Sample records for optical shutters

  1. Nanosecond Optical Shutters (United States)

    King, N. S. P.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Pagano, T. S.; Black, J. Paul


    A comparison of gated optical shuttering responses for commercially available micro-channel plate image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) with the performance of a new design for improved optical shuttering is presented. Measurements of opacity, photocathode quantum efficiency, and shutter pulse propagation characteristics are discussed.

  2. Thin-film optical shutter. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlow, S.L.


    A specific embodiment of macroconjugated macromolecules, the poly (p-phenylene)'s, has been chosen as the one most likely to meet all of the requirements of the Thin Film Optical Shutter project (TFOS). The reason for this choice is included. In order to be able to make meaningful calculations of the thermodynamic and optical properties of the poly (p-phenylene)'s a new quantum mechanical method was developed - Equilibrium Bond Length (EBL) Theory. Some results of EBL Theory are included.

  3. Electronic system for optical shutter control (United States)

    Viljoen, H. C.; Gaylord, T. K.


    The paper describes a precise and versatile electronic system for shutter control in light beam experiments. Digital and analog circuitry is used to provide automatic timing, exposure control, manual operation, and remote programmability. A block diagram of the system is presented and the individual circuits - the timer control circuit, the clock control circuit, the comparator circuit, the exposure (integrator) circuit, and the shutter drive circuit are discussed in detail and diagrams are provided.

  4. High frame rate CCD camera with fast optical shutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.; McDonald, T.E. Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Turko, B.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)


    A high frame rate CCD camera coupled with a fast optical shutter has been designed for high repetition rate imaging applications. The design uses state-of-the-art microchannel plate image intensifier (MCPII) technology fostered/developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory to support nuclear, military, and medical research requiring high-speed imagery. Key design features include asynchronous resetting of the camera to acquire random transient images, patented real-time analog signal processing with 10-bit digitization at 40--75 MHz pixel rates, synchronized shutter exposures as short as 200pS, sustained continuous readout of 512 x 512 pixels per frame at 1--5Hz rates via parallel multiport (16-port CCD) data transfer. Salient characterization/performance test data for the prototype camera are presented, temporally and spatially resolved images obtained from range-gated LADAR field testing are included, an alternative system configuration using several cameras sequenced to deliver discrete numbers of consecutive frames at effective burst rates up to 5GHz (accomplished by time-phasing of consecutive MCPII shutter gates without overlap) is discussed. Potential applications including dynamic radiography and optical correlation will be presented.

  5. An ultra-fast optical shutter exploiting total light absorption in a phase change material (United States)

    Jafari, Mohsen; Guo, L. Jay; Rais-Zadeh, Mina


    In this paper, we present an ultra-fast and high-contrast optical shutter with applications in atomic clock assemblies, integrated photonic systems, communication hardware, etc. The shutter design exploits the total light absorption phenomenon in a thin phase change (PC) material placed over a metal layer. The shutter switches between ON and OFF states by changing PC material phase and thus its refractive index. The PC material used in this work is Germanium Telluride (GeTe), a group IV-VI chalcogenide compound, which exhibits good optical contrast when switching from amorphous to crystalline state and vice versa. The stable phase changing behavior and reliability of GeTe and GeSbTe (GST) have been verified in optical memories and RF switches. Here, GeTe is used as it has a lower extinction coefficient in near-IR regions compared to GST. GeTe can be thermally transitioned between two phases by applying electrical pulses to an integrated heater. The memory behavior of GeTe results in zero static power consumption which is useful in applications requiring long time periods between switching activities. We previously demonstrated a meta-surface employing GeTe in sub-wavelength slits with >14 dB isolation at 1.5 μm by exciting the surface plasmon polariton and localized slit resonances. In this work, strong interference effects in a thin layer of GeTe over a gold mirror result in near total light absorption of up to 40 dB (21 dB measured) in the amorphous phase of the shutter at 780 nm with much less fabrication complexity. The optical loss at the shutter ON state is less than 1.5 dB. A nickel chrome (NiCr) heater provides the Joule heating energy required to achieve the crystallographic phase change. The measured switching speed is 2 μs.

  6. Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadimasoudi, Mohammad, E-mail:; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beeckman, Jeroen [Electronics and Information Systems Department, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Center for Nano- and Bio-photonics, Ghent University, St. Pietersnieuwstraat 41, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Shin, Jungsoon; Lee, Keechang [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, 130 Samsung-ro, Yeongtong-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do, 443-803 (Korea, Republic of)


    A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.

  7. Microsecond-range optical shutter for unpolarized light with chiral nematic liquid crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mohammadimasoudi


    Full Text Available A fast electro-optic shutter is fabricated and demonstrated. The device works independently of the polarization state of the incoming light beam. Modulation between 3% transmission and 60% transmission is obtained within a wavelength range of 50 nm with a response time of 20 μs. The device consists of two partly polymerized chiral nematic liquid crystal layers separated by a half wave plate. The transmission modulation is due to a 50 nm wavelength shift of the photonic band gap of the chiral liquid crystal realized by applying an electric field over a mixture of photo-polymerized LC and non-reactive nematic LC containing a chiral dopant. The shutter features high reflectivity in the photonic band gap. We investigate the influence of the amplitude of the applied voltage on the width and the depth of the reflection band.

  8. Large area and low power dielectrowetting optical shutter with local deterministic fluid film breakup (United States)

    Zhao, R.; Cumby, B.; Russell, A.; Heikenfeld, J.


    A large area (>10 cm2) and low-power (0.1-10 Hz AC voltage, ˜10's μW/cm2) dielectrowetting optical shutter requiring no pixelation is demonstrated. The device consists of 40 μm interdigitated electrodes covered by fluid splitting features and a hydrophobic fluoropolymer. When voltage is removed, the fluid splitting features initiate breakup of the fluid film into small droplets resulting in ˜80% transmission. Both the dielectrowetting and fluid splitting follow theory, allowing prediction of alternate designs and further improved performance. Advantages include scalability, optical polarization independence, high contrast ratio, fast response, and simple construction, which could be of use in switchable windows or transparent digital signage.

  9. High-frame-rate intensified fast optically shuttered TV cameras with selected imaging applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yates, G.J.; King, N.S.P.


    This invited paper focuses on high speed electronic/electro-optic camera development by the Applied Physics Experiments and Imaging Measurements Group (P-15) of Los Alamos National Laboratory`s Physics Division over the last two decades. The evolution of TV and image intensifier sensors and fast readout fast shuttered cameras are discussed. Their use in nuclear, military, and medical imaging applications are presented. Several salient characteristics and anomalies associated with single-pulse and high repetition rate performance of the cameras/sensors are included from earlier studies to emphasize their effects on radiometric accuracy of electronic framing cameras. The Group`s test and evaluation capabilities for characterization of imaging type electro-optic sensors and sensor components including Focal Plane Arrays, gated Image Intensifiers, microchannel plates, and phosphors are discussed. Two new unique facilities, the High Speed Solid State Imager Test Station (HSTS) and the Electron Gun Vacuum Test Chamber (EGTC) arc described. A summary of the Group`s current and developmental camera designs and R&D initiatives are included.

  10. Imaging of the magnetic field structure in megagauss plasmas by combining pulsed polarimetry with an optical Kerr effect shutter technique. (United States)

    Smith, R J


    Pulsed polarimetry in combination with a high speed photographic technique based on the optical Kerr effect is described. The backscatter in a pulsed polarimeter is directed through a scattering cell and photographed using an ∼1 ps shutter, essentially freezing the intensity pattern. The image provides both the local electron density and magnetic field distributions along and transverse to the laser sightline. Submillimeter spatial resolution is possible for probing wavelengths in the visible due to the high densities and strong optical activity. Pulsed polarimetry is thereby extended to centimeter-sized plasmas with n(e)>10(19)-10(20) cm(-3) and B>20-100 T (MG) produced by multiterawatt, multimega-ampere electrical drivers, wire Z pinches, and liner imploded magnetized plasmas.

  11. Demonstrations with a Liquid Crystal Shutter (United States)

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov


    The experiments presented show the response of a liquid crystal shutter to applied electric voltages and the delay of the operations. Both properties are important for liquid crystal displays of computers and television sets. Two characteristics of the shutter are determined: (i) the optical transmittance versus applied voltage of various…

  12. Elastomeric shutter mechanism (United States)

    Curtis, Clifford M.


    An elastomeric shutter mechanism for opening and closing a passageway in the wall of a vessel, such as a submarine hull is presented. A single, unitary, retractable shutter member made of an elastomeric material is partially attached to the wall around a portion of a passageway. The single, unitary, retractable shutter member is moveable from a closed position when the unattached portion of the shutter member is abutting the wall around the passageway to an open position when the unattached portion of the shutter member is retracted away from the wall around the passageway. Cables are attached to the inside surface of the shutter member for retracting the shutter member and opening the passageway. Mechanical stops are positioned inside of the vessel for abutting the shutter member when retracted to the open position by the cables. On an underwater vessel such as a submarine, the shutter member is sealed in the closed position by a pressure differential between the inside surface and the outside surface of the shutter member or latched in place in the closed position. Split ribs are included on the inside surface of the shutter member to resist the expansion of the shutter member when maintained in the closed position by the pressure differential.

  13. Shutters with embedded microprocessors (United States)

    Stephenson, S.


    Shutters are used to periodically provide a non-uniformity correction (NUC) calibration surface to micro bolometers. Many bolometer applications, such as TWS and DVE, require compact, power efficient actuators. Actuators in these applications, such as bistable solenoids and stepper motors, benefit from complex drive schemes. Consumer electronics products have generated compact, low-cost drive components that can be used to embed complex drives into these shutters. Shutter drives using these components maintain compactness and power efficiency while simplifying interfaces at minimal cost. Recently, several commercially available shutter systems have been created that incorporate embedded microprocessors into shutters usable for NUC correction of micro bolometers.

  14. Collinear, two-color optical Kerr effect shutter for ultrafast time-resolved imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Rozé, Claude; Sedarsky, David; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard


    Imaging with ultrashort exposure times is generally achieved with a crossed-beam geometry. In the usual arrangement, an off-axis gating pulse induces birefringence in a medium exhibiting a strong Kerr response (commonly carbon disulfide) which is followed by a polarizer aligned to fully attenuate the on-axis imaging beam. By properly timing the gate pulse, imaging light experiences a polarization change allowing time-dependent transmission through the polarizer to form an ultrashort image. The crossed-beam system is effective in generating short gate times, however, signal transmission through the system is complicated by the crossing angle of the gate and imaging beams. This work presents a robust ultrafast time-gated imaging scheme based on a combination of type-I frequency doubling and a collinear optical arrangement in carbon disulfide. We discuss spatial effects arising from crossed-beam Kerr gating, and examine the imaging spatial resolution and transmission timing affected by collinear activation of th...

  15. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen


    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  16. The Flutter Shutter Code Calculator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero


    Full Text Available The goal of the flutter shutter is to make uniform motion blur invertible, by a"fluttering" shutter that opens and closes on a sequence of well chosen sub-intervals of the exposure time interval. In other words, the photon flux is modulated according to a well chosen sequence calledflutter shutter code. This article provides a numerical method that computes optimal flutter shutter codes in terms of mean square error (MSE. We assume that the observed objects follow a known (or learned random velocity distribution. In this paper, Gaussian and uniform velocity distributions are considered. Snapshots are also optimized taking the velocity distribution into account. For each velocity distribution, the gain of the optimal flutter shutter code with respectto the optimal snapshot in terms of MSE is computed. This symmetric optimization of theflutter shutter and of the snapshot allows to compare on an equal footing both solutions, i.e. camera designs. Optimal flutter shutter codes are demonstrated to improve substantially the MSE compared to classic (patented or not codes. A numerical method that permits to perform a reverse engineering of any existing (patented or not flutter shutter codes is also describedand an implementation is given. In this case we give the underlying velocity distribution fromwhich a given optimal flutter shutter code comes from. The combination of these two numerical methods furnishes a comprehensive study of the optimization of a flutter shutter that includes a forward and a backward numerical solution.

  17. Overview Of Pulsers For Nanosecond Gating Of Image Shutter Tubes (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; Ogle, J. W.; King, N. S.; Aeby, I.


    The capability of generating a useful optical shutter of a few nanoseconds or less utilizing gated proximity-focussed microchannel-plate (MCP) wafer tubes or silicon intensified target (SIT) vidicon tubes depends strongly on the driving electrical pulse. A proximity-focussed MCP wafer tube can be optically shuttered by applying a short electrical pulse between the photocathode and MCP interface.' This interface is electrically reverse-biased by approximately 30V to prevent photocathode electrons from reaching the MCP. The gating pulse, typically 80V, is of opposite polarity to generate an effective forward bias to "shutter" the system. Light intensity ratios for gated on to off conditions (shutter ratios) of greater than 105 are obtained. The more recently developed gated SIT vidicon tubes2 are gated by applying an effective forward bias between the photocathode and a 50% transmission grid in close proximity to the photocathode. Equivalent shutter ratios have not been achieved as yet, with 103 shuttering efficiency measured for typical SITs. Assuming the optical gate width is determined by the electrical gate width one requires pulses with rise and fall times of less than a nanosecond and amplitudes in excess of 80 volts into a 50 ohm impedance. Such pulses have permitted shutter times of %1.5 ns and L800 ps for the MCP and SIT tube systems respectively while preserving their resolution capabilities. The problem of matching an electrical pulser's driving impedance to that of the optical shutter is one still under study. The intrinsit impedance of a proximity-focussed MCP optical shutter is that of a distributed capacitance and resistance.1r3 A measurement of the resistance and capacitance vs a frequency network of 10 MHz with an HP4191A impedance analyser indicated a relatively constant equivalent series capacitance of 31 pf and a photocathode equivalent series resistance in the range from 120 MHz, and therefore gate rise times less than %3 ns, the equivalent

  18. The Flutter Shutter Camera Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohann Tendero


    Full Text Available The proposed method simulates an embedded flutter shutter camera implemented either analogically or numerically, and computes its performance. The goal of the flutter shutter is to make motion blur invertible, by a "fluttering" shutter that opens and closes on a well chosen sequence of time intervals. In the simulations the motion is assumed uniform, and the user can choose its velocity. Several types of flutter shutter codes are tested and evaluated: the original ones considered by the inventors, the classic motion blur, and finally several analog or numerical optimal codes proposed recently. In all cases the exact SNR of the deconvolved result is also computed.

  19. Fixed textile shutters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.A. Chernova


    Full Text Available One of the main socio-economic problems in Russia is the high cost and the poor condition of housing.Such goals as cost reduction, reducing installation time and increasing the service life of structures are accomplishing by creating new technologies of erecting buildings and developing ways ofquickconstruction, using different types of fixed formwork. One of themis textstone.Textstone is an artificial construction stone, containing on the outer surface the reinforcing fine-mesh shell with multifunctional properties, formed by the interwoven threads of a vigorous fixed formwork textile material (basalt, linen, silica and other glass yarns adhered by binding material. The innovative construction technology of production and installation of a new generation of textstone buildings has been registered as a brand TextStone. The fundamental difference between texstone and reinforced concrete and all known building materials is that the whole outer surface of solidified light binders is protected by strong, vigorous and fixed formwork made from inexpensive textile materials. Manufacturing textile shells allows using it as an internal finishing material, reducing or eliminating the cost of finishing work.The use of fixed textile construction shutters during the construction of buildings has obvious technical, economic, operational, sanitary and environmental benefits: short construction time (from 3 to 10 days, compact packaging and light weight of fabric shells, high fire resistance, frost resistance, ease of engineering services installation in the hollow communicating shells; minimal amount of finishing, roofing, heat and noise insulation works. Texstone is a durable solid monolithic construction that provides high viability and earthquakes, hurricanes wind, solar sultriness and frost resistance. Material complies with all sanitary and environmental requirements. Due to such physical, mechanical, operational, sanitary and ecological characteristics

  20. Note: A high-performance, low-cost laser shutter using a piezoelectric cantilever actuator (United States)

    Bowden, W.; Hill, I. R.; Baird, P. E. G.; Gill, P.


    We report the design and characterization of an optical shutter based on a piezoelectric cantilever. Compared to conventional electro-magnetic shutters, the device has intrinsically low power and is acoustically quiet. The cantilever position is controlled by a high-voltage op-amp circuit for easy tuning of the range of travel, and mechanical slew rate, which enables a factor of 30 reduction in mechanical noise compared to a rapidly switched device. We achieve shuttering rise and fall times of 11 μs, corresponding to mechanical slew rates of 1.3 ms-1, with a timing jitter of less than 1 μs. When used to create optical pulses, we achieve minimum pulse durations of 250 μs. The reliability of the shutter was investigated by operating continuously for one week at 10 Hz switching rate. After this period, neither the shutter delay or actuation speed had changed by a measurable amount.

  1. Piezo-Operated Shutter Mechanism Moves 1.5 cm (United States)

    Glaser, Robert; Bamford, Robert


    The figure shows parts of a shutter mechanism designed to satisfy a number of requirements specific to its original intended application as a component of an atomic clock to be flown in outer space. The mechanism may also be suitable for use in laboratory and industrial vacuum systems on Earth for which there are similar requirements. The requirements include the following: a) To alternately close, then open, a 1.5-cm-diameter optical aperture twice per second, with a stroke time of no more than 15 ms, during a total operational lifetime of at least a year; b) To attenuate light by a factor of at least 1012 when in the closed position; c) To generate little or no magnetic field; d) To be capable of withstanding bakeout at a temperature of 200 C to minimize outgassing during subsequent operation in an ultrahigh vacuum; and e) To fit within a diameter of 12 in. (=305 mm) a size limit dictated by the size of an associated magnetic shield. The light-attenuation requirement is satisfied by use of overlapping shutter blades. The closure of the aperture involves, among other things, insertion of a single shutter blade between a pair of shutter blades. The requirement to minimize the magnetic field is satisfied by use of piezoelectric actuators. Because piezoelectric actuators cannot withstand bakeout, they must be mounted outside the vacuum chamber, and, hence, motion must be transmitted from the actuators to the shutter levers via a vacuum-chamber-wall diaphragm.

  2. Design of a high speed rotating mechanical shutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stowers, I.F.; Merritt, B.T.; McFann, C.B.


    A high-speed rotating shutter was designed to operate in a 10/sup -6/ Torr vacuum at the optical focus of a laser spatial filter. The shutter is basically a wheel, with a single 3 x 10-mm slot at the perimeter, which rotates with a peripheral speed of 1 km/s. The motor to drive the rotating wheel is magnetically suspended and synchronously wound. The wheel achieves a 4 opening time and a timing accuracy of better than 0.2 (MOW)

  3. Dynamic performance of frictionless fast shutters for ITER: Numerical and analytical sensitivity study for the development of a test program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panin, Anatoly, E-mail: [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Khovayko, Mikhail [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Krasikov, Yury [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Nemov, Alexander [St. Petersburg Polytechnic University, Mechanics and Control Processes Department, Computational Mechanics Laboratory, 195251 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Biel, Wolfgang; Mertens, Philippe; Neubauer, Olaf; Schrader, Michael [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung – Plasmaphysik, 52425 Jülich (Germany)


    To prolong a lifetime of the ITER first diagnostic mirrors some protective shutters can be engaged. A concept of an elastic shutter that operates frictionless in vacuum has been studied at the Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Under actuation two shutter arms (∼2 m long) bend laterally between two pairs of limiting bumpers thus shielding the optical aperture or opening it for measurements. To increase the shutter efficiency the transition time between its open and closed states can be minimized. This demands a fast shutter that operates in fractions of a second and exhibit essentially dynamic behavior, like impacts with the bumpers that cause the shutter arms’ bouncing and oscillations. The paper presents numerical studies of the shutter dynamic behavior using the explicit and implicit 3D FE transient structural modeling. Simple 1D analytical model was developed to predict the shutter impact kinetic energy that mostly determines its further dynamic response. The structure sensitivity to different parameters was studied and ways for its optimization were laid down. A parametric shutter mockup with easily changeable mechanical characteristics was manufactured. A test program aimed for further shutter optimization, basing on the analysis performed and engaging powerful capabilities of the parametric shutter mockup is discussed in the paper.

  4. High-resolution SIT TV tube for subnanosecond image shuttering (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; Vine, B. H.; Aeby, I.; Dunbar, D. L.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Thayer, N. N.; Noel, B. W.


    A new ultrafast high-resolution image shutter tube with reasonable gain and shuttering efficiency has been designed and tested. The design uses a grid-gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) image section and a high-speed focus projection and scan (FPS) vidicon read-out section in one envelope to eliminate resolution losses from external coupling. The design features low-gate-interface capacity, a high-conductivity shutter grid, and a segmented low-resistivity photocathode for optimum gating speed. Optical gate widths as short as 400 ps + or - 100 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window with spatial resolution as high as 15 1p/mm have been measured. Some design criteria, most of the electrical and optical performance data for several variations in the basic design, and a comparison (of several key response functions) with similarly tested 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) are included.

  5. Picosecond Semiconductor Lasers For Characterizing High-Speed Image Shutters (United States)

    Pagano, T. S.; Janson, F. J.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.


    A portable system that utilizes solid state electronic timing circuits and a pulsed semiconductor laser for characterizing the optical gate sequence of high-speed image shutters, including microchannel-plate intensifier tubes (MCPTs), and silicon-intensified target vidicons (SITVs), is described and compared to earlier methods of characterization. Gate sequences obtained using the system and streak camera data of the semiconductor laser pulse are presented, with a brief discussion of the electronic delay timing and avalanche circuits used in the system.

  6. Camera shutter is actuated by electric signal (United States)

    Neff, J. E.


    Rotary solenoid energized by an electric signal opens a camera shutter, and when the solenoid is de-energized a spring closes it. By the use of a microswitch, the shutter may be opened and closed in one continuous, rapid operation when the solenoid is actuated.

  7. Optimization of the LCLS Single Pulse Shutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adera, Solomon; /Georgia Tech., Atlanta /SLAC


    A mechanical shutter which operates on demand is used to isolate a single pulse from a 120 Hz X-ray source. This is accomplished with a mechanical shutter which is triggered on demand with frequencies ranging from 0 to 10 Hz. The single pulse shutter is an iron blade that oscillates on a pivot in response to a force generated by a pair of pulsed electromagnets (current driven teeter-totter). To isolate an individual pulse from the X-ray beam, the motion of the mechanical shutter should be synchronized in such a way that it allows a single pulse to pass through the aperture and blocks the other incoming pulses. Two consecutive pulses are only {approx} 8 ms apart and the shutter is required to complete one full cycle such that no two pulses pass through the opening. Also the opening of the shutter blade needs to be at least 4 mm so that a 1 mm diameter rms Gaussian beam can pass through without modulation. However, the 4 mm opening is difficult to obtain due to blade rebound and oscillation of the blade after colliding with the electromagnet. The purpose of this project is to minimize and/or totally eliminate the rebound of the shutter blade in pursuit of maximizing the aperture while keeping the open window interval < {approx}12 ms.

  8. MEMS Shutter for Spectrometer Calibration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —   We shall develop a MEMS shutter that is expected to have 2-3 g mass and consumeThis research will demonstrate fabrication of a low mass (~2-3 grams), low...

  9. Engineering design of JSNS shutter system (United States)

    Oikawa, Kenichi; Takada, Hiroshi; Maekawa, Fujio; Harada, Masahide; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Ikeda, Yujiro


    Neutron beam shutter system of Japan Spallation Neutron Source (JSNS) in the J-PARC has been designed under a particular precondition that every shutter should be controlled and maintained independently. This is very important from the viewpoints of usability and flexibility of a beam-line. To satisfy this precondition, a compact ball screw jack system sustaining a shutter gate by two shafts with rigid flanges was designed. Every shutter gate contains an insert as a beam-line component. An allowance of misalignment for the insert was evaluated by Monte Carlo simulations, and 1 mrad which corresponds to maximum beam loss at 2% was set as a target value. Alignment for an insert within 1 mrad in a vertical plane was achieved by an ex-situ adjustment at installation work. For the alignment in a horizontal plane, on the other hand, an in-situ adjustment mechanism was developed to meet the target value.

  10. A High-Performance, Low-Cost Laser Shutter using a Piezoelectric Cantilever Actuator

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, W; Baird, P E G; Gill, P


    We report the design and characterization of an optical shutter based on a piezoelectric cantilever. Compared to conventional electro-magnetic shutters, the device is intrinsically low power and acoustically quiet. The cantilever position is controlled by a high-voltage op-amp circuit for easy tuning of the range of travel, and mechanical slew rate, which enables a factor of 30 reduction in mechanical noise compared to a rapidly switched device. We achieve shuttering rise and fall times of 11 $\\mu$s, corresponding to mechanical slew rates of 1.3 $\\textrm{ ms}^{-1}$, with an timing jitter of less than 1 $\\mu$s. When used to create optical pulses, we achieve minimum pulse durations of 250 $\\mu$s. The reliability of the shutter was investigated by operating continuously for one week at 10 Hz switching rate. After this period, neither the shutter delay or actuation speed had changed by a notable amount. We also show that the high-voltage electronics can be easily configured as a versatile low-noise, high-bandwidt...

  11. Design of large aperture focal plane shutter (United States)

    Hu, Jia-wen; Ma, Wen-li; Huang, Jin-long


    To satisfy the requirement of large telescope, a large aperture focal plane shutter with aperture size of φ200mm was researched and designed to realize, which could be started and stopped in a relative short time with precise position, and also the blades could open and close at the same time at any orientation. Timing-belts and stepper motors were adopted as the drive mechanism. Velocity and position of the stepper motors were controlled by the PWM pulse generated by DSP. Exponential curve is applied to control the velocity of the stepper motors to make the shutter start and stop in a short time. The closing/open time of shutter is 0.2s, which meets the performance requirements of large telescope properly.

  12. Bistable light shutter using dye-doped liquid crystals for a see-through display (United States)

    Huh, Jae-Won; Heo, Joon; Yu, Byeong-Huh; Yoon, Tae-Hoon


    See-through displays have got high attention as one of the next generation display devices. Especially, see-through displays that use organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have been actively studied. However, a see-through display using OLEDs cannot provide black color because of their see-through area. Although a see-through display using LCDs can provide black color with crossed polarizers, it cannot block the background. This inevitable problem can be solved by placing a light shutter at the back of a see-through display. To maintain the transparent or opaque state, an electric field must be applied to a light shutter. To achieve low power consumption, a bistable light shutter using polymer-stabilized cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC) has been proposed. It is switchable between the translucent and transparent states only. Therefore, it cannot provide black color. Moreover, it cannot block the background perfectly because of poor performance in the translucent state. In this work we will introduce a bistable light shutter using dye-doped CLCs. To improve the electro-optic characteristics in the opaque state, we employed a crossed electrode structure instead of a parallel one. We will demonstrate that the light shutter can exhibit stable bistable operation between the transparent homeotropic and opaque focal-conic states thanks to polymer stabilization.

  13. On Air Shutter for Cold Storage Room (United States)

    Fukuhara, Isamu; Tsuji, Katsuhiko

    Air curtains are frequently placed at doorway of cold storage room or freezing chamber. As an opening of jet flow in these air curtains is relatively narrow and speed of jet flow is fast, air entrained from surroundings increases in quantity. Therefore, we consider that jet flow with narrow opening can not effectively isolate inside air from the external atmosphere, but the one with relatively wide opening can decrease air entrained from surroundings. Then, when air curtain which has a wide opening (we call it air shutter) is installed at cold storage room, and isolating performances of air shutter are compared with the air curtain. First, as various conditions can be easily changed in numerical calculation, we compare a velocity and temperature field in cold storage room under these conditions when velocity of jet flow is changed by using numerical method. Second, we measure a temperature and velocity distribution in an actual cold storage room under three conditions (air shutter operates, air curtain operates and no operation). From these results, it was found that air shutter is more efficient than air curtain.

  14. Infrared shutter using cholesteric liquid crystal. (United States)

    Choi, Gyu Jin; Jung, Hye Min; Lee, Seung Hee; Gwag, Jin Seog


    In this paper, we propose an infrared light shutter device using cholesteric liquid crystals. The pitch of the device corresponds to the wavelengths of the infrared region with a strong thermal effect. This device is intended for use as a smart window to maintain an optimal indoor temperature by controlling the infrared radiation coming from the sun. The proposed cholesteric device switches between the planar state and the isotropic state by controlling the temperature using an electrically heated transparent electrode made of indium tin oxide. A window with a planar state that reflects infrared radiation would be used mainly in the summer, while the isotropic state that transmits infrared would be applied in the winter. The proposed device produced a variety of gray levels of transmittance based on the temperature, and thus it can provide the proper temperature for each user. The easy fabrication process gives it appeal as a functional device in the smart window market, and it compares favorably with previous light shutter devices. The infrared shutter is expected to be useful for next-generation window applications.

  15. Note: Reliable low-vibration piezo-mechanical shutter. (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Franzreb, Philipp Pierre; Spethmann, Nicolas; Widera, Artur


    We present a mechanical shutter based on a bending piezo-actuator. The shutter features an active aperture of about 2 mm, allowing for full extinction and lossless transmission of a beam. Acoustic noise and mechanical vibrations produced are very low and the shutter is outstandingly long-lived; a test device has undergone 20 × 10(6) cycles without breaking. A reflector makes the shutter capable of reliably interrupting a beam with at least 2 W of cw power at 780 nm. The shutter is well suited to create pulses as short as 16 ms, while pulse lengths down to 1 ms are possible. The rise and fall times are approximately 120 µs, with a delay of 2 ms. Jitter stays below 10 µs, while long-term drifts stay well below 500 µs.

