WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical spectra recording

  1. Comparison of optical spectra recorded during DPF-1000U plasma experiments with gas-puffing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaloga Dobromil R.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results are presented of the optical spectra measurements for free plasma streams generated with the use of the modified DPF-1000U machine. This facility was recently equipped with a gas injection system (the so-called gas-puff placed on the symmetry axis behind the central opening in the inner electrode. The DPF-1000U experimental chamber was filled up with pure deuterium at the initial pressure of 1.6 or 2.4 mbar. Additionally, when the use was made of the gas-puff system about 1 cm3 of pure deuterium was injected at the pressure of 2 bars. The gas injection was initiated 1.5 or 2 ms before the triggering of the main discharge. The investigated plasma discharges were powered from a condenser bank charged initially to 23 kV (corresponding to the energy of 352 kJ, and the maximum discharge current amounted to about 1.8 MA. In order to investigate properties of a dense plasma column formed during DPF-1000U discharges the use was made of the optical emission spectroscopy. The optical spectra were recorded along the line of sight perpendicular to the vacuum chamber, using a Mechelle®900 spectrometer. The recent analysis of all the recorded spectra made it possible to compare the temporal changes in the electron density of a freely propagating plasma stream for discharges without and with the gas-puffing. Using this data an appropriate mode of operation of the DPF-1000U facility could be determined.

  2. Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.

    2011-11-01

    Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.

  3. Optical recording medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriech, A.; Bivol, V.; Tridukh, G.; Tsiuleanu, D.

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates of the micro- and optoelectronics, computer engineering ,in particular, to tjhe optical information media and may be used in hilography. Summary of the invention consists in that the optical image recording medium, containing a dielectric substrates, onto one surface of which there are placed in series a transparent electricity conducting layer, a photo sensitive recording layer of chalcogenic glass and a thin film electrode of aluminium, is provided with an optically transparent protective layer, applied into the thin film electrode. The result of the invention consists in excluding the dependence of chemical processes course into the medium upon environmental conditions

  4. Optical absorption spectra of Ag-11 isomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; Fernandez, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground-stale confi......The optical absorption spectra of the three most; stable structural isomers of the Ag-11 cluster were calculated using the time-dependent, density functional theory within the Casida formalism. The slightly different, spectra, of the isomers may permit the identification of the ground...

  5. Determination of the optical absorption spectra of thin layers from their photoacoustic spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bychto, Leszek; Maliński, Mirosław; Patryn, Aleksy; Tivanov, Mikhail; Gremenok, Valery

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for computations of the optical absorption coefficient spectra from the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra of thin semiconductor samples deposited on the optically transparent and thermally thick substrates. This method was tested on CuIn(Te0.7Se0.3)2 thin films. From the normalized photoacoustic amplitude spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed with the new formula as also with the numerical iterative method. From these spectra, the value of the energy gap of the thin film material and the type of the optical transitions were determined. From the experimental optical transmission spectra, the optical absorption coefficient spectra were computed too, and compared with the optical absorption coefficient spectra obtained from photoacoustic spectra.

  6. Thermoluminescence emission spectra and optical bleaching of oligoclase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.J.J.; Piters, T.M.; Ypma, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoluminescence (TL) spectra of oligoclase samples have been recorded in the temperature range from 300 to 700 K and the wavelength range from 300 to 850 nm. Like other feldspars, oligoclase produces blue (peaking at 460 nm) and red (peaking at 765 nm) emission bands. The maximum of the red emission occurs 20 K lower than that of the blue band. Optical bleaching was performed at wavelengths varying from 360 to 800 nm. Bleaching of artificially irradiated oligoclase causes a decrease of the TL signal. The bleaching efficiency increases with decreasing wavelength. Bleaching does not only influence the height of the glow curve but also the shape. An interesting observation is that the ratio of the blue and red band intensities is not affected by a bleaching procedure. No evidence has been found that bleaching influences the shape of the emission spectra. The correlation between the blue and red bands is discussed. (Author)

  7. Theory of optical spectra of solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kestner, N.R.

    1975-01-01

    During the last few years better theoretical models of solvated electron have been developed. These models allow one to calculate a priori the observable properties of the trapped electron. One of the most important and most widely determined properties is the optical spectrum. In this paper we consider the predictions of the theories not only as to the band maximum but line shape and width. In addition we will review how the theories predict these will depend on the solvent, pressure, temperature, and solvent density. In all cases extensive comparisons will be made with experimental work. In addition four new areas will be explored and recent results will be presented. These concern electrons in dense polar gases, the time development of the solvated electron spectrum, solvated electrons in mixed solvents, and photoelectron emission spectra (PEE) as it relates to higher excited states. This paper will review all recent theoretical calculations and present a critical review of the present status and future developments which are anticipated. The best theories are quite successful in predicting trends, and qualitative agreement concerning band maximum. The theory is still weak in predicting line shape and line width

  8. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF ε ORIONIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Gregory B.; Morrison, Nancy D.

    2013-01-01

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 échelle spectra of ε Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of Hα (net) and He I λ5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I λ5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both Hα and He I λ5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both Hα and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  9. Resonance spectra of diabolo optical antenna arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Guo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A complete set of diabolo optical antenna arrays with different waist widths and periods was fabricated on a sapphire substrate by using a standard e-beam lithography and lift-off process. Fabricated diabolo optical antenna arrays were characterized by measuring the transmittance and reflectance with a microscope-coupled FTIR spectrometer. It was found experimentally that reducing the waist width significantly shifts the resonance to longer wavelength and narrowing the waist of the antennas is more effective than increasing the period of the array for tuning the resonance wavelength. Also it is found that the magnetic field enhancement near the antenna waist is correlated to the shift of the resonance wavelength.

  10. Optical spectra and radio properties of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wills, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Using high quality spectrophotometric scans obtained at the McDonald Observatory, and data from the literature the author shows that, for quasars, the relative strength of optical Fe II emission (the broad blended feature lambda4570) may be roughly inversely proportional to line widths (full width at half maximum, FWHM). A similar relation between the relative intensity of the UV Fe II blend between 2300 and 2600 A (the lambda2500 feature) and the widths of Mg II and Hβ is shown. She distinguishes between compact and extended radio sources and includes radio quiet quasars, Seyfert 1 galaxies and BLRG's. The quasars associated with extended radio sources have the broadest emission lines and the weakest Fe II, falling close to the region occupied by BLRG's which also have extended radio structure. Those quasars with strong Fe II and compact radio structure are most similar to the Seyfert 1 galaxies. (Auth.)

  11. Interface phonon effect on optical spectra of quantum nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, Alexander Yu.; Proshina, Olga V.; Rusina, Anastasia N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with theory of large radius polaron effect in quantum wells, wires and dots. The interaction of charge particles and excitons with both bulk and interface optical phonons is taken into consideration. The analytical expression for polaron binding energy is obtained for different types of nanostructures. It is shown that the contribution of interface phonons to the polaron binding energy may exceed the bulk phonon part. The manifestation of polaron effects in optical spectra of quantum nanostructures is discussed.

  12. Probing molecular chirality by coherent optical absorption spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jia, W. Z. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Wei, L. F. [Quantum Optoelectronics Laboratory, School of Physics and Technology, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Materials and Technologies, School of Physics and Engineering, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2011-11-15

    We propose an approach to sensitively probe the chirality of molecules by measuring their coherent optical-absorption spectra. It is shown that quantum dynamics of the cyclic three-level chiral molecules driven by appropriately designed external fields is total-phase dependent. This will result in chirality-dependent absorption spectra for the probe field. As a consequence, the charality-dependent information in the spectra (such as the locations and relative heights of the characteristic absorption peaks) can be utilized to identify molecular chirality and determinate enantiomer excess (i.e., the percentages of different enantiomers). The feasibility of the proposal with chiral molecules confined in hollow-core photonic crystal fiber is also discussed.

  13. Raman Optical Activity and Raman Spectra of Amphetamine Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Shim, Irene; White, Peter Cyril

    2012-01-01

    Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements of vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of different species of amphetamine (amphetamine and amphetamine-H+) are reported for the first time. The quantum chemical calculations were carried out as hybrid ab initio DFT-molecular orbi......Theoretical calculations and preliminary measurements of vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of different species of amphetamine (amphetamine and amphetamine-H+) are reported for the first time. The quantum chemical calculations were carried out as hybrid ab initio DFT...... are employed for identification purposes. The DFT calculations show that the most stable conformations are those allowing for close contact between the aromatic ring and the amine hydrogen atoms. The internal rotational barrier within the same amphetamine enanti- omer has a considerable influence on the Raman...

  14. Optical Spectra of Hemoglobin Taken from Alcohol Dependent Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Dudok K.; Dudok T.; Vlokh I.; Vlokh R.

    2005-01-01

    Optical spectra of CNMetHb and CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250, taken from the blood of humans with alcohol dependence, are studied in the spectral range of 450–750nm. The shifts in the spectral absorption maxima of CNMetHb-Coomassi G-250 complexes are observed for the diseased persons with alcohol dependence. The obtained results show that the hemoglobin structure of alcohol dependent humans is changed.

  15. Optical emission line spectra of Seyfert galaxies and radio galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterbrock, D.E.

    1978-01-01

    Many radio galaxies have strong emission lines in their optical spectra, similar to the emission lines in the spectra of Seyfert galaxies. The range of ionization extends from [O I] and [N I] through [Ne V] and [Fe VII] to [Fe X]. The emission-line spectra of radio galaxies divide into two types, narrow-line radio galaxies whose spectra are indistinguishable from Seyfert 2 galaxies, and broad-line radio galaxies whose spectra are similar to Seyfert 1 galaxies. However on the average the broad-line radio galaxies have steeper Balmer decrements, stronger [O III] and weaker Fe II emission than the Seyfert 1 galaxies, though at least one Seyfert 1 galaxy not known to be a radio source has a spectrum very similar to typical broad-line radio galaxies. Intermediate-type Seyfert galaxies exist that show various mixtures of the Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 properties, and the narrow-line or Seyfert 2 property seems to be strongly correlated with radio emission. (Auth.)

  16. HIGH RESOLUTION OPTICAL AND NIR SPECTRA OF HBC 722

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Park, Sunkyung [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Green, Joel D.; Cochran, William D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, TX (United States); Kang, Wonseok; Lee, Sang-Gak [National Youth Space Center, 200 Deokheungyangjjok-gil, Dongil-myeon, Goheung-gun, Jeollanam-do 548-951 (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Hyun-Il, E-mail: jeongeun.lee@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: sunkyung@khu.ac.kr, E-mail: joel@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wdc@astro.as.utexas.edu, E-mail: wskang@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: sanggak@kywa.or.kr, E-mail: hisung@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, 776 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of high resolution (R ≥ 30,000) optical and near-IR spectroscopic monitoring observations of HBC 722, a recent FU Orionis object that underwent an accretion burst in 2010. We observed HBC 722 in the optical/near-IR with the Bohyunsan Optical Echelle Spectrograph, Hobby–Eberly Telescope-HRS, and Immersion Grating Infrared Spectrograph, at various points in the outburst. We found atomic lines with strongly blueshifted absorption features or P Cygni profiles, both evidence of a wind driven by the accretion. Some lines show a broad double-peaked absorption feature, evidence of disk rotation. However, the wind-driven and disk-driven spectroscopic features are anti-correlated in time; the disk features became strong as the wind features disappeared. This anti-correlation might indicate that the rebuilding of the inner disk was interrupted by the wind pressure during the first 2 years. The half-width at half-depth of the double-peaked profiles decreases with wavelength, indicative of the Keplerian rotation; the optical spectra with the disk feature are fitted by a G5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 70 km s{sup −1} while the near-IR disk features are fitted by a K5 template stellar spectrum convolved with a rotation velocity of 50 km s{sup −1}. Therefore, the optical and near-IR spectra seem to trace the disk at 39 and 76 R{sub ⊙}, respectively. We fit a power-law temperature distribution in the disk, finding an index of 0.8, comparable to optically thick accretion disk models.

  17. Isotope effects on the optical spectra of semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, Manuel; Thewalt, M. L. W.

    2005-10-01

    Since the end of the cold war, macroscopic amounts of separated stable isotopes of most elements have been available “off the shelf” at affordable prices. Using these materials, single crystals of many semiconductors have been grown and the dependence of their physical properties on isotopic composition has been investigated. The most conspicuous effects observed have to do with the dependence of phonon frequencies and linewidths on isotopic composition. These affect the electronic properties of solids through the mechanism of electron-phonon interaction, in particular, in the corresponding optical excitation spectra and energy gaps. This review contains a brief introduction to the history, availability, and characterization of stable isotopes, including their many applications in science and technology. It is followed by a concise discussion of the effects of isotopic composition on the vibrational spectra, including the influence of average isotopic masses and isotopic disorder on the phonons. The final sections deal with the effects of electron-phonon interaction on energy gaps, the concomitant effects on the luminescence spectra of free and bound excitons, with particular emphasis on silicon, and the effects of isotopic composition of the host material on the optical transitions between the bound states of hydrogenic impurities.

  18. FHILs in Seyferts and Liners in the optical spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, R. J. C.; Rodriguez, A. M.; Portilla, J. G.

    2014-10-01

    We present the main results from a selection of optical spectra of Seyfert and LINER galaxies taken from the 9^{th} release of the SDSS with detectable emission of forbidden high ionization lines (FHILs), better known as coronal lines. A catalog of 345 Seyfert 1 (Sy1) and Seyfert 2 (Sy2) galaxies with FHILs emission is presented. By analyzing their spectra and utilizing data from the literature we found the following results: (1) The flux ratios between FHILs suggests anisotropy of emission between Sy1 and Sy2 galaxies, which agrees with the results found by Nagao et al. (2002) and Portilla (2012). Sy1 seems to emit more FHILs than Sy2. (2) This anisotropy suggests the idea that an important, but not the majority, of the emission of FHILs comes from the inner part of the obscuring torus. (3) We present diagnostic diagrams between FHILs lines which indicate clear correlations between the flux ratios. (4) It is observed that the ratio of Ne V/Fe VII is of the order of 3 to 10, while the ratios between iron lines (i.e., Fe VII, Fe X, Fe XI) are roughly around the unity. (5) At least in the optical spectra, the present study continues to support the general idea that LINERs are not energetic enough to present FHILs. A complete version of this study including the catalog with the objects of study, and diagnosis diagrams using only this kind of lines can be found in Vera & Portilla (in prep).

  19. Extracting Optical Fiber Background from Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Spectra Based on Bi-Objective Optimization Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Shi, Tielin; Tang, Zirong; Zhu, Wei; Liao, Guanglan; Li, Xiaoping; Gong, Bo; Zhou, Tengyuan

    2017-08-01

    We propose a bi-objective optimization model for extracting optical fiber background from the measured surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) spectrum of the target sample in the application of fiber optic SERS. The model is built using curve fitting to resolve the SERS spectrum into several individual bands, and simultaneously matching some resolved bands with the measured background spectrum. The Pearson correlation coefficient is selected as the similarity index and its maximum value is pursued during the spectral matching process. An algorithm is proposed, programmed, and demonstrated successfully in extracting optical fiber background or fluorescence background from the measured SERS spectra of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and crystal violet (CV). The proposed model not only can be applied to remove optical fiber background or fluorescence background for SERS spectra, but also can be transferred to conventional Raman spectra recorded using fiber optic instrumentation.

  20. Optical absorption and scattering spectra of pathological stomach tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraev, K. M.; Ashurbekov, N. A.; Lakhina, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Diffuse reflection spectra of biotissues in vivo and transmission and reflection coefficients for biotissues in vitro are measured over 300-800 nm. These data are used to determine the spectral absorption and scattering indices and the scattering anisotropy factor for stomach mucous membranes under normal and various pathological conditions (chronic atrophic and ulcerous defects, malignant neoplasms). The most importan tphysiological (hemodynamic and oxygenation levels) and structural-morphological (scatterer size and density) parameters are also determined. The results of a morphofunctional study correlate well with the optical properties and are consistent with data from a histomorphological analysis of the corresponding tissues.

  1. Nonlinear optical and electroabsorption spectra of polydiacetylene crystals and films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, D.; Soos, Z. G.

    1996-01-01

    Vibronic structure of nonlinear optical (NLO) coefficients is developed within the Condon approximation, displaced harmonic oscillators, and crude adiabatic states. The displacements of backbone modes of conjugated polymers are taken from vibrational data on the ground and 1B excited state. NLO resonances are modeled by three excitations and transition moments taken from Pariser-Parr-Pople (PPP) theory and optimized to polydiacetylene (PDA) spectra in crystals and films, with blue-shifted 1B exciton. The joint analysis of third-harmonic-generation, two-photon absorption, and nondegenerate four-wave-mixing spectra of PDA crystals and films shows weak two-photon absorption to 2A below 1B, leading to overlapping resonances in the THG spectrum, strong two-photon absorption to an nA state some 35% above 1B, and weak Raman resonances in nondegenerate FWM spectra. The full π-π* spectrum contributes to Stark shifts and field-induced transitions, as shown by PPP results for PDA oligomers. The Stark shift dominates high-resolution electroabsorption (EA) spectra of PDA crystals below 10 K. The close correspondence between EA and the first-derivative I'(ω) of the linear absorption above the 1B exciton in PDA crystals provides an experimental separation of vibrational and electronic contributions that limits any even-parity state in this 0.5 eV interval. An oscillator-strength sum rule is applied to the convergence of PDA oligomers with increasing length, N, and the crystal oscillator strengths are obtained without adjustable parameters. The sum rule for the 1B exciton implies large transition moments to higher-energy Ag states, whose locations in recent models are contrasted to PPP results. Joint analysis of NLO and EA spectra clarifies when a few electronic excitations are sufficient, distinguishes between vibrational and electronic contributions, and supports similar π-electron interactions in conjugated molecules and polymers.

  2. INFRARED SPECTRA AND OPTICAL CONSTANTS OF NITRILE ICES RELEVANT TO TITAN's ATMOSPHERE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Marla H.; Hudson, Reggie; Ferrante, Robert F.; James Moore, W.

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrile ices known or suspected to be in Titan's atmosphere are presented from 2.0 to 333.3 μm (∼5000-30 cm -1 ). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan's winter pole. Ices studied are: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C 2 N 2 , cyanogen; CH 3 CN, acetonitrile; C 2 H 5 CN, propionitrile; and HC 3 N, cyanoacetylene. For each of these molecules, we also report new cryogenic measurements of the real refractive index, n, determined in both the amorphous and crystalline phases at 670 nm. These new values have been incorporated into our optical constant calculations. Spectra were measured and optical constants were calculated for each nitrile at a variety of temperatures, including, but not limited to, 20, 35, 50, 75, 95, and 110 K, in both the amorphous phase and the crystalline phase. This laboratory effort used a dedicated FTIR spectrometer to record transmission spectra of thin-film ice samples. Laser interference was used to measure film thickness during condensation onto a transparent cold window attached to the tail section of a closed-cycle helium cryostat. Optical constants, real (n) and imaginary (k) refractive indices, were determined using Kramers-Kronig analysis. Our calculation reproduces the complete spectrum, including all interference effects.

  3. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Elusive Amorphous Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L.

    2015-01-01

    New and accurate laboratory results are reported for amorphous methane (CH4) ice near 10 K for the study of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the outer Solar System. Near- and mid-infrared (IR) data, including spectra, band strengths, absorption coefficients, and optical constants, are presented for the first time for this seldom-studied amorphous solid. The apparent IR band strength near 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) for amorphous CH4 is found to be about 33% higher than the value long used by IR astronomers to convert spectral observations of interstellar CH4 into CH4 abundances. Although CH4 is most likely to be found in an amorphous phase in the ISM, a comparison of results from various laboratory groups shows that the earlier CH4 band strength at 1300 cm(exp -1) (7.69 micrometer) was derived from IR spectra of ices that were either partially or entirely crystalline CH4 Applications of the new amorphous-CH4 results are discussed, and all optical constants are made available in electronic form.

  4. CORRELATIONS OF QUASAR OPTICAL SPECTRA WITH RADIO MORPHOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimball, Amy E.; Ivezic, Zeljko; Wiita, Paul J.; Schneider, Donald P.

    2011-01-01

    Using the largest homogeneous quasar sample with high-quality optical spectra and robust radio morphology classifications assembled to date, we investigate relationships between radio and optical properties with unprecedented statistical power. The sample consists of 4714 radio quasars from FIRST with S 20 ≥ 2 mJy and with spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Radio morphology classes include core-only (core), core-lobe (lobe), core-jet (jet), lobe-core-lobe (triple), and double-lobe. Electronic tables of the quasar samples, along with spectral composites for individual morphology classes, are made available. We examine the optical colors of these subsamples and find that radio quasars with core emission unresolved by FIRST (on ∼5'' scale) have a redder color distribution than radio-quiet quasars (S 20 ∼ I ) are correlated, which supports the hypothesis that both parameters are indicative of line-of-sight orientation. We investigate spectral line equivalent widths (EWs) as a function of R and R I , including the O [III] narrow line doublet and the C IV λ1549 and Mg II λ2799 broad lines. We find that the rest EWs of the broad lines correlate positively with R I at the 4σ-8σ level. However, we find no strong dependence of EW on R, in contrast to previously published results. A possible interpretation of these results is that EWs of quasar emission lines increase as the line-of-sight angle to the radio-jet axis decreases. These results are in stark contrast to commonly accepted orientation-based theories, which suggest that continuum emission should increase as the angle to the radio-jet axis decreases, resulting in smaller EWs of emission lines (assumed isotropic). Finally, we observe the Baldwin effect in our sample and find that it does not depend strongly on quasar radio morphology.

  5. Quantitative photoacoustic microscopy of optical absorption coefficients from acoustic spectra in the optical diffusive regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zijian; Favazza, Christopher; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-06-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) microscopy (PAM) can image optical absorption contrast with ultrasonic spatial resolution in the optical diffusive regime. Conventionally, accurate quantification in PAM requires knowledge of the optical fluence attenuation, acoustic pressure attenuation, and detection bandwidth. We circumvent this requirement by quantifying the optical absorption coefficients from the acoustic spectra of PA signals acquired at multiple optical wavelengths. With the acoustic spectral method, the absorption coefficients of an oxygenated bovine blood phantom at 560, 565, 570, and 575 nm were quantified with errors of <3%. We also quantified the total hemoglobin concentration and hemoglobin oxygen saturation in a live mouse. Compared with the conventional amplitude method, the acoustic spectral method provides greater quantification accuracy in the optical diffusive regime. The limitations of the acoustic spectral method was also discussed.

  6. Infrared Spectra, Index of Refraction, and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Marla; Ferrante, Robert; Moore, William; Hudson, Reggie

    2010-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrite ices known or suspected to be in Titan's atmosphere are presented from 2.5 to 200 microns (4000 to 50 per cm ). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan's winter pole. Ices studied include: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C 2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. For each of these molecules we report new measurements of the index of refraction, n, determined in both the amorphous- and crystallinephase at 670 nm. Spectra were measured and optical constants were calculated for each nitrite at a variety of temperatures including 20, 35, 50, 75, 95, and 110 K, in the amorphous- and crystalline-phase. This laboratory effort uses a dedicated FTIR spectrometer to record transmission spectra of thin-film ice samples. Laser interference is used to measure film thickness during condensation onto a transparent cold window attached to the tail section of a closed-cycle helium cryostat. Optical constants, real (n) and imaginary (k) refractive indices, are determined using Kramers-Kronig (K-K) analysis. Our calculation reproduces the complete spectrum, including all interference effects. Index of refraction measurements are made in a separate dedicated FTIR spectrometer where interference deposit fringes are measured using two 670 nm lasers at different angles to the ice substrate. A survey of these new measurements will be presented along with a discussion of their validation, errors, and application to Titan data.

  7. Noise spectra in balanced optical detectors based on transimpedance amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masalov, A. V.; Kuzhamuratov, A.; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2017-11-01

    We present a thorough theoretical analysis and experimental study of the shot and electronic noise spectra of a balanced optical detector based on an operational amplifier connected in a transimpedance scheme. We identify and quantify the primary parameters responsible for the limitations of the circuit, in particular, the bandwidth and shot-to-electronic noise clearance. We find that the shot noise spectrum can be made consistent with the second-order Butterworth filter, while the electronic noise grows linearly with the second power of the frequency. Good agreement between the theory and experiment is observed; however, the capacitances of the operational amplifier input and the photodiodes appear significantly higher than those specified in manufacturers' datasheets. This observation is confirmed by independent tests.

  8. Optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhizhin, GN

    1995-01-01

    The current volume is a single topic volume on the optical spectra and lattice dynamics of molecular crystals. The book is divided into two parts. Part I covers both the theoretical and experimental investigations of organic crystals. Part II deals with the investigation of the structure, phase transitions and reorientational motion of molecules in organic crystals. In addition appendices are given which provide the parameters for the calculation of the lattice dynamics of molecular crystals, procedures for the calculation of frequency eigenvectors of utilizing computers, and the frequencies and eigenvectors of lattice modes for several organic crystals. Quite a large amount of Russian literature is cited, some of which has previously not been available to scientists in the West.

  9. A comparative study of the spectra recorded at RRCAT synchrotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-01-09

    Jan 9, 2013 ... 2Applied Spectroscopy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. ∗ ... It can be applied not only to crystals, but ... is used and the transmitted beam intensity from the sample is recorded on a position-.

  10. Linear optical absorption spectra of mesoscopic structures in intense THz fields: Free-particle properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1998-01-01

    We theoretically study the effect of THz radiation on the linear optical absorption spectra of semiconductor structures. A general theoretical framework, based on nonequilibrium Green functions, is formulated and applied to the calculation of linear optical absorption spectrum for several...

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: BD+46 442 optical spectra (Bollen+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollen, D.; van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.

    2017-08-01

    Reduced high-resolution (R~85000) optical spectra of BD+46 442. These 104 spectra were obtained between July 2009 and January 2016 from the HERMES spectrograph, mounted on the 1.2m Flemish Mercator telescope at La Palma, Canary Islands, Spain. The spectra cover a wavelength range from 3770 to 9000 angstrom in logscale. The flux is given in arbitrary units. The spectra are collected as FITS files. The numbering of the spectra corresponds to the numbering in Table B.1 in the article (e.g. spec_15.fits corresponds to N=15). (2 data files).

  12. Total quantitative recording of elemental maps and spectra with a scanning microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, G.J.F.; Hammond, I.

    1979-01-01

    A system of data recording and analysis has been developed by means of which simultaneously all data from a scanning instrument such as a microprobe can be quantitatively recorded and permanently stored, including spectral outputs from several detectors. Only one scanning operation is required on the specimen. Analysis is then performed on the stored data, which contain quantitative information on distributions of all elements and spectra of all regions

  13. Laser- and gamma-induced transformations of optical spectra of indium-doped sodium borate glass

    CERN Document Server

    Kopyshinsky, O V; Zelensky, S E; Danilchenko, B A; Shakhov, O P

    2003-01-01

    The optical absorption and luminescence properties of indium-doped sodium borate glass irradiated by gamma-rays and by powerful UV lasers within the impurity-related absorption band are investigated experimentally. It is demonstrated that both the laser- and gamma-irradiation cause similar transformations of optical spectra in the UV and visible regions. The changes of the spectra observed are described with the use of a model which includes three types of impurity centres formed by differently charged indium ions.

  14. Spectral shaping for non-Gaussian source spectra in optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tripathi, R; Nassif, N. A.; Nelson, JS; Park, B.H.; de Boer, JF

    2002-01-01

    We present a digital spectral shaping technique to reduce the sidelobes (ringing) of the axial point-spread function in optical coherence tomography for non-Gaussian-shaped source spectra. The spectra of two superluminescent diodes were combined to generate a spectrum with significant modulation.

  15. Gamma ray spectra recorded from the fallout collected in May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristu, M.I.

    1987-07-01

    An analysis of the gamma ray spectra recorded from the fallout collective in Bucharest and Brasov in May, 1986 was carried out. Relative activities of the assigned radionuclides were computed and the duration of the 235 U fuel irradiation has been deduced. (author)

  16. Studies on Fourier amplitude spectra of accelerograms recorded on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Rao, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    Fourier spectra of 54 earthquake accelerograms recorded on rock sites in the U.S.A. have been analysed. These could be used in generation of synthetic accelerogramms for seismic design. (author). 19 figs., 1 tab., 1 appendix, 19 re fs

  17. The physics of thin film optical spectra an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stenzel, Olaf

    2016-01-01

    The book bridges the gap between fundamental physics courses (such as optics, electrodynamics, quantum mechanics and solid state physics) and highly specialized literature on the spectroscopy, design, and application of optical thin film coatings. Basic knowledge from the above-mentioned courses is therefore presumed. Starting from fundamental physics, the book enables the reader derive the theory of optical coatings and to apply it to practically important spectroscopic problems. Both classical and semiclassical approaches are included. Examples describe the full range of classical optical coatings in various spectral regions as well as highly specialized new topics such as rugate filters and resonant grating waveguide structures.The second edition has been updated and extended with respect to probing matter in different spectral regions, homogenous and inhomogeneous line broadening mechanisms and the Fresnel formula for the effect of planar interfaces.

  18. STELLAR POPULATIONS IN MEDIUM REDSHIFT CLUSTERS .2. OPTICAL-INFRARED PHOTOMETRY AND SPECTRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PICKLES, AJ; VANDERKRUIT, PC

    1991-01-01

    We present optical and infrared photometry (BV RI, J H K) and spectra of galaxies in 6 medium redshift clusters covering the redshift range 0.19 less-than-or-equal-to z less-than-or-equal-to 0.4. The array photometry is used to note the radial distribution of the cluster galaxies with optical and

  19. Krypton K-shell X-ray spectra recorded by the HENEX spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seely, J.F. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington DC 20375 (United States)]. E-mail: john.seely@nrl.navy.mil; Back, C.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Constantin, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Lee, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Chung, H.-K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA 94550 (United States); Hudson, L.T. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Szabo, C.I. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Henins, A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD 20899 (United States); Holland, G.E. [SFA Inc., 9315 Largo Drive West Suite 200, Largo MD 20774 (United States); Atkin, R. [Tiger Innovations, L.L.C., 3610 Vacation Lane, Arlington VA 22207 (United States); Marlin, L. [Naval Research Laboratory, Space Science Division, Washington DC 20375 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    High-resolution X-ray spectra were recorded by the High-Energy Electronic X-ray (HENEX) spectrometer from a variety of targets irradiated by the Omega laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The HENEX spectrometer utilizes four reflection crystals covering the 1-20keV energy range and one quartz(10-11) transmission crystal (Laue geometry) covering the 11-40keV range. The time-integrated spectral images were recorded on five CMOS X-ray detectors. In the spectra recorded from krypton-filled gasbag and hohlraum targets, the helium-like K-shell transitions n=1-2, 1-3, and 1-4 appeared in the 13-17keV energy range. A number of additional spectral features were observed at energies lower than the helium-like n=1-3 and n=1-4 transitions. Based on computational simulations of the spectra using the FLYCHK/FLYSPEC codes, which included opacity effects, these additional features are identified to be inner-shell transitions from the Li-like through N-like krypton charge states. The comparisons of the calculated and observed spectra indicate that these transitions are characteristic of the plasma conditions immediately after the laser pulse when the krypton density is 2x10{sup 18}cm{sup -3} and the electron temperature is in the range 2.8-3.2keV. These spectral features represent a new diagnostic for the charge state distribution, the density and electron temperature, and the plasma opacity. Laboratory experiments indicate that it is feasible to record K-shell spectra from gold and higher Z targets in the >60keV energy range using a Ge(220) transmission crystal.

  20. Comparison of optical and electron spectra in an infra-red free electron laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLeod, A.M.; Gillespie, W.A.; Martin, P.F. [Univ. of Abertay, Dundee (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Time-resolved electron and optical spectra recently acquired at the FELIX facility are presented, showing the evolution of the respective macropulses. A comparison is made between the optical power output during the macropulse and the measured power extracted from the electron beam using a simple model of the cavity losses. Data are available for a wide range of operating conditions: the wavelength range is from 9 {mu}m to 28 {mu}m and detuning are between 1/4{lambda} and 2{lambda}. The effect of rapid electron beam energy changes on the optical and electron spectra will also be discussed.

  1. Explicit versus Implicit Solvent Modeling of Raman Optical Activity Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hopmann, K. H.; Ruud, K.; Pecul, M.; Kudelski, A.; Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 115, č. 14 (2011), s. 4128-4137 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * lactamide * solvent models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011

  2. High-Density Near-Field Optical Disc Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Ide, Naoki; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2005-05-01

    We developed a high-density near-field optical recording disc system using a solid immersion lens. The near-field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with a numerical aperture of 1.84. The laser wavelength for recording is 405 nm. In order to realize the near-field optical recording disc, we used a phase-change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. A clear eye pattern of 112 GB capacity with 160 nm track pitch and 50 nm bit length was observed. The equivalent areal density is 80.6 Gbit/in2. The bottom bit error rate of 3 tracks-write was 4.5× 10-5. The readout power margin and the recording power margin were ± 30.4% and ± 11.2%, respectively.

  3. Optical spectra of phthalocyanines and related compounds a guide for beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Isago, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This book displays how optical (absorption, emission, and magnetic circular dichroism) spectra of phthalocyanines and related macrocyclic dyes can be varied from their prototypical ones depending on conditions. As these compounds can be involved in colorful chemistry (which might be driven by impurities in solvents), their spectra behave like the sea-god Proteus in their mutability. Therefore, those who have been engaged with phthalocyanines for the first time, including even educated professional researchers and engineers, may have been embarrassed by the deceptive behavior of their compounds and could have, in the worst cases, given up their projects. This book is aimed not merely at reviewing the optical spectra, but also at helping such people, particularly beginners, to figure them out by showing some examples of their prototypical spectra and their variations in several situations. For the purpose of better understanding, the book also provides an introduction to their theoretical backgrounds as graphic...

  4. Analysis of aggregate optical spectra using moments. Application to the purple membrane of halobacterium halobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemenger, R.P.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of extracting structural information from the optical spectra of aggregates of molecules interacting through their electronic transitions is studied. One serious difficulty common to all approaches to this problem is that of properly taking into account the effects of molecular vibrations. A series of exact relations derived previously which are correct with regard to molecular vibrations provide a number of independent, explicit connections between aggregate geometrical parameters and moments of experimental spectra. It is shown that, by applying these moment relations to the optical absorption and circular dichroism spectra of simple aggregates, a complete set of equations can be found, i.e., enough equations can be found to solve for all of the geometrical parameters which enter into the expressions for absorption and circular dichroism spectra. This procedure is applied in some detail to the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium. The results are completely consistent with what is known about its structure

  5. Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures for image recording and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasherininov, P. G.; Tomasov, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    Fast optical recording media based on semiconductor nanostructures (CdTe, GaAs) for image recording and processing with a speed to 10 6 cycle/s (which exceeds the speed of known recording media based on metal-insulator-semiconductor-(liquid crystal) (MIS-LC) structures by two to three orders of magnitude), a photosensitivity of 10 -2 V/cm 2 , and a spatial resolution of 5-10 (line pairs)/mm are developed. Operating principles of nanostructures as fast optical recording media and methods for reading images recorded in such media are described. Fast optical processors for recording images in incoherent light based on CdTe crystal nanostructures are implemented. The possibility of their application to fabricate image correlators is shown.

  6. Polarization holographic optical recording of a new photochromic diarylethene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shouzhi; Miao, Wenjuan; Chen, Anyin; Cui, Shiqiang

    2008-12-01

    A new symmetrical photochromic diarylethene, 1,2-bis[2-methyl-5-(3-methoxylphenyl)-3-thienyl]perfluorocyclopentene (1a), was synthesized, and its photochromic properties were investigated. The compound exhibited good photochromism both in solution and in PMMA film with alternating irradiation by UV/VIS light, and the maxima absorption of its closed-ring isomer 1b are 582 and 599 nm, respectively. Using diarylethene 1b/PMMA film as recording medium and a He-Ne laser (633 nm) for recording and readout, four types of polarization and angular multiplexing holographic optical recording were performed perfectly. For different types of polarization recording including parallel linear polarization recording, parallel circular polarization recording, orthogonal linear polarization recording and orthogonal circular polarization recording,have been accomplished successfully. The results demonstrated that the orthogonal circular polarization recording is the best method for polarization holographic optical recording when this compound was used as recording material. With angular multiplexing recording technology, two high contrast holograms were recorded in the same place on the film with the dimension of 0.78 μm2.

  7. Hardware authentication using transmission spectra modified optical fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grubbs, Robert K.; Romero, Juan A.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to authenticate the source and integrity of data is critical to the monitoring and inspection of special nuclear materials, including hardware related to weapons production. Current methods rely on electronic encryption/authentication codes housed in monitoring devices. This always invites the question of implementation and protection of authentication information in an electronic component necessitating EMI shielding, possibly an on board power source to maintain the information in memory. By using atomic layer deposition techniques (ALD) on photonic band gap (PBG) optical fibers we will explore the potential to randomly manipulate the output spectrum and intensity of an input light source. This randomization could produce unique signatures authenticating devices with the potential to authenticate data. An external light source projected through the fiber with a spectrometer at the exit would 'read' the unique signature. No internal power or computational resources would be required.

  8. Techniques for Handling Channeling in High Resolution Fourier Transform Spectra Recorded with Synchrotron Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; PredoiCross, Adriana; Teillet, P. M.

    2010-01-01

    Seven different techniques in dealing the problem of channel spectra in Fourier transform Spectroscopy utilizing synchrotron source were examined and compared. Five of these techniques deal with the artifacts (spikes) in the recorded interferogram which in turn result in channel spectra within the spectral domain. Such interferogram editing method include replacing these spikes with zeros, straight line, fitted polynomial curve, rescaled spike and spike reduced with Gauss Function. Another two techniques try to target this issue in the spectral domain instead by either generating a synthetic background simulating the channels or measuring the channels parameters (amplitude, spacing and phase) to use in the spectral fitting program. Results showed spectral domain techniques produces higher quality results in terms of signal to noise and fitting residual. The effect of each method on the line parameters such as position, intensity are air broadening are also measured and discussed.

  9. Electronic transient processes and optical spectra in quantum dots for quantum computing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Král, Karel; Zdeněk, Petr; Khás, Zdeněk

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2004), s. 17-25 ISSN 1536-125X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : depopulation * electronic relaxation * optical spectra * quantum dots * self-assembled quantum dots * upconversion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 3.176, year: 2004

  10. Monte Carlo simulations of channeling spectra recorded for samples containing complex defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagielski, Jacek [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Turos, Prof. Andrzej [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Nowicki, Lech [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Jozwik, P. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Zhang, Yanwen [ORNL; Sathish, N. [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology; Thome, Lionel [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France; Stonert, A. [Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Swierk, Poland; Jozwik-Biala, Iwona [Institute for Electronic Materials Technology

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to describe the current status of the development of McChasy, a Monte Carlo simulation code, to make it suitable for the analysis of dislocations and dislocation loops in crystals. Such factors like the shape of the bent channel and geometrical distortions of the crystalline structure in the vicinity of dislocation has been discussed. The results obtained demonstrate that the new procedure applied to the spectra recorded on crystals containing dislocation yields damage profiles which are independent of the energy of the analyzing beam.

  11. A color display device recording X ray spectra, especially intended for medical radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulch, J.-M.

    1975-01-01

    Said invention relates to a color display recording device for X ray spectra intended for medical radiography. The video signal of the X ray camera receiving the radiation having passed through the patient is amplified and transformed into a color coding according to the energy spectrum received by the camera. In a first version, the energy spectrum from the camera gives directly an image on the color tube. In a second version the energy spectrum, after having been transformed into digital signals, is first sent into a memory, then into a computer used as a spectrum analyzer, and finally into the color display device [fr

  12. Continuous registration of optical absorption spectra of periodically produced solvated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krebs, P.

    1975-01-01

    Absorption spectra of unstable intermediates, such as solvated electrons, were usually taken point by point, recording the time-dependent light absorption after their production by a flash. The experimental arrangement for continuous recording of the spectra consists of a conventional one beam spectral photometer with a stabilized white light source, a monochromator, and a light detector. By periodic production of light absorbing intermediates such as solvated electrons, e.g., by ac uv light, a small ac signal is modulated on the light detector output which after amplification can be continuously recorded as a function of wavelength. This method allows the detection of absorption spectra when disturbances from the outside provide a signal-to-noise ratio smaller than 1

  13. A first-principles investigation of the optical spectra of oxidized graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2013-01-14

    The electronic and optical properties of mono, di, tri, and tetravacancies in graphene are studied in comparison to each other, using density functional theory. In addition, oxidized monovacancies are considered for different oxygen concentrations. Pristine graphene is found to be more absorptive than any defect configuration at low energy. We demonstrate characteristic differences in the optical spectra of the various defects for energies up to 3 eV. This makes it possible to quantify by optical spectroscopy the ratios of the defect species present in a sample.

  14. A first-principles investigation of the optical spectra of oxidized graphene

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Kaloni, Thaneshwor P.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2013-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of mono, di, tri, and tetravacancies in graphene are studied in comparison to each other, using density functional theory. In addition, oxidized monovacancies are considered for different oxygen concentrations. Pristine graphene is found to be more absorptive than any defect configuration at low energy. We demonstrate characteristic differences in the optical spectra of the various defects for energies up to 3 eV. This makes it possible to quantify by optical spectroscopy the ratios of the defect species present in a sample.

  15. Alkali-Responsive Absorption Spectra and Third-Order Optical Nonlinearities of Imino Squaramides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong-Yu; Xu Song; Zhou Xin-Yu; Zhang Fu-Shi

    2012-01-01

    Third-order optical nonlinearities and dynamic responses of two imino squaramides under neutral and base conditions were studied using the femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing technique at 800 nm. Ultrafast optical responses have been observed and the magnitude of the second-order hyperpolarizabilities of the squaramides has been measured to be as large as 10 −31 esu. The absorption spectra, color of solution, and third-order optical nonlinearities of two imino squaramides change with the addition of sodium hydroxide. The γ value under the base condition for each dye is approximately 1.25 times larger than that under neutral conditions. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  16. Late time optical spectra from the /sup 56/Ni model for Type I supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of /sup 56/Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure /sup 56/Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the /sup 56/Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of /sup 56/Ni and /sup 56/Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the /sup 56/Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of /sup 56/Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the /sup 56/Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined.

  17. Late time optical spectra from the 56Ni model for Type I supernovae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelrod, T.S.

    1980-07-01

    The hypothesis that the optical luminosity of Type I supernovae results from the radioactive decay of 56 Ni synthesized and ejected by the explosion has been investigated by numerical simulation of the optical spectrum resulting from a homologously expanding shell composed initially of pure 56 Ni core. This model, which neglects the effects of material external to the 56 Ni core, is expected to provide a reasonable representation of the supernova at late times when the star is nearly transparent to optical photons. The numerical simulation determines the temperature, ionization state, and non-LTE level populations which result from energy deposition by the radioactive decay products of 56 Ni and 56 Co. The optical spectrum includes the effects of both allowed and forbidden lines. The optical spectra resulting from the simulation are found to be sensitive to the mass and ejection velocity of the 56 Ni shell. A range of these parameters has been found which results in good agreement with the observed spectra of SN1972e over a considerable range of time. In particular, evidence for the expected decaying abundance of 56 Co has been found in the spectra of SN1972e. These results are used to assess the validity of the 56 Ni model and set limits on the mass and explosion mechanism of the Type I progenitor. The possibilities for improvement of the numerical model are discussed and future atomic data requirements defined

  18. Quantum-dot based nanothermometry in optical plasmonic recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maestro, Laura Martinez; Zhang, Qiming; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min; Jaque, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We report on the direct experimental determination of the temperature increment caused by laser irradiation in a optical recording media constituted by a polymeric film in which gold nanorods have been incorporated. The incorporation of CdSe quantum dots in the recording media allowed for single beam thermal reading of the on-focus temperature from a simple analysis of the two-photon excited fluorescence of quantum dots. Experimental results have been compared with numerical simulations revealing an excellent agreement and opening a promising avenue for further understanding and optimization of optical writing processes and media

  19. Study of optical and electronic properties of nickel from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, H.; Yang, L. H.; Da, B.; Tóth, J.; Tőkési, K.; Ding, Z. J.

    2017-09-01

    We use the classical Monte Carlo transport model of electrons moving near the surface and inside solids to reproduce the measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectra. With the combination of the classical transport model and the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters the so-called reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method was developed, and used to obtain optical constants of Ni in this work. A systematic study of the electronic and optical properties of Ni has been performed in an energy loss range of 0-200 eV from the measured REELS spectra at primary energies of 1000 eV, 2000 eV and 3000 eV. The reliability of our method was tested by comparing our results with the previous data. Moreover, the accuracy of our optical data has been confirmed by applying oscillator strength-sum rule and perfect-screening-sum rule.

  20. The Radio-optical Spectra of BL Lacs and Possible Relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett-Thorpe, J.

    I consider the suggestion that, in a complete sample of flat-spectrum radio sources with available optical spectra (Marcha et al 1996), the strong emission line objects, or those with passive elliptical spectra are close relatives of the BL Lacs. New observations at four frequencies from 8 to 43GHz are presented, together with evidence for radio variability. Combined with other radio and optical data from the literature, we are able to construct the non-thermal SEDs and use these to address the questions: are the optically passive objects potentially `unrecognised' BL Lacs (either intrinsically weak and/or hidden by starlight)? What is the relationship between the surprising number of strong emission-line objects and the BL Lacs?

  1. Quasiparticle energies, excitons, and optical spectra of few-layer black phosphorus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran, Vy; Fei, Ruixiang; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    We report first-principles GW–Bethe–Salpeter-equation (BSE) studies of excited-state properties of few-layer black phosphorus (BP) (phosphorene). With improved GW computational methods, we obtained converged quasiparticle band gaps and optical absorption spectra by the single-shot (G 0 W 0 ) procedure. Moreover, we reveal fine structures of anisotropic excitons, including the series of one-dimensional like wave functions, spin singlet–triplet splitting, and electron–hole binding energy spectra by solving BSE. An effective-mass model is employed to describe these electron–hole pairs, shedding light on estimating the exciton binding energy of anisotropic two-dimensional semiconductors without expensive ab initio simulations. Finally, the anisotropic optical response of BP is explained by using optical selection rules based on the projected single-particle density of states at band edges. (paper)

  2. Accurate Wavelength Measurements and Modeling of Fe XV to Fe XIX Spectra Recorded in High-Density Plasmas between 13.5 and 17 Å

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, M. J.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Jordan, N.; Hansen, S. B.; Osterheld, A. L.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Murra, D.; Reale, A.; Reale, L.; Tomassetti, G.; Ritucci, A.; Francucci, M.; Martellucci, S.; Petrocelli, G.

    2005-06-01

    Iron spectra have been recorded from plasmas created at three different laser plasma facilities: the Tor Vergata University laser in Rome (Italy), the Hercules laser at ENEA in Frascati (Italy), and the Compact Multipulse Terawatt (COMET) laser at LLNL in California (USA). The measurements provide a means of identifying dielectronic satellite lines from Fe XVI and Fe XV in the vicinity of the strong 2p-->3d transitions of Fe XVII. About 80 Δn>=1 lines of Fe XV (Mg-like) to Fe XIX (O-like) were recorded between 13.8 and 17.1 Å with a high spectral resolution (λ/Δλ~4000) about 30 of these lines are from Fe XVI and Fe XV. The laser-produced plasmas had electron temperatures between 100 and 500 eV and electron densities between 1020 and 1022 cm-3. The Hebrew University Lawrence Livermore Atomic Code (HULLAC) was used to calculate the atomic structure and atomic rates for Fe XV-XIX. HULLAC was used to calculate synthetic line intensities at Te=200 eV and ne=1021 cm-3 for three different conditions to illustrate the role of opacity: optically thin plasmas with no excitation-autoionization/dielectronic recombination (EA/DR) contributions to the line intensities, optically thin plasmas that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities, and optically thick plasmas (optical depth ~200 μm) that included EA/DR contributions to the line intensities. The optically thick simulation best reproduced the recorded spectrum from the Hercules laser. However, some discrepancies between the modeling and the recorded spectra remain.

  3. Ionization potential depression and optical spectra in a Debye plasma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengliang; Röpke, Gerd; Reinholz, Heidi; Kraeft, Wolf-Dietrich

    2017-11-01

    We show how optical spectra in dense plasmas are determined by the shift of energy levels as well as the broadening owing to collisions with the plasma particles. In lowest approximation, the interaction with the plasma particles is described by the RPA dielectric function, leading to the Debye shift of the continuum edge. The bound states remain nearly un-shifted, their broadening is calculated in Born approximation. The role of ionization potential depression as well as the Inglis-Teller effect are shown. The model calculations have to be improved going beyond the lowest (RPA) approximation when applying to WDM spectra.

  4. System and carrier for optical images and holographic information recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andries, A.; Bivol, V.; Iovu, M

    2002-01-01

    The invention relates to the semiconducting silverless photography, in particular to the technique for optical information recording and may be used in microphotography for manifacture of microfiches, microfilms, storage disks, i the multiplication and copying technique, in holography, in micro- and optoelectronics, cinematography etc. The system for optical images and holographic information recording includes an optical exposure system, an information carrier , containing a dielectric substrate with the first electrode, a photosensitive element and the second electrode, arranged in consecutive order, a constant and impulse voltage source, a means for climbing and movement of the information carrier, a control unit for connection of the voltage source to the electroconducting strate, a personal computer, connected to the control unit of the recording modes ,to the exposure system and the information carrier, an electrooptical transparency, connected to the computer by means of the matching unit. The carrier for optical images and holographic information recording contains a dielectric substrate, a photosensitive element formed of a layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor and a layer of the crystalline or amorphous semiconductor, forming a heterojunction, the photosensitive element is arranged between two electrodes , one of which is made transparent , in such case rge layer of the vitreous chalcogenic semiconductor comes into contact with the superior transparent electrode, subjected to exposure

  5. Detector Sampling of Optical/IR Spectra: How Many Pixels per FWHM?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. Gordon

    2017-08-01

    Most optical and IR spectra are now acquired using detectors with finite-width pixels in a square array. Each pixel records the received intensity integrated over its own area, and pixels are separated by the array pitch. This paper examines the effects of such pixellation, using computed simulations to illustrate the effects which most concern the astronomer end-user. It is shown that coarse sampling increases the random noise errors in wavelength by typically 10-20 % at 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum, but with wide variation depending on the functional form of the instrumental Line Spread Function (i.e. the instrumental response to a monochromatic input) and on the pixel phase. If line widths are determined, they are even more strongly affected at low sampling frequencies. However, the noise in fitted peak amplitudes is minimally affected by pixellation, with increases less than about 5%. Pixellation has a substantial but complex effect on the ability to see a relative minimum between two closely spaced peaks (or relative maximum between two absorption lines). The consistent scale of resolving power presented by Robertson to overcome the inadequacy of the Full Width at Half Maximum as a resolution measure is here extended to cover pixellated spectra. The systematic bias errors in wavelength introduced by pixellation, independent of signal/noise ratio, are examined. While they may be negligible for smooth well-sampled symmetric Line Spread Functions, they are very sensitive to asymmetry and high spatial frequency sub-structure. The Modulation Transfer Function for sampled data is shown to give a useful indication of the extent of improperly sampled signal in an Line Spread Function. The common maxim that 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum is the Nyquist limit is incorrect and most Line Spread Functions will exhibit some aliasing at this sample frequency. While 2 pixels per Full Width at Half Maximum is nevertheless often an acceptable minimum for

  6. Modification of Optical Properties of Seawater Exposed to Oil Contaminants Based on Excitation-Emission Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baszanowska, E.; Otremba, Z.

    2015-10-01

    The optical behaviour of seawater exposed to a residual amount of oil pollution is presented and a comparison of the fluorescence spectra of oil dissolved in both n-hexane and seawater is discussed based on excitation-emission spectra. Crude oil extracted from the southern part of the Baltic Sea was used to characterise petroleum properties after contact with seawater. The wavelength-independent fluorescence maximum for natural seawater and seawater artificially polluted with oil were determined. Moreover, the specific excitation-emission peaks for natural seawater and polluted water were analysed to identify the natural organic matter composition. It was found that fluorescence spectra identification is a promising method to detect even an extremely low concentration of petroleum residues directly in the seawater. In addition, alien substances disturbing the fluorescence signatures of natural organic substances in a marine environment is also discussed.

