on γ-graphyne monolayer. • Metal atoms can strongly bind to the curving triangle acetylenes rings to avoid the formation of metal clusters. • A capacity of Ca@graphyne nanotube is 5.08 wt% which is close to the requirement of DOE in 2015.

  11. A comparative study of optical concentrators for visible light communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyawan, Rahmat; Gomez, Ariel; Chun, Hyunchae; Rajbhandari, Sujan; Manousiadis, Pavlos P.; Vithanage, Dimali A.; Faulkner, Grahame; Turnbull, Graham A.; Samuel, Ifor D. W.; Collins, Stephen; O'Brien, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    Given the imminent radio frequency spectrum crunch, Visible Light Communication (VLC) is being proposed as an alternative wireless technology allowing for scalable connectivity to potentially millions of mobile and Internet-of- Things (IoT) devices. A VLC system uses a photo-detector (PD) receiver that converts the optically modulated light from a light source into a modulated electrical signal. The corresponding receiver electrical bandwidth is typically inversely proportional to the PD active area. Consequently, to construct a high-speed VLC link, the PD active area is often substantially reduced and an optical concentrator is used to enhance the receiver collection area. However, to achieve high concentrating factor, the link field-of-view (FOV) needs to be narrow due to the étendue conservation in linear passive optical systems. This paper studies a Fluorescent Concentrator (FC) that breaks this étendue conservation. The FC is not only based on reflective and refractive principles but also makes use of fluorescence process. A comparison between the FC and conventional optical concentrators, namely Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) is also investigated. The trade-off between received signal strength and incoming link angle is demonstrated over 60° coverage. Experimental results show that performance degradation as the link angle increases using FC-based receivers is significantly lower than for conventional CPC.

  12. A study of practical proxy reencryption with a keyword search scheme considering cloud storage structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sun-Ho; Lee, Im-Yeong

    2014-01-01

    Data outsourcing services have emerged with the increasing use of digital information. They can be used to store data from various devices via networks that are easy to access. Unlike existing removable storage systems, storage outsourcing is available to many users because it has no storage limit and does not require a local storage medium. However, the reliability of storage outsourcing has become an important topic because many users employ it to store large volumes of data. To protect against unethical administrators and attackers, a variety of cryptography systems are used, such as searchable encryption and proxy reencryption. However, existing searchable encryption technology is inconvenient for use in storage outsourcing environments where users upload their data to be shared with others as necessary. In addition, some existing schemes are vulnerable to collusion attacks and have computing cost inefficiencies. In this paper, we analyze existing proxy re-encryption with keyword search.

  13. Phase change characteristic study of spherical PCMs in solar energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veerappan, M.; Kalaiselvam, S.; Iniyan, S. [Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Division, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Anna University, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 600025 (India); Goic, Ranko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split (Croatia)

    2009-08-15

    This paper investigates the phase change behavior of 65 mol% capric acid and 35 mol% lauric acid, calcium chloride hexahydrate, n-octadecane, n-hexadecane, and n-eicosane inside spherical enclosures to identify a suitable heat storage material. Analytical models are developed for solidification and melting of sphere with conduction, natural convection, and heat generation. Both the models are validated with previous experimental studies. Good agreement was found between the analytical predictions and experimental study and the deviations were lesser than 20%. Heat flux release at the wall, cumulative energy release to the external fluid, are revealed for the best PCM. The influence of the size of encapsulation, initial temperature of the PCM, the external fluid temperature on solidified and molten mass fraction, and the total phase change time are also investigated. (author)

  14. The effect that energy storage and return feet have on the propulsion of the body: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crimin, Anthony; McGarry, Anthony; Harris, Elena Jane; Solomonidis, Stephan Emanuel

    2014-09-01

    A variety of energy storage and return prosthetic feet are currently available for use within lower limb prostheses. Designs claim to provide a beneficial energy return during push-off, but the extent to which this occurs remains disputed. Techniques currently used to measure energy storage, dissipation and return within the structure of the prosthetic foot are debatable, with limited evidence to support substantial elastic energy storage and return from existing designs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of energy storage and return foot designs through considering the ankle power during push-off and the effect on body centre of mass propulsion. To achieve this aim, the gait patterns of six trans-tibial prosthetic users wearing different designs of energy storage and return feet were analysed while ascending a ramp. Three examples of energy storage and return feet (suitable for moderate activity) were selected and randomly evaluated: the Blatchford's Epirus, Össur Assure and College Park Tribute feet. The power at the anatomical and mechanical ankle joints was integrated to evaluate the work done over the gait cycle. The direction of the inertial force, and therefore propulsion of the body centre of mass, was used to indicate the effect of the energy return by the energy storage and return feet. Results indicate that although energy storage and return feet may provide energy return, the work done around the prosthetic ankle indicates net power absorption. Therefore, the prosthetic limb is unable to contribute to the body centre of mass propulsion to the same extent as the biological limb.

  15. Optical and spectroscopic study of erbium doped calcium borotellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J. F.; Lima, A. M. O.; Sandrini, M.; Medina, A. N.; Steimacher, A.; Pedrochi, F.; Barboza, M. J.

    2017-04-01

    In this study, 10CaF2 - (29.9-0.4x)CaO - (60-0.6x)B2O3 - xTeO2 - 0,1Er2O3 (x = 10, 16, 22, 30 and 50 mol %) glasses were synthesized, and their optical and spectroscopic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction, density, glass transition temperature (Tg), crystallization temperature (Tx), refraction index, luminescence, radiative lifetime and optical absorption measurements were carried out. Molar volume (Vm), thermal stability (Tx-Tg), electronic polarizability (αm), optical bang gap energy (Eg) and Judd-Ofelt (JO) parameters Ωt (2,4,6) were also calculated. The results are discussed in terms of tellurium oxide content. The increase of TeO2 in the glasses composition increases density, refractive index and electronic polarizability. The optical band gap energy decreases varying from 3.37 to 2.71 eV for the glasses with 10 and 50 mol% of TeO2, respectively. The optical absorption coefficient spectra show characteristic bands of Er3+ ions. Furthermore, these spectra in NIR region show a decrease of hydroxyl groups as a function of TeO2 addition. Luminescence intensity and radiative lifetimes at 1530 nm show an increasing with the TeO2 content. The JO parameters of Er:CaBTeX glasses follow the trend Ω2 > Ω4 > Ω6 and the quality factor values (Ω4/Ω6) were between 1.37 and 3.07. By comparing the measured lifetime with the calculated radiative decay time, quantum efficiency was calculated. The luminescence emission intensity at 1530 nm decreases with the increase of temperature. The lifetime values show a slight trend to decrease with the temperature increase, from 300 to 420 K, for all the samples.

  16. Differentiation of glaucomatous optic discs with different appearances using optic disc topography parameters: The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanito, Masaki; Nitta, Koji; Katai, Maki; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Yokoyama, Yu; Omodaka, Kazuko; Nakazawa, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The Glaucoma Stereo Analysis Study (GSAS) is a multicenter collaborative study of the characteristics of glaucomatous optic disc morphology using a stereo fundus camera. Using GSAS dataset, the formulas for predicting different glaucomatous optic disc appearances were established. The GSAS dataset containing three-dimensionally-analyzed optic disc topographic parameters from 187 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma was assessed with discrimination analyses to obtain formulas predictive of glaucomatous optic disc appearances: focal ischemic (FI); generalized enlargement (GE), myopic glaucomatous (MY), and senile sclerotic (SS). Using 38 optic disc parameters-substituted discrimination analyses with a stepwise forward-selection method, six parameters (temporal and nasal rim-disc ratios, mean cup depth, height variation contour, disc tilt angle, and rim decentering absolute) were selected into the formulas. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting the four disc types with established formulas were 0.88, 0.91, 0.93, and 0.86 for FI, MY, SS, and GE, respectively. Age, visual acuity, refractive error, glaucoma (normal or high-tension glaucoma), and baseline intraocular pressure differed significantly among the four optic disc types, suggesting the appearances represent different clinical glaucoma phenotypes. Using six optic disc topographic parameters obtained by stereo fundus camera, the GSAS classification formulas predicted and quantified each component of different optic disc appearances in each eye and provided a novel parameter to describe glaucomatous optic disc characteristics. PMID:28178303

  17. Mean PB To Failure - Initial results from a long-term study of disk storage patterns at the RACF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramarcu, C.; Hollowell, C.; Rao, T.; Strecker-Kellogg, W.; Wong, A.; Zaytsev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    The RACF (RHIC-ATLAS Computing Facility) has operated a large, multi-purpose dedicated computing facility since the mid-1990’s, serving a worldwide, geographically diverse scientific community that is a major contributor to various HEPN projects. A central component of the RACF is the Linux-based worker node cluster that is used for both computing and data storage purposes. It currently has nearly 50,000 computing cores and over 23 PB of storage capacity distributed over 12,000+ (non-SSD) disk drives. The majority of the 12,000+ disk drives provide a cost-effective solution for dCache/XRootD-managed storage, and a key concern is the reliability of this solution over the lifetime of the hardware, particularly as the number of disk drives and the storage capacity of individual drives grow. We report initial results of a long-term study to measure lifetime PB read/written to disk drives in the worker node cluster. We discuss the historical disk drive mortality rate, disk drive manufacturers' published MPTF (Mean PB to Failure) data and how they are correlated to our results. The results help the RACF understand the productivity and reliability of its storage solutions and have implications for other highly-available storage systems (NFS, GPFS, CVMFS, etc) with large I/O requirements.