  16. Three-dimensional holographic display using active shutter for head mounted display application (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Eui; Kim, Nam; Song, Hoon; Lee, Hong-Seok; Park, Jae-Hyeung


    Three-dimensional holographic system using active shutters for head mounted display application is proposed. Conventional three-dimensional head mounted display suffers from eye-fatigue since it only provides binocular disparity, not monocular depth cues like accommodation. The proposed method presents two holograms of a 3D scene to corresponding eyes using active shutters. Since a holography delivered to each eye has full three-dimensional information, not only the binocular depth cues but also monocular depth cues are presented, eliminating eye-fatigue. The application to the head mounted display also greatly relaxes the viewing angle requirement that is one of the main issues of the conventional holographic displays. In presentation, the proposed optical system will be explained in detail with experimental results.

  17. High speed global shutter image sensors for professional applications (United States)

    Wu, Xu; Meynants, Guy


    Global shutter imagers expand the use to miscellaneous applications, such as machine vision, 3D imaging, medical imaging, space etc. to eliminate motion artifacts in rolling shutter imagers. A low noise global shutter pixel requires more than one non-light sensitive memory to reduce the read noise. But larger memory area reduces the fill-factor of the pixels. Modern micro-lenses technology can compensate this fill-factor loss. Backside illumination (BSI) is another popular technique to improve the pixel fill-factor. But some pixel architecture may not reach sufficient shutter efficiency with backside illumination. Non-light sensitive memory elements make the fabrication with BSI possible. Machine vision like fast inspection system, medical imaging like 3D medical or scientific applications always ask for high frame rate global shutter image sensors. Thanks to the CMOS technology, fast Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) can be integrated on chip. Dual correlated double sampling (CDS) on chip ADC with high interface digital data rate reduces the read noise and makes more on-chip operation control. As a result, a global shutter imager with digital interface is a very popular solution for applications with high performance and high frame rate requirements. In this paper we will review the global shutter architectures developed in CMOSIS, discuss their optimization process and compare their performances after fabrication.

  18. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras (United States)

    Vautherin, Jonas; Rutishauser, Simon; Schneider-Zapp, Klaus; Choi, Hon Fai; Chovancova, Venera; Glass, Alexis; Strecha, Christoph


    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are becoming increasingly popular in professional mapping for stockpile analysis, construction site monitoring, and many other applications. Due to their robustness and competitive pricing, consumer UAVs are used more and more for these applications, but they are usually equipped with rolling shutter cameras. This is a significant obstacle when it comes to extracting high accuracy measurements using available photogrammetry software packages. In this paper, we evaluate the impact of the rolling shutter cameras of typical consumer UAVs on the accuracy of a 3D reconstruction. Hereto, we use a beta-version of the Pix4Dmapper 2.1 software to compare traditional (non rolling shutter) camera models against a newly implemented rolling shutter model with respect to both the accuracy of geo-referenced validation points and to the quality of the motion estimation. Multiple datasets have been acquired using popular quadrocopters (DJI Phantom 2 Vision+, DJI Inspire 1 and 3DR Solo) following a grid flight plan. For comparison, we acquired a dataset using a professional mapping drone (senseFly eBee) equipped with a global shutter camera. The bundle block adjustment of each dataset shows a significant accuracy improvement on validation ground control points when applying the new rolling shutter camera model for flights at higher speed (8m=s). Competitive accuracies can be obtained by using the rolling shutter model, although global shutter cameras are still superior. Furthermore, we are able to show that the speed of the drone (and its direction) can be solely estimated from the rolling shutter effect of the camera.

  19. Image Shutters: Gated Proximity-Focused Microchannel-Plate (MCP) Wafer Tubes Versus Gated Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) Vidicons (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.; Noel, B. W.; Thayer, N. N.


    The imaging characteristics of two fast image shutters used for recording the spatial and temporal evolution of transient optical events in the nanosecond range have been studied. Emphasis is on the comparative performances of each shutter type under similar conditions. Response data, including gating speed, gain, dynamic range, shuttering efficiency, and resolution for 18 and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) intensifiers are com-pared with similar data for a prototype electrostatically-focused 25-mm-diam gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) vidicon currently under development for Los Alamos National Laboratory. Several key parameters critical to optical gating speed have been varied in both tube types in order to determine the optimum performance attainable from each design. These include conductive substrate material and thickness used to reduce photocathode resistivity, spacing between gating electrodes to minimize interelectrode capacitance, the use of con-ductive grids on the photocathode substrate to permit rapid propagation of the electrical gate pulse to all areas of the photocathode, and different package geometries to provide a more effective interface with external biasing and gating circuitry. For comparable spatial resolution, most 18-mm-diam MCPs require gate times > 2.5 ns while the fastest SIT has demonstrated sub-nanosecond optical gates as short as r 400 ± 50 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window.

  20. Fail-safe neutron shutter used for thermal neutron radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, R.D.; Morris, R.A.


    A fail-safe, reliable, easy-to-use neutron shutter was designed, built, and put into operation at the Omega West Reactor, Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The neutron shutter will be used primarily to perform thermal neutron radiography, but is also available for a highly collimated source of thermal neutrons (neutron flux = 3.876 x 10/sup 6/ (neutrons)/(cm/sup 2/.s)). Neutron collimator sizes of either 10.16 by 10.16 cm or 10.16 by 30.48 cm are available.

  1. Design of LCPG-type polarization-independent shutter with diffractive efficiency and high contrast at wavelength 532 nm (United States)

    Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud; Sajad Mousavi Fard, Sayed


    We have designed liquid crystal (LC) shutter of LCPG type with high diffractive efficiency and transmission rate of more than 99.747% for modulation of non-polar light with wavelength 532 nm and high contrast in this article. Compared to other similar cases, the advantages of this design include maximization of transmission percent of diffractive element (particularly first-order diffraction) and minimization of light leakage rate caused by zero-order, and other unwanted diffractive orders. The conditions have been prepared for using diffractive elements (gratings) with shorter periods and acquisition of diffraction orders with greater diffraction angles by benefitting from suitable compounds of LC in the given design. Similarly, required measures have been taken for the deletion of adverse effects caused by reflection from optic surfaces so that very appropriate status is prepared for the function of LCPG shutter.

  2. Ion detection device and method with compressing ion-beam shutter (United States)

    Sperline, Roger P [Tucson, AZ


    An ion detection device, method and computer readable medium storing instructions for applying voltages to shutter elements of the detection device to compress ions in a volume defined by the shutter elements and to output the compressed ions to a collector. The ion detection device has a chamber having an inlet and receives ions through the inlet, a shutter provided in the chamber opposite the inlet and configured to allow or prevent the ions to pass the shutter, the shutter having first and second shutter elements, a collector provided in the chamber opposite the shutter and configured to collect ions passed through the shutter, and a processing unit electrically connected to the first and second shutter elements. The processing unit applies, during a first predetermined time interval, a first voltage to the first shutter element and a second voltage to the second shutter element, the second voltage being lower than the first voltage such that ions from the inlet enter a volume defined by the first and second shutter elements, and during a second predetermined time interval, a third voltage to the first shutter element, higher than the first voltage, and a fourth voltage to the second shutter element, the third voltage being higher than the fourth voltage such that ions that entered the volume are compressed as the ions exit the volume and new ions coming from the inlet are prevented from entering the volume. The processing unit is electrically connected to the collector and configured to detect the compressed ions based at least on a current received from the collector and produced by the ions collected by the collector.

  3. Effects of shutter transients in molecular beam epitaxy. (United States)

    Gozu, Shin-Ichiro; Mozume, Teruo; Kuwatsuka, Haruhiko; Ishikawa, Hiroshi


    : We have studied the effects of shutter transients (STs) in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). Two series of samples were grown by MBE and evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurements. The effects of STs were evaluated by growth rate (GR) analysis using a combination of growth time (GT) and thickness evaluated by XRD and XRR measurements. We revealed two opposite effects of STs: (1) overshoot of GR and (2) increase in GR with GT and subsequent saturation. Each effect was consistent with the previous studies; however, the previous studies showed no relationships between these two effects. By considering closing time of the shutter, the two opposite effects were well understood.

  4. Experimental demonstration of a quantum shutter closing two slits simultaneously. (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryo; Takeuchi, Shigeki


    The interference between two paths of a single photon at a double slit is widely considered to be the most paradoxical result of quantum theory. Here is a new interesting question to the phenomenon: can a single shutter simultaneously close two slits by effectively being in a superposition of different locations? Aharonov and Vaidman have shown that it is indeed possible to construct a quantum shutter that can close two slits and reflect a probe photon perfectly when its initial and final states are appropriately selected. Here we report the experimental demonstration of their proposal overcoming the difficulty to realize a 'quantum shutter' by employing photonic quantum routers. The reflectance ratio of 0.61 ± 0.027 surpasses the classical limit with 4.1 standard deviation, shedding new light on the unusual physical properties of quantum operations. This experimental demonstration, where the strong measurement and non-local superposition seem co-existing, provides an alternative to weak measurements as a way to explore the nature of quantum physics.

  5. New fast closing shutter for the PETRA III beamlines (United States)

    Hahn, U.; Hesse, M.; Müller, S.; Peters, H.-B.; Timmann, B.; Wengler, R.; Zink, H.


    The conversion of the PETRA storage ring at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY) to the third generation synchrotron radiation light source PETRAIII [1] poses a challenge to the design of the beamline transport system. One of these challenges is to supply 14 beamlines and experiments windowless with the extremely collimated undulator radiation from the storage ring. The windowless connection includes the risk of accidental venting of the storage ring by experiments connected to the beamlines. To stop the inrush of such an accidental venting fast closing shutter (FCS) systems with closing times in the 10msec range are mandatory. The strong radiation background in the storage ring tunnel requires the installation of all metal valves. A new small fast closing shutter with an aperture of 40mm fitting to the strong collimated undulator beams and with a closing time beam time losses for all users. The mechanical and electronic layouts as well as first experiences with the new fast closing shutter system developed for PETRAIII are presented.

  6. High efficient solar tracker based on a simple shutter structure (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Jia; Liu, Te-Shu; Huang, Kuang-Lung; Lin, Po-Chih


    In many photovoltaic (PV) or sunlight-illumination systems, solar trackers are always essential to obtain high energy/flux concentration efficiency, and that would lead to increase cost and extra power consumption due to the complex structure and heavy weight of the trackers. To decrease the cost while without sacrificing efficiency, a Fresnellens concentrator incorporated with a simple and cheap shutter, which consists of high reflective mirrors instead of conventional trackers, is proposed in this paper to provide solar tracking during the daytime. Thus, the time-variant and slant-incident sunlight rays can be redirected to vertically incident upon the surface of the Fresnel lens by appropriately arranging mirrors and swinging them to the proper slant angles with respect to the orientation of sunlight. The computer simulation results show that power concentration efficiency over 90%, as compared with the efficiency of directly normal incident sunlight, can be achieved with the mirror reflectance of 0.97 and for any solar incident angle within +/-75 degrees to the normal of the Fresnel lens. To verify the feasibility and performance of the concentrator with the proposed shutter, a sunlight illumination system based on this novel structure is demonstrated. Both computer simulation and practical measurement results for the prototype of the sunlight illumination system are also given to compare with. The results prove the simple and high efficient shutter applicable to general PV or sunlight-illumination systems for solar tracking.

  7. Fast structured illumination microscopy using rolling shutter cameras (United States)

    Song, Liyan; Lu-Walther, Hui-Wen; Förster, Ronny; Jost, Aurélie; Kielhorn, Martin; Zhou, Jianying; Heintzmann, Rainer


    Spatial light modulators (SLM) update in a synchronous manner, whereas the data readout process in fast structured illumination systems is usually done using a rolling shutter camera with asynchronous readout. In structured illumination microscopy (SIM), this leads to synchronization problems causing a speed limit for fast acquisition. In this paper we present a configuration to overcome this limit by exploiting the extremely fast SLM display and dividing it into several segments along the direction of the rolling shutter of the sCMOS camera and displaying multiple SLM frames per camera acquisition. The sCMOS runs in continuous rolling shutter mode and the SLM keeps the readout-line always inside a dark region presenting different SIM patterns before and after the readout/start-exposure line. Using this approach, we reached a raw frame rate of 714 frames per second (fps) resulting in a two-beam SIM acquisition rate of 79 fps with a region of interest (ROI) of 16.5  ×  16.5 μm2.

  8. Time calibration of thermal rolling shutter infrared cameras (United States)

    Peeters, J.; Louarroudi, E.; De Greef, D.; Vanlanduit, S.; Dirckx, J. J. J.; Steenackers, G.


    The working principle of nearly all uncooled microbolometer thermal imaging systems is based on the rolling shutter principle. This results in time delays between rows giving rise to distorted and blurred images which are difficult to correlate with, for example instantaneous numerical simulation results for nondestructive evaluation. Until today high-end and high-cost thermal cameras need to be used for instantaneous measurements. Furthermore, quantitative defect evaluation on average conductive materials is difficult to perform as a result of the rolling shutter blur of the uncooled cameras. In this contribution, a time delay compensation method is designed. The developed algorithm is described and a measurement routine is elaborated to measure the inter- and intra-frame delays between two pixels. Finally, an artificial global shutter image sequence is developed using linear interpolation between the original fluctuating frames. We will show that by applying our proposed method, the intra-frame delay can be predicted and compensated with an accuracy of 16 μs . Besides, there is only made use of low-cost equipment to provide a straight-forward methodology which makes it applicable for the further integration of low-cost microbolometers in industry. This means that we have made the application of low-cost microbolometers feasible for instantaneous measurements.

  9. Fast-switching initially-transparent liquid crystal light shutter with crossed patterned electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Heo


    Full Text Available We propose an initially transparent light shutter using polymer-networked liquid crystals with crossed patterned electrodes. The proposed light shutter is switchable between the transparent and opaque states, and it exhibits a fast response time and a low operating voltage. In the transparent state, the light shutter has high transmittance; in the opaque state, it can block the background image and provides black color. We expect that the proposed light shutter can be applied to see-through displays and smart windows.

  10. Multiple serial picture presentation with millisecond resolution using a three-way LC-shutter-tachistoscope. (United States)

    Fischmeister, Florian Ph S; Leodolter, Ulrich; Windischberger, Christian; Kasess, Christian H; Schöpf, Veronika; Moser, Ewald; Bauer, Herbert


    Throughout recent years there has been an increasing interest in studying unconscious visual processes. Such conditions of unawareness are typically achieved by either a sufficient reduction of the stimulus presentation time or visual masking. However, there are growing concerns about the reliability of the presentation devices used. As all these devices show great variability in presentation parameters, the processing of visual stimuli becomes dependent on the display-device, e.g. minimal changes in the physical stimulus properties may have an enormous impact on stimulus processing by the sensory system and on the actual experience of the stimulus. Here we present a custom-built three-way LC-shutter-tachistoscope which allows experimental setups with both, precise and reliable stimulus delivery, and millisecond resolution. This tachistoscope consists of three LCD-projectors equipped with zoom lenses to enable stimulus presentation via a built-in mirror-system onto a back projection screen from an adjacent room. Two high-speed liquid crystal shutters are mounted serially in front of each projector to control the stimulus duration. To verify the intended properties empirically, different sequences of presentation times were performed while changes in optical power were measured using a photoreceiver. The obtained results demonstrate that interfering variabilities in stimulus parameters and stimulus rendering are markedly reduced. Together with the possibility to collect external signals and to send trigger-signals to other devices, this tachistoscope represents a highly flexible and easy to set up research tool not only for the study of unconscious processing in the brain but for vision research in general.

  11. Shutter heating system of Antarctic bright star survey telescope (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Dong, Shucheng; Jiang, Fengxin; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Jian


    A heat preservation system for mechanical shutter in Antarctic is introduced in the paper. The system consists of the heat preservation chamber, the host controller STM32F103C8T6 with peripheral circuit and the control algorithm. The whole design is carried out on the basis of the low temperature requirement, including the cavity structure and thermal insulation. The heat preservation chamber is used to keep the shutter warm and support the weight of the camera. Using PT100 as the temperature sensor, the signal processing circuit converts the temperature to the voltage which is then digitized by the 12 bit ADC in the STM32. The host controller transforms the voltage data into temperature, and through the tuning of the Fussy PID algorithm which controls the duty cycle of the MOSFET, the temperature control of chamber is realized. The System has been tested in the cryogenic environment for a long time, with characteristic of low temperature resistance, small volume, high accuracy of temperature control as well as remote control and detection.

  12. Experimental demonstration of a quantum shutter closing two slits simultaneously (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryo; Takeuchi, Shigeki


    The interference between two paths of a single photon at a double slit is widely considered to be the most paradoxical result of quantum theory. Here is a new interesting question to the phenomenon: can a single shutter simultaneously close two slits by effectively being in a superposition of different locations? Aharonov and Vaidman have shown that it is indeed possible to construct a quantum shutter that can close two slits and reflect a probe photon perfectly when its initial and final states are appropriately selected. Here we report the experimental demonstration of their proposal overcoming the difficulty to realize a ‘quantum shutter’ by employing photonic quantum routers. The reflectance ratio of 0.61 ± 0.027 surpasses the classical limit with 4.1 standard deviation, shedding new light on the unusual physical properties of quantum operations. This experimental demonstration, where the strong measurement and non-local superposition seem co-existing, provides an alternative to weak measurements as a way to explore the nature of quantum physics.

  13. Ultra Fast Shutter Driven by Pulsed High Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Jiangtao; Sun Fengju; Qiu Aici; Yin Jiahui; Guo Jianming; Chen Yulan


    Radiation simulation utilizing plasma radiation sources (PRS) generates a large number of undesirable debris, which may damage the expensive diagnosing detectors. An ultra fast shutter (UFS) driven by pulsed high current can erect a physical barrier to the slowly moving debris after allowing the passage of X-ray photons. The UFS consists of a pair of thin metal foils twisting the parallel axes in a Nylon cassette, compressed with an outer magnetic field, generated from a fast capacitor bank, discharging into a single turn loop. A typical capacitor bank is of 7.5μF charging voltages varying from 30 kV to 45 kV, with corresponding currents of approximately 90kA to140 kA and discharging current periods of approximately 13.1 μs. A shutter closing time as fast as 38 microseconds has been obtained with an aluminium foil thickness of 100 micrometers and a cross-sectional area of 15 mm by 20 mm. The design, construction and the expressions of the valve-closing time of the UFS are presented along with the measured results of valve-closing velocities.

  14. Defining the safe current limit for opening ID photon shutter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seletskiy, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Photon Sciences Dept.


    The NSLS-II storage ring is protected from possible damage from insertion devices (IDs) synchrotron radiation by a dedicated active interlock system (AIS). It monitors electron beam position and angle and triggers beam drop if beam orbit exceeds the boundaries of pre-calculated active interlock envelope (AIE). The beamlines (BL) and beamline frontends (FE) are designed under assumption that the electron beam is interlocked within the AIE. For historic reasons the AIS engages the ID active interlock (AI-ID) at any non-zero beam current whenever the ID photon shutter (IDPS) is getting opened. Such arrangement creates major inconveniences for BLs commissioning. Apparently there is some IDPS safe current limit (SCL) under which the IDPS can be opened without interlocking the e-beam. The goal of this paper is to find such limit.

  15. Rolling Shutter Effect aberration compensation in Digital Holographic Microscopy (United States)

    Monaldi, Andrea C.; Romero, Gladis G.; Cabrera, Carlos M.; Blanc, Adriana V.; Alanís, Elvio E.


    Due to the sequential-readout nature of most CMOS sensors, each row of the sensor array is exposed at a different time, resulting in the so-called rolling shutter effect that induces geometric distortion to the image if the video camera or the object moves during image acquisition. Particularly in digital holograms recording, while the sensor captures progressively each row of the hologram, interferometric fringes can oscillate due to external vibrations and/or noises even when the object under study remains motionless. The sensor records each hologram row in different instants of these disturbances. As a final effect, phase information is corrupted, distorting the reconstructed holograms quality. We present a fast and simple method for compensating this effect based on image processing tools. The method is exemplified by holograms of microscopic biological static objects. Results encourage incorporating CMOS sensors over CCD in Digital Holographic Microscopy due to a better resolution and less expensive benefits.

  16. Image shutters: Gated proximity-focused Microchannel Plate (MCP) wafer tubes versus gated Silicon Intensified Target (SIT) vidicons (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Ogle, J. W.; Noel, B. W.; Thayer, N. N.

    Response data, including gating speed, gain, dynamic range, shuttering efficiency, and resolution for 18- and 25-mm-diam proximity-focused microchannel-plate (MCP) intensifiers are compared with similar data for a prototype electrostatically-focused 25-mm-diam gated silicon-intensified-target (SIT) vidicon. Conductive substrate material and thickness used to reduce photocathode resistivity, spacing between gating electrodes to minimize inter-electrode capacitance, the use of conductive grids on the photocathode substrate to permit rapid propagation of the electrical gate pulse to all areas of the photocathode, and different package geometries to provide a more effective interface with external biasing and gating circuitry were varied in both tube types to determine optimal performance from each design. For comparable spatial resolution, most 18-mm-diam MCPs require gate times 2.5 ns while the fastest SIT has demonstrated sub-nanosecond optical gates as short as approximately 400 + or - 50 ps for full shuttering of the 25-mm-diam input window.

  17. Note: Fast compact laser shutter using a direct current motor and three-dimensional printing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Grace H., E-mail:; Braverman, Boris; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletić, Vladan [Department of Physics, MIT-Harvard Center for Ultracold Atoms and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)


    We present a mechanical laser shutter design that utilizes a direct current electric motor to rotate a blade which blocks and unblocks a light beam. The blade and the main body of the shutter are modeled with computer aided design (CAD) and are produced by 3D printing. Rubber flaps are used to limit the blade’s range of motion, reducing vibrations and preventing undesirable blade oscillations. At its nominal operating voltage, the shutter achieves a switching speed of (1.22 ± 0.02) m/s with 1 ms activation delay and 10 μs jitter in its timing performance. The shutter design is simple, easy to replicate, and highly reliable, showing no failure or degradation in performance over more than 10{sup 8} cycles.

  18. Fast Compact Laser Shutter Using a Direct Current Motor and 3D Printing

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Grace H; Kawasaki, Akio; Vuletić, Vladan


    We present a mechanical laser shutter design that utilizes a DC electric motor to rotate a blade which blocks and unblocks a light beam. The blade and the main body of the shutter are modeled with computer aided design (CAD) and are produced by 3D printing. Rubber flaps are used to limit the blade's range of motion, reducing vibrations and preventing undesirable blade oscillations. At its nominal operating voltage, the shutter achieves a switching speed of (1.22 $\\pm$ 0.02) m/s with 1 ms activation delay and 10 $\\mu$s jitter in its timing performance. The shutter design is simple, easy to replicate, and highly reliable, showing no failure or degradation in performance over more than $10^8$ cycles.

  19. Heat transfer and flow resistance performance of shutter baffle heat exchanger with triangle tube layout in shell side


    Xin Gu; Bing Liu; Yongqing Wang; Ke Wang


    Effect of main structural parameters of shutter baffle heat exchanger with a triangle tube layout in the shell side on heat transfer and flow resistance performance is studied in the article. A periodic whole cross-sectional computation model is built for the heat exchanger in the numerical study. The effects of structural parameters are analyzed, including assembly mode of shutter baffles, shutter baffle pitch, strip inclination angles, and strip widths. The correctness and accuracy of numer...

  20. Development of In-pile Plug Assembly and Primary Shutter for Cold Neutron Guide System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jin Won; Cho, Yeong Garp; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Lee, Jung Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The HANARO, a 30 MW multi-purpose research reactor in Korea, will be equipped with a neutron guide system, in order to transport cold neutrons from the neutron source to the neutron scattering instruments in the neutron guide hall near the reactor building. The neutron guide system of HANARO consists of the in-pile plug assembly with in-pile guides, the primary shutter with in-shutter guides, the neutron guides in the guide shielding room with dedicated secondary shutters, and the neutron guides connected to the instruments in the neutron guide hall. The functions of the in-pile plug assembly are to shield the reactor environment from a nuclear radiation and to support the neutron guides and maintain them precisely oriented. The primary shutter is a mechanical device to be installed just after the in-pile plug assembly, which stops neutron flux on demand. This report describes the mechanical design, fabrication, and installation procedure of the in-pile plug assembly and the primary shutter for the neutron guide system at HANARO. A special tool and procedure for a replacement of in-pile plug and guide cassette is also presented with the interface condition in the reactor hall.

  1. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong In Han


    Full Text Available IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superior to those of glass liquid crystal lenses. Microcontroller unit and drivers were developed as part of a reception module with power supply for the IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses with the flexible liquid crystal lens prototypes. IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for 3D HDTV with flexible liquid crystal lenses produced excellent 3D images viewing characteristics.

  2. Shielding calculation for the thickness of the SR facility safety shutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The safety shutter of the SR (synchrotron radiation) facility located at the front end of the facility is an indispensable component for radiation protection. Its thickness is decided by the gas bremsstrahlung produced in the SR facility storage ring by the interaction of electrons with the residual gas molecules in the vacuum chamber of the storage ring. In the calculation, the 3.5 GeV, 300mA electron beam and a 15 m long insertion-device straight section (0.133 μPa) were taken into account, and the safety shutter was assumed to be located 12 m away from the end of the straight section. The EGSnrc code based on the Monte-Carlo method and empirical formulas were used, respectively, to calculate the thickness to satisfy the shielding requirement of the safety shutter at the front end of the SR facility, and the results were compared and the availability of EGSnrc was proved.

  3. DIII-D in-vessel port cover and shutter assembly for the phase contrast interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phelps, R.D.


    The entire outer wall of the DIII-D vacuum vessel interion is covered with a regular array of graphite tiles. Certain of the diagnostic ports through the outer vessel wall contain equipment which is shielded from the plasma by installing port covers designed to withstand energy deposition. If the diagnostic contained in the port must communicate with the vessel volume, a shutter assembly is usually provided. In the ports at 285 degrees, R+1 and R-1, interferometer mirrors have been installed to provide a means for transmitting a large diameter CO-2 laser beam through the edge of the plasma. To protect the mirrors and other hardware contained in these ports, a special protective plate and shutter arrangement has been designed. This report describes the details of design, fabrication, and installation of these protective covers and shutters.

  4. A High-Speed CMOS Image Sensor with Global Electronic Shutter Pixels Using Pinned Diodes (United States)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Tamura, Toshihiro; Furuta, Masanori; Itoh, Shinya; Kawahito, Shoji

    This paper describes a high-speed CMOS image sensor with a new type of global electronic shutter pixel. A global electronic shutter is necessary for imaging fast-moving objects without motion blur or distortion. The proposed pixel has two potential wells with pinned diode structure for two-stage charge transfer that enables a global electronic shuttering and reset noise canceling. A prototype high-speed image sensor fabricated in 0.18μm standard CMOS image sensor process consists of the proposed pixel array, 12-bit column-parallel cyclic ADC arrays and 192-channel digital outputs. The sensor achieves a good linearity at low-light intensity, demonstrating the perfect charge transfer between two pinned diodes. The input referred noise of the proposed pixel is measured to be 6.3 e-.

  5. Development of a fast electromagnetic shutter for compressive sensing imaging in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Béché, Armand; Freitag, Bert; Verbeeck, Jo


    The concept of compressive sensing was recently proposed to significantly reduce the electron dose in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) while still maintaining the main features in the image. Here, an experimental setup based on an electromagnetic shutter placed in the condenser plane of a STEM is proposed. The shutter blanks the beam following a random pattern while the scanning coils are moving the beam in the usual scan pattern. Experimental images at both medium scale and high resolution are acquired and then reconstructed based on a discrete cosine algorithm. The obtained results confirm the predicted usefulness of compressive sensing in experimental STEM even though some remaining artifacts need to be resolved.

  6. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design%Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张斌; 陈义学; 王伟金; 杨寿海; 吴军; 殷雯; 梁天骄; 贾学军


    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan, Guangdong, China. Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled

  7. Heat transfer and flow resistance performance of shutter baffle heat exchanger with triangle tube layout in shell side

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Gu


    Full Text Available Effect of main structural parameters of shutter baffle heat exchanger with a triangle tube layout in the shell side on heat transfer and flow resistance performance is studied in the article. A periodic whole cross-sectional computation model is built for the heat exchanger in the numerical study. The effects of structural parameters are analyzed, including assembly mode of shutter baffles, shutter baffle pitch, strip inclination angles, and strip widths. The correctness and accuracy of numerical simulation method are confirmed with a laser Doppler velocimeter experiment. Based on the research results, correlations for heat transfer coefficient and pressure drop in shell side are presented. Using the field synergy principle, the heat transfer enhancement mechanisms of segmental baffle heat exchanger and shutter baffle heat exchanger in shell side are analyzed.

  8. Device for closing the radioactive sources shutters; Dispositivo para fechamento dos obturadores das fontes radioativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, Everaldo; Santos, Enderson Silvino; Vieira, Carlaine M.; Torquato, Nivaldo Reis; Santos, Evando Ramalho; Castro, Luciano Sampaio [Companhia Vale do Rio Doce (CVRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    A device for nuclear measurement used at the industrial installation is composed of a radioactive source (Cs 137), the ionization or scintillation chamber and the circuitry parts. The ionization and scintillation chambers are mounted at the industrial piping and monitoring the density of the material inside the piping, based on radiation quantity which comes to receiving chamber. This information is sending to the electronic unity which is responsible for the calculations and remote and local indications of the measured density. Based on the recommendation of the radioactive sources must have the shutters closed when they are inactive, an automatic device composed by solenoid valve, a support and a mechanical shaft which when connected to the supervisory system (CLP's) cause the automatic closing of the shutter of the radioactive sources during the shutting down of the process.

  9. Design and Manufacture of a Highly Reliable, Miniaturized and Low Mass Shutter Mechanism (United States)

    Manhart, M.; Zeh, T.; Preibler, G.; Hurni, A.; Walter, I.; Helbert, J.; Hiesinger, H.