  7. Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) compounds during extraction by di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbatova, L.D.; Medvedeva, N.I.

    2000-01-01

    Optical spectra of vanadium (5, 4) complexes with HDEHP are studied using literature data on quantum-chemical calculations of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) oxides. Extraction of vanadium is conducted by undiluted HDEHP from sulfuric acid solutions. Absorption electron spectra (AES) of vanadium (5), vanadium (4) and vanadium (5, 4) compounds are presented. In AES of vanadium (5, 4) four absorption bands at 24000, 17000, 14500 and 13500 cm -1 appear. Comparison with spectra of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) shows that band 17000 cm -1 which appears only during mutual extraction of vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) is caused by transitions appearing between filled and empty levels of d-zone broadened by vanadium (5) and vanadium (4) interaction [ru

  8. Development of uniform hazard response spectra from accelerograms recorded on rock sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2000-05-01

    Traditionally, the seismic design basis ground motion has been specified by response spectral shapes and the peak ground acceleration (PGA). The mean recurrence interval (MRI) is evaluated for PGA only. The present work has developed response spectra having the same MRI at all frequencies. This report extends the work of Cornell (on PGA) to consider an aerial source model and a general form of the spectral acceleration at various frequencies. The latter has been derived from a number of strong motion earthquake recorded on rock sites. Sensitivity of the results to the changes in various parameters has also been presented. These results will help to determine the seismic hazard at a given site and the associated uncertainties. (author)

  9. Electron and nuclear spin interactions in the optical spectra of single GaAs quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammon, D; Efros, A L; Kennedy, T A; Rosen, M; Katzer, D S; Park, D; Brown, S W; Korenev, V L; Merkulov, I A

    2001-05-28

    Fine and hyperfine splittings arising from electron, hole, and nuclear spin interactions in the magneto-optical spectra of individual localized excitons are studied. We explain the magnetic field dependence of the energy splitting through competition between Zeeman, exchange, and hyperfine interactions. An unexpectedly small hyperfine contribution to the splitting close to zero applied field is described well by the interplay between fluctuations of the hyperfine field experienced by the nuclear spin and nuclear dipole/dipole interactions.

  10. An atlas of optical spectra of DZ white dwarfs and related objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sion, E.M.; Kenyon, S.J.; Aannestad, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    An atlas of optical spectra and equivalent width measurements for DZ stars and several related objects is described. These data should improve abundance measurements for Ca/He, Mg/He, and Fe/He in these stars and provide tests for calculations of accretion, diffusion, and radiative transfer in white-dwarf atmospheres. Also reported is the possible detection of He I (3888-A) in three DZ white dwarfs, 0246 + 735, 1705 + 030, and 2215 + 388. 25 refs

  11. Optical properties and energy spectra of donors in Gasub(x)Insub(1-x)P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berndt, V.; Kopylov, A.A.; Pikhtin, A.N.

    1977-01-01

    Impurity optical absorption is studied in n-Gasub(x)Insub(1-x)P for compositions with indirect band structure. For the first time the photoionization bands of shallow donor centers have been observed in semiconductor solid solutions. Analysis of spectra has shown the electron transitions to excited states of donor to contribute considerably to absorption. A simple theoretical model is presented to explain the shift of ionization energy of silicon donor and the variation in shape of the impurity absorption band

  12. Ordering-induced changes in the optical spectra of semiconductor alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.E.; Wei, S.; Wood, D.M.; Zunger, A.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown how the recently predicted and subsequently observed spontaneous long-range ordering of pseudobinary A/sub 0.5/B/sub 0.5/C isovalent semiconductor alloys into the (AC) 1 (BC) 1 superlattice structure (a CuAuI-type crystal) gives rise to characteristic changes in the optical and photoemission spectra. We predict new direct transitions and substantial splittings of transitions absent in the disordered alloy

  13. Optical spectra of 73 stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modjaz, M.; Bianco, F. B.; Liu, Y. Q. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Blondin, S. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388, Marseille (France); Kirshner, R. P.; Challis, P.; Hicken, M.; Marion, G. H. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Matheson, T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L. [F. L. Whipple Observatory, 670 Mt. Hopkins Road, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Garnavich, P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jha, S., E-mail: mmodjaz@nyu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    We present 645 optical spectra of 73 supernovae (SNe) of Types IIb, Ib, Ic, and broad-lined Ic. All of these types are attributed to the core collapse of massive stars, with varying degrees of intact H and He envelopes before explosion. The SNe in our sample have a mean redshift (cz) = 4200 km s{sup –1}. Most of these spectra were gathered at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) between 2004 and 2009. For 53 SNe, these are the first published spectra. The data coverage ranges from mere identification (1-3 spectra) for a few SNe to extensive series of observations (10-30 spectra) that trace the spectral evolution for others, with an average of 9 spectra per SN. For 44 SNe of the 73 SNe presented here, we have well-determined dates of maximum light to determine the phase of each spectrum. Our sample constitutes the most extensive spectral library of stripped-envelope SNe to date. We provide very early coverage (as early as 30 days before V-band max) for photospheric spectra, as well as late-time nebular coverage when the innermost regions of the SN are visible (as late as 2 yr after explosion, while for SN 1993J, we have data as late as 11.6 yr). This data set has homogeneous observations and reductions that allow us to study the spectroscopic diversity of these classes of stripped SNe and to compare these to SNe-gamma-ray bursts. We undertake these matters in follow-up papers.

  14. The temporal evolution process from fluorescence bleaching to clean Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhiyong; Pan, Yong-Le; Videen, Gorden; Wang, Chuji

    2017-12-01

    We observe the entire temporal evolution process of fluorescence and Raman spectra of single solid particles optically trapped in air. The spectra initially contain strong fluorescence with weak Raman peaks, then the fluorescence was bleached within seconds, and finally only the clean Raman peaks remain. We construct an optical trap using two counter-propagating hollow beams, which is able to stably trap both absorbing and non-absorbing particles in air, for observing such temporal processes. This technique offers a new method to study dynamic changes in the fluorescence and Raman spectra from a single optically trapped particle in air.

  15. Wavelength-selective bleaching of the optical spectra of trapped electrons in organic glasses. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paraszczak, J.; Willard, J.E.

    1979-01-01

    Further resolution of the inhomogeneous optical spectra of trapped electrons (e - /sub t/) in organic glasses has been obtained from wavelength selective bleaching and thermal decay studies on 3-methylpentane-d 14 (3MP-d 14 ) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) following γ irradiation in the temperature region of 20 K, and limits on the degree of resolution achievable have been indicated. Exposure of 3MP-d 14 to light of wavelengths >2100 nm (from a tunable laser) reduces the optical densities at the bleaching wavelength and longer to zero, while ''peeling off'' a portion of the O.D. at all shorter wavelengths but leaving the remainder of the spectrum unaffected. The fraction of the integrated optical spectrum, ∫OD d (eV), removed by bleaching at each wavelength tested, and also by thermal decay, is equivalent to the fraction of the total e - /sub t/ spins removed and measured by ESR. 1064 nm light bleaches the spectrum nearly uniformly, confirming that the spectra of all of the e - /sub t/ have blue tails with similar ease of bleaching. Heretofore unobserved low temperature thermal decay of e - /sub t/ occurs at 20 and 40 K (20% of the spin concentration in 30 min, 35% in 3h). The rate of decay of the optical spectrum decreases with decreasing wavelength of observation (2.5, 2.2, 1.8, and 1.5 μ), but at each wavelength is the same at 40 K as at 20 K, consistent

  16. Accelerated optical holographic recording using bis-DNO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle H.; Ramanujam, P.S.; Hvilsted, Søren

    1999-01-01

    The design, synthesis and optical holographic recording properties of bis-DNO are reported. Bis-DNO is composed of two identical azobenzene oligoornithine segments (DNO) connected via a dipeptide linker. The two segments were assembled in a parallel fashion at the two amino groups of the dipeptid...... linker by Merrifield synthesis. Surprisingly, the response time of films of bis-DNOs was found to be much faster than that of their linear counterparts. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-01-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  18. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.

    2016-12-01

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  19. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hao [Department of Chemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204 (United States); Wu, Chao [Electronic Structure Lab, Center of Microscopic Theory and Simulation, Frontier Institute of Science and Technology, Xian Jiaotong University, Xian 710054 (China); Malinin, Sergey V. [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States); Tretiak, Sergei, E-mail: serg@lanl.gov [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Chernyak, Vladimir Y., E-mail: chernyak@chem.wayne.edu [Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, 5101 Cass Avenue, Detroit, MI 48202 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized “particle in a box” problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  20. Fine hematite particles of Martian interest: absorption spectra and optical constants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marra, A C; Blanco, A; Fonti, S; Jurewicz, A; Orofino, V

    2005-01-01

    Hematite is an iron oxide very important for the study of climatic evolution of Mars. It can occur in two forms: red and grey, mainly depending on the granulometry of the samples. Spectra of bright regions of Mars suggest the presence of red hematite particles. Moreover the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES), on board the Mars Global Surveyor mission, has discovered a deposit of crystalline grey hematite in Sinus Meridiani. TES spectra of that Martian region exhibit features at about 18, 23 and 33 μm that are consistent with hematite. Coarse grey hematite is considered strong evidence for longstanding water, while it is unknown whether the formation of fine-grained red hematite requires abundant water. Studies are needed in order to further characterize the spectral properties of the two kinds of hematite. For this reason we have analyzed a sample of submicron hematite particles in the 6.25-50 μm range in order to study the influence of particles size and shape on the infrared spectra. The optical constants of a particulate sample have been derived and compared with published data concerning bulk samples of hematite. Our results seem to indicate that particle shape is an important factor to take into account for optical constants derivation

  1. Principal component analysis for the forensic discrimination of black inkjet inks based on the Vis-NIR fibre optics reflection spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gál, Lukáš; Oravec, Michal; Gemeiner, Pavol; Čeppan, Michal

    2015-12-01

    Nineteen black inkjet inks of six different brands were examined by fibre optics reflection spectroscopy in Visible and Near Infrared Region (Vis-NIR FORS) directly on paper with a view to achieving good resolution between them. These different inks were tested on nineteen different inkjet printers from three brands. Samples were obtained from prints by reflection probe. Processed reflection spectra in the range 500-1000 nm were used as samples in principal component analysis. Variability between spectra of the same ink obtained from different prints, as well as between spectra of square areas and lines was examined. For both spectra obtained from square areas and lines reference, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) models were created. According to these models, the inkjet inks were divided into clusters. PCA method is able to separate inks containing carbon black as main colorant from the other inks using other colorants. Some spectra were recorded from another piece of printer and used as validation samples. Spectra of validation samples were projected onto reference PCA models. According to position of validation samples in score plots it can be concluded that PCA based on Vis-NIR FORS can reliably differentiate inkjet inks which are included in the reference database. The presented method appears to be a suitable tool for forensic examination of questioned documents containing inkjet inks. Inkjet inks spectra were obtained without extraction or cutting sample with possibility to measure out of the laboratory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical properties of organic semiconductor thin films. Static spectra and real-time growth studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinemeyer, Ute

    2009-07-20

    The aim of this work was to establish the anisotropic dielectric function of organic thin films on silicon covered with native oxide and to study their optical properties during film growth. While the work focuses mainly on the optical properties of Diindenoperylene (DIP) films, also the optical response of Pentacene (PEN) films during growth is studied for comparison. Spectroscopic ellipsometry and differential reflectance spectroscopy are used to determine the dielectric function of the films ex-situ and in-situ, i.e. in air and in ultrahigh vacuum. Additionally, Raman- and fluorescence spectroscopy is utilized to characterize the DIP films serving also as a basis for spatially resolved optical measurements beyond the diffraction limit. Furthermore, X-ray reflectometry and atomic force microscopy are used to determine important structural and morphological film properties. The absorption spectrum of DIP in solution serves as a monomer reference. The observed vibronic progression of the HOMO-LUMO transition allows the determination of the Huang-Rhys parameter experimentally, which is a measure of the electronic vibrational coupling. The corresponding breathing modes are measured by Raman spectroscopy. The optical properties of DIP films on native oxide show significant differences compared to the monomer spectrum due to intermolecular interactions. First of all, the thin film spectra are highly anisotropic due to the structural order of the films. Furthermore the Frenkel exciton transfer is studied and the energy difference between Frenkel and charge transfer excitons is determined. Real-time measurements reveal optical differences between interfacial or surface molecules and bulk molecules that play an important role for device applications. They are not only performed for DIP films but also for PEN films. While for DIP films on glass the appearance of a new mode is visible, the spectra of PEN show a pronounced energy red-shift during growth. It is shown how the

  3. Effect of ladder diagrams on optical absorption spectra in a quasiparticle self-consistent GW framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Brian; Grüning, Myrta; Azarhoosh, Pooya; Pashov, Dimitar; van Schilfgaarde, Mark

    2018-03-01

    We present an approach to calculate the optical absorption spectra that combines the quasiparticle self-consistent GW method [Phys. Rev. B 76, 165106 (2007), 10.1103/PhysRevB.76.165106] for the electronic structure with the solution of the ladder approximation to the Bethe-Salpeter equation for the macroscopic dielectric function. The solution of the Bethe-Salpeter equation has been implemented within an all-electron framework, using a linear muffin-tin orbital basis set, with the contribution from the nonlocal self-energy to the transition dipole moments (in the optical limit) evaluated explicitly. This approach addresses those systems whose electronic structure is poorly described within the standard perturbative GW approaches with density-functional theory calculations as a starting point. The merits of this approach have been exemplified by calculating optical absorption spectra of a strongly correlated transition metal oxide, NiO, and a narrow gap semiconductor, Ge. In both cases, the calculated spectrum is in good agreement with the experiment. It is also shown that for systems whose electronic structure is well-described within the standard perturbative GW , such as Si, LiF, and h -BN , the performance of the present approach is in general comparable to the standard GW plus Bethe-Salpeter equation. It is argued that both vertex corrections to the electronic screening and the electron-phonon interaction are responsible for the observed systematic overestimation of the fundamental band gap and spectrum onset.

  4. Media effects on the optical absorption spectra of silver clusters embedded in rara gas matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedrigo, S.; Harbich, W.; Buttet, J.

    1993-01-01

    The optical absorption of small mass selected Ag n -clusters (n=7, 11, 15, 21) embedded in solid Ar, Kr and Xe has been measured. The absorption spectra show 1 to 3 major peaks between 3 and 4.5 eV, depending on the cluster size. Changing the matrix gas Ar→Kr→Xe induces a redshift which is comparable for all sizes studied and does not affect the main structure of the absorption spectra. We propose a scheme to estimate the gas phase value of the absorption energies which is in fair agreement with an estimation obtained by a simple model based on a Drude metal. (author). 10 refs, 2 figs

  5. Zn-VI quasiparticle gaps and optical spectra from many-body calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riefer, A; Weber, N; Mund, J; Yakovlev, D R; Bayer, M; Schindlmayr, Arno; Meier, C; Schmidt, W G

    2017-06-01

    The electronic band structures of hexagonal ZnO and cubic ZnS, ZnSe, and ZnTe compounds are determined within hybrid-density-functional theory and quasiparticle calculations. It is found that the band-edge energies calculated on the [Formula: see text] (Zn chalcogenides) or GW (ZnO) level of theory agree well with experiment, while fully self-consistent QSGW calculations are required for the correct description of the Zn 3d bands. The quasiparticle band structures are used to calculate the linear response and second-harmonic-generation (SHG) spectra of the Zn-VI compounds. Excitonic effects in the optical absorption are accounted for within the Bethe-Salpeter approach. The calculated spectra are discussed in the context of previous experimental data and present SHG measurements for ZnO.

  6. Optical absorption spectra of semiconductors and insulators: ab initio calculation of many-body effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, Stefan

    1999-01-01

    A method for the inclusion of self-energy and excitonic effects in first-principle calculations of absorption spectra, within the state-of-the-art plane wave pseudopotential approach, is presented. Starting from a ground state calculation, using density functional theory (DFT) in the local density approximation (LDA), we correct the exchange-correlation potential of DFT-LDA with the self-energy applying Hedin's GW approximation to obtain the physical quasiparticles states. The electron-hole interaction is treated solving an effective two-particle equation, which we derive from Hedin's coupled integral equations, leading to the fundamental Bethe-Salpeter equation in an intermediate step. The interaction kernel contains the screened electron-hole Coulomb interaction and the electron-hole exchange effects, which reflect the microscopic structure of the system and are thus also called local-field effects. We obtain the excitonic eigenstates through diagonalization. This allows us a detailed analysis of the optical properties. The application of symmetry properties enables us to reduce the size of the two-particle Hamiltonian matrix, thus minimizing the computational effort. We apply our method to silicon, diamond, lithium oxide and the sodium tetramer. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the absorption spectra of Si and diamond, the static dielectric constant of diamond, and for the onset of optical absorption of Li 2 O due to discrete bound excitons. We discuss various approximations of our method and show the strong mixing of independent particle transitions to a bound excitonic state in the Na 4 cluster. The influence of ground state calculations on optical spectra is investigated under particular consideration of the pseudopotential generation and we discuss the use of different Brillouin zone point sampling schemes for spectral calculations. (author) [fr

  7. Reactively sputtered TeOx optical recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, M.; Manno, D.; Micocci, G.; Rella, R.; Rizzo, A.; Tepore, A.

    1987-01-01

    Telluriom suboxide (TeO x ) thin films have been obtained by R.F. reactive sputtering deposition by using a Te target and an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. This technique of preparation has been shown to be a valid method because it is possible to easily obtain films with desired characteristics by an appropriate selection of the deposition conditions. Different samples were prepared by changing both the R.F. power (80-300 Watt) and the oxygen concentration in the sputtering gas. The films were analyzed in order to study their optical characteristics and the morphology before and after heat treatment. In particular, transmissivity and reflectivity have been found to change markedly by thermal treatment and critical temperatures in the range 120-150 grades centigrade. This property makes these films suitable for optical recording with a low output power laser diode

  8. Methylene blue doped polymers: efficient media for optical recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushamani, M.; Sreekumar, K.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Joseph, R.

    2004-05-01

    Polymer materials find application in optical storage technology, namely in the development of high information density and fast access type memories. A new polymer blend of methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and polyacrylic acid (PAA) in methanol is prepared and characterized and its comparison with methylene blue sensitized PVA in methanol and complexed methylene blue sensitized polyvinyl chloride (CMBPVC) is presented. The optical absorption spectra of the thin films of these polymers showed a strong and broad absorption region at 670-650 nm, matching the wavelength of the laser used. A very slow recovery of the dye on irradiation was observed when a 7:3 blend of polyvinyl alcohol/polyacrylic acid at a pH of 3.8 and a sensitizer concentration of 4.67 · 10-5 g/ml were used. A diffraction efficiency of up to 20% was observed for the MBPVA/alcohol system and an energetic sensitivity of 2000 mJ/cm2 was obtained in the photosensitive films with a spatial frequency of 588 lines/mm.

  9. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: II. Ethane and Ethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Reggie L.; Gerakines, Perry A.; Moore, M. H.

    2014-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic observations have established the presence of hydrocarbon ices on Pluto and other TNOs, but the abundances of such molecules cannot be deduced without accurate optical constants (n, k) and reference spectra. In this paper we present our recent measurements of near- and mid-infrared optical constants for ethane (C2H6) and ethylene (C2H4) in multiple ice phases and at multiple temperatures. As in our recent work on acetylene (C2H2), we also report new measurements of the index of refraction of each ice at 670 nm. Comparisons are made to earlier work where possible, and electronic versions of our new results are made available.

  10. Temperature dependence of the optical absorption spectra of InP/ZnS quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, S. S.; Vokhmintsev, A. S.; Weinstein, I. A.

    2017-03-01

    The optical-absorption spectra of InP/ZnS (core/shell) quantum dots have been studied in a broad temperature range of T = 6.5-296 K. Using the second-order derivative spectrophotometry technique, the energies of optical transitions at room temperature were found to be E 1 = 2.60 ± 0.02 eV (for the first peak of excitonic absorption in the InP core) and E 2 = 4.70 ± 0.02 eV (for processes in the ZnS shell). The experimental curve of E 1( T) has been approximated for the first time in the framework of a linear model and in terms of the Fan's formula. It is established that the temperature dependence of E 1 is determined by the interaction of excitons and longitudinal acoustic phonons with hω = 15 meV.

  11. Meeting the Cool Neighbors. XII. An Optically Anchored Analysis of the Near-infrared Spectra of L Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle L.; Núñez, Alejandro; Burgasser, Adam J.; Abrahams, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Reid, I. Neill; Looper, Dagny

    2018-01-01

    Discrepancies between competing optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectral typing systems for L dwarfs have motivated us to search for a classification scheme that ties the optical and NIR schemes together, and addresses complexities in the spectral morphology. We use new and extant optical and NIR spectra to compile a sample of 171 L dwarfs, including 27 low-gravity β and γ objects, with spectral coverage from 0.6–2.4 μm. We present 155 new low-resolution NIR spectra and 19 new optical spectra. We utilize a method for analyzing NIR spectra that partially removes the broad-band spectral slope and reveals similarities in the absorption features between objects of the same optical spectral type. Using the optical spectra as an anchor, we generate near-infrared spectral average templates for L0–L8, L0–L4γ, and L0–L1β type dwarfs. These templates reveal that NIR spectral morphologies are correlated with the optical types. They also show the range of spectral morphologies spanned by each spectral type. We compare low-gravity and field-gravity templates to provide recommendations on the minimum required observations for credibly classifying low-gravity spectra using low-resolution NIR data. We use the templates to evaluate the existing NIR spectral standards and propose new ones where appropriate. Finally, we build on the work of Kirkpatrick et al. to provide a spectral typing method that is tied to the optical and can be used when only H or K band data are available. The methods we present here provide resolutions to several long-standing issues with classifying L dwarf spectra and could also be the foundation for a spectral classification scheme for cloudy exoplanets.

  12. Real-time Fourier transformation of lightwave spectra and application in optical reflectometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malacarne, Antonio; Park, Yongwoo; Li, Ming; LaRochelle, Sophie; Azaña, José

    2015-12-14

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a fiber-optics scheme for real-time analog Fourier transform (FT) of a lightwave energy spectrum, such that the output signal maps the FT of the spectrum of interest along the time axis. This scheme avoids the need for analog-to-digital conversion and subsequent digital signal post-processing of the photo-detected spectrum, thus being capable of providing the desired FT processing directly in the optical domain at megahertz update rates. The proposed concept is particularly attractive for applications requiring FT analysis of optical spectra, such as in many optical Fourier-domain reflectrometry (OFDR), interferometry, spectroscopy and sensing systems. Examples are reported to illustrate the use of the method for real-time OFDR, where the target axial-line profile is directly observed in a single-shot oscilloscope trace, similarly to a time-of-flight measurement, but with a resolution and depth of range dictated by the underlying interferometry scheme.

  13. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Nitrile Ices Relevant to Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Carrie; Ferrante, Robert F.; Moore, W. James; Hudson, Reggie; Moore, Marla H.

    2011-01-01

    Spectra and optical constants of nitrile ices known or suspected to be in Titan?s atmosphere have been determined from 2.0 to 333.3 microns (approx.5000 to 30/cm). These results are relevant to the ongoing modeling of Cassini CIRS observations of Titan?s winter pole. Ices studied were: HCN, hydrogen cyanide; C2N2, cyanogen; CH3CN, acetonitrile; C2H5CN, propionitrile; and HC3N, cyanoacetylene. Optical constants were calculated, using Kramers-Kronig analysis, for each nitrile ice?s spectrum measured at a variety of temperatures, in both the amorphous- and crystalline phases. Spectra were also measured for many of the nitriles after quenching at the annealing temperature and compared with those of annealed ices. For each of these molecules we also measured the real component, n, of the refractive index for amorphous and crystalline phases at 670 nm. Several examples of the information contained in these new data sets and their usefulness in modeling Titan?s observed features will be presented (e.g., the broad emission feature at 160/cm; Anderson and Samuelson, 2011).

  14. Optical spectra of composite silver-porous silicon (Ag-pSi) nanostructure based periodical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedome Min-Dianey, Kossi Aniya; Zhang, Hao-Chun; Brohi, Ali Anwar; Yu, Haiyan; Xia, Xinlin

    2018-03-01

    Numerical finite differential time domain (FDTD) tools were used in this study for predicting the optical characteristics through the nanostructure of composite silver-porous silicon (Ag-pSi) based periodical lattice. This is aimed at providing an interpretation of the optical spectra at known porosity in improvement of the light manipulating efficiency through a proposed structure. With boundary conditions correctly chosen, the numerical simulation was achieved using FDTD Lumerical solutions. This was used to investigate the effect of porosity and the number of layers on the reflection, transmission and absorption characteristics through a proposed structure in a visible wavelength range of 400-750 nm. The results revealed that the higher the number of layers, the lower the reflection. Also, the reflection increases with porosity increase. The transmission characteristics were the inverse to those found in the case of reflection spectra and optimum transmission was attained at high number of layers. Also, increase in porosity results in reduced transmission. Increase in porosity as well as in the number of layers led to an increase in absorption. Therefore, absorption into such structure can be enhanced by elevating the number of layers and the degree of porosity.

  15. The Intrinsically X-Ray-weak Quasar PHL 1811. II. Optical and UV Spectra and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighly, Karen M.; Halpern, Jules P.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Casebeer, Darrin

    2007-11-01

    This is the second of two papers reporting observations and analysis of the unusually bright (mb=14.4), luminous (MB=-25.5), nearby (z=0.192) narrow-line quasar PHL 1811. The first paper reported that PHL 1811 is intrinsically X-ray-weak and presented a spectral energy distribution (SED). Here we present HST STIS optical and UV spectra, and ground-based optical spectra. The optical and UV line emission is very unusual. There is no evidence for forbidden or semiforbidden lines. The near-UV spectrum is dominated by very strong Fe II and Fe III, and unusual low-ionization lines such as Na I D and Ca II H and K are observed. High-ionization lines are very weak; C IV has an equivalent width of 6.6 Å, a factor of ~5 smaller than measured from quasar composite spectra. An unusual feature near 1200 Å can be deblended in terms of Lyα, N V, Si II, and C III* using the blueshifted C IV profile as a template. Photoionization modeling shows that the unusual line emission can be explained qualitatively by the unusually soft SED. Principally, a low gas temperature results in inefficient emission of collisionally excited lines, including the semiforbidden lines generally used as density diagnostics. The emission resembles that of high-density gas; in both cases this is a consequence of inefficient cooling. PHL 1811 is very unusual, but we note that quasar surveys may be biased against finding similar objects. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. These observations are associated with proposal 9181. Based on observations obtained at Kitt Peak National Observatory, a division of the National Optical Astronomy Observatories, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  16. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2014-11-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, the organic carbon concentration is measured using thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) from quartz fiber filters. Here, methods are presented whereby Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters are used to accurately predict TOR OC. Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filters. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites sampled during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to artifact-corrected TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date which leads to precise and accurate OC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, all μg m-3 values based on the nominal IMPROVE sample volume of 32.8 m-3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision and accuracy to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also divided into calibration and test sets by OC mass and by OM / OC which reflects the organic composition of the particulate matter and is obtained from organic functional group composition; this division also leads to precise and accurate OC predictions. Low OC concentrations have higher bias and normalized error due to TOR analytical errors and artifact correction errors, not due to the range of OC mass of the samples in the calibration set. However, samples with low OC mass can be used to predict samples with high OC mass indicating that the

  17. OPTICAL SPECTRA OF CANDIDATE INTERNATIONAL CELESTIAL REFERENCE FRAME (ICRF) FLAT-SPECTRUM RADIO SOURCES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Maslennikov, K. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo, Pulkovskoye Shosse, 65/1, 196140, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Boldycheva, A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St. Petersburg, 194021 (Russian Federation)

    2013-07-01

    Continuing our program of spectroscopic observations of International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) sources, we present redshifts for 120 quasars and radio galaxies. Data were obtained with five telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes, the 2.5 m Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT), and the 6.0 m Big Azimuthal Telescope of the Special Astrophysical Observatory in Russia. The targets were selected from the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry candidate International Celestial Reference Catalog which forms part of an observational very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) program to strengthen the celestial reference frame. We obtained spectra of the potential optical counterparts of more than 150 compact flat-spectrum radio sources, and measured redshifts of 120 emission-line objects, together with 19 BL Lac objects. These identifications add significantly to the precise radio-optical frame tie to be undertaken by Gaia, due to be launched in 2013, and to the existing data available for analyzing source proper motions over the celestial sphere. We show that the distribution of redshifts for ICRF sources is consistent with the much larger sample drawn from Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty cm (FIRST) and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, implying that the ultra-compact VLBI sources are not distinguished from the overall radio-loud quasar population. In addition, we obtained NOT spectra for five radio sources from the FIRST and NRAO VLA Sky Survey catalogs, selected on the basis of their red colors, which yielded three quasars with z > 4.

  18. Investigation of radio objects with continuos optical spectra. The results of four-color electrophotometric observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskin, G.M.; Lyutyj, V.M.; Neizvestnyj, S.I.; Pustil'nik, S.I.; Shvartsman, V.F.

    1985-01-01

    The results of UBVR photometry of 30 radio objects with continuous optical spectra (ROCOSes) are reported. The observations were performed using five telescopes during the years 1979-1982; 54 values have been obtained of U, B, V magnitudes and 26 ones of R magnitude. Colours for 16 ROCOSes have been obtained for the first time. The analysis of the data results in the following conclusions. 1) Practically all colours of ROCOSes have proved to be in the region of localization of BL Lac objects' colours on UBV and BVR diagrams. This fact (altogether with the other data) indicates on the proximity of the objects of the two classes. 2) In half of all cases, instantaneous colours of ROCOSes corresponded to purely power-law optical continua F(ν) varies as νsup(α) with α approximately= -(1-2.5). 3) In the remaining cases, optical continua differed significantly from the power-law ones. 4) 6 ROCOSes appeared to be in the phases of deep minimum of brightness at the moment of observations (namely, about 3sup(m)-5sup(m) fainter than in the brightest phase known from the literature). The UBVR colours of none of them give indication on the presence of an elliptical galaxy which, according to conventional concepts, must encompass a variable nonthermal source. 5) Two blue objects, 0548+165 and 0713+199, which are situated at low galactic latitudes (b 2 =-5 deg and +14 deg respectively) have shown colours unusual for lacertids. Appendices contain the results of theoretical calculations of (U-B), (B-V) and (V-R) colours for purely power-law spectra F(ν)=constxνsup(α) with α in the range (-6.5-+2.5) and the results of UBV photometry of the BL Lac object OJ 287 during the years 1976-1982 (24 measurements)

  19. Dynamics of Stability of Orientation Maps Recorded with Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumikhina, S I; Bondar, I V; Svinov, M M

    2018-03-15

    Orientation selectivity is an important feature of visual cortical neurons. Optical imaging of the visual cortex allows for the generation of maps of orientation selectivity that reflect the activity of large populations of neurons. To estimate the statistical significance of effects of experimental manipulations, evaluation of the stability of cortical maps over time is required. Here, we performed optical imaging recordings of the visual cortex of anesthetized adult cats. Monocular stimulation with moving clockwise square-wave gratings that continuously changed orientation and direction was used as the mapping stimulus. Recordings were repeated at various time intervals, from 15 min to 16 h. Quantification of map stability was performed on a pixel-by-pixel basis using several techniques. Map reproducibility showed clear dynamics over time. The highest degree of stability was seen in maps recorded 15-45 min apart. Averaging across all time intervals and all stimulus orientations revealed a mean shift of 2.2 ± 0.1°. There was a significant tendency for larger shifts to occur at longer time intervals. Shifts between 2.8° (mean ± 2SD) and 5° were observed more frequently at oblique orientations, while shifts greater than 5° appeared more frequently at cardinal orientations. Shifts greater than 5° occurred rarely overall (5.4% of cases) and never exceeded 11°. Shifts of 10-10.6° (0.7%) were seen occasionally at time intervals of more than 4 h. Our findings should be considered when evaluating the potential effect of experimental manipulations on orientation selectivity mapping studies. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electronic structure and optical spectra of semiconducting carbon nanotubes functionalized by diazonium salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Jessica; Mayo, Michael L.; Kilina, Svetlana; Tretiak, Sergei

    2013-02-01

    We report density functional (DFT) calculations on finite-length semiconducting carbon nanotubes covalently and non-covalently functionalized by aryl diazonium moieties and their chlorinated derivatives. For these systems, we investigate (i) an accuracy of different functionals and basis sets, (ii) a solvent effect, and (iii) the impact of the chemical functionalization on optical properties of nanotubes. In contrast to B3LYP, only long-range-corrected functionals, such as CAM-B3LYP and wB97XD, properly describe the ground and excited state properties of physisorbed molecules. We found that physisorbed cation insignificantly perturbs the optical spectra of nanotubes. In contrast, covalently bound complexes demonstrate strong redshifts and brightening of the lowest exciton that is optically dark in pristine nanotubes. However, the energy and oscillator strength of the lowest state are dictated by the position of the molecule on the nanotube. Thus, if controllable and selective chemical functionalization is realized, the PL of nanotubes could be improved.

  1. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part I. Transmission Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Kim, Sun Il; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2001-02-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOE s). The drawback of DCG is its low sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-high-resolution silver halide emulsions. An optimized processing technique for transmission HOE s recorded in these materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained for transmissive diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of the selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOE s.

  2. Optical and Near-infrared Spectra of σ Orionis Isolated Planetary-mass Objects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapatero Osorio, M. R. [Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Crta. Ajalvir km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Béjar, V. J. S. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/. Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Ramírez, K. Peña, E-mail: mosorio@cab.inta-csic.es, E-mail: vbejar@iac.es, E-mail: karla.pena@uantof.cl [Unidad de Astronomía de la Universidad de Antofagasta, Av. U. de Antofagasta. 02800 Antofagasta (Chile)

    2017-06-10

    We have obtained low-resolution optical (0.7–0.98 μ m) and near-infrared (1.11–1.34 μ m and 0.8–2.5 μ m) spectra of 12 isolated planetary-mass candidates ( J = 18.2–19.9 mag) of the 3 Myr σ Orionis star cluster with the aim of determining the spectroscopic properties of very young, substellar dwarfs and assembling a complete cluster mass function. We have classified our targets by visual comparison with high- and low-gravity standards and by measuring newly defined spectroscopic indices. We derived L0–L4.5 and M9–L2.5 using high- and low-gravity standards, respectively. Our targets reveal clear signposts of youth, thus corroborating their cluster membership and planetary masses (6–13 M {sub Jup}). These observations complete the σ Orionis mass function by spectroscopically confirming the planetary-mass domain to a confidence level of ∼75%. The comparison of our spectra with BT-Settl solar metallicity model atmospheres yields a temperature scale of 2350–1800 K and a low surface gravity of log g ≈ 4.0 [cm s{sup −2}], as would be expected for young planetary-mass objects. We discuss the properties of the cluster’s least-massive population as a function of spectral type. We have also obtained the first optical spectrum of S Ori 70, a T dwarf in the direction of σ Orionis. Our data provide reference optical and near-infrared spectra of very young L dwarfs and a mass function that may be used as templates for future studies of low-mass substellar objects and exoplanets. The extrapolation of the σ Orionis mass function to the solar neighborhood may indicate that isolated planetary-mass objects with temperatures of ∼200–300 K and masses in the interval 6–13 M {sub Jup} may be as numerous as very low-mass stars.

  3. Physiological Parameter Monitoring from Optical Recordings with a Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Christopher G.; Lee, Jinseok; Meyer, Joseph; Gorbach, Alexander M.; Granquist-Fraser, Domhnull; Mendelson, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    We show that a mobile phone can serve as an accurate monitor for several physiological variables, based on its ability to record and analyze the varying color signals of a fingertip placed in contact with its optical sensor. We confirm the accuracy of measurements of breathing rate, cardiac R-R intervals, and blood oxygen saturation, by comparisons to standard methods for making such measurements (respiration belts, ECGs, and pulse-oximeters, respectively). Measurement of respiratory rate uses a previously reported algorithm developed for use with a pulse-oximeter, based on amplitude and frequency modulation sequences within the light signal. We note that this technology can also be used with recently developed algorithms for detection of atrial fibrillation or blood loss. PMID:21803676

  4. iSpectra: An Open Source Toolbox For The Analysis of Spectral Images Recorded on Scanning Electron Microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebske, Christian

    2015-08-01

    iSpectra is an open source and system-independent toolbox for the analysis of spectral images (SIs) recorded on energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) systems attached to scanning electron microscopes (SEMs). The aim of iSpectra is to assign pixels with similar spectral content to phases, accompanied by cumulative phase spectra with superior counting statistics for quantification. Pixel-to-phase assignment starts with a threshold-based pre-sorting of spectra to create groups of pixels with identical elemental budgets, similar to a method described by van Hoek (2014). Subsequent merging of groups and re-assignments of pixels using elemental or principle component histogram plots enables the user to generate chemically and texturally plausible phase maps. A variety of standard image processing algorithms can be applied to groups of pixels to optimize pixel-to-phase assignments, such as morphology operations to account for overlapping excitation volumes over pixels located at phase boundaries. iSpectra supports batch processing and allows pixel-to-phase assignments to be applied to an unlimited amount of SIs, thus enabling phase mapping of large area samples like petrographic thin sections.

  5. Infrared Spectra and Optical Constants of Astronomical Ices: I. Amorphous and Crystalline Acetylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, R. L.; Ferrante, R. F.; Moore, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report recent measurements on acetylene (C2H2) ices at temperatures applicable to the outer Solar System and the interstellar medium. New near- and mid-infrared data, including optical constants (n, k), absorption coefficients (alpha), and absolute band strengths (A), are presented for both amorphous and crystalline phases of C2H2 that exist below 70 K. Comparisons are made to earlier work. Electronic versions of the data are made available, as is a computer routine to use our reported n and k values to simulate the observed IR spectra. Suggestions are given for the use of the data and a comparison to a spectrum of Makemake is made.

  6. Band resolution of optical spectra of solvated electrons in water, alcohols, and tetrahydrofuran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jou, F.-Y.; Freeman, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical absorption spectra of solvated electrons in water, alcohols, and tetrahydrofuran are empirically resolved into two Gaussian bands and a continuum tail. The first Gaussian band covers most of the low energy side of the spectrum. The second Gaussian band lies at an energy slightly above that of the absorption maximum of the total spectrum. With the exception of tert-butyl alcohol, in water and alcohols the following were observed: (a) the first Gaussian bands have the same half-width, but the oscillator strength in water is about double that in an alcohol; (b) the second Gaussian bands have similar half-widths and oscillator strengths; (c) the continuum tails have similar half-widths, yet that in water possesses only about one third as much oscillator strength as the one in alcohol. In tert-butyl alcohol and tetrahydrofuran the first Gaussian band and the continuum tail each carry nearly half of the total oscillator strength. (author)

  7. Spectral scalability and optical spectra of fractal multilayer structures: FDTD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simsek, Sevket; Palaz, Selami; Mamedov, Amirullah M.; Ozbay, Ekmel

    2017-01-01

    An investigation of the optical properties and band structures for the conventional and Fibonacci photonic crystals (PCs) based on SrTiO3 and Sb2Te3 is made in the present research. Here, we use one-dimensional SrTiO3- and Sb2Te3-based layers. We have theoretically calculated the photonic band structure and transmission spectra of SrTiO3- and Sb2Te3-based PC superlattices. The position of minima in the transmission spectrum correlates with the gaps obtained in the calculation. The intensity of the transmission depths is more intense in the case of higher refractive index contrast between the layers.

  8. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64 GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4' /2' , these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliff 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2' and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8 Mfi, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  9. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available We present 11 spectra from 12 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC. Originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA LMC surveys at 1.4, 4.8 and 8.64~GHz and confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3~cm (4arcsec/2arcsec, these complement data recently presented for candidate radio PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. Their spectra were obtained using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland (South Africa. All of the optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a population of selected radio bright sample only. Nebular ionized masses of these objects are estimated to be as high as 1.8~$M_odot$, supporting the idea that massive PNe progenitor central stars lose much of their mass in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB phase or prior. We also identify a sub-population (33\\% of radio PNe candidates with prominent ionized iron emission lines.

  10. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-10-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive and nondestructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FT-IR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed: one developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a uniform distribution of Low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the Low EC calibration to Low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produce predictions for Low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of determination (R2; 0.96), no bias (0.00 μg m-3, a

  11. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-03-01

    Organic carbon (OC) can constitute 50% or more of the mass of atmospheric particulate matter. Typically, organic carbon is measured from a quartz fiber filter that has been exposed to a volume of ambient air and analyzed using thermal methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR). Here, methods are presented that show the feasibility of using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters to accurately predict TOR OC. This work marks an initial step in proposing a method that can reduce the operating costs of large air quality monitoring networks with an inexpensive, non-destructive analysis technique using routinely collected PTFE filter samples which, in addition to OC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the composition of organic aerosol. This feasibility study suggests that the minimum detection limit and errors (or uncertainty) of FT-IR predictions are on par with TOR OC such that evaluation of long-term trends and epidemiological studies would not be significantly impacted. To develop and test the method, FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least-squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to TOR OC. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets by sampling site and date. The calibration produces precise and accurate TOR OC predictions of the test set samples by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), low bias (0.02 μg m-3, the nominal IMPROVE sample volume is 32.8 m3), low error (0.08 μg m-3) and low normalized error (11%). These performance metrics can be achieved with various degrees of spectral pretreatment (e.g., including or excluding substrate contributions to the absorbances) and are comparable in precision to collocated TOR measurements. FT-IR spectra are also

  12. Predicting ambient aerosol Thermal Optical Reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: elemental carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillner, A. M.; Takahama, S.

    2015-06-01

    Elemental carbon (EC) is an important constituent of atmospheric particulate matter because it absorbs solar radiation influencing climate and visibility and it adversely affects human health. The EC measured by thermal methods such as Thermal-Optical Reflectance (TOR) is operationally defined as the carbon that volatilizes from quartz filter samples at elevated temperatures in the presence of oxygen. Here, methods are presented to accurately predict TOR EC using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from atmospheric particulate matter collected on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE or Teflon) filters. This method is similar to the procedure tested and developed for OC in prior work (Dillner and Takahama, 2015). Transmittance FT-IR analysis is rapid, inexpensive, and non-destructive to the PTFE filter samples which are routinely collected for mass and elemental analysis in monitoring networks. FT-IR absorbance spectra are obtained from 794 filter samples from seven Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE) sites collected during 2011. Partial least squares regression is used to calibrate sample FT-IR absorbance spectra to collocated TOR EC measurements. The FTIR spectra are divided into calibration and test sets. Two calibrations are developed, one which is developed from uniform distribution of samples across the EC mass range (Uniform EC) and one developed from a~uniform distribution of low EC mass samples (EC < 2.4 μg, Low Uniform EC). A hybrid approach which applies the low EC calibration to low EC samples and the Uniform EC calibration to all other samples is used to produces predictions for low EC samples that have mean error on par with parallel TOR EC samples in the same mass range and an estimate of the minimum detection limit (MDL) that is on par with TOR EC MDL. For all samples, this hybrid approach leads to precise and accurate TOR EC predictions by FT-IR as indicated by high coefficient of variation (R2; 0.96), no

  13. Calculation of optical and K pre-edge absorption spectra for ferrous iron of distorted sites in oxide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercamer, Vincent; Hunault, Myrtille O. J. Y.; Lelong, Gérald; Haverkort, Maurits W.; Calas, Georges; Arai, Yusuke; Hijiya, Hiroyuki; Paulatto, Lorenzo; Brouder, Christian; Arrio, Marie-Anne; Juhin, Amélie

    2016-12-01

    Advanced semiempirical calculations have been performed to compute simultaneously optical absorption and K pre-edge x-ray absorption spectra of Fe2 + in four distinct site symmetries found in minerals. The four symmetries, i.e., a distorted octahedron, a distorted tetrahedron, a square planar site, and a trigonal bipyramidal site, are representative of the Fe2 + sites found in crystals and glasses. A particular attention has been paid to the definition of the p -d hybridization Hamiltonian which occurs for noncentrosymmetric symmetries in order to account for electric dipole transitions. For the different sites under study, an excellent agreement between calculations and experiments was found for both optical and x-ray absorption spectra, in particular in terms of relative intensities and energy positions of electronic transitions. To our knowledge, these are the first calculations of optical absorption spectra on Fe2 + placed in such diverse site symmetries, including centrosymmetric sites. The proposed theoretical model should help to interpret the features of both the optical absorption and the K pre-edge absorption spectra of 3 d transition metal ions and to go beyond the usual fingerprint interpretation.

  14. Analysis of the Vignale-Kohn current functional in the calculation of the optical spectra of semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berger, J. A.; de Boeij, P. L.; van Leeuwen, R.

    In this work, we investigate the Vignale-Kohn current functional when applied to the calculation of optical spectra of semiconductors. We discuss our results for silicon. We found qualitatively similar results for other semiconductors. These results show that there are serious limitations to the

  15. Anharmonic effects in IR, Raman, and Raman optical activity spectra of alanine and proline zwitterions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danecek, Petr; Kapitán, Josef; Baumruk, Vladimír; Bednárová, Lucie; Kopecký, Vladimír; Bour, Petr

    2007-06-14

    The difference spectroscopy of the Raman optical activity (ROA) provides extended information about molecular structure. However, interpretation of the spectra is based on complex and often inaccurate simulations. Previously, the authors attempted to make the calculations more robust by including the solvent and exploring the role of molecular flexibility for alanine and proline zwitterions. In the current study, they analyze the IR, Raman, and ROA spectra of these molecules with the emphasis on the force field modeling. Vibrational harmonic frequencies obtained with 25 ab initio methods are compared to experimental band positions. The role of anharmonic terms in the potential and intensity tensors is also systematically explored using the vibrational self-consistent field, vibrational configuration interaction (VCI), and degeneracy-corrected perturbation calculations. The harmonic approach appeared satisfactory for most of the lower-wavelength (200-1800 cm(-1)) vibrations. Modern generalized gradient approximation and hybrid density functionals, such as the common B3LYP method, provided a very good statistical agreement with the experiment. Although the inclusion of the anharmonic corrections still did not lead to complete agreement between the simulations and the experiment, occasional enhancements were achieved across the entire region of wave numbers. Not only the transitional frequencies of the C-H stretching modes were significantly improved but also Raman and ROA spectral profiles including N-H and C-H lower-frequency bending modes were more realistic after application of the VCI correction. A limited Boltzmann averaging for the lowest-frequency modes that could not be included directly in the anharmonic calculus provided a realistic inhomogeneous band broadening. The anharmonic parts of the intensity tensors (second dipole and polarizability derivatives) were found less important for the entire spectral profiles than the force field anharmonicities (third

  16. Vibronic effects and destruction of exciton coherence in optical spectra of J-aggregates: A variational polaron transformation approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloemsma, E.A.; Silvis, M.H.; Stradomska, A.; Knoester, J., E-mail: j.knoester@rug.nl

    2016-12-20

    Using a symmetry adapted polaron transformation of the Holstein Hamiltonian, we study the interplay of electronic excitation-vibration couplings, resonance excitation transfer interactions, and temperature in the linear absorption spectra of molecular J-aggregates. Semi-analytical expressions for the spectra are derived and compared with results obtained from direct numerical diagonalization of the Hamiltonian in the two-particle basis set representation. At zero temperature, we show that our polaron transformation reproduces both the collective (exciton) and single-molecule (vibrational) optical response associated with the appropriate standard perturbation limits. Specifically, for the molecular dimer excellent agreement with the spectra from the two-particle approach for the entire range of model parameters is obtained. This is in marked contrast to commonly used polaron transformations. Upon increasing the temperature, the spectra show a transition from the collective to the individual molecular features, which results from the thermal destruction of the exciton coherence.

  17. Holographic Optical Elements Recorded in Silver Halide Sensitized Gelatin Emulsions. Part 2. Reflection Holographic Optical Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Man; Choi, Byung So; Choi, Yoon Sun; Kim, Jong Min; Bjelkhagen, Hans I.; Phillips, Nicholas J.

    2002-03-01

    Silver halide sensitized gelatin (SHSG) holograms are similar to holograms recorded in dichromated gelatin (DCG), the main recording material for holographic optical elements (HOEs). The drawback of DCG is its low energetic sensitivity and limited spectral response. Silver halide materials can be processed in such a way that the final hologram will have properties like a DCG hologram. Recently this technique has become more interesting since the introduction of new ultra-fine-grain silver halide (AgHal) emulsions. In particular, high spatial-frequency fringes associated with HOEs of the reflection type are difficult to construct when SHSG processing methods are employed. Therefore an optimized processing technique for reflection HOEs recorded in the new AgHal materials is introduced. Diffraction efficiencies over 90% can be obtained repeatably for reflection diffraction gratings. Understanding the importance of a selective hardening process has made it possible to obtain results similar to conventional DCG processing. The main advantage of the SHSG process is that high-sensitivity recording can be performed with laser wavelengths anywhere within the visible spectrum. This simplifies the manufacturing of high-quality, large-format HOEs, also including high-quality display holograms of the reflection type in both monochrome and full color.

  18. Optical contrast spectra studies for determining thickness of stage-1 graphene-FeCl{sub 3} intercalation compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Wen-Peng, E-mail: han-wenpeng@163.com, E-mail: yunze.long@163.com; Yan, Xu; Zhao, Hui [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Qiao-Qiao; Lu, Yan [State Key Laboratory for Superlattices and Microstructures, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Long, Yun-Ze, E-mail: han-wenpeng@163.com, E-mail: yunze.long@163.com [College of Physics, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Low-Dimensional Nanomaterials and Optoelectronic Devices, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Because of novel features in their structural, electronic, magnetic and optical properties, especially potential applications in nanoelectronics, the few-layer graphene intercalation compounds (FLGICs) have been intensively studied recently. In this work, the dielectric constant of the doped graphene of stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-GIC is obtained by fitting the optical contrast spectra. And fully intercalated stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-FLGICs were prepared by micromechanical cleavage method from graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) for the first time. Finally, we demonstrated that the thickness of stage-1 FeCl{sub 3}-GICs by micromechanical cleavage can be determined by optical contrast spectra. This method also can be used to other FLGICs, such as SbCl{sub 5}-FLGICs and AuCl{sub 5}-FLGICs, etc.

  19. Optical characterization and blu-ray recording properties of metal(II) azo barbituric acid complex films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.Y. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: xyli@siom.ac.cn; Wu, Y.Q. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Key Lab of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry (Heilongjiang University), Ministry of Education, Haerbin 150080 (China)], E-mail: yqwu@siom.ac.cn; Gu, D.D.; Gan, F.X. [Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2009-02-25

    Smooth thin films of nickel(II), cobalt(II) and zinc(II) complexes with azo barbituric acid were prepared by the spin-coating method. Absorption spectra of the thin films on K9 glass substrates in 300-700 nm wavelength region were measured. Optical constants (complex refractive index N = n + ik) of the thin films prepared on single-crystal silicon substrates in 275-695 nm wavelength region were investigated on rotating analyzer-polarizer type of scanning ellipsometer, and dielectric constant {epsilon} ({epsilon} = {epsilon}{sub 1} + i{epsilon}{sub 2}) as well as absorption coefficient {alpha} of thin films were calculated at 405 nm. In addition, static optical recording properties of the cobalt(II) complex thin film with an Ag reflective layer was carried out using a 406.7 nm blue-violet laser and a high numerical aperture (NA) of 0.90. Clear recording marks with high reflectivity contrast (>60%) at proper laser power and pulse width were obtained, and the size of recording mark was as small as 250 nm. The results indicate that these metal(II) complexes are promising organic recording medium for the blu-ray optical storage system.

  20. Electronic structure, photoemission spectra, and vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidrich, K.; Schäfer, W.; Schreiber, M.; Söchtig, J.; Trendel, G.; Treusch, J.; Grandke, T.; Stolz, H. J.