  18. Key study on the potential of hydrazine bisborane for solid- and liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pylypko, Sergii; Petit, Eddy; Yot, Pascal G; Salles, Fabrice; Cretin, Marc; Miele, Philippe; Demirci, Umit B

    2015-05-04

    Hydrazine bisborane N2H4(BH3)2 (HBB; 16.8 wt %) recently re-emerged as a potential hydrogen storage material. However, such potential is controversial: HBB was seen as a hazardous compound up to 2010, but now it would be suitable for hydrogen storage. In this context, we focused on fundamentals of HBB because they are missing in the literature and should help to shed light on its effective potential while taking into consideration any risk. Experimental/computational methods were used to get a complete characterization data sheet, including, e.g., XRD, NMR, FTIR, Raman, TGA, and DSC. From the reported results and discussion, it is concluded that HBB has potential in the field of chemical hydrogen storage given that both thermolytic and hydrolytic dehydrogenations were analyzed. In solid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it cannot be used in the pristine state (risk of explosion during dehydrogenation) but can be used for the synthesis of derivatives with improved dehydrogenation properties. In liquid-state chemical hydrogen storage, it can be studied for room-temperature dehydrogenation, but this requires the development of an active and selective metal-based catalyst. HBB is a thus a candidate for chemical hydrogen storage.

  19. Study of groundwater-quarry interactions in the context of energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulain, Angélique; goderniaux, Pascal; de dreuzy, Jean-Raynald

    2016-04-01

    Pump storage hydroelectricity is an efficient way to temporarily store energy. This technique requires to store temporarily a large volume of water in an upper reservoir, and to release it through turbines to the lower reservoir, to produce electricity. Recently, the idea of using old flooded quarries as a lower reservoir has been discussed. However, these flooded quarries are generally in relation with an unconfined aquifer. Consequently, pumping or injecting large volumes of water, within short time intervals, will have an impact on the adjacent water table. The objectives of this study is to understand the consequences of pumping/injection of large water volumes in a quarry on the adjacent unconfined aquifer. Numerical tools are used to understand the impact of oscillatory pumping in a quarry on the aquifer. Sinusoidal pumping are imposed on a generic quarry modelled with a 3D finite difference simulator. The period of the sinusoidal pumping is maximum 12 hours. We observe and study the propagation of this stress in the adjacent porous media and the amplitude of water level variations in the quarry, as a function of the hydraulic parameters. Two different configurations have been considered: homogeneous hydraulic parameters in the porous media and the presence of a fractured zone in the vicinity of the quarry. Results show that the influence of the quarry - aquifer interactions on the amplitude of water level fluctuations in the quarry remains low whatever the hydraulic parameters. The attenuation of the groundwater head fluctuations in the porous media logically increases with the distance of the quarry. In the homogeneous case, we have an equal propagation of the stress in all point of the environment. The maximal distance of propagation increases with the hydraulic conductivity and the porosity values. The presence of a fractured zone induces preferential flow paths, which distort significantly the zone impacted by the sinusoidal pumping. In the fracture, the

  20. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  1. The APOSTEL recommendations for reporting quantitative optical coherence tomography studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Herranz, Andrés; Balk, Lisanne J; Oberwahrenbrock, Timm

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop consensus recommendations for reporting of quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) study results. METHODS: A panel of experienced OCT researchers (including 11 neurologists, 2 ophthalmologists, and 2 neuroscientists) discussed requirements for performing and reporting...... quantitative analyses of retinal morphology and developed a list of initial recommendations based on experience and previous studies. The list of recommendations was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group. RESULTS: We provide a 9-point checklist encompassing aspects deemed...... relevant when reporting quantitative OCT studies. The areas covered are study protocol, acquisition device, acquisition settings, scanning protocol, funduscopic imaging, postacquisition data selection, postacquisition data analysis, recommended nomenclature, and statistical analysis. CONCLUSIONS...

  2. Dental optical tomography with upconversion nanoparticles—a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Feixiao; Intes, Xavier

    2017-06-01

    Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have the unique ability to emit multiple colors upon excitation by near-infrared (NIR) light. Herein, we investigate the potential use of UCNPs as contrast agents for dental optical tomography, with a focus on monitoring the status of fillings after dental restoration. The potential of performing tomographic imaging using UCNP emission of visible or NIR light is established. This in silico and ex vivo study paves the way toward employing UCNPs as theranostic agents for dental applications.

  3. Studies of beam expansion and distributed Bragg reflector lasers for fiber optics and optical signal processing. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garmire, E.M.

    1981-03-03

    Separate studies were performed on beam expansion and on Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) lasers preliminary to monolithic integration on GaAs substrates. These components are proposed for use in optical signal processing, for fiber optic sources and for high-brightness lasers.

  4. Holographic data storage system combining shift-multiplexing with peristrophic-multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Kengo; Tsukamoto, Yu; Okubo, Kaito; Yamamoto, Manabu

    2014-02-01

    Holographic data storage (HDS) is a next-generation optical storage that uses the principles of holography. The multiplex holographic recording method is an important factor that affects the recording capacity of this storage. Various multiplex recording methods have been proposed so far. In this study, we focus on shift multiplexing with spherical waves and propose a method of shift multiplex recording that combines the peristrophic multiplexed recording. Simulation and experimental verification shows that the proposed method is effective in principle.

  5. Study of the effects of 1-MCP to blueberry under cold storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Shenchen; Chu, Huailiang; Chen, Xiaomin; Yuan, Huwei; Qiu, Lingling; Zhao, Liang; Yan, Daoliang; Zheng, Bingsong

    2017-04-01

    Blueberry is one of the thinnest exocarp fruits in the world, which is difficult to keep fresh due to the special structure of its skin. 1-Methlcyclopropene (1-MCP) is able to combine with ethylene(ETH) receptor. In this study we investigated the effect of 1-MCP on rotting rate, weight loss ratio, soluble sugar content, titratable acid content, antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosun ‘O Neal’ and ‘North Road’) under cold storage. 1-MCP reduced the rotting rate, weight loss ratio and MDA content, while keeping high-leveled stability in antioxidant enzyme activities, soluble sugar content and titratable acid content. These results showed the role of 1-MCP in alleviating the negative effects of blueberry and suggested that 1-MCP could be used as a preservative for keeping thin exocarp fruit in fresh.

  6. Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-Grade Plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolyatko, V. V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russia)

    1998-01-29

    This technical report is a tangible and verifiable deliverable associated with the Nuclear Group subproject “Cooperative Studies in the Utilization and Storage of Excess Weapons-grade Plutonium.” This report is an assessment ofthe work performed by the Russian party from 1 October 1995 through 30 September 1996 regarding milestones defined in the contract between the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station (TEES). In these interactions, TEES serves as agent of the Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium (ANRCP) in the capacity oflead institution for the Nuclear Group of the ANRCP. The official Statement ofWork dated 8 April 1996 enumerates specific milestones and deliverables. In its present form, this report is an edited version ofthe translation submitted to TEES by MEPhI on 7 October 1996. The principal investigators for this subproject are Dr. Paul Nelson of TEES and Dr. Victor Bolyatko of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute.