    This paper describes the development, manufacturing and testing of a lightweight shutter mechanism made of titanium for the MERTIS Instrument. MERTIS is a thermal infrared imaging spectrometer onboard ESA's future BepiColombo mission to Mercury. The mechanism is built as a parallelogram arrangement of flexible hinges, actuated by a voice coil. In a first test run, it was shown that the selected EDM processing led to the generation of titanium oxides and an oxygen-enriched surface layer on the substrate (so called alpha-case layer). In the revised version of the shutter, it was possible to manufacture the complex geometry by micro-milling and an adjacent pickling procedure. The adequacy of this approach was verified by lifetime and vibration testing.

  10. Silica glasses with nanoparticles of copper compounds: spectroscopy properties and laser passive shutter application (United States)

    Yumashev, Konstantin V.; Prokoshin, Pavel V.; Zolotovskaya, Svetlana A.; Gurin, Valerij S.; Alexeenko, Alexander A.


    Sol-gel glasses containing copper selenide nanoparticles and having absorption band at 1.1?2.2 ?m can be used as saturable absorber passive shutter for Q-switching and mode-locking of the solid-state lasers operating in the wavelength range of 1.0?1.5 ?m. The bleaching relaxation time of the glasses was measured to be 0.46?1.4 ns in dependence on copper selenide stoichiometry.

  11. IR Sensor Synchronizing Active Shutter Glasses for 3D HDTV with Flexible Liquid Crystal Lenses


    Jeong In Han


    IR sensor synchronizing active shutter glasses for three-dimensional high definition television (3D HDTV) were developed using a flexible liquid crystal (FLC) lens. The FLC lens was made on a polycarbonate (PC) substrate using conventional liquid crystal display (LCD) processes. The flexible liquid crystal lens displayed a maximum transmission of 32% and total response time of 2.56 ms. The transmittance, the contrast ratio and the response time of the flexible liquid crystal lens were superio...

  12. Radiometric calibration of infrared imagers using an internal shutter as an equivalent external blackbody (United States)

    Nugent, Paul W.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Pust, Nathan J.


    Advances in microbolometer long-wave infrared (LWIR) detectors have led to the common use of infrared cameras that operate without active temperature stabilization, but the response of these cameras varies with their own temperature. Therefore, obtaining quantitative data requires a calibration that compensates for these errors. This paper describes a method for stabilizing the camera's response through software processing of consecutive images of the scene and images of the camera's internal shutter. An image of the shutter is processed so that it appears as if it were viewed through the lens. The differences between the scene and the image of the shutter treated as an external blackbody are then related to the radiance or temperature of the objects in the scene. This method has been applied to two commercial LWIR cameras over a focal plane array temperature range of ±7.2°C, changing at a rate of up to ±0.5°C/min. During these tests, the rms variability of the camera output was reduced from ±4.0°C to ±0.26°C.

  13. On Causes of Teddy’s Tragedy in Shutter Island by Psychoanalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Shutter Island is a movie directed by Martin Scorsese. It tells a story about a psychotic, Teddy, who committed a seri⁃ous crime and lived in fantasy from then on. A group of psychologists tried to help him by exposing the reality and forcing him to face it. At last, Teddy’s memory was recovered. Yet he chose to receive lobotomy to end his pain. From Freud’s psychoanalytic point of view, Teddy’s tragedy is caused by the conflict between his id, ego and superego, and his fantasy world is a result of self-defense mechanism.

  14. The Read-Out Shutter Unit of the Euclid VIS Instrument

    CERN Document Server

    Genolet, L; Paltani, S; Autissier, N; Larcheveque, C; Thomas, C


    Euclid is the second medium-size mission (M2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Program, currently scheduled for a launch in 2020. The two instruments on-board Euclid, VIS and NISP, will provide key measurements to investigate the nature of dark energy, advancing our knowledge on cosmology. We present in this contribution the development and manufacturing status of the VIS Read-out Shutter Unit, whose main function is to prevent direct light from falling onto the VIS CCDs during the read-out of the scientific exposures and to allow the dark-current/bias calibrations of the instrument.

  15. A method to remove residual signals in fibre optic luminescence dosimeters. (United States)

    Lee, J J; Liu, P Z Y; McKenzie, D R; Suchowerska, N


    Whenever a fibre optic is used to convey a light signal through a radiation field, it is likely that an unwanted background signal will arise from Cerenkov or fluorescent light which will contaminate the signal. In luminescence dosimetry of high energy beams, when a fibre optic is used to convey the signal from the radiation field to the detector, Cerenkov light is the dominant contributor to the background signal and must be corrected for. In this work, a novel method is demonstrated to separate the signal from the unwanted background. A remotely operated shutter is used to block the signal, allowing the residual background in the fibre optic to be quantified. This background is subtracted from the total measurement acquired in a subsequent irradiation, enabling the luminescence signal to be extracted. Two types of shutter mechanism are considered: an electro-mechanical device to intercept the light path and an LCD device to block the light by cross-polarization. Both shutters were characterized and incorporated into a fibre optic dosimetry system used to measure the radiation dose produced by external beam radiation linear accelerators. The dosimeter using each of the shutters in turn was exposed to a 6 MV photon beam to determine their performance, including the measurement of field size dependent output factors. The mechanical shutter determined the output factors to within 0.29% of those measured with an ionization chamber, whereas the LCD shutter gave results that deviated by up to 2.4%. The switching precision of both shutters was good with standard deviations of less than 0.25% and both were able to completely block the light signal when closed. The use of shutters could therefore be applied to any fibre optic based system to quantify and remove a reproducible background arising from any source including ambient, fluorescent and Cerenkov light.

  16. Temporal-spatial MTF performance analysis of a proximity-focused-image intensifier as a camera electronic shutter (United States)

    Xiang, Shiming; Zhu, Hongquan; Wang, Kuilu


    A specially designed-Proximity-focused-MCP-Image Intensifier (MCP-II) has been widely used for a high speed diagnosis system as a ns-level-electronic shutter. Its temporal-spatial (dynamic) MTF or resolution are much concerned in the engineering for single exposure conditions of various shutter times, and input illuminations as well. On basis of the theory of Fourier spectrum and signal-to-noise, it has been analyzed in present paper that dynamic-MTF (or resolution) of the MCP-II system is always deteriorated by its limited temporal frequency bandwidth, as well as S/N performance. Several expressions are given to relate the device's dynamic MTF (or resolution) to its static MTF, input illumination and S/N performances. The theoretical analysis is very useful in evaluating and designing some high speed diagnosis systems with a proximity-focused-image intensifier as a electronic shutter.

  17. Design of multichannel digital shutter velocity testers%多通道数字化快门速度测试仪的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐美玲; 刘振江; 张晓辉


    The multichannel digital shutter velocity tester is mainly used in measuring the exposure time of a camera curtain shutter. Photoelectric receivers are placed at different points in the focal plane, by which the optical signals are converted to electric signals. The test system collects the electric signals through high speed collection channels by the preset order with DMA mode. After data processing, exposure time acquired by the method given in this paper is analysed and measured. The test system is not only accurate, but also reliable. The test results can be visualy displayed on the screen.%多通道数字化快门速度测试仪主要应用于幕帘式相机快门有效曝光时间的测试。在像面上的不同点设置多组光电接收器,将像面接收到的光信号转换为电信号。高速数据采集系统利用DMA方式按时序对各接收器的曝光信号进行实时瞬态数据采集。采集数据经计算软件处理,得到各点处的快门有效曝光时间。利用软件解决了瞬态信号与实时采集同步的问题。测试系统简单可靠、测试结果显示直观。

  18. A white-beam fast-shutter for microbeam radiation therapy at the ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Renier, M; Nemoz, C; Thomlinson, W


    The ID17 Medical Beamline port at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) delivers white beam generated by a 1.4 T wiggler. It is devoted to medical applications of synchrotron radiation. One major program of the beamline is called Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT). In this radiotherapy technique, still under development, the white beam fan is divided into several microbeams before reaching the target which is a tumoral brain. The maximum skin-entrance absorbed dose can reach extremely high values (over 1000 Gy) before causing tissue necrosis, while causing tumor necrosis. One of the key parameters for the success of the MRT is the accurate control of the radiation dose delivered to the target, as well as its location with respect to the tumor, to prevent unnecessary damage to normal tissues. Therefore, the opening and closing positions of the shutter while the target is moving vertically at a constant speed reaching 150 mm/s must be carefully controlled. Shutter opening times as short as 5+-0.5 ms...


    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.


  20. Wobbly strings: calculating the capture rate of a webcam using the rolling shutter effect in a guitar (United States)

    Cunnah, David


    In this paper I propose a method of calculating the time between line captures in a standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) webcam using the rolling shutter effect when filming a guitar. The exercise links the concepts of wavelength and frequency, while outlining the basic operation of a CMOS camera through vertical line capture.

  1. A PC-based shutter glasses controller for visual stimulation using multithreading in LabWindows/CVI. (United States)

    Gramatikov, Ivan; Simons, Kurt; Guyton, David; Gramatikov, Boris


    Amblyopia, commonly known as "lazy eye," is poor vision in an eye from prolonged neurologic suppression. It is a major public health problem, afflicting up to 3.6% of children, and will lead to lifelong visual impairment if not identified and treated in early childhood. Traditional treatment methods, such as occluding or penalizing the good eye with eye patches or blurring eye drops, do not always yield satisfactory results. Newer methods have emerged, based on liquid crystal shutter glasses that intermittently occlude the better eye, or alternately occlude the two eyes, thus stimulating vision in the "lazy" eye. As yet there is no technology that allows easy and efficient optimization of the shuttering characteristics for a given individual. The purpose of this study was to develop an inexpensive, computer-based system to perform liquid crystal shuttering in laboratory and clinical settings to help "wake up" the suppressed eye in amblyopic patients, and to help optimize the individual shuttering parameters such as wave shape, level of transparency/opacity, frequency, and duty cycle of the shuttering. We developed a liquid crystal glasses controller connected by USB cable to a PC computer. It generates the voltage waveforms going to the glasses, and has potentiometer knobs for interactive adjustments by the patient. In order to achieve good timing performance in this bidirectional system, we used multithreading programming techniques with data protection, implemented in LabWindows/CVI. The hardware and software developed were assessed experimentally. We achieved an accuracy of ±1Hz for the frequency, and ±2% for the duty cycle of the occlusion pulses. We consider these values to be satisfactory for the purpose of optimizing the visual stimulation by means of shutter glasses. The system can be used for individual optimization of shuttering attributes by clinicians, for training sessions in clinical settings, or even at home, aimed at stimulating vision in the

  2. Adaptive-randomised self-calibration of electro-mechanical shutters for space imaging (United States)

    De Cecco, Mariolino; Debei, Stefano; Zaccariotto, Mirco; Pertile, Marco


    This work describes the self-calibration of a high-precision open-loop mechanism. The self-calibration method is applied to a mechanical shutter for space applications, which was launched onboard the ESA-ROSETTA mission (launch: 2 March 2004). It is based on an adaptive 'model reference' and a 'randomised' search method which may be generalised to applications in which high performance and functionality are strongly interconnected. The method makes use of an adaptive 'model-reference' control approach [K.J. Astrom, B. Wittenmark, On self-tuning regulators Automatica 9 (1973) 185-199 [16]; K.J. Astrom, Theory and application of adaptive control, in: Proceedings of the Eighth IFAC World Conference, Kyoto, Japan, 1981 [17]; D.E. Seborg, S.L. Shah, T.F. Edgar, Adaptive control strategies for process control, AIChE Journal 6(32) (1986) 881-895 [18

  3. Preliminary shielding analysis in support of the CSNS target station shutter neutron beam stop design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bin; CHEN Yi-Xue; WANG Wei-Jin; YANG Shou-Hai; WU Jun; YIN Wen; LIANG Tian-Jiao; JIA Xue-Jun


    The construction of China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) has been initiated in Dongguan,Guangdong, China.Thus a detailed radiation transport analysis of the shutter neutron beam stop is of vital importance. The analyses are performed using the coupled Monte Carlo and multi-dimensional discrete ordinates method. The target of calculations is to optimize the neutron beamline shielding design to guarantee personal safety and minimize cost. Successful elimination of the primary ray effects via the two-dimensional uncollided flux and the first collision source methodology is also illustrated. Two-dimensional dose distribution is calculated. The dose at the end of the neutron beam line is less than 2.5μSv/h. The models have ensured that the doses received by the hall staff members are below the standard limit required.

  4. Towards Kilo-Hertz 6-DoF Visual Tracking Using an Egocentric Cluster of Rolling Shutter Cameras. (United States)

    Bapat, Akash; Dunn, Enrique; Frahm, Jan-Michael


    To maintain a reliable registration of the virtual world with the real world, augmented reality (AR) applications require highly accurate, low-latency tracking of the device. In this paper, we propose a novel method for performing this fast 6-DOF head pose tracking using a cluster of rolling shutter cameras. The key idea is that a rolling shutter camera works by capturing the rows of an image in rapid succession, essentially acting as a high-frequency 1D image sensor. By integrating multiple rolling shutter cameras on the AR device, our tracker is able to perform 6-DOF markerless tracking in a static indoor environment with minimal latency. Compared to state-of-the-art tracking systems, this tracking approach performs at significantly higher frequency, and it works in generalized environments. To demonstrate the feasibility of our system, we present thorough evaluations on synthetically generated data with tracking frequencies reaching 56.7 kHz. We further validate the method's accuracy on real-world images collected from a prototype of our tracking system against ground truth data using standard commodity GoPro cameras capturing at 120 Hz frame rate.

  5. Logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shutter and active dark current reduction (United States)

    Ni, Yang; Arion, Bogdan; Bouvier, Christian; Noguier, Vincent


    In this paper, we present newly developed logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shuttering and also an active dark current reduction technique to ensure ambient temperature operation without TEC for industrial applications. The newly released detectors come with both VGA (15um pitch) and QVGA (25um pitch) resolutions, giving the possibility to use lens less than 1-inch size. The logarithmic response is obtained by using solar-cell mode InGaAs photodiodes. The VGA and QVGA ROICs have 3 analog memories inside each pixel which permit, except the classic ITR, IWR and CDS modes, a new differential imaging mode which can be a useful feature in active imaging systems. The photodiode frontend circuit, in pure voltage mode, is made with non-inverting amplifier instead of CTIA. The reason of this choice is that the exposure time can be shortened without need of excessive power consumption as in CTIA front-end. We think that this arrangement associated with true CDS could match the noise performance of CTIA based one. VGA and QVGA ROICs have been designed and manufactured by using 0.18um 1P4M CMOS process. Both ROIC have been tested with success and match the design targets. The first batch of both detectors is under fabrication and will be presented during the conference.

  6. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A


    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  7. A Literature Review Outlining the Importance of Blinds and Shutters as a Sustainable Asset that has the Potential to enhance the Productivity of Occupants in the UK


    De Grussa, Z; D. Andrews; Newton, E.; Lowry, G; Chalk, A; Bush, D


    Blinds and Shutters in the UK are still thought of as an optional window dressing rather than a low\\ud cost sustainable building asset that can enhance a window/glazing system’s performance and in\\ud return, save energy through passive thermal measures and measurable solar performance. Although\\ud the array of benefits is validated for blinds and shutters there are historic barriers to realising the\\ud potential for saving energy. Simple behavioural change related to the use of existing produ...

  8. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A


    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  9. Optimal camera exposure for video surveillance systems by predictive control of shutter speed, aperture, and gain (United States)

    Torres, Juan; Menéndez, José Manuel


    This paper establishes a real-time auto-exposure method to guarantee that surveillance cameras in uncontrolled light conditions take advantage of their whole dynamic range while provide neither under nor overexposed images. State-of-the-art auto-exposure methods base their control on the brightness of the image measured in a limited region where the foreground objects are mostly located. Unlike these methods, the proposed algorithm establishes a set of indicators based on the image histogram that defines its shape and position. Furthermore, the location of the objects to be inspected is likely unknown in surveillance applications. Thus, the whole image is monitored in this approach. To control the camera settings, we defined a parameters function (Ef ) that linearly depends on the shutter speed and the electronic gain; and is inversely proportional to the square of the lens aperture diameter. When the current acquired image is not overexposed, our algorithm computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to the maximum value that does not overexpose the capture. When the current acquired image is overexposed, it computes the value of Ef that would move the histogram to a value that does not underexpose the capture and remains close to the overexposed region. If the image is under and overexposed, the whole dynamic range of the camera is therefore used, and a default value of the Ef that does not overexpose the capture is selected. This decision follows the idea that to get underexposed images is better than to get overexposed ones, because the noise produced in the lower regions of the histogram can be removed in a post-processing step while the saturated pixels of the higher regions cannot be recovered. The proposed algorithm was tested in a video surveillance camera placed at an outdoor parking lot surrounded by buildings and trees which produce moving shadows in the ground. During the daytime of seven days, the algorithm was running alternatively together

  10. Experimental Study on Thermal Insulation of Aluminum Rolling Shutter Window%铝合金卷帘窗隔热性能实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海罡; 陈福霞


    In order to study thermal insulation of the aluminum rolling shutter window, the solar heat gain coefficient of 3mm clear glass, the shading coefficient of aluminum rolling shutter window and inner-outside surface temperature of the 3mm clear glass under different con-ditions are tested and analyzed by the shading coefficient test platform that is based on solar-simulated light source. The results show that the aluminum rolling shutter window holds about 90% of heat from the solar radiation, and the analytical results feature for guiding-significance for thermal insulation evaluation of the aluminum rolling shutter window.%  为研究铝合金卷帘窗的隔热性能,通过模拟太阳光源的遮阳系数测试平台,对3 mm透明玻璃的得热系数、铝合金卷帘窗的遮阳系数和不同状态下3 mm透明玻璃内外表面温度进行了测试与分析。分析结果表明:铝合金卷帘窗能阻挡约90%的太阳辐射热量,分析结果对铝合金卷帘窗的实际隔热效果评价具有指导意义。

  11. Keep Your Head in the Gutter: Engendering Empathy Through Participatory Delusion in Christian de Metter's Graphic Adaptation of Shutter Island. (United States)

    Servitje, Lorenzo


    This paper argues that the graphic adaptation of Dennis Lehane's Shutter Island utilizes the medium to evoke an affective participation and investment from the reader. It explores the ways the graphic novel overcomes problematic representations of mental illness in the popular film version. Drawing on graphic fiction theory, I contend that readers' engagement in and construction of the story between panels, in the "gutters," allows them to participate in the protagonist's persecutory delusion. Additionally, I draw on Foucault's conceptualizations of the medical gaze and historical figurations of madness connected to water in order to demonstrate the mechanism by which the reader is placed in a dual subject position, becoming both observer and observed. In this capacity, I suggest that graphic fiction provides a unique experience to engender empathy for psychiatric illness.

  12. Ultrafast optical imaging technology: principles and applications of emerging methods (United States)

    Mikami, Hideharu; Gao, Liang; Goda, Keisuke


    High-speed optical imaging is an indispensable technology for blur-free observation of fast transient dynamics in virtually all areas including science, industry, defense, energy, and medicine. High temporal resolution is particularly important for microscopy as even a slow event appears to occur "fast" in a small field of view. Unfortunately, the shutter speed and frame rate of conventional cameras based on electronic image sensors are significantly constrained by their electrical operation and limited storage. Over the recent years, several unique and unconventional approaches to high-speed optical imaging have been reported to circumvent these technical challenges and achieve a frame rate and shutter speed far beyond what can be reached with the conventional image sensors. In this article, we review the concepts and principles of such ultrafast optical imaging methods, compare their advantages and disadvantages, and discuss an entirely new class of applications that are possible using them.

  13. Time estimate (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) of shutter of an X-ray equipment using a digital chronometer; Estimativa do tempo (t{sub opening} + t{sub closing}) do shutter de um equipamento de raios-X utilizando um cronometro digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaresma, D.S.; Oliveira, P.H.T.M.; Gallo, V.F.M.; Jordao, B.O.; Carvalho, R.J., E-mail: [Observatorio Nacional (ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, R.S.; Peixoto, J.G.P.


    In this work the measurement of time t{sub opening} + t{sub closing} opening and closing the shutter of Pantak HF160 X-ray equipment was performed. It is understood by the shutter device responsible for allowing or not the flow of X-rays that are produced by the X-ray tube through the orifice of a shield. To estimate the running time for a digital chronometer calibrated in the Time Service Division (DSHO) National Observatory (ON) was used. (author)

  14. On The Design and Implementation of a New Electric-Field Meter with Reciprocating Shutter and Field-Change-Antenna Option (United States)

    Swenson, J.; Byerley, L. G.; Bogoev, I.; Hinckley, A.; Beasley, W. H.


    The atmospheric electric field is a unique indicator of locally disturbed weather, local thunderstorms and local atmospheric electrical hazards. Yet, surprisingly, routine observations of ambient electric field have never been included in the canonical suite of measured meteorological variables. This notable omission may be a result of the historically high costs to acquire, install, and maintain conventional electric-field mills. To reduce costs and overcome limitations of traditional field meters, Campbell Scientific, Inc. has developed an electric-field meter (patent pending) with a reciprocating shutter that eliminates the problem of making electrical contact with a rotating shaft. The reciprocating action is under microprocessor control, so the sample rate can be varied in response to measured conditions. Between samples of electric field, the shutter can even be left open indefinitely, allowing the instrument to function as a field-change antenna. Since the shutter is closed before and after each measurement in field-meter mode, it is relatively easy to account for drift and offsets automatically, so that measurements can be made even if the electrode insulator becomes degraded by conductive deposits of the types likely to be encountered in severe outdoor environments. Because the motor is energized for only a small fraction of each measurement cycle, average power consumption is exceptionally low, making the new field meter especially suitable for solar-powered applications such as automated remote meteorological stations. Some preliminary observations demonstrate the capabilities of the instrument.

  15. Atomically flat Ge buffer layers and alternating shutter growth of CaGe2 for large area germanane (United States)

    Xu, Jinsong; Katoch, Jyoti; Ahmed, Adam; Pinchuk, Igor; Williams, Robert; McComb, David; Kawakami, Roland

    Germanane (GeH), which is converted from CaGe2 by soaking in HCl acid, has recently attracted interest because of its novel properties, such as large band gap (1.56eV), spin orbit coupling and predictions of high mobility (18000 cm2/Vs). Previously CaGe2 was successfully grown on Ge(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth. But there were cracks between µm-sized islands, which is not desirable for scientific study and application, and limits the material quality. By growing atomically flat Ge buffer layers and using alternating shutter MBE growth, we are able to grow crack-free, large area films of CaGe2 films. Reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) patterns of Ge buffer layer and CaGe2 indicates high quality two dimensional surfaces, which is further confirmed by atomic force microscopy (AFM), showing atomically flat and uniform Ge buffer layer and CaGe2. The appearance of Laue oscillation in X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Kiessig fringes in X-ray reflectivity (XRR) proves the uniformity of CaGe2 film and the smoothness of the interface. The high quality of CaGe2 film makes it promising to explore novel properties of GeH. Funded by NSF MRSEC DMR-1420451.

  16. Single-shot pressure-sensitive paint lifetime measurements on fast rotating blades using an optimized double-shutter technique (United States)

    Weiss, Armin; Geisler, Reinhard; Schwermer, Till; Yorita, Daisuke; Henne, Ulrich; Klein, Christian; Raffel, Markus


    A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) system is presented to measure global surface pressures on fast rotating blades. It is dedicated to solve the problem of blurred image data employing the single-shot lifetime method. The efficient blur reduction capability of an optimized double-shutter imaging technique is demonstrated omitting error-prone post-processing or laborious de-rotation setups. The system is applied on Mach-scaled DSA-9A helicopter blades in climb at various collective pitch settings and blade tip Mach and chord Reynolds numbers (M_{ {tip}} = 0.29-0.57; Re_{ {tip}} = 4.63-9.26 × 10^5). Temperature effects in the PSP are corrected by a theoretical approximation validated against measured temperatures using temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) on a separate blade. Ensemble-averaged PSP results are comparable to pressure-tap data on the same blade to within 250 Pa. Resulting pressure maps on the blade suction side reveal spatially high resolved flow features such as the leading edge suction peak, footprints of blade-tip vortices and evidence of laminar-turbulent boundary-layer (BL) transition. The findings are validated by a separately conducted BL transition measurement by means of TSP and numerical simulations using a 2D coupled Euler/boundary-layer code. Moreover, the principal ability of the single-shot technique to capture unsteady flow phenomena is stressed revealing three-dimensional pressure fluctuations at stall.

  17. Assessment of stereoscopic optic disc images using an autostereoscopic screen – experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaideanu Daniella


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stereoscopic assessment of the optic disc morphology is an important part of the care of patients with glaucoma. The aim of this study was to assess stereoviewing of stereoscopic optic disc images using an example of the new technology of autostereoscopic screens compared to the liquid shutter goggles. Methods Independent assessment of glaucomatous disc characteristics and measurement of optic disc and cup parameters whilst using either an autostereoscopic screen or liquid crystal shutter goggles synchronized with a view switching display. The main outcome measures were inter-modality agreements between the two used modalities as evaluated by the weighted kappa test and Bland Altman plots. Results Inter-modality agreement for measuring optic disc parameters was good [Average kappa coefficient for vertical Cup/Disc ratio was 0.78 (95% CI 0.62–0.91 and 0.81 (95% CI 0.6–0.92 for observer 1 and 2 respectively]. Agreement between modalities for assessing optic disc characteristics for glaucoma on a five-point scale was very good with a kappa value of 0.97. Conclusion This study compared two different methods of stereo viewing. The results of assessment of the different optic disc and cup parameters were comparable using an example of the newly developing autostereoscopic display technologies as compared to the shutter goggles system used. The Inter-modality agreement was high. This new technology carries potential clinical usability benefits in different areas of ophthalmic practice.

  18. Interference-free optical detection for Raman spectroscopy (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang-Viet (Inventor); Fischer, David G (Inventor); Kojima, Jun (Inventor)


    An architecture for spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS) that utilizes a frame-transfer charge-coupled device (CCD) sensor operating in a subframe burst gating mode to realize time-resolved combustion diagnostics is disclosed. The technique permits all-electronic optical gating with microsecond shutter speeds (<5 .mu.s), without compromising optical throughput or image fidelity. When used in conjunction with a pair of orthogonally-polarized excitation lasers, the technique measures time-resolved vibrational Raman scattering that is minimally contaminated by problematic optical background noise.

  19. Sound absorption characteristics of the shutter-like absorption structure%百叶窗式吸声结构的吸声特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铁林; 孙辉; 陈文剑; 庄瑞; 夏琳琳


    A sound absorption structure (the shutter-like absorption structure) has been studied, which is made by fixing thin rubber on pool wall. Based on the physical acoustic method absorption coefficient is calculated, also the sound absorption properties are measured by using reverberation method. Theoretical Calculation and experimental result show that within a wide frequency band the shutter-like absorption structure performs well in pool. And, if the structural parameter is adjusted, the frequency range will change.%研究使用薄橡胶条倾斜固定于水箱壁面的吸声结构(百叶窗式吸声结构)的吸声特性.基于物理声学方法计算了这一结构的吸声系数,并用混响室法测量了这一结构的吸声性能.理论计算和实验结果表明,在水箱中敷设这种百叶窗式吸声结构能够在宽频带范围内获得较佳的吸声效果,如果调整结构参数可以改变吸声的频带范围.

  20. Optical-Fiber-Matrix Exposure Using Light-Emitting-Diode Sources (United States)

    Horiuchi, Toshiyuki; Mirumachi, Naofumi; Ooshima, Yuki


    A new projection exposure method without using reticles was proposed, and the feasibility of printing arbitrary patterns was investigated. The preparation of expensive reticles is not favorable for the small-volume production of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), optomechanical systems, and their components. On the other hand, long turnaround time (TAT) becomes a fatal bottleneck preventing the rapid follow-up of various design changes. As a countermeasure, we previously proposed a new exposure method named optical-fiber-matrix exposure. In this method, patterns are delineated by superimposing light spots from an optical-fiber matrix, and expensive reticles are not necessary. Therefore, patterns are easily changeable by controlling the pattern delineation program. However, in the previous method, light rays from one intensive lamp were divided and switched using small mechanical shutters placed at each fiber entrance, and the shutters were not sufficiently reliable. For this reason, violet light-emitting diodes (LEDs) were used in this research in place of the lamp source and mechanical shutters, and the light or dark state at each optical fiber end was controlled using a microcomputer that switched each LED attached to each fiber entrance one by one. Since the illuminance of each LED was different, LEDs with approximately the same illuminance were selectively used, and each illuminance was adjusted to be uniform by inserting an individual color filter. Thus, the widths of patterns printed by scanning different fiber elements were homogenized. Since line-and-space patterns and various alphabet patterns were successfully printed, the feasibility of fabricating a large-scale optical-fiber matrix was also investigated. An optical-fiber line matrix composed of more than 330 fibers was fabricated without including any gaps between neighbor fibers. There will probably be no fatal problems to enlarge the matrix scale. Although the exposure speed should be improved

  1. Miniaturized optical fiber endoscope without inertial scan for simultaneous imaging and laser microsurgery (United States)

    Adam, Jost; Metz, Philipp; Gerken, Martina; Jalali, Bahram


    The current autostereoscopic projection system is accomplished by array projectors. It is easy to realize optically but has a drawback with size. Another type is to place the shutter on the screen. It saves the volume but reduces the efficiency depending on how many views are produced. The shutter in the lens aperture has the same efficiency problem, too. To overcome these problems, a full HD autostereoscopic projector based on the lens aperture switching type is proposed. It has RGB laser sources and can produce 16-views or even higher stereoscopic images. This system removes the shutter in the lens aperture by the opti-mechanism itself. The specific light on the lens aperture coming from the point on the DMD is reflected to different angles. The proper angle of light is generated in the object side by the relay and folding system. The UHP lamps or the LED rays are difficult to constrain in a relative small cone angle. For this reason, the laser is applied to the design. The very small etendue of the laser is good for this architecture. The rays are combined by dichroic filter from RGB laser sources then forming and expanding to the mirror. The mirror is synchronized with DMD by the DSP control system. The images of different views are generated by DMD and specific position of the mirror. By the double lenticular screen, the lens aperture is imaged to the observer's viewing zone and the 3D scene is created.