    1981-11-01

    Optical spectra of CsPbCl3 and CsPbBr3 have been measured in the range from 2 to 10 eV and have been combined with ultraviolet-photoemission-spectroscopy (UPS)-measurements at 21.1 and 40.8 eV. A quantitative band calculation is presented, which takes into account anion-anion interaction as well as electronic states of the Cs+ ion. The prominent features of earlier band models and measurements are reestablished through our measurements and calculations, namely that the valence band consists of anionic p functions and Pb 6s functions, the lowest conduction band being Pb 6p type, and the lowest gap occuring at the R point of the Brillouin zone. Inclusion of a further (Cs 6s-type) conduction band, however, is necessary to bring the calculated joint density of states into agreement with vacuum-ultraviolet optical spectra. The calculated densities of states of the valence bands are in quantitative agreement with those deduced from our UPS measurements.

  1. Modelling telluric line spectra in the optical and infrared with an application to VLT/X-Shooter spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, N.; Günther, H. M.; Schneider, P. C.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Earth's atmosphere imprints a large number of telluric absorption and emission lines on astronomical spectra, especially in the near infrared, that need to be removed before analysing the affected wavelength regions. Aims: These lines are typically removed by comparison to A- or B-type stars used as telluric standards that themselves have strong hydrogen lines, which complicates the removal of telluric lines. We have developed a method to circumvent that problem. Methods: For our IDL software package tellrem we used a recent approach to model telluric absorption features with the line-by-line radiative transfer model (LBLRTM). The broad wavelength coverage of the X-Shooter at VLT allows us to expand their technique by determining the abundances of the most important telluric molecules H2O, O2, CO2, and CH4 from sufficiently isolated line groups. For individual observations we construct a telluric absorption model for most of the spectral range that is used to remove the telluric absorption from the object spectrum. Results: We remove telluric absorption from both continuum regions and emission lines without systematic residuals for most of the processable spectral range; however, our method increases the statistical errors. The errors of the corrected spectrum typically increase by 10% for S/N ~ 10 and by a factor of two for high-quality data (S/N ~ 100), I.e. the method is accurate on the percent level. Conclusions: Modelling telluric absorption can be an alternative to the observation of standard stars for removing telluric contamination. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Paranal, Chile, 085.C-0764(A) and 60.A-9022(C).The tellrem package is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/585/A113

  2. Integrated optical isolators using magnetic surface plasmon (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Hiromasa; Kaihara, Terunori; Umetsu, Saori; Hosoda, Masashi

    2015-09-01

    Optical isolators are one of the essential components to protect semiconductor laser diodes (LDs) from backward reflected light in integrated optics. In order to realize optical isolators, nonreciprocal propagation of light is necessary, which can be realized by magnetic materials. Semiconductor optical isolators have been strongly desired on Si and III/V waveguides. We have developed semiconductor optical isolators based on nonreciprocal loss owing to transverse magneto-optic Kerr effect, where the ferromagnetic metals are deposited on semiconductor optical waveguides1). Use of surface plasmon polariton at the interface of ferromagnetic metal and insulator leads to stronger optical confinement and magneto-optic effect. It is possible to modulate the optical confinement by changing the magnetic field direction, thus optical isolator operation is proposed2, 3). We have investigated surface plasmons at the interfaces between ferrimagnetic garnet/gold film, and applications to waveguide optical isolators. We assumed waveguides composed of Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG(1700nm)/Si(220nm)/Si , and calculated the coupling lengths between Au/Si(38.63nm)/Ce:YIG plasmonic waveguide and Ce:YIG/Si(220nm)/Si waveguide for transversely magnetized Ce:YIG with forward and backward directions. The coupling length was calculated to 232.1um for backward propagating light. On the other hand, the coupling was not complete, and the length was calculated to 175.5um. The optical isolation by using the nonreciprocal coupling and propagation loss was calculated to be 43.7dB when the length of plasmonic waveguide is 700um. 1) H. Shimizu et al., J. Lightwave Technol. 24, 38 (2006). 2) V. Zayets et al., Materials, 5, 857-871 (2012). 3) J. Montoya, et al, J. Appl. Phys. 106, 023108, (2009).

  3. Rest-Frame Optical Spectra of Three Strongly Lensed Galaxies at z ~ 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Shapley, Alice E.; Kornei, Katherine A.; Pettini, Max; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth; Allam, Sahar S.; Tucker, Douglas L.

    2009-08-01

    We present Keck II NIRSPEC rest-frame optical spectra for three recently discovered lensed galaxies: the Cosmic Horseshoe (z = 2.38), the Clone (z = 2.00), and SDSS J090122.37+181432.3 (z = 2.26). The boost in signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) from gravitational lensing provides an unusually detailed view of the physical conditions in these objects. A full complement of high S/N rest-frame optical emission lines is measured, spanning from rest frame 3600 to 6800 Å, including robust detections of fainter lines such as Hγ, [S II]λ6717,6732, and in one instance [Ne III]λ3869. SDSS J090122.37+181432.3 shows evidence for active galactic nucleus activity, and therefore we focus our analysis on star-forming regions in the Cosmic Horseshoe and the Clone. For these two objects, we estimate a wide range of physical properties. Current lensing models for the Cosmic Horseshoe and the Clone allow us to correct the measured Hα luminosity and calculated star formation rate. Metallicities have been estimated with a variety of indicators, which span a range of values of 12+ log(O/H) = 8.3-8.8, between ~0.4 and ~1.5 of the solar oxygen abundance. Dynamical masses were computed from the Hα velocity dispersions and measured half-light radii of the reconstructed sources. A comparison of the Balmer lines enabled measurement of dust reddening coefficients. Variations in the line ratios between the different lensed images are also observed, indicating that the spectra are probing different regions of the lensed galaxies. In all respects, the lensed objects appear fairly typical of ultraviolet-selected star-forming galaxies at z ~ 2. The Clone occupies a position on the emission-line diagnostic diagram of [O III]/Hβ versus [N II]/Hα that is offset from the locations of z ~ 0 galaxies. Our new NIRSPEC measurements may provide quantitative insights into why high-redshift objects display such properties. From the [S II] line ratio, high electron densities (~1000 cm-3) are inferred compared

  4. A novel measuring method for arbitrary optical vortex by three spiral spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ni, Bo [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guo, Lana [School of Electronics and Information, Guangdong Polytechnic Normal University, Guangzhou 510665 (China); Yue, Chengfeng [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Zhilie, E-mail: tangzhl@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2017-02-26

    In this letter, the topological charge of non-integer vortices determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra is theoretically demonstrated for the first time. Based on the conclusion, a novel method to measure non-integer vortices is presented. This method is applicable not only to arbitrary non-integer vortex but also to arbitrary integer vortex. - Highlights: • Different non-integer vortices cannot have three spiral spectra is demonstrated. • Relationship between the non-integer topological charge and the spiral spectra is presented. • Topological charge of non-integer vortices can be determined by three arbitrary spiral spectra.

  5. Longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and their manifestation in interference microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyakin, D V; Ryabukho, V P

    2013-01-01

    The results of theoretical and experimental studies of the longitudinal correlation properties of an optical field with broad angular and frequency spectra and manifestations of these properties in interference microscopy are presented. The joint and competitive influence of the angular and frequency spectra of the object-probing field on the longitudinal resolution and on the amplitude of the interference microscope signals from the interfaces between the media inside a multilayer object is demonstrated. The method of compensating the so-called defocusing effect that arises in the interference microscopy using objectives with a large numerical aperture is experimentally demonstrated, which consists in using as a light source in the interference microscope an illuminating interferometer with a frequency-broadband light source. This method of compensation may be used as the basis of simultaneous determination of geometric thickness and refractive index of media forming a multilayer object. (optical fields)

  6. [Study on Square Super-Lattice Pattern with Surface Discharge in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Xue-jiao; Dong, Li-fang; Liu, Ying; Wang, Qian; Feng, Jian-yu

    2016-02-01

    Square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge consisting of central spots and dim spots is firstly observed in the mixture of argon and air by using a dielectric barrier discharge device with water electrodes. By observing the image, it is found that the central spot is located at the centriod of its surrounding four dim spots. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The brightness of the central spot and is quite different from that of the dim spot, which indicates that the plasma states of the central spot and the dim spot may be differentiated. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the central spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³ IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the central spot and the dim spot are calculated respectively. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-->1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the central spot and the dim spot. It is found that the molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the central spot in the same argon content The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the central spot and the dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 90% to 99.9%. The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the determinative effect on the formation of the dim spot The experimental results above play an important role in studying the formation mechanism of surface discharg&of square super-lattice pattern with surface discharge. In addition, the studies exert an influence on the application of surface discharge and volume discharge in different fields.

  7. Do Zircon age Spectra Record Magmatic Cyclicity at Soufrière (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, A. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Lindsay, J. M.

    2007-12-01

    The Soufrière Volcanic Center (Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles) is a long-lived arc-volcanic system that evolved over the past 5 - 6 Ma. Its most recent volcanic activity between 20 and 40 ka was concentrated within the prominent Qualibou topographic depression and produced two voluminous pyroclastic deposits: Choiseul and the overlying Belfond. In addition, several dacitic lava domes exist within the Qualibou depression. Because evidence of earlier volcanic activity in long-lived magma systems is frequently obliterated by subsequent eruptive or volcano-tectonic events, high spatial resolution U-Th dating of zircon combined with (U-Th)/He dating is a powerful tool to identify magma crystallization episodes at depth and to link these to the eruptive record. U-Th model ages and disequilibrium corrected U-Pb ages for 56 individual zircons from Soufrière lavas (Morne Bonin, Belfond, Terre Blanche) and pumice (Choiseul, Belfond) were determined by secondary ionization mass spectrometry. The majority of results is on unpolished zircons where analysis pits integrate over the outermost ~10 μm of individual grains with a lateral spatial resolution of ~40 μm. Selected grains were subsequently analyzed by (U-Th)/He methods. Belfond and Terre Blanche (U-Th)/He zircon ages (~20 ka) agree with previous 14C charcoal ages, whereas Morne Bonin ages are much older (~250 ka). Overall, the U-Th zircon crystallization age spectrum reveals a remarkable range between ~20 and ~600 ka and displays multiple peaks, among which the most prominent are tentatively identified at ~40 ka, ~80 ka, ~130 ka, ~200 ka and ~500 ka. The distribution of rim ages indicates that most zircons lack overgrowth dating from just prior to the eruption, but the youngest ages for each sample overlap with the eruption ages. Soufrière zircons thus reveal magma intrusion, cooling, and crystallization cycles within the underlying plutonic system for which the volcanic stratigraphic record is sketchy.

  8. Tensile strain induced changes in the optical spectra of SrTiO.sub.3./sub. epitaxial thin films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dejneka, Alexandr; Tyunina, M.; Narkilahti, J.; Levoska, J.; Chvostová, Dagmar; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Trepakov, Vladimír

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 10 (2010), 2082-2089 ISSN 1063-7834 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/1009; GA AV ČR KAN301370701; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M06002 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : SrTiO 3 epitaxial thin films * effect of biaxial tensile strains on optical spectra Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2010

  9. Nonlinear optical spectra having characteristics of Fano interferences in coherently coupled lowest exciton biexciton states in semiconductor quantum dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Gotoh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Optical nonlinear effects are examined using a two-color micro-photoluminescence (micro-PL method in a coherently coupled exciton-biexciton system in a single quantum dot (QD. PL and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy (PLE are employed to measure the absorption spectra of the exciton and biexciton states. PLE for Stokes and anti-Stokes PL enables us to clarify the nonlinear optical absorption properties in the lowest exciton and biexciton states. The nonlinear absorption spectra for excitons exhibit asymmetric shapes with peak and dip structures, and provide a distinct contrast to the symmetric dip structures of conventional nonlinear spectra. Theoretical analyses with a density matrix method indicate that the nonlinear spectra are caused not by a simple coherent interaction between the exciton and biexciton states but by coupling effects among exciton, biexciton and continuum states. These results indicate that Fano quantum interference effects appear in exciton-biexciton systems at QDs and offer important insights into their physics.

  10. Optical absorption spectra of linear and cyclic thiophenes--selection rules manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bednarz, Mariusz; Reineker, Peter; Mena-Osteritz, Elena; Baeuerle, Peter

    2004-01-01

    We theoretically study the size-dependent relation between absorption spectra of thiophene-based oligomers and the corresponding cyclothiophenes. In our approach based on a Frenkel exciton Hamiltonian, we demonstrate that the geometry and selection rules determine the observed relations between the spectra

  11. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND LAB SPECTRA OF WATER ICE V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transmission spectra of amorphous and crystalline H2O-ice at temperatures from 20-150 K for a wavelength range from 1.11 to 2.63 microns. These spectra have not been...

  12. OPTICAL CONSTANTS AND LAB SPECTRA OF WATER ICE V1.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Transmission spectra of amorphous and crystalline H2O-ice at temperatures from 20-150 K for a wavelength range from 1.11 to 2.63 microns. These spectra have not been...

  13. Optical Spectra of Candidate International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Flat-spectrum Radio Sources. III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Titov, O.; Stanford, Laura M. [Geoscience Australia, P.O. Box 378, Canberra, ACT 2601 (Australia); Pursimo, T. [Nordic Optical Telescope, Nordic Optical Telescope Apartado 474E-38700 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Santa Cruz de Tenerife (Spain); Johnston, Helen M.; Hunstead, Richard W. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Jauncey, David L. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, ATNF and Mount Stromlo Observatory, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT 2611 (Australia); Zenere, Katrina A., E-mail: oleg.titov@ga.gov.au [School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2017-04-01

    In extending our spectroscopic program, which targets sources drawn from the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF) Catalog, we have obtained spectra for ∼160 compact, flat-spectrum radio sources and determined redshifts for 112 quasars and radio galaxies. A further 14 sources with featureless spectra have been classified as BL Lac objects. Spectra were obtained at three telescopes: the 3.58 m European Southern Observatory New Technology Telescope, and the two 8.2 m Gemini telescopes in Hawaii and Chile. While most of the sources are powerful quasars, a significant fraction of radio galaxies is also included from the list of non-defining ICRF radio sources.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: A library of high-S/N optical spectra of FGKM stars (Yee+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, S. W.; Petigura, E. A.; von Braun, K.

    2017-09-01

    Classification of stars, by comparing their optical spectra to a few dozen spectral standards, has been a workhorse of observational astronomy for more than a century. Here, we extend this technique by compiling a library of optical spectra of 404 touchstone stars observed with Keck/HIRES by the California Planet Search. The spectra have high resolution (R~60000), high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N~150/pixel), and are registered onto a common wavelength scale. The library stars have properties derived from interferometry, asteroseismology, LTE spectral synthesis, and spectrophotometry. To address a lack of well-characterized late-K dwarfs in the literature, we measure stellar radii and temperatures for 23 nearby K dwarfs, using modeling of the spectral energy distribution and Gaia parallaxes. This library represents a uniform data set spanning the spectral types ~M5-F1 (Teff~3000-7000K, R*~0.1-16R{Sun}). We also present "Empirical SpecMatch" (SpecMatch-Emp), a tool for parameterizing unknown spectra by comparing them against our spectral library. For FGKM stars, SpecMatch-Emp achieves accuracies of 100K in effective temperature (Teff), 15% in stellar radius (R*), and 0.09dex in metallicity ([Fe/H]). Because the code relies on empirical spectra it performs particularly well for stars ~K4 and later, which are challenging to model with existing spectral synthesizers, reaching accuracies of 70K in Teff, 10% in R*, and 0.12dex in [Fe/H]. We also validate the performance of SpecMatch-Emp, finding it to be robust at lower spectral resolution and S/N, enabling the characterization of faint late-type stars. Both the library and stellar characterization code are publicly available. (2 data files).

  15. Built-in electric field effect on optical absorption spectra of strained (In,Ga)N–GaN nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Ghazi, Haddou, E-mail: hadghazi@gmail.com [LPS, Faculty of Science, Dhar EL Mehrez, BP 1796 Fes-Atlas (Morocco); Special Mathematics, CPGE Rabat, Rabat (Morocco); John Peter, A. [Department of Physics, Govt. Arts and Science College, Melur, 625106 Madurai (India)

    2015-08-15

    Based on the effective-mass and the one band parabolic approximations, first order linear, third-order nonlinear and total optical properties related to 1s–1p intra-conduction band transition in wurtzite strained (In,Ga)N–GaN spherical QDs are calculated. The built-in electric field effect, due to the spontaneous and piezoelectric components, is investigated variationally under finite confinement potential. The results reveal that size and internal composition of the dot have a great influence on in-built electric field which affects strongly the optical absorption spectra. It is also found that the modulation of the absorption coefficient, which is suitable for the better performance of optical device applications, can be easily obtained by adjusting geometrical size and internal composition.

  16. Optical fibre Bragg grating recorded in TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, I.P.; Yuan, Scott Wu; Stefani, Alessio

    2011-01-01

    A report is presented on the inscription of a fibre Bragg grating into a microstructured polymer optical fibre fabricated from TOPAS cyclic olefin copolymer. This material offers two important advantages over poly (methyl methacrylate), which up to now has formed the basis for polymer fibre Bragg...

  17. Dichromated gelatin and its importance for optical hologram recording

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šmíd, Petr; Hiklová, H.; Keprt, Jiří

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 12 (2004), s. 1461-1472 ISSN 0011-4626 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015 Keywords : dichromated gelatin * holography * volume program Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.292, year: 2004

  18. Cu-Si bilayers as storage medium in optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuiper, A.E. T.; Vullers, R.J.M.; Pasquariello, D.; Naburgh, E.P.

    2005-01-01

    Instead of a phase change or a dye layer, a Cu/Si bilayer can be applied as the recording medium in a write-once Blu-ray Disc. The write process basically comprises the formation of a CuSi alloy containing 25-30 at. % Si, while any excess of Si is left behind as unreacted film. Auger analyses of the laser-written layers indicate that recording consists primarily of the diffusion of Si into Cu. The data allow for discrimination between the various models presented in literature for Cu/Si-based recording and to optimize the stack. Very low jitter levels of typically 4% proved to be achievable with equally thick films of Cu and Si as recording medium

  19. Optical Reading and Playing of Sound Signals from Vinyl Records

    OpenAIRE

    Hensman, Arnold; Casey, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    While advanced digital music systems such as compact disk players and MP3 have become the standard in sound reproduction technology, critics claim that conversion to digital often results in a loss of sound quality and richness. For this reason, vinyl records remain the medium of choice for many audiophiles involved in specialist areas. The waveform cut into a vinyl record is an exact replica of the analogue version from the original source. However, while some perceive this media as reproduc...

  20. High-density near-field optical disc recording using phase change media and polycarbonate substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Masataka; Saito, Kimihiro; Ishimoto, Tsutomu; Kondo, Takao; Nakaoki, Ariyoshi; Furuki, Motohiro; Takeda, Minoru; Akiyama, Yuji; Shimouma, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masanobu

    2004-09-01

    We developed a high density near field optical recording disc system with a solid immersion lens and two laser sources. In order to realize the near field optical recording, we used a phase change recording media and a molded polycarbonate substrate. The near field optical pick-up consists of a solid immersion lens with numerical aperture of 1.84. The clear eye pattern of 90.2 GB capacity (160nm track pitch and 62 nm per bit) was observed. The jitter using a limit equalizer was 10.0 % without cross-talk. The bit error rate using an adaptive PRML with 8 taps was 3.7e-6 without cross-talk. We confirmed that the near field optical disc system is a promising technology for a next generation high density optical disc system.

  1. Phylogenetic Distribution of Leaf Spectra and Optically Derived Functional Traits in the American Oaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavender-Bares, J.; Meireles, J. E.; Couture, J. J.; Kaproth, M.; Townsend, P. A.

    2015-12-01

    Detecting functional traits of species, genotypes and phylogenetic lineages is critical in monitoring functional biodiversity remotely. We examined the phylogenetic distribution of leaf spectra across the American Oaks for 35 species under greenhouse conditions as well as genetic variation in leaf spectra across Central American populations of a single species grown in common gardens in Honduras. We found significant phylogenetic signal in the leaf spectra (Blomberg's K > 1.0), indicating similarity in spectra among close relatives. Across species, full range leaf spectra were used in a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) that allowed species calibration (kappa statistic = 0.55). Validation of the model used to detect species (kappa statistic = 0.4) indicated reasonably good detection of individual species within the same the genus. Among four populations from Belize, Costa Rica, Honduras, and Mexico within a single species (Quercus oleoides), leaf spectra were also able to differentiate populations. Ordination of population-level data using dissimilarities of predicted foliar traits, including leaf mass per area (LMA), lignin content, fiber content, chlorophyll a+b, and C:N ratio in genotypes in either watered or unwatered conditions showed significant differentiation among populations and treatments. These results provide promise for remote detection and differentiation of plant functional traits among plant phylogenetic lineages and genotypes, even among closely related populations and species.

  2. Can a one-layer optical skin model including melanin and inhomogeneously distributed blood explain spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectra?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Hanna; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    Model based analysis of calibrated diffuse reflectance spectroscopy can be used for determining oxygenation and concentration of skin chromophores. This study aimed at assessing the effect of including melanin in addition to hemoglobin (Hb) as chromophores and compensating for inhomogeneously distributed blood (vessel packaging), in a single-layer skin model. Spectra from four humans were collected during different provocations using a twochannel fiber optic probe with source-detector separations 0.4 and 1.2 mm. Absolute calibrated spectra using data from either a single distance or both distances were analyzed using inverse Monte Carlo for light transport and Levenberg-Marquardt for non-linear fitting. The model fitting was excellent using a single distance. However, the estimated model failed to explain spectra from the other distance. The two-distance model did not fit the data well at either distance. Model fitting was significantly improved including melanin and vessel packaging. The most prominent effect when fitting data from the larger separation compared to the smaller separation was a different light scattering decay with wavelength, while the tissue fraction of Hb and saturation were similar. For modeling spectra at both distances, we propose using either a multi-layer skin model or a more advanced model for the scattering phase function.

  3. Multiplexing 32,000 spectra onto 8 detectors: the HARMONI field splitting, image slicing, and wavelength selecting optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecza, Matthias; Thatte, Niranjan; Clarke, Fraser; Freeman, David; Kosmalski, Johan

    2012-09-01

    HARMONI, the High Angular Resolution Monolithic Optical & Near-infrared Integral field spectrograph is one of two first-light instruments for the European Extremely Large Telescope. Over a 256x128 pixel field-of-view HARMONI will simultaneously measure approximately 32,000 spectra. Each spectrum is about 4000 spectral pixels long, and covers a selectable part of the 0.47-2.45 μm wavelength range at resolving powers of either R≍4000, 10000, or 20000. All 32,000 spectra are imaged onto eight HAWAII4RG detectors using a multiplexing scheme that divides the input field into four sub-fields, each imaged onto one image slicer that in turn re-arranges a single sub-field into two long exit slits feeding one spectrograph each. In total we require eight spectrographs, each with one HAWAII4RG detector. A system of articulated and exchangeable fold-mirrors and VPH gratings allows one to select different spectral resolving powers and wavelength ranges of interest while keeping a fixed geometry between the spectrograph collimator and camera avoiding the need for an articulated grating and camera. In this paper we describe both the field splitting and image slicing optics as well as the optics that will be used to select both spectral resolving power and wavelength range.

  4. Optical-absorption spectra associated with shallow donor impurities in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Valencia, J.

    1995-08-01

    The binding energy of a hydrogenic donor impurity and the optical-absorption spectra associated with transitions between the n=1 valence level and the donor-impurity band were calculated for infinite barrier-well spherical GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-dots of different radii, using the effective mass approximation within a variational scheme. An absorption peak associated with transitions involving impurities at the center of the well and a peak related with impurities at the edge of the dot were the main features observed for the different radii of the dots considered in the calculations. Also as a result of the higher electronic confinement in a quantum- dot, we found a much wider energy range of the absorption spectra when compared to infinite GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum-wells and quantum-well wires of width and diameter comparable to the diameter of the quantum dot. (author). 13 refs, 3 figs

  5. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2015-04-21

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  6. New Optical Card for Sneaker’s Network in Place of Electronic Clinical Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Kenya; Satsukawa, Takatoshi; Chiba, Seisho; Ohmori, Takaaki

    2006-02-01

    In order to solve problems in electronic medical records, a new optical card of the digital versatile disk (DVD) type with higher capacity and lower cost than conventional compact disc recording (CD-R)-type cards has been developed, which is thinner, stronger and wearable like a credit card.

  7. General Method for Calculating the Response and Noise Spectra of Active Fabry-Perot Semiconductor Waveguides With External Optical Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaaberg, Søren; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    We present a theoretical method for calculating small-signal modulation responses and noise spectra of active Fabry-Perot semiconductor waveguides with external light injection. Small-signal responses due to either a modulation of the pump current or due to an optical amplitude or phase modulatio...... amplifiers and an injection-locked laser. We also demonstrate the applicability of the method to analyze slow and fast light effects in semiconductor waveguides. Finite reflectivities of the facets are found to influence the phase changes of the injected microwave-modulated light....

  8. Optical absorption and magnetic circular dichroism spectra of thiouracils: a quantum mechanical study in solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Fernández, L.; Fahleson, Tobias; Norman, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The excited electronic states of 2-thiouracil, 4-thiouracil and 2,4-dithiouracil, the analogues of uracil where the carbonyl oxygens are substituted by sulphur atoms, have been investigated by computing the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) and one-photon absorption (OPA) spectra at the time-depe...

  9. Application of magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy to the optical spectra of natural and irradiated diamonds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, I.N.; Ruciman, W.A.; Australian National Univ., Canberra. Research School of Physical Sciences)

    1977-01-01

    The MCD spectra of natural type Ia and electron-irradiated type Ia and type IIa diamonds have been measured. The information obtained from MCD spectroscopy complements that obtained from absorption spectroscopy and can be helpful in the assignment of electronic transitions. (orig.) [de

  10. A multifunctional setup to record FTIR and UV-vis spectra of organic molecules and their photoproducts in astronomical ices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, V; Witlox, M J A; Bouwman, J; Ten Kate, I L; Linnartz, H

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a new, multi-functional, high-vacuum ice setup that allows to record the in situ and real-time spectra of vacuum UV (VUV)-irradiated non-volatile molecules embedded in a low-temperature (10 K) amorphous solid water environment. Three complementary diagnostic tools-UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption quadrupole mass spectrometry-can be used to simultaneously study the physical and chemical behavior of the organic molecules in the ice upon VUV irradiation. The setup is equipped with a temperature-controlled sublimation oven that enables the controlled homogeneous deposition of solid species such as amino acids, nucleobases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ice mixtures prepared from precursor gases and/or liquids. The resulting ice is photo-processed with a microwave discharge hydrogen lamp, generating VUV radiation with a spectral energy distribution representative for the interstellar medium. The characteristics, performance, and future potential of the system are discussed by describing three different applications. First, a new method is introduced, which uses broadband interference transmission fringes recorded during ice deposition, to determine the wavelength-dependent refractive index, n λ , of amorphous solid water. This approach is also applicable to other solids, pure and mixed. Second, the UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy of an VUV-irradiated triphenylene:water ice mixture is discussed, monitoring the ionization efficiency of PAHs in interstellar ice environments. The third and final example investigates the stability of solid glycine upon VUV irradiation by monitoring the formation of dissociation products in real time.

  11. A multifunctional setup to record FTIR and UV-vis spectra of organic molecules and their photoproducts in astronomical ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofman, V.; Witlox, M. J. A.; Bouwman, J.; ten Kate, I. L.; Linnartz, H.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a new, multi-functional, high-vacuum ice setup that allows to record the in situ and real-time spectra of vacuum UV (VUV)-irradiated non-volatile molecules embedded in a low-temperature (10 K) amorphous solid water environment. Three complementary diagnostic tools—UV-visible (UV-vis) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption quadrupole mass spectrometry—can be used to simultaneously study the physical and chemical behavior of the organic molecules in the ice upon VUV irradiation. The setup is equipped with a temperature-controlled sublimation oven that enables the controlled homogeneous deposition of solid species such as amino acids, nucleobases, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ice mixtures prepared from precursor gases and/or liquids. The resulting ice is photo-processed with a microwave discharge hydrogen lamp, generating VUV radiation with a spectral energy distribution representative for the interstellar medium. The characteristics, performance, and future potential of the system are discussed by describing three different applications. First, a new method is introduced, which uses broadband interference transmission fringes recorded during ice deposition, to determine the wavelength-dependent refractive index, nλ, of amorphous solid water. This approach is also applicable to other solids, pure and mixed. Second, the UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy of an VUV-irradiated triphenylene:water ice mixture is discussed, monitoring the ionization efficiency of PAHs in interstellar ice environments. The third and final example investigates the stability of solid glycine upon VUV irradiation by monitoring the formation of dissociation products in real time.

  12. Use of neural network based auto-associative memory as a data compressor for pre-processing optical emission spectra in gas thermometry with the help of neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolenko, S.A.; Filippov, A.V.; Pal, A.F.; Persiantsev, I.G.; Serov, A.O.

    2003-01-01

    Determination of temperature from optical emission spectra is an inverse problem that is often very difficult to solve, especially when substantial noise is present. One of the means that can be used to solve such a problem is a neural network trained on the results of modeling of spectra at different temperatures (Dolenko, et al., in: I.C. Parmee (Ed.), Adaptive Computing in Design and Manufacture, Springer, London, 1998, p. 345). Reducing the dimensionality of the input data prior to application of neural network can increase the accuracy and stability of temperature determination. In this study, such pre-processing is performed with another neural network working as an auto-associative memory with a narrow bottleneck in the hidden layer. The improvement in the accuracy and stability of temperature determination in presence of noise is demonstrated on model spectra similar to those recorded in a DC-discharge CVD reactor

  13. Effect of Er doping on optical transmission and EL spectra of (Zn, Cd)S:Cu phosphors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patil, P.K.; Nandgave, J.K.; Lawangar Pawar, R.D.

    1991-01-01

    Powder phosphors((Znsub(0.4)Cdsub(0.6))S)doped with Cu and Er have been prepared under the inert atmosphere of argon. The optical transmission spectra of Cu doped phosphors have been investigated and explained on the basis of copper associated defect states. The improvement of optical transmission of the phosphors due to Er doping has been reported and explained. The EL emission spectrum of (Znsub(0.4)Cdsub(0.6))S:Cu:Er phosphors exhibits two broad bands characteristic of Cu. The absence of characteristic Er bands has been explained as an effect of thermal quenching of Er donor levels. (author). 9 refs., 2 figs

  14. CPAC moisture study: Phase 1 report on the study of optical spectra calibration for moisture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltkamp, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report discusses work done to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopic methods, combined with multivariate Partial Least Squares (PLS) calibration modeling, to quantitatively predict the moisture content of the crust material in Hanford's waste tank materials. Experiments were conducted with BY-104 simulant material for the 400--1100 nm (VIS), 1100--2500 (NIR), and 400-4000 cm -1 (IR) optical regions. The test data indicated that the NIR optical region, with a single PLS calibration factor, provided the highest accuracy response (better than 0.5 wt %) over a 0--25 wt % moisture range. Issues relating to the preparation of moisture samples with the BY-104 materials and the potential implementation within hot cell and waste tanks are also discussed. The investigation of potential material interferences, including physical and chemical properties, and the scaled demonstration of fiber optic and camera types of applications with simulated waste tanks are outlined as future work tasks

  15. Modeling Optical Spectra of Large Organic Systems Using Real-Time Propagation of Semiempirical Effective Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Andersen, Amity; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2017-09-12

    We present an implementation of a time-dependent semiempirical method (INDO/S) in NWChem using real-time (RT) propagation to address, in principle, the entire spectrum of valence electronic excitations. Adopting this model, we study the UV/vis spectra of medium-sized systems such as P3B2 and f-coronene, and in addition much larger systems such as ubiquitin in the gas phase and the betanin chromophore in the presence of two explicit solvents (water and methanol). RT-INDO/S provides qualitatively and often quantitatively accurate results when compared with RT- TDDFT or experimental spectra. Even though we only consider the INDO/S Hamiltonian in this work, our implementation provides a framework for performing electron dynamics in large systems using semiempirical Hartree-Fock Hamiltonians in general.

  16. The importance of nuclear quantum effects in spectral line broadening of optical spectra and electrostatic properties in aromatic chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Y. K.; Hassanali, A. A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we examine the importance of nuclear quantum effects on capturing the line broadening and vibronic structure of optical spectra. We determine the absorption spectra of three aromatic molecules indole, pyridine, and benzene using time dependent density functional theory with several molecular dynamics sampling protocols: force-field based empirical potentials, ab initio simulations, and finally path-integrals for the inclusion of nuclear quantum effects. We show that the absorption spectrum for all these chromophores are similarly broadened in the presence of nuclear quantum effects regardless of the presence of hydrogen bond donor or acceptor groups. We also show that simulations incorporating nuclear quantum effects are able to reproduce the heterogeneous broadening of the absorption spectra even with empirical force fields. The spectral broadening associated with nuclear quantum effects can be accounted for by the broadened distribution of chromophore size as revealed by a particle in the box model. We also highlight the role that nuclear quantum effects have on the underlying electronic structure of aromatic molecules as probed by various electrostatic properties.

  17. Donor-related optical absorption spectra in GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells: hydrostatic pressure effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, S.Y.; Duque, C.A.; Porras-Montenegro, N.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Donor-related optical-absorption spectra for GaAs-(Ga,Al)As quantum wells under hydrostatic pressure are investigated. A variational procedure in the e effective-mass approximation is used in order to obtain binding energies and wave functions. As a general feature, we observe that the binding energy increases with the pressure and with the decreasing of the width of the well. The pressure-related Γ-X crossover has been taken into account in the whole calculation. For the low-pressure regime we observe a linear binding energy behavior, whereas for high pressure the main effect associated with the height of the barrier is the bending of the binding energy curves towards smaller values. Two special structures in the density of impurity states and in the donor-related optical-absorption spectra are observed: an edge associated with transitions involving impurities at the center of the well and a peak associated with transitions related to impurities at the edges of the quantum well. Also, we observe shifts to higher energies of the density of impurity states as a function of the binding energy, as well as changes in the intensity with a red shift of the absorption effect with the hydrostatic pressure. (author)

  18. Establishing the link between fibril formation and Raman optical activity spectra of insulin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kessler, Jiří; Yamamoto, S.; Bouř, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 21 (2017), s. 13614-13621 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-05935S; GA ČR GA15-09072S Grant - others:COST(XE) CA15214 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : molecular dynamics clusters * absolute configuration * vibrational spectra Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.123, year: 2016

  19. Anharmonic effects in IR, Raman, and Raman optical activity spectra of alanine and proline zwitterions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Daněček, Petr; Kapitán, Josef; Baumruk, V.; Bednárová, Lucie; Kopecký, V.; Bouř, Petr

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 126, č. 22 (2007), s. 224513-1 ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0420; GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : IR * Raman * ROA spectra * Anharmonic effects Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.044, year: 2007

  20. Near-field optical recording based on solid immersion lens system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Wang, Jia; Wu, Yan; Li, Dacheng

    2002-09-01

    Near-field optical recording based on solid immersion lens (SIL) system has attracted great attention in the field of high-density data storage in recent years. The diffraction limited spot size in optical recording and lithography can be decreased by utilizing the SIL. The SIL near-field optical storage has advantages of high density, mass storage capacity and compatibility with many technologies well developed. We have set up a SIL near-field static recording system. The recording medium is placed on a 3-D scanning stage with the scanning range of 70×70×70μm and positioning accuracy of sub-nanometer, which will ensure the rigorous separation control in SIL system and the precision motion of the recording medium. The SIL is mounted on an inverted microscope. The focusing between long working distance objective and SIL can be monitored and observed by the CCD camera and eyes. Readout signal can be collected by a detector. Some experiments have been performed based on the SIL near-field recording system. The attempt of the near-field recording on photochromic medium has been made and the resolution improvement of the SIL has been presented. The influence factors in SIL near-field recording system are also discussed in the paper.

  1. Optical properties of Lactuca and Taraxacum seed and fruit coats: Their role as light filters [phytochrome, photoblasty, fiber optics, transmission, spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widell, K.-O.; Vogelmann, T.C.

    1985-01-01

    The optical properties of seed and fruit coats were examined from several varieties of light-sensitive achenes. Taraxacum vulgare L. and Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids achenes with dark fruit coats and L. sativa cvs Huvudsallat and Issallat with white fruit coats were examined. Transmission spectra varied among the different achenes: white fruit coats of Lactuca acted as neutral density filters between 450 and 780 nm, whereas Taraxacum transmitted 2–36% in this region. The ribbed fruit coat structure greatly affected transmission so that at different locations in the same coat, transmission varied between 20 to 80% at 660 and 730 nm. Fruit coats of Grand Rapids lettuce and Taraxacum transmitted more far-red than red light with T 660 /T 730 ratios of 0.8 and 0.4, respectively. The relationship between the optical properties of fruit coats and light-stimulated germination is discussed. (author)

  2. Comments on the optical lineshape function: Application to transient hole-burned spectra of bacterial reaction centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reppert, Mike; Kell, Adam; Pruitt, Thomas; Jankowiak, Ryszard

    2015-01-01

    The vibrational spectral density is an important physical parameter needed to describe both linear and non-linear spectra of multi-chromophore systems such as photosynthetic complexes. Low-temperature techniques such as hole burning (HB) and fluorescence line narrowing are commonly used to extract the spectral density for a given electronic transition from experimental data. We report here that the lineshape function formula reported by Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)] in the mean-phonon approximation and frequently applied to analyzing HB data contains inconsistencies in notation, leading to essentially incorrect expressions in cases of moderate and strong electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling strengths. A corrected lineshape function L(ω) is given that retains the computational and intuitive advantages of the expression of Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)]. Although the corrected lineshape function could be used in modeling studies of various optical spectra, we suggest that it is better to calculate the lineshape function numerically, without introducing the mean-phonon approximation. New theoretical fits of the P870 and P960 absorption bands and frequency-dependent resonant HB spectra of Rb. sphaeroides and Rps. viridis reaction centers are provided as examples to demonstrate the importance of correct lineshape expressions. Comparison with the previously determined el-ph coupling parameters [Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5849 (1990); Lyle et al., ibid. 97, 6924 (1993); Reddy et al., ibid. 97, 6934 (1993)] is also provided. The new fits lead to modified el-ph coupling strengths and different frequencies of the special pair marker mode, ω sp , for Rb. sphaeroides that could be used in the future for more advanced calculations of absorption and HB spectra obtained for various bacterial reaction centers

  3. Comments on the optical lineshape function: Application to transient hole-burned spectra of bacterial reaction centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reppert, Mike; Kell, Adam; Pruitt, Thomas [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Jankowiak, Ryszard, E-mail: ryszard@ksu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States); Department of Physics, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506 (United States)

    2015-03-07

    The vibrational spectral density is an important physical parameter needed to describe both linear and non-linear spectra of multi-chromophore systems such as photosynthetic complexes. Low-temperature techniques such as hole burning (HB) and fluorescence line narrowing are commonly used to extract the spectral density for a given electronic transition from experimental data. We report here that the lineshape function formula reported by Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)] in the mean-phonon approximation and frequently applied to analyzing HB data contains inconsistencies in notation, leading to essentially incorrect expressions in cases of moderate and strong electron-phonon (el-ph) coupling strengths. A corrected lineshape function L(ω) is given that retains the computational and intuitive advantages of the expression of Hayes et al. [J. Phys. Chem. 98, 7337 (1994)]. Although the corrected lineshape function could be used in modeling studies of various optical spectra, we suggest that it is better to calculate the lineshape function numerically, without introducing the mean-phonon approximation. New theoretical fits of the P870 and P960 absorption bands and frequency-dependent resonant HB spectra of Rb. sphaeroides and Rps. viridis reaction centers are provided as examples to demonstrate the importance of correct lineshape expressions. Comparison with the previously determined el-ph coupling parameters [Johnson et al., J. Phys. Chem. 94, 5849 (1990); Lyle et al., ibid. 97, 6924 (1993); Reddy et al., ibid. 97, 6934 (1993)] is also provided. The new fits lead to modified el-ph coupling strengths and different frequencies of the special pair marker mode, ω{sub sp}, for Rb. sphaeroides that could be used in the future for more advanced calculations of absorption and HB spectra obtained for various bacterial reaction centers.

  4. Observation of Lorentzian lineshapes in the room temperature optical spectra of strongly coupled Jaggregate/metal hybrid nanostructures by linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Sommer, Ephraim; De Sio, Antonietta; Gross, Petra; Vogelgesang, Ralf; Lienau, Christoph; Vasa, Parinda

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the linear optical reflectivity spectra of a prototypical, strongly coupled metal/molecular hybrid nanostructure by means of a new experimental approach, linear two-dimensional optical spectroscopy. White-light, broadband spectral interferometry is used to measure amplitude and spectral phase of the sample reflectivity or transmission with high precision and to reconstruct the time structure of the electric field emitted by the sample upon impulsive excitation. A numerical analysis of this time-domain signal provides a two-dimensional representation of the coherent optical response of the sample as a function of excitation and detection frequency. The approach is used to study a nanostructure formed by depositing a thin J-aggregated dye layer on a gold grating. In this structure, strong coupling between excitons and surface plasmon polaritons results in the formation of hybrid polariton modes. In the strong coupling regime, Lorentzian lineshape profiles of different polariton modes are observed at room temperature. This is taken as an indication that the investigated strongly coupled polariton excitations are predominantly homogeneously broadened at room temperature. This new approach presents a versatile, simple and highly precise addition to nonlinear optical spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of line broadening phenomena. (paper)

  5. Optical maturity variation in lunar spectra as measured by Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, J.W.; Staid, M.; Besse, S.; Boardman, J.; Clark, R.N.; Dhingra, D.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    High spectral and spatial resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument on Chandrayaan-1 are used to investigate in detail changes in the optical properties of lunar materials accompanying space weathering. Three spectral parameters were developed and used to quantify spectral effects commonly thought to be associated with increasing optical maturity: an increase in spectral slope ("reddening"), a decrease in albedo ("darkening"), and loss of spectral contrast (decrease in absorption band depth). Small regions of study were defined that sample the ejecta deposits of small fresh craters that contain relatively crystalline (immature) material that grade into local background (mature) soils. Selected craters are small enough that they can be assumed to be of constant composition and thus are useful for evaluating trends in optical maturity. Color composites were also used to identify the most immature material in a region and show that maturity trends can also be identified using regional soil trends. The high resolution M3 data are well suited to quantifying the spectral changes that accompany space weathering and are able to capture subtle spectral variations in maturity trends. However, the spectral changes that occur as a function of maturity were observed to be dependent on local composition. Given the complexity of space weathering processes, this was not unexpected but poses challenges for absolute measures of optical maturity across diverse lunar terrains. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Method for Characterizing Spectra from Foodborne Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method, which provides both spatial and spectral characteristics of samples, can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based HMI method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilms formed by Salmon...

  7. Pulse radiolysis of LiBr-KBr melts. Optical transient absorption spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawamura, S.; Gebicki, J.L.; Mayer, J.; Kroh, J.

    1990-01-01

    Absorption spectra of the irradiated melts of LiBr and LiBr-KBr mixtures were investigated in the temperature range 673-873 K by nanosecond pulse radiolysis. The visible band ascribed to e s - shows the apparent shift towards longer wavelengths with increasing temperature and increasing content of KBr in the mixture. The UV transient absorption was attributed to superimposed Br 2 - and Br 3 - bands. The relation between the transition energy of visible band and the inverse mean ion distance is given for alkali bromide and chloride systems. (author)

  8. Effect of Molar Concentration on Optical Absorption Spectra of ZnS:Mn Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports the synthesis and characterization of luminescent nanocrystals of manganese doped zinc sulphide. Nanocrystals of zinc sulphide were prepared by chemical precipitation method using the solution of zinc chloride, sodium sulphide, manganese chloride and mercaptoethanol was used as the capping agent. It was found that change in the molar concentration changes the particle size. The particle size of such nanocrystals was measured using XRD pattern and it is found to be in between 3 nm – 5 nm. The blue-shift in absorption spectra was found with reducing size of the nanoparticles

  9. Optical spectra and analysis of Pr3+ in β-NaYF4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, N.; Boutinaud, P.; Mahiou, R.; Cousseins, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    We report a spectroscopic investigation of β-NaYF 4 :Pr 3+ . In order to study the upconversion properties of this system we determined the Stark energy level of different multiplets from luminescence spectra using polycrystalline samples with several concentrations at temperatures between 15 and 300 K. We correlate the luminescence and structural description and confirm the presence of three sites for the rare-earth ions in this material. Selective excitation is used to assign the self energy levels for each Pr 3+ ion in the three sites. (orig.)

  10. Electronic structure and optical absorption spectra of Y2 and Zr2 dimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutsev, G.L.

    1989-01-01

    The electron structure, ionization potentials from valent levels and energies of optic transitions of Y 2 and Zr 2 dimers are calculated within the framework of discrete-variatin X α -method. It is shown that the symmetry state 1 Σ g + is the main state of Y 2 and Zr 2 dimers, and the atoms in dimers have high-spin 4d n+1 5s 1 configuration. The chemical binding in Y 2 has the dominating 5s-5s nature which is revealed in a considerable interatomic distance; binding of 4d-electrons brings about a significant decrease in the bond length in Zr 2 dimer. The theoretical spectrum of optical absorption of Zr 2 agrees well with the obtained experimental spectrum of this molecule isolated in the organ matrix

  11. Interpreting the optical spectra of trace Fe2+ in layer silicates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasevich, Yu.I.; Pustovit, A.V.

    1988-01-01

    Estimates have been made of Fe 2+ term splittings in axial crystalline fields. It is found that all three long-wave bands in the optical spectrum are due to Fe 2+ α Fe 3+ charge transfer, while the splitting of 5 T/sub 2g/ and 5 E/sub g/ occurs in low-symmetry fields. Experimental evidence is presented for these calculations

  12. Theoretical emission line ratios for [Fe III] and [Fe VII] applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ryans, R S; Hyung, S

    2001-08-14

    Recent calculations of electron impact excitation rates and Einstein A-coefficients for transitions among the 3d(6) levels of Fe III and among the 3d(2) levels of Fe VII are used to derive theoretical emission line ratios applicable to the optical and infrared spectra of gaseous nebulae. Results for [Fe III] are generated for electron temperatures T(e) = 7,000-20,000 K and densities N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3), whereas those for [Fe VII] are provided for T(e) = 10,000-30,000 K and N(e) = 10(2)-10(8) cm(-3). The theoretical line ratios are significantly different in some instances from earlier calculations and resolve discrepancies between theory and observation found for the planetary nebulae IC 4997 and NGC 7027.

  13. Optimized geometry, vibration (IR and Raman spectra and nonlinear optical activity of p-nitroanilinium perchlorate molecule: A theoretical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Ömer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular modeling of p-nitroanilinium perchlorate molecule was carried out by using B3LYP and HSEH1PBE levels of density functional theory (DFT. The IR and Raman spectra were simulated and the assignments of vibrational modes were performed on the basis of relative contribution of various internal co-ordinates. NBO analysis was performed to demonstrate charge transfer, conjugative interactions and the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding interactions within PNAPC. Obtained large dipole moment values showed that PNAPC is a highly polarizable complex, and the charge transfer occurs within PNAPC. Hydrogen bonding and charge transfer interactions were also displayed by small HOMO-LUMO gap and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surface. The strong evidences that the material can be used as an efficient nonlinear optical (NLO material of PNAPC were demonstrated by considerable polarizability and hyperpolarizability values obtained at DFT levels.

  14. Optical and EPR spectra of the thionitrosyl complex [Cr(OH2)5(NS)]2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, Anders Rørbæk; Dethlefsen, Johannes Wied

    2008-01-01

    . The optical data indicate that the NS ligand is a weaker p-acceptor than the NO ligand. The EPR parameters of [Cr(OH2)5(NS)]2+ were determined: giso, g¦ and g-: 1.96515, 1.92686(5) and 1.986860(8); Aiso(53Cr), A¦(53Cr) and A-(53Cr): 25.3´10-4, 38´10-4 and 18.5´10-4cm-1; Aiso(14N), A¦(14N) and A-(14N): 6...

  15. Side Chain and Flexibility Contributions to the Raman Optical Activity Spectra of a Model Cyclic Hexapeptide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudecová, J.; Kapitán, Josef; Baumruk, V.; Hammer, R. P.; Keiderling, T. A.; Bouř, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 114, č. 28 (2010), s. 7642-7651 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/0420; GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Grant - others:GA UK(CZ) 126310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Raman optical activity * ab initio * side chain * flexibility * peptide Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.732, year: 2010

  16. Microstructures and Recording Mechanism of Mo/Si Bilayer Applied for Write-Once Blue Laser Optical Recording

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sin-Liang Ou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mo/Si bilayer thin films were grown by magnetron sputtering and applied to write-once blu-ray disc (BD-R. The microstructures and optical storage properties of Mo/Si bilayer were investigated. From the temperature dependence of reflectivity measurement, it was revealed that a phase change occurred in the range of 255–425°C. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that the as-deposited film possessed Mo polycrystalline phase. The hexagonal MoSi2 and cubic Mo3Si phases appeared after annealing at 300 and 450°C, respectively. By measuring the optical reflectivity at a wavelength of 405 nm, the optical contrast of Mo/Si bilayer between as-deposited and 450°C-annealed states was evaluated to 25.8%. The optimum jitter value of 6.8% was obtained at 10.65 mW for 4× recording speed. The dynamic tests show that the Mo/Si bilayer has high potential in BD-R applications.

  17. A method to increase optical timing spectra measurement rates using a multi-hit TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is presented for using a modern time to digital converter (TDC) to increase the data collection rate for optical timing measurements such as scintillator decay times. It extends the conventional delayed coincidence method, where a synchronization signal ''starts'' a TDC and a photomultiplier tube (PMT) sampling the optical signal ''stops'' the TDC. Data acquisition rates are low with the conventional method because ε, the light collection efficiency of the ''stop'' PMT, is artificially limited to ε∼0.01 photons per ''start'' signal to reduce the probability of detecting more than one photon during the sampling period. With conventional TDCs, these multiple photon events bias the time spectrum since only the first ''stop'' pulse is digitized. The new method uses a modern TDC to detect whether additional ''stop'' signals occur during the sampling period, and actively reject these multiple photon events. This allows ε to be increased to almost 1 photon per ''start'' signal, which maximizes the data acquisition rate at a value nearly 20 times higher. Multi-hit TDCs can digitize the arrival times of n ''stop'' signals per ''start'' signal, which allows ε to be increased to ∼3n/4. While overlap of the ''stop'' signals prevents the full gain in data collection rate to be realized, significant improvements are possible for most applications. (orig.)

  18. The role of ligands in the optical and electronic spectra of CdSe nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilina, Svletana [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sergei, Ivanov A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Victor, Klimov I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sergei, Tretiak [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    We investigate the impact of ligands on morphology, electronic structure, and optical response of the Cd33Se33 cluster, which already overlapps in size with the smallest synthesized CdSe quantum dots (QDs). Our Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations demonstrate significant surface reorganization both for the bare cluster and for the cluster capped by amine and phosphine oxide ligand models. We observe strong surface-ligand interactions leading to substantial charge redistribution and polarization effects on the surface. This effect results in the appearance of hybridized states, where the electronic density is spread over the cluster and the ligands. Neither the ligand's nor hybridized molecular orbitals appear as trap states inside or near the band gap of the QD. Instead, being optically dark, dense hybridized states from the edges of the valence and the conduction bands could open new relaxation channels for high energy photoexcitations. Comparing quantum dots passivated by different ligands, we found that hybridized states are denser in at the edge of the conduction band of the cluster ligated with phosphine oxide molecules than that with primary amines. Such a different manifestation of ligand binding may potentially lead to the faster electron relaxation in dots passivated by phosphine oxide than by amine ligands, which is in agreement with experimental data.

  19. The influence of oxygen and nitrogen doping on GeSbTe phase-change optical recording media properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, D.; Shieh, H.-P.D

    2004-03-15

    Nitrogen and oxygen doped and co-doped GeSbTe (GST) films for phase-change optical recording are investigated. It is found that the crystallization temperature increased as well as the crystalline microstructure refined by doping. The carrier-to-noise ratio (CNR) and erasability of phase-change optical disks are improved being up to 52 and 35 dB, respectively, by using an appropriate nitrogen doping or co-doping concentration in the recording layer. Optical disks with co-doped recording layer are found to be superior in the recording characteristics then the single doped recording layer disks.