  7. Study of superconductor bearings for a 35 kWh superconductor flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Y. H.; Park, B. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Han, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    A Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage system (SFES) is used as an electro-mechanical battery which transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. A 35 kWh SFES using hybrid bearing sets was developed in KEPRI. Mechanical properties of HTS bearings are the critical factors for stability of the flywheel and the main parameter in designing the system. The properties of the HTS bearing were studied. The stiffness and the damping coefficient of the HTS bearing were 346.6 ± 6.7 kN/m and 1255 ± 102 N s/m, respectively. The damping coefficient was twelve times bigger than the estimate value. Therefore, we concluded that there were some external damping mechanisms. Finally, the 35 kWh SFES was test operated up to 4000 rpm. After passing two predicted critical speeds, the amplitude of vibration decreased and reached a stable rotation state.

  8. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Escudero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual. The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C and times (two and three weeks. The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols, and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO.

  9. Study on Nanocrystalline Rare Earth Mg-Based System Hydrogen Storage Alloys with AB3-Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A sort of rare earth Mg-based system hydrogen storage alloys with AB3-type was prepared by double-roller rapid quenching method. The alloys were nanocrystalline multi-phase structures composed of LaNi3 phase and LaNi5 phase by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy analyses, and the suitable absorption/desorption plateau was revealed by the measurement of P-C-I curve. Electrochemical studies indicate that the alloys exhibit good electrochemical properties such as high capacity and stable cycle life, and the discharge capacity is 369 mAh·g-1 at 0.2 C (72 mA·g-1), after 460 cycles, the capacity decay was only 19.4% at 2 C (720 mA·g-1).

  10. Non-Linear Beam Dynamics Studies of the Diamond Storage Ring

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, Riccardo; Belgroune, Mahdia; Henry Rowland, James; Jones, James; Martin, Ian; Singh, Beni

    2005-01-01

    The non-linear beam dynamics have been investigated for the non-zero dispersion lattice of the Diamond storage ring. Effects in realistic lattice configurations such as the introduction of coupling errors, beta beating, closed orbit correction, quadrupole fringe field and in-vacuum and helical insertion devices have been studied in the presence of realistic physical aperture limitations. Frequency map analysis together with 6D tracking allows identification of the limiting resonances as well as the loss locations and calculation of the influence of non-linear longitudinal motion on the Touschek lifetime. The sensitivity of the lattice to some of these effects leads to the identification of a better working point for the machine.

  11. Influence of Extreme Storage Conditions on Extra Virgin Olive Oil Parameters: Traceability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, Alfredo; Pacheco, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects the effect of extreme storage conditions on several extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) varieties (arbequina, hojiblanca, and picual). The conditions were simulated in the laboratory, by means of heating treatments in stove at different temperatures (40 and 60°C) and times (two and three weeks). The aim is the evaluation of the deterioration of the quality parameters and minority components, which are responsible for the nutritional and therapeutic properties (fatty acids, polyphenols, pigments, and tocopherols), and organoleptic qualities. The quality criteria and limits used in this work are according to International Olive Council. The results contribute to the control of the traSceability for the commercialization of the EVOO. PMID:28042493

  12. A numerical study of latent thermal energy storage in a phase change material/carbon panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekaddem, Najoua; Ali, Samia Ben; Mazioud, Atef; Hannachi, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    To reduce the energetic dependence of building, it has become necessary to explore and develop new materials promoting energy conservation. Because of their high storage capacity, phase change materials (PCMs) are efficient to store thermal energy. In this paper, a 3D model was studied for simulation of energy storing cycles to predict the performances of PCM loaded panels. Carbon was used as supporting material for the PCM. The simulation was based on the enthalpy method using Ansys Fluent software. The panel was exposed to a daily heat flow including the effects of convection and radiation. The results show that the temperature decreased of approximately 2.5°C with a time shift about 2 hours. The steady state was reached after four cycles. Thus, after four cycles the PCM showed its effects on the temperature conditioning.

  13. A numerical study of latent thermal energy storage in a phase change material/carbon panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekaddem, Najoua, E-mail: mekaddem.najoua@gmail.com; Ali, Samia Ben, E-mail: samia.benali@enig.rnu.tn; Hannachi, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.hannachi@enig.rnu.tn [Research Laboratory of Process Engineering and Industrial Systems, National Engineering School of Gabes (Tunisia); Mazioud, Atef, E-mail: mazioud@u-pec.fr [IUT Senart, Department of Industrial Engineering and Maintenance, University Paris-Est (France)

    2016-07-25

    To reduce the energetic dependence of building, it has become necessary to explore and develop new materials promoting energy conservation. Because of their high storage capacity, phase change materials (PCMs) are efficient to store thermal energy. In this paper, a 3D model was studied for simulation of energy storing cycles to predict the performances of PCM loaded panels. Carbon was used as supporting material for the PCM. The simulation was based on the enthalpy method using Ansys Fluent software. The panel was exposed to a daily heat flow including the effects of convection and radiation. The results show that the temperature decreased of approximately 2.5°C with a time shift about 2 hours. The steady state was reached after four cycles. Thus, after four cycles the PCM showed its effects on the temperature conditioning.

  14. STUDY OF SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL-ORGANIC FRAMEWORKS MOF-5 AS HYDROGEN STORAGE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prapti Rahayu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs are porous coordination polymer containing bi-or polidentate organic linker coordinated with inorganic part, such as metal oxide cluster or metal cation as node which called as secondary building unit (SBU to form infinite structure. Due to high porosity and surface area, good thermal stability as well as the availability of unsaturated metal center or the linker influence attracts the interaction with gases, thus MOFs have potential to be applied as hydrogen storage material. One type of MOFs that have been widely studied is [Zn4O(benzene-1,4-dicarboxylate3], namely, MOF-5.Various synthesis method have been developed to obtain optimum results. Characterization of MOF-5 from various synthesis method such as crystallinity, capacity, stability, and quantum dot behavior of MOF-5 have been summarized in this review.

  15. Preliminary Feasibility Study of a Hybrid Solar and Modular Pumped Storage Hydro System at Biosphere 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansey, Kevin [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Hortsman, Chris [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this study, the preliminary feasibility of a hybrid solar and modular pumped storage system designed for high energy independence at Biosphere 2 is assessed. The system consists of an array of solar PV panels that generate electricity during the day to power both Biosphere 2 and a pump that sends water through a pipe to a tank at a high elevation. When solar power is not available, the water is released back down the pipe towards a tank at a lower elevation, where it passes through a hydraulic water turbine to generate hydroelectricity to power Biosphere 2. The hybrid system is sized to generate and store enough energy to enable Biosphere 2 to operate without a grid interconnection on an average day.

  16. Alfalfa hay storage losses study as influenced by bale type and storage method. Quarterly report, July 1, 1997--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuomo, G.; Sheaffer, C.; Martin, N. [and others

    1997-10-30

    This experiment was conducted in cooperation with the Minnesota Alfalfa Producers (MnVAP) cooperative. Alfalfa for use as both a biomass energy source and as a protein supplement has been proposed by MnVAP. Research has shown that alfalfa deteriorates over time in storage, and that storage method and bale type affect the amount of deterioration. Therefore, evaluation of different storage methods and bale types on dry matter and quality losses of alfalfa leaf and stem components is important information for the alfalfa grower and the MnVAP cooperative. Two bale types were evaluated for four storage methods, and measurements were made of initial and final bale weights, dry matter, leaf and stem components, and forage quality estimates. Few differences were detected among bale types for dry matter losses, and interactions among bale type and storage method were not detected. This indicates that dry matter losses were similar for different bale types regardless of the storage method. However, differences in dry matter losses and visible spoilage were detected among storage methods. No interactions between bale type and storage method were detected for forage quality parameters, indicating that forage quality losses as a result of storage were similar for different bale types. Bale type by sample type and storage method by sample type interactions were detected. Many of these were the result of poorer quality alfalfa. 4 refs., 9 tabs.