  2. Optically sensitive Medipix2 detector for adaptive optics wavefront sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, John; Tremsina, Anton; Siegmund, Oswald; Mikulec, Bettina; Clark, Allan G; CERN. Geneva


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation adaptive optics (AO) wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused microchannel plate (MCP) read out by multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN ("Medipix2") with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 256 x 256 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting), can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates and is abutable on 3 sides. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 ns. When used in a Shack-Hartmann style wavefront sensor, a detector with 4 Medipix chips should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest.

  3. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  4. A shutter pulse generator for high speed camera%一种用于高速摄影仪的快门脉冲发生器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春平; 李爽; 李景镇


    A shutter pulse generator was designed, which is based on the metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET). By using the N-channel level shifter for driving switch groups, which consist of Series MOSFETs and controlled by programmable logic device FPGA (field programmable gate array), a high-voltage pulse is achieved with high-speed front edge and back edge, after processing by pulse forming circuit. Experimental results showed that with a load of 1. 1 μF the amplitude of pulse is 800 V and the width of pulse is 81 jxs, both its front edge and back edge lasted less than 1 (μs. The system is anti-jamming and reliable.%设计基于绝缘栅型场效应管(metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor,MOSFET)的快门脉冲发生器,将MOSFET串联作为开关组,采用电平移位法对其进行驱动,由可编辑逻辑器件FPGA控制延时触发,经过脉冲形成电路分别得到高压脉冲的快前沿与快后沿.结果表明,在1.1 μF的负载下,可获得幅值为800 V、前后沿均小于1μs、脉宽为81μs的高压快脉冲,该系统抗干扰能力强,可靠性好.

  5. Two-laser optical tweezers with a blinking beam (United States)

    Lamperska, Weronika; Masajada, Jan; Drobczyński, Sławomir; Gusin, Paweł


    We report on a two-laser holographic optical tweezers setup and present its two major advantages over single-laser one. First, the trap stiffness of a weak trapping beam can be measured with a considerable accuracy. Second, a novel method of examining local viscosity of fluid is proposed. Both measurements are performed based on forcing the oscillations of a microscopic polystyrene bead placed between two optical traps. The two beams are generated by separate laser sources and therefore their trapping power can vary. Moreover, a stronger trap 'blinks', modulated by an electronic shutter. The blinking frequency can be precisely adjusted to the experimental conditions, which results in high accuracy of the measurements.

  6. 超大跨度异形折叠提升式防火卷帘门安装技术%Installation Technology on Fireproofing Rolling Shutter Door with Super-large Span and Special-shape Folded Improving Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何纯涛; 王岱; 艾晓东


    In view of beautiful requirement and complex structure of domestic commercial building, there have more and more large or super-large span structure and special-shape hall and special-shape hall. In the installation of fireproofing rolling shutter door, how to complete installation of complex structure in the condition of beauty and special requirement is a new study task. Taking the Shenyang Shengshi Chang' an Square as a example, the authors introduce construction principal and installation process of a new type of fireproofing rolling shutter door with folded improving type.%鉴于目前国内商业型建筑的美观要求及其结构的复杂性,大跨度、超大跨度、异形大厅、异形洞口的构造越来越多,在后期消防工程防火卷帘的安装中,如何在保证其美观的条件下,完成复杂结构和特殊需求的安装成为一项新的课题.以沈阳盛世长安商业广场工程为例,介绍一种新型折叠提升式防火卷帘的工艺原理及操作流程.

  7. Design and precision analysis of curtain type shutter based on timing belt%基于正时带的帘幕式快门设计与精度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雷; 丁亚林; 张洪文; 刘波; 詹磊


    考虑帘幕式快门的曝光精度和面阵CCD相机的结构尺寸,利用正时带在高速运动中能够保证高精度传动的特点,设计了以正时带为快门帘幕,以正时带轮为快门辊轴的新型单帘式焦平面快门.分析了影响快门曝光精度的主要因素,利用系统误差合成法建立了快门曝光精度的数学模型.利用齿轮综合误差组评价了驱动机构的传动误差,通过分析正时带的传动机理建立了多边形效应的几何模型,并计算了多边形效应对速度精度的影响.在接入快门负载的情况下测试得到了快门辊轴的稳速精度,并利用高斯法计算得到了快门的曝光精度0.067.最后,利用光电法测试了幅面上均匀五点的有效曝光时间,测量结果显示幅面内快门的曝光精度达到0.056,可实现宽目标照度范围航空摄影的曝光.%In consideration of the exposure precision of a curtain shutter and the dimension of a camera, a new focus-plane single curtain type shutter was designed by using a timing belt with high transmission accuracy as the curtain of shutter and a belt wheel as the roll shaft. The main reason effecting the exposure precision was analyzed, and a mathematic model was created by the system error synthesis method. Then, the series of gear-composited errors was used to evaluate the transmission errors of a driving mechanism. Furthermore, the geometric model of the polygonal effect was established by analysis of the transmission mechanism of the timing belt, and the influence of polygonal effect on the rate errors was calculated. After testing on the shutter, the speed stability of the roll shaft is obtained and the exposure precision achieves 0.067 according to the Gaussian processes. The exposure time at 5 positions on a frame was tested by the photoelectric method, and the result shows that exposure precision in the frame achieves by 0.056, which demonstrates that this shutter can exposure on the aerial photographing

  8. Optic glioma (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  9. Toxicomanías: la obturación del deseo en una economía tóxica. Addiction: the shutter of the desire in a toxic economy.


    Álvarez Bolívar, Alejandra; Díaz Agudelo, Karen Yulieth; Osorio García, Jonathan


    Toxicomanías: la obturación del deseo en una economía tóxica.  Addiction: the shutter of the desire in a toxic economy. Resumen El artículo presenta la síntesis de la investigación “Un montaje tóxico: entre una declinación del deseo y un salvamento mortal”. Se presentan los resultados del proyecto monográfico cuyo objetivo investigativo giro en torno a una comprensión del lugar de la droga en las toxicomanías, a partir de una lectura de la objetalidad. El método investigativo exigió la ampli...

  10. Microfabricated actuators and their application to optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sniegowski, J.J.; Garcia, E.J.


    Several authors have given overviews of microelectromechanical systems, including microactuators. In our presentation we will review some of these results, and provide a brief description of the basic principles of operation, fabrication, and application, of a few selected microactuators (electrostatic and surface tension driven). We present a description of a three-level mechanical polysilicon surface-micromachining technology with a discussion of the advantages of this level of process complexity. This technology, is capable of forming complex, batch-fabricated, interconnected, and interactive, microactuated micromechanisms which include optical elements. The inclusion of a third deposited layer of mechanical polysilicon greatly extends the degree of complexity available for micromechanism design. Two examples of microactuators fabricated using this process are provided to illustrate the capabilities and usefulness of the technology. The first actuator is an example of a novel actuation mechanism based on the effect of surface tension at these micro-scale dimensions and of a microstructure within a microstructure. The second is a comb-drive-based microengine which has direct application as a drive and power source for micro optical elements, specifically, micro mirrors and micro shutters. This design converts linear oscillatory motion from electrostatic comb drive actuators into rotational motion via a direct linkage connection. The microengine provides output in the form of a continuously rotating output gear that is capable of delivering drive torque to a micromechanism.

  11. The optical design concept of SPICA-SAFARI (United States)

    Jellema, Willem; Kruizinga, Bob; Visser, Huib; van den Dool, Teun; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Torres Redondo, Josefina; Eggens, Martin; Ferlet, Marc; Swinyard, Bruce; Dohlen, Kjetil; Griffin, Doug; Gonzalez Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Belenguer, Tomas; Matsuhara, Hideo; Kawada, Mitsunobu; Doi, Yasuo


    The Safari instrument on the Japanese SPICA mission is a zodiacal background limited imaging spectrometer offering a photometric imaging (R ≍ 2), and a low (R = 100) and medium spectral resolution (R = 2000 at 100 μm) spectroscopy mode in three photometric bands covering the 34-210 μm wavelength range. The instrument utilizes Nyquist sampled filled arrays of very sensitive TES detectors providing a 2’x2’ instantaneous field of view. The all-reflective optical system of Safari is highly modular and consists of an input optics module containing the entrance shutter, a calibration source and a pair of filter wheels, followed by an interferometer and finally the camera bay optics accommodating the focal-plane arrays. The optical design is largely driven and constrained by volume inviting for a compact three-dimensional arrangement of the interferometer and camera bay optics without compromising the optical performance requirements associated with a diffraction- and background-limited spectroscopic imaging instrument. Central to the optics we present a flexible and compact non-polarizing Mach-Zehnder interferometer layout, with dual input and output ports, employing a novel FTS scan mechanism based on magnetic bearings and a linear motor. In this paper we discuss the conceptual design of the focal-plane optics and describe how we implement the optical instrument functions, define the photometric bands, deal with straylight control, diffraction and thermal emission in the long-wavelength limit and interface to the large-format FPA arrays at one end and the SPICA telescope assembly at the other end.

  12. Conceptual Design Studies of the KSTAR Bay-Nm Cassette and Thomson Scattering Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Ellis, R.; Johnson, D.; Park, H.; Lee, H. G.


    A Multi-Channel Thomson Scattering System viewing the edge and core of the KSTAR plasma will be installed at the mid-plane port Bay-N. An engineering design study was undertaken at PPPL in collaboration with the Korea Basic Science Institute (KBSI) to determine the optimal optics and cassette design. Design criteria included environmental, mechanical and optical factors. All of the optical design options have common design features; the Thomson Scattering laser, an in-vacuum shutter, a quartz heat shield and primary vacuum window, a set of optical elements and a fiber optic bundle. Neutron radiation damage was a major factor in the choice of competing lens-based and mirror-based optical designs. Both the mirror based design and the lens design are constrained by physical limits of the Bay-N cassette and interference with the Bay-N micro-wave launcher. The cassette will contain the optics and a rail system for maintenance of the optics.

  13. Thin-film perovskites-ferroelectric materials for integrated optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, F.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McKee, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)


    Optical guided wave (OGW) devices, based on LiNbO{sub 3} or GaAs. are commercially available products with established markets and applications. While LiNbO{sub 3} presently dominates the commercial applications, there are several drivers for the development of improved electro-optic (EO) materials. If the appropriate crystal quality could be obtained for thin-film BaTiO{sub 3} supported on MgO for example, or for an integrated BaTiO{sub 3}/Mg0 structure on silicon or GaAs, then the optimum OGW device structure might be realized. We report on our results for the growth of optical quality, epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3} on single-crystal MgO substrates using source shuttering molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) techniques. We also discuss how these materials can be integrated onto silicon. Our MBE studies show that, for this important class of perovskite oxides, heteroepitaxy between the perovskites and alkaline earth oxides is dominated by interfacial electrostatics at the first atomic layers. We have been able to demonstrate that a layer-by-layer energy minimization associated with interfacial electrostatics leads to the growth of high quality thin films of these materials. We have fabricated waveguides from these materials, and the optical clarity and loss coefficients have been characterized and found to be comparable to in-diffused waveguide structures typically represented by Ti drifted LiNbO{sub 3}.

  14. Preparation of Fast Response Light Shutter for the True 3D Display%快速响应光阀的制备及在真三维立体显示中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛红林; 陆红波; 鲁文武; 张贵玉; 张俊; 冯奇斌


    A solid-state volumetric true 3D display consists of a data transmission, image processing module, a high-speed color projection module, a display module and control circuits. The display module contains of light shutters, which display a dark and fuzzy picture due to the brightness decay when lights transmits. In addition, the display has a serious problem of screen flicker owing to the low response time and low refresh rate. This paper exploits a new polymer stabilized cholesteric texture shutter by adding a small amount of ploymer and chrial dopants to liquid crystal. The maximal transmittance is 88% and the response time is lower than one millisecond. When applied in true 3D display, it can display a clear, stabilized and non-flicker picture, completely satisfying the demands of true 3D display.%固态体积式真三维立体显示系统主要由数据传输,图像处理模块,高速彩色投影光路模块,显示模块(显示体)以及外围控制电路组成.显示模块由多层液晶光阀组成,光线透过显示体后能量衰减严重,造成显示画面黯淡,.模糊,此外,由于光阀响应时间慢,系统刷新频率低,屏幕存在严重的闪烁问题.本文通过在液晶中添加少量聚合物和手性物添加剂制备出快速响应的聚合物稳定胆甾相液晶光阀,其开态透过率达到88%,响应时间小于1 ms.将其应用于真三维立体显示系统,显示画面清晰稳定,无闪烁.

  15. Smart Optical Composite Materials: Dispersions of Metal-Organic Framework@Superparamagnetic Microrods for Switchable Isotropic-Anisotropic Optical Properties. (United States)

    Mandel, Karl; Granath, Tim; Wehner, Tobias; Rey, Marcel; Stracke, Werner; Vogel, Nicolas; Sextl, Gerhard; Müller-Buschbaum, Klaus


    A smart optical composite material with dynamic isotropic and anisotropic optical properties by combination of luminescence and high reflectivity was developed. This combination enables switching between luminescence and angle-dependent reflectivity by changing the applied wavelength of light. The composite is formed as anisotropic core/shell particles by coating superparamagnetic iron oxide-silica microrods with a layer of the luminescent metal-organic framework (MOF) (3)∞[Eu2(BDC)3]·2DMF·2H2O (BDC(2-) = 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). The composite particles can be rotated by an external magnet. Their anisotropic shape causes changes in the reflectivity and diffraction of light depending on the orientation of the composite particle. These rotation-dependent optical properties are complemented by an isotropic luminescence resulting from the MOF shell. If illuminated by UV light, the particles exhibit isotropic luminescence while the same sample shows anisotropic optical properties when illuminated with visible light. In addition to direct switching, the optical properties can be tailored continuously between isotropic red emission and anisotropic reflection of light if the illuminating light is tuned through fractions of both UV and visible light. The integration and control of light emission modes within a homogeneous particle dispersion marks a smart optical material, addressing fundamental directions for research on switchable multifunctional materials. The material can function as an optic compass or could be used as an optic shutter that can be switched by a magnetic field, e.g., for an intensity control for waveguides in the visible range.

  16. 硅酸铝/不锈钢丝耐高温防火卷帘布的研制及性能分析%Preparation and performance analysis of high temperature resistant fireproof shutter fabric of aluminum silicate/stainless steel wire

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李利君; 卢国建; 赵敏; 王新钢


      分析防火卷帘应用现状,介绍硅酸铝/不锈钢丝耐高温防火卷帘布的织物结构、规格设计以及织造各工序的技术关键,并对织造的硅酸铝/不锈钢丝耐高温防火卷帘布的强力和耐火性能进行测试与分析。结果表明,硅酸铝/不锈钢丝耐高温防火卷帘布的强力远远超过国家标准GB 14102—2005《防火卷帘》要求,耐火极限可达3 h。%The application status of fire resistant shutter was analyzed .Fabric configuration, specification design and key technics of weaving of fire resistant shutter fabric of aluminum silicate /stainless steel wire were also introduced.Furthermore, intensity and fire resistant performance of the fabric were tested and analyzed.It was found that the intensity of the fabric , prepared in this paper, exceeded the require-ment of GB 14102—2005 Fire Resistant Shutter.Fire resistant limitation of the fabric reached 3 h.

  17. Optical processing (United States)

    Gustafson, S. C.


    The technical contributions were as follows: (1) Optical parallel 2-D neighborhood processor and optical processor assessment technique; (2) High accuracy with moderately accurate components and optical fredkin gate architectures; (3) Integrated optical threshold computing, pipelined polynomial processor, and all optical analog/digital converter; (4) Adaptive optical associative memory model with attention; (5) Effectiveness of parallelism and connectivity in optical computers; (6) Optical systolic array processing using an integrated acoustooptic module; (7) Optical threshold elements and networks, holographic threshold processors, adaptive matched spatial filtering, and coherence theory in optical computing; (8) Time-varying optical processing for sub-pixel targets, optical Kalman filtering, and adaptive matched filtering; (9) Optical degrees of freedom, ultra short optical pulses, number representations, content-addressable-memory processors, and integrated optical Givens rotation devices; (10) Optical J-K flip flop analysis and interfacing for optical computers; (11) Matrix multiplication algorithms and limits of incoherent optical computers; (12) Architecture for machine vision with sensor fusion, pattern recognition functions, and neural net implementations; (13) Optical computing algorithms, architectures, and components; and (14) Dynamic optical interconnections, advantages and architectures.

  18. Modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Guenther, B D


    Modern Optics is a fundamental study of the principles of optics using a rigorous physical approach based on Maxwell's Equations. The treatment provides the mathematical foundations needed to understand a number of applications such as laser optics, fiber optics and medical imaging covered in an engineering curriculum as well as the traditional topics covered in a physics based course in optics. In addition to treating the fundamentals in optical science, the student is given an exposure to actual optics engineering problems such as paraxial matrix optics, aberrations with experimental examples, Fourier transform optics (Fresnel-Kirchhoff formulation), Gaussian waves, thin films, photonic crystals, surface plasmons, and fiber optics. Through its many pictures, figures, and diagrams, the text provides a good physical insight into the topics covered. The course content can be modified to reflect the interests of the instructor as well as the student, through the selection of optional material provided in append...

  19. Optic Neuritis



    Demyelinating optic neuritis is the most common cause of unilateral painful visual loss in the United States. Although patients presenting with demyelinating optic neuritis have favorable long-term visual prognosis, optic neuritis is the initial clinical manifestation of multiple sclerosis in 20% of patients. The Optic Neuritis Treatment Trial (ONTT) has helped stratify the risk of developing multiple sclerosis after the first episode of optic neuritis based on abnormal findings on brain MRI....

  20. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo


    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  1. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source (United States)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.


    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  2. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L


    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  3. Optical Solitons (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.


    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Optical biosensors


    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj; Katrlík, Jaroslav


    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biose...

  5. Optical keyboard (United States)

    Veligdan, James T.; Feichtner, John D.; Phillips, Thomas E.


    An optical keyboard includes an optical panel having optical waveguides stacked together. First ends of the waveguides define an inlet face, and opposite ends thereof define a screen. A projector transmits a light beam outbound through the waveguides for display on the screen as a keyboard image. A light sensor is optically aligned with the inlet face for sensing an inbound light beam channeled through the waveguides from the screen upon covering one key of the keyboard image.

  6. Optical interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ray T


    This book describes fully embedded board level optical interconnect in detail including the fabrication of the thin-film VCSEL array, its characterization, thermal management, the fabrication of optical interconnection layer, and the integration of devices on a flexible waveguide film. All the optical components are buried within electrical PCB layers in a fully embedded board level optical interconnect. Therefore, we can save foot prints on the top real estate of the PCB and relieve packaging difficulty reduced by separating fabrication processes. To realize fully embedded board level optical

  7. Optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Geisler, J; Boutruche, J P


    Optical Fibers covers numerous research works on the significant advances in optical fibers, with particular emphasis on their application.This text is composed of three parts encompassing 15 chapters. The first part deals with the manufacture of optical fibers and the materials used in their production. The second part describes optical-fiber connectors, terminals and branches. The third part is concerned with the major optoelectronic components encountered in optical-communication systems.This book will be of value to research scientists, engineers, and patent workers.

  8. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boyd, Robert W


    Nonlinear Optics is an advanced textbook for courses dealing with nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, contemporary and quantum optics, and electrooptics. Its pedagogical emphasis is on fundamentals rather than particular, transitory applications. As a result, this textbook will have lasting appeal to a wide audience of electrical engineering, physics, and optics students, as well as those in related fields such as materials science and chemistry.Key Features* The origin of optical nonlinearities, including dependence on the polarization of light* A detailed treatment of the q


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Glazunov


    Full Text Available The use of passive shutters to control the duration of the light pulses is an important aspect in the miniature and microchip lasers. One of the key spectroscopic characteristics which determine the properties of the material, which can be used as a passive shutter is relaxation time of its bleached state.We describe a device for determination of relaxation time of the bleached state in optical materials by the «pump-probe» method in the sub-μs time domain. This device allows one to determine relaxation times for materials which absorb at the light wavelength of 1.5 μm, e.g., materials doped with cobalt ions Co2+. The results of test examinations of the device are described, and the relaxation time of the bleached state of Co2+ ions is measured for a novel material – transparent glass-ceramics with Co2+:Ga2 O3 nanophase – amounting to 190 ± 6 ns. 

  10. Applied optics and optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E


    ""For the optical engineer it is an indispensable work."" - Journal, Optical Society of America""As a practical guide this book has no rival."" - Transactions, Optical Society""A noteworthy contribution,"" - Nature (London)Part I covers all ordinary ray-tracing methods, together with the complete theory of primary aberrations and as much of higher aberration as is needed for the design of telescopes, low-power microscopes and simple optical systems. Chapters: Fundamental Equations, Spherical Aberration, Physical Aspect of Optical Images, Chromatic Aberration, Design of Achromatic Object-Glass

  11. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon


    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  12. [Optic neuritis]. (United States)

    Wilhelm, H; Heine, C; Tonagel, F


    Optic neuritis is a frequent neuro-ophthalmological disease in which the diagnosis can be based on just a few symptoms and findings. It is not only important to differentiate from other optic nerve disorders but also to recognise special types of optic neuritis, which is mostly only possible during the course of the disease. This article presents a review of the current state in diagnosis and therapy from the authors' personal point of view.

  13. Optical Detectors (United States)

    Tabbert, Bernd; Goushcha, Alexander

    Optical detectors are applied in all fields of human activities from basic research to commercial applications in communication, automotive, medical imaging, homeland security, and other fields. The processes of light interaction with matter described in other chapters of this handbook form the basis for understanding the optical detectors physics and device properties.

  14. Optic neuritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Roed, H; Sellebjerg, F


    To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON).......To study the involvement of the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligands (CXCL9/Mig, CXCL10/IP-10, CXCL11/ITAC) in optic neuritis (ON)....

  15. Optical biosensors (United States)

    Damborský, Pavel; Švitel, Juraj


    Optical biosensors represent the most common type of biosensor. Here we provide a brief classification, a description of underlying principles of operation and their bioanalytical applications. The main focus is placed on the most widely used optical biosensors which are surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors including SPR imaging and localized SPR. In addition, other optical biosensor systems are described, such as evanescent wave fluorescence and bioluminescent optical fibre biosensors, as well as interferometric, ellipsometric and reflectometric interference spectroscopy and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensors. The optical biosensors discussed here allow the sensitive and selective detection of a wide range of analytes including viruses, toxins, drugs, antibodies, tumour biomarkers and tumour cells. PMID:27365039

  16. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K


    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  17. Multispectral Imager With Improved Filter Wheel and Optics (United States)

    Bremer, James C.


    Figure 1 schematically depicts an improved multispectral imaging system of the type that utilizes a filter wheel that contains multiple discrete narrow-band-pass filters and that is rotated at a constant high speed to acquire images in rapid succession in the corresponding spectral bands. The improvement, relative to prior systems of this type, consists of the measures taken to prevent the exposure of a focal-plane array (FPA) of photodetectors to light in more than one spectral band at any given time and to prevent exposure of the array to any light during readout. In prior systems, these measures have included, variously the use of mechanical shutters or the incorporation of wide opaque sectors (equivalent to mechanical shutters) into filter wheels. These measures introduce substantial dead times into each operating cycle intervals during which image information cannot be collected and thus incoming light is wasted. In contrast, the present improved design does not involve shutters or wide opaque sectors, and it reduces dead times substantially. The improved multispectral imaging system is preceded by an afocal telescope and includes a filter wheel positioned so that its rotation brings each filter, in its turn, into the exit pupil of the telescope. The filter wheel contains an even number of narrow-band-pass filters separated by narrow, spoke-like opaque sectors. The geometric width of each filter exceeds the cross-sectional width of the light beam coming out of the telescope. The light transmitted by the sequence of narrow-band filters is incident on a dichroic beam splitter that reflects in a broad shorter-wavelength spectral band that contains half of the narrow bands and transmits in a broad longer-wavelength spectral band that contains the other half of the narrow spectral bands. The filters are arranged on the wheel so that if the pass band of a given filter is in the reflection band of the dichroic beam splitter, then the pass band of the adjacent filter

  18. Nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Bloembergen, Nicolaas


    Nicolaas Bloembergen, recipient of the Nobel Prize for Physics (1981), wrote Nonlinear Optics in 1964, when the field of nonlinear optics was only three years old. The available literature has since grown by at least three orders of magnitude.The vitality of Nonlinear Optics is evident from the still-growing number of scientists and engineers engaged in the study of new nonlinear phenomena and in the development of new nonlinear devices in the field of opto-electronics. This monograph should be helpful in providing a historical introduction and a general background of basic ideas both for expe

  19. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert


    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  20. Optical Spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyrhaug, Erling

    The work presented in this thesis is broadly concerned with how complexation reactions and molecular motion can be characterized with the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy. The thesis aims to show a relatively broad range of methods for probing physico-chemical properties in fluorophore...... containing systems and are characterized using techniques in optical spectroscopy. Of the standard techniques in optical spectroscopy, particular attention has been paid to those based on time-resolved measurements and polarization, which is reflected in the experiment design in the projects. Not all...... reactions by optical spectroscopy. In project 1 simple steady-state absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy is used to determine the stoichiometries and equilibrium constants in the inclusion complex formation between cyclodextrins and derivatives of the water-insoluble oligo(phenylene vinylene) in aqueous...

  1. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  2. Quantum optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund


    Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves.......Further sensitivity improvements are required before advanced optical interferometers will be able to measure gravitational waves. A team has now shown that introducing quantum squeezing of light may help to detect these elusive waves....

  3. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.


    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  4. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-Ray Balloon-Borne Telescope (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Apple, Jeff; StevensonChavis, Katherine; Dietz, Kurt; Holt, Marlon; Koehler, Heather; Lis, Tomasz; O'Connor, Brian; RodriquezOtero, Miguel; Pryor, Jonathan; Ramsey, Brian; Rinehart-Dawson, Maegan; Smith, Leigh; Sobey, Alexander; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Christe, Steven; Cramer, Alexander; Edgerton, Melissa; Rodriquez, Marcello; Shih, Albert; Gregory, Don; Jasper, John; Bohon, Steven


    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist

  5. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun: Hard X-ray balloon-borne telescope (United States)

    Gaskin, J.; Apple, J.; Chavis, K. S.; Dietz, K.; Holt, M.; Koehler, H.; Lis, T.; O'Connor, B.; Otero, M. R.; Pryor, J.; Ramsey, B.; Rinehart-Dawson, M.; Smith, L.; Sobey, A.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Christe, S.; Cramer, A.; Edgerton, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Shih, A.; Gregory, D.; Jasper, J.; Bohon, S.

    Set to fly in the Fall of 2013 from Ft. Sumner, NM, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) mission is a collaborative effort between the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Goddard Space Flight Center to upgrade an existing payload, the High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope, to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES science payload consists of 8 mirror modules, housing a total of 109 grazing-incidence optics. These modules are mounted on a carbon-fiber - and Aluminum optical bench 6 m from a matching array of high pressure xenon gas scintillation proportional counters, which serve as the focal-plane detectors. The HERO gondola utilizes a differential GPS system (backed by a magnetometer) for coarse pointing in the azimuth and a shaft angle encoder plus inclinometer provides the coarse elevation. The HEROES payload will incorporate a new solar aspect system to supplement the existing star camera, for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter will be added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations. HEROES will also implement two novel alignment monitoring system that will measure the alignment between the optical bench and the star camera and between the optics and detectors for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. The overall payload will also be discussed. This mission is funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  6. Optic nerve atrophy (United States)

    Optic atrophy; Optic neuropathy ... There are many causes of optic atrophy. The most common is poor blood flow. This is called ischemic optic neuropathy. The problem most often affects older adults. The optic ...

  7. KMTNet: a network of 1.6-m wide field optical telescopes installed at three southern observatories (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Uk; Kim, Seung-Lee; Cha, Sang-Mok; Lee, Yongseok; Kim, Dong-Jin; Park, Byeong-Gon; Lee, Dong-Joo; Koo, Jae-Rim; Hong, Kyeongsoo; Lee, Jae Woo; Ryu, Yoon-Hyun; Lim, Beomdu; Lim, Jin-Sun; Gho, Seung-Won; Kim, Min-Jun


    Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) have installed three identical 1.6-m telescopes, called Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet), which cover 2 x 2 degree field of view with the plate scale of 0.4 arcsec/pixel at three observatories - CTIO, SSO and SAAO in southern hemisphere. The uniqueness of the system is the uninterupted 24-hour monitoring with a wide field optics in southern hemisphere. The telescope adopts prime focus using a parabolic mirror and four spherical flattening lenses. The structural design and driving systems are modified from the degin of 2MASS telescope. The one piece filter-shutter assembly has a sliding shutter and four 310-mm square filters. Each observation system produces a 680MB size image file at site and the images are transfered to KASI data center using the Global Ring Network for Advanced Application Development (GLORIAD) network with the band width of 50Mbps in average. The main science goal of the KMTNet is to discover Earth like extra solar planet using the microlensing technique during bulge season, and 50% of the total observation time is allocated for the science program solely. The other telescope times are allocated for pre-selected seven science programs during non-bulge season. From the test observation, we verify that the most important two requirements are satisfied: 10 arcsec in RMS for the pointing accuracy and 1 arcsec of delivered image quality in I-band. In this presentation, we introduce finally installed system at each observatory and its observational performance obtained from the test observation.