  20. Hyperspectral optical imaging of human iris in vivo: characteristics of reflectance spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José M.; Pereira, Luís M.; Correia, Hélder T.; Nascimento, Sérgio M. C.

    2011-07-01

    We report a hyperspectral imaging system to measure the reflectance spectra of real human irises with high spatial resolution. A set of ocular prosthesis was used as the control condition. Reflectance data were decorrelated by the principal-component analysis. The main conclusion is that spectral complexity of the human iris is considerable: between 9 and 11 principal components are necessary to account for 99% of the cumulative variance in human irises. Correcting image misalignments associated with spontaneous ocular movements did not influence this result. The data also suggests a correlation between the first principal component and different levels of melanin present in the irises. It was also found that although the spectral characteristics of the first five principal components were not affected by the radial and angular position of the selected iridal areas, they affect the higher-order ones, suggesting a possible influence of the iris texture. The results show that hyperspectral imaging in the iris, together with adequate spectroscopic analyses provide more information than conventional colorimetric methods, making hyperspectral imaging suitable for the characterization of melanin and the noninvasive diagnosis of ocular diseases and iris color.

  1. Optical processing of holographic lateral shear interferograms recorded by displacing an object

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyalikov, A M

    2008-01-01

    A new approach is considered which is used in holographic lateral shear interferometry and allows the combination of the displacement of a phase object under study during the recording of holographic interferograms with the optical processing of displaced and optically conjugate holographic interferograms. Depending on the method of optical processing of such a pair of holographic interferograms, several aberration-free interference patterns are observed, which reflect with different sensitivities variations in the light wave phase caused by the phase object. Due to the lateral shear, which is equal to or exceeds the linear size of the object, the interference patterns of the object are identical to interference patterns obtained in a two-beam, reference-wave interferometer. The possibility of using this method to control optical inhomogeneities in active crystals in solid-state lasers is studied experimentally. (interferometry)

  2. Optical efficiency for fission fragment track counting in Muscovite solid state track recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.

    1984-01-01

    In order to determine absolute fission rates from thin actinide deposits placed in direct contact with Muscovite Solid State Track Recorders, it is necessary to know the efficiency with which fission fragment tracks are recorded. In this paper, a redetermination of the 'optical efficiency', i.e. the fraction of fission events recorded and observed in the Muscovite is reported. The value obtained from a well-calibrated thin deposit of 252 Cf and Muscovite etched about 90 min. in 49% HF at room temperature, is 0.9875 +- 0.0085. Manual counting was used. Preliminary results from a deposit of 242 Pu are also reported, along with preliminary comparisons of track counting with an automated system. Reasons for the discrepancy of the optical efficiency reported here with an earlier measurement are also reported. (author)

  3. Optical efficiency for fission-fragment track counting in Muscovite Solid-State Track Recorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, J.H.; Ruddy, F.H.; Gold, R.

    1983-07-01

    In order to determine absolute fission rates from thin actinide deposits placed in direct contact with Muscovite Solid-State Track Recorders, it is necessary to know the efficiency with which fission-fragment tracks are recorded. In this paper, a redetermination of the optical efficiency, i.e., the fraction of fission events recorded and observed in the Muscovite, is reported. The value obtained from a well-calibrated thin deposit of 252 Cf and Muscovite etched about 90 min. in 49% HF at room temperature, is 0.9875 +- 0.0085. Manual counting was used. Preliminary results from a deposit of 242 Pu are also reported, along with preliminary comparisons of track counting with an automated system. Reasons for the discrepancy of the optical efficiency reported here with an earlier measurement are also reported. 5 references, 1 figure, 3 tables

  4. Optical spectra obtained from amorphous films of rubrene: Evidence for predominance of twisted isomer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kytka, M.; Gisslen, L.; Gerlach, A.; Heinemeyer, U.; Kováč, J.; Scholz, R.; Schreiber, F.

    2009-06-01

    In order to investigate the optical properties of rubrene we study the vibronic progression of the first absorption band (lowest π →π∗ transition). We analyze the dielectric function ɛ2 of rubrene in solution and thin films using the displaced harmonic oscillator model and derive all relevant parameters of the vibronic progression. The findings are supplemented by density functional calculations using B3LYP hybrid functionals. Our theoretical results for the molecule in two different conformations, i.e., with a twisted or planar tetracene backbone, are in very good agreement with the experimental data obtained for rubrene in solution and thin films. Moreover, a simulation based on the monomer spectrum and the calculated transition energies of the two conformations indicates that the thin film spectrum of rubrene is dominated by the twisted isomer.

  5. Optical Spectra of Radio Planetary Nebulae in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne, J. L.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37~GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (4arcsec/2arcsec. Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 2arcsec and may represent a sub-population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6~$M_odot$ or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 $M_odot$.

  6. Optical spectra of radio planetary nebulae in the small Magellanic cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payne J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results from spectral observations of four (4 candidate radio sources co-identified with known planetary nebulae (PNe in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC. These were made using the Radcliffe 1.9-meter telescope in Sutherland, South Africa. These radio PNe were originally found in Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA surveys of the SMC at 1.42 and 2.37 GHz, and were further confirmed by new high resolution ATCA images at 6 and 3 cm (400 /200 . Optical PNe and radio candidates are within 200 and may represent a sub- population of selected radio bright objects. Nebular ionized masses of these objects may be 2.6 Mo or greater, supporting the existence of PNe progenitor central stars with masses up to 8 Mo.

  7. Optical emission spectra of a copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotsombat, B.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Vilaithong, T.; Davydov, S.; Brown, I.G.

    2001-01-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy in the range 200-800 nm was applied for investigation of the copper plasma produced by a metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source. The experiments were conducted for the cases when the plasma was guided by straight and Ω-shaped curved solenoids as well as without solenoids, and also for different vacuum conditions. It was found that, besides singly- and doubly-charged ions, a relatively high concentration of excited neutral copper atoms was present in the plasma. The relative fraction of excited atoms was much higher in the region close to the cathode surface than in the plasma column inside the solenoid. The concentration of excited neutral, singly- and doubly-ionized atoms increased proportionally when the arc current was increased to 400 A. Some weak lines were attributed to more highly ionized copper species and impurities in the cathode material. (author)

  8. Phonon anomalies in optical spectra of LiNbO3 single crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDREJA VALCIC

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available LiNbO3 single crystals were grown by the Czochralski technique in an air atmosphere. The critical crystal diameter Dc = 1.5 cm and the critical rate of rotation wc = 35 rpm were calculated by equations from the hydrodynamics of the melt. The domain inversion was carried out at 1430 K using a 3.75 V/cm electric field for 10 min. The obtained crystals were cut, polished and etched to determine the presence of dislocations and single domain structures. The optical properties were studied by infrared and Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature. With decreasing temperature, an atypical behaviour of the phonon modes could be seen in the ferroelectrics LiNbO3. The obtained results are discussed and compared with published data.

  9. Nebular and auroral emission lines of [Cl III] in the optical spectra of planetary nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, F P; Aller, L H; Ramsbottom, C A; Bell, K L; Crawford, F L; Hyung, S

    2000-04-25

    Electron impact excitation rates in Cl III, recently determined with the R-matrix code, are used to calculate electron temperature (T(e)) and density (N(e)) emission line ratios involving both the nebular (5517.7, 5537.9 A) and auroral (8433.9, 8480.9, 8500.0 A) transitions. A comparison of these results with observational data for a sample of planetary nebulae, obtained with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, reveals that the R(1) = I(5518 A)/I(5538 A) intensity ratio provides estimates of N(e) in excellent agreement with the values derived from other line ratios in the echelle spectra. This agreement indicates that R(1) is a reliable density diagnostic for planetary nebulae, and it also provides observational support for the accuracy of the atomic data adopted in the line ratio calculations. However the [Cl iii] 8433.9 A line is found to be frequently blended with a weak telluric emission feature, although in those instances when the [Cl iii] intensity may be reliably measured, it provides accurate determinations of T(e) when ratioed against the sum of the 5518 and 5538 A line fluxes. Similarly, the 8500.0 A line, previously believed to be free of contamination by the Earth's atmosphere, is also shown to be generally blended with a weak telluric emission feature. The [Cl iii] transition at 8480.9 A is found to be blended with the He i 8480.7 A line, except in planetary nebulae that show a relatively weak He i spectrum, where it also provides reliable estimates of T(e) when ratioed against the nebular lines. Finally, the diagnostic potential of the near-UV [Cl iii] lines at 3344 and 3354 A is briefly discussed.

  10. [Growth of codoped CdWO4 crystals by Bridgman method and their optical spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Can; Xia, Hai-Ping; Wang, Dong-Jie; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2011-09-01

    The CdWO4 crystals with good quality in the size of Phi25 mm x 120 mm, doped with Co in 0.5% molar fraction in the raw composition, were grown by the Bridgman method by taking -70 degrees C x cm(-1) of solid-liquid interface and -0.50 mm x h(-1) growth rate. The crystal presents transparence and deep blue. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the crystals. Three absorption peaks at 518, 564 and 655 nm respectively, which are attributed to the overlapping of 4 T1 (4F) --> 4A2 (4F) and 4 T1 (4F) --> 4 T1 (4P) of Co2+ octahedrons, and a wide band centered at 1 863 nm, which is attributed to 4Ti (4F) --> 4 T2 (4F), was observed. The absorption results indicated that the Co ions presented +2 valence in crystal and located within the distorted oxygen octahedrons. The crystal-field parameter D(q) and the Racah parameter B were estimated to be 990 and 726.3 cm(-1) respectively based on the absorption spectra. A fluorescence emission at 778 nm (4T1 (4P) --> 4 T1 (4F)) for codoped CdWO4 crystals was observed under excitation by 520 nm light. It can be deduced from the changes in absorption and emission intensity of different parts of crystal that the concentration of Co2+ ion in crystal increased along growing direction and the effective distribution coefficient of Co2+ ion in CdWO4 crystal is less than 1.

  11. The role of records management professionals in optical disk-based document imaging systems in the petroleum industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisco, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of the data indicated that nearly one third of the 83 companies in this study had implemented one or more document imaging systems. Companies with imaging systems mostly were large (more than 1,001 employees), and mostly were international in scope. Although records management professionals traditionally were delegated responsibility for acquiring, designing, implementing, and maintaining paper-based information systems and the records therein, when records were converted to optical disks, responsibility for acquiring, designing, implementing, and maintaining optical disk-based information systems and the records therein, was delegated more frequently to end user departments and IS/MIS/DP professionals than to records professionals. Records management professionals assert that the need of an organization for a comprehensive records management program is not served best when individuals who are not professional records managers are responsible for the records stored in optical disk-based information systems

  12. Emission lines of [K V] in the optical spectra of gaseous nebulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Francis P; Aller, Lawrence H; Espey, Brian R; Exter, Katrina M; Hyung, Siek; Keenan, Michael T C; Pollacco, Don L; Ryans, Robert S I

    2002-04-02

    Recent R-matrix calculations of electron impact excitation rates in K v are used to derive the nebular emission line ratio R = I(4122.6 A)/I(4163.3 A) as a function of electron density (N(e)). This ratio is found to be very sensitive to changes in N(e) over the density range 10(3) to 10(6) cm(-3), but does not vary significantly with electron temperature, and hence in principle should provide an excellent optical N(e) diagnostic for the high-excitation zones of nebulae. The observed value of R for the planetary nebula NGC 7027, measured from a spectrum obtained with the Hamilton Echelle spectrograph on the 3-m Shane Telescope, implies a density in excellent agreement with that derived from [Ne iv], formed in the same region of the nebula as [K v]. This observation provides observational support for the accuracy of the theoretical [K v] line ratios, and hence the atomic data on which they are based. However, the analysis of a high-resolution spectrum of the symbiotic star RR Telescopii, obtained with the University College London Echelle Spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope, reveals that the [K v] 4122.6 A line in this object is badly blended with Fe ii 4122.6 A. Hence, the [K v] diagnostic may not be used for astrophysical sources that show a strong Fe ii emission line spectrum.

  13. Effect of optical pumping on absorption spectra for the doppler broadened rubidium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Seo Ro; Noh, Heung Ryoul

    2008-01-01

    The absorption of a laser beam in the Doppler broadened atomic vapor cell is one of the simplest problems in atomic physics. Although many reports on theoretical and experimental studies of linear absorption have been reported, the effect of optical pumping on the absorption coefficient has not been studied in detail. In this presentation, we present a theoretical and experimental study on linear absorption for the Doppler broadened rubidium vapor cell. The absorption coefficient of a σ"+"(or π)polarized laser beam was calculated as a function of the laser frequency for the various laser intensities. The calculated results were compared with the experimental results. Figure 1(a) shows the calculated absorption coefficient of the π polarized laser beam for the transition F"g"=1→F"e"=0,1,2 of the "87"Rb atom. The diameter of the laser beam was 3mm and the intensity was I=0 and I=0.1I"8"(I"8"=16.2W/m"2"). The peak values for various intensities are shown in Fig. 1(b). We found that the absorption coefficient for the transition from the lower hyperfine state decreased with the increased laser intensity, whereas that for the transition from the upper hyperfine state increased(decreased)for the σ"+"(π)polarized laser beam

  14. Optical to ultraviolet spectra of sandwiches of benzene and transition metal atoms: Time dependent density functional theory and many-body calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jose Ignacio; García Lastra, Juan Maria; Lopez, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    The optical spectra of sandwich clusters formed by transition metal atoms (titanium, vanadium, and chromium) intercalated between parallel benzene molecules have been studied by time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and many-body perturbation theory. Sandwiches with different number...

  15. Simulations and analysis of the Raman scattering and differential Raman scattering/Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of amino acids, peptides and proteins in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Nieminen, R. M.; Bohr, Jakob

    2000-01-01

    The Raman and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of amino acids and small peptides in aqueous solution have been simulated by density functional theory and restricted Hartree/Fock methods. The treatment of the aqueous environment in treated in two ways. The water molecules in the first hydratio...

  16. Optical absorption spectra and g factor of MgO: Mn2+explored by ab initio and semi empirical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreici Eftimie, E.-L.; Avram, C. N.; Brik, M. G.; Avram, N. M.

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculations of the optical absorption spectra, ligand field parameters and g factor for the Mn2+ (3d5) ions doped in MgO host crystal. The proposed technique combines two methods: the ab initio multireference (MR) and the semi empirical ligand field (LF) in the framework of the exchange charge model (ECM) respectively. Both methods of calculations are applied to the [MnO6]10-cluster embedded in an extended point charge field of host matrix ligands based on Gellé-Lepetit procedure. The first step of such investigations was the full optimization of the cubic structure of perfect MgO crystal, followed by the structural optimization of the doped of MgO:Mn2+ system, using periodic density functional theory (DFT). The ab initio MR wave functions approaches, such as complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF), N-electron valence second order perturbation theory (NEVPT2) and spectroscopy oriented configuration interaction (SORCI), are used for the calculations. The scalar relativistic effects have also been taken into account through the second order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH2) procedure. Ab initio ligand field theory (AILFT) allows to extract all LF parameters and spin-orbit coupling constant from such calculations. In addition, the ECM of ligand field theory (LFT) has been used for modelling theoptical absorption spectra. The perturbation theory (PT) was employed for the g factor calculation in the semi empirical LFT. The results of each of the aforementioned types of calculations are discussed and the comparisons between the results obtained and the experimental results show a reasonable agreement, which justifies this new methodology based on the simultaneous use of both methods. This study establishes fundamental principles for the further modelling of larger embedded cluster models of doped metal oxides.

  17. The design and optimization of disk structures for MAMMOS/MSR magneto-optic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, W R; Atkinson, R; Pollard, R J; Salter, I W; Wright, C D; Clegg, W W; Jenkins, D F L

    2005-01-01

    Existing quadrilayer and trilayer techniques for optimizing the magneto-optical effects from magnetic materials have been applied to new generation recording media to investigate the possibility of maximizing the signal-to-noise readout performance. Various methods are reviewed and the designs they produce are compared with each other and with the working media found in the literature. In order to address a number of inadequacies, a new numerical approach to the optimization of a quadrilayer structure is used to find further solutions that are considered more suitable for the practical recording media. The effects on design and performance of medium of incidence, type of storage layer and wavelength are all considered

  18. Enhancement of the measurement sensitivity at large aberrations of an optical system of hologram recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyalikov, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    The method of the measurement sensitivity enhancement with compensation of aberrations based on rewriting object and master holograms recorded on one common carrier using the double-exposure method is considered. Experimental studies indicated the proposed technique of the enhancement of the measurement sensitivity to be promising in the case of large aberrations of an optical system for initial hologram recording. The reconstructed interferograms are presented with enhanced sensitivity of measurements by a factor of 16 characterizing the quality of exit windows of a glass cuvette. 16 refs., 3 figs

  19. Acoustical holographic recording with coherent optical read-out and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. K.

    1980-10-01

    New acoustic holographic wave memory devices have been designed for real-time in-situ recording applications. The basic operating principles of these devices and experimental results through the use of some of the prototypes of the devices are presented. Recording media used in the device include thermoplastic resin, Crisco vegetable oil, and Wilson corn oil. In addition, nonlinear coherent optical image processing techniques including equidensitometry, A-D conversion, and pseudo-color, all based on the new contact screen technique, are discussed with regard to the enhancement of the normally poor-resolved acoustical holographic images.

  20. The design and optimization of disk structures for MAMMOS/MSR magneto-optic recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, W R [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Atkinson, R [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollard, R J [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Salter, I W [School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wright, C D [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Clegg, W W [Centre for Research in Information Storage Technology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jenkins, D F L [Centre for Research in Information Storage Technology, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-21

    Existing quadrilayer and trilayer techniques for optimizing the magneto-optical effects from magnetic materials have been applied to new generation recording media to investigate the possibility of maximizing the signal-to-noise readout performance. Various methods are reviewed and the designs they produce are compared with each other and with the working media found in the literature. In order to address a number of inadequacies, a new numerical approach to the optimization of a quadrilayer structure is used to find further solutions that are considered more suitable for the practical recording media. The effects on design and performance of medium of incidence, type of storage layer and wavelength are all considered.

  1. Chemically deposited Sb2S3 thin films for optical recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B; O'Brien, J J; Liu, J

    2010-01-01

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb 2 S 3 thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb 2 S 3 thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl 3 and Na 2 S 2 O 3 at 27 0 C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  2. Chemically deposited Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optical recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S; Arato, A; Castillo, G Alan; Palma, M I Mendivil; Roy, T K Das; Krishnan, B [Facultad de IngenierIa Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, San Nicolas de los Garza, Nuevo Leon, C.P- 66450 (Mexico); O' Brien, J J; Liu, J, E-mail: bkrishnan@fime.uanl.m [Center for Nanoscience and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, One Univ. Blvd., St. Louis, MO - 63121 (United States)

    2010-02-24

    Laser induced changes in the properties of Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition are described in this paper. Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of thickness 550 nm were deposited from a solution containing SbCl{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 27 {sup 0}C for 5 h. These thin films were irradiated by a 532 nm continuous wave laser beam under different conditions at ambient atmosphere. X-ray diffraction analysis showed amorphous to polycrystalline transformation due to laser exposure of these thin films. Morphology and composition of these films were described. Optical properties of these films before and after laser irradiation were analysed. The optical band gap of the material was decreased due to laser induced crystallization. The results obtained confirm that there is further scope for developing this material as an optical recording media.

  3. Solvent-free optical recording of structural colours on pre-imprinted photocrosslinkable nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Rezaei, Mohamad; Abdolahi, Mahssa; Kaminska, Bozena

    2017-09-01

    Optical digital information storage media, despite their ever-increasing storage capacity and data transfer rate, are vulnerable to the potential risk of turning inaccessible. For this reason, long-term eye-readable full-colour optical archival storage is in high demand for preserving valuable information from cultural, intellectual, and scholarly resources. However, the concurrent requirements in recording colours inexpensively and precisely, and preserving colours for the very long term (for at least 100 years), have not yet been met by existing storage techniques. Structural colours hold the promise to overcome such challenges. However, there is still the lack of an inexpensive, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free optical patterning technique for recording structural colours. In this paper, we introduce an enabling technique based on optical and thermal patterning of nanoimprinted SU-8 nanocone arrays. Using photocrosslinking and thermoplastic flow of SU-8, diffractive structural colours of nanocone arrays are recorded using ultra-violet (UV) exposure followed by the thermal development and reshaping of nanocones. Different thermal treatment procedures in reshaping nanocones are investigated and compared, and two-step progressive baking is found to allow the controllable reshaping of nanocones. The height of the nanocones and brightness of diffractive colours are modulated by varying the UV exposure dose to enable grey-scale patterning. An example of recorded full-colour image through half-tone patterning is also demonstrated. The presented technique requires only low-power continuous-wave UV light and is very promising to be adopted for professional and consumer archival storage applications.

  4. Single-intensity-recording optical encryption technique based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi-peng; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Hong-zhao; Qin, Yi

    2014-12-01

    Based on phase retrieval algorithm and QR code, a new optical encryption technology that only needs to record one intensity distribution is proposed. In this encryption process, firstly, the QR code is generated from the information to be encrypted; and then the generated QR code is placed in the input plane of 4-f system to have a double random phase encryption. For only one intensity distribution in the output plane is recorded as the ciphertext, the encryption process is greatly simplified. In the decryption process, the corresponding QR code is retrieved using phase retrieval algorithm. A priori information about QR code is used as support constraint in the input plane, which helps solve the stagnation problem. The original information can be recovered without distortion by scanning the QR code. The encryption process can be implemented either optically or digitally, and the decryption process uses digital method. In addition, the security of the proposed optical encryption technology is analyzed. Theoretical analysis and computer simulations show that this optical encryption system is invulnerable to various attacks, and suitable for harsh transmission conditions.

  5. Simple procedure for evaluating earthquake response spectra of large-event motions based on site amplification factors derived from smaller-event records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dan, Kazuo; Miyakoshi, Jun-ichi; Yashiro, Kazuhiko.

    1996-01-01

    A primitive procedure was proposed for evaluating earthquake response spectra of large-event motions to make use of records from smaller events. The result of the regression analysis of the response spectra was utilized to obtain the site amplification factors in the proposed procedure, and the formulation of the seismic-source term in the regression analysis was examined. A linear form of the moment magnitude, Mw, is good for scaling the source term of moderate earthquakes with Mw of 5.5 to 7.0, while a quadratic form of Mw and the ω-square source-spectrum model is appropriate for scaling the source term of smaller and greater earthquakes, respectively. (author). 52 refs

  6. Moessbauer spectrometer based on UNO-4096-90 accumulator and Elektronika D3-28 microcomputer for simultaneous recording of four spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanov, E.S.; Ivoilov, N.G.

    1986-01-01

    A buffer memory unit and an interface for the UNO-4096-90 accumulator with an Elektronika D3-28 microcomputer are described that allow simultaneous recording of four Moessbauer spectra with zero dead time. For complete elimination of dead time, the pulses from each detector are fed to two buffer counters units, which operate alternately in the write and interrogate modes. This organization of the buffer memory also completely eliminates the effect of the sensors on one another. The use of these circuits does not require any modifications of the computer or accumulator

  7. Development of an optical character recognition pipeline for handwritten form fields from an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Luke V; Peissig, Peggy L; McCarty, Catherine A; Starren, Justin

    2012-06-01

    Although the penetration of electronic health records is increasing rapidly, much of the historical medical record is only available in handwritten notes and forms, which require labor-intensive, human chart abstraction for some clinical research. The few previous studies on automated extraction of data from these handwritten notes have focused on monolithic, custom-developed recognition systems or third-party systems that require proprietary forms. We present an optical character recognition processing pipeline, which leverages the capabilities of existing third-party optical character recognition engines, and provides the flexibility offered by a modular custom-developed system. The system was configured and run on a selected set of form fields extracted from a corpus of handwritten ophthalmology forms. The processing pipeline allowed multiple configurations to be run, with the optimal configuration consisting of the Nuance and LEADTOOLS engines running in parallel with a positive predictive value of 94.6% and a sensitivity of 13.5%. While limitations exist, preliminary experience from this project yielded insights on the generalizability and applicability of integrating multiple, inexpensive general-purpose third-party optical character recognition engines in a modular pipeline.

  8. Multifocal fluorescence microscope for fast optical recordings of neuronal action potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtrahman, Matthew; Aharoni, Daniel B; Hardy, Nicholas F; Buonomano, Dean V; Arisaka, Katsushi; Otis, Thomas S

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, optical sensors for tracking neural activity have been developed and offer great utility. However, developing microscopy techniques that have several kHz bandwidth necessary to reliably capture optically reported action potentials (APs) at multiple locations in parallel remains a significant challenge. To our knowledge, we describe a novel microscope optimized to measure spatially distributed optical signals with submillisecond and near diffraction-limit resolution. Our design uses a spatial light modulator to generate patterned illumination to simultaneously excite multiple user-defined targets. A galvanometer driven mirror in the emission path streaks the fluorescence emanating from each excitation point during the camera exposure, using unused camera pixels to capture time varying fluorescence at rates that are ∼1000 times faster than the camera's native frame rate. We demonstrate that this approach is capable of recording Ca(2+) transients resulting from APs in neurons labeled with the Ca(2+) sensor Oregon Green Bapta-1 (OGB-1), and can localize the timing of these events with millisecond resolution. Furthermore, optically reported APs can be detected with the voltage sensitive dye DiO-DPA in multiple locations within a neuron with a signal/noise ratio up to ∼40, resolving delays in arrival time along dendrites. Thus, the microscope provides a powerful tool for photometric measurements of dynamics requiring submillisecond sampling at multiple locations. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Nighttime Cloud Optical Microphysical Properties (NCOMP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains a high quality Environmental Data Record (EDR) of nighttime cloud optical and microphysical properties (NCOMP) from the Visible Infrared...

  10. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Cloud Optical Thickness (COT) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite...

  11. Optical and EPR spectra of γ-irradiated glasses of the Ba(PO3)2-LiF system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocharova, T.V.; Karapetyan, G.O.; Khalilev, V.D.; Yashchurzhinskaya, O.A.

    1985-01-01

    EPR and optical absorption spectra of the Be(PO 3 ) 2 -LiF system glasses are obtained. Introduction of LiF up to 60 mol. % doesn't lead to occurrence of an additional absorption band (AAB) and EPR signals connected with F-centers formed under γ-irradiation in the LiF monocrystal. As a result of γ-irradiation of glasses activated by terbium, radiation color centers (RCC) are formed, which are, probably, the centers of electron capture and possess no unambiguous correlation with the known paramagnetic centers (PMC). Parallel investigation into the thermal decolouration kinetics by the EPR and optical spectroscopy method is reliable for establishing correlation between AAB and PMC signals in EPR spectra

  12. Feature extraction for magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films using gradient feature segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quanqing, Zhu.; Xinsai, Wang; Xuecheng, Zou; Haihua, Li; Xiaofei, Yang

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to realize feature extraction on low contrast magnetic domain images of magneto-optical recording films. The method is based on the following three steps: first, Lee-filtering method is adopted to realize pre-filtering and noise reduction; this is followed by gradient feature segmentation, which separates the object area from the background area; finally the common linking method is adopted and the characteristic parameters of magnetic domain are calculated. We describe these steps with particular emphasis on the gradient feature segmentation. The results show that this method has advantages over other traditional ones for feature extraction of low contrast images

  13. Reactively sputtered TeO/sub x/ thin films for optical recording systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Giulio, M.; Micocci, G.; Rella, R.; Tepore, A.

    1988-01-01

    Tellurium suboxide (TeO/sub x/ ) thin films have been obtained by rf reactive sputtering deposition by using a Te target and an Ar--O 2 gas mixture. Different samples were prepared by changing both the rf power (80--200 W) and the oxygen concentration in the sputtering gas. The transmissivity and the reflectivity of these films change markedly by thermal treatment at critical temperatures in the range 120--150 0 C. This property makes these films suitable for optical disk recording with a low-output power laser diode

  14. The optical spectra of 24 mu m galaxies in the cosmos field. I. Spitzer MIPS bright sources in the zCOSMOS-bright 10k catalog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caputi, K. I.; Lilly, S. J.; Aussel, H.; Sanders, D.; Frayer, D.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Zamorani, G.; Scodeggio, M.; Contini, T.; Scoville, N.; Carollo, C. M.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Le Brun, V.; Le Floc'h, E.; Maier, C.; Mainieri, V.; Mignoli, M.; Salvato, M.; Schiminovich, D.; Silverman, J.; Surace, J.; Tasca, L.; Abbas, U.; Bardelli, S.; Bolzonella, M.; Bongiorno, A.; Bottini, D.; Capak, P.; Cappi, A.; Cassata, P.; Cimatti, A.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Fumana, M.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Kampczyk, P.; Kartaltepe, J.; Kneib, J. -P.; Knobel, C.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Leauthaud, A.; Le Borgne, J. F.; Maccagni, D.; Marinoni, C.; McCracken, H.; Meneux, B.; Oesch, P.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Porciani, C.; Ricciardelli, E.; Scaramella, R.; Scarlata, C.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Walcher, J.; Zamojski, M.; Zucca, E.

    2008-01-01

    We study zCOSMOS-bright optical spectra for 609 Spitzer MIPS 24 mu m-selected galaxies with S-24 (mu m) > 0: 30 mJy and I <22.5 (AB mag) over 1.5 deg(2) of the COSMOS field. From emission-line diagnostics we find the following: (1) SFRs derived from the observed H alpha lambda 6563 and H beta lambda

  15. Quantitative analysis of reflection electron energy loss spectra to determine electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Dahlang; Oh, Sukh Kun; Kang, Hee Jae; Tougaard, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). • The energy loss functions (ELF) are dominated by a plasmon peak at 23.6 eV for Fe and moves gradually to lower energies in Fe-Ni alloys towards the bulk plasmon energy of Ni at 20.5 eV. • Fe has a strong effect on the dielectric and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films even for an alloy with 72% Ni. Electronic and optical properties of Fe-Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). - Abstract: Electronic and optical properties of Fe–Ni alloy thin films grown on Si (1 0 0) by ion beam sputter deposition were studied via quantitative analyses of reflection electron energy loss spectra (REELS). The analysis was carried out by using the QUASES-XS-REELS and QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS softwares to determine the energy loss function (ELF) and the dielectric functions and optical properties by analyzing the experimental spectra. For Ni, the ELF shows peaks around 3.6, 7.5, 11.7, 20.5, 27.5, 67 and 78 eV. The peak positions of the ELF for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2 are similar to those of Fe_5_1Ni_4_9, even though there is a small peak shift from 18.5 eV for Fe_5_1Ni_4_9 to 18.7 eV for Fe_2_8Ni_7_2. A plot of n, k, ε_1, and ε_2 shows that the QUEELS-ε(k,ω)-REELS software for analysis of REELS spectra is useful for the study of optical properties of transition metal alloys. For Fe–Ni alloy with high Ni concentration (Fe_2_8Ni_7_2), ε_1, and ε_2 have strong similarities with those of Fe. This indicates that the presence of Fe in the Fe–Ni alloy thin films has a strong effect.

  16. Reconciling the sea level record of the last deglaciation with the δ18O spectra from deep sea cores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, Edouard; Columbia Univ., Palisades, NY; Arnold, Maurice; Duplessy, J.-C.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper we use the oxygen isotope record as a transient tracer to study palaeoceanography during the last deglaciation. By using 14 C and 18 O data obtained on four deep sea sediment cores, we show the presence of a measurable lag between the deglacial δ 18 O signal observed in the deep Atlantic and the deep Indo-Pacific oceans. Our study confirms that the major meltwater discharge occurred via the North Atlantic and that the thermohaline circulation was operating during the deglacial transition. (Author)

  17. Extension and statistical analysis of the GACP aerosol optical thickness record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Li, Jing; Rossow, William B.; Liu, Li; Cairns, Brian

    2015-10-01

    The primary product of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP) is a continuous record of the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) over the oceans. It is based on channel-1 and -2 radiance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments flown on successive National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) platforms. We extend the previous GACP dataset by four years through the end of 2009 using NOAA-17 and -18 AVHRR radiances recalibrated against MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiance data, thereby making the GACP record almost three decades long. The temporal overlap of over three years of the new NOAA-17 and the previous NOAA-16 record reveals an excellent agreement of the corresponding global monthly mean AOT values, thereby confirming the robustness of the vicarious radiance calibration used in the original GACP product. The temporal overlap of the NOAA-17 and -18 instruments is used to introduce a small additive adjustment to the channel-2 calibration of the latter resulting in a consistent record with increased data density. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the newly extended GACP record shows that most of the volcanic AOT variability can be isolated into one mode responsible for ~ 12% of the total variance. This conclusion is confirmed by a combined PCA analysis of the GACP, MODIS, and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) AOTs during the volcano-free period from February 2000 to December 2009. We show that the modes responsible for the tropospheric AOT variability in the three datasets agree well in terms of correlation and spatial patterns. A previously identified negative AOT trend which started in the late 1980s and continued into the early 2000s is confirmed. Its magnitude and duration indicate that it was caused by changes in tropospheric aerosols. The latest multi-satellite segment of the GACP record shows that this trend tapered off, with no noticeable AOT change after 2002. This

  18. Fatigue Property of Oxidized Photochromic Dithienylethene Derivative for Permanent Optical Recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Chul; Ahn, Kwang Hyun; Yang, Sung Ik; Kim, Eun Kyoung

    2005-01-01

    We have synthesized and characterized the photophysical and fatigue properties of DMTFO4. The results have shown that the photo-stability of DMTFO4 was significantly decreased compared with the unoxidized DMTF6. The possible application of DMTFO4 would be the development of permanent recording material based on a non-reversible photochromic conversion. Photochromic diarylethenes, such as 1,2-bis(2-methyl-1-benzothiophene-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene (BTF6) and 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylthien-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene (DMTF6), have been extensively investigated in recent years in order to develop materials for molecular photonic devices such as optical memory and switch. In the design of photochromic materials, thermal stability and fatigue resistant are important features to be considered. The thiophene analogues undergo photochromic ring closure efficiently but the fatigue property is generally low, resulting irreversible photochromism. If the photochromism is in an irreversible manner it could be applied in the permanent optical recording such as write once read many (WORM) memory. This motivates us to examine the effect of oxidation in the photophysical properties of diarylethenes with thiophene unit. As the thiophene analogues, we chose DMTF6 and its oxidized analogue, 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylthien-1,1-dioxide-3-yl)perfluorocyclopentene (DMTFO4). Herein we report the synthesis and characterization of the photochromic properties including the fatigue property of DMTFO4

  19. All-optical recording and stimulation of retinal neurons in vivo in retinal degeneration mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strazzeri, Jennifer M.; Williams, David R.; Merigan, William H.

    2018-01-01

    Here we demonstrate the application of a method that could accelerate the development of novel therapies by allowing direct and repeatable visualization of cellular function in the living eye, to study loss of vision in animal models of retinal disease, as well as evaluate the time course of retinal function following therapeutic intervention. We use high-resolution adaptive optics scanning light ophthalmoscopy to image fluorescence from the calcium sensor GCaMP6s. In mice with photoreceptor degeneration (rd10), we measured restored visual responses in ganglion cell layer neurons expressing the red-shifted channelrhodopsin ChrimsonR over a six-week period following significant loss of visual responses. Combining a fluorescent calcium sensor, a channelrhodopsin, and adaptive optics enables all-optical stimulation and recording of retinal neurons in the living eye. Because the retina is an accessible portal to the central nervous system, our method also provides a novel non-invasive method of dissecting neuronal processing in the brain. PMID:29596518

  20. Development of procedures for spectrometer brand Spectral Products to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arias Avendano, Fabio Andres

    2008-01-01

    The procedure to capture spectra of incoherent optical radiation for the Laboratorio de Fotonica y Tecnologia Laser Aplicada (LAFTLA), of the Escuela de Ingenieria Electrica de la Universidad de Costa Rica is developed through the use of a spectrometer brand Spectral Products. The thorough understanding of manuals spectrometer brand Spectral Products was necessary for the satisfactory development of the project. Spectrometer and the card National Instruments are installed and run both devices with a montage of suitable laboratory. Two catches of spectrum for two different sources of optical radiation are performanced, since damages to the files .ddl precluded that the SM 240 spectrometer worked properly to take more catches to other sources of optical radiation. A final report containing the two catches is produced with the respective analysis. (author) [es

  1. Photoluminescence and optical absorption spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranjcec, M. [Department of Geotechnics, University of Zagreb, 7 Hallerova Aleja, Varazdin, 42000 (Croatia); Ruder Boskovic Institute, 54 Bijenicka Cesta, Zagreb, 10000 (Croatia); Studenyak, I.P. [Uzhhorod National University, 46 Pidhirna Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine); Azhniuk, Yu. M. [Institute of Electron Physics, Ukr. Nat. Acad. Sci., 21 Universytetska Str., Uzhhorod, 88000 (Ukraine)

    2005-08-01

    Temperature and compositional studies of photoluminescence and optical absorption edge spectra of {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} mixed crystals with x=0.1-0.4 are performed. Exciton and impurity-related photoluminescence bands are revealed at low temperatures and Urbach shape of the absorption edge is observed in the temperature range 77-300 K. Temperature and compositional dependences of the photoluminescence band spectral positions and halfwidths as well as optical pseudogap and absorption edge energy width are investigated. Mechanisms of radiative recombination and optical absorption as well as crystal lattice disordering processes in {gamma}{sub 1}-(Ga{sub x}In{sub 1-x}){sub 2}Se{sub 3} solid solutions are studied. (copyright 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Ring head recording on perpendicular media: Output spectra for CoCr and CoCr/NiFe media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, D. P.; Whisler, J. W.; Moe, C. D.; Skorjanec, J.

    1985-04-01

    The recording density response for sputtered CoCr (thickness=0.5 μm) and CoCr/NiFe (t=0.25 μm/0.5 μm) as well as evaporated CoNi (t=0.12 μm) and Co surface-doped iron oxide particulate media has been measured by reading and writing with Mn-Zn ferrite heads (gap length=0.375 μm, track width=37 μm) in contact with the media. Measurements to 200 kfc/i (thousand flux changes per inch) show a gap null around 115 kfc/i. The data have been normalized by dividing out the head sensitivity to obtain the value of spacing plus transition width (d+a) for the various media. For the CoCr media this value varied from 0.075-0.088 μm; for CoNi, 0.100 μm, and for the particulate medium, 0.163 μm. In addition, testing with a larger gapped Mn-Zn ferrite head (g=2.43 μm) shows that the head fields are distorted by the soft magnetic underlayer in dual layer CoCr/NiFe samples when the gap length is large compared to the distance to the underlayer.

  3. Extraction of compositional and hydration information of sulfates from laser-induced plasma spectra recorded under Mars atmospheric conditions - Implications for ChemCam investigations on Curiosity rover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobron, Pablo, E-mail: pablo.sobron@asc-csa.gc.ca [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Wang, Alian [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences and McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Sobron, Francisco [Unidad Asociada UVa-CSIC a traves del Centro de Astrobiologia, Parque Tecnologico de Boecillo, Parcela 203, Boecillo (Valladolid), 47151 (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Given the volume of spectral data required for providing accurate compositional information and thereby insight in mineralogy and petrology from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements, fast data processing tools are a must. This is particularly true during the tactical operations of rover-based planetary exploration missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, which will carry a remote LIBS spectrometer in its science payload. We have developed: an automated fast pre-processing sequence of algorithms for converting a series of LIBS spectra (typically 125) recorded from a single target into a reliable SNR-enhanced spectrum; a dedicated routine to quantify its spectral features; and a set of calibration curves using standard hydrous and multi-cation sulfates. These calibration curves allow deriving the elemental compositions and the degrees of hydration of various hydrous sulfates, one of the two major types of secondary minerals found on Mars. Our quantitative tools are built upon calibration-curve modeling, through the correlation of the elemental concentrations and the peak areas of the atomic emission lines observed in the LIBS spectra of standard samples. At present, we can derive the elemental concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, S, O, and H in sulfates, as well as the hydration degrees of Ca- and Mg-sulfates, from LIBS spectra obtained in both Earth atmosphere and Mars atmospheric conditions in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh). In addition, structural information can be potentially obtained for various Fe-sulfates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Routines for LIBS spectral data fast automated processing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of elements and determination of the elemental composition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calibration curves for sulfate samples in Earth and Mars atmospheric conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fe curves probably related to the crystalline

  4. Wetting effect on optical sum frequency generation (SFG) spectra of D-glucose, D-fructose, and sucrose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieu, Hoang Chi; Li, Hongyan; Miyauchi, Yoshihiro; Mizutani, Goro; Fujita, Naoko; Nakamura, Yasunori

    2015-03-01

    We report a sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy study of D-glucose, D-fructose and sucrose in the Csbnd H stretching vibration regime. Wetting effect on the SFG spectra was investigated. The SFG spectrum of D-glucose changed from that of α-D-glucose into those of α-D-glucose monohydrate by wetting. The SFG spectra showed evidence of a small change of β-D-fructopyranose into other anomers by wetting. SFG spectra of sucrose did not change by wetting. Assignments of the vibrational peaks in the SFG spectra of the three sugars in the dry and wet states were performed in the Csbnd H stretching vibration region near 3000 cm-1.

  5. System of laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate optical recording process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Osawa, Hitoshi; Kimura, Shigeru; Ito, Kiminori; Tanaka, Yoshihito; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Hisada, Kazuya; Tsuchino, Akio; Birukawa, Masahiro; Yamada, Noboru; Sekiguchi, Koji; Fujiie, Kazuhiko; Kawakubo, Osamu; Takata, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a system of laser-pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate the phase-change process on a nanosecond time scale of Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 film embedded in multi-layer structures, which corresponds to real optical recording media. The measurements were achieved by combining (i) the pump-laser system with a pulse width of 300 ps, (ii) a highly brilliant focused microbeam with wide peak-energy width (ΔE/E ∼ 2%) made by focusing helical undulator radiation without monochromatization, and (iii) a precise sample rotation stage to make repetitive measurements. We successfully detected a very weak time-resolved diffraction signal by using this system from 100-nm-thick Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 phase-change layers. This enabled us to find the dependence of the crystal-amorphous phase change process of the Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 layers on laser power.

  6. X-ray absorption spectra and emission spectra of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Yonglun; Yang Li; Wang Minsheng; Li Jiaming

    2002-01-01

    The author reports a theoretical method to calculate the resolved absorption spectra and emission spectra (optically thin) of hot dense plasmas. Due to its fully relativistic treatment incorporated with the quantum defect theory, it calculates the absorption spectra and emission spectra for single element or multi-element plasmas with little computational efforts. The calculated absorption spectra of LTE gold plasmas agree well with the experimental ones. It also calculates the optical thin emission spectra of LTE gold plasmas, which is helpful to diagnose the plasmas of relevant ICF plasmas. It can also provide the relevant parameters such as population density of various ionic stages, precise radiative properties for ICF studies

  7. Optical and magneto-optical characterization of TbFeCo and GdFeCo thin films for high-density recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendren, W R; Atkinson, R; Pollard, R J; Salter, I W; Wright, C D; Clegg, W W; Jenkins, D F L

    2003-01-01

    Thin, optically semi-infinite films of amorphous TbFeCo and GdFeCo, suitable for magneto-optical recording, have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto glass. Ellipsometric techniques have been used to determine the complex refractive index and complex magneto-optical parameter of the films in the wavelength range 400-900 nm, thus characterizing the materials. A review of the literature is presented and shows that the results for the TbFeCo films compare favourably with published results obtained from measurements conducted in situ, with the films protected with ZnS barrier layers. It is found that GdFeCo and TbFeCo are optically very similar, but magneto-optically the materials are quite different

  8. Optical and magneto-optical characterization of TbFeCo and GdFeCo thin films for high-density recording

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendren, W R [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Atkinson, R [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Pollard, R J [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Salter, I W [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Wright, C D [School of Engineering and Computer Science, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom); Clegg, W W [CRIST, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Jenkins, D F L [CRIST, University of Plymouth, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2003-03-12

    Thin, optically semi-infinite films of amorphous TbFeCo and GdFeCo, suitable for magneto-optical recording, have been deposited by DC magnetron sputtering onto glass. Ellipsometric techniques have been used to determine the complex refractive index and complex magneto-optical parameter of the films in the wavelength range 400-900 nm, thus characterizing the materials. A review of the literature is presented and shows that the results for the TbFeCo films compare favourably with published results obtained from measurements conducted in situ, with the films protected with ZnS barrier layers. It is found that GdFeCo and TbFeCo are optically very similar, but magneto-optically the materials are quite different.

  9. Refractometry of melanocyte cell nuclei using optical scatter images recorded by digital Fourier microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seet, Katrina Y T; Nieminen, Timo A; Zvyagin, Andrei V

    2009-01-01

    The cell nucleus is the dominant optical scatterer in the cell. Neoplastic cells are characterized by cell nucleus polymorphism and polychromism-i.e., the nuclei exhibits an increase in the distribution of both size and refractive index. The relative size parameter, and its distribution, is proportional to the product of the nucleus size and its relative refractive index and is a useful discriminant between normal and abnormal (cancerous) cells. We demonstrate a recently introduced holographic technique, digital Fourier microscopy (DFM), to provide a sensitive measure of this relative size parameter. Fourier holograms were recorded and optical scatter of individual scatterers were extracted and modeled with Mie theory to determine the relative size parameter. The relative size parameter of individual melanocyte cell nuclei were found to be 16.5+/-0.2, which gives a cell nucleus refractive index of 1.38+/-0.01 and is in good agreement with previously reported data. The relative size parameters of individual malignant melanocyte cell nuclei are expected to be greater than 16.5.

  10. Theoretical investigations of the optical and EPR spectra for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in orthorhombic YF{sub 3} crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Hong-Gang, E-mail: kezhouliu@163.com; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2016-09-01

    The optical spectra and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) parameters (g factors and hyperfine structure constants A) for trivalent cerium and ytterbium ions in YF{sub 3} crystal with orthorhombic structure are investigated together by the complete diagonalization (of energy matrix) method (CDM). The obtained results are in reasonable agreement with the experimental ones. More importantly, two magnetically nonequivalent centers in YF{sub 3} crystal observed in EPR experiments are confirmed and ascribed to their specific positions in a unit cell by our calculations based on superposition model (SPM) analysis. Such identification of local sites with different magnetic properties would help us to understand not only the EPR spectra and magnetic susceptibility of other lanthanide ions doped in crystals with the same structure as YF{sub 3} but also the energy transfer scheme between two lanthanide ions occupying such two sites. All results are discussed carefully.

  11. The Electromagnetic Counterpart of the Binary Neutron Star Merger LIGO/Virgo GW170817. III. Optical and UV Spectra of a Blue Kilonova from Fast Polar Ejecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholl, M.; Berger, E.; Kasen, D.; Metzger, B. D.; Elias, J.; Briceño, C.; Alexander, K. D.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Eftekhari, T.; Fong, W.; Margutti, R.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.; Brown, W.; Annis, J.; Bahramian, A.; Brout, D.; Brown, D. A.; Chen, H. -Y.; Clemens, J. C.; Dennihy, E.; Dunlap, B.; Holz, D. E.; Marchesini, E.; Massaro, F.; Moskowitz, N.; Pelisoli, I.; Rest, A.; Ricci, F.; Sako, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Strader, J.

    2017-10-16

    We present optical and ultraviolet spectra of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave (GW) source, the binary neutron star merger GW170817. Spectra were obtained nightly between 1.5 and 9.5 days post-merger, using the SOAR and Magellan telescopes; the UV spectrum was obtained with the \\textit{Hubble Space Telescope} at 5.5 days. Our data reveal a rapidly-fading blue component ($T\\approx5500$ K at 1.5 days) that quickly reddens; spectra later than $\\gtrsim 4.5$ days peak beyond the optical regime. The spectra are mostly featureless, although we identify a possible weak emission line at $\\sim 7900$ \\AA\\ at $t\\lesssim 4.5$ days. The colours, rapid evolution and featureless spectrum are consistent with a "blue" kilonova from polar ejecta comprised mainly of light $r$-process nuclei with atomic mass number $A\\lesssim 140$. This indicates a sight-line within $\\theta_{\\rm obs}\\lesssim 45^{\\circ}$ of the orbital axis. Comparison to models suggests $\\sim0.03$ M$_\\odot$ of blue ejecta, with a velocity of $\\sim 0.3c$. The required lanthanide fraction is $\\sim 10^{-4}$, but this drops to $<10^{-5}$ in the outermost ejecta. The large velocities point to a dynamical origin, rather than a disk wind, for this blue component, suggesting that both binary constituents are neutron stars (as opposed to a binary consisting of a neutron star and a black hole). For dynamical ejecta, the high mass favors a small neutron star radius of $\\lesssim 12$ km. This mass also supports the idea that neutron star mergers are a major contributor to $r$-process nucleosynthesis.

  12. Identification of persons by means of the Fourier spectra of the optical transmission binary models of the human irises

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muroň, A.; Koiš, P.; Pospíšil, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 192, - (2001), s. 161-167 ISSN 0030-4018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : human iris * coherent optical Fourier transform * identification of persons Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.354, year: 2001

  13. Near-Field Phase-Change Optical Recording of 1.36 Numerical Aperture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Isao; Kishima, Koichiro; Osato, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Kenji; Kuroda, Yuji; Saito, Kimihiro

    2000-02-01

    A bit density of 125 nm was demonstrated through near-field phase-change (PC) optical recording at the wavelength of 657 nm by using a supersphere solid immersion lens (SIL). The lens unit consists of a standard objective and a φ2.5 mm SIL@. Since this lens size still prevents the unit from being mounted on an air-bearing slider, we developed a one-axis positioning actuator and an active capacitance servo for precise gap control to thoroughly investigate near-field recording. An electrode was fabricated on the bottom of the SIL, and a capacitor was formed facing a disk material. This setup realized a stable air gap below 50 nm, and a new method of simulating modulation transfer function (MTF) optimized the PC disk structure at this gap height. Obtained jitter of 8.8% and a clear eye-pattern prove that our system successfully attained the designed numerical-aperture (\\mathit{NA}) of 1.36.

  14. Free-surface velocity measurements using an optically recording velocity interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Jianxin; Wang Zhao; Liang Jing; Shan Yusheng; Zhou Chuangzhi; Xiang Yihuai; Lu Ze; Tang Xiuzhang

    2006-01-01

    An optically recording velocity interferometer system (ORVIS) was developed for the free-surface velocity measurements in the equation of state experiments. The time history of free-surface velocity could be recorded by the electronic streak camera. In the experiments, ORVIS got a 179 ps time resolution, and a higher time resolution could be got by minimizing the delay time. The equation of state experiments were carried out on the high power excimer laser system called 'Heaven I' with laser wavelength of 248.4 nm, pulse duration of 25 ns and maximum energy 158 J. Free-surface velocity of 20 μm thick iron got 3.86 km/s with laser intensity of 6.24 x 10 11 W·cm -2 , and free-surface velocity of 100 μm thick aluminum with 100 μm CH foil at the front got 2.87 km/s with laser intensity 7.28 x 10 11 W·cm -2 . (authors)

  15. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, William N; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J

    2007-05-15

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional intracellular electrodes in optical recording experiments. We use it, in combination with a voltage-sensitive dye and photodiode array, to identify neurons participating in the swim motor program of the marine mollusk Tritonia. This microscope design should be applicable to optical recording studies in many preparations.

  16. Fast optical detecting media based on semiconductor nanostructures for recording images obtained using charges of free photocarriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasherininov, P. G.; Tomasov, A. A.; Beregulin, E. V.

    2011-01-01

    Available published data on the properties of optical recording media based on semiconductor structures are reviewed. The principles of operation, structure, parameters, and the range of application for optical recording media based on MIS structures formed of photorefractive crystals with a thick layer of insulator and MIS structures with a liquid crystal as the insulator (the MIS LC modulators), as well as the effect of optical bistability in semiconductor structures (semiconductor MIS structures with nanodimensionally thin insulator (TI) layer, M(TI)S nanostructures). Special attention is paid to recording media based on the M(TI)S nanostructures promising for fast processing of highly informative images and to fabrication of optoelectronic correlators of images for noncoherent light.