  17. On solute residence time in the storage zones of small streams - experimental study and scaling law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    Transient storage has a major influence on solute transport in streams, on biogeochemical cycling, water quality and on the functioning of aquatic ecosystems. The first part of the research reported here focuses on surface transient storage (STS) zones between groins along small streams. Such groins are used to protect banks, but also to increase habitat diversity and are, thus, not restricted to large rivers. Repeated tracer dilution experiments on the Mödlingbach, a small stream in Austria some 30 km south of Vienna, have been analyzed to determine the solute residence time between groins and to characterize the exchange processes between dead zones and main stream. Pairs of related breakthrough curves were measured in main stream and storage zones, resp., and used subsequently to estimate the solute residence time in the surface dead zones under study. Following previous work (Weitbrecht et al., 2008; Jackson et al., 2012) these residence times were, in turn, expressed as T = -W-.hD- k ?u hE (1) with W denoting groin length, u main stream flow velocity, hD mean water depth between the groins and hE depth at the interface dead zone - main stream. Coefficient k, finally, is thought to depend on a type of hydraulic radius, RD = W.L/(W+L), with L denoting the distance between the groins, measured in main flow direction. Using both the Mödlingbach STS zone data and the results of the aforementioned study (Weitbrecht et al., 2008) the following regression equation was derived (hS denotes main stream water depth): k = 0.00282? RD + 0.00802 hS (2) The second part of this research focuses on the dependency of solute residence time on flow rate, which is important for an improved understanding of longitudinal solute transport in streams and for the application of mathematical models. The scaling law proposed here is based on a physics-related theory combined with extensive data sets available form a decade of stream tracer experiments on the Mödlingbach stream

  18. Optical tweezers studies of transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisica, Ana; Grill, Stephan W

    2017-03-01

    Transcription is the first step in the expression of genetic information and it is carried out by large macromolecular enzymes called RNA polymerases. Transcription has been studied for many years and with a myriad of experimental techniques, ranging from bulk studies to high-resolution transcript sequencing. In this review, we emphasise the advantages of using single-molecule techniques, particularly optical tweezers, to study transcription dynamics. We give an overview of the latest results in the single-molecule transcription field, focusing on transcription by eukaryotic RNA polymerases. Finally, we evaluate recent quantitative models that describe the biophysics of RNA polymerase translocation and backtracking dynamics.

  19. Optical and Hygroscopic Studies of Aerosols In Simulated Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasenkopf, Christa A.

    2011-08-01

    Basic characteristics of the early Earth climate, the only known environment in the Universe in which life has been known to emerge and thrive, remain a mystery. In particular, little is understood about the Earth's atmosphere 2.8 billion years ago. From climate models and laboratory studies, it is postulated that an organic haze, much like that found on Saturn's largest moon Titan, covered the early Earth. This haze, generated from photolysis of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), may have had profound climatic consequences. Climate models of the early Earth that include this haze have had to rely upon optical properties of a Titan laboratory analog. Titan haze, though thought to be similar, is formed from a different combination of precursor gases and by different energy sources than early Earth haze. This thesis examines the direct and indirect radiative effects of aerosol on early Earth climate by studying the optical and hygroscopic properties of a laboratory analog. A Titan analog is studied for comparison and to better understand spacecraft-retrieved haze chemical and optical properties from Titan. The properties of the laboratory analogs, generated in a flowing reactor cell with a continuum ultraviolet (UV) light source, were primarily measured using cavity ringdown aerosol extinction spectroscopy and UV-visible (UV-Vis) transmission spectroscopy. We find that the optical properties of our early Earth analog are significantly different than those of the Titan analog from Khare et al. (1984). In both the UV and visible, when modeled as fractals, particles with the optical properties of the early Earth analog have approximately 30% larger extinction efficiencies than particles with Khare et al. (1984) values. This result implies our early Earth haze analog would provide a more efficient UV shield and have a stronger antigreenhouse effect than the Khare et al. (1984) Titan analog. Our Titan analog has significantly smaller imaginary refractive index values

  20. Vibrational, optical and microhardness studies of trimethoprim DL -malate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklin, S.; Bhuvana, K.P.; Balasubramanian, T. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli-620015, Tamilnadu (India)

    2009-12-15

    Trimethoprim malate, an organic crystal, has been synthesized using slow evaporation method from its aqueous solution. Structural, optical and the mechanical properties of the grown crystal have been investigated by various characterization techniques which include FTIR spectra, single crystal XRD, UV-Vis spectra and Vickers microhardness testing. The structure of the compound predicted by analysing the recorded FTIR spectrum compliments the structure determined using single crystal X-ray diffraction. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study reveals that the crystals are monoclinic[P2{sub 1}/c, a=12.9850A, b=9.3038A, c=15.6815A and {beta}=111.065 ]. The UV-Vis spectrum exhibits maximum transparency (98%) for a wide range suggesting the suitability of the title compound for optical applications. The optical constants have been calculated and illustrated graphically. Microhardness tests have been performed on the crystal under study and the Vicker hardness number has been calculated. The work hardening coefficient is found to be 2.85 which suggest that the crystal belongs to the family of soft materials. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Synthesis and quantum chemical studies of metalloorganics for electro-optical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepthi, S.; Jha, A.; Kumar, Ch. Ravi Shankar

    2017-07-01

    The dynamic nature of molecular materials are functional due to their nonlinear optical properties. Nonlinearity arising due to intermolecular interactions as self assembling phenomena between organic and metallic nanoparticles is of interest. The insight of this phenomena is attributed both by experimental and quantum chemical studies. Vibration studies performed by FTIR reveal intermolecular bonding forming metalloorganic POMZ with PAA and zinc oxide. These wave numbers were in agreement with theoretical studies performed by Gaussian 03v software package with B3LYP/6-31G basis set. Nonlinear optical properties such as energy difference, dipole moment, electronegativity, electrophylicity index and polarizability were attributed for electrical and optical properties of the material.

  2. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh.

  3. Studies on liquefaction and storage of ejaculated dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius) semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, N A; Billah, M; Skidmore, J A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate seminal liquefaction and quality of ejaculated camel semen during storage in different extenders at room (23 degrees C) and refrigeration (4 degrees C) temperature. Semen was collected using an artificial vagina and diluted immediately (1:1), using a split-sample technique, in five extenders [(1) Tris-tes egg yolk, (2) Tris-lactose egg yolk, (3) citrate egg yolk, (4) sucrose egg yolk and (5) Tris-fructose egg yolk], while one fraction was kept without an extender to act as control. The semen was transported to the lab at 37 degrees C, in a portable incubator within half an hour, and thereafter liquefaction of semen was monitored every 15 min. After complete liquefaction of the semen it was evaluated for sperm concentration and morphology and then was extended to a final ratio of 1:3. Aliquots of each semen sample were then stored at refrigeration and room temperature. The average volume of an ejaculate was 4.3+/-0.4 mL and it had a very viscous consistency. The average concentration of spermatozoa was 230.4+/-10.7 x 10(6)mL(-1) and the proportion of spermatozoa with protoplasmic droplets averaged 1.02+/-0.2, while 2.7+/-0.6 and 9.7+/-2.9% had mid-piece and tail abnormalities, respectively. All extended semen samples liquefied within 1.5h at 37 degrees C, however, there was slow liquefaction in the sample without an added extender (control). Best liquefaction was observed in Tris-lactose extender followed by Tris-fructose and citrate egg yolk diluents whereas in the other two extenders there was head-to-head agglutination of the spermatozoa. There was no difference in the initial motility of the spermatozoa in extenders 1-5 after its liquefaction, however, after 24 and 48 h of storage a higher proportion of spermatozoa were motile in extenders 1, 2 and 4 (Pdromedary semen, when added to an extender (1:1) immediately after collection, liquefies within 60-90 min at 37 degrees C. It maintains a high proportion of motile and

  4. A study of soil organic carbon distribution and storage in the Northeast Plain of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Xi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the Unit Soil Carbon Amount (USCA approach, soil carbon storage was calculated across the Northeast Plain of China based on the Multi-purpose Regional Geochemical Survey conducted in 2004–2006 (MRGS. The results indicated that the soil organic carbon (SOC storage in topsoil (0–0.2 m, subsoil (0–1 m and deep soil (0–1.8 m was 768.1 Mt, 2978.4 Mt and 3729.2 Mt with densities of 3327.8 t/km2, 12,904.7 t/km2 and 16,157.5 t/km2, respectively. These values were consistent with national averages, whereas the soil carbon densities showed a clear increasing trend from the southern area of the Northeast Plain (Liaoning, to the middle (Jilin and the northern Plain (Heilongjiang — particularly in terms of topsoil carbon density, which increased from 2284.2, to 3436.7 and 3861.5 t/km2, respectively. In comparison to carbon data obtained from the Second National Soil Survey in 1984–1986 (SNSS, the topsoil SOC storage values from the MRGS were found to have decreased by 320.59 Mt (29.4%, with an average annual decline of 16.0 Mt (l.73% over the 20 years. In the southern, middle and northern areas of the plain, soil carbon densities decreased by 1060.6 t/km2, 1646.4 t/km2 and 1300.2 t/km2, respectively, with an average value of 1389.0 t/km2 for the whole plain. These findings indicate that the decrease in soil carbon density varied according to the different ecosystems and land-use types. Therefore, ratios of soil carbon density were calculated in order to study the carbon dynamic balance between ecosystems, and to further explore distribution characteristics, as well as the sequestration potential of SOC.