  8. Optical memory (United States)

    Mao, Samuel S; Zhang, Yanfeng


    Optical memory comprising: a semiconductor wire, a first electrode, a second electrode, a light source, a means for producing a first voltage at the first electrode, a means for producing a second voltage at the second electrode, and a means for determining the presence of an electrical voltage across the first electrode and the second electrode exceeding a predefined voltage. The first voltage, preferably less than 0 volts, different from said second voltage. The semiconductor wire is optically transparent and has a bandgap less than the energy produced by the light source. The light source is optically connected to the semiconductor wire. The first electrode and the second electrode are electrically insulated from each other and said semiconductor wire.

  9. Semiconductor Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Klingshirn, Claus F


    This updated and enlarged new edition of Semiconductor Optics provides an introduction to and an overview of semiconductor optics from the IR through the visible to the UV, including linear and nonlinear optical properties, dynamics, magneto and electrooptics, high-excitation effects and laser processes, some applications, experimental techniques and group theory. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered extend from physics to materials science and optoelectronics. Significantly updated chapters add coverage of current topics such as electron hole plasma, Bose condensation of excitons and meta materials. Over 120 problems, chapter introductions and a detailed index make it the key textbook for graduate students in physics. The mathematics is kept as elementary as possible, sufficient for an intuitive understanding of the experimental results and techniques treated. The subjects covered ...

  10. CODEX optics (United States)

    Delabre, Bernard; Manescau, Antonio


    CODEX is a high resolution spectrograph for the ESO E-ELT. A classical spectrograph can only achieve a resolution of about 120.000 on a 42 m telescope with extremely large echelle gratings and cameras. This paper describes in detail the optical concept of CODEX, which uses only optical elements size similar to those in current high resolution spectrographs. This design is based on slicers, anamorphic beams and slanted VPHG as cross dispersers. In this new version of the CODEX design, no special expensive materials as calcium fluoride or abnormal dispersion glasses are needed. The optical quality is excellent and compatible with 10K x 10K detectors with 10 μm pixels.

  11. Statistical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, Joseph W


    This book discusses statistical methods that are useful for treating problems in modern optics, and the application of these methods to solving a variety of such problems This book covers a variety of statistical problems in optics, including both theory and applications.  The text covers the necessary background in statistics, statistical properties of light waves of various types, the theory of partial coherence and its applications, imaging with partially coherent light, atmospheric degradations of images, and noise limitations in the detection of light. New topics have been introduced i

  12. Reflective optics

    CERN Document Server

    Korsch, Dietrich


    This is the first book dedicated exclusively to all-reflective imaging systems. It is a teaching tool as well as a practical design tool for anyone who specializes in optics, particularly for those interested in telescopes, infrared, and grazing-incidence systems. The first part of the book describes a unified geometric optical theory of all-reflective imaging systems (from near-normal to grazing incidence) developed from basic principles. The second part discusses correction methods and a multitude of closed-form solutions of well-corrected systems, supplemented with many conventional and unc

  13. Noiseless imaging detector for adaptive optics with kHz frame rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V; Mikulec, Bettina; Tremsin, A; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O H W; CERN. Geneva


    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused MCP read out by four multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN (â€ワMedipix2”) with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 512 x 512 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds. When used in a Shack-Hartman style wavefront sensor, it should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest. A three year development effort for this detector technology has just been funded as part of the...

  14. High-throughput Biological Cell Classification Featuring Real-time Optical Data Compression

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, Bahram; Chen, Claire L


    High throughput real-time instruments are needed to acquire large data sets for detection and classification of rare events. Enabled by the photonic time stretch digitizer, a new class of instruments with record throughputs have led to the discovery of optical rogue waves [1], detection of rare cancer cells [2], and the highest analog-to-digital conversion performance ever achieved [3]. Featuring continuous operation at 100 million frames per second and shutter speed of less than a nanosecond, the time stretch camera is ideally suited for screening of blood and other biological samples. It has enabled detection of breast cancer cells in blood with record, one-in-a-million, sensitivity [2]. Owing to their high real-time throughput, instruments produce a torrent of data - equivalent to several 4K movies per second - that overwhelm data acquisition, storage, and processing operations. This predicament calls for technologies that compress images in optical domain and in real-time. An example of this, based on war...

  15. Music-Elicited Emotion Identification Using Optical Flow Analysis of Human Face (United States)

    Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.


    Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.

  16. Optical profilometer (United States)

    Wieloszyńska, Aleksandra; StrÄ kowski, Marcin


    The profilometry plays a huge role in the most fields of science and technology. It allows to measure the profile of the surface with high-resolution. This technique is used in the fields like optic, electronic, medicine, automotive, and much more. The aim of the current work was to design and build optical profilometer based on the interference phenomena. The developed device has been working with He-Ne laser (632.8 nm). The optical parts have been chosen in order to reach the sized 2.0 mm x 1.6 mm of scanning area. The setup of the profilometer is based on Twyman-Green interferometer. Therefore, the phase distribution of the backreflected light from measured surface is recorded. The measurements are carried out with the aid of multiframe algorithms. In this approach we have used the Hariharan algorithm to obtain the exact value of the recorded phase. During tests, which have been carried out in order to check the functionality of the device, the interference patterns have been recoded and processed in order to obtain the 3D profile of measured surface. In this contribution the setup of the optical system, as well as signal processing methods are going to be presented. The brief discussion about the advantages and disadvantages, and usefulness of this approach will be carried out.

  17. Diophantine Optics (United States)

    Rouan, D.


    What I call Diophantine optics is the exploitation in optics of some remarkable algebraic relations between powers of integers. The name comes from Diophantus of Alexandria, a greek mathematician, known as the father of algebra. He studied polynomial equations with integer coefficients and integer solutions, called diophantine equations. Since constructive or destructive interferences are playing with optical path differences which are multiple integer (odd or even) of λ/2 and that the complex amplitude is a highly non-linear function of the optical path difference (or equivalently of the phase), one can understand that any Taylor development of this amplitude implies powers of integers. This is the link with Diophantine equations. We show how, especially in the field of interferometry, remarkable relations between powers of integers can help to solve several problems, such as achromatization of a phase shifter or deep nulling efficiency. It appears that all the research that was conducted in this frame of thinking, relates to the field of detection of exoplanets, a very active domain of astrophysics today.

  18. Optical Processing. (United States)


    34perceptron" (F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics ), workers in the neural network field have been seeking to understand how neural networks can perform...Moscow). 13. F. Rosenblatt, Principles of Neurodynamics , (Spartan, 1962). 14. W. Stoner "Incoherent optical processing via spatially offset pupil

  19. Optical correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boden, J.A.


    A survey is given of the most common types of coherent optical correlators, which are classified as spatial plane correlators, frequency plane correlators and special reference correlators. Only the spatial plane correlators are dealt with rather thoroughly. Basic principles, some special features,

  20. Optical metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Gåsvik, Kjell J


    New material on computerized optical processes, computerized ray tracing, and the fast Fourier transform, Bibre-Bragg sensors, and temporal phase unwrapping.* New introductory sections to all chapters.* Detailed discussion on lasers and laser principles, including an introduction to radiometry and photometry.* Thorough coverage of the CCD camera.

  1. Pulsed Optics (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  2. Optical design of MEMS-based infrared multi-object spectrograph concept for the Gemini South Telescope (United States)

    Chen, Shaojie; Sivanandam, Suresh; Moon, Dae-Sik


    We discuss the optical design of an infrared multi-object spectrograph (MOS) concept that is designed to take advantage of the multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) corrected field at the Gemini South telescope. This design employs a unique, cryogenic MEMS-based focal plane mask to select target objects for spectroscopy by utilizing the Micro-Shutter Array (MSA) technology originally developed for the Near Infrared Spectrometer (NIRSpec) of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The optical design is based on all spherical refractive optics, which serves both imaging and spectroscopic modes across the wavelength range of 0.9-2.5 μm. The optical system consists of a reimaging system, MSA, collimator, volume phase holographic (VPH) grisms, and spectrograph camera optics. The VPH grisms, which are VPH gratings sandwiched between two prisms, provide high dispersing efficiencies, and a set of several VPH grisms provide the broad spectral coverage at high throughputs. The imaging mode is implemented by removing the MSA and the dispersing unit out of the beam. We optimize both the imaging and spectrographic modes simultaneously, while paying special attention to the performance of the pupil imaging at the cold stop. Our current design provides a 1' ♢ 1' and a 0.5' ♢ 1' field of views for imaging and spectroscopic modes, respectively, on a 2048 × 2048 pixel HAWAII-2RG detector array. The spectrograph's slit width and spectral resolving power are 0.18'' and 3,000, respectively, and spectra of up to 100 objects can be obtained simultaneously. We present the overall results of simulated performance using optical model we designed.

  3. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard


    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  4. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Changhe Zhou; Xin Zhao; Liren Liu


    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1′8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  5. Diffractive Optical Elements for Dynamic Optical Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Diffractive optical elements such as the complementary Dammann gratings are incorporated for dynamic optical fiber splitting and combining. Experimental results of 1×8 dynamic optical couplings are presented.

  6. Applied optics and optical engineering v.9

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Robert


    Applied Optics and Optical Engineering, Volume IX covers the theories and applications of optics and optical engineering. The book discusses the basic algorithms for optical engineering; diffraction gratings, ruled and holographic; and recording and reading of information on optical disks. The text also describes the perfect point spread function; the multiple aperture telescope diffraction images; and the displays and simulators. Ophthalmic optics, as well as the canonical and real-space coordinates used in the theory of image formation are also encompassed. Optical engineers and students tak

  7. Soft optics in intelligent optical networks (United States)

    Shue, Chikong; Cao, Yang


    In addition to the recent advances in Hard-optics that pushes the optical transmission speed, distance, wave density and optical switching capacity, Soft-optics provides the necessary intelligence and control software that reduces operational costs, increase efficiency, and enhances revenue generating services by automating optimal optical circuit placement and restoration, and enabling value-added new services like Optical VPN. This paper describes the advances in 1) Overall Hard-optics and Soft-optics 2) Layered hierarchy of Soft-optics 3) Component of Soft-optics, including hard-optics drivers, Management Soft-optics, Routing Soft-optics and System Soft-optics 4) Key component of Routing and System Soft-optics, namely optical routing and signaling (including UNI/NNI and GMPLS signaling). In summary, the soft-optics on a new generation of OXC's enables Intelligent Optical Networks to provide just-in-time service delivery and fast restoration, and real-time capacity management that eliminates stranded bandwidth. It reduces operational costs and provides new revenue opportunities.

  8. Optical aeronomy (United States)

    Solomon, Stanley C.


    Optical measurements of thermospheric and ionospheric processes and their interpretation are reviewed and the chemical reactions and their effects on emissions are discussed. Also included are the phenomena which excite the airglow and aurora, i.e., the solar UV/EUV flux and auroral particle precipitation. Consideration is given to solar flux, atomic emissions, molecular emissions, hydrogen geocorona, and molecular oxygen and the green line nightglow.

  9. Applied Optics


    Han, M; Wang, Anbo


    A straightforward theory is presented to accurately model the light inferences in a low-finesse multimode fiber extrinsic Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometer. The effect on the fringe visibility of the gap length, sensor structure imperfections, and modal power distributions is explored. The analysis is particularly useful in the design and optimization of sensors that use an extrinsic FP cavity as the sensing element. (C) 2004 Optical Society of America.

  10. Power optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apollonov, V V [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it

  11. Power optics (United States)

    Apollonov, V. V.


    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  12. Parallel optical sampler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Skogen, Erik J; Vawter, Gregory A


    An optical sampler includes a first and second 1.times.n optical beam splitters splitting an input optical sampling signal and an optical analog input signal into n parallel channels, respectively, a plurality of optical delay elements providing n parallel delayed input optical sampling signals, n photodiodes converting the n parallel optical analog input signals into n respective electrical output signals, and n optical modulators modulating the input optical sampling signal or the optical analog input signal by the respective electrical output signals, and providing n successive optical samples of the optical analog input signal. A plurality of output photodiodes and eADCs convert the n successive optical samples to n successive digital samples. The optical modulator may be a photodiode interconnected Mach-Zehnder Modulator. A method of sampling the optical analog input signal is disclosed.

  13. Application of Shutter-type Lumbar Laminoplasty with the Spinal Ligament Complex for the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis%卷帘式腰椎管成形术治疗老年退变性腰椎管狭窄症

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺建新; 林雪英


    目的 探讨与总结采用卷帘式椎管成形术治疗老年退变性腰椎管狭窄症的疗效及优越性.方法 自2004年5月至2009年12月,对22 例老年退变性腰椎管狭窄症患者采用保留椎板棘突韧带复合结构椎管减压的卷帘式腰椎管成形术治疗.结果 本组病人均获随访,时间3个月~5年,无症状复发,无腰椎不稳,取得良好的临床疗效.14 例患者在术后2~3个月CT扫描可看到满意的骨痂生长,未见回植椎板移入椎管或有移入倾向,未见截骨前缘过度增生对硬膜产生新的压迫等.结论 卷帘式腰椎管成形术安全、可靠、疗效好,具有避免椎管内黏连与瘢痕压迫,恢复局部解剖和维持脊柱稳定的特点.既可对腰椎管狭窄进行减压,又可减少对腰椎稳定性的损害.%Objective To investigate security,reliability and advantage of shutter-type lumbar laminoplasty with the spinal ligament complex for the treatment of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis (DLSS). Methods From May 2004-December 2009 in 22 elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis treated with shutter-style treat ment of lumbar laminoplasty. Results All patients were followed up for 3 months or more (3 months to 5 years) ,and got a good clinical effect. Satisfactory callus growth can be seen in most cases (14 cases) from 2 to 3 months postoperatively by CT scans. No nonunion,displacement of reimplanted lamina,overgrowth of anterior bone edge of osteotomy,no recompression of the nerves and instability of lumbar spine occurred in this group. Conclusion Application of the shutter-type lumbar laminoplasty with the Spinal Ligament Complex for the Treatment of Degenerative Lumbar Spinal Stenosis has advantages of avoiding adhesion and scar formation of the lumbar canal,restoring the anatomy and keeping stability of the spine. It can carry out the decompression of lumbar spinal stenosis,but also keep the stability of the lumbar spine.

  14. Hamilton optics: transformational theory of optics (United States)

    Winston, Roland; Ge, Wenjun


    In 1824 William Rowan Hamilton presented a memoir to the Royal Irish Academy on Optics(Trans. R. Irish. Acacamy, XV, 1828), which was the foundation for transformational optics, classical mechanics, nonimaging optics and thermodynamical foundation of nonimaging optics,etc. It is useful for us even in 2013 to revisit the Hamilton resolution.

  15. 3D液晶显示模组不均匀分区背光扫描及其设计方法%Shutter glass type of 3D liquid crystal display module non-uniform partition scanning backlight and its design method based on

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    With the rapid development of liquid crystal display technology, 3D display gradually sought after the market and consumers. In the 3D LCD TV, there is a kind of shutter type 3D display technology. This technique also shot the same object's left and right eyes two pictures by two cameras at certain intervals, and synthetic treatment, on the display screen through time-sharing display out, then match the shutter glasses with the same time frequency, the same object images to the left and the right eyes respectively to watch camera captured. As the two pictures there is disparity is different, the human eye can feel the stereo image, realize 3D display effect. In order to achieve better 3D display effect, generally control the scanning backlight system through mode of backlight.%随着液晶显示技术的快速发展,3D液晶显示逐渐受到市场和消费者的追捧。在3D液晶电视中,有一类快门式3D显示技术。这种技术通过一定间隔的两台摄像机同时拍摄同一个物体的左右眼两幅画面,然后合成处理后,在显示屏上通过分时显示的方式显示出来,然后搭配与分时频率相同的快门式眼镜,使人的左右眼分别观看到摄像机拍摄到的同一物体画面。由于两幅画面存在视差的不同,人眼即可感受到了立体的影像,实现3D效果显示。为了实现更好的3D显示效果,一般通过扫描背光的方式来对背光系统进行控制。

  16. Cloud optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kokhanovsky, A


    Clouds affect the climate of the Earth, and they are an important factor in the weather. Therefore, their radiative properties must be understood in great detail. This book summarizes current knowledge on cloud optical properties, for example their ability to absorb, transmit, and reflect light, which depends on the clouds' geometrical and microphysical characteristics such as sizes of droplets and crystals, their shapes, and structures. In addition, problems related to the image transfer through clouds and cloud remote sensing are addressed in this book in great detail. This book can be an im

  17. Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Garrison, J C


    Quantum optics, i.e. the interaction of individual photons with matter, began with the discoveries of Planck and Einstein, but in recent years it has expanded beyond pure physics to become an important driving force for technological innovation. This book serves the broader readership growing out of this development by starting with an elementary description of the underlying physics and then building up a more advanced treatment. The reader is led from the quantum theory of thesimple harmonic oscillator to the application of entangled states to quantum information processing. An equally impor

  18. Optical devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Julio C.; Falicoff, Waqidi; Minano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.


    An optical manifold for efficiently combining a plurality of blue LED outputs to illuminate a phosphor for a single, substantially homogeneous output, in a small, cost-effective package. Embodiments are disclosed that use a single or multiple LEDs and a remote phosphor, and an intermediate wavelength-selective filter arranged so that backscattered photoluminescence is recycled to boost the luminance and flux of the output aperture. A further aperture mask is used to boost phosphor luminance with only modest loss of luminosity. Alternative non-recycling embodiments provide blue and yellow light in collimated beams, either separately or combined into white.

  19. EDITORIAL: Optical orientation Optical orientation (United States)

    SAME ADDRESS *, Yuri; Landwehr, Gottfried


    priority of the discovery in the literature, which was partly caused by the existence of the Iron Curtain. I had already enjoyed contact with Boris in the 1980s when the two volumes of Landau Level Spectroscopy were being prepared [2]. He was one of the pioneers of magneto-optics in semiconductors. In the 1950s the band structure of germanium and silicon was investigated by magneto-optical methods, mainly in the United States. No excitonic effects were observed and the band structure parameters were determined without taking account of excitons. However, working with cuprous oxide, which is a direct semiconductor with a relative large energy gap, Zakharchenya and his co-worker Seysan showed that in order to obtain correct band structure parameters, it is necessary to take excitons into account [3]. About 1970 Boris started work on optical orientation. Early work by Hanle in Germany in the 1920s on the depolarization of luminescence in mercury vapour by a transverse magnetic field was not appreciated for a long time. Only in the late 1940s did Kastler and co-workers in Paris begin a systematic study of optical pumping, which led to the award of a Nobel prize. The ideas of optical pumping were first applied by Georges Lampel to solid state physics in 1968. He demonstrated optical orientation of free carriers in silicon. The detection method was nuclear magnetic resonance; optically oriented free electrons dynamically polarized the 29Si nuclei of the host lattice. The first optical detection of spin orientation was demonstrated by with the III-V semiconductor GaSb by Parsons. Due to the various interaction mechanisms of spins with their environment, the effects occurring in semiconductors are naturally more complex than those in atoms. Optical detection is now the preferred method to detect spin alignment in semiconductors. The orientation of spins in crystals pumped with circularly polarized light is deduced from the degree of circular polarization of the recombination

  20. Optical Backplane Interconnection (United States)

    Hendricks, Herbert D.


    Optical backplane interconnection (OBIT), method of optically interconnecting many parallel outputs from data processor to many parallel inputs of other data processors by optically changing wavelength of output optical beam. Requires only one command: exact wavelength necessary to make connection between two desired processors. Many features, including smallness advantageous to incorporate OBIT into integrated optical device. Simplifies or eliminates wiring and speeds transfer of data over existing electrical or optical interconnections. Computer hookups and fiber-optical communication networks benefit from concept.

  1. Optical Instruments (United States)


    Precision Lapping and Optical Co. has developed a wide variety of hollow retroreflector systems for applications involving the entire optical spectrum; they are, according to company literature, cheaper, more accurate, lighter and capable of greater size than solid prisms. Precision Lapping's major customers are aerospace and defense companies, government organizations, R&D and commercial instrument companies. For example, Precision Lapping supplies hollow retroreflectors for the laser fire control system of the Army's Abrams tank, and retroreflectors have been and are being used in a number of space tests relative to the Air Force's Strategic Defense Initiative research program. An example of a customer/user is Chesapeake Laser Systems, producer of the Laser Tracker System CMS-2000, which has applications in SDI research and industrial robotics. Another customer is MDA Scientific, Inc., manufacturer of a line of toxic gas detection systems used to monitor hazardous gases present in oil fields, refineries, offshore platforms, chemical plants, waste storage sites and other locations where gases are released into the environment.

  2. Advances in nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xianfeng; Zeng, Heping; Guo, Qi; She, Weilong


    This book presents an overview of the state of the art of nonlinear optics from weak light nonlinear optics, ultrafast nonlinear optics to electro-optical theory and applications. Topics range from the fundamental studies of the interaction between matter and radiation to the development of devices, components, and systems of tremendous commercial interest for widespread applications in optical telecommunications, medicine, and biotechnology.

  3. Congenital optic tract hypoplasia. (United States)

    Hatsukawa, Yoshikazu; Fujio, Takahiro; Nishikawa, Masanori; Taylor, David


    We report a case of isolated unilateral optic tract hypoplasia, described only twice previously. Bilateral optic disk hypoplasia was seen ophthalmoscopically and visual field studies showed an incongruous right homonymous hemianopia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bilateral hypoplasia of both optic nerves and the left optic tract. Spectral domain optical coherence tomography mapping correlated well with the visual field studies.

  4. Optical manifold (United States)

    Falicoff, Waqidi; Chaves, Julio C.; Minano, Juan Carlos; Benitez, Pablo; Dross, Oliver; Parkyn, Jr., William A.


    Optical systems are described that have at least one source of a beam of blue light with divergence under A phosphor emits yellow light when excited by the blue light. A collimator is disposed with the phosphor and forms a yellow beam with divergence under A dichroic filter is positioned to transmit the beam of blue light to the phosphor and to reflect the beam of yellow light to an exit aperture. In different embodiments, the beams of blue and yellow light are incident upon said filter with central angles of,, and The filter may reflect all of one polarization and part of the other polarization, and a polarization rotating retroreflector may then be provided to return the unreflected light to the filter.

  5. Novel 2D-sequential color code system employing Image Sensor Communications for Optical Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Nguyen


    Full Text Available The IEEE 802.15.7r1 Optical Wireless Communications Task Group (TG7r1, also known as the revision of the IEEE 802.15.7 Visible Light Communication standard targeting the commercial usage of visible light communication systems, is of interest in this paper. The paper is mainly concerned with Image Sensor Communications (ISC of TG7r1; however, the major challenge facing ISC, as addressed in the Technical Consideration Document (TCD of TG7r1, is Image Sensor Compatibility among the variety of different commercial cameras on the market. One of the most challenging but interesting compatibility requirements is the need to support the verified presence of frame rate variation. This paper proposes a novel design for 2D-sequential color code. Compared to a QR-code-based sequential transmission, the proposed design of 2D-sequential code can overcome the above challenge that it is compatible with different frame rate variations and different shutter operations, and has the ability to mitigate the rolling effect as well as the rotating effect while effectively minimizing transmission overhead. Practical implementations are demonstrated and a performance comparison is presented.

  6. Tele-transmission of stereoscopic images of the optic nerve head in glaucoma via Internet. (United States)

    Bergua, Antonio; Mardin, Christian Y; Horn, Folkert K


    The objective was to describe an inexpensive system to visualize stereoscopic photographs of the optic nerve head on computer displays and to transmit such images via the Internet for collaborative research or remote clinical diagnosis in glaucoma. Stereoscopic images of glaucoma patients were digitized and stored in a file format (joint photographic stereoimage [jps]) containing all three-dimensional information for both eyes on an Internet Web site ( The size of jps files was between 0.4 to 1.4 MB (corresponding to a diagonal stereo image size between 900 and 1400 pixels) suitable for Internet protocols. A conventional personal computer system equipped with wireless stereoscopic LCD shutter glasses and a CRT-monitor with high refresh rate (120 Hz) can be used to obtain flicker-free stereo visualization of true-color images with high resolution. Modern thin-film transistor-LCD displays in combination with inexpensive red-cyan goggles achieve stereoscopic visualization with the same resolution but reduced color quality and contrast. The primary aim of our study was met to transmit stereoscopic images via the Internet. Additionally, we found that with both stereoscopic visualization techniques, cup depth, neuroretinal rim shape, and slope of the inner wall of the optic nerve head, can be qualitatively better perceived and interpreted than with monoscopic images. This study demonstrates high-quality and low-cost Internet transmission of stereoscopic images of the optic nerve head from glaucoma patients. The technique allows exchange of stereoscopic images and can be applied to tele-diagnostic and glaucoma research.

  7. Fiber optics engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Azadeh, Mohammad


    Covering fiber optics from an engineering perspective, this text emphasizes data conversion between electrical and optical domains. Techniques to improve the fidelity of this conversion (from electrical to optical domain, and vice versa) are also covered.

  8. Coding for optical channels

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Ivan; Vasic, Bane


    This unique book provides a coherent and comprehensive introduction to the fundamentals of optical communications, signal processing and coding for optical channels. It is the first to integrate the fundamentals of coding theory and optical communication.

  9. Quantum optics for experimentalists

    CERN Document Server

    Ou, Zhe-Yu Jeff


    This book on quantum optics is from the point of view of an experimentalist. It approaches the theory of quantum optics with the language of optical modes of classical wave theory, with which experimentalists are most familiar.

  10. Applied optics and optical design, part two

    CERN Document Server

    Conrady, A E


    Classic detailed treatment for practical designer. Fundamental concepts, systematic study and design of all types of optical systems. Reader can then design simpler optical systems without aid. Part Two of Two.

  11. Tunable laser optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    This Second Edition of a bestselling book describes the optics and optical principles needed to build lasers. It also highlights the optics instrumentation necessary to characterize laser emissions and focuses on laser-based optical instrumentation. The book emphasizes practical and utilitarian aspects of relevant optics including the essential theory. This revised, expanded, and improved edition contains new material on tunable lasers and discusses relevant topics in quantum optics.

  12. Intelligent Optics Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Intelligent Optics Laboratory supports sophisticated investigations on adaptive and nonlinear optics; advancedimaging and image processing; ground-to-ground and...

  13. Fibre-optic communications

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoy, Pierre


    This book describes in a comprehensive manner the components and systems of fiber optic communications and networks. The first section explains the theory of multimode and single-mode fibers, then the technological features, including manufacturing, cabling, and connecting. The second section describes the various components (passive and active optical components, integrated optics, opto-electronic transmitters and receivers, and optical amplifiers) used in fiber optic systems. Finally, the optical transmission system design is explained, and applications to optical networks and fiber optic se

  14. Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optical Remote Sensing Laboratory deploys rugged, cutting-edge electro-optical instrumentation for the collection of various event signatures, with expertise in...

  15. Investigation of Optical Fibers for Nonlinear Optics. (United States)


    Northwestern University, 1970. Experience Dr. Harrington has 13 years of research experi- ence in the area of optical properties of solids . Since joining...dynamics, and optical properties of solids . 34 34I ANTONIO C. PASTOR, Member of the Technical Staff, Optical Physics Department, Hughes Research

  16. Illusion optics (United States)

    Lai, Yun; Ng, Jack; Chen, Huan-Yang; Zhang, Zhao-Qing; Chan, C. T.


    The technique of “transformation optics” establishes a correspondence between coordinate transformation and material constitutive parameters. Most of the transformation optics mappings give metamaterials that have graded positive refractive indices that can steer light in curves defined by the coordinate transformation. We will focus on those “folded-geometry mappings” that give negative refractive index materials that have special wave scattering properties. One interesting example is a kind of remote illusion device that can transform the stereoscopic image of an object into the illusion of some other object of our choice. The conceptual device can create the illusion without touching or encircling the object. For any incident wave, the device transforms the scattered waves of the original object into that of the object chosen for illusion outside a virtual boundary. We will illustrate some possible applications of this type of metamaterial remote device, including “cloaking at a distance,” partial cloaking, cloaking from an embedded device, revealing a hidden object inside a container, turning the image of one object into that of another object, and seeing through a wall. The feasibility of building this remote illusion device by metamaterials will also be discussed.

  17. Light Optics for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab


    In Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) radiation generated by a particle in a "pickup" undulator is amplified and transported to a downstream "kicker" undulator where it interacts with the same particle which radiated it. Fermilab plans to carry out both passive (no optical amplifier) and active (optical amplifier) tests of OSC at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) currently in construction*. The performace of the optical system is analyzed with simulations in Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) accounting for the specific temporal and spectral properties of undulator radiation and being augmented to include dispersion of lens material.

  18. Transformation optics and metamaterials (United States)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping


    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  19. Optical image encryption topology. (United States)

    Yong-Liang, Xiao; Xin, Zhou; Qiong-Hua, Wang; Sheng, Yuan; Yao-Yao, Chen


    Optical image encryption topology is proposed based on the principle of random-phase encoding. Various encryption topological units, involving peer-to-peer, ring, star, and tree topologies, can be realized by an optical 6f system. These topological units can be interconnected to constitute an optical image encryption network. The encryption and decryption can be performed in both digital and optical methods.

  20. Introduction to ocean optics (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.; Smith, R. C.; Zaneveld, J. R. V.


    In this introductory survey of optical oceanography, the fundamental inherent and apparent optical properties of natural waters are presented. Relationships between these inherent and apparent optical properties, as related through the radiative transfer equation, are then examined. Following the first three theoretical sections, brief discussions describing the application of ocean optics to geophysics, biological oceanography, and ocean remote sensing are then presented.

  1. Nonlinear Optical Rectennas

    CERN Document Server

    Stolz, A; Markey, L; Francs, G Colas des; Bouhelier, A


    We introduce strongly-coupled optical gap antennas to interface optical radiation with current-carrying electrons at the nanoscale. The transducer relies on the nonlinear optical and electrical properties of an optical antenna operating in the tunneling regime. We discuss the underlying physical mechanisms controlling the conversion and demonstrate that a two-wire optical antenna can provide advanced optoelectronic functionalities beyond tailoring the electromagnetic response of a single emitter. Interfacing an electronic command layer with a nanoscale optical device may thus be facilitated by the optical rectennas discussed here.