  17. Link between optical spectra, crystal-field parameters, and local environments of Eu3+ ions in Eu2O3-doped sodium disilicate glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, T.; Mountjoy, G.; Afify, N. D.; Reid, M. F.; Yeung, Y. Y.; Speghini, A.; Bettinelli, M.

    2011-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped glasses are key materials for optical technology due to the luminescent properties of 4f n ions. The crystal-field model describes the effect of local environment on transitions between 4f electrons. We present a detailed modeling study of the optical spectra of sodium disilicate glass, 33Na 2 O·67SiO 2 , doped with 0.2% and 1.0 mol%Eu 2 O 3 . This study uses very large molecular dynamics models with up to 100 Eu 3+ ions, the superposition model for covalent and overlap effects on crystal-field parameters, and realistic values for homogeneous linewidth broadening. The simulated spectra are in reasonable agreement with experiment. The trends in 7 F J energy levels across different Eu 3+ ion sites have been examined and a very detailed analysis is presented that looks at how features of the spectra are related to features of the local environment of Eu 3+ ions. Increasing the crystal-field strength S total causes the 7 F 0 energy level to decrease and causes the splitting of 7 F J manifolds to increase, and this is due to increasing mixing of 4f wave functions. To a reasonable approximation the crystal-field strength components S k depend on angular positions of ligands independently of distances to ligands. The former are seen to be more significant in determining S k , which are closely related to the rotationally invariant bond-orientational order parameters Q k . The values of S 2 are approximately linear in Q 2 , and the values of Q 2 are higher for fivefold than sixfold coordinated rare-earth ions. These results can be of importance for efforts to enhance the local environment of rare-earth ions in oxide glasses for optical applications.

  18. [Study on Hexagonal Super-Lattice Pattern with Light Spot and Dim Spot in Dielectric Barrier Discharge by Optical Emission Spectra].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Dong, Li-fang; Niu, Xue-jiao; Zhang, Chao

    2016-02-01

    The hexagonal super-lattice pattern composed of the light spot and the dim spot is firstly observed and investigated in the discharge of gas mixture of air and argon by using the dielectric barrier discharge device with double water electrodes. It is found that the dim spot is located at the center of its surrounding three light spots by observing the discharge image. Obviously, the brightness of the light spot and the dim spot are different, which indicates that the plasma states of the light spot and the dim spot may be different. The optical emission spectrum method is used to further study the several plasma parameters of the light spot and the dim spot in different argon content. The emission spectra of the N₂ second positive band (C³IIu --> B³IIg) are measured, from which the molecule vibration temperatures of the light spot and the dim spot are calculated. Based on the relative intensity ratio of the line at 391.4 nm and the N₂ line at 394.1 nm, the average electron energies of the light spot and the dim spot are investigated. The broadening of spectral line 696.57 nm (2P₂-1S₅) is used to study the electron densities of the light spot and the dim spot. The experiment shows that the molecule vibration temperature, average electron energy and the electron density of the dim spot are higher than those of the light spot in the same argon content. The molecule vibration temperature and electron density of the light spot and dim spot increase with the argon content increasing from 70% to 95%, while average electron energies of the light spot and dim spot decrease gradually. The short-exposure image recorded by a high speed video camera shows that the dim spot results from the surface discharges (SDs). The surface discharge induced by the volume discharge (VD) has the decisive effect on the formation of the dim spot. The experiment above plays an important role in studying the formation mechanism of the hexagonal super-lattice pattern with light spot and

  19. Algorithms for classification of astronomical object spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiewicz, P.; Szuppe, J.; Hryniewicz, K.

    2015-09-01

    Obtaining interesting celestial objects from tens of thousands or even millions of recorded optical-ultraviolet spectra depends not only on the data quality but also on the accuracy of spectra decomposition. Additionally rapidly growing data volumes demands higher computing power and/or more efficient algorithms implementations. In this paper we speed up the process of substracting iron transitions and fitting Gaussian functions to emission peaks utilising C++ and OpenCL methods together with the NOSQL database. In this paper we implemented typical astronomical methods of detecting peaks in comparison to our previous hybrid methods implemented with CUDA.

  20. Li-impurity effect in optical spectra of KTaO.sub.3./sub.:Er.sup.3+./sup. crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skvortsov, A. P.; Potůček, Zdeněk; Poletaev, N.K.; Syrnikov, P. P.; Bryknar, Z.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Trepakov, Vladimír

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 121, č. 4 (2016), s. 534-537 ISSN 0030-400X Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : f–f absorption and emission spectra * Er impurities * KTaO 3 and K 1-x Li x TaO 3 * crystals Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.716, year: 2016

  1. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV)

  2. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.

    2000-03-20

    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV).

  3. Theoretical studies of the optical and EPR spectra for VO^{2+} in Na_3C_6H_5O_7·2H_2O single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ch.-Y. Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the perturbation formulas for a d^1 configuration ion in a tetragonal crystal field, the three optical absorption bands and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR parameters (g factors g_i and hyperfine structure constants A_i for i = || and ⊥, respectively of VO^{2+} in Na_3C_6H_5O_7·2H_2O (TSCD single crystals were studied using the perturbation theory method. By simulating the calculated optical and EPR spectra to the observed values, local structure parameters and negative signs of the hyperfine structure constants A_i of the octahedral (VO_6^{8-} cluster in TSCD single crystal can be obtained.

  4. Optical spectra of Zn{sub 1-x}Be{sub x}Te mixed crystals determined by IR-VIS-UV ellipsometry and photoluminescence measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wronkowska, A.A., E-mail: aleksandra.wronkowska@utp.edu.p [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, S. Kaliskiego 7, PL-85796 Bydgoszcz (Poland); Arwin, H. [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Linkoeping University, SE-58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Firszt, F.; Legowski, S. [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, Grudziadzka 5, PL-87100 Torun (Poland); Wronkowski, A.; Skowronski, L. [Institute of Mathematics and Physics, University of Technology and Life Sciences, S. Kaliskiego 7, PL-85796 Bydgoszcz (Poland)

    2011-02-28

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry in the photon energy range from 0.04 eV to 6.50 eV is used for investigation of the optical response of Zn{sub 1-x}Be{sub x}Te crystals grown by a high-pressure Bridgman method in the composition range x {<=} 0.12. Infrared spectra display absorption bands centred between 411 cm{sup -1} and 420 cm{sup -1} associated with BeTe-type optical phonon modes. The positions of the transverse-optical and longitudinal-optical phonon modes have been found by modelling the line shape of the complex dielectric functions, {epsilon}-tilde and Im(-{epsilon}-tilde{sup -1}), using a classical damped Lorentzian oscillator approach. Ellipsometric measurements in the VIS-UV range allow determination of the fundamental energy-gap (E{sub 0}) and the higher threshold energies (E{sub 1}, E{sub 1} + {Delta}{sub 1}, E{sub 2}) originating from the band edge and spin-orbit splitting critical points. We have found that the Be content x = 0.12 causes an increase of the fundamental energy gap about 0.15 eV at room temperature when compared to the E{sub 0} = 2.23 eV of ZnTe crystal at the same temperature. Photoluminescence spectra were measured in the temperature range from 30 K to room temperature. Luminescence at temperature T > 200 K is very weak. The peak positions of the exciton emission lines agree well with the E{sub 0} band-gaps derived from ellipsometric data if corrected for their temperature dependence.

  5. Decoding of digital magnetic recording with longitudinal magnetization of a tape from a magneto-optical image of stray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    For digital magnetic recording of encoded information with longitudinal magnetization of the tape, the connection between the domain structure of a storage medium and magneto-optical image of its stray fields obtained using a magnetic film with a perpendicular anisotropy and a large Faraday rotation has been studied. For two-frequency binary code without returning to zero, an algorithm is developed, that allows uniquely decoding of the information recorded on the tape based on analysis of an image of stray fields.

  6. Optical properties of ion-implanted InP and GaAs: Selectivity-excited photoluminescence spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makita, Yunosuke; Yamada, Akimasa; Kimura, Shinji; Niki, Shigeru; Yoshinaga, Hiroshi; Matsumori, Tokue; Iida, Tsutomu; Uekusa, Ichiro

    1993-01-01

    Implantation of Mg+ ions was carried out into high purity InP grown by liquid encapsulated Czochralski method. Mg+ ion-implanted InP presented the formation of plural novel emissions with increasing Mg concentration, [Mg] in the low temperature photoluminescence spectra. Selectively-excited photoluminescence (SPL) measurements were made to examine the features of two-hole replicas pertinent to the emissions of excitons bound to neutral Mg and residual Zn acceptors. Systematic variation of the emission intensities from the two types of two-hole replicas was found to be utilized for the evaluation of ion-implanted materials. The significant discrepancy of emission spectra between PL and SPL was attributed to the difference of the depth examined by using the excitation light with high and low absorption coefficient. The results revealed that the diffusion of ion-implanted Mg is extremely enhanced when [Mg] exceeds 1x10 17 cm -3

  7. Impact effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and FT infrared absorption spectra of some Nd3+-doped soda lime phosphate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, M. A.; Elkashef, I. M.; Elbatal, H. A.

    2018-04-01

    The main aim of the present work is to study by two collective optical and FTIR spectral measurements some prepared Nd2O3-doped soda lime phosphate glasses before and after gamma irradiation with dose (9 Mrad). The spectral data reveal two strong UV absorption peaks which are correlated with unavoidable trace iron impurities beside extended additional characteristic bands due to Nd3+ ions. Gamma irradiation on the undoped glass produces slight decrease of the intensity of the UV absorption and the generation of an induced visible band and these effects are controlled with two photochemical reduction of some Fe3+ ions to Fe2+ ions together with the formation of nonbridging oxygen hole center (NBOHC) or phosphorous oxygen hole center (POHC). The impact effect of gamma irradiation on the spectra of Nd2O3-doped glasses is limited due to suggested shielding behavior of neodymium ions. FT-infrared spectra show vibrational modes due to main Q2-Q3 phosphate groups and the response of gamma irradiation of the IR spectra is low and the limited variations are related to suggested changes in some bond angles and bond lengths which cause the observed decrease to the intensities of some IR bands.

  8. Optical and ESR spectra of gamma irradiated glasses in the Ba(PO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-LiF system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocharova, T.V.; Karapetyan, G.O.; Khalilev, V.D.; Yashchurzhinskaya, O.A.

    1985-11-01

    This study obtains the ESR and optical absorption spectra for glasses in the Ba(PO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-LiF system. Obtaining radiation color centers (RCC) induced by ionizing radiation in alkali halide crystals (AHC), in particular LiF, has been given an enormous practical impetus according to the authors, because of the development of lasers and passive laser gates based on AHC with color centers. The glasses studied were synthesized from reagents of ''exceptionally pure'' and ''chemically pure'' grades in vitreous carbon crucibles in a dry argon atmosphere at 900-1000/sup 0/C for 60 min. followed by an anneal in a muffle at 300-450/sup 0/C. The compositions of the experimental specimens and the spectra of their optical parameters are given. The addition of up to 60 mole% of LiF does not lead to the emergence of additional absorption band (AAB) or ESR signals associated with F centers formed by gamma radiation in an LiF single crystal. As a result of gamma irradiation of glasses activated by terbium, RCC are formed which are probably electron trapping centers and correspond to the paramagnetic center (PMC).

  9. The first neural probe integrated with light source (blue laser diode) for optical stimulation and electrical recording.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, HyungDal; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Cho, Il-Joo; Yoon, Eui-sung; Suh, Jun-Kyo Francis; Im, Maesoon; Yoon, Euisik; Kim, Yong-Jun; Kim, Jinseok

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we report a neural probe which can selectively stimulate target neurons optically through Si wet etched mirror surface and record extracellular neural signals in iridium oxide tetrodes. Consequently, the proposed approach provides to improve directional problem and achieve at least 150/m gap distance between stimulation and recording sites by wet etched mirror surface in V-groove. Also, we developed light source, blue laser diode (OSRAM Blue Laser Diode_PL 450), integration through simple jig for one-touch butt-coupling. Furthermore, optical power and impedance of iridium oxide tetrodes were measured as 200 μW on 5 mW from LD and 206.5 k Ω at 1 kHz and we demonstrated insertion test of probe in 0.5% agarose-gel successfully. We have successfully transmitted a light of 450 nm to optical fiber through the integrated LD using by butt-coupling method.

  10. Reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound from an edison cylinder using three dimensional non-contact optical surface metrology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadeyev, V.; Haber, C.; Maul, C.; McBride, J.W.; Golden, M.

    2004-04-20

    Audio information stored in the undulations of grooves in a medium such as a phonograph disc record or cylinder may be reconstructed, without contact, by measuring the groove shape using precision optical metrology methods and digital image processing. The viability of this approach was recently demonstrated on a 78 rpm shellac disc using two dimensional image acquisition and analysis methods. The present work reports the first three dimensional reconstruction of mechanically recorded sound. The source material, a celluloid cylinder, was scanned using color coded confocal microscopy techniques and resulted in a faithful playback of the recorded information.

  11. System of laser pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate optical recording process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuda, Nobuhiro; Fukuyama, Yoshimitsu; Osawa, Hitoshi [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Kimura, Shigeru [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Ito, Kiminori; Tanaka, Yoshihito [RIKEN SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Kojima, Rie; Hisada, Kazuya; Tsuchino, Akio; Birukawa, Masahiro [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 3-4 Hikaridai, Seika-cho, Soraku-gun, Kyoto 619-0237 (Japan); Yamada, Noboru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Sekiguchi, Koji; Fujiie, Kazuhiko; Kawakubo, Osamu [Advanced Optical Storage Development Department, Advanced Device Technology Platform, Sony Corporation, 4-14-1 Asahi-cho, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0014 (Japan); Takata, Masaki [Research and Utilization Division, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan); RIKEN SPring-8 Center, RIKEN, 1-1-1 Kouto, Sayo-cho, Sayo-gun, Hyogo 679-5148 (Japan); Department of Advanced Materials Science, School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    We have developed a system of laser-pump and synchrotron radiation probe microdiffraction to investigate the phase-change process on a nanosecond time scale of Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} film embedded in multi-layer structures, which corresponds to real optical recording media. The measurements were achieved by combining (i) the pump-laser system with a pulse width of 300 ps, (ii) a highly brilliant focused microbeam with wide peak-energy width ({Delta}E/E {approx} 2%) made by focusing helical undulator radiation without monochromatization, and (iii) a precise sample rotation stage to make repetitive measurements. We successfully detected a very weak time-resolved diffraction signal by using this system from 100-nm-thick Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase-change layers. This enabled us to find the dependence of the crystal-amorphous phase change process of the Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} layers on laser power.

  12. Structured optical vortices with broadband comb-like optical spectra in Yb:Y3Al5O12/YVO4 Raman microchip laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jun; Wang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Mingming; Wang, Xiaojie; He, Hongsen

    2018-04-01

    Structured optical vortices with 4 phase singularities have been generated in a laser diode pumped continuous-wave Yb:Y3Al5O12/YVO4 (Yb:YAG/YVO4) Raman microchip laser. The broadband comb-like first order Stokes laser emitting spectrum including 30 longitudinal modes covers from 1072.49 nm to 1080.13 nm with a bandwidth of 7.64 nm, which is generated with the Raman shift 259 cm-1 of the c-cut YVO4 crystal converted from the fundamental laser around 1.05 μm. Pump power dependent optical vortex beams are attributed to overlap of the Stokes laser field with the fundamental laser field caused by dynamically changing the coupling losses of the fundamental laser field. The maximum output power is 1.16 W, and the optical-to-optical efficiency is 18.4%. This work provides a method for generating structured optical vortices with an optical frequency comb in solid-state Raman microchip lasers, which have potential applications in quantum computations, micro-machining, and information processing.

  13. Optical Absorption Spectra and Electronic Properties of Symmetric and Asymmetric Squaraine Dyes for Use in DSSC Solar Cells: DFT and TD-DFT Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. El-Shishtawy

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The electronic absorption spectra, ground-state geometries and electronic structures of symmetric and asymmetric squaraine dyes (SQD1–SQD4 were investigated using density functional theory (DFT and time-dependent (TD-DFT density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level. The calculated ground-state geometries reveal pronounced conjugation in these dyes. Long-range corrected time dependent density functionals Perdew, Burke and Ernzerhof (PBE, PBE1PBE (PBE0, and the exchange functional of Tao, Perdew, Staroverov, and Scuseria (TPSSh with 6-311++G** basis set were employed to examine optical absorption properties. In an extensive comparison between the optical data and DFT benchmark calculations, the BEP functional with 6-311++G** basis set was found to be the most appropriate in describing the electronic absorption spectra. The calculated energy values of lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO were 3.41, 3.19, 3.38 and 3.23 eV for SQD1, SQD2, SQD3, and SQD4, respectively. These values lie above the LUMO energy (−4.26 eV of the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles indicating possible electron injection from the excited dyes to the conduction band of the TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs. Also, aromaticity computation for these dyes are in good agreement with the data obtained optically and geometrically with SQD4 as the highest aromatic structure. Based on the optimized molecular geometries, relative positions of the frontier orbitals, and the absorption maxima, we propose that these dyes are suitable components of photovoltaic DSSC devices.

  14. Application of some Hartree-Fock model calculations to the analysis of atomic and free-ion optical spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, T.L.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the analysis of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multiconfiguration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e. wavefunctions with radical correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to screen the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the KI sequence from K 0+ through Fe 7+ , fitting to experimental levels for V 4+ , and Cr 5+ ; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: Energy levels of the Uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX 6 ) 2- for X = F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f 2 configuration in O/sub h/ symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd

  15. Application of some Hartree-Fock model calculations to the analysis of atomic and free-ion optical spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayhurst, T.L.

    1980-05-01

    Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the analysis of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multi-configuration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e., wavefunctions with radial correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to screen the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the K I sequence from K 0+ through Fe 7+ , fitting to experimental levels for V 4+ , and Cr 5+ ; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: energy levels of the uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX 6 ) 2- for X = F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f 2 configuration in O/sub h/ symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd

  16. Quantitative analysis of sugar composition in honey using 532-nm excitation Raman and Raman optical activity spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šugar, Jan; Bouř, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 11 (2016), s. 1298-1303 ISSN 0377-0486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-09072S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : honey * sugar mixtures * spectral decompositions * Raman spectroscopy * Raman optical activity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.969, year: 2016

  17. Electronic structure, optical spectra and contact terms of the CoF64- cluster in LiF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, E.L.; Maffeo, B.; Brandi, H.S.; Siqueira, M.L. de

    1975-01-01

    The electronic structure, the optical absorption bands and the magnetic hyperfine contact terms have been calculated for CoF 6 4- in LiF using the Multiple Scattering Xα Method. The results obtained are compared with experiment and once more indicated that this scheme is convenient to treat such complex problems

  18. Lowest excited states and optical absorption spectra of donor–acceptor copolymers for organic photovoltaics: a new picture emerging from tuned long-range corrected density functionals

    KAUST Repository

    Pandey, Laxman; Doiron, Curtis; Sears, John S.; Bré das, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Polymers with low optical gaps are of importance to the organic photovoltaics community due to their potential for harnessing a large portion of the solar energy spectrum. The combination along their backbones of electron-rich and electron-deficient fragments contributes to the presence of low-lying excited states that are expected to display significant charge-transfer character. While conventional hybrid functionals are known to provide unsatisfactory results for charge-transfer excitations at the time-dependent DFT level, long-range corrected (LRC) functionals have been reported to give improved descriptions in a number of systems. Here, we use such LRC functionals, considering both tuned and default range-separation parameters, to characterize the absorption spectra of low-optical-gap systems of interest. Our results indicate that tuned LRC functionals lead to simulated optical-absorption properties in good agreement with experimental data. Importantly, the lowest-lying excited states (excitons) are shown to present a much more localized nature than initially anticipated. © 2012 the Owner Societies.

  19. Predicting ambient aerosol thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) measurements from infrared spectra: extending the predictions to different years and different sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggente, Matteo; Dillner, Ann M.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) are major components of atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, climate change, and reduced visibility. Typically OC and EC concentrations are measured using thermal-optical methods such as thermal-optical reflectance (TOR) from samples collected on quartz filters. In this work, we estimate TOR OC and EC using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorbance spectra from polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE Teflon) filters using partial least square regression (PLSR) calibrated to TOR OC and EC measurements for a wide range of samples. The proposed method can be integrated with analysis of routinely collected PTFE filter samples that, in addition to OC and EC concentrations, can concurrently provide information regarding the functional group composition of the organic aerosol. We have used the FT-IR absorbance spectra and TOR OC and EC concentrations collected in the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network (USA). We used 526 samples collected in 2011 at seven sites to calibrate the models, and more than 2000 samples collected in 2013 at 17 sites to test the models. Samples from six sites are present both in the calibration and test sets. The calibrations produce accurate predictions both for samples collected at the same six sites present in the calibration set (R2 = 0.97 and R2 = 0.95 for OC and EC respectively), and for samples from 9 of the 11 sites not included in the calibration set (R2 = 0.96 and R2 = 0.91 for OC and EC respectively). Samples collected at the other two sites require a different calibration model to achieve accurate predictions. We also propose a method to anticipate the prediction error; we calculate the squared Mahalanobis distance in the feature space (scores determined by PLSR) between new spectra and spectra in the calibration set. The squared Mahalanobis distance provides a crude method for assessing the

  20. L-Alanyl-L-alanine Conformational Changes Induced by pH As Monitored by the Raman Optical Activity Spectra

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šebek, Jiří; Kapitán, Josef; Šebestík, Jaroslav; Baumruk, V.; Bouř, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 27 (2009), s. 7760-7768 ISSN 1089-5639 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0732; GA ČR GA203/07/1517; GA AV ČR IAA400550702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Raman optical activity * peptides * conformation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.899, year: 2009

  1. Vacuum-ultraviolet ellipsometry spectra and optical properties of Ba(Zr,Ti)O.sub.3./sub. films

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchaneck, G.; Chernova, Ekaterina; Kleiner, A.; Liebschner, R.; Jastrabík, Lubomír; Meyer, D.C.; Dejneka, Alexandr; Gerlach, G.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 621, Jan (2017), s. 58-62 ISSN 0040-6090 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13778S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : barium zirconate titanate thin film * film structure * VUV ellipsometry * optical properties Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism OBOR OECD: Condensed matter physics (including formerly solid state physics, supercond.) Impact factor: 1.879, year: 2016

  2. A reverse Monte Carlo method for deriving optical constants of solids from reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da, B.; Sun, Y.; Ding, Z. J.; Mao, S. F.; Zhang, Z. M.; Jin, H.; Yoshikawa, H.; Tanuma, S.

    2013-01-01

    A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) method is developed to obtain the energy loss function (ELF) and optical constants from a measured reflection electron energy-loss spectroscopy (REELS) spectrum by an iterative Monte Carlo (MC) simulation procedure. The method combines the simulated annealing method, i.e., a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of oscillator parameters, surface and bulk excitation weighting factors, and band gap energy, with a conventional MC simulation of electron interaction with solids, which acts as a single step of MCMC sampling in this RMC method. To examine the reliability of this method, we have verified that the output data of the dielectric function are essentially independent of the initial values of the trial parameters, which is a basic property of a MCMC method. The optical constants derived for SiO 2 in the energy loss range of 8-90 eV are in good agreement with other available data, and relevant bulk ELFs are checked by oscillator strength-sum and perfect-screening-sum rules. Our results show that the dielectric function can be obtained by the RMC method even with a wide range of initial trial parameters. The RMC method is thus a general and effective method for determining the optical properties of solids from REELS measurements.

  3. The structure, vibrational spectra and nonlinear optical properties of the L-lysine × tartaric acid complex—Theoretical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozd, M.; Marchewka, M. K.

    2006-05-01

    The room temperature X-ray studies of L-lysine × tartaric acid complex are not unambiguous. The disorder of three atoms of carbon in L-lysine molecule is observed. These X-ray studies are ambiguous. The theoretical geometry study performed by DFT methods explain the most doubts which are connected with crystallographic measurements. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and potential energy distribution (PED) of L-lysine × tartaric acid were calculated by B3LYP method. The calculated frequencies were compared with experimental measured IR spectra. The complete assignment of the bands has been made on the basis of the calculated PED. The restricted Hartee-Fock (RHF) methods were used for calculation of the hyperpolarizability for investigated compound. The theoretical results are compared with experimental value of β.

  4. Spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars. I. Optical line strengths and the hydrogen-to-helium ratios in WN type stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conti, P.S.; Leep, E.M.; Perry, D.N.

    1983-01-01

    We begin a series of systematic studies of spectra of Wolf-Rayet stars by examining the optical line strengths of WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellanic Cloud to see what similarities and differences exist among them. Tables of equivalent widths extracted from spectra are presented and some conclusions are drawn. We have found that there is a wide dispersion, up to a factor of 10 or more, in line strengths for all ions even among stars of the same subtype, with WN 7 stars weaker overall than surrounding types. Type-to-type trends are consistent with changing ionization balance in the stellar wind. Nitrogen line ratios indicate that the WN subtypes represent an ionization sequence, but one with considerable overlap: the classification scheme is not single valued; other physical parameters must play a role. The line strength dispersion does not appear to be primarily due to ionization, or luminosity. The Balmer-Pickering decrement has been used to estimate the H/He ratio for most of the WN stars with available spectra; semiquantitative results are presented. Significant differences in H/He are observed (10 stars may have H/He>2). At a given subclass, the strongest line stars have no detectable H. The abundance of H probably relates to structural differences in the winds that, in part, give rise to a dispersion in observed line strengths. Finally, we have estimated the C/N ratio from the C IV lambda5805/N IV lambda4057 line ratio. In most cases our observations suggest that the C/N ratio is consistent with ''evolved'' models for WN stars. A few stars show strong C IV implying much larger values for C/N, but hydrogen was not detected in them. These stars may be in transition from the WN to WC classes

  5. Temporal formation of optical anisotropy and surface relief during polarization holographic recording in polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Izawa, Masahiro; Noda, Kohei; Nishioka, Emi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro; Ono, Hiroshi

    2014-03-01

    The formation of polarization holographic gratings with both optical anisotropy and surface relief (SR) deformation was studied for polymethylmethacrylate with azobenzene side groups. Temporal contributions of isotropic and anisotropic phase gratings were simultaneously determined by observing transitional intensity and polarization states of the diffraction beams and characterizing by means of Jones calculus. To clarify the mechanism of SR deformation, cross sections of SR were characterized based on the optical gradient force model; experimental observations were in good agreement with the theoretical expectation. We clarified that the anisotropic phase change originating in the reorientation of the azobenzene side groups was induced immediately at the beginning of the holographic recording, while the response time of the isotropic phase change originating in the molecular migration due to the optical gradient force was relatively slow.

  6. A stereo-compound hybrid microscope for combined intracellular and optical recording of invertebrate neural network activity

    OpenAIRE

    Frost, William N.; Wang, Jean; Brandon, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Optical recording studies of invertebrate neural networks with voltage-sensitive dyes seldom employ conventional intracellular electrodes. This may in part be due to the traditional reliance on compound microscopes for such work. While such microscopes have high light-gathering power, they do not provide depth of field, making working with sharp electrodes difficult. Here we describe a hybrid microscope design, with switchable compound and stereo objectives, that eases the use of conventional...

  7. A new method for obtaining time resolved optical spectra of transients produced by a single pulse of electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, S.; Schmidt, K.H.; Martin, J.E.

    1975-01-01

    The essential features of the kinetic spectroscopic method and the kinetic spectrophotometric method are summarized. It is stated that the new method embodies some of the advantages of both. A diagram of the apparatus is shown. This is essentially a version of a conventional pulse radiolysis experimental arrangement with the modification that the usual monochromator is replaced by a spectrograph equipped with a horizontal and a vertical slit and the usual photomultiplier-amplifier detector is replaced by a streak camera (TRW) incorporating an image converter tube (ICT) and a TV camera interfaced to a 2000 channel Biomation transient recorder. The time resolved absorption spectrum (or emission spectrum) is displayed on the P-11 phosphor of the ICT. This image is focussed on the photoelements of the TV tube. The TV camera scans the image of the spectrum stored on these elements and the output of this scan is stored in the Biomation. This recorder is in turn interfaced to a Sigma 5 computer. Results are presented for several experiments, from which it is concluded that with the present equipment absorbances down to 0.02 can be measured, and a time resolution of 1ns can be achieved. It is stated that with improved equipment it should be possible to extend the time resolution of the method to less than 50 picoseconds. (U.K.)

  8. OSL, TL and IRSL emission spectra of sedimentary quartz and feldspar samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomax, Johanna; Mittelstraß, Dirk; Kreutzer, Sebastian; Fuchs, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This contribution presents a variety of different luminescence emission spectra from sedimentary feldspar and quartz samples under various stimulation modes. These are green stimulated quartz (OSL-) spectra, quartz TL spectra, feldspar IRSL and post-IR IRSL spectra. A focus was set at recording OSL and IRSL spectra at elevated stimulation temperatures such as routinely applied in luminescence dating. This was to test whether optical stimulation at elevated temperatures results in a shift of emission peaks. For OSL emissions of quartz, this has so far not been tested. In case of feldspar emissions, post-IR IRSL conditions, hence IRSL emissions at a low temperature, directly followed by high temperature post-IRSL emissions, are explicitly investigated. All spectra were recorded using a new system incorporated into a Lexsyg luminescence reader. Thus, this study, besides presenting new spectral data, also serves as a feasibility study for this new device. It is shown that (a) the new device is capable of automatically measuring different sorts of spectra, also at elevated temperatures, (b) known thermally and optically stimulated peak emissions of quartz and feldspar are confirmed, (c) obtained IRSL and OSL spectra indicate that there is no significant relation between peak emission and stimulation temperature. - Highlights: • We have measured OSL, IRSL and TL emission spectra of sedimentary quartz and feldspar samples. • Spectral analyses were performed at elevated stimulation temperatures. • Emission spectra show very little variation with stimulation temperatures.

  9. Probing the electronic structure of Ni–Mn–In–Si based Heusler alloys thin films using magneto-optical spectra in martensitic and austenitic phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, A. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sokolov, A., E-mail: asokol@unlserve.unl.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE 68588 (United States); Gan’shina, E.A. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Quetz, Abdiel; Dubenko, I.S. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Stadler, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 (United States); Ali, N. [Department of Physics, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States); Titov, I.S.; Rodionov, I.D. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Lähderanta, E. [Lappeenranta University of Technology, 53851 (Finland); Zhukov, A. [Dpto. de Física de Materiales, Fac. Químicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Granovsky, A.B. [Department of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Sabirianov, R. [Department of Physics, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Magneto-optical properties of NiMnIn thin films with a magnetostructural transition. • Comparative analysis of magnetic properties in martensitic and austenite phases. • DFT calculations of the MO Kerr effect and site-resolved DOS agree with experiment. • The electronic structure does not change significantly with Martensitic transition. - Abstract: Thin films of Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 35−x}In{sub 11+x}Si{sub 2} were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on MgO (0 0 1) single crystal substrates. Magnetization as function of temperature for Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 35}In{sub 11}Si{sub 2} exhibits features consistent with a magnetostructural transition (MST) from an austenitic phase to a martensitic phase, similar to the bulk material. We observed that the martensitic transformation is externally sensitive to small changes in chemical composition and stoichiometry. It has been found that thin films of Ni{sub 52}Mn{sub 34−x}In{sub 11+x}Si{sub 2} with x = 0 and 1 undergo a temperature-induced MST or remain in a stable austenitic phase, respectively. Comparison of magneto-optical transverse Kerr effect spectra obtained at 0.5–4.0 eV in the 35–300 K temperature interval reveal insignificant differences between the martensitic and austenite phases. We found that the field and temperature dependencies of the transverse Kerr effect are quite different from the magnetization behavior, which is attributed to magnetic inhomogeneity across the films. To elucidate the effects of magnetostructural phase transitions on the electronic properties, we performed density functional calculations of the magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  10. Quantifying the Performances of DFT for Predicting Vibrationally Resolved Optical Spectra: Asymmetric Fluoroborate Dyes as Working Examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarska, Joanna; Zaleśny, Robert; Bartkowiak, Wojciech; Ośmiałowski, Borys; Medved', Miroslav; Jacquemin, Denis

    2017-09-12

    This article aims at a quantitative assessment of the performances of a panel of exchange-correlation functionals, including semilocal (BLYP and PBE), global hybrids (B3LYP, PBE0, M06, BHandHLYP, M06-2X, and M06-HF), and range-separated hybrids (CAM-B3LYP, LC-ωPBE, LC-BLYP, ωB97X, and ωB97X-D), in predicting the vibrationally resolved absorption spectra of BF 2 -carrying compounds. To this end, for 19 difluoroborates as examples, we use, as a metric, the vibrational reorganization energy (λ vib ) that can be determined based on the computationally efficient linear coupling model (a.k.a. vertical gradient method). The reference values of λ vib were determined by employing the CC2 method combined with the cc-pVTZ basis set for a representative subset of molecules. To validate the performances of CC2, comparisons with experimental data have been carried out as well. This study shows that the vibrational reorganization energy, involving Huang-Rhys factors and normal-mode frequencies, can indeed be used to quantify the reliability of functionals in the calculations of the vibrational fine structure of absorption bands, i.e., an accurate prediction of the vibrational reorganization energy leads to absorption band shapes better fitting the selected reference. The CAM-B3LYP, M06-2X, ωB97X-D, ωB97X, and BHandHLYP functionals all deliver vibrational reorganization energies with absolute relative errors smaller than 20% compared to CC2, whereas 10% accuracy can be achieved with the first three functionals. Indeed, the set of examined exchange-correlation functionals can be divided into three groups: (i) BLYP, B3LYP, PBE, PBE0, and M06 yield inaccurate band shapes (λ vib,TDDFT poor band topologies (λ vib,TDDFT > λ vib,CC2 ). This study also demonstrates that λ vib can be reliably estimated using the CC2 model and the relatively small cc-pVDZ basis set. Therefore, the linear coupling model combined with the CC2/cc-pVDZ level of theory can be used as a very efficient

  11. Laboratory-based recording of holographic fine structure in X-ray absorption anisotropy using polycapillary optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowski, K.M. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland); Korecki, P., E-mail: pawel.korecki@uj.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holographic fine structures in X-ray absorption recorded using a tabletop setup. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Setup based on polycapillary collimating optics and an HOPG crystal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of element sensitivity by detection of X-ray fluorescence. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential of laboratory-based experiments for heavily doped crystals and thin films. - Abstract: A tabletop setup composed of a collimating polycapillary optics and a highly oriented pyrolytic graphite monochromator (HOPG) was characterized and used for recording two-dimensional maps of X-ray absorption anisotropy (XAA). XAA originates from interference of X-rays directly inside the sample. Depending on experimental conditions, fine structures in XAA can be interpreted in terms of X-ray holograms or X-ray standing waves and can be used for an element selective atomic-resolved structural analysis. The implementation of polycapillary optics resulted in a two-order of magnitude gain in the radiant intensity (photons/s/solid angle) as compared to a system without optics and enabled efficient recording of XAA with a resolution of 0.15 Degree-Sign for Mo K{alpha} radiation. Element sensitivity was demonstrated by acquisition of distinct XAA signals for Ga and As atoms in a GaAs (1 1 1) wafer by using X-ray fluorescence as a secondary signal. These results indicate the possibility of performing laboratory-based XAA experiments for heavily doped single crystals or thin films. So far, because of the weak holographic modulation of XAA, such experiments could be only performed using synchrotron radiation.

  12. Polar Mixing Optical Phonon Spectra in Wurtzite GaN Cylindrical Quantum Dots: Quantum Size and Dielectric Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Li; Liao Jianshang

    2010-01-01

    The interface-optical-propagating (IO-PR) mixing phonon modes of a quasi-zero-dimensional (QoD) wurtzite cylindrical quantum dot (QD) structure are derived and studied by employing the macroscopic dielectric continuum model. The analytical phonon states of IO-PR mixing modes are given. It is found that there are two types of IO-PR mixing phonon modes, i.e. ρ-IO/z-PR mixing modes and the z-IO/ρ-PR mixing modes existing in QoD wurtzite QDs. And each IO-PR mixing modes also have symmetrical and antisymmetrical forms. Via a standard procedure of field quantization, the Froehlich Hamiltonians of electron-(IO-PR) mixing phonons interaction are obtained. Numerical calculations on a wurtzite GaN cylindrical QD are performed. The results reveal that both the radial-direction size and the axial-direction size as well as the dielectric matrix have great influence on the dispersive frequencies of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes. The limiting features of dispersive curves of these phonon modes are discussed in depth. The phonon modes 'reducing' behavior of wurtzite quantum confined systems has been observed obviously in the structures. Moreover, the degenerating behaviors of the IO-PR mixing phonon modes in wurtzite QoD QDs to the IO modes and PR modes in wurtzite Q2D QW and Q1D QWR systems are analyzed deeply from both of the viewpoints of physics and mathematics. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  13. Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Diana H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Timothy H

    2015-10-01

    With modern optical imaging methods, it is possible to map structural and functional connectivity. Optical imaging studies that aim to describe large-scale neural connectivity often need to handle large and complex datasets. In order to interpret these datasets, new methods for analyzing structural and functional connectivity are being developed. Recently, network analysis, based on graph theory, has been used to describe and quantify brain connectivity in both experimental and clinical studies. We outline how to apply regional, functional network analysis to mesoscale optical imaging using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging and channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in a mouse model. We include links to sample datasets and an analysis script. The analyses we employ can be applied to other types of fluorescence wide-field imaging, including genetically encoded calcium indicators, to assess network properties. We discuss the benefits and limitations of using network analysis for interpreting optical imaging data and define network properties that may be used to compare across preparations or other manipulations such as animal models of disease.

  14. Optical recording in functional polymer nanocomposites by multi-beam interference holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuk, Dmitrij; Burunkova, Julia; Kalabin, Viacheslav; Csarnovics, Istvan; Kokenyesi, Sandor

    2017-05-01

    Our investigations relate to the development of new polymer nanocomposite materials and technologies for fabrication of photonic elements like gratings, integrated elements, photonic crystals. The goal of the present work was the development and application of the multi-beam interference method for one step, direct formation of 1-, 2- or even 3D photonic structures in functional acrylate nanocomposites, which contain SiO2 and Au nanoparticles and which are sensitized to blue and green laser illumination. The presence of gold nanoparticles and possibility to excite plasmonic effects can essentially influence the polymerization processes and the spatial redistribution of nanoparticles in the nanocomposite during the recording. This way surface and volume phase reliefs can be recorded. It is essential, that no additional treatments of the material after the recording are necessary and the elements possess high transparency, are stable after some relaxation time. New functionalities can be provided to the recorded structures if luminescent materials are added to such materials.

  15. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) and Aerosol Particle Size Parameter (APSP) Environmental Data Record (EDR) from IDPS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer...

  16. NOAA JPSS Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Depth and Aerosol Particle Size Distribution Environmental Data Record (EDR) from NDE

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains a high quality operational Environmental Data Record (EDR) of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle size from the Visible Infrared Imaging...

  17. Postsynaptic potentials recorded in neurons of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus following electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, S A; Sherman, S M

    1988-12-01

    1. We recorded intracellularly from X and Y cells of the cat's lateral geniculate nucleus and measured the postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) evoked from electrical stimulation of the optic chiasm. We used an in vivo preparation and computer averaged the PSPs to enhance their signal-to-noise ratio. 2. The vast majority (46 of 50) of our sample of X and Y cells responded to stimulation of the optic chiasm with an excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) followed by an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP); these were tentatively identified as relay cells. We quantified several parameters of these PSPs, including amplitude, latency, time to peak (i.e., rise time), and duration. 3. Among the relay cells, the latencies of both the EPSP and action potential evoked by optic chiasm stimulation were shorter in Y cells than in X cells. Furthermore, the difference between the latencies of the EPSP and action potential was shorter for Y cells than for X cells. This means that the EPSPs generated in Y cells reached threshold for generation of action potentials faster than did those in X cells. The EPSPs of Y cells also displayed larger amplitudes and faster rise times than did those in X cells, but neither of these distinctions was sufficient to explain the shorter latency difference between the EPSP and action potential for Y cells. 4. The EPSPs recorded in relay Y cells had longer durations than did those in relay X cells. Our data suggest that the subsequent IPSP actively terminates the EPSP, which, in turn, suggests that the time interval between EPSP and IPSP onsets is longer in Y cells than in X cells. Furthermore, we found that, for individual Y cells, the latency and duration of the evoked EPSP were inversely related. These observations lead to the conclusion that the latency of IPSPs activated from the optic chiasm is relatively constant among Y cells and thus independent of the EPSP latencies. Thus the excitation and inhibition produced in individual geniculate Y

  18. Effect of metal nanoparticles on energy spectra and optical properties of peripheral light-harvesting LH2 complexes from photosynthetic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goliney, I.Yu.; Sugakov, V.I.; Valkunas, L.; Vertsimakha, G.V.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excitons of light-harvesting complexes (LH2) hybridize with plasmon modes. ► Light absorption of LH2 is enhanced by a metal nanoparticle. ► Using nanoshells allows reaching resonance between molecular and plasmons. ► Metal nanoparticles introduce additional channel of excitation decay. ► Light-harvesting may gain from the proper positioning of nanoshells. -- Abstract: The paper explores the theoretical possibility of affecting optical spectra and the quantum yield of the energy transfer in the peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from photosynthetic bacteria by placing a metal nanoparticle or a nanoshell nearby. An increased probability of the excitonic transition in the LH2 arises due to the borrowing of the oscillator strength from surface plasmons of the metal particle or the nanoshell. While both absorption and quenching of the excitations increase in the vicinity to a metal nanoparticle, having opposite effects, the total yield of the excitation transfer to reaction centers is shown to grow in the certain range of parameters.

  19. Effect of metal nanoparticles on energy spectra and optical properties of peripheral light-harvesting LH2 complexes from photosynthetic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goliney, I.Yu., E-mail: igoliney@kinr.kiev.ua [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 47 Nauki pr., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Sugakov, V.I. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 47 Nauki pr., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Valkunas, L. [Center for Physical Sciences and Technology, Savanoriu Ave. 231, 02300 Vilnius (Lithuania); Department of Theoretical Physics, Vilnius University, Sauletekio 9, Build. 3, 10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Vertsimakha, G.V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, 47 Nauki pr., 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Excitons of light-harvesting complexes (LH2) hybridize with plasmon modes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light absorption of LH2 is enhanced by a metal nanoparticle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using nanoshells allows reaching resonance between molecular and plasmons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Metal nanoparticles introduce additional channel of excitation decay. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Light-harvesting may gain from the proper positioning of nanoshells. -- Abstract: The paper explores the theoretical possibility of affecting optical spectra and the quantum yield of the energy transfer in the peripheral light-harvesting complexes (LH2) from photosynthetic bacteria by placing a metal nanoparticle or a nanoshell nearby. An increased probability of the excitonic transition in the LH2 arises due to the borrowing of the oscillator strength from surface plasmons of the metal particle or the nanoshell. While both absorption and quenching of the excitations increase in the vicinity to a metal nanoparticle, having opposite effects, the total yield of the excitation transfer to reaction centers is shown to grow in the certain range of parameters.

  20. BETA SPECTRA. I. Negatrons spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau Malonda, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1978-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 62 negatrons emitters have been computed introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. These spectra are plotted vs. energy, once normal i sed, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (Author)

  1. Restocking the optical designers' toolbox for next-generation wearable displays (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kress, Bernard C.

    2015-09-01

    Three years ago, industry and consumers learned that there was more to Head Mounted Displays (HMDs) than the long-lasting but steady market for defense or the market for gadget video player headsets: the first versions of Smart Glasses were introduced to the public. Since then, most major consumer electronics companies unveiled their own versions of Connected Glasses, Smart Glasses or Smart Eyewear, AR (Augmented Reality) and VR (Virtual Reality) headsets. This rush resulted in the build-up of a formidable zoo of optical technologies, each claiming to be best suited for the task on hand. Today, the question is not so much anymore "will the Smart Glass market happen?" but rather "which optical technologies will be best fitted for the various declinations of the existing wearable display market," one of the main declination being the Smart Glasses market.

  2. Studies of the underlying mechanisms for optical nonlinearities of blue phase liquid crystals (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Wei; Khoo, Iam Choon; Zhao, Shuo; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Ho, Tsung-Jui

    2015-10-01

    We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for nonlinear optical processes occurring in azobenzene-doped blue phase liquid crystals (BPLC), which exhibit two thermodynamically stable BPs: BPI and BPII. In coherent two wave-mixing experiments, a slow (minutes) and a fast (few milliseconds) side diffractions are observed. The underlying mechanisms were disclosed by monitoring the dynamics of grating formation and relaxation as well as by some supplementary experiments. We found the photothermal indexing and dye/LC intermolecular torque leading to lattice distortion to be the dominant mechanisms for the observed nonlinear response in BPLC. Moreover, the response time of the nonlinear optical process varied with operating phase. The rise time of the thermal indexing process was in good agreement with our findings on the temperature dependence of BP refractive index: τ(ISO) > τ(BPI) > τ(BPII). The relaxation time of the torque-induced lattice distortion was analogue to its electrostriction counterpart: τ'(BPI) > τ'(BPII). In a separate experiment, lattice swelling with selective reflection of direction changed from green to red was also observed. This was attributable to the isomerization-induced change in cholesteric pitch, which directly affects the lattice spacing. The phenomenon was confirmed by measuring the optical rotatory power of the BPLC.

  3. Recording of radiation-induced optical density changes in doped agarose gels with a CCD camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarte, B.J.; Jardine, P.A.; Van Doorn, T.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: Spatially resolved dose measurement with iron-doped agarose gels is continuing to be investigated for applications in radiotherapy dosimetry. It has previously been proposed to use optical methods, rather than MRI, for dose measurement with such gels and this has been investigated using a spectrophotometer (Appleby A and Leghrouz A, Med Phys, 18:309-312, 1991). We have previously studied the use of a pencil beam laser for such optical density measurement of gels and are currently investigating charge-coupled devices (CCD) camera imaging for the same purpose but with the advantages of higher data acquisition rates and potentially greater spatial resolution. The gels used in these studies were poured, irradiated and optically analysed in Perspex casts providing gel sections 1 cm thick and up to 20 cm x 30 cm in dimension. The gels were also infused with a metal indicator dye (xylenol orange) to render the radiation induced oxidation of the iron in the gel sensitive to optical radiation, specifically in the green spectral region. Data acquisition with the CCD camera involved illumination of the irradiated gel section with a diffuse white light source, with the light from the plane of the gel section focussed to the CCD array with a manual zoom lens. The light was also filtered with a green colour glass filter to maximise the contrast between unirradiated and irradiated gels. The CCD camera (EG and G Reticon MC4013) featured a 1024 x 1024 pixel array and was interfaced to a PC via a frame grabber acquisition board with 8 bit resolution. The performance of the gel dosimeter was appraised in mapping of physical and dynamic wedged 6 MV X-ray fields. The results from the CCD camera detection system were compared with both ionisation chamber data and laser based optical density measurements of the gels. Cross beam profiles were extracted from each measurement system at a particular depth (eg. 2.3 cm for the physical wedge field) for direct comparison. A

  4. Assessing sensory versus optogenetic network activation by combining (o)fMRI with optical Ca2+ recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Schwalm, Miriam; Prouvot, Pierre-Hugues; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; Fois, Consuelo; Pramanik, Gautam; Zimmer, Claus; Stroh, Albrecht

    2015-01-01

    Encoding of sensory inputs in the cortex is characterized by sparse neuronal network activation. Optogenetic stimulation has previously been combined with fMRI (ofMRI) to probe functional networks. However, for a quantitative optogenetic probing of sensory-driven sparse network activation, the level of similarity between sensory and optogenetic network activation needs to be explored. Here, we complement ofMRI with optic fiber-based population Ca2+ recordings for a region-specific readout of neuronal spiking activity in rat brain. Comparing Ca2+ responses to the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal upon sensory stimulation with increasing frequencies showed adaptation of Ca2+ transients contrasted by an increase of blood oxygenation level-dependent responses, indicating that the optical recordings convey complementary information on neuronal network activity to the corresponding hemodynamic response. To study the similarity of optogenetic and sensory activation, we quantified the density of cells expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and modeled light propagation in the tissue. We estimated the effectively illuminated volume and numbers of optogenetically stimulated neurons, being indicative of sparse activation. At the functional level, upon either sensory or optogenetic stimulation we detected single-peak short-latency primary Ca2+ responses with similar amplitudes and found that blood oxygenation level-dependent responses showed similar time courses. These data suggest that ofMRI can serve as a representative model for functional brain mapping. PMID:26661247

  5. Assessing sensory versus optogenetic network activation by combining (o)fMRI with optical Ca2+ recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Florian; Wachsmuth, Lydia; Schwalm, Miriam; Prouvot, Pierre-Hugues; Jubal, Eduardo Rosales; Fois, Consuelo; Pramanik, Gautam; Zimmer, Claus; Faber, Cornelius; Stroh, Albrecht

    2016-11-01

    Encoding of sensory inputs in the cortex is characterized by sparse neuronal network activation. Optogenetic stimulation has previously been combined with fMRI (ofMRI) to probe functional networks. However, for a quantitative optogenetic probing of sensory-driven sparse network activation, the level of similarity between sensory and optogenetic network activation needs to be explored. Here, we complement ofMRI with optic fiber-based population Ca 2+ recordings for a region-specific readout of neuronal spiking activity in rat brain. Comparing Ca 2+ responses to the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal upon sensory stimulation with increasing frequencies showed adaptation of Ca 2+ transients contrasted by an increase of blood oxygenation level-dependent responses, indicating that the optical recordings convey complementary information on neuronal network activity to the corresponding hemodynamic response. To study the similarity of optogenetic and sensory activation, we quantified the density of cells expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and modeled light propagation in the tissue. We estimated the effectively illuminated volume and numbers of optogenetically stimulated neurons, being indicative of sparse activation. At the functional level, upon either sensory or optogenetic stimulation we detected single-peak short-latency primary Ca 2+ responses with similar amplitudes and found that blood oxygenation level-dependent responses showed similar time courses. These data suggest that ofMRI can serve as a representative model for functional brain mapping. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Optical recording of neuronal activity with a genetically-encoded calcium indicator in anesthetized and freely moving mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Lütcke

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescent calcium (Ca2+ indicator proteins (FCIPs are promising tools for functional imaging of cellular activity in living animals. However, they have still not reached their full potential for in vivo imaging of neuronal activity due to limitations in expression levels, dynamic range, and sensitivity for reporting action potentials. Here, we report that viral expression of the ratiometric Ca2+ sensor yellow cameleon 3.60 (YC3.60 in pyramidal neurons of mouse barrel cortex enables in vivo measurement of neuronal activity with high dynamic range and sensitivity across multiple spatial scales. By combining juxtacellular recordings and two-photon imaging in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that YC3.60 can resolve single action potential (AP-evoked Ca2+ transients and reliably reports bursts of APs with negligible saturation. Spontaneous and whisker-evoked Ca2+ transients were detected in individual apical dendrites and somata as well as in local neuronal populations. Moreover, bulk measurements using wide-field imaging or fiber-optics revealed sensory-evoked YC3.60 signals in large areas of the barrel field. Fiber-optic recordings in particular enabled measurements in awake, freely moving mice and revealed complex Ca2+ dynamics, possibly reflecting different behavior-related brain states. Viral expression of YC3.60 - in combination with various optical techniques - thus opens a multitude of opportunities for functional studies of the neural basis of animal behavior, from dendrites to the levels of local and large-scale neuronal populations.

  7. Raman spectra of lithium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelik, V. S.; Bi, Dongxue; Voinov, Y. P.; Vodchits, A. I.; Gorshunov, B. P.; Yurasov, N. I.; Yurasova, I. I.