  5. Feasibility study of porous media compressed air energy storage in South Carolina, United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Alexandra-Selene

    Renewable Energy Systems (RES) such as solar and wind, are expected to play a progressively significant role in electricity production as the world begins to move away from an almost total reliance on nonrenewable sources of power. In the US there is increasing investment in RES as the Department of Energy (DOE) expands its wind power network to encompass the use of offshore wind resources in places such as the South Carolina (SC) Atlantic Coastal Plain. Because of their unstable nature, RES cannot be used as reliable grid-scale power sources unless power is somehow stored during excess production and recovered at times of insufficiency. Only two technologies have been cited as capable of storing renewable energy at this scale: Pumped Hydro Storage and Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES). Both CAES power plants in existence today use solution-mined caverns as their storage spaces. This project focuses on exploring the feasibility of employing the CAES method to store excess wind energy in sand aquifers. The numerical multiphase flow code, TOUGH2, was used to build models that approximate subsurface sand formations similar to those found in SC. Although the aquifers of SC have very low dips, less than 10, the aquifers in this study were modeled as flat, or having dips of 00. Cycle efficiency is defined here as the amount of energy recovered compared to the amount of energy injected. Both 2D and 3D simulations have shown that the greatest control on cycle efficiency is the volume of air that can be recovered from the aquifer after injection. Results from 2D simulations showed that using a dual daily peak load schedule instead of a single daily peak load schedule increased cycle efficiency as do the following parameters: increased anisotropy, screening the well in the upper portions of the aquifer, reduced aquifer thickness, and an initial water displacement by the continuous injection of air for at least 60 days. Aquifer permeability of 1x10-12 m2 produced a cycle

  6. Experimental and numerical study of latent heat thermal energy storage systems assisted by heat pipes for concentrated solar power application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiari, Saeed

    A desirable feature of concentrated solar power (CSP) with integrated thermal energy storage (TES) unit is to provide electricity in a dispatchable manner during cloud transient and non-daylight hours. Latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) offers many advantages such as higher energy storage density, wider range of operating temperature and nearly isothermal heat transfer relative to sensible heat thermal energy storage (SHTES), which is the current standard for trough and tower CSP systems. Despite the advantages mentioned above, LHTES systems performance is often limited by low thermal conductivity of commonly used, low cost phase change materials (PCMs). Research and development of passive heat transfer devices, such as heat pipes (HPs) to enhance the heat transfer in the PCM has received considerable attention. Due to its high effective thermal conductivity, heat pipe can transport large amounts of heat with relatively small temperature difference. The objective of this research is to study the charging and discharging processes of heat pipe-assisted LHTES systems using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experimental testing to develop a method for more efficient energy storage system design. The results revealed that the heat pipe network configurations and the quantities of heat pipes integrated in a thermal energy storage system have a profound effect on the thermal response of the system. The optimal placement of heat pipes in the system can significantly enhance the thermal performance. It was also found that the inclusion of natural convection heat transfer in the CFD simulation of the system is necessary to have a realistic prediction of a latent heat thermal storage system performance. In addition, the effects of geometrical features and quantity of fins attached to the HPs have been studied.

  7. Whole trees for energy purposes from clearcuts. Studies on harvesting, forwarding, chipping and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.

    1991-12-31

    Storage of energy chips in situ in a forest is quite expensive, as storage loss due to biological activity can exceed 10% of the stored volume and covering of the stack costs roughly DKK 15 per m{sup 3} loose volume. The whole trees can be stored at the roadside without major storage losses and without expenses for covering the logs. A large-scale test was performed on a lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) clearcut, including three different felling, forwarding of whole trees, and chipping on the area and at the roadside. A similar test was performed for a mountain pine (Pinus mugo) clearcut. This test was restricted to forwarding and chipping. For this purpose trees had been felled by chainsaw. Summer drying, chipping at roadside with or without previous storage, covering of chips by paper etc. were investigated. Moisture contents depending on the felling-storage cycle were determined. (EG)

  8. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2013-01-01

    and improving the predictability of the intermittent renewables but also of providing the ancillary services in the future energy markets. However, this is currently difficult to achieve due to high prices of the energy storage systems and difficulties with accurate prediction of the energy storage systems......Meeting ambitious goals of transition to distributed and environmentally-friendly renewable energy generation can be difficult to achieve without energy storage systems due to technical and economical challenges. Moreover, energy storage systems have a high potential of not only smoothing...... on the results obtained from accelerated lifetime testing. The developed Li­-ion battery lifetime model is later a base for the analyses of the economic profitability of the investment in the Li-ion battery energy storage system (BESS), which delivers the primary frequency regulation service on the Danish...

  9. A Feasibility Study on Operating Large Scale Compressed Air Energy Storage in Porous Formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Pfeiffer, W. T.; Li, D.; Bauer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Compressed air energy storage (CAES) in porous formations has been considered as one promising option of large scale energy storage for decades. This study, hereby, aims at analyzing the feasibility of operating large scale CAES in porous formations and evaluating the performance of underground porous gas reservoirs. To address these issues quantitatively, a hypothetic CAES scenario with a typical anticline structure in northern Germany was numerically simulated. Because of the rapid growth in photovoltaics, the period of extraction in a daily cycle was set to the early morning and the late afternoon in order to bypass the massive solar energy production around noon. The gas turbine scenario was defined referring to the specifications of the Huntorf CAES power plant. The numerical simulations involved two stages, i.e. initial fill and cyclic operation, and both were carried out using the Eclipse E300 simulator (Schlumberger). Pressure loss in the gas wells was post analyzed using an analytical solution. The exergy concept was applied to evaluate the potential energy amount stored in the specific porous formation. The simulation results show that porous formations prove to be a feasible solution of large scale CAES. The initial fill with shut-in periods determines the spatial distribution of the gas phase and helps to achieve higher gas saturation around the wells, and thus higher deliverability. The performance evaluation shows that the overall exergy flow of stored compressed air is also determined by the permeability, which directly affects the deliverability of the gas reservoir and thus the number of wells required.

  10. Study of the compact fiber optic photoacoustic ultrasonic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Zou, Xiaotian; Wang, Xingwei

    2012-04-01

    Recently, many studies have been exerted on developing ultrasonic transducers that can feature high frequencies for better resolutions and compact sizes for the limit space nondestructive testing applications. Conventional ultrasonic transducers, which are made by piezoelectric materials, suffer from issues such as low frequencies and bulky sizes due to the difficulty of dicing piezoelectric materials into smaller pieces. On the other hand, generating ultrasonic signals by photoacoustic principle is a promising way to generate a high frequency ultrasonic pulse. Optical fiber is a very compact material that can carry the light energy. By combining the photoacoustic principle and the optical fiber together, a novel ultrasonic transducer that features a high frequency and a compact size could be achieved. In this paper, an ultrasonic transducer using gold nanoparticles as the photoacoustic generation material is described. Gold nanoparticles are deposited on the end surface of an optical fiber acting as the ultrasonic generator. A cavity and a diaphragm are fabricated in the center of the fiber using as the ultrasonic receiver. A phase array technique is applied to the transducer to steer the direction of the acoustic beam. Simulation results demonstrated that the photoacoustic ultrasonic transducer is feasible.