  2. Optics for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Duree, Galen C


    The easy way to shed light on Optics In general terms, optics is the science of light. More specifically, optics is a branch of physics that describes the behavior and properties of light?including visible, infrared, and ultraviolet?and the interaction of light with matter. Optics For Dummies gives you an approachable introduction to optical science, methods, and applications. You'll get plain-English explanations of the nature of light and optical effects; reflection, refraction, and diffraction; color dispersion; optical devices, industrial, medical, and military applicatio

  3. [Hereditary optic neuropathies]. (United States)

    Milea, D; Verny, C


    Hereditary optic neuropathies are a group of heterogeneous conditions affecting both optic nerves, with an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-related or mitochondrial transmission. The two most common non-syndromic hereditary optic neuropathies (Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy and autosomal dominant optic atrophy) are very different in their clinical presentation and their genetic transmission, leading however to a common, non-specific optic nerve atrophy. Beyond the optic atrophy-related visual loss, which is the clinical hallmark of this group of diseases, other associated neurological signs are increasingly recognized.

  4. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert


    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  5. Optical imaging and spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Brady, David J


    An essential reference for optical sensor system design This is the first text to present an integrated view of the optical and mathematical analysis tools necessary to understand computational optical system design. It presents the foundations of computational optical sensor design with a focus entirely on digital imaging and spectroscopy. It systematically covers: Coded aperture and tomographic imaging Sampling and transformations in optical systems, including wavelets and generalized sampling techniques essential to digital system analysis Geometric, wave, and statis

  6. Design of optical switches by illusion optics (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.


    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  7. High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun Balloon-Borne Telescope: Astrophysical Pointing (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen; Ramsey, Brian; Apple, Jeff; Kurt, Dietz; Tennant, Allyn; Swartz, Douglas; Christe, Steven D.; Shih, Albert


    On September 21, 2013, the High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun, or HEROES, balloon-borne x-ray telescope launched from the Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility's site in Ft. Summer, NM. The flight lasted for approximately 27 hours and the observational targets included the Sun and astrophysical sources GRS 1915+105 and the Crab Nebula. Over the past year, the HEROES team upgraded the existing High Energy Replicated Optics (HERO) balloon-borne telescope to make unique scientific measurements of the Sun and astrophysical targets during the same flight. The HEROES Project is a multi-NASA Center effort with team members at both Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), and is led by Co-PIs (one at each Center). The HEROES payload consists of the hard X-ray telescope HERO, developed at MSFC, combined with several new systems. To allow the HEROES telescope to make observations of the Sun, a new solar aspect system was added to supplement the existing star camera for fine pointing during both the day and night. A mechanical shutter was added to the star camera to protect it during solar observations and two alignment monitoring systems were added for improved pointing and post-flight data reconstruction. This mission was funded by the NASA HOPE (Hands-On Project Experience) Training Opportunity awarded by the NASA Academy of Program/Project and Engineering Leadership, in partnership with NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Office of the Chief Engineer and Office of the Chief Technologist.

  8. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P


    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  9. Introduction to nonimaging optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chaves, Julio


    Introduction to Nonimaging Optics covers the theoretical foundations and design methods of nonimaging optics, as well as key concepts from related fields. This fully updated, revised, and expanded Second Edition: Features a new and intuitive introduction with a basic description of the advantages of nonimaging opticsAdds new chapters on wavefronts for a prescribed output (irradiance or intensity), infinitesimal étendue optics (generalization of the aplanatic optics), and Köhler optics and color mixingIncorporates new material on the simultaneous multiple surface (SMS) design method in 3-D, int

  10. Organic nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Umegaki, S.


    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  11. Latching micro optical switch (United States)

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A


    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  12. Infrared Cloud Imager Development for Atmospheric Optical Communication Characterization, and Measurements at the JPL Table Mountain Facility (United States)

    Nugent, P. W.; Shaw, J. A.; Piazzolla, S.


    The continuous demand for high data return in deep space and near-Earth satellite missions has led NASA and international institutions to consider alternative technologies for high-data-rate communications. One solution is the establishment of wide-bandwidth Earth-space optical communication links, which require (among other things) a nearly obstruction-free atmospheric path. Considering the atmospheric channel, the most common and most apparent impairments on Earth-space optical communication paths arise from clouds. Therefore, the characterization of the statistical behavior of cloud coverage for optical communication ground station candidate sites is of vital importance. In this article, we describe the development and deployment of a ground-based, long-wavelength infrared cloud imaging system able to monitor and characterize the cloud coverage. This system is based on a commercially available camera with a 62-deg diagonal field of view. A novel internal-shutter-based calibration technique allows radiometric calibration of the camera, which operates without a thermoelectric cooler. This cloud imaging system provides continuous day-night cloud detection with constant sensitivity. The cloud imaging system also includes data-processing algorithms that calculate and remove atmospheric emission to isolate cloud signatures, and enable classification of clouds according to their optical attenuation. Measurements of long-wavelength infrared cloud radiance are used to retrieve the optical attenuation (cloud optical depth due to absorption and scattering) in the wavelength range of interest from visible to near-infrared, where the cloud attenuation is quite constant. This article addresses the specifics of the operation, calibration, and data processing of the imaging system that was deployed at the NASA/JPL Table Mountain Facility (TMF) in California. Data are reported from July 2008 to July 2010. These data describe seasonal variability in cloud cover at the TMF site

  13. Structure, morphology and optical behavior of Ni1-xCoxO thin films prepared by a modified sol-gel method (United States)

    Alshahrie, Ahmed


    Nanocrystalline Ni1-xCoxO thin films (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.4) have been prepared on glass substrates using sol-gel/spin-coating technique. The effect of the concentration of cobalt ions on the structure, morphology and optical behavior of the doped NiO thin films are investigated by the X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and spectrophotometer. All films showed a single phase face centered cubic structure, implying the complete solubility of the Co ions into the NiO cubic crystal up to 40 at.%, for the first time. The texture coefficient revealed that the Co ions tend to force the NiO grains to grow along (200) direction. The Raman spectroscopy showed one longitudinal optical phonon mode (LO) at 518 cm-1 and two longitudinal optical phonons mode (2LO) at 1070 cm-1. The decrease of the intensity and the shift of the peak position of the two modes, indicating the scattering contribution of the LO-mode outside the center of Brillouin zone and the creation of oxygen vacancies due to the incorporated Co ions into the NiO cubic crystals. The Ni1-xCoxO thin films have shown high optical transparency around 80%. A decrease of the band gap energy of the NiO films from 3.69 eV to 3.41 eV was observed when the concentration of Co ions increased to 10 at.%, followed by an increase to 3.58 eV as the Co ions concentration increased to 40 at.%. The high optical conductivity and low dissipation factor of the developed Ni1-xCoxO thin films will open a new avenue for future applications in the optoelectronic devices such as reflectance mirror and display light shutter.

  14. Active optical zoom system (United States)

    Wick, David V.


    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  15. Achromatic optical diode in fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Berent, Michal; Vitanov, Nikolay V


    We propose a broadband optical diode, which is composed of one achromatic reciprocal quarter-wave plate and one non-reciprocal quarter-wave plate, both placed between two crossed polarizers. The presented design of achromatic wave plates relies on an adiabatic evolution of the Stokes vector, thus, the scheme is robust and efficient. The possible simple implementation using fiber optics is suggested.

  16. Acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquin, Olivier; Lacot, Eric; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; François, Ramaz


    We present a photon noise and diffraction limited imaging method combining the imaging laser and ultrasonic waves. The laser optical feedback imaging (LOFI) technique is an ultrasensitive imaging method for imaging objects through or embedded within a scattering medium. However, LOFI performances are dramatically limited by parasitic optical feedback occurring in the experimental setup. In this work, we have tagged the ballistic photons by an acousto-optic effect in order to filter the parasitic feedback effect and to reach the theoretical and ultimate sensitivity of the LOFI technique. We present the principle and the experimental setup of the acousto-optic laser optical feedback imaging (AO-LOFI) technique, and we demonstrate the suppression of the parasitic feedback.

  17. Optical Quantum Computing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jeremy L. O'Brien


    In 2001, all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and single-photon detectors...

  18. Fiber Optics Technology. (United States)

    Burns, William E.


    Discusses various applications of fiber optics technology: information systems, industrial robots, medicine, television, transportation, and training. Types of jobs that will be available with fiber optics training (such as electricians and telephone cable installers and splicers) are examined. (CT)

  19. Fiber Optics Instrumentation Development (United States)

    Chan, Patrick Hon Man; Parker, Allen R., Jr.; Richards, W. Lance


    This is a general presentation of fiber optics instrumentation development work being conducted at NASA Dryden for the past 10 years and recent achievements in the field of fiber optics strain sensors.

  20. Optical solenoid beams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Sang-Hyuk; Roichman, Yohai; Grier, David G


    We introduce optical solenoid beams, diffractionless solutions of the Helmholtz equation whose diffraction-limited in-plane intensity peak spirals around the optical axis, and whose wavefronts carry...

  1. Optical antennas and plasmonics


    Park, Q-Han


    Optical antenna is a nanoscale miniaturization of radio or microwave antennas that is also governed by the rule of plasmonics. We introduce various types of optical antenna and make an overview of recent developments in optical antenna research. The role of local and surface plasmons in optical antenna is explained through antenna resonance and resonance conditions for specific metal structures are explicitly obtained. Strong electric field is shown to exist within a highly localized region o...

  2. Fibre-Optic Gyroscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Saxena


    Full Text Available Comparative study of mechanical, ring-laser and fibre-optic gyroscopes has been made. The single mode fibre-optic gyroscope having a large number of turns of the optical fibre in the spool, replacing He-Ne gas laser by a GaAs laser diode, there by reducing the noise level, and using fully integrated fibre-optics, works out to be the best in the final analysis, for safe navigation and homing of the guided missiles.

  3. Giant optical manipulation. (United States)

    Shvedov, Vladlen G; Rode, Andrei V; Izdebskaya, Yana V; Desyatnikov, Anton S; Krolikowski, Wieslaw; Kivshar, Yuri S


    We demonstrate a new principle of optical trapping and manipulation increasing more than 1000 times the manipulation distance by harnessing strong thermal forces while suppressing their stochastic nature with optical vortex beams. Our approach expands optical manipulation of particles into a gas media and provides a full control over trapped particles, including the optical transport and pinpoint positioning of ∼100  μm objects over a meter-scale distance with ±10  μm accuracy.

  4. Photonic crystal optical memory (United States)

    Lima, A. Wirth; Sombra, A. S. B.


    After several decades pushing the technology and the development of the world, the electronics is giving space for technologies that use light. We propose and analyze an optical memory embedded in a nonlinear photonic crystal (PhC), whose system of writing and reading data is controlled by an external command signal. This optical memory is based on optical directional couplers connected to a shared optical ring. Such a device can work over the C-Band of ITU (International Telecommunication Union).

  5. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the fourty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Backscattering and Anderson localization of light- Advances in oliton manipulation in optical lattices- Fundamental quantum noise in optical amplification- Invisibility cloaks

  6. Emerging Correlation Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, Oleg V.; Gbur, Gregory J.; Polyanskii, Peter;


    This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques.......This feature issue of Applied Optics contains a series of selected papers reflecting the state-of-the-art of correlation optics and showing synergetics between the theoretical background and experimental techniques....

  7. Ternary optical computer principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金翊; 何华灿; 吕养天


    The fundamental principle and the characteristics of ternary optical computer, using horizontal polarized light, vertical polarized light and no-intensity to express information, are propounded in thispaper. The practicability to make key parts of the ternary optical computer from modern micro or integrated optical devices, opto-electronic and electro-photonic elements is discussed. The principle can be applied in three-state optical fiber communication via horizontal and vertical polarized light.

  8. Advanced digital optical communications

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen


    This book provides a fundamental understanding of digital communication applications in optical communication technologies. Emphasizing operation principles versus mathematical analysis, the Second Edition includes new coverage of superchannel optical transmission systems, metropolitan and long-haul optical systems and networks, and Nyquist pulse shaping and high spectral efficiency of optical transmission systems, as well as new homework problems and examples. Featuring theoretical foundations as well as practical case studies, the text focuses on enhancements to digital technologies that are

  9. Adaptive optical zoom sensor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweatt, William C.; Bagwell, Brett E.; Wick, David Victor


    In order to optically vary the magnification of an imaging system, continuous mechanical zoom lenses require multiple optical elements and use fine mechanical motion to precisely adjust the separations between individual or groups of lenses. By incorporating active elements into the optical design, we have designed and demonstrated imaging systems that are capable of variable optical magnification with no macroscopic moving parts. Changing the effective focal length and magnification of an imaging system can be accomplished by adeptly positioning two or more active optics in the optical design and appropriately adjusting the optical power of those elements. In this application, the active optics (e.g. liquid crystal spatial light modulators or deformable mirrors) serve as variable focal-length lenses. Unfortunately, the range over which currently available devices can operate (i.e. their dynamic range) is relatively small. Therefore, the key to this concept is to create large changes in the effective focal length of the system with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual elements by leveraging the optical power of conventional optical elements surrounding the active optics. By appropriately designing the optical system, these variable focal-length lenses can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length, and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses.

  10. All-optical repeater. (United States)

    Silberberg, Y


    An all-optical device containing saturable gain, saturable loss, and unsaturable loss is shown to transform weak, distorted optical pulses into uniform standard-shape pulses. The proposed device performs thresholding, amplification, and pulse shaping as required from an optical repeater. It is shown that such a device could be realized by existing semiconductor technology.

  11. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul; Hoekstra, Hugo


    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  12. Integrated Optical Sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambeck, Paul V.; Hoekstra, Hugo


    The optical (tele-) communication is the main driving force for the worldwide R&D on integrated optical devices and microsystems. lO-sensors have to compete with many other sensor types both within the optical domain (fiber sensors) and outside that domain, where sensors based on measurand induced c

  13. Optical Disk Technology. (United States)

    Abbott, George L.; And Others


    This special feature focuses on recent developments in optical disk technology. Nine articles discuss current trends, large scale image processing, data structures for optical disks, the use of computer simulators to create optical disks, videodisk use in training, interactive audio video systems, impacts on federal information policy, and…

  14. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    The Progress in Optics series contains more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments, helping optical scientists and optical engineers stay abreast of their fields. Comprehensive, in-depth reviewsEdited by the leading authority in the field

  15. Integrated Optics Some Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hradaynath


    Full Text Available Status of some key individual integrated optics components, their application in the field of telecommunications, integrated optoelectronic circuits, fibre optics sensors, optical interconnects and logic devices are highlighted in this paper. Possibilities of opto-opto processors in the computers field are also outlined.

  16. Optics and optical instruments an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, B K


    This book illustrates basic practical applications of optical principle. Working models of telescopes, microscopes, photographic lenses, and optical projection systems are diagrammed and explained in full, as are the basic experiments for determining accuracy, power, angular field of view, amount of aberration, and all other necessary facts about the instrument. Throughout the book, only elementary mathematics is used, for the benefit of the student and the beginner in the field of optics.The author, an assistant professor at the Imperial College of Science and Technology in London, shows ho

  17. Optical Flashes Preceding GRBs

    CERN Document Server

    Paczynski, B


    Only one optical flash associated with a gamma-ray burst has been detected so far by ROTSE. There are also upper limits obtained by several groups for several bursts. Recent model calculations indicate a possibility that optical flash may precede the GRB. Such flashes are undetectable in the currently popular observing mode, with optical instruments responding to GRB triggers. There is a need to develop all sky optical monitoring system capable of recognizing flashes in real time, and more powerful instruments that could respond robotically to optical triggers and carry out follow up observations.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang


    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Paraxial Ray Optics Cloaking

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Joseph S


    Despite much interest and progress in optical spatial cloaking, a three-dimensional (3D), transmitting, continuously multidirectional cloak in the visible regime has not yet been demonstrated. Here we experimentally demonstrate such a cloak using ray optics, albeit with some edge effects. Our device requires no new materials, uses isotropic off-the-shelf optics, scales easily to cloak arbitrarily large objects, and is as broadband as the choice of optical material, all of which have been challenges for current cloaking schemes. In addition, we provide a concise formalism that quantifies and produces perfect optical cloaks in the small-angle (`paraxial') limit, and must be satisfied by any good cloaks.

  20. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  1. Optic disc oedema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Kromann; Hamann, Steffen


    Optic disc oedema describes the nonspecific, localized swelling of the optic nerve head regardless of aetiology. Therefore, differentiating among the various aetiologies depends on a thorough history and knowledge of the clinical characteristics of the underlying conditions. Papilloedema strictly...... refers to optic disc oedema as a consequence of elevated intracranial pressure. It is usually a bilateral condition and visual function is preserved until late. Optic disc oedema caused by an anterior optic neuropathy is usually unilateral and accompanied by the loss of visual function....

  2. [Adaptive optics for ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Saleh, M


    Adaptive optics is a technology enhancing the visual performance of an optical system by correcting its optical aberrations. Adaptive optics have already enabled several breakthroughs in the field of visual sciences, such as improvement of visual acuity in normal and diseased eyes beyond physiologic limits, and the correction of presbyopia. Adaptive optics technology also provides high-resolution, in vivo imaging of the retina that may eventually help to detect the onset of retinal conditions at an early stage and provide better assessment of treatment efficacy.

  3. Optics in aircraft engines (United States)

    Vachon, James; Malhotra, Subhash

    The authors describe optical IR&D (independent research and development) programs designed to demonstrate and evaluate optical technologies for incorporation into next-generation military and commercial aircraft engines. Using a comprehensive demonstration program to validate this technology in an on-engine environment, problems encountered can be resolved early and risk can be minimized. In addition to specific activities related to the optics demonstration on the fighter engine, there are other optical programs underway, including a solenoid control system, a light off detection system, and an optical communication link. Research is also underway in simplifying opto-electronics and exploiting multiplexing to further reduce cost and weight.

  4. Magneto-optical metamaterial

    CERN Document Server

    Sadatgol, Mehdi; Forati, Ebrahim; Levy, Miguel; Guney, Durdu O


    We propose a new class of metamaterials called magneto-optical metamaterials that offer enhanced angle of rotation in polarization compared to bulk magneto-optical materials. In the proposed approach, the permittivity tensor of a magneto-optical material is tailored by embedded wire meshes behaving as artificial plasma. We have shown that the angle of rotation in the magneto-optical metamaterial can be enhanced up to 9 times compared to bulk magneto-optical material alone while the polarization extinction ratio remains below -20dB and insertion loss is less than 1.5dB.

  5. Small scale optics

    CERN Document Server

    Yupapin, Preecha


    The behavior of light in small scale optics or nano/micro optical devices has shown promising results, which can be used for basic and applied research, especially in nanoelectronics. Small Scale Optics presents the use of optical nonlinear behaviors for spins, antennae, and whispering gallery modes within micro/nano devices and circuits, which can be used in many applications. This book proposes a new design for a small scale optical device-a microring resonator device. Most chapters are based on the proposed device, which uses a configuration know as a PANDA ring resonator. Analytical and nu

  6. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the thirty-seven years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. At the time of inception of this series, the first lasers were only just becoming operational, holography was in its infancy, subjects such as fiber optics, integrated optics and optoelectronics did not exist and quantum optics was the domain of only a few physicists. The term photonics had not yet been coined. Today these fields are flourishing and have become areas of specialisation for many science and engineering students and n

  7. [Aspheric optics: physical fundamentals]. (United States)

    Mrochen, M; Büeler, M


    Especially regarding intraocular lenses and refractive corneal surgery, one finds numerous concepts on how to improve the optical quality of the human eye through aspheric optics. Aspheric optics consists of optical surfaces in which at least one surface (for example, the corneal surface) deviates from the spherical shape. An aspheric (that is, not spherical) surface enables the correction of aberrations, especially the spherical aberration, by freely shaping the optical surface. The optical aberrations of the human eye can theoretically be minimized through the use of aspheric optics; however, the results are always affected by the optical properties of the cornea and the lens. Aspheric intraocular lenses allow a reduction of postoperative spherical aberrations of the patient's eye, but an optimal individualized conformation can result only when the shape of the cornea (asphericity) is considered. By the same token, the ideal corneal asphericity after refractive surgery for an individual eye cannot be defined without knowing the optical properties of the intraocular structure. Theoretical observations of aspheric optics in refractive surgery show that with aspheric approaches, a higher optical quality for the human eye can be attained. These theoretical advantages must, however, prove themselves in everyday clinical routine.

  8. Optical system design

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Robert F


    Honed for more than 20 years in an SPIE professional course taught by renowned optical systems designer Robert E. Fischer, Optical System Design, Second Edition brings you the latest cutting-edge design techniques and more than 400 detailed diagrams that clearly illustrate every major procedure in optical design. This thoroughly updated resource helps you work better and faster with computer-aided optical design techniques, diffractive optics, and the latest applications, including digital imaging, telecommunications, and machine vision. No need for complex, unnecessary mathematical derivations-instead, you get hundreds of examples that break the techniques down into understandable steps. For twenty-first century optical design without the mystery, the authoritative Optical Systems Design, Second Edition features: Computer-aided design use explained through sample problems Case studies of third-millennium applications in digital imaging, sensors, lasers, machine vision, and more New chapters on optomechanic...

  9. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch


    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  10. Nonlinear optical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lugiato, Luigi; Brambilla, Massimo


    Guiding graduate students and researchers through the complex world of laser physics and nonlinear optics, this book provides an in-depth exploration of the dynamics of lasers and other relevant optical systems, under the umbrella of a unitary spatio-temporal vision. Adopting a balanced approach, the book covers traditional as well as special topics in laser physics, quantum electronics and nonlinear optics, treating them from the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamical systems. These include laser emission, frequency generation, solitons, optically bistable systems, pulsations and chaos and optical pattern formation. It also provides a coherent and up-to-date treatment of the hierarchy of nonlinear optical models and of the rich variety of phenomena they describe, helping readers to understand the limits of validity of each model and the connections among the phenomena. It is ideal for graduate students and researchers in nonlinear optics, quantum electronics, laser physics and photonics.

  11. Optical clock networks (United States)

    Riehle, Fritz


    Within the last decade, optical atomic clocks have surpassed the best cesium clocks, which are used to realize the unit of time and frequency, in terms of accuracy and stability by about two orders of magnitude. When remote optical atomic clocks are connected by links without degradation in the clock signals, an optical clock network is formed, with distinct advantages for the dissemination of time, geodesy, astronomy and basic and applied research. Different approaches for time and frequency transfer in the microwave and optical regime, via satellites and free-space links, optical fibre links, or transportable optical atomic clocks, can be used to form a hybrid clock network that may allow a future redefinition of the unit of time based on an optical reference transition.

  12. Optical Robotics in Mesoscopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper


    of optical forces and optical torques that, in turn, requires optimization of the underlying light-matter interactions. The requirement of having tightly focused beams in optical tweezer systems exemplifies the need for optimal light-shaping in optical trapping. On the other hand, the recently demonstrated......With light’s miniscule momentum, shrinking robotics down to the micro-scale regime creates opportunities for exploiting optical forces and torques in advanced actuation and control at the nano- and micro-scale dimensions. Advancing light-driven nano- or micro-robotics requires the optimization...... optical lift or light foil shows that optical manipulation can be achieved, even by using unshaped light, and instead applying an appropriately shaped structure. Hence, a generic approach for optimizing lightmatter interaction will involve the combination of optimal light-shaping techniques with the use...

  13. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... at least one multimode light source, one or more optical sensors comprising a multimode sensor optical waveguide accommodating a distributed Bragg reflector, at least one transmitting optical waveguide for guiding light from said at least one light source to said one or more multimode sensor optical...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  14. Optic nerve oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefánsson, Einar; Pedersen, Daniella Bach; Jensen, Peter Koch;


    at similar levels of perfusion pressure. The levels of perfusion pressure that lead to optic nerve hypoxia in the laboratory correspond remarkably well to the levels that increase the risk of glaucomatous optic nerve atrophy in human glaucoma patients. The risk for progressive optic nerve atrophy in human...... glaucoma patients is six times higher at a perfusion pressure of 30 mmHg, which corresponds to a level where the optic nerve is hypoxic in experimental animals, as compared to perfusion pressure levels above 50 mmHg where the optic nerve is normoxic. Medical intervention can affect optic nerve oxygen......-oxygenase inhibitor, indomethacin, which indicates that prostaglandin metabolism plays a role. Laboratory studies suggest that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors might be useful for medical treatment of optic nerve and retinal ischemia, potentially in diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. However, clinical...

  15. A fast multiple shutter for luminescence lifetime imaging (United States)

    Geisler, Reinhard


    A new fast readout mode for off-the-shelf CCD image sensors is presented. It provides the capability to record two consecutive frames of short exposure time with multiple exposure cycles in fast succession. This is advantageous for measurements of recurrent low light events. A main application is the lifetime measurement of luminescence emissions such as those used for temperature- or pressure-sensitive paint measurements.

  16. Photogrammetric Accuracy and Modeling of Rolling Shutter Cameras (United States)

    Ye, W.; Qiao, G.; Kong, F.; Guo, S.; Ma, X.; Tong, X.; Li, R.


    Global climate change is one of the major challenges that all nations are commonly facing. Long-term observations of the Antarctic ice sheet have been playing a critical role in quantitatively estimating and predicting effects resulting from the global changes. The film-based ARGON reconnaissance imagery provides a remarkable data source for studying the Antarctic ice-sheet in 1960s, thus greatly extending the time period of Antarctica surface observations. To deal with the low-quality images and the unavailability of camera poses, a systematic photogrammetric approach is proposed to reconstruct the interior and exterior orientation information for further glacial mapping applications, including ice flow velocity mapping and mass balance estimation. Some noteworthy details while performing geometric modelling using the ARGON images were introduced, including methods and results for handling specific effects of film deformation, damaged or missing fiducial marks and calibration report, automatic fiducial mark detection, control point selection through Antarctic shadow and ice surface terrain analysis, and others. Several sites in East Antarctica were tested. As an example, four images in the Byrd glacier region were used to assess the accuracy of the geometric modelling. A digital elevation model (DEM) and an orthophoto map of Byrd glacier were generated. The accuracy of the ground positions estimated by using independent check points is within one nominal pixel of 140 m of ARGON imagery. Furthermore, a number of significant features, such as ice flow velocity and regional change patterns, will be extracted and analysed.

  17. Nanosecond image-shuttering studies at Los Alamos National Laboratory (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; King, N. S. P.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Noel, B. W.; Gobby, P. L.; Aeby, I.; Detch, J. L.

    Experimental results comparing gated imaging capabilities of proximity-focused microchannel-plate intensifiers and electrostatically-focused silicon-intensified-target vidicons are presented. Previous response data obtained from several standard and modified versions of both image sensors are summarized. Current efforts on: (1) sector gating of segmented photocathodes; (2) pre-pulsing of photocathodes with infrared light to increase conductivity; and (3) gate pulse injection techniques are discussed. Segmented photocathodes increased gating speed by simultaneous turn-on individual sectors whereas preliminary analyses indicate no improvements from infrared illumination.

  18. Fiber optic to integrated optical chip coupler (United States)

    Pikulski, Joseph I. (Inventor); Ramer, O. Glenn (Inventor)


    Optical fibers are clamped by a block onto a substrate. Thereupon, metal is plated over the fibers to hold them in place upon the substrate. The clamp block is removed and the opening, resulting from the clamp block's presence, is then plated in. The built-up metallic body is a coupling which holds the fibers in position so that the ends can be polished for coupling to an integrated optical chip upon a coupling fixture.

  19. Fibre-optical microendoscopy. (United States)

    Gu, M; Bao, H; Kang, H


    Microendoscopy has been an essential tool in exploring micro/nano mechanisms in vivo due to high-quality imaging performance, compact size and flexible movement. The investigations into optical fibres, micro-scanners and miniature lens have boosted efficiencies of remote light delivery to sample site and signal collection. Given the light interaction with materials in the fluorescence imaging regime, this paper reviews two classes of compact microendoscopy based on a single fibre: linear optical microendoscopy and nonlinear optical microendoscopy. Due to the fact that fluorescence occurs only in the focal volume, nonlinear optical microendoscopy can provide stronger optical sectioning ability than linear optical microendoscopy, and is a good candidate for deep tissue imaging. Moreover, one-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy as the linear optical microendoscopy suffers from severe photobleaching owing to the linear dependence of photobleaching rate on excitation laser power. On the contrary, nonlinear optical microendoscopy, including two-photon excited fluorescence microendoscopy and second harmonic generation microendoscopy, has the capability to minimize or avoid the photobleaching effect at a high excitation power and generate high image contrast. The combination of various nonlinear signals gained by the nonlinear optical microendoscopy provides a comprehensive insight into biophenomena in internal organs. Fibre-optical microendoscopy overcomes physical limitations of traditional microscopy and opens up a new path to achieve early cancer diagnosis and microsurgery in a minimally invasive and localized manner.

  20. Direct optical to microwave conversion (United States)

    Taylor, Henry F.


    Support of high frequency fiber optic links through development of innovative higher efficiency techniques to convert optical energy directly to RF Energy. Control of Phases Arrays by optical means in an area of expanding technology development. Fiber optics and other forms of optical waveguide can provide greater accuracy and true time delay in a phase delay network. Methods of improvement in transfer of optical energy to RF Energy are determined. Development of Direct Optical-to-RF-Direct Amplifiers will result in higher efficiency, low noise, optical receivers for fiber optic links with improved performance. This results in longer fiber optic links without repeaters and improved BER or shorter links.