    2017-11-01

    The paper is devoted to the results of investigating the spontaneous Raman scattering spectra in the lithium compounds crystals in a wide spectral range by the fibre-optic spectroscopy method. We also present the stimulated Raman scattering spectra in the lithium hydroxide and lithium deuteride crystals obtained with the use of powerful laser source. The symmetry properties of the lithium hydroxide, lithium hydroxide monohydrate and lithium deuteride crystals optical modes were analyzed by means of the irreducible representations of the point symmetry groups. We have established the selection rules in the Raman and infrared absorption spectra of LiOH, LiOH·H2O and LiD crystals.

  8. Deformation Recording Process In Polymer-Metal Bilayers And Its Use For Optical Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornet, Jean A.

    1983-11-01

    A non-antireflective polymer-metal bilayer structure, encapsulated inside a closed cons-truction/is used for digital data storage in the Thomson-CSF Gigadisc. In this paper, a simple model is presented for microdeformation recording in the medium. This model enables a good understanding of the readout signal as a function of the recording power and leads to some practical consequences. Useful polymers and metallic layers are identified and the disc performance is reported. It is shown that recording using laser diodes can be performed at bit rate up to 14 Mbits.s-1 with a laser power of 7 mW at the disc entry face, in case of a 1200 rpm disc speed. Moreover a working range of 4 mW, as defined by a 3 dB attenuation, is demonstrated. Discs from pilot production exhibit raw bit error rates at the level of 2.10-5. For usual environmental conditions, the disc behaviour is compatible with shelf-and archival life at scale of 10 years. Finally, the processes for both layers deposition and disc construction are easy and cost effective. It is concluded that Giaadisc can successfully enter today the market place.

  9. Phenotype analysis of early risk factors from electronic medical records improves image-derived diagnostic classifiers for optic nerve pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaganti, Shikha; Nabar, Kunal P.; Nelson, Katrina M.; Mawn, Louise A.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2017-03-01

    We examine imaging and electronic medical records (EMR) of 588 subjects over five major disease groups that affect optic nerve function. An objective evaluation of the role of imaging and EMR data in diagnosis of these conditions would improve understanding of these diseases and help in early intervention. We developed an automated image processing pipeline that identifies the orbital structures within the human eyes from computed tomography (CT) scans, calculates structural size, and performs volume measurements. We customized the EMR-based phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) to derive diagnostic EMR phenotypes that occur at least two years prior to the onset of the conditions of interest from a separate cohort of 28,411 ophthalmology patients. We used random forest classifiers to evaluate the predictive power of image-derived markers, EMR phenotypes, and clinical visual assessments in identifying disease cohorts from a control group of 763 patients without optic nerve disease. Image-derived markers showed more predictive power than clinical visual assessments or EMR phenotypes. However, the addition of EMR phenotypes to the imaging markers improves the classification accuracy against controls: the AUC improved from 0.67 to 0.88 for glaucoma, 0.73 to 0.78 for intrinsic optic nerve disease, 0.72 to 0.76 for optic nerve edema, 0.72 to 0.77 for orbital inflammation, and 0.81 to 0.85 for thyroid eye disease. This study illustrates the importance of diagnostic context for interpretation of image-derived markers and the proposed PheWAS technique provides a flexible approach for learning salient features of patient history and incorporating these data into traditional machine learning analyses.

  10. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recorder using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent [Livermore, CA

    2011-11-22

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  11. Ultrafast chirped optical waveform recording using referenced heterodyning and a time microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Corey Vincent

    2010-06-15

    A new technique for capturing both the amplitude and phase of an optical waveform is presented. This technique can capture signals with many THz of bandwidths in a single shot (e.g., temporal resolution of about 44 fs), or be operated repetitively at a high rate. That is, each temporal window (or frame) is captured single shot, in real time, but the process may be run repeatedly or single-shot. This invention expands upon previous work in temporal imaging by adding heterodyning, which can be self-referenced for improved precision and stability, to convert frequency chirp (the second derivative of phase with respect to time) into a time varying intensity modulation. By also including a variety of possible demultiplexing techniques, this process is scalable to recoding continuous signals.

  12. An optical age chronology of late Quaternary extreme fluvial events recorded in Ugandan dambo soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, S.A.; Brown, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    There is little geochonological data on sedimentation in dambos (seasonally saturated, channel-less valley floors) found throughout Central and Southern Africa. Radiocarbon dating is problematic for dambos due to (i) oxidation of organic materials during dry seasons; and (ii) the potential for contemporary biological contamination of near-surface sediments. However, for luminescence dating the equatorial site and semi-arid climate facilitate grain bleaching, while the gentle terrain ensures shallow water columns, low turbidity, and relatively long surface exposures for transported grains prior to deposition and burial. For this study, we focused on dating sandy strata (indicative of high-energy fluvial events) at various positions and depths within a second-order dambo in central Uganda. Blue-light quartz optically stimulated luminescences (OSL) ages were compared with infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) and thermoluminescence (TL) ages from finer grains in the same sample. A total of 8 samples were dated, with 6 intervals obtained at ???35, 33, 16, 10.4, 8.4, and 5.9 ka. In general, luminescence ages were stratigraphically, geomorphically and ordinally consistent and most blue-light OSL ages could be correlated with well-dated climatic events registered either in Greenland ice cores or Lake Victoria sediments. Based upon OSL age correlations, we theorize that extreme fluvial dambo events occur primarily during relatively wet periods, often preceding humid-to-arid transitions. The optical ages reported in this study provide the first detailed chronology of dambo sedimentation, and we anticipate that further dambo work could provide a wealth of information on the paleohydrology of Central and Southern Africa. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The use of optical fibers in the Trans Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sposato, S. H.; Binns, W. R.; Dowkontt, P. F.; Epstein, J. W.; Hink, P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Klarmann, J.; Lawrence, D. J.; Barbier, L. M.; Christian, E. R.; Mitchell, J. W.; Streitmatter, R. E.; Nolfo, G. A. de; Mewaldt, R. A.; Shindler, S. M.; Waddington, C. J.

    1998-01-01

    TIGER, the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder, is a cosmic-ray balloon borne experiment that utilizes a scintillating Fiber Hodoscope/Time of Flight (TOF) counter. It was flown aboard a high altitude balloon on September 24, 1997. The objective of this experiment is to measure the elemental abundances of all nuclei within the charge range: 26≤Z≤40. This initial balloon flight will test the detector concept, which will be used in future balloon and space experiments. The instrument and the fiber detector are described

  14. Recording and Modelling of MONUMENTS' Interior Space Using Range and Optical Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiadis, Charalampos; Patias, Petros; Tsioukas, Vasilios

    2016-06-01

    Three dimensional modelling of artefacts and building interiors is a highly active research field in our days. Several techniques are being utilized to perform such a task, spanning from traditional surveying techniques and photogrammetry to structured light scanners, laser scanners and so on. New technological advancements in both hardware and software create new recording techniques, tools and approaches. In this paper we present a new recording and modelling approach based on the SwissRanger SR4000 range camera coupled with a Canon 400D dSLR camera. The hardware component of our approach consists of a fixed base, which encloses the range and SLR cameras. The two sensors are fully calibrated and registered to each other thus we were able to produce colorized point clouds acquired from the range camera. In this paper we present the initial design and calibration of the system along with experimental data regarding the accuracy of the proposed approach. We are also providing results regarding the modelling of interior spaces and artefacts accompanied with accuracy tests from other modelling approaches based on photogrammetry and laser scanning.

  15. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  16. Statistical identification of stimulus-activated network nodes in multi-neuron voltage-sensitive dye optical recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathiazar, Elham; Anemuller, Jorn; Kretzberg, Jutta

    2016-08-01

    Voltage-Sensitive Dye (VSD) imaging is an optical imaging method that allows measuring the graded voltage changes of multiple neurons simultaneously. In neuroscience, this method is used to reveal networks of neurons involved in certain tasks. However, the recorded relative dye fluorescence changes are usually low and signals are superimposed by noise and artifacts. Therefore, establishing a reliable method to identify which cells are activated by specific stimulus conditions is the first step to identify functional networks. In this paper, we present a statistical method to identify stimulus-activated network nodes as cells, whose activities during sensory network stimulation differ significantly from the un-stimulated control condition. This method is demonstrated based on voltage-sensitive dye recordings from up to 100 neurons in a ganglion of the medicinal leech responding to tactile skin stimulation. Without relying on any prior physiological knowledge, the network nodes identified by our statistical analysis were found to match well with published cell types involved in tactile stimulus processing and to be consistent across stimulus conditions and preparations.

  17. LO-TO splittings, effective charges and interactions in electro-optic meta-nitroaniline crystal as studied by polarized IR reflection and transmission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, M. M.; Le Calvé, N.; Romain, F.; Pasquier, B.

    1994-10-01

    The polarized IR reflection spectra of the meta-nitroaniline ( m-NA) single crystal along the a, b and c crystallographic axes as well as the b and c polarized transmission spectra have been measured in the 100-400 cm -1 region. The LO-TO splitting values have been calculated from the reflection spectra by fitting them with the four parameter dielectric function. The dipole moment derivatives, relevant to dynamic effective charges, of the vibrations have also been calculated and used to check the applicability of the oriented gas model (OGM) to reflection spectra. The discrepancies from the OGM have been discussed in terms of vibronic couplings, weak hydrogen bondings (HB) and intramolecular charge transfer.

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  19. Investigating the optical modes of InxGa1xN alloy and In0.5Ga0.5N/GaN MQW in far-infrared reflectivity spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirjalili, G.; Amraei, R.

    2006-01-01

    Optical properties of In x Ga 1 x N alloy and In 0 .5Ga 0 .5N/GaN multi quantum wells have been investigated in the region of far infrared. Far-IR reflectivity spectra of In 0 .5Ga 0 .5N/GaN multi quantum wells on GaAs substrate have been obtained by oblique incidence p- and s- polarization light using effective medium approximation. The spectra and the dielectric functions response give a good information about the phonon and plasmon contribution in doped MQW as well as the mole fraction of compounds in the alloys. The changes in position of optical modes are good tools for measurement of the amount of free carrier and the amount of mole fraction in the samples. During study of In x Ga 1 x N reflectivity spectra, two distinct reststrahl bands with frequency near those of pure InN and GaN were observed over entire composition range. Each band shifts to lower frequencies and decreases in amplitude as the concentration of corresponding compound in alloy decreased. Analysis of dielectric function gives the TO-like and LO-like mode frequencies. The changes in LO mode frequencies, due to coupling of phonon-plasmon, have been observed

  20. Extraction of compositional and hydration information of sulfates from laser-induced plasma spectra recorded under Mars atmospheric conditions — Implications for ChemCam investigations on Curiosity rover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobron, Pablo; Wang, Alian; Sobron, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Given the volume of spectral data required for providing accurate compositional information and thereby insight in mineralogy and petrology from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements, fast data processing tools are a must. This is particularly true during the tactical operations of rover-based planetary exploration missions such as the Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, which will carry a remote LIBS spectrometer in its science payload. We have developed: an automated fast pre-processing sequence of algorithms for converting a series of LIBS spectra (typically 125) recorded from a single target into a reliable SNR-enhanced spectrum; a dedicated routine to quantify its spectral features; and a set of calibration curves using standard hydrous and multi-cation sulfates. These calibration curves allow deriving the elemental compositions and the degrees of hydration of various hydrous sulfates, one of the two major types of secondary minerals found on Mars. Our quantitative tools are built upon calibration-curve modeling, through the correlation of the elemental concentrations and the peak areas of the atomic emission lines observed in the LIBS spectra of standard samples. At present, we can derive the elemental concentrations of K, Na, Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, S, O, and H in sulfates, as well as the hydration degrees of Ca- and Mg-sulfates, from LIBS spectra obtained in both Earth atmosphere and Mars atmospheric conditions in a Planetary Environment and Analysis Chamber (PEACh). In addition, structural information can be potentially obtained for various Fe-sulfates. - Highlights: ► Routines for LIBS spectral data fast automated processing. ► Identification of elements and determination of the elemental composition. ► Calibration curves for sulfate samples in Earth and Mars atmospheric conditions. ► Fe curves probably related to the crystalline structure of Fe-sulfates. ► Extraction of degree of hydration in hydrous Mg-, Ca-, and Fe-sulfates.

  1. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  2. High-density optical data storage based on grey level recording in photobleaching polymers using two-photon excitation under ultrashort pulse and continuous wave illumination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganic, D.; Day, D.; Gu, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Two-photon excitation has been employed in three-dimensional optical data storage by many researchers in an attempt to increase the storage density of a given material. The probability of two-photon excitation is proportional to the squared intensity of the incident light; this effect produces excitation only within a small region of the focus spot. Another advantage of two-photon excitation is the use of infrared illumination, which results in the reduction of scattering and enables the recording of layers at a deep depth in a thick material. The storage density thus obtained using multi-layered bit optical recording can be as high as Tbit/cm 3 . To increase this storage density even further, grey level recording can be employed. This method utilises variable exposure times of a laser beam focused into a photobleaching sample. As a result, the bleached area possesses a certain pixel value which depends upon the exposure time; this can increase the storage density many times depending upon the number of grey levels used. Our experiment shows that it is possible to attain grey level recording using both ultrashort pulsed and continuous-wave illumination. Although continuous wave illumination requires an average power of approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that for ultrashort pulsed illumination, it is a preferred method of recording due to its relatively low system cost and compactness. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  3. Power spectra of currents off Bombay

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    Current measurements were carried out using a recording current meter across the continental shelf off Bombay, Maharashtra, India at 4 stations from an anchored ship. Power spectra were computed for selected lengths of records. Spectral energy...

  4. Vibrational analysis of various irotopes of L-alanyl-L-alanine in aqueous solution: Vibrational Absorption (VA), Vibrational Circular Dichroism (VCD), Raman and Raman Optical Activity (ROA) Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jalkanen, Karl J.; Nieminen, R.M.; Knapp-Mohammady, M.

    2003-01-01

    . DFT Becke3LYP/6-31G* theory has been used to determine the geometry, Hessian, atomic polar tensors (APT), and atomic axial tensors (AAT), and the electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability derivatives (EDEDPD), which are required for us to simulate the VA, VCD, and Raman spectra. The electric...

  5. Rapid, nondestructive estimation of surface polymer layer thickness using attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy and synthetic spectra derived from optical principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, B André; Guiney, Linda M; Loose, Christopher

    2012-11-01

    We have developed a rapid, nondestructive analytical method that estimates the thickness of a surface polymer layer with high precision but unknown accuracy using a single attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) measurement. Because the method is rapid, nondestructive, and requires no sample preparation, it is ideal as a process analytical technique. Prior to implementation, the ATR FT-IR spectrum of the substrate layer pure component and the ATR FT-IR and real refractive index spectra of the surface layer pure component must be known. From these three input spectra a synthetic mid-infrared spectral matrix of surface layers 0 nm to 10,000 nm thick on substrate is created de novo. A minimum statistical distance match between a process sample's ATR FT-IR spectrum and the synthetic spectral matrix provides the thickness of that sample. We show that this method can be used to successfully estimate the thickness of polysulfobetaine surface modification, a hydrated polymeric surface layer covalently bonded onto a polyetherurethane substrate. A database of 1850 sample spectra was examined. Spectrochemical matrix-effect unknowns, such as the nonuniform and molecularly novel polysulfobetaine-polyetherurethane interface, were found to be minimal. A partial least squares regression analysis of the database spectra versus their thicknesses as calculated by the method described yielded an estimate of precision of ±52 nm.

  6. Reaching record-low β* at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using a novel scheme of collimator settings and optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, R.; Bracco, C.; De Maria, R.; Giovannozzi, M.; Mereghetti, A.; Mirarchi, D.; Redaelli, S.; Quaranta, E.; Salvachua, B.

    2017-03-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN is built to collide intense proton beams with an unprecedented energy of 7 TeV. The design stored energy per beam of 362 MJ makes the LHC beams highly destructive, so that any beam losses risk to cause quenches of superconducting magnets or damage to accelerator components. Collimators are installed to protect the machine and they define a minimum normalized aperture, below which no other element is allowed. This imposes a limit on the achievable luminosity, since when squeezing β* (the β-function at the collision point) to smaller values for increased luminosity, the β-function in the final focusing system increases. This leads to a smaller normalized aperture that risks to go below the allowed collimation aperture. In the first run of the LHC, this was the main limitation on β*, which was constrained to values above the design specification. In this article, we show through theoretical and experimental studies how tighter collimator openings and a new optics with specific phase-advance constraints allows a β* as small as 40 cm, a factor 2 smaller than β*=80 cm used in 2015 and significantly below the design value β*=55 cm, in spite of a lower beam energy. The proposed configuration with β*=40 cm has been successfully put into operation and has been used throughout 2016 as the LHC baseline. The decrease in β* compared to 2015 has been an essential contribution to reaching and surpassing, in 2016, the LHC design luminosity for the first time, and to accumulating a record-high integrated luminosity of around 40 fb-1 in one year, in spite of using less bunches than in the design.

  7. Spectra from 2.5-15 μm of tissue phantom materials, optical clearing agents and ex vivo human skin: implications for depth profiling of human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viator, John A; Choi, Bernard; Peavy, George M; Kimel, Sol; Nelson, J Stuart

    2003-01-01

    Infrared measurements have been used to profile or image biological tissue, including human skin. Usually, analysis of such measurements has assumed that infrared absorption is due to water and collagen. Such an assumption may be reasonable for soft tissue, but introduction of exogenous agents into skin or the measurement of tissue phantoms has raised the question of their infrared absorption spectrum. We used Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection mode to measure the infrared absorption spectra, in the range of 2-15 μm, of water, polyacrylamide, Intralipid, collagen gels, four hyperosmotic clearing agents (glycerol, 1,3-butylene glycol, trimethylolpropane, Topicare TM ), and ex vivo human stratum corneum and dermis. The absorption spectra of the phantom materials were similar to that of water, although additional structure was noted in the range of 6-10 μm. The absorption spectra of the clearing agents were more complex, with molecular absorption bands dominating between 6 and 12 μm. Dermis was similar to water, with collagen structure evident in the 6-10 μm range. Stratum corneum had a significantly lower absorption than dermis due to a lower content of water. These results suggest that the assumption of water-dominated absorption in the 2.5-6 μm range is valid. At longer wavelengths, clearing agent absorption spectra differ significantly from the water spectrum. This spectral information can be used in pulsed photothermal radiometry or utilized in the interpretation of reconstructions in which a constant μ ir is used. In such cases, overestimating μ ir will underestimate chromophore depth and vice versa, although the effect is dependent on actual chromophore depth. (note)

  8. IDEN2-A program for visual identification of spectral lines and energy levels in optical spectra of atoms and simple molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarov, V. I.; Kramida, A.; Vokhmentsev, M. Ya.

    2018-04-01

    The article describes a Java program that can be used in a user-friendly way to visually identify spectral lines observed in complex spectra with theoretically predicted transitions between atomic or molecular energy levels. The program arranges various information about spectral lines and energy levels in such a way that line identification and determination of positions of experimentally observed energy levels become much easier tasks that can be solved fast and efficiently.

  9. Unified explanation for optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of Cr sup 3 sup + ions in LiNbO sub 3 crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, M G

    1997-01-01

    An approximately microscopic model is developed for the Cr sup 3 sup + -6O sup 2 sup - cluster and applied to study the optical data and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) g-factors and the zero-field splitting D-value in LiNbO sub 3 :Cr sup 3 sup +. Analysis of the optical and EPR data indicate that Cr sup 3 sup + ions substitute at Nb sites and Nb-vacancy (Li) sites simultaneously. The results are in good agreement with the experimental findings. This means that the optical and EPR data and the substitution site of Cr sup 3 sup + ions in LiNbO sub 3 can be interpreted uniformly. (author)

  10. Novel aluminum near field transducer and highly integrated micro-nano-optics design for heat-assisted ultra-high-density magnetic recording

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Lingyun; Hsiang, Thomas Y; Stoddart, Paul R

    2014-01-01

    Heat-assisted magnetic recording (HAMR) has attracted increasing attention as one of the most promising future techniques for ultra-high-density magnetic recording beyond the current limit of 1 Tb in −2 . Localized surface plasmon resonance plays an important role in HAMR by providing a highly focused optical spot for heating the recording medium within a small volume. In this work, we report an aluminum near-field transducer (NFT) based on a novel bow-tie design. At an operating wavelength of 450 nm, the proposed transducer can generate a 35 nm spot size inside the magnetic recording medium, corresponding to a recording density of up to 2 Tb in −2 . A highly integrated micro-nano-optics design is also proposed to ensure process compatibility and corrosion-resistance of the aluminum NFT. Our work has demonstrated the feasibility of using aluminum as a plasmonic material for HAMR, with advantages of reduced cost and improved efficiency compared to traditional noble metals. (paper)

  11. An investigation on the effect of gamma-irradiation on the optical absorption spectra in Cu(II) doped ammonium Tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu El-Fadl, A.; Mohamad, G.A.; Abd El-Sttar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optical transmittance measurements were carried out on Ammonium tetrachlorozincate (ATZC) crystals doped with small concentrations of Cu 2+ ions and irradiated with different doses of gamma-radiation. The absorption coefficient (alpha) and the extinction coefficient (K) of unirradiated and irradiated ATZC crystals were calculated. Valued of the allowed indirect optical energy gap (E g ) of ATZC were calculated as a function of gamma-dose. The effect of gamma irradiation is to increase in the absorption coefficient value and to decrease in E g value. The results could be explained in the fact that gamma irradiation produces defects of ionizing type because of internal irradiation with photon or Compton electrons

  12. Pulse radiolysis experiments: synthesis and analysis of composite spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuler, R H; Buzzard, G K [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, Pa. (USA). Dept. of Chemistry

    1976-01-01

    Methods are outlined for compiling optical spectra obtained in pulse radiolysis experiments in a form suitable for detailed synthesis and analysis of composite spectra. The experimental data are processed with a programmable calculator having a cassette recorder for the storage of the output data files and a peripheral plotter. The spectra are first smoothed by fitting them parabolically segment by segment. The overall spectrum is then assembled in digital form by interpolating the fitted data on a 1 nm grid and the results are stored on cassette files for further processing. Composite spectra can be readily calculated and plotted from the data on these files or known components can be subtracted from observed spectra to examine underlying contributions. The use of the fairly simple data processing methods described here permits an interactive mode of operation by the investigator which can maximize insight into details of the various contributions to an observed spectrum. Several examples of the use of these methods in conjunction with data obtained with a computer controlled pulse radiolysis data acquisition system are given.

  13. FT-IR reflection spectra of single crystals: resolving phonons of different symmetry without using polarised radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    METODIJA NAJDOSKI

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR reflection spectra, asquired at nearnormal incidence, were recorded from single crystals belonging to six crystal systems: CsCr(SO42.12H2O (alum, cubic, K2CuCl2·2H2O (Mitscherlichite, tetragonal, CaCO3 (calcite, hexagonal, KHSO4 (mercallite, orthorhombic, CaSO4·2H2O (gypsum, monoclinic and CuSO4·5H2O (chalcantite, triclinic. The acquired IR reflection spectra were further transformed into absorption spectra, employing the Kramers-Kronig transformation. Except for the cubic alums, the spectra strongly depend on the crystal face from which they were recorded; this is a consequence of anisotropy. Phonons of a given symmetry (E-species, in tetragonal/hexagonal and B-species, in monoclinic crystals may be resolved without using a polariser. The spectrum may be simplified in the case of an orthorhombic crystal, as well. The longitudinal-optical (LO and transversal-optical (TO mode frequencies were calculated in the case of optically isotropic and the simplified spectra of optically uniaxial crystals.

  14. The comparison of the optical spectra of carbon coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition measured by the photothermal deflection spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Remeš, Zdeněk; Pham, T.T.; Varga, Marián; Kromka, Alexander; Mao, H.B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2015), s. 321-324 ISSN 2164-6627 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12186 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : nanocrystalline diamond * amorphous carbon * magnetron sputtering * CVD * optical spectroscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism

  15. Electronic structure optical spectra and contact hyperfine parameters of CoF64- complex in LiF and KMgF3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, E.L. de.

    1975-12-01

    The electronic structure, the optical absorption bands and the magnetic hyperfine contact terms have been calculated for CoF 6 4- cluster in LiF and KMgF 3 using the Self-Consistent-Field Multiple-Scattering Xα Method. The results obtained are compared with experiment and indicate that this scheme is convenient to treat such complex problems. (Author) [pt

  16. Optical band gap and Raman spectra in AxB0.2-x(TeO2)0.8 glasses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ožďanová, J.; Tichá, H.; Tichý, Ladislav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 5 (2010), s. 1024-1029 ISSN 1454-4164 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : telluride glasses * optical band gap * Raman scattering Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2010 http://joam.inoe.ro/index.php?option=magazine&op=view&idu=2453&catid=50

  17. Composite Spectra Paper 1: HR 6902

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tribpo

    spectra; in many cases we have used the maximum width permitted by the optics of ... 10 mЕ, corresponding to 1 µm the plate, are the norm. ..... an inequality ..... on the spectra of HR 6902, we have thought it appropriate to weight the four ...

  18. THE DISCOVERY OF PERIODIC MODULATIONS IN THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF GALAXIES, POSSIBLY DUE TO ULTRARAPID LIGHT BURSTS FROM THEIR MASSIVE CENTRAL BLACK HOLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borra, Ermanno F., E-mail: borra@phy.ulaval.ca [Centre d' Optique, Photonique et Laser, Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, G1K 7P4 Quebec (Canada)

    2013-09-10

    A Fourier transform analysis of 2.5 million spectra in the SDSS survey was carried out to detect periodic modulations contained in the intensity versus frequency spectrum. A statistically significant signal was found for 223 galaxies, while the spectra of 0.9 million galaxies were observed. A plot of the periods as a function of redshift clearly shows that the effect is real without any doubt, because the modulations are quantized at two base periods that increase with redshift in two very tight parallel linear relations. We suggest that this result could be caused by light bursts separated by times on the order of 10{sup -13} s, but other causes may be possible. We investigate the hypothesis that the modulation is generated by the Fourier transform of spectral lines, but conclude that this hypothesis is not valid. Although the light burst suggestion implies absurdly high temperatures, it is supported by the fact that the Crab pulsar also has extremely short unresolved pulses (<0.5 ns) that imply similarly high temperatures. Furthermore, the radio spectrum of the Crab pulsar also has spectral bands similar to those that have been detected. Finally, decreasing the signal-to-noise threshold of detection gives results consistent with beamed signals having a small beam divergence, as expected from non-thermal sources that send a jet, like those seen in pulsars. Considering that galaxy centers contain massive black holes, exotic black hole physics may be responsible for the spectral modulation. However, at this stage, this idea is only a hypothesis to be confirmed with further work.

  19. Explanation of earthquake response spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, John

    2017-01-01

    This is a set of five slides explaining how earthquake response spectra are derived from strong-motion records and simple models of structures and their purpose within seismic design and assessment. It dates from about 2002 and I have used it in various introductory lectures on engineering seismology.

  20. Investigation of glutathione-derived electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions and their role in defining Grx5 [2Fe-2S] cluster optical spectra and transfer chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sambuddha; Bonfio, Claudia; Mansy, Sheref S; Cowan, J A

    2018-03-01

    Human glutaredoxin 5 (Grx5) is one of the core components of the Isc (iron-sulfur cluster) assembly and trafficking machinery, and serves as an intermediary cluster carrier, putatively delivering cluster from the Isu scaffold protein to target proteins. The tripeptide glutathione is intimately involved in this role, providing cysteinyl coordination to the iron center of the Grx5-bound [2Fe-2S] cluster. Grx5 has a well-defined glutathione-binding pocket with protein amino acid residues providing many ionic and hydrogen binding contacts to the bound glutathione. In this report, we investigated the importance of these interactions in cluster chirality and exchange reactivity by systematically perturbing the crucial contacts by use of natural and non-natural amino acid substitutions to disrupt the binding contacts from both the protein and glutathione. Native Grx5 could be reconstituted with all of the glutathione analogs used, as well as other thiol ligands, such as DTT or L-cysteine, by in vitro chemical reconstitution, and the holo proteins were found to transfer [2Fe-2S] cluster to apo ferredoxin 1 at comparable rates. However, the circular dichroism spectra of these derivatives displayed prominent differences that reflect perturbations in local cluster chirality. These studies provided a detailed molecular understanding of glutathione-protein interactions in holo Grx5 that define both cluster spectroscopy and exchange chemistry.

  1. Comparison of linear and nonlinear optical spectra of various ZnO epitaxial layers and of bulk material obtained by different experimental techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priller, H.; Brueckner, J.; Klingshirn, C.; Kalt, H. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Karlsruhe, Wolfgang-Gaede-Str. 1, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gruber, Th.; Waag, A. [Abteilung Halbleiterphysik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee 45, 89081 Ulm (Germany); Ko, H.J.; Yao, T. [Institute for Material Research, Tohoku University, Katahira 2-1-1, Aoba-Ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)

    2004-03-01

    We investigate ZnO epitaxial layers grown by MBE (Molecular Beam Epitaxy) and MOVPE (Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy) techniques. The samples show similar optical behavior in temperature dependent photoluminescence measurements, reflection and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy in the low density regime. High excitation measurements show different behavior. While the MBE sample leads to stimulated emission from the exciton-exciton-scattering, an electron hole plasma is formed in the MOVPE sample which leads to stimulated emission at higher excitation intensities. The gain value measured by the variable stripe length method is much higher for the MBE grown sample. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  2. Response spectra in alluvial soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, A.R.; Paul, D.K.

    1975-01-01

    For aseismic design of structures, the ground motion data is assumed either in the form of ground acceleration as a function of time or indirectly in the form of response spectra. Though the response spectra approach has limitations like not being applicable for nonlinear problems, it is usually used for structures like nuclear power plants. Fifty accelerograms recorded at alluvial sites have been processed. Since different empirical formulas relating acceleration with magnitude and distance give a wide scatter of values, peak ground acceleration alone cannot be the parameter as is assumed by a number of authors. The spectra corresponding to 5% damping have been normalised with respect to three parameters, namely, peak ground acceleration, peak ground velocity and a nondimensional quantity ad/v 2 . Envelopee of maxima and minima as well as average response spectra has been obtained. A comparison with the USAEC spectra has been made. A relation between ground acceleration, ground velocity and ad/v 2 has been obtained which would nearly give the same magnification of the response. A design response spectra for alluvial soils has been recommended. (author)

  3. Optical properties of samarium doped zinc–tellurite glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Optical absorption spectra of these glasses were recorded in the range 300–700 nm at room ... cause of their potential as hosts of rare earth elements for ... nature of these glasses was examined by X-ray diffraction ... absorption coefficient).

  4. Dual Optical Recordings for Action Potentials and Calcium Handling in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Models of Cardiac Arrhythmias Using Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, LouJin; Awari, Daniel W.; Han, Elizabeth Y.; Uche-Anya, Eugenia; Park, Seon-Hye E.; Yabe, Yoko A.; Chung, Wendy K.

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency has been used to investigate disease mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutics. However, the methods used for reprogramming, in vitro differentiation, and phenotyping are still complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. To address the limitations, we first optimized a protocol for reprogramming of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes into pluripotency using single lipofection and the episomal vectors in a 24-well plate format. This method allowed us to generate multiple lines of integration-free and feeder-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from seven patients with cardiac diseases and three controls. Second, we differentiated human iPSCs derived from patients with Timothy syndrome into cardiomyocytes using a monolayer differentiation method. We found that Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes showed slower, irregular contractions and abnormal calcium handling compared with the controls. The results are consistent with previous reports using a retroviral method for reprogramming and an embryoid body-based method for cardiac differentiation. Third, we developed an efficient approach for recording the action potentials and calcium transients simultaneously in control and patient cardiomyocytes using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, ArcLight and R-GECO1. The dual optical recordings enabled us to observe prolonged action potentials and abnormal calcium handling in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes. We confirmed that roscovitine rescued the phenotypes in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes and that these findings were consistent with previous studies using conventional electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging with dyes. The approaches using our optimized methods and dual optical recordings will improve iPSC applicability for disease modeling to investigate mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias and to test potential therapeutics. PMID:25769651

  5. Thermal characteristics, Raman spectra, optical and structural properties of TiO2-Bi2O3-B2O3-TeO2 glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nupur; Khanna, Atul; Gonzàlez, Fernando; Iordanova, Reni

    2017-05-01

    Tellurite and borotellurite glasses containing Bi2O3 and TiO2 were prepared and structure-property correlations were carried out by density measurements, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Raman and UV-visible spectroscopy. Titanium tellurite glasses require high melt-cooling rates and were fabricated by splat quenching. On adding B2O3, the glass forming ability (GFA) enhances, and glasses could be synthesized at lower quenching rates. The density of glasses shows a direct correlation with molecular mass of the constituents. UV-visible studies were used to determine the optical band gap and refractive index. Raman studies found that the co-ordination number of tellurium ions with oxygen (NTe-O) decreases with the increase in B2O3 as well as Bi2O3 content while, TiO2 produce only a small decrease in NTe-O, which explains the lower GFA of titanium tellurite glasses that do not contain Bi2O3 and B2O3. DSC studies show that the glass transition temperature (Tg) increases with B2O3 and TiO2 concentrations and that Tg correlates well with bond enthalpy of the metal oxides.

  6. Electronic Document Imaging and Optical Storage Systems for Local Governments: An Introduction. Local Government Records Technical Information Series. Number 21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stanley F.

    This publication introduces electronic document imaging systems and provides guidance for local governments in New York in deciding whether such systems should be adopted for their own records and information management purposes. It advises local governments on how to develop plans for using such technology by discussing its advantages and…

  7. Beta spectra. II-Positron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grau, A.; Garcia-Torano, E.

    1981-01-01

    Using the Fermi theory of beta decay, the beta spectra for 30 positron emitters have been computed, introducing a correction factor for unique forbidden transitions. The spectra are ploted vs. energy, once normalised, and tabulated with the related Fermi functions. The average and median energies are calculated. (author)

  8. Emissive spectra of shock-heated argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Jingyou; Gu Yan; Peng Qixian; Bai Yulin; Li Ping

    2003-01-01

    To study the radiant properties of argon under weak shock compression, an aluminum target filled with gaseous argon at ambient states was impacted by a tungsten alloy projectile which was launched from a two-stage light gun to 2.00 km/s. The radiant signals of single shock-compressed argon were recorded by a six-channel pyrometer and oscilloscopes, which varied with time linearly for the five channels from 405 nm to 700 nm and exponentially for the channel 800 nm, and the corresponding velocity of shock wave was determined to be 4.10 ± 0.09 km/s. By the present experiment, it has been shown that the absorbability of the shock-heated argon is low for visual light and the optical depths of argon gas turn from thin to thick as wavelengths gradually increase. The time-resolved spectra in the rising-front of the radiant signal in the re-shocked argon were recorded by means of an OMA, and strong emissive spectrum bands near 450 nm light-wave length but no linear spectrum were found. The emissive spectrum properties of shock-compression argon were qualitatively explained by the state parameters and ionization degree

  9. A high-speed, reconfigurable, channel- and time-tagged photon arrival recording system for intensity-interferometry and quantum optics experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girish, B. S.; Pandey, Deepak; Ramachandran, Hema

    2017-08-01

    We present a compact, inexpensive multichannel module, APODAS (Avalanche Photodiode Output Data Acquisition System), capable of detecting 0.8 billion photons per second and providing real-time recording on a computer hard-disk, of channel- and time-tagged information of the arrival of upto 0.4 billion photons per second. Built around a Virtex-5 Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) unit, APODAS offers a temporal resolution of 5 nanoseconds with zero deadtime in data acquisition, utilising an efficient scheme for time and channel tagging and employing Gigabit ethernet for the transfer of data. Analysis tools have been developed on a Linux platform for multi-fold coincidence studies and time-delayed intensity interferometry. As illustrative examples, the second-order intensity correlation function ( g 2) of light from two commonly used sources in quantum optics —a coherent laser source and a dilute atomic vapour emitting spontaneously, constituting a thermal source— are presented. With easy reconfigurability and with no restriction on the total record length, APODAS can be readily used for studies over various time scales. This is demonstrated by using APODAS to reveal Rabi oscillations on nanosecond time scales in the emission of ultracold atoms, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to measure the second-order correlation function on the millisecond time scales from tailored light sources. The efficient and versatile performance of APODAS promises its utility in diverse fields, like quantum optics, quantum communication, nuclear physics, astrophysics and biology.

  10. High-speed, random-access fluorescence microscopy: I. High-resolution optical recording with voltage-sensitive dyes and ion indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullen, A; Patel, S S; Saggau, P

    1997-07-01

    The design and implementation of a high-speed, random-access, laser-scanning fluorescence microscope configured to record fast physiological signals from small neuronal structures with high spatiotemporal resolution is presented. The laser-scanning capability of this nonimaging microscope is provided by two orthogonal acousto-optic deflectors under computer control. Each scanning point can be randomly accessed and has a positioning time of 3-5 microseconds. Sampling time is also computer-controlled and can be varied to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. Acquisition rates up to 200k samples/s at 16-bit digitizing resolution are possible. The spatial resolution of this instrument is determined by the minimal spot size at the level of the preparation (i.e., 2-7 microns). Scanning points are selected interactively from a reference image collected with differential interference contrast optics and a video camera. Frame rates up to 5 kHz are easily attainable. Intrinsic variations in laser light intensity and scanning spot brightness are overcome by an on-line signal-processing scheme. Representative records obtained with this instrument by using voltage-sensitive dyes and calcium indicators demonstrate the ability to make fast, high-fidelity measurements of membrane potential and intracellular calcium at high spatial resolution (2 microns) without any temporal averaging.

  11. OptoZIF Drive: a 3D printed implant and assembly tool package for neural recording and optical stimulation in freely moving mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, David S.; Schroeder, Joseph B.; Telian, Gregory I.; Zhang, Zhengyang; Sunil, Smrithi; Ritt, Jason T.

    2016-12-01

    Objective. Behavioral neuroscience studies in freely moving rodents require small, light-weight implants to facilitate neural recording and stimulation. Our goal was to develop an integrated package of 3D printed parts and assembly aids for labs to rapidly fabricate, with minimal training, an implant that combines individually positionable microelectrodes, an optical fiber, zero insertion force (ZIF-clip) headstage connection, and secondary recording electrodes, e.g. for electromyography (EMG). Approach. Starting from previous implant designs that position recording electrodes using a control screw, we developed an implant where the main drive body, protective shell, and non-metal components of the microdrives are 3D printed in parallel. We compared alternative shapes and orientations of circuit boards for electrode connection to the headstage, in terms of their size, weight, and ease of wire insertion. We iteratively refined assembly methods, and integrated additional assembly aids into the 3D printed casing. Main results. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the OptoZIF Drive by performing real time optogenetic feedback in behaving mice. A novel feature of the OptoZIF Drive is its vertical circuit board, which facilities direct ZIF-clip connection. This feature requires angled insertion of an optical fiber that still can exit the drive from the center of a ring of recording electrodes. We designed an innovative 2-part protective shell that can be installed during the implant surgery to facilitate making additional connections to the circuit board. We use this feature to show that facial EMG in mice can be used as a control signal to lock stimulation to the animal’s motion, with stable EMG signal over several months. To decrease assembly time, reduce assembly errors, and improve repeatability, we fabricate assembly aids including a drive holder, a drill guide, an implant fixture for microelectode ‘pinning’, and a gold plating fixture. Significance. The

  12. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  13. Optically stimulated luminescence dating as a tool for calculating sedimentation rates in Chinese loess: comparisons with grain-size records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stevens, Thomas; Lu, HY

    2009-01-01

    Understanding loess sedimentation rates is crucial for constraining past atmospheric dust dynamics, regional climatic change and local depositional environments. However, the derivation of loess sedimentation rates is complicated by the lack of available methods for independent calculation......) the influences on sediment grain-size and accumulation; and (ii) their relationship through time and across the depositional region. This uncertainty has led to the widespread use of assumptions concerning the relationship between sedimentation rate and grain-size in order to derive age models and climate...... reconstructions. To address this uncertainty, detailed independent age models, based on optically stimulated luminescence dating, undertaken at 10 to 40 cm intervals at five sections across the Loess Plateau in China, have been used to calculate sedimentation rates and make comparisons with grain-size changes...

  14. Rewritable phase-change optical recording in Ge2Sb2Te5 films induced by picosecond laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, J.; Schropp, A.; Solis, J.; Afonso, C.N.; Wuttig, M.

    2004-01-01

    The phase transformation dynamics induced in Ge 2 Sb 2 Te 5 films by picosecond laser pulses were studied using real-time reflectivity measurements with subnanosecond resolution. Evidence was found that the thermal diffusivity of the substrate plays a crucial role in determining the ability of the films to crystallize and amorphize. A film/substrate configuration with optimized heat flow conditions for ultrafast phase cycling with picosecond laser pulses was designed and produced. In this system, we achieved reversible phase transformations with large optical contrast (>20%) using single laser pulses with a duration of 30 ps within well-defined fluence windows. The amorphization (writing) process is completed within less than 1 ns, whereas crystallization (erasing) needs approximately 13 ns to be completed

  15. General Notes on Processes and Their Spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The frequency spectrum performs one of the main characteristics of a process. The aim of the paper is to show the coherence between the process and its own spectrum and how the behaviour and properties of a process itself can be deduced from its spectrum. Processes are categorized and general principles of their spectra calculation and recognition are given. The main stress is put on power spectra of electric and optic signals, as they also perform a kind of processes. These spectra can be directly measured, observed and examined by means of spectral analyzers and they are very important characteristics which can not be omitted at transmission techniques in telecommunication technologies. Further, the paper also deals with non electric processes, mainly with processes and spectra at mass servicing and how these spectra can be utilised in praxis.

  16. Effects of Surface Roughness and Mechanical Properties of Cover-Layer on Near-Field Optical Recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hong; Lee, Jun-Seok; Lim, Jungshik; Seo, Jung-Kyo

    2009-03-01

    Narrow gap distance in cover-layer incident near-field recording (NFR) configuration causes a collision problem in the interface between a solid immersion lens and a disk surface. A polymer cover-layer with smooth surface results in a stable gap servo while a nanocomposite cover-layer with high refractive index shows a collision problem during the gap servo test. Even though a dielectric cover-layer, in which the surface is rougher than the polymer, supplements the mechanical properties, an unclear eye pattern due to an unstable gap servo can be obtained after a chemical mechanical polishing. Not only smooth surface but also good mechanical properties of cover-layer are required for the stable gap servo in the NFR.

  17. Observed and theoretical spectra in the 10-100 A interval. [of solar spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, W. A.; Bruner, M. E.; Acton, L. W.

    1988-01-01

    The soft X-ray spectra recorded in two sounding-rocket flights in 1982 and 1985 are compared with predicted spectra. The processed densitometer trace of the full spectrum is presented, together with the new spectrum from the 1985 experiment. The intensities of the lines are then compared with predictions.

  18. Disentangling overlapping high-field EPR spectra of organic radicals: Identification of light-induced polarons in the record fullerene-free solar cell blend PBDB-T:ITIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Melissa; Maes, Wouter; Goovaerts, Etienne; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2018-03-01

    We present a combined high-field EPR and DFT study of light-induced radicals in the bulk heterojunction blend of PBDB-T:ITIC, currently one of the highest efficiency non-fullerene donor:acceptor combinations in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate two different approaches for disentangling the strongly overlapping high-field EPR spectra of the positive and negative polarons after charge separation: (1) relaxation-filtered field-swept EPR based on the difference in T1 spin-relaxation times and (2) field-swept EDNMR-induced EPR by exploiting the presence of 14N hyperfine couplings in only one of the radical species, the small molecule acceptor radical. The approach is validated by light-induced EPR spectra on related blends and the spectral assignment is underpinned by DFT computations. The broader applicability of the spectral disentangling methods is discussed.

  19. Disentangling overlapping high-field EPR spectra of organic radicals: Identification of light-induced polarons in the record fullerene-free solar cell blend PBDB-T:ITIC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Landeghem, Melissa; Maes, Wouter; Goovaerts, Etienne; Van Doorslaer, Sabine

    2018-03-01

    We present a combined high-field EPR and DFT study of light-induced radicals in the bulk heterojunction blend of PBDB-T:ITIC, currently one of the highest efficiency non-fullerene donor:acceptor combinations in organic photovoltaics. We demonstrate two different approaches for disentangling the strongly overlapping high-field EPR spectra of the positive and negative polarons after charge separation: (1) relaxation-filtered field-swept EPR based on the difference in T 1 spin-relaxation times and (2) field-swept EDNMR-induced EPR by exploiting the presence of 14 N hyperfine couplings in only one of the radical species, the small molecule acceptor radical. The approach is validated by light-induced EPR spectra on related blends and the spectral assignment is underpinned by DFT computations. The broader applicability of the spectral disentangling methods is discussed. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectra of Graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, A.E.; Haemers, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    This book gives an elementary treatment of the basic material about graph spectra, both for ordinary, and Laplace and Seidel spectra. The text progresses systematically, by covering standard topics before presenting some new material on trees, strongly regular graphs, two-graphs, association

  1. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  2. Analysis of photoluminescence spectra of lead-tungstate single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Do Hyung; Lee, Sang Yun; Lee, Myoung Bok

    2003-01-01

    In addition to the intrinsic blue emission band near 430 nm for an ideal PbWO 4 scheelite structure, the presence of three extra emission bands peaking near blue-green and green-red colors was clearly identified for thermally synthesized bulk crystals with the help of a reliable fitting process applicable for microscopic analysis of recorded PL spectra. The origin, nature, and electro-optical behaviors of the extra emission bands are strongly related to the structural change from an ideal scheelite to modified ones, so now we can more closely track down the nature and the relevant behaviors, which are still in dispute, of the apparent colors of the PbWO 4 scintillating medium by constructing structural models and by considering the energy transfer mechanism between the color centers

  3. Gas-Phase Infrared Spectra of Vinyl Selenol and Vinyl Tellurol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benidar, Abdessamad; Khater, Brahim; Guillemin, Jean-Claude; Gámez, José A.; Yáñez, Manuel

    2009-10-01

    The infrared spectra (3500-500 cm-1) of gaseous vinyl selenol and vinyl tellurol have been recorded at 0.1 cm-1 resolution. For the latter the spectra were obtained at room temperature, but for the former a temperature of -40 °C was required because of the chemical instability of vinyl selenol at room temperature. To compensate the very weak vapor pressure of vinyl tellurol at room temperature, a long optical path up to 136 m was necessary to record its spectrum. B3LYP density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to assign the different absorption bands. Since an unambiguous assignment of the absorption bands requires a precise knowledge on the relative abundance of the syn and gauche rotamers of these compounds, their relative energies and their anharmonic vibrational frequencies were obtained using a very extended Def2-QZVP basis set. Two rotamers, the syn, which is planar, and a nonplanar gauche, were found to be local minima for both compounds. The gauche rotamer presents two degenerate conformers, which differ by the position of the SeH (TeH) hydrogen atom above or below the molecular plane. Our theoretical results are in good agreement with the main features of the experimental spectra. Fundamental bands and some combination bands of vinyl selenol and vinyl tellurol were assigned and compared with those of vinyl alcohol and vinyl thiol, whose spectra had been reported previously in the literature.

  4. Precise Wavelengths and Energy Levels for the Spectra of Cr I, Mn I, and Mn III, and Branching Fractions for the Spectra of Fe II and Cr II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian

    University of WisconsinMadison (UW) accurate lifetimes exist for many of the most important levels of the irongroup elements needed for the interpretation of astrophysical spectra. The accuracy of the oscillator strengths is now limited by the accuracy of the branching fractions, particularly when the branches from an upper level span a wide wavelength range that requires multiple calibration lamps. A laser-driven light source as a calibration lamp will reduce the calibration uncertainty in the UV region. Our FT and grating spectrometers will be used to extend the wavelength region of the measurements from 120 nm to 2500 nm. Fe II and Cr II give thousands of lines in the UV stellar spectra but accurate oscillator strengths are available only for a few hundred in each species. Many lines remain unidentified in the laboratory spectra of Fe/Ne and Cr/Ne hollow cathode lamps that correspond to lines in stellar spectra. The proposed atlases and linelists of these lamps will assist astronomers in confirming the species of these spectra lines and help them to identify lines of other elements in stellar spectra that are not blended with iron or chromium lines. These measurements will be of importance in interpreting spectra obtained from many current and future NASA missions including the Hubble Space Telescope, the James Webb Space Telescope and SOFIA. They will be particularly important in the analysis of spectra from the ASTRAL project - a large HST Treasury program that recorded the spectra of 29 bright and characteristic stars at high resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio. They will also be important for the interpretation of spectra from ground-based optical and infrared spectrographs. The proposed work thus supports the NASA Objective to explore the universe to understand its origin, structure, evolution and destiny

  5. Optical rectification, circular photogalvanic effect, and five-wave mixing in optically active liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroteev, Nikolai I.

    1996-05-01

    A phenomenological analysis is carried out of novel nonlinear optical processes taking place in macroscopically noncentrosymmetric isotropic solutions of chiral (lift-ring mirror asymmetric) macromolecules, which are the primary elements of living organisms and their metabolic products. Among the most interesting and potentially useful for spectroscopic purposes are: optical rectification/photogalvanic effects consisting in electrostatic field/direct electrical current generation in such liquids under irradiation with the intense circularly polarized laser beam and the five-wave mixing phase-matched process of BioCARS to selectively record, background-free, vibrational spectra of chiral molecules.

  6. New organic materials for optics: optical storage and nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gan, F.

    1996-01-01

    New organic materials have received considerable attention recently, due to their easy preparation and different variety. The most application fields in optics are optical storage and nonlinear optics. In optical storage the organic dyes have been used for example, in record able and erasable compact disks (CD-R, CD-E) nonlinear optical effects, such as nonlinear optical absorption, second and third order optical absorption, second and third order optical nonlinearities, can be applied for making optical limiters, optical modulators, as well as laser second and third harmonic generations. Due to high value of optical absorption and optical nonlinearity organic materials are always used as thin films in optical integration. In this paper the new experimental results have been presented, and future development has been also discussed. (author)

  7. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE. MODQKE was written to modify or provide new histories with special attention paid to short seismic records. A technique from the open literature was borrowed to generate an initial history that approximates a given response spectrum. Further refinement is done with smoothing cycles in which several correction signals are added to the history in a way that produces a least squares fit between actual and prescribed spectra. Provision is made for history shaping, a baseline correction, and final scaling. MODQKE performance has been demonstrated with seven examples having zero to ten percent damping ratios, and 2.5 seconds to 20 seconds durations and a variety of target spectra. The examples show the program is inexpensive to use. MDOF is a simple modal superposition program. It has no eigensolver, and the user supplies mode shapes, frequencies, and participation factors as input. Floor spectra can be generated from design spectra by using a history from MODQKE that conforms to the design spectrum as input to MDOF. Floor motions from MDOF can be fed back to MODQKE without modification to obtain the floor spectra. A simple example is given to show how equipment mass effects can be incorporated into the MDOF solution. Any transient solution capability can be used to replace MDOF. For example, a direct transient approach may be desirable if both the equipment and floor structures are to be included in the model with different damping fractions. (orig./HP)

  8. Search for the dose-sensitive optically stimulated luminescence response in natural carbonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaek, Ivar; Huett, Galina; Rammo, Ilmar; Vasilchenko, Valeri

    2001-01-01

    Carbonates of different origin, such as Iceland spar, calcites, and mollusc shells, used as electron spin resonance and thermoluminescence paleodosimeters, were studied in order to determine their suitability for optically stimulated luminescence dating. The stimulation/excitation spectra of the afterglow of the samples were recorded in the wavelength range of 250-1100 nm. The results of the study show that these spectra present either excitation spectra of Mn 2+ ion fluorescence (samples of calcites and Iceland spar, red emission recorded) or the excitation spectra of primary phosphorescence (samples of carbonates, including molluscs shells; short-wave emission bands recorded). The recorded stimulation spectra revealed no spectral bands sensitive to stimulation by ionizing radiation, which would disappear as a result of heating and could thus be related to deep traps in carbonates, needed dating. The cause of this situation which is unusual in luminescent crystals, including luminescence (paleo)dosimeters, and the ways of overcoming the difficulties in optical dating of natural carbonates are discussed. (author)

  9. Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. M.; Boezio, M.; Bravar, U.; Bruno, A.; Christian, E. R.; de Nolfo, G. A.; Martucci, M.; Mergè, M.; Munini, R.; Ricci, M.; Sparvoli, R.; Stochaj, S.