  11. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Optics in Astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Foy, Renaud

    2005-01-01

    Astrophysics is facing challenging aims such as deep cosmology at redshift higher than 10 to constrain cosmology models, or the detection of exoplanets, and possibly terrestrial exoplanets, and several others. It requires unprecedented ambitious R&D programs, which have definitely to rely on a tight cooperation between astrophysics and optics communities. The book addresses most of the most critical interdisciplinary domains where they interact, or where they will do. A first need is to collect more light, i.e. telescopes still larger than the current 8-10 meter class ones. Decametric, and even hectometric, optical (from UV to IR wavelengths) telescopes are being studied. Whereas up to now the light collecting surface of new telescopes was approximately 4 times that of the previous generation, now this factor is growing to 10 to 100. This quantum leap urges to implement new methods or technologies developed in the optics community, both in academic labs and in the industry. Given the astrophysical goals a...

  12. Design and property study of micro-slot optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuting; Yi, Futing; Zhang, Tianchong; Liu, Jing; Wang, Bo; Zhou, Yue

    2017-03-01

    LIGA (Lithographie Galvanoformung Abformung) as a very useful technique for fabricating devices with micro-scale structures has been reported to make the micro-pore optics (MPO) for years. Light weight is one of the advantages of MPO, making it an alternative for X-ray focusing lenses used on space telescopes. However, researchers seldom considered using the MPO in visible light region. In this article, we designed a micro-slot optics (MSO) similar to MPO and fabricated it by X-ray LIGA technique. The MSO consists of 159 concentric hollow cylinders of nickel with the slot spacings ranging from 59 to 113 μm and the focusing property of MSO is studied by simulations and experiments. Both the simulation and experiment results indicate that MSO is a useful focusing element. The MSO has one focal point when the point source is on the principal optical axis with the size of the focal point equaling to the size of the point source.

  13. Optical diffraction tomography techniques for the study of cell pathophysiology

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kyoohyun; Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, SangYun; Yang, Su-A; Park, YongKeun

    2016-01-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of biological cells is crucial for the investigation of cell biology, provide valuable information to reveal the mechanisms behind pathophysiology of cells and tissues. Recent advances in optical diffraction tomography (ODT) have demonstrated the potential for the study of various cells with its unique advantages of quantitative and label-free imaging capability. To provide insight on this rapidly growing field of research and to discuss its applications in biology and medicine, we present the summary of the ODT principle and highlight recent studies utilizing ODT with the emphasis on the applications to the pathophysiology of cells.

  14. Study on performance of a packed bed latent heat thermal energy storage unit integrated with solar water heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NALLUSAMY N.; SAMPATH S.; VELRAJ R.

    2006-01-01

    In thermal systems such as solar thermal and waste heat recovery systems, the available energy supply does not usually coincide in time with the process demand. Hence some form of thermal energy storage (TES) is necessary for the most effective utilization of the energy source. This study deals with the experimental evaluation of thermal performance of a packed bed latent heat TES unit integrated with solar flat plate collector. The TES unit contains paraffin as phase change material (PCM) filled in spherical capsules, which are packed in an insulated cylindrical storage tank. The water used as heat transfer fluid (HTF) to transfer heat from the solar collector to the storage tank also acts as sensible heat storage material. Charging experiments were carried out at varying inlet fluid temperatures to examine the effects of porosity and HTF flow rate on the storage unit performance. The performance parameters such as instantaneous heat stored, cumulative heat stored, charging rate and system efficiency are studied.Discharging experiments were carried out by both continuous and batchwise processes to recover the stored heat, and the results are presented.

  15. Studies on development and storage stability of instant spice adjunct mix from seaweed (Eucheuma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil, Amudha; Mamatha, B S; Vishwanath, Prema; Bhat, K K; Ravishankar, G A

    2011-12-01

    Seaweed is a macroscopic marine algae which has been used as human food since ancient times. Food values of seaweed are mainly due to significant amounts of protein, vitamin, mineral, trace elements and dietary fibre apart from substances of antibiotic nature. In this study edible red seaweed Eucheuma (Kappaphycus alvarezzi), was used as an ingredient in the preparation of spice adjunct. Functional properties such as soluble solids, water-holding capacity, oil holding capacity and swelling capacity of Eucheuma were studied. Steamed Eucheuma powder was added at levels of 15, 20 and 25% in the preparation of spice adjunct. Sensory analysis and consumer acceptability study of spice adjunct showed that the incorporation of Eucheuma upto 20% had high acceptability. Spice adjunct containing 20% Eucheuma had 6.2% moisture, 22.2% ash, 29.2% fat, 10.0% protein, 9.4% crude fibre and 23% carbohydrates. Based on equilibrium relative humidity studies metallized polyester was selected as the packaging material. Storage studies indicated that metallized polyester provided a shelf life of 120 days at both the ambient and accelerated conditions.

  16. Experimental Study on Enhancing the Productivity of Solar Still Using Locally Available Material as a Storage Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjunan, Thottipalayam Vellingri; Aybar, Hikmet Şelli; Nedunchezhian, Natarajan

    2016-06-01

    This experimental study focuses on the effect of pebbles as an energy storage medium on the performance of a solar distillation system. Two single basin solar stills are fabricated with an effective area of 0.5 m2, the glass cover was tilted at 10° with respect to the horizontal. The experiments on the still were carried out under the same climatic conditions for two different modes of operations, (1) conventional still and (2) modified still (pebbles as storage medium). From the study, it could be concluded that (1) the productivity of solar still is increases 9.5 % when pebbles are used as storage medium (2) the maximum amount of heat losses occurs in the solar still is the combined effect of radiation and convection heat transfer from glass to ambient (3) pebbles have the potentiality to store the heat during high solar intensity period and to release the stored energy to water when the solar intensity is low.

  17. Study on modified cold storage method of rat livers with self-made HYDsolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Sun; Hong Chi Jiang; Hai Quan Qiao; Jin Sheng Sun; Shi Jun Zhu; Xiao Ming Wang

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the effect of cold preservation on rat livers by modified storage method with self-madeHYD solution.METHODS The modified method was that the vascular bed of rat livers was expended with an additional20 mL, 30 mL and 40 mL self-made HYD solution / 100 g liver. After resection of the liver, the extra HYDsolution expressed as % liver weight was entrapped via portal infusion by tying off the supra- and infrahepatic inferior vena cava. According to the amount of extra HYD solution, 40 rats were randomly dividedinto four groups: control group with conventional storage method, 20% group, 30% group and 40% group.The preservation effect of modified storage method was compared with that of conventional storage methodusing isolated perfused rat liver model.RESULTS Bile production and all the indices of hepatic microcirculation including portal perfused pressure, endothelin in the effluent, Trypan blue distribution time and histology in modified method groupswere significantly superior to those in control group (P< 0.05). The liver enzymes in 30% group weremarkedly lower than those in control group (P<0.05). The preservative efficiency of rat liver in 30% groupwas the best among the modified method groups.CONCLUSION The cold preservative efficiency with modified storage method is obviously superior to thatwith conventional storage method. It is suggested that the modified cold storage method is effective and mayhave potential for liver preservation

  18. Study on the Construction Scale of Pumped-Storage Hydropower in Northeast Power Grid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Nan; Bai Jianhua; Li You; Gu Xiaoguang; Li Chunshan

    2007-01-01

    @@ Peak regulation in the Northeast power grid is going from bad to worse. This stimulates the need to pumped-storage hydropower for its role in this respect. Based on the status of power sources and the load forecast in the system, the author puts forward a minimum construction scale of pumped-storage stations by the end of 2020 from technical feasibility, and an economic scale from economy. The analysis and comparison on the two schemes can be regarded as a reference for reasonably planning pumped-storage stations in the northeastern part of China.

  19. First principles study of hydrogen storage in SWCNT functionalized with MgH2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavanya, R.; Iyakutti, K.; Surya, V. J.; Vasu, V.; Kawazoe, Y.

    2013-02-01

    In this work, hydrogen storage in (10,10) armchair single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) functionalized with magnesium hydride (MgH2) has been investigated. As expected, due to light weight of MgH2, the system (SWCNT-MgH2) exhibits a storage capacity of 6.44 wt.%. The hydrogen adsorptions are molecular. The system is stable and thus H2 molecules can be desorbed without affecting the C - Mg attachment. Dimerization of MgH2 molecules has been observed. The binding energies confirm that the system can be used as a practical hydrogen storage medium.