  1. Optical material. Hikari zairyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T.; Sakate, N.; Ueoka, T.; Iwakuni, H. (Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan))


    It is obvious that various electronic technologies will be positively adopted in automobiles in the future and optical materials are supporting the above trend greatly. In this article, with regard to the optical materials now adopted in automobiles or those expected to be adopted therein in the future, their principles as well as usage, etc. are outlined. Furthermore, the prospect of the materials in the future is stated. The optical materials selected in this article are as follows: as for optical communications; optical fibers, photo emission/reception components, connecting technologies, and photo switches, etc., concerning materials for display such as meters and instrument panels for automobiles, etc.; liquid crystal, electroluminescent elements, light emitting diodes, and polarization films, with regard to dimmering materials; electrochromism and photochromism, and concerning other optical materials; solar cells, and transparent electroconductive films. 13 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Entanglement in Classical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghose, Partha


    The emerging field of entanglement or nonseparability in classical optics is reviewed, and its similarities with and differences from quantum entanglement clearly pointed out through a recapitulation of Hilbert spaces in general, the special restrictions on Hilbert spaces imposed in quantum mechanics and the role of Hilbert spaces in classical polarization optics. The production of Bell-like states in classical polarization optics is discussed, and new theorems are proved to discriminate between separable and nonseparable states in classical wave optics where no discreteness is involved. The influence of the Pancharatnam phase on a classical Bell-like state is deived. Finally, to what extent classical polarization optics can be used to simulate quantum information processing tasks is also discussed. This should be of great practical importance because coherence and entanglement are robust in classical optics but not in quantum systems.

  3. Advances in integrated optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, A; Bertolotti, M


    This volwne contains the Proceedings of a two-week summer conference titled "Advances in Integrated Optics" held June 1-9, 1993, in Erice, Sicily. This was the 18th annual course organized by the International School of Quantum Electronics, under the auspices of the "Ettore Majorana" Centre for Scientific Culture. The term Integrated Optics signifies guided-wave optical circuits consisting of two or more devices on a single substrate. Since its inception in the late 1960's, Integrated Optics has evolved from a specialized research topic into a broad field of work, ranging from basic research through commercial applications. Today many devices are available on market while a big effort is devolved to research on integrated nonlinear optical devices. This conference was organized to provide a comprehensive survey of the frontiers of this technology, including fundamental concepts, nonlinear optical materials, devices both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, and selected applications. These Proceedings update a...

  4. Quantum optical waveform conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Kielpinski, D; Wiseman, HM


    Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

  5. Tunable micro-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Duppé, Claudia


    Presenting state-of-the-art research into the dynamic field of tunable micro-optics, this is the first book to provide a comprehensive survey covering a varied range of topics including novel materials, actuation concepts and new imaging systems in optics. Internationally renowned researchers present a diverse range of chapters on cutting-edge materials, devices and subsystems, including soft matter, artificial muscles, tunable lenses and apertures, photonic crystals, and complete tunable imagers. Special contributions also provide in-depth treatment of micro-optical characterisation, scanners, and the use of natural eye models as inspiration for new concepts in advanced optics. With applications extending from medical diagnosis to fibre telecommunications, Tunable Micro-optics equips readers with a solid understanding of the broader technical context through its interdisciplinary approach to the realisation of new types of optical systems. This is an essential resource for engineers in industry and academia,...

  6. Silicon Optical Modulator Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Thor LIM


    Full Text Available We developed a way of predicting and analyzing high speed optical modulator. Our research adopted a bottom-up approach to consider high-speed optical links using an eye diagram. Our method leverages on modular mapping of electrical characteristics to optical characteristics, while attaining the required accuracy necessary for device footprint approaching sub-micron scales where electrical data distribution varies drastically. We calculate for the bias dependent phase shift (2pi/mm and loss (dB/mm for the optical modulator based on the real and imaginary part of complex effective indices. Subsequently, combine effectively both the electrical and optical profiles to construct the optical eye diagram which is the essential gist of signal integrity of such devices.

  7. Silicon optical modulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graham T. Reed


    Full Text Available Ever since the earliest research on optical circuits, dating back to the 1970s, there have been visions of an optical superchip (see for example1,2, containing a variety of integrated optical components to carry out light generation, modulation, manipulation, detection, and amplification (Fig. 1. The early work was associated with ferroelectric materials such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3, and III-V semiconductors such as gallium arsenide (GaAs and indium phosphide (InP based systems. LiNbO3 was interesting almost solely because of the fact that it possesses a large electro-optic coefficient3, enabling optical modulation via the Pockels effect. Alternatively, the III-V compounds were interesting because of the relative ease of laser fabrication and the prospect of optical and electronic integration.

  8. Optical microscope for nuclear emulsion readout: system design and results in application (United States)

    Winkler, Kerstin; Koerner, Lienhard; Gussek, Peter; Balogh, Istvan; Breitfelder, Stefan; Schlichting, Johannes; Dupraz, Jean-Pierre; Fabre, Jean-Paul; Panman, Jaap; Papadopoulos, Ioannis M.; Zucchelli, Piero; van de Vyver, Bart


    Experiments such as CHORUS at CERN require the inspection of a large amount of nuclear emulsion plates exposed to particle beams. Rare events need to be found, measured and analyzed. Their features are stored as grains in microscopic dimensions in a 3D stack of plates. A new, fully automatic immersion microscope system was developed for this purpose. It features high resolution, small depth of focus, large working distance, large field of view and synchronization of illumination and detector. An additional requirement is given by variations in the refraction index and in the relative thickness of immersion oil and emulsion. The approach used here is an imaging system based on a various objective lens with extreme numerical aperture, large working distance and wide field, combined with a matched high-aperture Koehler illuminator. The light source is a mercury arc lamp, combined with a filter package for the g- line. It includes liquid crystal elements for synchronized shuttering and variable attenuation. The theoretical resolution is less than 1 micron in x, y, z within a volume of 0.5mm diameter times 1 mm scanning depth in all situations within a predefined index range. Three identical pieces of the system have been built. The identical pieces of the system have been built. The experimentally measured resolution confirms the expectations and is better than 1 micron in all three dimensions. This is the result of a complex process of system design and manufacturing, unifying optical, opto-mechanical and opto-electronical contributions. This process spans from the early stages of feasibility and manufacturing up to the test and adjustment procedures. The three prototypes are operational since the fall of 1998 in the frame of the CHORUS project. Practical experience and application results are presented.

  9. Progress in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, Emil


    In the fourty-six years that have gone by since the first volume of Progress in Optics was published, optics has become one of the most dynamic fields of science. The volumes in this series which have appeared up to now contain more than 300 review articles by distinguished research workers, which have become permanent records for many important developments.- Metamaterials- Polarization Techniques- Linear Baisotropic Mediums- Ultrafast Optical Pulses- Quantum Imaging- Point-Spread Funcions- Discrete Wigner Functions

  10. Optics and Symbolic Computing (United States)


    28, No. 10, 795 "- 979v 5. 6. A. Huang and S. Knauer, Starlite : A Wideband Digital Switch, Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference, Atlanta...4 31 : .-. I ?4 2A 8. A. Huang, The Relationship Between STARLITE , a Wideband Digital Switch and Optics, Proc. International Conference on...34 Applied Optics, voL 27, No. 2, pp. 202-203 (1988). [10] A. Huang. "The relationship between STARLITE . a wideband digital switch and optics". Proceedings of

  11. Optical Clocks in Space

    CERN Document Server

    Schiller, S; Nevsky, A; Koelemeij, J C J; Wicht, A; Gill, P; Klein, H A; Margolis, H S; Mileti, G; Sterr, U; Riehle, F; Peik, E; Tamm, C; Ertmer, W; Rasel, E; Klein, V; Salomon, C; Tino, G M; Lemonde, P; Holzwarth, R; Hänsch, T W; Tamm, Chr.


    The performance of optical clocks has strongly progressed in recent years, and accuracies and instabilities of 1 part in 10^18 are expected in the near future. The operation of optical clocks in space provides new scientific and technological opportunities. In particular, an earth-orbiting satellite containing an ensemble of optical clocks would allow a precision measurement of the gravitational redshift, navigation with improved precision, mapping of the earth's gravitational potential by relativistic geodesy, and comparisons between ground clocks.

  12. Optical Properties of Metals. (United States)


    Elementary theory of the optical properties of solids in Advances in solid state physics, Vol. 15. Seitz, F.; Turnbull, D., ed. New York, NY: Academic Press... Properties of Solids (Academic Press, New York, 1972). 2. H.E. Bennett and J.M. Bennett, Optical Properties and Elec- tronic Structure of Metals and...34*. . . . . . . . . . . . | *.**,. ..ś . REFERENCES 1. There are many texts and review papers in this field. An excellent modern reference is F. Wooten, Optical

  13. Optical Fibre Bundle

    CERN Multimedia

    These are sample fibre optic cables which are used for networking. Optical fibers are widely used in fiber-optic communications, where they permit transmission over longer distances and at higher bandwidths (data rates) than wire cables. Fibers are used instead of metal wires because signals travel along them with less loss and are also immune to electromagnetic interference. This is useful for somewhere like CERN where magnets with their highly powerful magnetic fields could pose a problem.

  14. Polymer optical motherboard technology (United States)

    Keil, N.; Yao, H.; Zawadzki, C.; Grote, N.; Schell, M.


    In this paper, different hybridly integrated optical devices including optical multiplexer/ demultiplexer and optical transceivers are described. The devices were made using polymer planar light wave circuit (P2LC) technology. Laser diodes, photodiodes, and thin-film filters have been integrated. Key issues involved in this technology, in particular the coupling between laser diodes and polymer waveguides, and between waveguides and photodiodes and also fibers are discussed.

  15. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography (United States)


    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  16. Optical atomic magnetometer (United States)

    Budker, Dmitry; Higbie, James; Corsini, Eric P


    An optical atomic magnetometers is provided operating on the principles of nonlinear magneto-optical rotation. An atomic vapor is optically pumped using linearly polarized modulated light. The vapor is then probed using a non-modulated linearly polarized light beam. The resulting modulation in polarization angle of the probe light is detected and used in a feedback loop to induce self-oscillation at the resonant frequency.

  17. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John


    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  18. Optical packet switching (United States)

    Shekel, Eyal; Ruschin, Shlomo; Majer, Daniel; Levy, Jeff; Matmon, Guy; Koenigsberg, Lisa; Vecht, Jacob; Geron, Amir; Harlavan, Rotem; Shfaram, Harel; Arbel, Arnon; McDermott, Tom; Brewer, Tony


    We report here a scalable, multichassis, 6.3 terabit core router, which utilizes our proprietary optical switch. The router is commercially available and deployed in several customer sites. Our solution combines optical switching with electronic routing. An internal optical packet switching network interconnects the router"s electronic line cards, where routing and buffering functions take place electronically. The system architecture and performance will be described. The optical switch is based on Optical Phased Array (OPA) technology. It is a 64 x 64, fully non-blocking, optical crossbar switch, capable of switching in a fraction of a nanosecond. The basic principles of operation will be explained. Loss and crosstalk results will be presented, as well as the results of BER measurements of a 160 Gbps transmission through one channel. Basic principles of operation and measured results will be presented for the burst-mode-receivers, arbitration algorithm and synchronization. Finally, we will present some of our current research work on a next-generation optical switch. The technological issues we have solved in our internal optical packet network can have broad applicability to any global optical packet network.

  19. Bidirectional optical scattering facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI)The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from a...

  20. PILOT optical alignment (United States)

    Longval, Y.; Mot, B.; Ade, P.; André, Y.; Aumont, J.; Baustista, L.; Bernard, J.-Ph.; Bray, N.; de Bernardis, P.; Boulade, O.; Bousquet, F.; Bouzit, M.; Buttice, V.; Caillat, A.; Charra, M.; Chaigneau, M.; Crane, B.; Crussaire, J.-P.; Douchin, F.; Doumayrou, E.; Dubois, J.-P.; Engel, C.; Etcheto, P.; Gélot, P.; Griffin, M.; Foenard, G.; Grabarnik, S.; Hargrave, P..; Hughes, A.; Laureijs, R.; Lepennec, Y.; Leriche, B.; Maestre, S.; Maffei, B.; Martignac, J.; Marty, C.; Marty, W.; Masi, S.; Mirc, F.; Misawa, R.; Montel, J.; Montier, L.; Narbonne, J.; Nicot, J.-M.; Pajot, F.; Parot, G.; Pérot, E.; Pimentao, J.; Pisano, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rodriguez, L.; Roudil, G.; Salatino, M.; Savini, G.; Simonella, O.; Saccoccio, M.; Tapie, P.; Tauber, J.; Torre, J.-P.; Tucker, C.


    PILOT is a balloon-borne astronomy experiment designed to study the polarization of dust emission in the diffuse interstellar medium in our Galaxy at wavelengths 240 μm with an angular resolution about two arcminutes. Pilot optics is composed an off-axis Gregorian type telescope and a refractive re-imager system. All optical elements, except the primary mirror, are in a cryostat cooled to 3K. We combined the optical, 3D dimensional measurement methods and thermo-elastic modeling to perform the optical alignment. The talk describes the system analysis, the alignment procedure, and finally the performances obtained during the first flight in September 2015.

  1. Optics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    DiMarzio, Charles A


    This book is an excellent resource for teaching any student or scientist who needs to use optical systems. I particularly like the addition of MATLAB scripts and functions. Highly recommended.-Professor James C. Wyant, Dean of College of Optical Sciences, University of ArizonaHis book is clear, concise and highly readable. This is an excellent text.-Professor Changhuei Yang, California Institute of TechnologyAt last, a book on optics that is written with the practising engineer in mind. I have been teaching optics to engineers for many years and have often longed for a text aimed at my student

  2. Optical engineering of diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Rabeau, James R


    This is the first comprehensive book on the engineering of diamond optical devices. It will give readers an up-to-date account of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond (single crystal, nanodiamond and polycrystalline) and reviews the large and growing field of engineering of diamond-based optical devices, with applications in quantum computation, nano-imaging, high performance lasers, and biomedicine. It aims to provide scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable resource and reference book for the design and performance of diamond-based optical devices.

  3. Optics, light and lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Meschede, Dieter


    Starting from the concepts of classical optics, Optics, Light and Lasers introduces in detail the phenomena of linear and nonlinear light matter interaction, the properties of modern laser sources, and the concepts of quantum optics. Several examples taken from the scope of modern research are provided to emphasize the relevance of optics in current developments within science and technology. The text has been written for newcomers to the topic and benefits from the author's ability to explain difficult sequences and effects in a straightforward and easily comprehensible way. To this second, c

  4. Ocean Optics Instrumentation Systems (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides instrumentation suites for a wide variety of measurements to characterize the ocean’s optical environment. These packages have been developed to...

  5. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  6. Elementary wave optics

    CERN Document Server

    Webb, Robert H


    This undergraduate textbook presents thorough coverage of the standard topics of classical optics and optical instrument design; it also offers significant details regarding the concepts of modern optics. Its survey of the mathematical tools of optics grants students insights into the physical principles of quantum mechanics.Two principal concepts occur throughout: a treatment of scattering from real scatterers (leading to Huygens' principles, diffraction theory, the index of refraction, and related topics); and the difference between coherent and noncoherent wave phenomena. Examinations of su

  7. LSST Camera Optics Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riot, V J; Olivier, S; Bauman, B; Pratuch, S; Seppala, L; Gilmore, D; Ku, J; Nordby, M; Foss, M; Antilogus, P; Morgado, N


    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) uses a novel, three-mirror, telescope design feeding a camera system that includes a set of broad-band filters and three refractive corrector lenses to produce a flat field at the focal plane with a wide field of view. Optical design of the camera lenses and filters is integrated in with the optical design of telescope mirrors to optimize performance. We discuss the rationale for the LSST camera optics design, describe the methodology for fabricating, coating, mounting and testing the lenses and filters, and present the results of detailed analyses demonstrating that the camera optics will meet their performance goals.

  8. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad


    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  9. Innovative Solar Optical Materials (United States)

    Lampert, Carl M.


    A variety of optical coatings are discussed in the context of solar energy utilization. Well-known coatings such as transparent conductors (heat mirrors), selective absorbers, and reflective films are surveyed briefly. Emphasis is placed on the materials' limitations and on use of lesser-known optical coatings and materials. Physical and optical properties are detailed for protective antireflection films, cold mirrors, fluorescent concentrator materials, radiative cooling surfaces, and optical switching films including electrochromic, thermochromic, photochromic, and liquid crystal types. For many of these materials, research has only recently been considered, so various design and durability issues need to be addressed.

  10. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K


    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  11. Optical linear algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.


    Many of the linear algebra operations and algorithms possible on optical matrix-vector processors are reviewed. Emphasis is given to the use of direct solutions and their realization on systolic optical processors. As an example, implicit and explicit solutions to partial differential equations are considered. The matrix-decomposition required is found to be the major operation recommended for optical realization. The pipelining and flow of data and operations are noted to be key issues in the realization of any algorithm on an optical systolic array processor. A realization of the direct solution by householder qr decomposition is provided as a specific case study. 19 references.

  12. Optical encryption interface (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)


    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  13. Optical network democratization. (United States)

    Nejabati, Reza; Peng, Shuping; Simeonidou, Dimitra


    The current Internet infrastructure is not able to support independent evolution and innovation at physical and network layer functionalities, protocols and services, while at same time supporting the increasing bandwidth demands of evolving and heterogeneous applications. This paper addresses this problem by proposing a completely democratized optical network infrastructure. It introduces the novel concepts of the optical white box and bare metal optical switch as key technology enablers for democratizing optical networks. These are programmable optical switches whose hardware is loosely connected internally and is completely separated from their control software. To alleviate their complexity, a multi-dimensional abstraction mechanism using software-defined network technology is proposed. It creates a universal model of the proposed switches without exposing their technological details. It also enables a conventional network programmer to develop network applications for control of the optical network without specific technical knowledge of the physical layer. Furthermore, a novel optical network virtualization mechanism is proposed, enabling the composition and operation of multiple coexisting and application-specific virtual optical networks sharing the same physical infrastructure. Finally, the optical white box and the abstraction mechanism are experimentally evaluated, while the virtualization mechanism is evaluated with simulation.

  14. Bidirectional optical scattering facility (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Goniometric optical scatter instrument (GOSI) The bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) quantifies the angular distribution of light scattered from...

  15. Optical Design for Biomedical Imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Rongguang


    Designing an efficient imaging system for biomedical optics requires a solid understanding of the special requirements of the optical systems for biomedical imaging and the optical components used in the systems. However, a lack of reference books on optical design (imaging and illumination) for biomedical imaging has led to some inefficient systems. This book fills the gap between biomedical optics and optical design by addressing the fundamentals of biomedical optics and optical engineering, and biomedical imaging systems. The first half provides a brief introduction to biomedical optics and

  16. Optical Design and Active Optics Methods in Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Lemaitre, Gerard R


    Optical designs for astronomy involve implementation of active optics and adaptive optics from X-ray to the infrared. Developments and results of active optics methods for telescopes, spectrographs and coronagraph planet finders are presented. The high accuracy and remarkable smoothness of surfaces generated by active optics methods also allow elaborating new optical design types with high aspheric and/or non-axisymmetric surfaces. Depending on the goal and performance requested for a deformable optical surface analytical investigations are carried out with one of the various facets of elasticity theory: small deformation thin plate theory, large deformation thin plate theory, shallow spherical shell theory, weakly conical shell theory. The resulting thickness distribution and associated bending force boundaries can be refined further with finite element analysis. Keywords: active optics, optical design, elasticity theory, astronomical optics, diffractive optics, X-ray optics

  17. Performance of the optical communication adaptive optics testbed (United States)

    Troy, Mitchell; Roberts, Jennifer; Guiwits, Steve; Azevedo, Steve; Bikkannavar, Siddarayappa; Brack, Gary; Garkanian, Vachik; Palmer, Dean; Platt, Benjamin; Truong, Tuan; Wilson, Keith; Wallace, Kent


    We describe the current performance of an adaptive optics testbed for optical communication. This adaptive optics system allows for simulation of night and day-time observing on a 1 meter telescope with a 97 actuator deformable mirror.

  18. Optical cryocooling of diamond (United States)

    Kern, M.; Jeske, J.; Lau, D. W. M.; Greentree, A. D.; Jelezko, F.; Twamley, J.


    The cooling of solids by optical means only using anti-Stokes emission has a long history of research and achievements. Such cooling methods have many advantages ranging from no moving parts or fluids through to operation in vacuum and may have applications to cryosurgery. However, achieving large optical cryocooling powers has been difficult to manage except in certain rare-earth crystals but these are mostly toxic and not biocompatible. Through study of the emission and absorption cross sections we find that diamond, containing either nitrogen vacancy (NV) or silicon vacancy defects, shows potential for optical cryocooling and, in particular, NV doping shows promise for optical refrigeration. We study the optical cooling of doped diamond microcrystals ranging 10-250 μ m in diameter trapped either in vacuum or in water. For the vacuum case we find NV-doped microdiamond optical cooling below room temperature could exceed |Δ T |>10 K for irradiation powers of Pin<100 mW. We predict that such temperature changes should be easily observed via large alterations in the diffusion constant for optically cryocooled microdiamonds trapped in water in an optical tweezer or via spectroscopic signatures such as the zero-phonon line width or Raman line.

  19. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal


    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  20. The Athena Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian;


    studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3].The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4...

  1. Nonlinear optical materials. (United States)

    Eaton, D F


    The current state of materials development in nonlinear optics is summarized, and the promise of these materials is critically evaluated. Properties and important materials constants of current commercial materials and of new, promising, inorganic and organic molecular and polymeric materials with potential in second- and third-order nonlinear optical applications are presented.

  2. An optical vortex coronagraph (United States)

    Palacios, David M.


    An optical vortex may be characterized as a dark core of destructive interference in a beam of spatially coherent light. This dark core may be used as a filter to attenuate a coherent beam of light so an incoherent background signal may be detected. Applications of such a filter include: eye and sensor protection, forward-scattered light measurement, and the detection of extra-solar planets. Optical vortices may be created by passing a beam of light through a vortex diffractive optical element, which is a plate of glass etched with a spiral pattern, such that the thickness of the glass increases in the azimuthal direction. An optical vortex coronagraph may be constructed by placing a vortex diffractive optical element near the image plane of a telescope. An optical vortex coronagraph opens a dark window in the glare of a distant star so nearby terrestrial sized planets and exo-zodiacal dust may be detected. An optical vortex coronagraph may hold several advantages over other techniques presently being developed for high contrast imaging, such as lower aberration sensitivity and multi-wavelength operation. In this manuscript, I will discuss the aberration sensitivity of an optical vortex coronagraph and the key advantages it may hold over other coronagraph architectures. I will also provide numerical simulations demonstrating high contrast imaging in the presence of low-order static aberrations.

  3. Nutritional optic neuropathy. (United States)

    Sawicka-Pierko, Anna; Obuchowska, Iwona; Mariak, Zofia


    Nutritional optic neuropathy (aka deficiency optic neuropathy) is a dysfunction of the optic nerve resulting from improper dietary content of certain nutrients essential for normal functioning of the nerve fibers. Most commonly, it results from folic acid and vitamin B complex deficiency associated with malnutrition or poor dietary habits, incorrectly applied vegetarian diet, or chronic alcohol abuse. Obese patients after bariatric surgery constitute another risk group of optic neuropathy. Nutritional optic neuropathy is characterized by painless, gradually progressing, bilateral and symmetrical decrease in visual acuity, which can be accompanied by the color vision dysfunction. Progression of the neuropathy is associated with optic nerve atrophy, manifesting as complete disc pallor. Treatment of nutritional neuropathy includes dietary supplementation, aimed at compensating for the deficient nutrients. The treatment is mostly based on folic acid, vitamin B complex, and protein replacement, as well as eliminating risk factors of neuropathy. Early treatment commencement, prior to irreversible optic nerve atrophy, is a prerequisite of effective treatment. We would like to highlight this problem by presenting the case of a young woman in whom chronic use "water-based" diet resulted in anemia and bilateral nutritional optic neuropathy.

  4. Touch screens go optical

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten


    A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide.......A simple optical implementation of a touch screen is made possible by disrupting the total internal reflection in a 2D waveguide....

  5. The Fiber Optic Connection. (United States)

    Reese, Susan


    Describes the fiber optics programs at the Career and Technical Center in Berlin, Pennsylvania and the Charles S. Monroe Technology Center in Loudoun County, Virginia. Discusses the involvement of the Fiber Optic Association with education, research and development, manufacturing, sales, distribution, installation, and maintenance of fiber optic…

  6. Optical Thermal Ratchet (United States)

    Faucheux, L. P.; Bourdieu, L. S.; Kaplan, P. D.; Libchaber, A. J.


    We present an optical realization of a thermal ratchet. Directed motion of Brownian particles in water is induced by modulating in time a spatially periodic but asymmetric optical potential. The net drift shows a maximum as a function of the modulation period. The experimental results agree with a simple theoretical model based on diffusion.

  7. Fiber optic spanner (United States)

    Black, Bryan; Mohanty, Samarendra


    Rotation is a fundamental function in nano/biotechnology and is being useful in a host of applications such as pumping of fluid flow in microfluidic channels for transport of micro/nano samples. Further, controlled rotation of single cell or microscopic object is useful for tomographic imaging. Though conventional microscope objective based laser spanners (based on transfer of spin or orbital angular momentum) have been used in the past, they are limited by the short working distance of the microscope objective. Here, we demonstrate development of a fiber optic spanner for rotation of microscopic objects using single-mode fiber optics. Fiber-optic trapping and simultaneous rotation of pin-wheel structure around axis perpendicular to fiber-optic axis was achieved using the fiber optic spanner. By adjusting the laser beam power, rotation speed of the trapped object and thus the microfluidic flow could be controlled. Since this method does not require special optical or structural properties of the sample to be rotated, three-dimensional rotation of a spherical cell could also be controlled. Further, using the fiber optic spanner, array of red blood cells could be assembled and actuated to generate vortex motion. Fiber optical trapping and spinning will enable physical and spectroscopic analysis of microscopic objects in solution and also find potential applications in lab- on-a-chip devices.

  8. Genetically determined optic neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milea, Dan; Amati-Bonneau, Patrizia; Reynier, Pascal


    The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions.......The present review focuses on recent advances in the knowledge of hereditary optic neuropathies resulting from retinal ganglion cell degeneration, mostly due to mitochondrial dysfunctions....

  9. Dominant optic atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenaers, Guy; Hamel, Christian; Delettre, Cécile


    DEFINITION OF THE DISEASE: Dominant Optic Atrophy (DOA) is a neuro-ophthalmic condition characterized by a bilateral degeneration of the optic nerves, causing insidious visual loss, typically starting during the first decade of life. The disease affects primary the retinal ganglion cells (RGC...


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    . This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  11. Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation (United States)


    Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical C: F49620-93-C-0039 Switching and Modulation 6. AUTHOR(S) Mr. Sandip K. Sengupta, Dr...D FINAL REPORT for Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation Prepared for: USAF, AFMC (AFOSR) Air Force...34Organosilicon Polymeric Nonlinear Optical Materials for Optical Switching and Modulation," contract number F49620-93-C-0039. The work has been performed by Dr

  12. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  13. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  14. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy ofSciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,

  15. Computational optical biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ming


    Full Text Available Abstract Optical molecular imaging is based on fluorescence or bioluminescence, and hindered by photon scattering in the tissue, especially in patient studies. Here we propose a computational optical biopsy (COB approach to localize and quantify a light source deep inside a subject. In contrast to existing optical biopsy techniques, our scheme is to collect optical signals directly from a region of interest along one or multiple biopsy paths in a subject, and then compute features of an underlying light source distribution. In this paper, we formulate this inverse problem in the framework of diffusion approximation, demonstrate the solution uniqueness properties in two representative configurations, and obtain analytic solutions for reconstruction of both optical properties and source parameters.

  16. Fiber optics standard dictionary

    CERN Document Server

    Weik, Martin H


    Fiber Optics Vocabulary Development In 1979, the National Communications System published Technical InfonnationBulle­ tin TB 79-1, Vocabulary for Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications, written by this author. Based on a draft prepared by this author, the National Communications System published Federal Standard FED-STD-1037, Glossary of Telecommunications Terms, in 1980 with no fiber optics tenns. In 1981, the first edition of this dictionary was published under the title Fiber Optics and Lightwave Communications Standard Dictionary. In 1982, the then National Bureau of Standards, now the National Institute of Standards and Technology, published NBS Handbook 140, Optical Waveguide Communications Glossary, which was also published by the General Services Admin­ istration as PB82-166257 under the same title. Also in 1982, Dynamic Systems, Inc. , Fiberoptic Sensor Technology Handbook, co-authored and edited by published the this author, with an extensive Fiberoptic Sensors Glossary. In 1989, the handbook w...

  17. Nonlinear optics and photonics

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guang S


    This book provides a comprehensive presentation on most of the major topics in nonlinear optics and photonics, with equal emphasis on principles, experiments, techniques, and applications. It covers many major new topics including optical solitons, multi-photon effects, nonlinear photoelectric effects, fast and slow light , and Terahertz photonics. Chapters 1-10 present the fundamentals of modern nonlinear optics, and could be used as a textbook with problems provided at the end of each chapter. Chapters 11-17 cover the more advanced topics of techniques and applications of nonlinear optics and photonics, serving as a highly informative reference for researchers and experts working in related areas. There are also 16 pages of color photographs to illustrate the visual appearances of some typical nonlinear optical effects and phenomena. The book could be adopted as a textbook for both undergraduates and graduate students, and serve as a useful reference work for researchers and experts in the fields of physics...