    2017-12-01

    We report updated event-integrated spectra from several SEP events measured with PAMELA. The measurements were made from 2006 to 2014 in the energy range starting at 80 MeV and extending well above the neutron monitor threshold. The PAMELA instrument is in a high inclination, low Earth orbit and has access to SEPs when at high latitudes. Spectra have been assembled from these high-latitude measurements. The field of view of PAMELA is small and during the high-latitude passes it scans a wide range of asymptotic directions as the spacecraft orbits. Correcting for data gaps, solid angle effects and improved background corrections, we have compiled event-integrated intensity spectra for twenty-eight SEP events. Where statistics permit, the spectra exhibit power law shapes in energy with a high-energy exponential roll over. The events analyzed include two genuine ground level enhancements (GLE). In those cases the roll-over energy lies above the neutron monitor threshold ( 1 GV) while the others are lower. We see no qualitative difference between the spectra of GLE vs. non-GLE events, i.e., all roll over in an exponential fashion with rapidly decreasing intensity at high energies.

  10. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makhlouf, M.M., E-mail: m_makhlof@hotmail.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Denglawey, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Medical Science at Turabah branch, Taif University, Turabah, 21995 (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena 83523 (Egypt); Zeyada, H.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science at New Damietta, Damietta University, New Damietta 34517 (Egypt); El-Nahass, M.M. [Physics Department, Faculty of Education, Ain Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-03-15

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films.

  11. The structural and optical characterizations of tetraphenylporphyrin thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlouf, M.M.; El-Denglawey, A.; Zeyada, H.M.; El-Nahass, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    X-rays diffraction and scanning electron microscope were used to investigate the structural properties of tetraphenylporphyrin, TPP, which is polycrystalline in a synthesized condition. It turns to amorphous structure upon thermal deposition. Annealing temperature ranging from 295 to 473 K does not influence the amorphous structure of films. The optical properties of TPP were investigated using spectrophotometric measurements of the transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range of 200–2200 nm. The absorption spectra were recorded in UV–visible region of spectra for the as-deposited and annealed samples show different absorption bands, namely four bands labeled as Q-band in visible region of spectra and a more intense band termed as the Soret band in near UV region of spectra. The Soret band shows its splitting (Davydov splitting). Two other bands labeled N and M appear in UV region. The film thickness has no influence on optical properties of films while annealing temperatures have a slight influence on optical properties of TPP films. The type of optical transition in as deposited and annealed conditions of films was found to be indirect allowed band-gap. Both fundamental and onset energy gap decreases upon annealing. -- Highlights: • Tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) is polycrystalline in powder form, while the as-deposited and annealed TPP thin films have amorphous structure. • The absorption spectra of TPP in UV–visible region consists of Q-bands, Soret band and two other bands labeled N and M. • The optical parameters of TPP thin film were measured. • Thermal annealing influences optical properties of TPP thin films

  12. Room-Temperature Coherent Optical Phonon in 2D Electronic Spectra of CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskite as a Possible Cooling Bottleneck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Daniele M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Guo, Liang [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lin, Jia [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Dou, Letian [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Peidong [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States); Fleming, Graham R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kavli Energy NanoSciences Inst. at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-06-29

    A hot phonon bottleneck may be responsible for slow hot carrier cooling in methylammonium lead iodide hybrid perovskite, creating the potential for more efficient hot carrier photovoltaics. In room-temperature 2D electronic spectra near the band edge, we observe in this paper amplitude oscillations due to a remarkably long lived 0.9 THz coherent phonon population at room temperature. This phonon (or set of phonons) is assigned to angular distortions of the Pb–I lattice, not coupled to cation rotations. The strong coupling between the electronic transition and the 0.9 THz mode(s), together with relative isolation from other phonon modes, makes it likely to cause a phonon bottleneck. Finally, the pump frequency resolution of the 2D spectra also enables independent observation of photoinduced absorptions and bleaches independently and confirms that features due to band gap renormalization are longer-lived than in transient absorption spectra.

  13. Raman Spectra from Pesticides on the Surface of Fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P X; Zhou Xiaofang; Cheng, Andrew Y S; Fang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectra of several vegetables and fruits were studied by micro-Raman spectrometer (514.5 nm) and Near-infrared Fourier Transform Raman spectrometer (FTRaman). It is shown that at 514.5 nm excitation, most of the spectra are from that of carotene with some very strong fluorescence in some cases. While at 1064 nm wavelength excitation, the spectra from the different samples demonstrate different characteristic Raman spectra without fluorescence. We discuss the spectroscopic difference by the two excitation wavelengths, and the application of Raman spectra for detection of pesticides left on the surface of vegetables and fruits. Raman spectra of fruits and pesticides were successfully recorded, and using the FT-Raman spectra the pesticides left on the surface of the fruits can be detected conveniently

  14. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 μm) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  16. LIBS: study of elemental profile of different layers of the optical window of Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurya, Gulab Singh; Jyotsna, Aradhana; Rai, Awadhesh Kumar; Ajai Kumar

    2012-01-01

    In the Tokamak, during confinement of plasma, impurities are deposited on optical window, mirror, limiters, etc. of the tokamak. Thus a layer of impurity on the surface of the optical window causes less visibility which creates problem in the study of plasma parameters and other diagnostics of the plasma generated in the tokamak. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is a useful atomic spectroscopic technique for analysis of materials in any phase (Solid, Liquid, Gas etc). LIBS spectra of optical window have been recorded in the spectral range of 200-500 nm. In present study we have focused laser on the surface of the window, to study the layer-wise elemental profile of optical window, we have recorded the LIBS spectra with increasing number of laser shots on the same point of the window. In first laser shot, spectral signature of Cr, Fe, and Ni etc. are present in the LIBS spectra, which is related with the impurity but after five to six laser shots at the same point of the optical window spectral signature Si, B are observed which is related to the glass material. Thus our study demonstrates the capability of LIBS as an in-situ monitoring tool for detection of elemental profile in different layers of optical window of the Tokamak. (author)

  17. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  18. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  19. Principal spectra describing magnetooptic permittivity tensor in cubic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrlová, Jana [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Legut, Dominik [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Veis, Martin [Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Pištora, Jaromír [Nanotechnology Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Hamrle, Jaroslav, E-mail: jaroslav.hamrle@vsb.cz [IT4Innovations Centre, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 3, Prague, 121 16 Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Department of Physics, VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, Ostrava, 708 33 Czech Republic (Czech Republic)

    2016-12-15

    We provide unified phenomenological description of magnetooptic effects being linear and quadratic in magnetization. The description is based on few principal spectra, describing elements of permittivity tensor up to the second order in magnetization. Each permittivity tensor element for any magnetization direction and any sample surface orientation is simply determined by weighted summation of the principal spectra, where weights are given by crystallographic and magnetization orientations. The number of principal spectra depends on the symmetry of the crystal. In cubic crystals owning point symmetry we need only four principal spectra. Here, the principal spectra are expressed by ab initio calculations for bcc Fe, fcc Co and fcc Ni in optical range as well as in hard and soft x-ray energy range, i.e. at the 2p- and 3p-edges. We also express principal spectra analytically using modified Kubo formula.

  20. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  1. Observational and theoretical spectra of supernovae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, J. Craig; Swartz, Douglas A.; Harkness, Robert P.

    1993-05-01

    Progress in nuclear astrophysics by means of quantitative supernova spectroscopy is discussed with special concentration on type Ia, Ib and Ic and on SN 1987A. Spectral calculations continue to support an exploding C/O white dwarf as the best model of a SN Ia. Deflagration model W7 produces good maximum light spectra of SN Ia and seems to have a better composition distribution compared to delayed detonation models, but proper treatment of opacity remains a problem and the physical basis of SN Ia explosions is still not completely understood. All models for SN Ia predict large quantities of 56Co in the ejecta, but it is not clear that observations confirm this. Although the evolutionary origin of SN Ia remains uncertain, there is recent evidence that transfer of hydrogen in a binary system may be involved, as long suspected. There has been progress in comparing dynamical models with the optical/IR spectra of SN 1987A. The evolution of the [OI] λλ6300, 6364 feature and the presence of strong persistent HeI λ10 830 indicate that both the envelope and core material contribute substantially to the formation of emission lines in the nebular phase and that neither the core nor the envelope can be neglected. Blending with nearby hydrogen lines may affect both of these spectral features, thereby complicating the analysis of the lines. The effects of continuum transfer and photoionization have been included and are under study. The discrepancies between theoretical and observed spectra are due primarily to the one-dimensional hydrodynamic models. The spectral data are not consistent with the high density ``spike'' (in radial coordinate) of the core material that is predicted by all such models. Analysis of the light curves of SN Ib and SN Ic supernovae implies that there are significant differences in their physical properties. Some SN Ib have considerably more ejecta mass than SN Ic events. SN Ib require He-rich atmospheres to produce the observed strong optical lines of

  2. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over Global Oceans, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.63 micron, which is retrieved from NOAA PATMOS-x level-2B orbital radinace and cloud CDR products. The...

  3. Versatile digital micromirror device-based method for the recording of multilevel optical diffractive elements in photosensitive chalcogenide layers (AMTIR-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joerg, Alexandre; Vignaux, Mael; Lumeau, Julien

    2016-08-01

    A new alternative and versatile method for the production of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) with up to four phase levels in AMTIR-1 (Ge33As12Se55) layers is demonstrated. The developed method proposes the use of the photosensitive properties of the layers and a specific in situ optical monitoring coupled with a reverse engineering algorithm to control the trigger points of the writing of the different diffractive patterns. Examples of various volume DOEs are presented.

  4. Retrieval of vertical concentration profiles from OSIRIS UV-visible limb spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strong, K.; Joseph, B.M.; Dosanjh, R.; McDade, I.C.; McLinden, C.A.; McConnell, J.C.; Stegman, J.; Murtagh, D.P.; Llewellyn, E.J.

    2002-01-01

    The OSIRIS instrument, launched on the Odin satellite in February 2001, includes an optical spectrograph that will record UV-visible spectra of sunlight scattered from the limb over a range of tangent heights. These spectra will be used to retrieve vertical profiles of ozone, NO 2 , OC1O, BrO, NO 3 , O 2 , and aerosols, for the investigation of both stratospheric and mesospheric processes, particularly those related to ozone chemistry. In this work, the retrieval of vertical profiles of trace-gas concentrations from OSIRIS limb-radiance spectra is described. A forward model has been developed to simulate these spectra, and it consists of a single-scattering radiative-transfer model with partial spherical geometry, trace-gas absorption, Mic scattering by stratospheric aerosols, a Lambertian surface contribution, and OSIRIS instrument response and noise. Number-density profiles have been retrieved by using optimal estimation (OE) to combine an a priori profile with the information from sets of synthetic 'measurements'. For ozone, OE has been applied both to limb radiances at one or more discrete wavelengths and to effective-column abundances retrieved over a broad spectral range using differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). The results suggest that, between 15 and 35 km, ozone number densities can be retrieved to 10% accuracy or better on 1 and 2 km grids and to 5% on a 5 km grid. The combined DOAS-OE approach has also been used to retrieve NO 2 number densities, yielding 13% accuracy or better for altitudes from 18 to 36 km (in a 2 km grid. Differential optical absorption spectroscopy - optimal estimation retrievals of BrO and OC1O reproduce the true profiles above 15 km in the noise-free case, but the quality of the retrievals is highly sensitive to noise on the simulated OSIRIS spectra because of the weak absorption of these two gases. The development of inversion methods for the retrieval of trace-gas concentrations from OSIRIS spectra is continuing

  5. Lattice vibration spectra. 16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, H.D.; Willich, P.

    1977-01-01

    The FIR absorption spectra of pyrite type compounds RuS 2 , RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x), RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , OsSe 2 , and PtP 2 as well as loellingite type phosphides FeP 2 , RuP 2 , and OsP 2 are reported. For RuS 2 , RuSe 2 , RuTe 2 , OsS 2 , and PtP 2 all of the five infrared allowed modes (k = 0) are observed. As a first result of a numerical normal coordinate treatment vibration forms of pyrite structure are communicated. The spectra show that lattice forces of corresponding sulfides, tellurides, and phosphides are about the same strength, but increase strongly by substitution of iron by ruthenium and especially of ruthenium by osmium. The lattice constants of the RuSsub(2-x)Sesub(x) solid solution obey Vegard's rule. (author)

  6. Deconvoluting double Doppler spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, K.F.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Chan, K.L.; Tang, H.W.

    2001-01-01

    The successful deconvolution of data from double Doppler broadening of annihilation radiation (D-DBAR) spectroscopy is a promising area of endeavour aimed at producing momentum distributions of a quality comparable to those of the angular correlation technique. The deconvolution procedure we test in the present study is the constrained generalized least square method. Trials with computer simulated DDBAR spectra are generated and deconvoluted in order to find the best form of regularizer and the regularization parameter. For these trials the Neumann (reflective) boundary condition is used to give a single matrix operation in Fourier space. Experimental D-DBAR spectra are also subject to the same type of deconvolution after having carried out a background subtraction and using a symmetrize resolution function obtained from an 85 Sr source with wide coincidence windows. (orig.)

  7. Spectra, Winter 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    additional copies or more information, please email spectra@nrl.navy.mil. LEADINGEDGE 1 Contents 30 Navy Launches UAV from Submerged Submarine 31... multitasking have become mainstream concerns. For example, the New York Times in 2005 and Time magazine in 2006 both reported stories about...interruptions and multitasking , and how they affect performance by increasing human er- ror. In 2005, the information technol- ogy research firm Basex

  8. Thermoluminescence spectra of amethyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Q. [Suzhou Railway Teachers College (China). Dept. of Physics; Yang, B. [Beijing Normal University (China). Dept. of Physics; Wood, R.A.; White, D.R.R.; Townsend, P.D.; Luff, B.J. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-04-01

    Thermoluminescence and cathodoluminescence data from natural and synthetic amethyst and synthetic quartz samples are compared. The spectra include features from the quartz host lattice and from impurity-generated recombination sites. Emission features exist throughout the wavelength range studied, 250-800 nm. The near infrared emission at 740-750 nm appears to be characteristic of the amethyst and is proposed to be due to Fe ion impurity. (Author).

  9. Auger spectra of alkanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rye, R.R.; Jennison, D.R.; Houston, J.E.

    1980-01-01

    The gas-phase Auger line shapes of the linear alkanes C 1 through C 6 and of neopentane are presented and analyzed. The general shape of the spectra are characteristic of carbon in a tetrahedral environment with the major feature in all cases occurring at approx.249 eV. The relatively large spectral changes found between methane and ethane results from the direct interaction of the terminal methyl groups in ethane, and the spectra of the higher alkanes are shown to be a composite of contributions from terminal methyl and interior methylene group carbon atoms. Theoretical analysis based on a one-electron approximation is shown to be capable of making a molecular orbital assignment by comparing calculated vertical transitions to features in the Auger spectra of ethane and propane, and, in the case of ethane, of differentiating between the 2 E/sub g/ and 2 A/sub 1g/ assignment of the ground state of (C 2 H 6 ) + . A one-electron based molecular orbital treatment, however, is shown to partially break down in propane and neopentane. Analysis of neopentane and the observed absence of any noticeable major peak energy shift with increasing molecular size (as predicted by the one-electron treatment) suggests that some Auger final states occur in which both valence holes are localized on the same subunit of the molecule

  10. Pattern recognition in spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebran, M; Paletou, F

    2017-01-01

    We present a new automated procedure that simultaneously derives the effective temperature T eff , surface gravity log g , metallicity [ Fe/H ], and equatorial projected rotational velocity v e sin i for stars. The procedure is inspired by the well-known PCA-based inversion of spectropolarimetric full-Stokes solar data, which was used both for Zeeman and Hanle effects. The efficiency and accuracy of this procedure have been proven for FGK, A, and late type dwarf stars of K and M spectral types. Learning databases are generated from the Elodie stellar spectra library using observed spectra for which fundamental parameters were already evaluated or with synthetic data. The synthetic spectra are calculated using ATLAS9 model atmospheres. This technique helped us to detect many peculiar stars such as Am, Ap, HgMn, SiEuCr and binaries. This fast and efficient technique could be used every time a pattern recognition is needed. One important application is the understanding of the physical properties of planetary surfaces by comparing aboard instrument data to synthetic ones. (paper)

  11. Rotational spectroscopy with an optical centrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korobenko, Aleksey; Milner, Alexander A; Hepburn, John W; Milner, Valery

    2014-03-07

    We demonstrate a new spectroscopic method for studying electronic transitions in molecules with extremely broad range of angular momentum. We employ an optical centrifuge to create narrow rotational wave packets in the ground electronic state of (16)O2. Using the technique of resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionization, we record the spectrum of multiple ro-vibrational transitions between X(3)Σg(-) and C(3)Πg electronic manifolds of oxygen. Direct control of rotational excitation, extending to rotational quantum numbers as high as N ≳ 120, enables us to interpret the complex structure of rotational spectra of C(3)Πg beyond thermally accessible levels.

  12. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  13. Artificial intelligence analysis of paraspinal power spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, C W; Atsma, W J

    1996-10-01

    OBJECTIVE: As an aid to discrimination of sufferers with back pain an artificial intelligence neural network was constructed to differentiate paraspinal power spectra. DESIGN: Clinical investigation using surface electromyography. METHOD: The surface electromyogram power spectra from 60 subjects, 33 non-back-pain sufferers and 27 chronic back pain sufferers were used to construct a back propagation neural network that was then tested. Subjects were placed on a test frame in 30 degrees of lumbar forward flexion. An isometric load of two-thirds maximum voluntary contraction was held constant for 30 s whilst surface electromyograms were recorded at the level of the L(4-5). Paraspinal power spectra were calculated and loaded into the input layer of a three-layer back propagation network. The neural network classified the spectra into normal or back pain type. RESULTS: The back propagation neural was shown to have satisfactory convergence with a specificity of 79% and a sensitivity of 80%. CONCLUSIONS: Artificial intelligence neural networks appear to be a useful method of differentiating paraspinal power spectra in back-pain sufferers.

  14. Seismic spectra of events at regional distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Springer, D.L.; Denny, M.D.

    1976-01-01

    About 40 underground nuclear explosions detonated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) were chosen for analysis of their spectra and any relationships they might have to source parameters such as yield, depth of burial, etc. The sample covered a large yield range (less than 20 kt to greater than 1 Mt). Broadband (0.05 to 20 Hz) data recorded by the four-station seismic network operated by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory were analyzed in a search for unusual explosion signatures in their spectra. Long time windows (total wave train) as well as shorter windows (for instance, P/sub n/) were used as input to calculate the spectra. Much variation in the spectra of the long windows is typical although some gross features are similar, such as a dominant peak in the microseismic window. The variation is such that selection of corner frequencies is impractical and yield scaling could not be determined. Spectra for one NTS earthquake showed more energy in the short periods (less than 1 sec) as well as in the long periods (greater than 8 sec) compared to those for NTS explosions

  15. Electronic spectra of astrophysically interesting cations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, John P., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Rice, Corey A., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Mazzotti, Fabio J., E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch; Johnson, Anatoly, E-mail: j.p.maier@unibas.ch [Department of Chemistry, University of Basel, Klingelbergstr. 80, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-01-22

    The electronic spectra of polyacetylene cations were recorded at 20K in the laboratory in an ion trap instrument. These can then be compared with diffuse interstellar band (DIB) absorptions. Examination of recently published data shows that the attribution of a weak DIB at ∼506.9 nm to diacetylene cation is not justified. Study of the higher excited electronic states of polyacetylene cations shows that their widths can still be sufficiently narrow for consideration as DIB carriers.

  16. Recent Progress of the Synchrotron Radiation Calculation Code SPECTRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, T.; Kitamura, H.

    2007-01-01

    SPECTRA is a computer software to calculate optical properties of synchrotron radiation (SR) emitted by electrons passing through magnetic devices such as bending magnets, wigglers and undulators. It has been used to design various devices in the SR beamline, such as high heat-load components in the front-end section and optical elements in the optics hutch. In addition, the electron beam quality can be estimated by comparison between the measured and calculated properties of SR. Since the first announcement, numerous improvements have been made to SPECTRA to achieve less computation time with higher numerical accuracy. In addition, a number of functions have been added to follow the user's demand. In this paper, recent progress of SPECTRA is presented and details of the new functions are explained together with several examples

  17. Cancerous tissue mapping from random lasing emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polson, R C; Vardeny, Z V

    2010-01-01

    Random lasing emission spectra have been collected from both healthy and cancerous tissues. The two types of tissue with optical gain have different light scattering properties as obtained from an average power Fourier transform of their random lasing emission spectra. The difference in the power Fourier transform leads to a contrast between cancerous and benign tissues, which is utilized for tissue mapping of healthy and cancerous regions of patients

  18. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  19. Vibrational spectra of aminoacetonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, B.; Hansen, E.L.; Nicolaisen, F.M.; Nielsen, O.F.

    1975-01-01

    The preparation of pure, stable aminoacetonitrile(1-amino, 1'-cyanomethane)CH 2 NH 2 CN (1) is described. The Raman spectrum, now complete, and a novel infrared spectrum extending over the 50-3600 cm -1 region are reported. A tentative normal vibration analysis is presented and supported by Raman and infrared data from the spectra of CH 2 NHDCN (2) and CH 2 ND 2 CN (3). The predominance of the trans rotamer may be attributed to intramolecular hydrogen bonding but this is too unimportant to influence the vibrational frequencies of gaseous 1, 2, and 3. However, large gas/liquid frequency shifts occur. (author)

  20. Energy spectra of quantum rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, A; Lüscher, S; Ihn, T; Heinzel, T; Ensslin, K; Wegscheider, W; Bichler, M

    2001-10-25

    Quantum mechanical experiments in ring geometries have long fascinated physicists. Open rings connected to leads, for example, allow the observation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect, one of the best examples of quantum mechanical phase coherence. The phase coherence of electrons travelling through a quantum dot embedded in one arm of an open ring has also been demonstrated. The energy spectra of closed rings have only recently been studied by optical spectroscopy. The prediction that they allow persistent current has been explored in various experiments. Here we report magnetotransport experiments on closed rings in the Coulomb blockade regime. Our experiments show that a microscopic understanding of energy levels, so far limited to few-electron quantum dots, can be extended to a many-electron system. A semiclassical interpretation of our results indicates that electron motion in the rings is governed by regular rather than chaotic motion, an unexplored regime in many-electron quantum dots. This opens a way to experiments where even more complex structures can be investigated at a quantum mechanical level.

  1. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, J.P.; Seaton, M.J.; Adams, S.; Lutz, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study of NGC 7662 is based on UV results obtained from 15 IUE spectra and on observations of other workers at optical, IR and radio wavelengths. Improved techniques are used to extract IUE data for an extended source. Relative fluxes in the different apertures which have been used are obtained using the brightness contours of Coleman, Reay and Worswick. There is close agreement between the reddening deduced from the ratios He II (lambda 1640)/(lambda 4686) and (radio)/(Hβ) and the nebular continuum emission observed with the IUE large slots agrees closely with that predicted using absolute radio and Hβ fluxes. The fluxes in nebular emission lines observed with the small slots are smaller than expected from brightness distributions; it is concluded that, for an extended source, the small slots have aperture transmission factors of 0.85 for SWP and 0.46 for LWR. The central star is fainter than has been previously supposed (by more than two magnitudes). The blackbody He II Zanstra temperature of 113 000 K is consistent with the UV colour temperature. Previous work on colour temperatures of central stars is discussed critically. Two models are discussed. (author)

  2. Library search with regular reflectance IR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staat, H.; Korte, E.H.; Lampen, P.

    1989-01-01

    Characterisation in situ for coatings and other surface layers is generally favourable, but a prerequisite for precious items such as art objects. In infrared spectroscopy only reflection techniques are applicable here. However for attenuated total reflection (ATR) it is difficult to obtain the necessary optical contact of the crystal with the sample, when the latter is not perfectly plane or flexible. The measurement of diffuse reflectance demands a scattering sample and usually the reflectance is very poor. Therefore in most cases one is left with regular reflectance. Such spectra consist of dispersion-like feature instead of bands impeding their interpretation in the way the analyst is used to. Furthermore for computer search in common spectral libraries compiled from transmittance or absorbance spectra a transformation of the reflectance spectra is needed. The correct conversion is based on the Kramers-Kronig transformation. This somewhat time - consuming procedure can be speeded up by using appropriate approximations. A coarser conversion may be obtained from the first derivative of the reflectance spectrum which resembles the second derivative of a transmittance spectrum. The resulting distorted spectra can still be used successfully for the search in peak table libraries. Experiences with both transformations are presented. (author)

  3. Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, H.; Cartwright, D. C.; Trajmar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Electron energy-loss spectra in molecular fluorine, for energy losses from 0 to 17.0 eV, have been taken at incident electron energies of 30, 50, and 90 eV and scattering angles from 5 to 140 deg. Features in the spectra above 11.5 eV energy loss agree well with the assignments recently made from optical spectroscopy. Excitations of many of the eleven repulsive valence excited electronic states are observed and their location correlates reasonably well with recent theoretical results. Several of these excitations have been observed for the first time and four features, for which there are no identifications, appear in the spectra.

  4. Blue laser phase change recording system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Holger; Dambach, S.Soeren; Richter, Hartmut

    2002-01-01

    The migration paths from DVD phase change recording with red laser to the next generation optical disk formats with blue laser and high NA optics are discussed with respect to optical aberration margins and disc capacities. A test system for the evaluation of phase change disks with more than 20 GB capacity is presented and first results of the recording performance are shown

  5. Predicting transmittance spectra of electrophotographic color prints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Safer; Emmel, Patrick; Hersch, Roger D.

    2000-12-01

    For dry toner electrophotographic color printers, we present a numerical simulation model describing the color printer responses based on a physical characterization of the different electrophotographic process steps. The proposed model introduces a Cross Transfer Efficiency designed to predict the color transmittance spectra of multi-color prints by taking into account the transfer influence of each deposited color toner layer upon the other layers. The simulation model leads to a better understanding of the factors that have an impact on printing quality. In order to avoid the additional optical non-linearities produced by light reflection on paper, we have limited the present investigation to transparency prints. The proposed model succeeded to predict the transmittance spectra of printed wedges combining two color toner layers with a mean deviation less than CIE-LAB (Delta) E equals 2.5.

  6. Absorption spectra of AA-stacked graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C W; Lee, S H; Chen, S C; Lin, M F; Shyu, F L

    2010-01-01

    AA-stacked graphite shows strong anisotropy in geometric structures and velocity matrix elements. However, the absorption spectra are isotropic for the polarization vector on the graphene plane. The spectra exhibit one prominent plateau at middle energy and one shoulder structure at lower energy. These structures directly reflect the unique geometric and band structures and provide sufficient information for experimental fitting of the intralayer and interlayer atomic interactions. On the other hand, monolayer graphene shows a sharp absorption peak but no shoulder structure; AA-stacked bilayer graphene has two absorption peaks at middle energy and abruptly vanishes at lower energy. Furthermore, the isotropic features are expected to exist in other graphene-related systems. The calculated results and the predicted atomic interactions could be verified by optical measurements.

  7. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  8. FTIR spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates in relation to their functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ven, van der C.; Muresan, S.; Gruppen, H.; Bont, D.B.A.; Merck, K.B.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Mid-infrared spectra of whey and casein hydrolysates were recorded using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis techniques were used to investigate the capacity of FTIR spectra to classify hydrolysates and to study the ability of the spectra to predict bitterness,

  9. Catalogue of neutron spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buxerolle, M.; Massoutie, M.; Kurdjian, J.

    1987-09-01

    Neutron dosimetry problems have arisen as a result of developments in the applications of nuclear energy. The largest number of possible irradiation situations has been collected: they are presented in the form of a compilation of 44 neutron spectra. Diagrams show the variations of energy fluence and energy fluence weighted by the dose equivalent/fluence conversion factor, with the logarithm of the corresponding energy. The equivalent dose distributions are presented as percentages for the following energy bins: 0.01 eV/0.5 eV/50 keV/1 MeV/5 MeV/15 MeV. The dose equivalent, the mean energy and the effective energy for the dose equivalent for 1 neutron cm -2 are also given [fr

  10. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2015-01-01

    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  11. OPTICAL TRANSIENT DETECTOR (OTD) LIGHTNING V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Optical Transient Detector (OTD) records optical measurements of global lightning events in the daytime and nighttime. The data includes individual point...

  12. Development of site specific response spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernreuter, D.L.; Chen, J.C.; Savy, J.B.

    1987-03-01

    For a number of years the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has employed site specific spectra (SSSP) in their evaluation of the adequacy of the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE). These spectra were developed only from the spectra of the horizontal components of the ground motion and from a very limited data set. As the data set has considerably increased for Eastern North America (ENA) and as more relevant data has become available from earthquakes occurring in other parts of the world (e.g., Italy), together with the fact that recent data indicated the importance of the vertical component, it became clear that an update of the SSSP's for ENA was desirable. The methodology used in this study is similar to the previous ones in that it used actual earthquake ground motion data with magnitudes within a certain range and recorded at distances and at sites similar to those that would be chosen for the definition of an SSE. An extensive analysis of the origin and size of the uncertainty is an important part of this study. The results of this analysis of the uncertainties is used to develop criteria for selecting the earthquake records to be used in the derivation of the SSSP's. We concluded that the SSSPs were not very sensitive to the distribution of the source to site distance of the earthquake records used in the analysis. That is, the variability (uncertainty) introduced by the range of distances was relatively small compared to the variability introduced by other factors. We also concluded that the SSSP are somewhat sensitive to the distribution of the magnitudes of these earthquakes, particularly at rock sites and, by inference, at shallow soil sites. We found that one important criterion in selecting records to generate SSSP is the depth of soil at the site

  13. Donor impurity-related optical absorption spectra in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells: hydrostatic pressure and {gamma}-X conduction band mixing effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora-Ramos, M.E. [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca, MOR (Mexico); Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Lopez, S.Y. [Fac. de Educacion, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Duque, C.A. [Inst. de Fisica, Universidad de Antioquia, AA 1226, Medellin (Colombia); Velasco, V.R. [Inst. de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    Using a variational procedure within the effective mass approximation, the mixing between the {gamma} and X conduction band valleys in GaAs-Ga{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}As quantum wells is investigated by taking into account the effect of applied hydrostatic pressure. Some optical properties such as donor and/or acceptor binding energy and impurity-related transition energies are calculated and comparisons with available experimental data are presented. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  14. Neural network radiative transfer solvers for the generation of high resolution solar irradiance spectra parameterized by cloud and aerosol parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, M.; Kosmopoulos, P.G.; Kazadzis, S.; Keramitsoglou, I.; Kiranoudis, C.T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a neural network (NN) model for instantaneous and accurate estimation of solar radiation spectra and budgets geared toward satellite cloud data using a ≈2.4 M record, high-spectral resolution look up table (LUT) generated with the radiative transfer model libRadtran. Two NN solvers, one for clear sky conditions dominated by aerosol and one for cloudy skies, were trained on a normally-distributed and multiparametric subset of the LUT that spans a very broad class of atmospheric and meteorological conditions as inputs with corresponding high resolution solar irradiance target spectra as outputs. The NN solvers were tested by feeding them with a large (10 K record) “off-grid” random subset of the LUT spanning the training data space, and then comparing simulated outputs with target values provided by the LUT. The NN solvers demonstrated a capability to interpolate accurately over the entire multiparametric space. Once trained, the NN solvers allow for high-speed estimation of solar radiation spectra with high spectral resolution (1 nm) and for a quantification of the effect of aerosol and cloud optical parameters on the solar radiation budget without the need for a massive database. The cloudy sky NN solver was applied to high spatial resolution (54 K pixel) cloud data extracted from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard the geostationary Meteosat Second Generation 3 (MSG3) satellite and demonstrated that coherent maps of spectrally-integrated global horizontal irradiance at this resolution can be produced on the order of 1 min. - Highlights: • Neural network radiative transfer solvers for generation of solar irradiance spectra. • Sensitivity analysis of irradiance spectra with respect to aerosol and cloud parameters. • Regional maps of total global horizontal irradiance for cloudy sky conditions. • Regional solar radiation maps produced directly from MSG3/SEVIRI satellite inputs.

  15. Vibrational spectra study of fluorescent dendrimers built from the cyclotriphosphazene core with terminal dansyl and carbamate groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furer, V. L.; Vandyukova, I. I.; Vandyukov, A. E.; Fuchs, S.; Majoral, J. P.; Caminade, A. M.; Kovalenko, V. I.

    2011-08-01

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the "Janus"-type dendrimers, possessing five carbamate groups on one side and five fluorescent dansyl derivatives on the other side, with amide G1 and hydrazone G2 central linkages were studied. These surface-block dendrimers are obtained by the coupling of two different dendrons. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of the zero generation dendrons, built from the hexafunctional cyclotriphosphazene core, with five dansyl terminal groups and one carbamate G0 v and one oxybenzaldehyde function G0v have been recorded. The structural optimization and normal mode analysis were performed for dendron G0v on the basis of the density functional theory (DFT). The calculated geometrical parameters and harmonic vibrational frequencies are predicted in a good agreement with the experimental data. It was found that dendron molecule G0v has a concave lens structure with planar -O-C6H4-CHdbnd O fragments and slightly non-planar cyclotriphosphazene core. The experimental IR and Raman spectra of dendron G0v were interpreted by means of potential energy distributions. Relying on DFT calculations a complete vibrational assignment is proposed. The strong band 1597 cm -1 show marked changes of the optical density in dependence of substituents in the aromatic ring. The frequencies of ν(N-H) bands in the IR spectra reveal the presence of the different types of H-bonds in the dendrimers.

  16. Design energy spectra for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    López Almansa, Francisco; Yazgan, Ahmet Utku; Benavent Climent, Amadeo

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of velocity, derived through linear dynamic analyses on Turkish registers and intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; in the short period range, the spectra are more sensitive to the structural parameters and nonlinear analyses would be re...

  17. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  18. Sequencing BPS spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gukov, Sergei [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Max-Planck-Institut für Mathematik,Vivatsgasse 7, D-53111 Bonn (Germany); Nawata, Satoshi [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Centre for Quantum Geometry of Moduli Spaces, University of Aarhus,Nordre Ringgade 1, DK-8000 (Denmark); Saberi, Ingmar [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Stošić, Marko [CAMGSD, Departamento de Matemática, Instituto Superior Técnico,Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Mathematical Institute SANU,Knez Mihajlova 36, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Sułkowski, Piotr [Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology,1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw,ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-03-02

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  19. Sequencing BPS spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel “sliding” property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  20. The Effect of Phonon Relaxation Process on Absorption Spectra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work we study the effect of phonon relaxation process on the absorption spectra using the Green's function technique. The Green's function technique which is widely used in many particle problems is used to solve the Kubo formula which describes the optical absorption process. Finally the configurational diagram is ...

  1. Study of probe-sample distance for biomedical spectra measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Lei

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fiber-based optical spectroscopy has been widely used for biomedical applications. However, the effect of probe-sample distance on the collection efficiency has not been well investigated. Method In this paper, we presented a theoretical model to maximize the illumination and collection efficiency in designing fiber optic probes for biomedical spectra measurement. This model was in general applicable to probes with single or multiple fibers at an arbitrary incident angle. In order to demonstrate the theory, a fluorescence spectrometer was used to measure the fluorescence of human finger skin at various probe-sample distances. The fluorescence spectrum and the total fluorescence intensity were recorded. Results The theoretical results show that for single fiber probes, contact measurement always provides the best results. While for multi-fiber probes, there is an optimal probe distance. When a 400- μm excitation fiber is used to deliver the light to the skin and another six 400- μm fibers surrounding the excitation fiber are used to collect the fluorescence signal, the experimental results show that human finger skin has very strong fluorescence between 475 nm and 700 nm under 450 nm excitation. The fluorescence intensity is heavily dependent on the probe-sample distance and there is an optimal probe distance. Conclusions We investigated a number of probe-sample configurations and found that contact measurement could be the primary choice for single-fiber probes, but was very inefficient for multi-fiber probes. There was an optimal probe-sample distance for multi-fiber probes. By carefully choosing the probe-sample distance, the collection efficiency could be enhanced by 5-10 times. Our experiments demonstrated that the experimental results of the probe-sample distance dependence of collection efficiency in multi-fiber probes were in general agreement with our theory.

  2. [Micro-Raman and fluorescence spectra of several agrochemicals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yi-lin; Zhang, Peng-xiang; Qian, Xiao-fan

    2004-05-01

    Raman and fluorescence spectra from several agrochemicals were measured, which are sold for the use in vegetables, fruits and grains. Characteristic vibration Raman peaks from some of the agrochemicals were recorded, hence the spectra can be used for their identification. Other marketed agrochemicals demonstrated strong fluorescence under 514.5 nm excitation. It was found that the fluorescence spectra of the agrochemicals are very different. According to these results one can detect the trace amount of agrochemicals left on the surface of fruits, vegetables and grains in situ and conveniently.

  3. Program LEPS to addition of gamma spectra from germanium detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, L.

    1986-01-01

    The LEP program, written in FORTRAN IV, performs the addition of two spectra, collected with different detectors, from the same sample. This application, adds the two gamma spectra obtained from two opposite LEPS Germanium Detectors (Low Energy Photon Spectrometer), correcting the differences (channel/energy) between both two spectra, and fitting them before adding. The total-spectrum is recorded at the computer memory as a single spectrum. The necessary equipment, to run this program is: - Two opposite germanium detectors, with their associate electronics. - Multichannel analyzer (2048 memory channel minimum) - Computer on-line interfacing to multichannel analyzer. (Author) 4 refs

  4. Statistical studies of vertical and horizontal earthquake spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, W.J.; Mohraz, B.; Newmark, N.M.

    1976-01-01

    The study reveals that there is no well-defined dependence of normalized seismic design response spectra on the earthquake ground acceleration level. Recommendations for horizontal design response spectra are close to those given in Regulatory Guide 1.60. Recommendations for vertical response spectra are somewhat lower than Regulatory Guide 1.60 provisions in the frequency range 2 to 30 Hz aproximately. The results are based on seismic information recorded along the west coast of the United States and are directly applicable to that region only.

  5. Spectra of matrix isolated metal atoms and clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, B.

    1977-01-01

    The matrix isolation spectra of all of the 40 presently known atomic metal species show strong matrix effects. The transition energies are increased, and the bands are broad and exhibit splitting of sublevels which are degenerate in the gas phase. Several models have been proposed for splitting of levels, but basic effects are not yet understood, and spectra cannot be predicted, yet it is possible to correlate gas phase and matrix in many of the systems. Selective production of diatomics and clusters via thermal and optical annealing of atomic species can be monitored by optical spectra, but yields spectroscopically complex systems which, however, especially in the case of transition metals, can be used as precursors in novel chemical reactions. A combination of absorption, emission, ir, Raman, ESR, and other methods is now quickly yielding data which will help correlate the increasing wealth of existing data. 55 references, 6 figures

  6. Laser color recording unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  7. CO-SPATIAL LONG-SLIT UV/OPTICAL SPECTRA OF TEN GALACTIC PLANETARY NEBULAE WITH HST/STIS. II. NEBULAR MODELS, CENTRAL STAR PROPERTIES, AND He+CNO SYNTHESIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henry, R. B. C.; Miller, T. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dufour, R. J. [Department of Space Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, TX 77251 (United States); Kwitter, K. B. [Department of Astronomy, Williams College, Williamstown, MA 01267 (United States); Shaw, R. A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Buell, J. F. [SUNY College of Technology at Alfred, Alfred, NY 14843 (United States); Corradi, R. L. M. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-11-10

    The goal of the present study is twofold. First, we employ new HST/STIS spectra and photoionization modeling techniques to determine the progenitor masses of eight planetary nebulae (IC 2165, IC 3568, NGC 2440, NGC 3242, NGC 5315, NGC 5882, NGC 7662, and PB 6). Second, for the first time we are able to compare each object’s observed nebular abundances of helium, carbon, and nitrogen with abundance predictions of these same elements by a stellar model that is consistent with each object’s progenitor mass. Important results include the following: (1) the mass range of our objects’ central stars matches well with the mass distribution of other central stars of planetary nebulae and white dwarfs; (2) He/H is above solar in all of our objects, in most cases likely due to the predicted effects of first dredge-up; (3) most of our objects show negligible C enrichment, probably because their low masses preclude third dredge-up; (4) C/O versus O/H for our objects appears to be inversely correlated, which is perhaps consistent with the conclusion of theorists that the extent of atmospheric carbon enrichment from first dredge-up is sensitive to a parameter whose value increases as metallicity declines; (5) stellar model predictions of nebular C and N enrichment are consistent with observed abundances for progenitor star masses ≤1.5 M{sub ⊙}. Finally, we present the first published photoionization models of NGC 5315 and NGC 5882.

  8. Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Karl-Göran; Håkansson, Nina

    2018-02-01

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50 % of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50 % over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid- to high latitudes where at least 50 % of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts

  9. Low resolution infrared spectra of quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soifer, B.T.; Neugebauer, G.; Oke, J.B.; Matthews, K.

    1980-01-01

    Low resolution spectra of a significant sample of quasars show that the Paschen α and Balmer line ratios do not agree with the radiative recombination case B result and vary widely within the quasars sampled. The range in Pα:Hβ ratios is a factor of approximately 6, while the range in Lyα:Hα ratios is a factor of approximately 5. For the Pα:Balmer series, the deviations from case B recombination are not consistent with reddening, but appear, within large dispersions, to be consistent with optical depth effects in the Balmer lines affecting the line ratios. The Lyα:Hα ratio is, however, correlated with the continuum spectral index, and can be explained as due to reddening affecting both the lines and continuum. Recent observational results based on a joint infrared/optical survey of the hydrogen line spectra of a significant number of the brightest low and high redshift quasars are summarised. This survey includes 12 quasars in the redshift range 0.07 1.5, where Hα and/or Hβ is redshifted into the 1.65μm or 2.2μm atmospheric windows. (Auth.)

  10. Transmission Spectra of HgTe-Based Quantum Wells and Films in the Far-Infrared Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, M. L.; Vasil'ev, N. N.; Yaroshevich, A. S.; Kozlov, D. A.; Kvon, Z. D.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.

    2018-04-01

    Strained 80-nm-thick HgTe films belong to a new class of materials referred to as three-dimensional topological insulators (i.e., they have a bulk band gap and spin-nondegenerate surface states). Though there are a number of studies devoted to analysis of the properties of surface states using both transport and magnetooptical techniques in the THz range, the information about direct optical transitions between bulk and surface bands in these systems has not been reported. This study is devoted to the analysis of transmission and reflection spectra of HgTe films of different thicknesses in the far-infrared range recorded in a wide temperature range in order to detect the above interband transitions. A peculiarity at 15 meV, which is sensitive to a change in the temperature, is observed in spectra of both types. Detailed analysis of the data obtained revealed that this feature is related to absorption by HgTe optical phonons, while the interband optical transitions are suppressed.

  11. Optical Observations of X-ray Bright, Optically Normal Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadun, Alberto C.; Aryan, N. S.; Ghosh, K. K.

    2007-05-01

    X-ray bright, optically normal galaxies (XBONGs) are galaxies that seem to have normal spectra and morphology, but are relatively bright x-ray sources. The large ratio of the x-ray to optical emission suggests that some activity, similar to that of active galactic nuclei (AGN), is occurring. Since the galaxies do not show any obvious sign of nuclear activity in their optical spectra, one possible explanation is that these galaxies do not have an optically thick accretion disk at small radii, as previously assumed. Previous data for NGC 7626 classifies it as an XBONG, and so we are studying optical features of this galaxy in order to determine better its features. After confirming an x-ray jet, we are now comparing this to optical features that we have found, including warped dust lanes and a possible optical jet.

  12. Crystal structure and optical absorption spectra of Ga0.5Fe0.5InS3 and Ga0.5Fe0.25In1.25S3 crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusejnov, G.G.; Musaeva, N.N.; Kyazumov, M.G.; Asadova, I.B.; Aliev, O.M.

    2003-01-01

    Single crystals of Ga 0.5 Fe 0.5 InS 3 are grown by the method of chemical gas-transport reactions and those of Ga 0.5 Fe 0.25 In 1.25 S 3 - by Bridgman method. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that they crystallize in trigonal and rhombohedral systems with lattice parameters of a = 3.796 x 2 A, c = 12.210 A, P3m1; a = 3.786 x 2 A, c = 36.606 A, R3m, respectively. An optical absorption edge in a wide range of photon energy and an energy gap width are determined: E g = 1.885 eV for Ga 0.5 Fe 0.5 InS 3 and E g 1.843 eV for Ga 0.5 Fe 0.25 In 1.25 S 3 [ru

  13. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2009-01-01

    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  14. Diversity of soft X-ray spectra in quasars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elvis, M.; Wilkes, B.J.; Tananbaum, H.

    1985-01-01

    Soft X-ray spectra for three quasars obtained with the Einstein Imaging Proportional Counter covering the 0.1-4.0 keV band are reported. Power-law fits to these spectra have best-fit energy indices of 1.2 +0.6 or -0.2, for the quasar NAB 0205 + 024, 0.6 +0.3 or -0.2 for the quasar B2 1028 + 313, and 2.2 + or -0.4 for the quasar PG 1211 + 143. None of the quasars shows any evidence for a column density of cold matter in excess of the galactic values. The derived spectra demonstrate that there is no single universal power law slope for quasar X-ray spectra. The implications of these results for the X-ray background, X-ray continuum emission mechanisms, and the production of the optical/UV emission lines are briefly discussed. 46 references

  15. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is ...

  16. Fluctuation analysis of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doessing, T.; Bracco, A.; Broglia, R.A.; Matsuo, M.

    1996-01-01

    The compound state rotational degree of freedom is ''damped'' in the sense that the electric quadrupole decay of a single quantum state with angular momentum I exhibits a spectrum of final states all having spin I-2. In actual experiments, the cascade of γ-rays associated with each of the members of the ensemble of compound nuclei uses each of the ''discrete'' transitions many more times than the ''continuum'' transitions. Relatively large and small fluctuations in the recorded coincidence spectrum ensue, respectively. The analysis of the fluctuations will be shown to be instrumental to gain insight into the phenomenon of rotational damping. For this purpose, two- and higher-fold coincidence spectra emitted from rotating nuclei are analyzed with respect to the count fluctuations. The coincidences from consecutive γ-rays emitted from discrete rotational bands generate ridges in the E γ1 .E γ2 spectrum, and the fluctuation analysis of the ridges is based upon the ansatz of a random selection of transition energies from band to band. This ansatz is supported by a cranked mean-field calculation for the nucleus 168 Yb, as well as by analyzing resolved bands in 168 Yb and its neighbors. The fluctuation analysis of the central valley (E γ1 =E γ2 ) is based upon the ansatz of fluctuations in the intensity of the transitions of Porter-Thomas type superposed on a smooth spectrum of transition energies. This ansatz is again supported by a mixed-band calculation. The mathematical treatment of count fluctuations is formulated in general (orig.)

  17. Path spectra derived from inversion of source and site spectra for earthquakes in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimasewski, A.; Sahakian, V. J.; Baltay, A.; Boatwright, J.; Fletcher, J. B.; Baker, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    A large source of epistemic uncertainty in Ground Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs) is derived from the path term, currently represented as a simple geometric spreading and intrinsic attenuation term. Including additional physical relationships between the path properties and predicted ground motions would produce more accurate and precise, region-specific GMPEs by reclassifying some of the random, aleatory uncertainty as epistemic. This study focuses on regions of Southern California, using data from the Anza network and Southern California Seismic network to create a catalog of events magnitude 2.5 and larger from 1998 to 2016. The catalog encompasses regions of varying geology and therefore varying path and site attenuation. Within this catalog of events, we investigate several collections of event region-to-station pairs, each of which share similar origin locations and stations so that all events have similar paths. Compared with a simple regional GMPE, these paths consistently have high or low residuals. By working with events that have the same path, we can isolate source and site effects, and focus on the remaining residual as path effects. We decompose the recordings into source and site spectra for each unique event and site in our greater Southern California regional database using the inversion method of Andrews (1986). This model represents each natural log record spectra as the sum of its natural log event and site spectra, while constraining each record to a reference site or Brune source spectrum. We estimate a regional, path-specific anelastic attenuation (Q) and site attenuation (t*) from the inversion site spectra and corner frequency from the inversion event spectra. We then compute the residuals between the observed record data, and the inversion model prediction (event*site spectra). This residual is representative of path effects, likely anelastic attenuation along the path that varies from the regional median attenuation. We examine the

  18. 1993 Department of Energy Records Management Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    This document consists of viewgraphs from the presentations at the conference. Topics included are: DOE records management overview, NIRMA and ARMA resources, NARA records management training, potential quality assurance records, filing systems, organizing and indexing technical records, DOE-HQ initiatives, IRM reviews, status of epidemiologic inventory, disposition of records and personal papers, inactive records storage, establishing administrative records, managing records at Hanford, electronic mail -- legal and records issues, NARA-GAO reports status, consultive selling, automated indexing, decentralized approach to scheduling at a DOE office, developing specific records management programs, storage and retrieval at Savannah River Plant, an optical disk case study, and special interest group reports.

  19. Combined experimental and theoretical study on the Raman and Raman optical activity signatures of pentamethylundecane diastereoisomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drooghaag, Xavier; Marchand-Brynaert, Jacqueline; Champagne, Benoît; Liégeois, Vincent

    2010-09-16

    The synthesis and the separation of the four stereoisomers of 2,4,6,8,10-pentamethylundecane (PMU) are described together with their characterization by Raman spectroscopy. In parallel, theoretical calculations of the Raman and vibrational Raman optical activity (VROA) spectra are reported and analyzed in relation with the recorded spectra. A very good agreement is found between the experimental and theoretical spectra. The Raman spectra are also shown to be less affected by the change of configuration than the VROA spectra. Nevertheless, by studying the overlap between the theoretical Raman spectra, we show clear relationships between the spectral fingerprints and the structures displaying a mixture of the TGTGTGTG conformation of the (4R,6s,8S)-PMU (isotactic compound) with the TTTTTTTT conformation of the (4R,6r,8S)-PMU (syndiotactic compound). Then, the fingerprints of the VROA spectra of the five conformers of the (4R,8R)-PMU have been related to the fingerprints of the regular (TG)(N) isotactic compound as a function of the torsion angles. Since the (TT)(N) syndiotactic compound has no VROA signatures, the VROA spectroscopy is very sensitive to the helical structures, as demonstrated here.

  20. Crystal structure, vibrational spectra, optical and DFT studies of bis (3-azaniumylpropyl) azanium pentachloroantimonate (III) chloride monohydrate (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Houssem Eddine; Kamoun, Slaheddine

    2017-09-01

    The crystal structure of (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O is built up of [NH3(CH2)3NH2(CH2)3NH3]3 + cations, [SbCl5]2 - anions, free Cl- anions and neutral water molecules connected together by Nsbnd H ⋯ Cl, Nsbnd H ⋯ O and Osbnd H ⋯ Cl hydrogen bonds. The optical band gap determined by diffuse reflection spectroscopy (DRS) is 3.78 eV for a direct allowed transition. Optimized molecular geometry, atomic Mulliken charges, harmonic vibrational frequencies, HOMO-LUMO and related molecular properties of the (C6H20N3)SbCl5·Cl·H2O compound were calculated by Density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with GenECP sets. The calculated structural parameters (bond lengths and angles) are in good agreement with the experimental XRD data. The vibrational unscaled wavenumbers were calculated and scaled by a proper scaling factor of 0.984. Acceptable consistency was observed between calculated and experimental results. The assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) using Vibrational Energy Distribution Analysis (VEDA) software. The HOMO-LUMO study was extended to calculate various molecular parameters like ionization potential, electron affinity, global hardness, electro-chemical potential, electronegativity and global electrophilicity of the given molecule.