  20. Experimental study on all-optical half-adder based on semi-conductor optical amplifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Bing-chen; YU Jin-long; WANG Wen-rui; ZHANG Li-tai; HU Hao; YANG En-ze

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel all-optical half-adder based on two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAS). Two optical band-pass filters are used to select the two idlers generated by four-wave mixing (FWM) effect of the first SOA. Therefore, the AND gate and XNOR logic are realized simultaneously. The second SOA acts as a NOT gate, in which the NOR logic is achieved with the input of the logic XNOR. As a result, the output is the sum of the two input bits and the carry. In the experiment, all-optical half-addition calculation is achieved between two 10 Gb/s signals.

  1. A beam expander facility for studying x-ray optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Finn Erland; Hornstrup, Allan; Frederiksen, P.

    1992-01-01

    The detailed study of the performance of full scale x-ray optics often requires the illumination of large areas. This paper describes a beam expander facility at the Daresbury Synchrotron Radiation Facility. It combines monochromatization and beam expansion in one dimension. The beam expansion...... is obtained from an extremely asymmetric reflection in a large single crystal of Si. An expansion of a factor of 50 was obtained in one dimension. The expanded beam of ~85 mm is limited only by the crystal size. The facility is installed in a 12-m-long hutch. A specific application, in which a high throughput...

  2. Smart Grids for Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES): a case study for the Amsterdam Zuidas district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaxa-Rozen, Marc; Bloemendal, Martin; Rostampour, Vahab

    2017-04-01

    In the context of increasingly strict requirements for building energy efficiency, Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems have emerged as an effective means to reduce energy demand for space heating and cooling in larger buildings. In the Netherlands, over 2000 systems are currently active, which has already raised issues with spatial planning in some areas; current planning schemes may lack the flexibility to properly address variations in ATES operation, which are driven by uncertainties across a broad range of time scales - from daily changes in building energy demand, to decadal trends for climate or groundwater conditions. This work is therefore part of a broader research effort on ATES Smart Grids (ATES-SG), which has focused on more adaptive methods for ATES management and control. In particular, improved control schemes which allow for coordination between neighboring ATES systems may offer more robust performance under uncertainty (Rostampour & Keviczky, 2016). The case studies for the ATES-SG project have so far focused on idealized cases, and on a historical simulation of ATES development in the city center of Utrecht. This poster will present an additional case study for the city center of Amsterdam, which poses several geohydrological challenges for ATES: for instance, variable density flow due to salinity gradients in the local aquifer, and varying depths for ATES systems due to the thickness of the aquifer. To study the effect of these conditions, this case uses an existing 15-layer geohydrological model of the Amsterdam region, cropped to an area of 4500m x 2500m around the Amsterdam Zuidas district. This rapidly developing business district is one of the densest areas of ATES use in Amsterdam, with 32 well doublets and 53 monowells currently registered. The geohydrological model is integrated with GIS data to accurately represent ATES spatial planning; simulated well flows are provided by a model predictive control component. This model is

  3. Numerical Study on the Thermal Performance of a Shell and Tube Phase Change Heat Storage Unit during Melting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a numerical study of the thermal performance in a shell and tube phase change heat storage unit. Paraffin wax as phase change material (PCM is filled in the shell space. The heat transfer fluids (HTFs: air and water flow through the tube and transfer the heat to PCM. A mathematical model involving HTF and PCM is developed to analyze the thermal performance of the phase change heat storage unit and is validated with experimental data. Numerical investigation is conducted to evaluate the effect of HTF inlet velocity on the HTF outlet temperature, Nu, and melt fraction when air or water is used as HTF. Results indicate that the air inlet velocity has a great effect on the air outlet temperature and heat transfer rate, and the water inlet velocity has little effect on the water outlet temperature. The investigated results can provide a reference for designing phase change heat storage system.

  4. Experimental study on the storage performance of high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation tank after sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, G. F.; Li, X. D.; Wang, R. S.

    2012-05-01

    High-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is one kind of dangerous pressure vessels. One of the worst accidents that may occur in a high-vacuum-multilayer-insulation (HVMLI) cryogenic tank is a sudden, catastrophic loss of insulating vacuum (SCLIV). The influence of SCLIV on storage performance for a HVMLI cryogenic tank is experimentally studied in this paper. A test rig was built up and experiments were conducted using LN2 as the test medium. The cryogenic tank was tested in the conditions of various combinations with different initial liquid level and number of insulation layers. Some important conclusions for storage performance with a vacuum-lost HVMLI cryogenic tank have been obtained. The experimental results show that the numbers of insulation layers and the initial liquid level have obvious effect on the storage performance after SCLIV for cryogenic tanks.

  5. Feasibility study in aspect of thermal integrity on the dry storage expansion options for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.; Song, M. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In order to expand the capability of the CANDU spent fuel dry storage facilities of the at Wolsong, the alternative concepts based on MACSTOR are suggested to replace with existing concrete silo of Wolsong. For this, the feasibility of its design changes from original MACSTOR is examined in term of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic. In this study, the configuration of the module was conceptually changed from its original 2 rows to 3 and 4 rows for review. Under normal operation, the results of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic shows that storage module can feasibly accomodate four rows of storage cylinders within allowable range in terms of maximum allowable temperature of the fuel basket.

  6. Satellite Altimetry and GRACE Gravimetry for Studies of Annual Water Storage Variations in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Andersen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS. These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than terrestrial soil moisture observations by GRACE observations and GLDAS model output.

  7. Hydrogen storage using polymer-supported organometallic dihydrogen complexes: a mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew I; Poliakoff, Martyn

    2007-07-28

    The dihydrogen complex W(CO)(5)(H(2)) can be both generated and dissociated in polymer matrices by UV photolysis at 220 K and 90 K, respectively, suggesting a potential "UV-activated" mechanism for hydrogen storage and release.

  8. Satellite altimetry and GRACE gravimetry for studies of annual water storage variations in Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Berry, P.; Freeman, J.;

    2008-01-01

    Four different data sources have been compared with respect to observations of the annual water storage variations in the region of Bangladesh. Data from satellite altimeters and river gauges estimates the variation in surface water storage in the major rivers of Bangladesh. The GRACE satellites...... measure the integrated mass change and hence the terrestrial soil moisture variations, which can also be estimated by a hydrological model (GLDAS). These types of observations enable the derivation of the integrated water storage in the entire region of Bangladesh. For all data types, the annual signal...... has been estimated from a common dataset spanning the period 2003 and 2004. All four different data observe that water storage in Bangladesh is largely dominated by an annual signal with a phase peaking in early September. The annual variations in river level peaks roughly two weeks earlier than...

  9. Studies show C60+Ca might be a new hydrogen-storage material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ In cooperation with their US co-workers,CAS researchers recently discovered a new nanomaterial with high-capacity hydrogen storage.Their work was published in a recent issue of Physics Review Letter.

  10. Primary frequency regulation with Li-ion battery energy storage system: A case study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina;

    2013-01-01

    and improving the predictability of the intermittent renewables but also of providing the ancillary services in the future energy markets. However, this is currently difficult to achieve due to high prices of the energy storage systems and difficulties with accurate prediction of the energy storage systems...... electricity market. Moreover, in this paper a possible improvement of the Li-ion BESS energy management strategy is shown, which allows for obtaining the higher NPV....

  11. Studies on Application of Mining Association Rules algorithm in Storage Location Configuration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    How to reduce in and out motion distance and improve work efficiency is not only the key question of logistics storage & distribution center, but also a primary factor in improving competitive power of enterprise . In view of this question, the method of using mining association rules to resolve the problem of storage location configuration was put forward in this article with the purpose of improving work efficiency.

  12. Optical Near Field Studies of Plasmonic and Optical Antennas For Sensitive and Selective Biosensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, Ryan M.