  1. Compact all-fiber optical Faraday components using 65-wt%-terbium-doped fiber with a record Verdet constant of -32 rad/(Tm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Jiang, S; Marciante, J R

    2010-06-07

    A compact all-fiber Faraday isolator and a Faraday mirror are demonstrated. At the core of each of these components is an all-fiber Faraday rotator made of a 4-cm-long, 65-wt%-terbium-doped silicate fiber. The effective Verdet constant of the terbium-doped fiber is measured to be -32 rad/(Tm), which is 27 x larger than that of silica fiber. This effective Verdet constant is the largest value measured to date in any fiber and is 83% of the Verdet constant of commercially available crystal used in bulk optics-based isolators. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with fiber polarizers results in a fully fusion spliced all-fiber isolator whose isolation is measured to be 19 dB. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with a fiber Bragg grating results in an all-fiber Faraday mirror that rotates the polarization state of the reflected light by 88 +/- 4 degrees .

  2. Techniques for Handling and Removal of Spectral Channels in Fourier Transform Synchrotron-Based Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Amr; Predoi-Cross, Adriana; Teillet, Philippe M.

    2010-01-01

    Channel spectra are a big problem for those attempting to use synchrotron-based Fourier transform spectra for spectral lineshape studies. Due to the layout of the optical system at the CLS far-infrared beamline, the synchrotron beam undergoes unavoidable multiple reflections on the steering mirrors, beam splitter, several sets of windows, and filters. We present a method for eliminating channel spectra and compare the results of our technique with other methods available in the literature.

  3. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-01-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, α, of the energy spectrum, E(k) ∼ k -α , and the total spectral energy, W = ∫E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of α and W as A = 10 b (αW) c , with b = -7.92 ± 0.58 and c = 1.85 ± 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  4. FSFE: Fake Spectra Flux Extractor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon

    2017-10-01

    The fake spectra flux extractor generates simulated quasar absorption spectra from a particle or adaptive mesh-based hydrodynamic simulation. It is implemented as a python module. It can produce both hydrogen and metal line spectra, if the simulation includes metals. The cloudy table for metal ionization fractions is included. Unlike earlier spectral generation codes, it produces absorption from each particle close to the sight-line individually, rather than first producing an average density in each spectral pixel, thus substantially preserving more of the small-scale velocity structure of the gas. The code supports both Gadget (ascl:0003.001) and AREPO.

  5. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  6. Infrared spectra of mineral species

    CERN Document Server

    Chukanov, Nikita V

    2014-01-01

    This book details more than 3,000 IR spectra of more than 2,000 mineral species collected during last 30 years. It features full descriptions and analytical data of each sample for which IR spectrum was obtained.

  7. Correlation Functions and Power Spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    The present lecture note is a supplement to the textbook Digital Signal Processing by J. Proakis and D.G. Manolakis used in the IMM/DTU course 02451 Digital Signal Processing and provides an extended discussion of correlation functions and power spectra. The definitions of correlation functions...... and spectra for discrete-time and continuous-time (analog) signals are pretty similar. Consequently, we confine the discussion mainly to real discrete-time signals. The Appendix contains detailed definitions and properties of correlation functions and spectra for analog as well as discrete-time signals....... It is possible to define correlation functions and associated spectra for aperiodic, periodic and random signals although the interpretation is different. Moreover, we will discuss correlation functions when mixing these basic signal types. In addition, the note include several examples for the purpose...

  8. Electronic and vibrational circular dichroism spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbate, Sergio, E-mail: abbate@med.unibs.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Longhi, Giovanna; Lebon, France [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche e Biotecnologie, Universita di Brescia, Viale Europa 11, 25123 Brescia (Italy); CNISM, Consorzio Interuniversitario Scienze Fisiche della Materia, Via della Vasca Navale 84, 00146 Roma (Italy); Tommasini, Matteo [Dipartimento di Chimica, Materiali e Ingegneria Chimica ' G. Natta' , Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Consorzio Interuniversitario per la Scienza e Tecnologia dei Materiali (INSTM), Unita di Ricerca del Politecnico di Milano (Dip. CMIC), Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-09-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ECD and VCD Spectra of (R)-(-)-apomorphine measured in various solvents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DFT calculations allow to study the protonation state and conformations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Contributions from catechol OH vibrations to the VCD spectra is studied. -- Abstract: Apomorphine is a chiral drug molecule; notwithstanding its extraordinary importance, little attention has been paid to the characterization of its chiroptical properties. Here we report on its electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, recorded in methanol and water, and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) in methanol and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have allowed us to interpret the spectra and to evaluate the role of possible conformations, charge-states and interactions with counter ions.

  9. Program package for processing energy spectra of gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stejskalova, E.

    1985-01-01

    A library of programs for processing energy spectra of nuclear radiation using an ICL 4-72 computer is described. The library is available at the computer centre of the Prague universities and bears the acronym JADSPE. The programs perform the computation of positions, areas and half-widths of lines in the energy spectrum of the radiation, they give a graphic representation of the course of energy spectra on the printer and on the CALCOMP recorder; they also perform the addition or subtraction of energy spectra with possible aligning of the beginnings or ends of the spectra or of maximums of chosen lines. A model function in the form of a symmetric Gaussian function is used for the computation of parameters of spectral lines, and the variation of the background with energy is assumed to be linear. (author)

  10. Dynamics in terahertz semiconductor microcavity: quantum noise spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabri, H.; Eleuch, H.

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the physics of an optical semiconductor microcavity containing a coupled double quantum well interacting with cavity photons. The photon statistics of the transmitted light by the cavity is explored. We show that the nonlinear interactions in the direct and indirect excitonic modes generate an important squeezing despite the weak nonlinearities. When the strong coupling regime is achieved, the noise spectra of the system is dominated by the indirect exciton distribution. At the opposite, in the weak regime, direct excitons contribute much larger in the noise spectra.

  11. LINE FORMATION IN SPECTRA OF X-RAY NOVAE

    OpenAIRE

    Suleimanov, V. F.; Shimansky, V. V.

    2017-01-01

    Results of X-ray Novae (XN) optical spectra computation are presented. The continuum and Balmer line are calculated. The model of XN as a self-irradiated accretion disk is used. Local (for given radius) disk atmospheres as model stellar atmospheres, heated due to external X-ray radiation are treated. Changes of spectra shape and equivalent widths of the Balmer lines depending from the luminosity and some others accretion disk parameters are investigated. The comparison of GRO JO422+32 observe...

  12. Mössbauer spectra linearity improvement by sine velocity waveform followed by linearization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Pavel; Frank, Tomas; Pechousek, Jiri; Kouril, Lukas

    2018-05-01

    This note reports the development of a new method for linearizing the Mössbauer spectra recorded with a sine drive velocity signal. Mössbauer spectra linearity is a critical parameter to determine Mössbauer spectrometer accuracy. Measuring spectra with a sine velocity axis and consecutive linearization increases the linearity of spectra in a wider frequency range of a drive signal, as generally harmonic movement is natural for velocity transducers. The obtained data demonstrate that linearized sine spectra have lower nonlinearity and line width parameters in comparison with those measured using a traditional triangle velocity signal.

  13. Multifractal spectra in shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, L. R.; Deane, Anil E.

    1989-01-01

    Numerical simulations of three-dimensional homogeneous shear flow and fully developed channel flow, are used to calculate the associated multifractal spectra of the energy dissipation field. Only weak parameterization of the results with the nondimensional shear is found, and this only if the flow has reached its asymptotic development state. Multifractal spectra of these flows coincide with those from experiments only at the range alpha less than 1.

  14. Sequential Analysis of Gamma Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayez-Hassan, M.; Hella, Kh.M.

    2009-01-01

    This work shows how easy one can deal with a huge number of gamma spectra. The method can be used for radiation monitoring. It is based on the macro feature of the windows XP connected to QBASIC software. The routine was used usefully in generating accurate results free from human errors. One hundred measured gamma spectra were fully analyzed in 10 minutes using our fast and automated method controlling the Genie 2000 gamma acquisition analysis software.

  15. Theory of optical flashes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The theory of optical flashes created by x- and γ-ray burst heating of stars in binaries is reviewed. Calculations of spectra due to steady-state x-ray reprocessing and estimates of the fundamental time scales for the non-steady case are discussed. The results are applied to the extant optical data from x-ray and γ-ray bursters. Finally, I review predictions of flashes from γ-ray bursters detectable by a state of the art all-sky optical monitor

  16. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick

    1972-01-01

    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  17. CO 2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 m and 10.6 m regions of CO2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low ...

  18. Density functional theory study of vibrational spectra, and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of dacarbazine were recorded in the regions 4000-400 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The optimized geometry, wavenumber, polarizability and several thermodynamic properties of dacarbazine were studied using ab initio Hartree-Fock, MP2 and DFT methods. A complete vibrational ...

  19. Infrared Model Spectra for Evolving Red Supergiants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Won Suh

    1993-06-01

    Full Text Available The space and ground based infrared spectra of red supergiants are modeled and arranged in order of their evolutionary status with their theoretical model parameters. The chemical compositions of the dust shells around red supergiants are affected by the nuclear reaction and dredge-up processes of the cental stars. The processes are sensitively dependent on the initial mass, the initial chemical composition, and the evolutionary status. Miras, infrared carbon stars, and OH/IR stars have close link in their evolution in manu aspects, i,e., the chemical composition, the optical depths and the mass loss rates. The evolutionary tracks for the three classes of red supergiants on infrared two-color diagrams have been made from model calculations and IRAS observational data.

  20. Characterizing Sky Spectra Using SDSS BOSS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florez, Lina Maria; Strauss, Michael A.

    2018-01-01

    In the optical/near-infrared spectra gathered by a ground-based telescope observing very faint sources, the strengths of the emission lines due to the Earth’s atmosphere can be many times larger than the fluxes of the sources we are interested in. Thus the limiting factor in faint-object spectroscopy is the degree to which systematics in the sky subtraction can be minimized. Longwards of 6000 Angstroms, the night-sky spectrum is dominated by multiple vibrational/rotational transitions of the OH radical from our upper atmosphere. While the wavelengths of these lines are the same in each sky spectrum, their relative strengths vary considerably as a function of time and position on the sky. The better we can model their strengths, the better we can hope to subtract them off. We expect that the strength of lines from common upper energy levels will be correlated with one another. We used flux-calibrated sky spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS BOSS) to explore these correlations. Our aim is to use these correlations for creating improved sky subtraction algorithms for the Prime Focus Spectrograph (PFS) on the 8.2-meter Subaru Telescope. When PFS starts gathering data in 2019, it will be the most powerful multi-object spectrograph in the world. Since PFS will be gathering data on sources as faint as 24th magnitude and fainter, it's of upmost importance to be able to accurately measure and subtract sky spectra from the data that we receive.

  1. Reviews Book: SEP Communications: Transmitting and Receiving Signals Book: Gliding for Gold Book: Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book: The New Quantum Age Books: The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Equipment: SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Equipment: SEP Optical signal transmission set Book: Stars and their Spectra Book: Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech Web Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    WE RECOMMEND Transmitting and Receiving Signals SEP booklet transmits knowledge The New Quantum Age Understanding modern quantum theory The Art of Science and The Oxford Book of Modern Science Writing Anthologies bring science to life SEP Analogue/digital transmission unit Kit transmits signal between two points SEP Optical signal transmission set Optical kit shows light transmission Stars and their Spectra New book for teaching astrophysics WORTH A LOOK Gliding for Gold Take a journey through the physics of winter sports Radioactivity: A History of a Mysterious Science Book looks at history of radioactivity Voicebox: The Physics and Evolution of Speech TExploring the evolution of the voice WEB WATCH An interactive program with promise?

  2. Solvent effect in implicit/explicit model on FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 19F NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra, linear, second- and third-nonlinear optical parameters of 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid: Experimental and computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcı, Davut; Altürk, Sümeyye; Tamer, Ömer; Kuşbazoğlu, Mustafa; Atalay, Yusuf

    2017-09-01

    FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 19F NMR, UV-vis and fluorescence spectra for 2-(trifluoromethyl)benzoic acid (2-TFMBA) were recorded. DFT//B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) calculations were used to determine the optimized molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H, 13C and 19F GIAO-NMR chemical shifts of 2-TFMBA. The detailed assignments of vibrational frequencies were carried out on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) by using VEDA program. TD-DFT/B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) calculations with the PCM (polarizable continuum model) in ethanol and DMSO solvents based on implicit/explicit model and gas phase in the excited state were employed to investigate UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission wavelengths. The UV-vis and emission spectra were given in ethanol and DMSO solvents, and the major contributions to the electronic transitions were obtained. In addition, the NLO parameters (β, γ and χ(3)) and frontier molecular orbital energies of 2-TFMBA were calculated by using B3LYP/6-31++G(d,p) level. The NLO parameters of 2-TFMBA were compared with that of para-Nitroaniline (pNA) and urea which are the typical NLO materials. The refractive index (n) is calculated by using the Lorentz-Lorenz equation to observe polarization behavior of 2-TFMBA in DMSO and ethanol solvents. In order to investigate intramolecular and hydrogen bonding interactions, NBO calculations were also performed by the same level. To sum up, considering the well-known biological role, photochemical properties of 2-TFMBA were discussed.

  3. Optical properties on thermally evaporated and heat-treated ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    of the intra-molecular bonds between the powder compounds and thin films. The optical ... Keywords. Phthalocyanine; thin films; optical properties; absorption spectra. 1. .... Leica Cambridge scanning electron microscope (model. Stereoscan ...

  4. Laboratory testing & measurement on optical imaging systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Theron, B

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available on Optical Imaging Systems Bertus Theron 27 April 2013 presented at SIECPC 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Overview of Workshop Part 1. Introduction & Context  Some history of Arabic Optics  Context: Global vs Local optical testing... of Arabic Optics 1 See [4]  Arabic records of study of geometrical optics  Traced to Hellenistic (Greek) optics  Translated to Arabic  9th century  Arabic contribution to geometric optics  Not just translation to Arabic  Innovative research...

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil

    2008-01-01

    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  6. Influence of fluctuating strain on exciton reflection spectra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skettrup, Torben

    1982-01-01

    The influence of an internal distribution of strain on the exciton reflection spectra is investigated. The resulting fluctuating optical constants give rise to a fluctuating phase of reflectivity. The standard deviation σ of these phase fluctuations is the quantity which can be observed...... to derive the dependence of the phase of reflectivity on the direction of the fluctuating optical axis. The results obtained for σ are compared with the experimental depolarization spectra of ZnO. The only fitting parameter is the common standard deviation of the strain components. It is found......, for example, between crossed polarizers or from ellipsometric measurements. Assuming the phase fluctuations to obey a Gaussian distribution, σ can be expressed in a simple way in terms of the degree of polarization or the depolarization of the reflected light. σ is then derived in terms of the standard...

  7. Evolution of transmission spectra of double cladding fiber during etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Oleg V.; Tian, Fei; Du, Henry

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the evolution of optical transmission through a double cladding fiber-optic structure during etching. The structure is formed by a section of SM630 fiber with inner depressed cladding between standard SMF-28 fibers. Its transmission spectrum exhibits two resonance dips at wavelengths where two cladding modes have almost equal propagation constants. We measure transmission spectra with decreasing thickness of the cladding and show that the resonance dips shift to shorter wavelengths, while new dips of lower order modes appear from long wavelength side. We calculate propagation constants of cladding modes and resonance wavelengths, which we compare with the experiment.

  8. Phenological Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Phenology is the scientific study of periodic biological phenomena, such as flowering, breeding, and migration, in relation to climatic conditions. The few records...

  9. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  10. Double photoionisation spectra of molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Eland, John

    2017-01-01

    This book contains spectra of the doubly charged positive ions (dications) of some 75 molecules, including the major constituents of terrestrial and planetary atmospheres and prototypes of major chemical groups. It is intended to be a new resource for research in all areas of molecular spectroscopy involving high energy environments, both terrestrial and extra-terrestrial. All the spectra have been produced by photoionisation using laboratory lamps or synchrotron radiation and have been measured using the magnetic bottle time-of-flight technique by coincidence detection of correlated electron pairs. Full references to published work on the same species are given, though for several molecules these are the first published spectra. Double ionisation energies are listed and discussed in relation to the molecular electronic structure of the molecules. A full introduction to the field of molecular double ionisation is included and the mechanisms by which double photoionisation can occur are examined in detail. A p...

  11. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail: jos@iac.es, E-mail: abml@iac.es, E-mail: rjt@ast.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx, E-mail: cid@astro.ufsc.br [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  12. Proposal of energy spectra for earthquake resistant design based on turkish registers

    OpenAIRE

    Yazgan, Ahmet Utku

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes design energy spectra in terms of an equivalent velocity, intended for regions with design peak acceleration 0.3 g or higher. These spectra have been derived through linear and nonlinear dynamic analyses on a number of Turkish selected strong ground motion records. In the long and mid period ranges the analyses are linear, taking profit of the rather insensitivity of the spectra to the structural parameters other than the fundamental period; conversely, in the short period ...

  13. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  14. Absorption Spectra of Gold Nanoparticle Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anan'eva, M. V.; Nurmukhametov, D. R.; Zverev, A. S.; Nelyubina, N. V.; Zvekov, A. A.; Russakov, D. M.; Kalenskii, A. V.; Eremenko, A. N.

    2018-02-01

    Three gold nanoparticle suspensions are obtained, and mean radii in distributions - (6.1 ± 0.2), (11.9 ± 0.3), and (17.3 ± 0.7) nm - are determined by the transmission electron microscopy method. The optical absorption spectra of suspensions are obtained and studied. Calculation of spectral dependences of the absorption index of suspensions at values of the gold complex refractive index taken from the literature showed a significant deviation of experimental and calculated data in the region of 450-800 nm. Spectral dependences of the absorption of suspensions are simulated within the framework of the Mie-Drude theory taking into account the interband absorption in the form of an additional term in the imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of the Gaussian type. It is shown that to quantify the spectral dependences in the region of the plasmon absorption band of nanoparticles, correction of the parameters of the interband absorption is necessary in addition to the increase of the relaxation parameter of the Drude theory. Spectral dependences of the dielectric permittivity of gold in nanodimensional state are refined from the solution of the inverse problem. The results of the present work are important for predicting the special features of operation of photonic devices and optical detonators based on gold nanoparticles.

  15. The structure of BPS spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  16. Automatic identification of mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drabloes, F.

    1992-01-01

    Several approaches to preprocessing and comparison of low resolution mass spectra have been evaluated by various test methods related to library search. It is shown that there is a clear correlation between the nature of any contamination of a spectrum, the basic principle of the transformation or distance measure, and the performance of the identification system. The identification of functionality from low resolution spectra has also been evaluated using several classification methods. It is shown that there is an upper limit to the success of this approach, but also that this can be improved significantly by using a very limited amount of additional information. 10 refs

  17. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua; Gong Jian; Liu Xiaoya

    2006-01-01

    In the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that some of the popular gamma spectra analysis software have shortcomings, which decrease the radiation fingerprint comparison precision. So a new analysis software is developed for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of developed program, some typical simulative warhead gamma spectra are analyzed respectively by present software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. Present software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  18. Ultraviolet spectra of planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Seaton, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Features observed in infrared spectra suggest that certain very low excitation (VLE) nebulae have low C/O abundance ratios (Cohen and Barlow 1980; Aitken and Roche 1982). Fluxes in the multiplets [O II] lambda 2470 and C II] lambda 2326 have been measured for the VLE nebula He He 2-131 = HD 138403 using IUE high-dispersion spectra. An analysis similar to that of Harrington et al. (1980) for IC 418 gives C/O = 0.3 for He 2-131, compared with C/O = 1.3 for IC 418 and 0.6 for the Sun. (author)

  19. Investigation of gamma spectra analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Huailong; Liu Suping; Hao Fanhua

    2006-12-01

    During the investigation of radiation fingerprint comparison, it is found out that the popular gamma spectra analysis softwares are faultful, which decrease the precision of radiation fingerprint comparison. So a new analysis software is development for solving the problems. In order to display the advantage of new program, some typical simulative gamma spectra of radiation source are analyzed respectively by our software and GAMMAVISION and GENNIE2000. The software can be applied not only in nuclear warheads deep-cuts verification, but also in any radiation measurement field. (authors)

  20. Raman spectra studies of dipeptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Simone.

    1977-10-01

    This work deals with the homogenous and heterogeneous dipeptides derived from alanine and glycine, in the solid state or in aqueous solutions, in the zwitterions or chlorhydrates form. The Raman spectra comparative study of these various forms of hydrogenated or deuterated compounds allows to specify some of the attributions which are necessary in the conformational study of the like tripeptides. These compounds contain only one peptidic group; therefore there is no possibility of intramolecular hydrogen bond which caracterise vibrations of non bonded peptidic groups and end groups. Infrared spectra of solid dipeptides will be presented and discussed in the near future [fr

  1. Prediction of peak overlap in NMR spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hefke, Frederik; Schmucki, Roland; Güntert, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Peak overlap is one of the major factors complicating the analysis of biomolecular NMR spectra. We present a general method for predicting the extent of peak overlap in multidimensional NMR spectra and its validation using both, experimental data sets and Monte Carlo simulation. The method is based on knowledge of the magnetization transfer pathways of the NMR experiments and chemical shift statistics from the Biological Magnetic Resonance Data Bank. Assuming a normal distribution with characteristic mean value and standard deviation for the chemical shift of each observable atom, an analytic expression was derived for the expected overlap probability of the cross peaks. The analytical approach was verified to agree with the average peak overlap in a large number of individual peak lists simulated using the same chemical shift statistics. The method was applied to eight proteins, including an intrinsically disordered one, for which the prediction results could be compared with the actual overlap based on the experimentally measured chemical shifts. The extent of overlap predicted using only statistical chemical shift information was in good agreement with the overlap that was observed when the measured shifts were used in the virtual spectrum, except for the intrinsically disordered protein. Since the spectral complexity of a protein NMR spectrum is a crucial factor for protein structure determination, analytical overlap prediction can be used to identify potentially difficult proteins before conducting NMR experiments. Overlap predictions can be tailored to particular classes of proteins by preparing statistics from corresponding protein databases. The method is also suitable for optimizing recording parameters and labeling schemes for NMR experiments and improving the reliability of automated spectra analysis and protein structure determination.

  2. NONLINEAR OPTICAL MOLECULAR CRYSTAL BASED ON 2,6-DIAMINOPYRIDINE: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Pavlovetc

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with investigation of a new nonlinear optical material based on nonlinear optical chromophore (4-Nitrophenol and aminopyridine (2,6-Diaminopyridine. Calculation results are presented for molecular packing in the crystalline compound, based on the given components. According to these results the finite material must have a noncentrosymmetric lattice, which determines the presence of the second order nonlinear optical response. Investigations carried out in this work confirm these calculations. Results of experiments are given describing the co-crystallization of these components and the following re-crystallization of the obtained material. In order to get a monocrystal form, the optimal conditions for the synthesis of molecular crystals based on these components are determined. Sufficiently large homogeneous crystals are obtained, that gave the possibility to record their spectra in the visible and near infrared parts of the spectrum, to determine their nonlinear optical properties and the level of homogeneity. Their optical (optical transmission and optical laser damage threshold and nonlinear optical properties are presented. For observation and measurement of the nonlinear optical properties an installation was built which implements the comparative method for measurements of nonlinear optical properties. A potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal was used as a sample for comparison. Results are given for the conversion efficiency of the primary laser radiation in the second optical harmonic relative to the signal obtained on the potassium titanyl oxide phosphate crystal. Obtained results show that the molecular co-crystal based on 2,6-Diaminopyridine is a promising nonlinear optical material for generating the second optical harmonic on the Nd: YAG laser (532 nm.

  3. Anisotropy Spectra for Enantiomeric Differentiation of Biomolecular Building Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Amanda C.; Meinert, Cornelia; Bredehoft, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    All biopolymers are composed of homochiral building blocks, and both D-sugars and L-amino acids uniquely constitute life on Earth. These monomers were originally enantiomerically differentiated under prebiotic conditions. Particular progress has recently been made in support of the photochemical...... light. This chapter will: (1) present the theory and configuration of anisotropy spectroscopy; (2) explain experimentally recorded anisotropy spectra of selected chiral biomolecules such as amino acids; and (3) discuss the relevance of these spectra for the investigation of the origin of the molecular...

  4. Properties Of Reflection Holograms Recorded In Polaroid's DMP-128 Photopolymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwall, R. T.; Troll, M.; Vetterling, W. T.

    1987-06-01

    Optical and microstructural properties of reflection holograms recorded in DMP-128 are reported. The optical properties are determined from transmission spectra of the holograms by ignoring the relatively small effects of light scattering and absorption. Microstructure is revealed by light and electron microscopic examination of hologram sections prepared either by diamond grit abrasion or by freeze fracture. Fringe planes are clearly seen with both sectioning procedures. The spacing between adjacent planes is strongly affected by processing conditions. Standard processing produces reflection holograms with fringe plane spacing that decreases continuously from the film:substrate interface to the film:air interface. These holograms have wide spectral bandwidths (100-200nm) and irregular band shapes. Narrow bandwidth holograms are produced from slightly more complicated processing steps. The optical properties of both types of holograms are compared to a theoretical model developed to account for nonuniform fringe plane spacing. Important experimental features such as spectral bandwidth and diffraction efficiency are readily explained by the theory and the observed microstructure.

  5. Excited-state Raman spectroscopy with and without actinic excitation: S1 Raman spectra of trans-azobenzene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobryakov, A. L.; Quick, M.; Ioffe, I. N.; Granovsky, A. A.; Ernsting, N. P.; Kovalenko, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    We show that femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy can record excited-state spectra in the absence of actinic excitation, if the Raman pump is in resonance with an electronic transition. The approach is illustrated by recording S 1 and S 0 spectra of trans-azobenzene in n-hexane. The S 1 spectra were also measured conventionally, upon nπ* (S 0 → S 1 ) actinic excitation. The results are discussed and compared to earlier reports

  6. Study of neutrino production in the Cannonball model of Gamma ray bursts: possibility of observation of these neutrinos with the Antares neutrinos telescope, and study of the optical background recorded with the prototype sector line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferry, S.

    2004-09-01

    ANTARES is a future neutrino telescope which will be build at 40 km off the french coast (Toulon), at a 2500 m depth. The interaction of a neutrino with matter produces a muon which emits Cerenkov light while propagating in water. This light is detected with 900 photomultipliers distributed over 12 lines. Gamma ray bursts (GRB) are violent cosmological phenomenon observed once per day. In the Cannonball Model, bursts are produced by the interaction of a jet made of cannonballs (CB) with a supernova remnant (SNR). Forward shocks propagate in the SNR, reverse ones in the CB and neutrinos are produced at the shock fronts. An estimation of the neutrino production is given and is studied over a large parameter range. For a typical GRB, 0.002 to 0.3 v μ , cm -2 can be produced. Depending on the viewing angle, ANTARES could detect 1 to 10 v μ per year in correlation with GRBs. The ambient optical background has been recorded by the ANTARES prototype sector line. The analysis is about the background influence on the detector performance and about the organisms activity which produces it. For example, it appears a 17.6 to 20.4 h periodicity which is compatible with the liquid masses movement imposed by the Coriolis force at the ANTARES latitude. (author)

  7. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  8. Vibrational spectra of ordered perovskites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corsmit, A.F.; Hoefdraad, H.E.; Blasse, G.

    1972-01-01

    The vibrational spectra of the molecular M6+O6 (M = Mo, Te, W) group in ordered perovskites of the type Ba2M2+M6+O6 are reported. These groups have symmetry Oh, whereas their site symmetry is also Oh. An assignment of the internal vibrations is presented.

  9. Raman spectra of graphene ribbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, R; Furukawa, M; Dresselhaus, G; Dresselhaus, M S

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra of graphene nanoribbons with zigzag and armchair edges are calculated within non-resonant Raman theory. Depending on the edge structure and polarization direction of the incident and scattered photon beam relative to the edge direction, a symmetry selection rule for the phonon type appears. These Raman selection rules will be useful for the identification of the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons.

  10. Correlation between optical emission spectra and the process ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and disadvantages, but, good quality diamond can be deposited mainly using ... increase in the CH4 concentration up to 0.8% of the total gas mixture, and then ... the effect of microwave reactor parameters on thermal management of silicon.

  11. Skyshine spectra of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swarup, Janardan

    1980-01-01

    A study of the spectra of gamma photons back-scattered in vertical direction by infinite air above ground (skyshine) is presented. The source for these measurements is a 650 Ci Cobalt-60 point-source and the skyshine spectra are reported for distances from 150 m to 325 m from the source, measured with a 5 cm x 5 cm NaI(Tl) detector collimated with collimators of 12 mm and 20 mm diameter and 5 cm length. These continuous spectra are unfolded with Gold's iterative technique. The photon-spectra so obtained have a distinct line at 72 keV due to multiply-scattered photons. This is an energy where photoelectric and Compton cross-sections for multiply-scattered photons balance each other. The intensity of the line(I) decreases exponentially with distance (d) from the source obeying a relation of the type I = Isub(o)esup(-μd) where μ is called as ''Multiply-Scatter Coefficient'', a constant of the medium which is air in these measurements. This relationship is explained in terms of a halo around the source comprising of multiply-scattered gamma photons, Isub(0) being the intensity of these scattered photons at the location of cobalt-source. A fraction called as ''Back-scattered Fraction'', the ratio of Isub(0) to the number of original photons from the cobalt-source entering the infinite air, is also calculated. It is shown that with a properly calibrated detector system, this fraction can be used to determine the strength of a large gamma source, viz. a nuclear explosion in air, and for mineral prospecting. These conclusions are general and can be applied to any other infinite medium. Some forward-scatter (transmission) spectra of cobalt-60 source through 10 cm of Pb and 2.5 cm of Al are also reported. (auth.)

  12. Development of an Optical Disc Recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    Kenney , F / Zernike D /Lou ,~ R,’Harp:r 1 ( Li, ‘~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ _ _ ~~ _ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I R. McFarlane - - ____________________________ 9. PER...7 371 4 0 “7 4 :4 7-7 / 99 c crc 7i 3d ) -75, 375 331 4 7 Cl 4 :53 2177 70 Ci 0 0 2 ) 2 2-37 3172 FIGURE 4 . 1 S I M I I I A T 1 ON RESUl TS FOR

  13. Ultra-High Density Optical Recording

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kryder, Mark

    1999-01-01

    .... The work was directed at developing an understanding of the cyclability of phase change media, the fabrication of solid immersion lens, the development of improved integrated engineering test beds...

  14. Optical calorimetry in microfluidic droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Jacob; Pattekar, Ashish; Afshinmanesh, Farzaneh; Martini, Joerg; Recht, Michael I

    2018-05-29

    A novel microfluidic calorimeter that measures the enthalpy change of reactions occurring in 100 μm diameter aqueous droplets in fluoropolymer oil has been developed. The aqueous reactants flow into a microfluidic droplet generation chip in separate fluidic channels, limiting contact between the streams until immediately before they form the droplet. The diffusion-driven mixing of reactants is predominantly restricted to within the droplet. The temperature change in droplets due to the heat of reaction is measured optically by recording the reflectance spectra of encapsulated thermochromic liquid crystals (TLC) that are added to one of the reactant streams. As the droplets travel through the channel, the spectral characteristics of the TLC represent the internal temperature, allowing optical measurement with a precision of ≈6 mK. The microfluidic chip and all fluids are temperature controlled, and the reaction heat within droplets raises their temperature until thermal diffusion dissipates the heat into the surrounding oil and chip walls. Position resolved optical temperature measurement of the droplets allows calculation of the heat of reaction by analyzing the droplet temperature profile over time. Channel dimensions, droplet generation rate, droplet size, reactant stream flows and oil flow rate are carefully balanced to provide rapid diffusional mixing of reactants compared to thermal diffusion, while avoiding thermal "quenching" due to contact between the droplets and the chip walls. Compared to conventional microcalorimetry, which has been used in this work to provide reference measurements, this new continuous flow droplet calorimeter has the potential to perform titrations ≈1000-fold faster while using ≈400-fold less reactants per titration.

  15. Optical verification tests of the NISP/Euclid grism qualification model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillat, Amandine; Costille, Anne; Pascal, Sandrine; Vives, Sébastien; Rossin, Christelle; Sanchez, Patrice; Foulon, Benjamin

    2016-07-01

    The Euclid space mission aims at elucidating dark matter and dark energy mysteries thanks to two scientific instruments: VIS, the visible camera and NISP, the Near Infrared Spectro-Photometer. Millions of galaxies spectra will be recorded thanks to its spectroscopic mode using four grisms developed under LAM (Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille) responsibility. These dispersive optical components are made of a grating on a prism and include also, specifically for NISP, three other optical functions: spectral filtering, focus adjustment and spectral wavefront correction. Therefore, these optical elements are very challenging to manufacture (four industrial partners work on a single optical component) and to test before integration into NISP. In this paper, first we describe the optical specifications and the manufacturing process. Second, we explain the optical validation tests campaign: optical setups, measurements and data processing procedures used to validate these complex optical components, particularly for transmitted efficiency and wavefront error for which specifications are very stringent. Finally, we present the first results obtained on the grism EQM which manufacturing is on-going and almost finished.

  16. Optics of colloidal quantum-confined CdSe nanoscrolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, R B; Sokolikova, M S [M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Vitukhnovskii, A G; Ambrozevich, S A; Selyukov, A S; Lebedev, V S [P N Lebedev Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-30

    Nanostructures in the form of 1.2-nm-thick colloidal CdSe nanoplatelets rolled into scrolls are investigated. The morphology of these scrolls is analysed and their basic geometric parameters are determined (diameter 29 nm, longitudinal size 100 – 150 nm) by TEM microscopy. Absorption and photoluminescence spectra of these objects are recorded, and the luminescence decay kinetics is studied. It is shown that the optical properties of CdSe nanoscrolls differ significantly from the properties of CdSe quantum dots and that these nanoscrolls are attractive for nanophotonic devices due to large oscillator strengths of the transition, small widths of excitonic peaks and short luminescence decay times. Nanoscrolls can be used to design hybrid organic–inorganic pure-color LEDs with a high luminescence quantum yield and low operating voltages. (optics and technology of nanostructures)

  17. [The NIR spectra based variety discrimination for single soybean seed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Da-Zhou; Wang, Kun; Zhou, Guang-Hua; Hou, Rui-Feng; Wang, Cheng

    2010-12-01

    With the development of soybean producing and processing, the quality breeding becomes more and more important for soybean breeders. Traditional sampling detection methods for soybean quality need to destroy the seed, and does not satisfy the requirement of earlier generation materials sieving for breeding. Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been widely used for soybean quality detection. However, all these applications were referred to mass samples, and they were not suitable for little or single seed detection in breeding procedure. In the present study, the acousto--optic tunable filter (AOTF) NIR spectroscopy was used to measure the single soybean seed. Two varieties of soybean were measured, which contained 60 KENJIANDOU43 seeds and 60 ZHONGHUANG13 seeds. The results showed that NIR spectra combined with soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could accurately discriminate the soybean varieties. The classification accuracy for KENJIANDOU43 seeds and ZHONGHUANG13 was 100%. The spectra of single soybean seed were measured at different positions, and it showed that the seed shape has significant influence on the measurement of spectra, therefore, the key point for single seed measurement was how to accurately acquire the spectra and keep their representativeness. The spectra for soybeans with glossy surface had high repeatability, while the spectra of seeds with external defects had significant difference for several measurements. For the fast sieving of earlier generation materials in breeding, one could firstly eliminate the seeds with external defects, then apply NIR spectra for internal quality detection, and in this way the influence of seed shape and external defects could be reduced.

  18. Flares on dMe stars: IUE and optical observations of At Mic, and comparison of far-ultraviolet stellar and solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bromage, G.E.; Phillips, K.J.H.; Dufton, P.L.; Kingston, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    The paper concerns observations of a large flare event on the dMe star At Mic, detected by the International Ultraviolet Explorer. The far-ultraviolet spectra of the flare is compared with those of other stellar flares, and also with a large solar flare recorded by the Skylab mission in 1973. The quiescent-phase optical and ultraviolet spectrum of the same dMe flare star is discussed. (U.K.)

  19. Optical studies on Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshvaran, K.; Marimuthu, K.

    2012-06-01

    Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses with the chemical composition (39-x)B2O3+30TeO2+15MgO+15K2O +xEu2O3 (where x = 0.01, 0.1, 1, 2 and 3 wt%) have been prepared by following conventional melt quenching technique. Spectroscopic properties of the Eu3+ doped boro-tellurite glasses have been studied by recording the optical absorption and luminescence measurements. Through the optical absorption spectra, bonding parameters (β¯, δ) have been calculated to identify the ionic/covalent nature of the glasses. Judd-Ofelt (JO) analysis have been carried out using the luminescence spectra. The JO parameters (Ωλ = 2, 4 and 6) were used to calculate the radiative properties for the 5D0 → 7FJ (J = 1, 2, 3 and 4) emission transitions of the Eu3+ ions. The change in optical properties with the variation of Eu3+ ion concentration have been studied and discussed with similar studies.

  20. RECORDS REACHING RECORDING DATA TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. W. L. Gresik

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  1. Records Reaching Recording Data Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresik, G. W. L.; Siebe, S.; Drewello, R.

    2013-07-01

    The goal of RECORDS (Reaching Recording Data Technologies) is the digital capturing of buildings and cultural heritage objects in hard-to-reach areas and the combination of data. It is achieved by using a modified crane from film industry, which is able to carry different measuring systems. The low-vibration measurement should be guaranteed by a gyroscopic controlled advice that has been , developed for the project. The data were achieved by using digital photography, UV-fluorescence photography, infrared reflectography, infrared thermography and shearography. Also a terrestrial 3D laser scanner and a light stripe topography scanner have been used The combination of the recorded data should ensure a complementary analysis of monuments and buildings.

  2. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  3. Effect of ZnO on the Physical Properties and Optical Band Gap of Soda Lime Silicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Mohd Hafiz Mohd; Matori, Khamirul Amin; Aziz, Sidek Hj. Abdul; Zakaria, Azmi; Ghazali, Mohd Sabri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on the physical properties and optical band gap of five samples of soda lime silicate (SLS) glass combined with zinc oxide (ZnO) that were prepared by a melting and quenching process. To understand the role of ZnO in this glass structure, the density, molar volume and optical band gaps were investigated. The density and absorption spectra in the Ultra-Violet-Visible (UV-Visible) region were recorded at room temperature. The results show that the densities of the glass samples increased as the ZnO weight percentage increased. The molar volume of the glasses shows the same trend as the density: the molar volume increased as the ZnO content increased. The optical band gaps were calculated from the absorption edge, and it was found that the optical band gap decreased from 3.20 to 2.32 eV as the ZnO concentration increased. PMID:22837711

  4. Study of high-temperature multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, J P; Yueh, F Y; Kao, W; Cook, R L

    1993-02-20

    A feasibility study of temperature measurement with multiplex HCl coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is investigated. The HCl CARS spectra of a 100% HCl gas sample are recorded in a quartz sample cell placed in a furnace at 1 atm pressure and at different temperatures. The nonlinear susceptibility of HCl (chi(nr)(HCl)), which is measured with the present CARS experimental setup, is reported. The experimental spectra are fit by using a library of simulated HCl CARS spectra with a least-squares-fitting program to infer the temperature. The inferred temperatures from HCl CARS spectra are in agreement with thermocouple temperatures.

  5. Variable valence ion spectra in a crystal field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiordanescu, V.

    1979-01-01

    Using the Cadmium chloride as a host lattice, the optical spectra and RES of Mnsup(2+) were studied and the following results were obtained: a) By controlled dopings, the absorbtion and excitation spectra of ion Mnsup(2+) in CdCl 2 within the concentration range between 0.01 M and 25 M were plotted. Thus, the band structure for small concentrations was pointed out to differ from the structure observed for high concentrations. In the literature, this effect has not been observed on similar compounds, due to the small intensity values of the absorbtion spectra. b) Considering that for CdCl 2 :Mnsup(2+) 0.1 M, the optical spectra correspond to the isolated ion in the lattice, the energy levels were evaluated using electrostatic and spin-orbit terms in a perturbation calculation of the crystal field approximation. c) The calculation of parameter a which represents the effect of the cubic field in the spjn Hamiltonian of Mnsup(2+), is closer to the experjmental value -0.5.10 -4 cm -1 of the crystal field Dq and zeta parameters are used, respectively, parameters of the spin-orbit interaction obtained under b). d) The coupling effects of spins into more concentrated crystals with Mn 2+ are a function of temperature. The emjssion yield was given a quasi-cantitative evaluation in thjs paper as a function of temperature and concentratjon on the basis of which the isolated centers of Mn 2+ were found to display ectra whose intensity vary with temperature according to the Laporte forbidden transitions and spin rule theory, and the clusters including Mn 2+ - Mn 2+ pairs provide spectra whose intensity vary with the strength of the spin-spin coupling. (author)

  6. ACCELERATED FITTING OF STELLAR SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie [Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Rix, Hans-Walter [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-20

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  7. The effect of aberrated recording beams on reflecting Bragg gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    SeGall, Marc; Ott, Daniel; Divliansky, Ivan; Glebov, Leonid B.

    2013-03-01

    The effect of aberrations present in the recording beams of a holographic setup is discussed regarding the period and spectral response of a reflecting volume Bragg grating. Imperfect recording beams result in spatially varying resonant wavelengths and the side lobes of the spectrum are washed out. Asymmetrical spectra, spectral broadening, and a reduction in peak diffraction efficiency may also be present, though these effects are less significant for gratings with wider spectral widths. Reflecting Bragg gratings (RBGs) are used as elements in a variety of applications including spectral beam combining1,2, mode locking3,4, longitudinal and transverse mode selection in lasers5,6, and sensing7,8. For applications requiring narrow spectral selectivity9, or large apertures10, these gratings must have a uniform period throughout the length of the recording medium, which may be on the order of millimeters. However, when using typical recording techniques such as two-beam interference for large aperture gratings and phase-mask recording of fiber gratings, aberrations from the optical elements in the system result in an imperfect grating structure11-13. In this paper we consider the effects of aberrations on large aperture gratings recorded in thick media using the two-beam interference technique. Previous works in analyzing the effects of aberrations have considered the effects of aberrations in a single recording plane where the beams perfectly overlap. Such an approach is valid for thin media (on the order of tens of microns), but for thick recording media (on the order of several millimeters) there will be a significant shift in the positions of the beams relative to each other as they traverse the recording medium. Therefore, the fringe pattern produced will not be constant throughout the grating if one or both beams have a non-uniform wavefront. Such non-uniform gratings may have a wider spectral width, a shifted resonant wavelength, or other problems. It is

  8. Reconstruction of neutron spectra through neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega C, H.R.; Hernandez D, V.M.; Manzanares A, E.

    2003-01-01

    A neural network has been used to reconstruct the neutron spectra starting from the counting rates of the detectors of the Bonner sphere spectrophotometric system. A group of 56 neutron spectra was selected to calculate the counting rates that would produce in a Bonner sphere system, with these data and the spectra it was trained the neural network. To prove the performance of the net, 12 spectra were used, 6 were taken of the group used for the training, 3 were obtained of mathematical functions and those other 3 correspond to real spectra. When comparing the original spectra of those reconstructed by the net we find that our net has a poor performance when reconstructing monoenergetic spectra, this attributes it to those characteristic of the spectra used for the training of the neural network, however for the other groups of spectra the results of the net are appropriate with the prospective ones. (Author)

  9. Biological Action Spectra (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruijl, F.R. de

    2000-07-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces a wide variety of biological responses: ranging in humans from well-known short-term effects like sunburn to long-term effects like skin cancer. The wavelength dependencies ('action spectra') of the responses can differ significantly, depending on the UV-targeted molecules (their absorption spectra), their localisation (transmission to the target depth) and the photochemical reactions involved (e.g. quantum yields, competing reaction). An action spectrum (e.g. of sunburn) is usually determined in a wavelength by wavelength analysis of the response. This is not always possible (e.g. in case of skin cancer), and an action spectrum may then be extracted mathematically from differences in responses to broadband UV sources of various spectral compositions (yielding 'biological spectral weights'). However, relative spectral weights may shift with exposure levels and contributions from different wavelengths may not always add up. Under these circumstances conventional analyses will yield different action spectra for different experimental conditions. (author)

  10. Spectral Barcoding of Quantum Dots: Deciphering Structural Motifs from the Excitonic Spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mlinar, V.; Zunger, A.

    2009-01-01

    Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) show in high-resolution single-dot spectra a multitude of sharp lines, resembling a barcode, due to various neutral and charged exciton complexes. Here we propose the 'spectral barcoding' method that deciphers structural motifs of dots by using such barcode as input to an artificial-intelligence learning system. Thus, we invert the common practice of deducing spectra from structure by deducing structure from spectra. This approach (i) lays the foundation for building a much needed structure-spectra understanding for large nanostructures and (ii) can guide future design of desired optical features of QDs by controlling during growth only those structural motifs that decide given optical features.

  11. Physical and optical property studies on Bi3+ ion containing vanadium sodium borate glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, G.; Meera, B. N.; Eraiah, B.

    2018-04-01

    xBi2O3-(15-x)V2O5-45B2O3-40Na2O glasses have been prepared using melt quenching technique. Amorphous nature of the glasses is verified using powder XRD. Densities and molar volume have been determined as a function of bismuth content and interestingly both increases as a function of bismuth content. Further oxygen packing density (OPD) is found to decrease with bismuth content. The increase in the molar volume as a function of bismuth content may be due to structural changes in the glass network. The optical properties performed from the optical absorption spectra were recorded in the wavelength range 200-1100 nm using UV-Visible spectrophotometer. The theoretical optical basicity of the oxides have also been estimated. The calculated energy band gap values increases with increase in Bi2O3 content.

  12. Systematic evaluation of prompt neutron spectra in fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osawa, Takaaki

    1995-01-01

    To create the nuclear data fail JEND-32, the prompt fission neutron spectra X(E) of 233 U, 235 U, 238 U and 239 Pu were reevaluated and some improvement were added to the calculation models. We tried to extend the calculation method of fission spectra of nuclides with poor measurement data in consideration of increasing the importance of nuclear data of minor actinoids. We improved and extended the following five points. (1) On JENDL-3.1, the fission spectra of principal fissible materials had been calculated by the Modland-Nix model which the neutron emissions of fragments were calculated under the approximation of the constant inverse process cross section. In the paper, the spectra were calculated by the use of the inverse process cross section depend on the energy obtained by the calculation of the optical model. The result showed the increase of low energy components and the softening effect of spectra (2) On JENDL-3.1, the all fission processes were assumed to undergo (n,f) reaction. In the paper, they were calculated by the multi-chance fission such as (n, n'f), (n, 2nf) and (n, 3nf) etc. Softening of the spectra (En > 6 MeV) was obtained by this method. (3) The level density parameter (LDP) has been assumed as a = A/C in either case of light fragment (LF) and heavy fragment (HF) in the original Madland-Nix model. But we used LDP based on the Ignatyuk model under consideration of the shell effects of nuclear fragments, hence the neutron spectra of heavy fragments were hardening. (4) Nuclear temperature of both fragments had been assumed to be the same at original model, but now R T = Tm/TmH was derived to calculate them. The ratio of middle/both side components of spectra was changed. (5) Unknown neutron fission spectra of minor actinide were able to the assumed on the basis of Moriyama-Ohnishi model. (S.Y.)

  13. High resolution atomic spectra of rare earths : progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saksena, G.D.; Ahmad, S.A.

    1976-01-01

    High resolution studies of atomic spectra of neodymium and gadolinium are being carried out on a recording Fabry-Perot spectrometer. The present progress report concerns work done on new assignments as well as confirmation of recently assigned electronic configurations and evaluation of isotope shifts of energy levels which have been possible from the isotope shift data obtained for several transitions of NdI, NdII and GdI, GdII respectively. (author)

  14. On the Regional Dependence of Earthquake Response Spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas , John

    2007-01-01

    International audience; It is common practice to use ground-motion models, often developed by regression on recorded accelerograms, to predict the expected earthquake response spectra at sites of interest. An important consideration when selecting these models is the possible dependence of ground motions on geographical region, i.e., are median ground motions in the (target) region of interest for a given magnitude and distance the same as those in the (host) region where a ground-motion mode...

  15. Depth distributions of light action spectra for skin chromophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barun, V. V.; Ivanov, A. P.

    2010-03-01

    Light action spectra over wavelengths of 300-1000 nm are calculated for components of the human cutaneous covering: melanin, basal (bloodless) tissue, and blood oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin. The transformation of the spectra with depth in biological tissue results from two factors. The first is the wavelength dependence of the absorption coefficient corresponding to a particular skin chromophore and the second is the spectral selectivity of the radiation flux in biological tissue. This factor is related to the optical properties of all chromophores. A significant change is found to take place in the spectral distribution of absorbed radiant power with increasing depth. The action spectrum of light for the molecular oxygen contained in all components of biological tissue is also studied in the 625-645 nm range. The spectra are found to change with both the volume fraction of blood vessels and the degree of oxygenation of the blood. These results are useful for analyzing processes associated with optical absorption that are possible mechanisms for the interaction of light with biological tissues: photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin and the light-oxygen effect.

  16. Vinyl Record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartmanski, Dominik; Woodward, Ian

    2018-01-01

    . This relational process means that both the material affordances and entanglements of vinyl allow us to feel, handle, experience, project, and share its iconicity. The materially mediated meanings of vinyl enabled it to retain currency in independent and collector’s markets and thus resist the planned......In this paper, we use the case of the vinyl record to show that iconic objects become meaningful via a dual process. First, they offer immersive engagements which structure user interpretations through various material experiences of handling, use, and extension. Second, they always work via...

  17. Faraday effect and λ-modulation absorption spectra of GaP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petkova, P N; Dimov, T N; Iliev, I A

    2007-01-01

    There are presented the absorption optical spectra of GaP measured by λ-modulation method at room temperature in the spectral region from 505 nm to 700 nm. It is not possible even by λ-modulation to be registered at room temperature the wave bands due to the exciton-phonon interaction. The absorption spectra of GaP carried out by a λ-modulation can be separated exactly in the spectral parts as follows: the transmittance region where the absorption is too slightly expressed; the region determined by the phonon-assisted indirect transitions; the region of the interband absorption. The purpose of Faraday rotation measurements is to establish the influence of the exciton-phonon interaction on the magneto-optical effect. The magneto-optical effect has been investigated by a φ-modulation. The spectral dependence of dn/dλ in the transmittance region is determined by the φ-modulated spectra

  18. The photoluminescence spectra of micropowder of aromatic compounds under ultraviolet laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhmatullaev, I.A.; Kurbonov, A.K. et al.; Gorelik, V.S.

    2016-01-01

    The method of diagnostics of aromatic compounds on the example of novocaine, aspirin and anthracene is presented. The method is based on optical detection of photoluminescence spectra at ultraviolet laser (266 nm) excitation. Employing this method the photoluminescence spectra are obtained which allows one to establish the differences of the composition and structure of compounds. The developed method can be used for analysis the quality of the large class of luminescent bioactive structures under the ultraviolet radiation. (authors)

  19. COLORED DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER (CDOM) CHARACTERIZATION BY ABSORPTION AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA

    OpenAIRE

    Goncalves Araujo, Rafael; Ramirez-Perez, Marta; Kraberg, Alexandra; Piera, Jaume; Bracher, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) absorption and fluorescence spectra were analyzed from samples collected in the Lena River Delta region (Siberia, Russia; summer-2013) and in the Alfacs Bay (Ebro River Delta, Spain; summer-2013/winter-2014) in order to use optical measurements to infer loading and origin of CDOM. Absorbance spectra and Excitation-Emission matrices (EEMs) were obtained with a HORIBA Aqualog® spectrofluorometer. CDOM absorption at 443nm (a443) and terrestrial absorption ...

  20. Design spectra development considering short time histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiner, E.O.

    1983-01-01

    The need for generation of seismic acceleration histories to prescribed response spectra arises several ways in structural dynamics. For example, one way of obtaining floor spectra is to generate a history from a foundation spectra and then solve for the floor motion from which a floor spectrum can be obtained. Two separate programs, MODQKE and MDOF, were written to provide a capability of obtaining equipment spectra from design spectra. MODQKE generates or modifies acceleration histories to conform with design spectra pertaining to, say, a foundation. MDOF is a simple linear modal superposition program that solves for equipment support histories using the design spectra conforming histories as input. Equipment spectra, then, are obtained from the support histories using MODQKE