    For biosensing applications a useful device needs at least two properties: high sensitivity and high selectivity. Optical spectroscopy offers unique advantages over other sensing techniques however one big challenge to overcome is the mismatch between wavelength and the size of biologically relevant molecules. In order to have high enough sensitivity to approach the single-molecule limit, the interaction between the light and the molecule should be strong. However, the diffraction limit of light is approximately half the incidence wavelength, on the order of 100 nm for the smallest nondestructive wavelengths. This presents a significant mismatch between the size of the molecule and the smallest focus spot of the light. The photo-excitation should be compressed more than 100 fold to interact strongly. We must use metallic antennas that convert the incidence radiation into plasmonic modes which can then be compressed well below the wavelength diffraction limit. Studying the near field characteristics of these metallic nanostructures will help us gain insight into this emerging field and allow us to better use them in developing next generation devices. We have developed different geometries of these antennas and simulated their performance using Finite Difference Time Domain software. We have concentrated our efforts in the mid-infrared because that is the natural molecular vibration frequency region and also the near infrared because at these frequencies there exists a mature industry for compact sources, detectors, and fiber optic components. Our simulations show a 6,000 fold mode compression for a bowtie antenna and a million fold compression for a plasmonic photonic crystal (ppc) antenna. The bull's-eye antenna does not have as a high a mode compression but it has a natural geometry for molecular sensing due to the central metallic disc. Experimentally, we have measured the near field of these antennas with a custom back reflection apertureless NSOM setup in both

  13. RECENT MATHEMATICAL STUDIES IN THE MODELING OF OPTICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Bao

    2004-01-01

    This work is concerned with mathematical modeling, analysis, and computation of optics and electromagnetics, motivated particularly by optical and microwave applications.The main technical focus is on Maxwell's equations in complex linear and nonlinear media.

  14. HIE-ISOLDE HEBT beam optics studies with MADX

    CERN Document Server

    Parfenova, A; Fraser, M A; Goddard, B; Martino, M; Voulot, D; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2014-01-01

    Beam design and beam optics studies for the HIE-ISOLDE transfer lines [1, 2] have been carried out in MADX [3], and benchmarked against TRACE 3-D results [4, 5, 6]. Magnet field errors and alignment imperfections leading to deviations from design parameters have been treated explicitly, and the sensitivity of the machine lattice to different individual error sources was studied. Errors of different types have been considered and their effects on the machine have been corrected [7]. As a result, the tolerances for the various error contributions have been specified for the different equipment systems. The design choices for the expected magnet field and power supply quality, alignment tolerances, instrument resolution and physical apertures were validated. The baseline layout contains three identical branch lines as presented in Fig. 1. The detailed beam optics study with MADX was carried out for the beam line XT01. The large energy range from 0.3 to 10 MeV/u requested for the experiments sets a number of chal...

  15. Synthesis and Optical Study of a New Oligophenylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadok Roudesli

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A new substituted oligophenylene was prepared by the Knoevenagel condensation of 4-methoxybezaldehyde with a functionalized oligophenylene (OMPA. The latter was obtained by (4-methoxy phenyl acetonitrile electrochemical oxidation. The resulting modified oligomer was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques: NMR, FTIR and UV. The thermal study showed that the modified material exhibited a lower thermal stability compared with OMPA. Finally, the optical study revealed that in solution, the emission was red-shifted when compared with the non-modified oligomer emission and that the optical gap changed from 3.1 eV to 2.75 eV. In thin layer solid state, photoluminescence was again red-shifted by 120 nm, which is probably due to an interaction between the oligomer chains. In addition, a transient photoluminescence study was undertaken for the synthesized materials. It showed that the lifetimes of the photo-generated species were shortened by the conjugation extension in the modified oligomer and by the inter-chain interactions in the solid state.

  16. Optical Studies on Antimonide Superlattice Infrared Detector Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoglund, Linda; Soibel, Alexander; Hill, Cory J.; Ting, David Z.; Khoshakhlagh, Arezou; Liao, Anna; Keo, Sam; Lee, Michael C.; Nguyen, Jean; Mumolo, Jason M.; hide

    2010-01-01

    In this study the material quality and optical properties of type II InAs/GaSb superlattices are investigated using transmission and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The influence of the material quality on the intensity of the luminescence and on the electrical properties of the detectors is studied and a good correlation between the photodetector current-voltage (IV) characteristics and the PL intensity is observed. Studies of the temperature dependence of the PL reveal that Shockley-Read-Hall processes are limiting the minority carrier lifetime in both the mid-IR wavelength and the long-IR wavelength detector material studied. These results demonstrate that PL spectroscopy is a valuable tool for optimization of infrared detectors.

  17. Comparative studies on storage cells in tardigrades during starvation and anhydrobiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy REUNER, Steffen HENGHERR, Franz Brümmer, Ralph O. SCHILL

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The impact of starvation and anhydrobiosis on the number and size of the storage cells in the tardigrade species Milnesium tardigradum, Paramacrobiotus tonollii and Macrobiotus sapiens was investigated to gain more insight on the energetic side of anhydrobiosis. Storage cells are free floating cells within the body cavity of tardigrades and are presumed to store and release energy in form of glycogen, protein and fat to maintain a constant nutrient regime for the other tissues. The body size of the animals was not correlated with the size of the storage cells, however, M. tardigradum the largest species analysed also had the largest storage cells. A reduction in the size of the storage cells is apparent in all three species after seven days of starvation. A seven-day period of anhydrobiosis leads to a decrease in cell size in M. tardigradum but not in P. tonollii and M. sapiens. Although M. sapiens was raised on green algae, and M. tardigradum and P. tonollii were fed with rotifers and nematodes this difference in nourishment was not reflected in the response of the storage cells to anhydrobiosis [Current Zoology 56 (2: 259–263, 2010].

  18. Ice Storage Air-Conditioning System Simulation with Dynamic Electricity Pricing: A Demand Response Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Chun Lo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an optimal dispatch model of an ice storage air-conditioning system for participants to quickly and accurately perform energy saving and demand response, and to avoid the over contact with electricity price peak. The schedule planning for an ice storage air-conditioning system of demand response is mainly to transfer energy consumption from the peak load to the partial-peak or off-peak load. Least Squares Regression (LSR is used to obtain the polynomial function for the cooling capacity and the cost of power consumption with a real ice storage air-conditioning system. Based on the dynamic electricity pricing, the requirements of cooling loads, and all technical constraints, the dispatch model of the ice-storage air-conditioning system is formulated to minimize the operation cost. The Improved Ripple Bee Swarm Optimization (IRBSO algorithm is proposed to solve the dispatch model of the ice storage air-conditioning system in a daily schedule on summer. Simulation results indicate that reasonable solutions provide a practical and flexible framework allowing the demand response of ice storage air-conditioning systems to demonstrate the optimization of its energy savings and operational efficiency and offering greater energy efficiency.

  19. Preliminary study of EEHG-based superradiant undulator radiation at the HLS-II storage ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei-Wei; Li, He-Ting; Wang, Lin

    2017-07-01

    We investigate storage ring-based Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) superradiant undulator radiation as a possible scheme to obtain shorter wavelengths at the HLS-II (Hefei Light Source-II) storage ring. In this paper we give the designation of the storage ring based EEHG up to the 26th harmonic, where 31 nm vacuum ultraviolet light is radiated from an 800 nm seeded laser. The novelty of our design is that both the two dispersion sections of EEHG are realized by the storage ring’s own magnet structure. In particular, the whole ring is used as the first dispersion section, and two modulators of the traditional EEHG can be done with the same undulator. These two dispersion sections are realized by changing the superperiod of the present lattice structure, and more precisely by changing the focusing strengths of the present structure. Since no additional magnets and chicanes are used, the beam circulates around the storage ring repeatedly, and thus this storage ring-based EEHG can have a higher repetition rate than a linac-based EEHG. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11305170)

  20. Summary of the AccNet-EuCARD Workshop on Optics Measurements, Corrections and Modelling for High-Performance Storage Rings “OMCM”, CERN, Geneva, 20-22 June 2011

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolini, R; Calaga, R; Einfeld, D; Giovannozzi, M; Koutchouk, J-P; Milardi, C; Safranek, J; Tomás, R; Wenninger, J; Zimmermann, F

    2012-01-01

    The LHC, its luminosity upgrade HL-LHC, its injectors upgrade LIU and other high performance storage rings around the world are facing challenging requirements for optics measurements, correction and modelling. This workshop aims to do a review of the existing techniques to measure and control linear and non-linear optics parameters. The precise optics determination has proven to be a key ingredient to improve the performance of the past and present accelerators. From 20 to 22 June 2011 an international workshop, “OMCM,” was held at CERN with the goal of assessing the limits of the present techniques and evaluating new paths for improvement. The OMCM workshop was sponsored and supported by CERN and by the European Commission under the FP7 “Research Infrastructures” project EuCARD, grant agreement no. 227579.