  18. Optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Poli, N; Gill, P; Tino, G M


    In the last ten years extraordinary results in time and frequency metrology have been demonstrated. Frequency-stabilization techniques for continuous-wave lasers and femto-second optical frequency combs have enabled a rapid development of frequency standards based on optical transitions in ultra-cold neutral atoms and trapped ions. As a result, today's best performing atomic clocks tick at an optical rate and allow scientists to perform high-resolution measurements with a precision approaching a few parts in $10^{18}$. This paper reviews the history and the state of the art in optical-clock research and addresses the implementation of optical clocks in a possible future redefinition of the SI second as well as in tests of fundamental physics.

  19. Optically Induced Transparency

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Yuanlin; Shen, Zhenhua; Cao, Jianjun; Chen, Xianfeng; Liang, Xiaogan; Wan, Wenjie


    Light-matter-light interactions serve as the backbone technology of all-optical information processing for both on-chip and long-haul communication purposes. The representative example of electromagnetically induced transparency has its unique ability of optically controlling transparency windows with relative low light in atomic systems, though its practical applications are limited due to rigid experimental requirements. Here we demonstrate a new form of optically induced transparency in a micro-cavity by introducing four-wave mixing gain in order to couple nonlinearly two separated resonances of the micro-cavity in ambient environment. A signature Fano-like resonance is also observed owing to the nonlinear interference of two coupled resonances. Moreover, we show that the unidirectional gain of four-wave mixing can lead to non-reciprocal transmission at the transparency windows. Optically induced transparency may offer a unique platform for a compact, integrated solution to all-optical processing and quant...

  20. ``OPTICAL Catalytic Nanomotors'' (United States)

    Rosary-Oyong, Se, Glory

    D. Kagan,, 2009:'' a motion-based chemical sensing involving fuel-driven nanomotors is demonstrated. The new protocol relies on the use of an optical microscope for tracking charge in the speed of nanowire motors in the presence of target analyte''. Synthetic nanomotors are propelled by catalytic decomposition of .. they do not require external electric, magnetic or optical fields as>. Accompanying Fig 2.6(a) of optical micrograph of a partial monolayer of silica microbeads [J.Gibbs, 2011 ] retrieves WF Paxton:''rods were characterized by transmission electron & dark-field optical microscopy..'' & LF Valadares:''dimer due to the limited resolution of optical microscopy, however the result..'. Acknowledged to HE. Mr. Prof. SEDIONO M.P. TJONDRONEGORO.

  1. Active optical clock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN JingBiao


    This article presents the principles and techniques of active optical clock, a special laser combining the laser physics of one-atom laser, bad-cavity gas laser, super-cavity stabilized laser and optical atomic clock together. As a simple example, an active optical clock based on thermal strontium atomic beam shows a quantum-limited linewidth of 0.51 Hz, which is insensitive to laser cavity-length noise, and may surpass the recorded narrowest 6.7 Hz of Hg ion optical clock and 1.5 Hz of very recent optical lattice clock. The estimated 0.1 Hz one-second instability and 0.27 Hz uncertainty are limited only by the rela-tivistic Doppler effect, and can be improved by cold atoms.

  2. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre


    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  3. Introduction to Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chartier, Germain


    Since the discovery of the laser in 1960 and optical fibers in 1970, optics has undergone dramatic changes that accentuate its multi-disciplinary character. This text covers essential concepts and reports the key developments and progress in current knowledge in the field. Inspired by the style of Richard Feynman, the method of presentation emphasizes "telling" optics, rather than deducing it from fundamental laws, as well as tactfully using mathematical tools so as not to obscure the physical phenomena of interest. For its excellent teaching approach, the book received the Arnulf-Francon Award of the French Optical Society. The concepts are formulated in a way such that the necessary mathematical tools do not hinder comprehension of the phenomena. Global in vision, the book can also be used as a reference. In addition to the traditional aspects of optics, it includes the tools and methods currently used by researchers and engineers, as well as explanation and implications of the most recent developments.

  4. Python fiber optic seal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ystesund, K.; Bartberger, J.; Brusseau, C.; Fleming, P.; Insch, K.; Tolk, K.


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a high security fiber optic seal that incorporates tamper resistance features that are not available in commercial fiber optic seals. The Python Seal is a passive fiber optic loop seal designed to give indication of unauthorized entry. The seal includes a fingerprint feature that provides seal identity information in addition to the unique fiber optic pattern created when the seal is installed. The fiber optic cable used for the seal loop is produced with tamper resistant features that increase the difficulty of attacking that component of a seal. A Seal Reader has been developed that will record the seal signature and the fingerprint feature of the seal. A Correlator software program then compares seal images to establish a match or mismatch. SNL is also developing a Polaroid reader to permit hard copies of the seal patterns to be obtained directly from the seal.

  5. What ignites optical jets?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastian Jester


    The properties of radio galaxies and quasars with and without optical or X-ray jets are compared. The majority of jets from which high-frequency emission has been detected so far (13 with optical emission, 11 with X-rays, 13 with both) are associated with the most powerful radio sources at any given redshift. It is found that optical/X-ray jet sources are more strongly beamed than the average population of extragalactic radio sources. This suggests that the detection or non-detection of optical emission from jets has so far been dominated by surface brightness selection effects, not by jet physics. It implies that optical jets are much more common than is currently appreciated.

  6. The Optics of Bruising (United States)

    Randeberg, Lise Lyngsnes; Skallerud, Bjørn; Langlois, Neil E. I.; Haugen, Olav Anton; Svaasand, Lars Othar

    Forensic medicine is a field of medicine where technology plays an increasingly important role in securing and evaluating evidence in, for example, child abuse cases and cases of domestic violence. Methods from chemistry and biological sciences have found a wide application within forensic medicine. Optical technologies like microscopy are also widely used. Despite this, in vivo or post mortem optical diagnostics by spectroscopy have traditionally not had an important role in clinical or forensic examinations. Forensic medical optics as a field might include all kinds of optical analysis for use within forensic science. This includes everything from microscopic techniques to methods for examination of evidence from a crime scene. This chapter will, however, focus on the use of optical diagnostics for examining skin, with a focus on identification, characterization and age determination of minor traumatic injuries like skin bruises.

  7. Optically Anomalous Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Shtukenberg, Alexander; Kahr, Bart


    Optical anomalies in crystals are puzzles that collectively constituted the greatest unsolved problems in crystallography in the 19th Century. The most common anomaly is a discrepancy between a crystal’s symmetry as determined by its shape or by X-ray analysis, and that determined by monitoring the polarization state of traversing light. These discrepancies were perceived as a great impediment to the development of the sciences of crystals on the basis of Curie’s Symmetry Principle, the grand organizing idea in the physical sciences to emerge in the latter half of the 19th Century. Optically Anomalous Crystals begins with an historical introduction covering the contributions of Brewster, Biot, Mallard, Brauns, Tamman, and many other distinguished crystallographers. From this follows a tutorial in crystal optics. Further chapters discuss the two main mechanisms of optical dissymmetry: 1. the piezo-optic effect, and 2. the kinetic ordering of atoms. The text then tackles complex, inhomogeneous crystals, and...

  8. High speed optical networks (United States)

    Frankel, Michael Y.; Livas, Jeff


    This overview will discuss core network technology and cost trade-offs inherent in choosing between "analog" architectures with high optical transparency, and ones heavily dependent on frequent "digital" signal regeneration. The exact balance will be related to the specific technology choices in each area outlined above, as well as the network needs such as node geographic spread, physical connectivity patterns, and demand loading. Over the course of a decade, optical networks have evolved from simple single-channel SONET regenerator-based links to multi-span multi-channel optically amplified ultra-long haul systems, fueled by high demand for bandwidth at reduced cost. In general, the cost of a well-designed high capacity system is dominated by the number of optical to electrical (OE) and electrical to optical (EO) conversions required. As the reach and channel capacity of the transport systems continued to increase, it became necessary to improve the granularity of the demand connections by introducing (optical add/drop multiplexers) OADMs. Thus, if a node requires only small demand connectivity, most of the optical channels are expressed through without regeneration (OEO). The network costs are correspondingly reduced, partially balanced by the increased cost of the OADM nodes. Lately, the industry has been aggressively pursuing a natural extension of this philosophy towards all-optical "analog" core networks, with each demand touching electrical digital circuitry only at the in/egress nodes. This is expected to produce a substantial elimination of OEO costs, increase in network capacity, and a notionally simpler operation and service turn-up. At the same time, such optical "analog" network requires a large amount of complicated hardware and software for monitoring and manipulating high bit rate optical signals. New and more complex modulation formats that provide resiliency to both optical noise and nonlinear propagation effects are important for extended

  9. Integrated-optics-based optical coherence tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.V.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high resolution, imaging technique that has developed over the last 20 years from a complicated laboratory setup into a ready-to-use commercially available device. Instead of using electronic time gating as being used by ultrasound (US) imaging, in OCT, the op

  10. On chip shapeable optical tweezers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Renaut, C; Cluzel, B; Dellinger, J; Lalouat, L; Picard, E; Peyrade, D; Hadji, E; de Fornel, F


    Particles manipulation with optical forces is known as optical tweezing. While tweezing in free space with laser beams was established in the 1980s, integrating the optical tweezers on a chip is a challenging task...

  11. Optical design and testing: introduction. (United States)

    Fang, Yi Chin; Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Yatagai, Toyohiko; Wang, Yongtian; Zavisian, James M


    Optical design and testing have numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and bio-medical settings. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, displays, and solar energy systems to novel imaging modalities from deep UV to infrared spectral imaging, a systems perspective to imaging, as well as optical measurement. In addition, new concepts and trends for optics and further optical systems will be especially highlighted in this special issue.

  12. Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Used for astrometry and astronomical imaging, the Naval Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) is a distributed aperture optical telescope. It is operated...

  13. Nonlinear effects in optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, Mario F


    Cutting-edge coverage of nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers Nonlinear fiber optics is a specialized part of fiber optics dealing with optical nonlinearities and their applications. As fiber-optic communication systems have become more advanced and complex, the nonlinear effects in optical fibers have increased in importance, as they adversely affect system performance. Paradoxically, the same nonlinear phenomena also offer the promise of addressing the bandwidth bottleneck for signal processing for future ultra-high speed optical networks. Nonlinear Effects in Optical Fiber

  14. Projection optics box (United States)

    Hale, Layton C.; Malsbury, Terry; Hudyma, Russell M.; Parker, John M.


    A projection optics box or assembly for use in an optical assembly, such as in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) system using 10-14 nm soft x-ray photons. The projection optics box utilizes a plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors, each mounted on a precision actuator, and which reflects an optical image, such as from a mask, in the EUVL system onto a point of use, such as a target or silicon wafer, the mask, for example, receiving an optical signal from a source assembly, such as a developed from laser system, via a series of highly reflective mirrors of the EUVL system. The plurality of highly reflective optics or mirrors are mounted in a housing assembly comprised of a series of bulkheads having wall members secured together to form a unit construction of maximum rigidity. Due to the precision actuators, the mirrors must be positioned precisely and remotely in tip, tilt, and piston (three degrees of freedom), while also providing exact constraint.

  15. Trajectories in parallel optics. (United States)

    Klapp, Iftach; Sochen, Nir; Mendlovic, David


    In our previous work we showed the ability to improve the optical system's matrix condition by optical design, thereby improving its robustness to noise. It was shown that by using singular value decomposition, a target point-spread function (PSF) matrix can be defined for an auxiliary optical system, which works parallel to the original system to achieve such an improvement. In this paper, after briefly introducing the all optics implementation of the auxiliary system, we show a method to decompose the target PSF matrix. This is done through a series of shifted responses of auxiliary optics (named trajectories), where a complicated hardware filter is replaced by postprocessing. This process manipulates the pixel confined PSF response of simple auxiliary optics, which in turn creates an auxiliary system with the required PSF matrix. This method is simulated on two space variant systems and reduces their system condition number from 18,598 to 197 and from 87,640 to 5.75, respectively. We perform a study of the latter result and show significant improvement in image restoration performance, in comparison to a system without auxiliary optics and to other previously suggested hybrid solutions. Image restoration results show that in a range of low signal-to-noise ratio values, the trajectories method gives a significant advantage over alternative approaches. A third space invariant study case is explored only briefly, and we present a significant improvement in the matrix condition number from 1.9160e+013 to 34,526.

  16. Handbook of optical design

    CERN Document Server

    Malacara-Hernández, Daniel


    Handbook of Optical Design, Third Edition covers the fundamental principles of geometric optics and their application to lens design in one volume. It incorporates classic aspects of lens design along with important modern methods, tools, and instruments, including contemporary astronomical telescopes, Gaussian beams, and computer lens design. Written by respected researchers, the book has been extensively classroom-tested and developed in their lens design courses. This well-illustrated handbook clearly and concisely explains the intricacies of optical system design and evaluation. It also di

  17. Handbook of optical microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Anthony H W


    An optical cavity confines light within its structure and constitutes an integral part of a laser device. Unlike traditional gas lasers, semiconductor lasers are invariably much smaller in dimensions, making optical confinement more critical than ever. In this book, modern methods that control and manipulate light at the micrometer and nanometer scales by using a variety of cavity geometries and demonstrate optical resonance from ultra-violet (UV) to infra-red (IR) bands across multiple material platforms are explored. The book has a comprehensive collection of chapters that cover a wide range

  18. MEMS optical sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The present invention relates to an all-optical sensor utilizing effective index modulation of a waveguide and detection of a wavelength shift of reflected light and a force sensing system accommodating said optical sensor. One embodiment of the invention relates to a sensor system comprising...... waveguides, a detector for measuring light reflected from said Bragg reflector in said one or more multimode sensor optical waveguides, and a data processor adapted for analyzing variations in the Bragg wavelength of at least one higher order mode of the reflected light....

  19. Quantum optics for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Duarte, FJ


    Quantum Optics for Engineers provides a transparent and methodical introduction to quantum optics via the Dirac's bra-ket notation with an emphasis on practical applications and basic aspects of quantum mechanics such as Heisenberg's uncertainty principle and Schrodinger's equation. Self-contained and using mainly first-year calculus and algebra tools, the book:Illustrates the interferometric quantum origin of fundamental optical principles such as diffraction, refraction, and reflectionProvides a transparent introduction, via Dirac's notation, to the probability amplitude of quantum entanglem

  20. Optical imaging and metrology

    CERN Document Server

    Osten, Wolfgang


    A comprehensive review of the state of the art and advances in the field, while also outlining the future potential and development trends of optical imaging and optical metrology, an area of fast growth with numerous applications in nanotechnology and nanophysics. Written by the world's leading experts in the field, it fills the gap in the current literature by bridging the fields of optical imaging and metrology, and is the only up-to-date resource in terms of fundamental knowledge, basic concepts, methodologies, applications, and development trends.

  1. Optical properties of solids

    CERN Document Server

    Wooten, Frederick


    Optical Properties of Solids covers the important concepts of intrinsic optical properties and photoelectric emission. The book starts by providing an introduction to the fundamental optical spectra of solids. The text then discusses Maxwell's equations and the dielectric function; absorption and dispersion; and the theory of free-electron metals. The quantum mechanical theory of direct and indirect transitions between bands; the applications of dispersion relations; and the derivation of an expression for the dielectric function in the self-consistent field approximation are also encompassed.

  2. Optical materials and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wakaki, Moriaki; Kudo, Keiei


    The definition of optical material has expanded in recent years, largely because of IT advances that have led to rapid growth in optoelectronics applications. Helping to explain this evolution, Optical Materials and Applications presents contributions from leading experts who explore the basic concepts of optical materials and the many typical applications in which they are used. An invaluable reference for readers ranging from professionals to technical managers to graduate engineering students, this book covers everything from traditional principles to more cutting-edge topics. It also detai

  3. Fundamentals of attosecond optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Zenghu


    Attosecond optical pulse generation, along with the related process of high-order harmonic generation, is redefining ultrafast physics and chemistry. A practical understanding of attosecond optics requires significant background information and foundational theory to make full use of these cutting-edge lasers and advance the technology toward the next generation of ultrafast lasers. Fundamentals of Attosecond Optics provides the first focused introduction to the field. The author presents the underlying concepts and techniques required to enter the field, as well as recent research advances th

  4. TOPS optical correlation program (United States)

    Lindell, Scott D.


    Martin Marietta is conducting a TOPS optical correlation program in which several algorithms and four optical correlators involving two spatial light modulator technologies will be developed and tested. The program will culminate in 1994 with an automatic target recognition flight demonstration using a UH-1 helicopter flying a Fiber Optic Guide Missile (FOG-M) mission profile. The flight demonstration will be conducted by US Army Missile Command (MICOM) and Martin Marietta and will involve detecting, locating and tracking a M60A2 tank positioned among an array of five vehicle types. Current status of the TOPS program will be given.

  5. Tuned optical cavity magnetometer (United States)

    Okandan, Murat; Schwindt, Peter


    An atomic magnetometer is disclosed which utilizes an optical cavity formed from a grating and a mirror, with a vapor cell containing an alkali metal vapor located inside the optical cavity. Lasers are used to magnetically polarize the alkali metal vapor and to probe the vapor and generate a diffracted laser beam which can be used to sense a magnetic field. Electrostatic actuators can be used in the magnetometer for positioning of the mirror, or for modulation thereof. Another optical cavity can also be formed from the mirror and a second grating for sensing, adjusting, or stabilizing the position of the mirror.

  6. The ATHENA optics development (United States)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian; Fransen, Sebastiaan; Collon, Maximilien; Barriere, Nicolas; Yanson, Alexei; Vacanti, Giuseppe; Haneveld, Jeroen; van Baren, Coen; Zuknik, Karl-Heinz; Christensen, Finn; Della Monica Ferreira, Desiree; Krumrey, Michael; Burwitz, Vadim; Pareschi, Giovanni; Spiga, Daniele; Valsecchi, Giuseppe; Vernani, Dervis


    ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics) is being studied by the European Space Agency (ESA) as the second large science mission, with a launch slot in 2028. System studies and technology preparation activities are on-going. The optics of the telescope is based on the modular Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a novel X-ray optics technology significantly benefiting from spin-in from the semiconductor industry. Several technology development activities are being implemented by ESA in collaboration with European industry and institutions. The related programmatic background, technology development approach and the associated implementation planning are presented.

  7. Theoretical Optics An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Römer, Hartmann


    Starting from basic electrodynamics, this volume provides a solid, yet concise introduction to theoretical optics, containing topics such as nonlinear optics, light-matter interaction, and modern topics in quantum optics, including entanglement, cryptography, and quantum computation. The author, with many years of experience in teaching and research, goes way beyond the scope of traditional lectures, enabling readers to keep up with the current state of knowledge. Both content and presentation make it essential reading for graduate and phD students as well as a valuable reference for researche

  8. Optical controlled keyboard system (United States)

    Budzyński, Łukasz; Długosz, Dariusz; Niewiarowski, Bartosz; Zajkowski, Maciej


    Control systems of our computers are common devices, based on the manipulation of keys or a moving ball. Completely healthy people have no problems with the operation of such devices. Human disability makes everyday activities become a challenge and create trouble. When a man can not move his hands, the work becomes difficult or often impossible. Controlled optical keyboard is a modern device that allows to bypass the limitations of disability limbs. The use of wireless optical transmission allows to control computer using a laser beam, which cooperates with the photodetectors. The article presents the construction and operation of non-contact optical keyboard for people with disabilities.

  9. Microstructured polymer optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Large, Maryanne; Barton, Geoff; van Eijkelenborg, Martijn A


    Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres describes the optical properties of microstructured fibres, how they are made and modelled, and outlines some potential applications. These applications include areas where polymer fibres are already used, such as high-data rate transmission for Fibre-to-the Home or within cars, as well as completely new areas such as the photonic bandgap transmission of ""difficult"" wavelengths. Emphasising a conceptual understanding of the underlying physics, Microstructured Polymer Optical Fibres is clearly written, and includes numerous illustrations. It provides an

  10. The ANTARES Optical Module

    CERN Document Server

    Amram, P; Anvar, S; Ardellier-Desages, F E; Aslanides, Elie; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Azoulay, R; Bailey, D; Basa, S; Battaglieri, M; Bellotti, R; Benhammou, Ya; Bernard, F; Berthier, R; Bertin, V; Billault, M; Blaes, R; Bland, R W; Blondeau, F; De Botton, N R; Boulesteix, J; Brooks, B; Brunner, J; Cafagna, F; Calzas, A; Capone, A; Caponetto, L; Cârloganu, C; Carmona, E; Carr, J; Carton, P H; Cartwright, S L; Cassol, F; Cecchini, S; Ciacio, F; Circella, M; Compere, C; Cooper, S; Coyle, P; Croquette, J; Cuneo, S; Danilov, M; Van Dantzig, R; De Marzo, C; De Vita, R; Deck, P; Destelle, J J; Dispau, G; Drougou, J F; Druillole, F; Engelen, J; Feinstein, F; Festy, D; Fopma, J; Gallone, J M; Giacomelli, G; Goret, P; Gosset, L G; Gournay, J F; Heijboer, A; Hernández-Rey, J J; Herrouin, G; Hubbard, John R; Jacquet, M; De Jong, M; Karolak, M; Kooijman, P M; Kouchner, A; Kudryavtsev, V A; Lachartre, D; Lafoux, H; Lamare, P; Languillat, J C; Laubier, L; Laugier, J P; Le Guen, Y; Le Provost, H; Le Van-Suu, A; Lemoine, L; Lo Nigro, L; Lo Presti, D; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Louis, F; Lyashuk, V I; Magnier, P; Marcelin, M; Margiotta, A; Massol, A; Masullo, R; Mazéas, F; Mazeau, B; Mazure, A; McMillan, J E; Michel, J L; Migneco, E; Millot, C; Mols, P; Montanet, François; Montaruli, T; Morel, J P; Moscoso, L; Navas, S; Nezri, E; Nooren, G J L; Oberski, J; Olivetto, C; Oppelt-pohl, A; Palanque-Delabrouille, Nathalie; Payre, P; Perrin, P; Petruccetti, M; Petta, P; Piattelli, P; Poinsignon, J; Popa, V; Potheau, R; Queinec, Y; Racca, C; Raia, G; Randazzo, N; Rethore, F; Riccobene, G; Ricol, J S; Ripani, M; Roca-Blay, V; Rolin, J F; Rostovtsev, A A; Russo, G V; Sacquin, Yu; Salusti, E; Schuller, J P; Schuster, W; Soirat, J P; Suvorova, O; Spooner, N J C; Spurio, M; Stolarczyk, T; Stubert, D; Taiuti, M; Tao, Charling; Tayalati, Y; Thompson, L F; Tilav, S; Triay, R; Valente, V; Varlamov, I; Vaudaine, G; Vernin, P; De Witt-Huberts, P K A; De Wolf, E; Zakharov, V; Zavatarelli, S; De Dios-Zornoza-Gomez, Juan; Zúñiga, J


    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km-squared and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R & D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  11. The ANTARES optical module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, P.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anvar, S.; Ardellier-Desages, F.E.; Aslanides, E.; Aubert, J.-J.; Azoulay, R.; Bailey, D.; Basa, S.; Battaglieri, M.; Bellotti, R.; Benhammou, Y.; Bernard, F.; Berthier, R.; Bertin, V.; Billault, M.; Blaes, R.; Bland, R.W.; Blondeau, F.; Botton, N. de; Boulesteix, J.; Brooks, C.B.; Brunner, J.; Cafagna, F.; Calzas, A.; Capone, A.; Caponetto, L.; Carloganu, C.; Carmona, E.; Carr, J.; Carton, P.-H.; Cartwright, S.L.; Cassol, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ciacio, F.; Circella, M.; Compere, C.; Cooper, S.; Coyle, P.; Croquette, J.; Cuneo, S.; Danilov, M.; Dantzig, R. van; De Marzo, C.; DeVita, R.; Deck, P.; Destelle, J.-J.; Dispau, G.; Drougou, J.F.; Druillole, F.; Engelen, J.; Feinstein, F.; Festy, D.; Fopma, J.; Gallone, J.-M.; Giacomelli, G.; Goret, P.; Gosset, L.; Gournay, J.-F.; Heijboer, A.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Herrouin, G.; Hubbard, J.R.; Jaquet, M.; Jong, M. de; Karolak, M.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kudryavtsev, V.A.; Lachartre, D.; Lafoux, H. E-mail:; Lamare, P.; Languillat, J.-C.; Laubier, L.; Laugier, J.-P.; Le Guen, Y.; Le Provost, H.; Le Van Suu, A.; Lemoine, L.; Lo Nigro, L.; Lo Presti, D.; Loucatos, S.; Louis, F.; Lyashuk, V.; Magnier, P.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Massol, A.; Masullo, R.; Mazeas, F.; Mazeau, B.; Mazure, A.; McMillan, J.E.; Michel, J.L.; Migneco, E.; Millot, C.; Mols, P.; Montanet, F.; Montaruli, T.; Morel, J.P.; Moscoso, L.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Nooren, G.J.; Oberski, J.; Olivetto, C.; Oppelt-Pohl, A.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Papaleo, R.; Payre, P.; Perrin, P.; Petruccetti, M.; Petta, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poinsignon, J.; Potheau, R.; Queinec, Y.; Racca, C.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Rethore, F.; Riccobene, G.; Ricol, J.-S.; Ripani, M.; Roca-Blay, V.; Rolin, J.F.; Rostovstev, A.; Russo, G.V.; Sacquin, Y.; Salusti, E.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schuster, W.; Soirat, J.-P.; Souvorova, O.; Spooner, N.J.C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, T.; Stubert, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tao, C.; Tayalati, Y.; Thompson, L.F.


    The ANTARES collaboration is building a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean Sea. This detector will cover a sensitive area of typically 0.1 km{sup 2} and will be equipped with about 1000 optical modules. Each of these optical modules consists of a large area photomultiplier and its associated electronics housed in a pressure resistant glass sphere. The design of the ANTARES optical module, which is a key element of the detector, has been finalized following extensive R and D studies and is reviewed here in detail.

  12. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier


    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  13. Optical Microangiography Based on Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Reif, Roberto; Wang, Ruikang K.

    Proper homeostasis regulation of in vivo biological systems requires microvascular blood perfusion, which is the process of delivering blood into the tissue's capillary beds. Abnormal tissue vascularization has been associated with various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, neurological disorders, wounds, and inflammation. Understanding the changes in the vascular network or microangiography will have an important role in determining the causes and developing potential treatments for these diseases. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive method for imaging three-dimensional biological tissues with high resolution (~10 µm) and without requiring the use of contrast agents. In this chapter we review several techniques for using OCT to determine blood flow velocities and the vessel morphology (optical microangiography). Different techniques will be discussed with a brief explanation of their limitations. Also, methods for quantifying these images are presented, as well as the depiction of several applications.

  14. Methods for globally treating silica optics to reduce optical damage (United States)

    Miller, Philip Edward; Suratwala, Tayyab Ishaq; Bude, Jeffrey Devin; Shen, Nan; Steele, William Augustus; Laurence, Ted Alfred; Feit, Michael Dennis; Wong, Lana Louie


    A method for preventing damage caused by high intensity light sources to optical components includes annealing the optical component for a predetermined period. Another method includes etching the optical component in an etchant including fluoride and bi-fluoride ions. The method also includes ultrasonically agitating the etching solution during the process followed by rinsing of the optical component in a rinse bath.

  15. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong; Kim; Sang-Yung; Shin; Doo-Sun; Choi


    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than -10 dB.

  16. Vertically Integrated Thermo-Optic Waveguide Switch Using Optical Polymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Hong Kim; Sang-Yung Shin; Doo-Sun Choi


    We propose and fabricate a vertically integrated thermo-optic waveguide switch. It controls the optical path between two vertically stacked waveguides using the thermo-optic effect of optical polymer. The measured crosstalk is less than-10 dB.

  17. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science and technology in-

  18. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts,sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences

  19. Problems in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rousseau, Madeleine; Ter Haar, D


    This collection of problems and accompanying solutions provide the reader with a full introduction to physical optics. The subject coverage is fairly traditional, with chapters on interference and diffraction, and there is a general emphasis on spectroscopy.

  20. Stereoscopic optical viewing system (United States)

    Tallman, Clifford S.


    An improved optical system which provides the operator a stereoscopic viewing field and depth of vision, particularly suitable for use in various machines such as electron or laser beam welding and drilling machines. The system features two separate but independently controlled optical viewing assemblies from the eyepiece to a spot directly above the working surface. Each optical assembly comprises a combination of eye pieces, turning prisms, telephoto lenses for providing magnification, achromatic imaging relay lenses and final stage pentagonal turning prisms. Adjustment for variations in distance from the turning prisms to the workpiece, necessitated by varying part sizes and configurations and by the operator's visual accuity, is provided separately for each optical assembly by means of separate manual controls at the operator console or within easy reach of the operator.

  1. Optics for SIERRA Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop and demonstrate a software architecture, initially based on GPU’s but expandable to multiple CPU platforms, to provide optical raytraces with more than...

  2. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a very...

  3. Fiberless Optical Gyroscope Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a radical new approach for to the design and fabrication of a fiber-less Interferometric Optical Gyroscope (IOG) that enables the production of a...

  4. Fiber Optics: No Illusion. (United States)

    American School and University, 1983


    A campus computer center at Hofstra University (New York) that holds 70 terminals for student use was first a gymnasium, then a language laboratory. Strands of fiber optics are used for the necessary wiring. (MLF)

  5. Optical quantum computing. (United States)

    O'Brien, Jeremy L


    In 2001, all-optical quantum computing became feasible with the discovery that scalable quantum computing is possible using only single-photon sources, linear optical elements, and single-photon detectors. Although it was in principle scalable, the massive resource overhead made the scheme practically daunting. However, several simplifications were followed by proof-of-principle demonstrations, and recent approaches based on cluster states or error encoding have dramatically reduced this worrying resource overhead, making an all-optical architecture a serious contender for the ultimate goal of a large-scale quantum computer. Key challenges will be the realization of high-efficiency sources of indistinguishable single photons, low-loss, scalable optical circuits, high-efficiency single-photon detectors, and low-loss interfacing of these components.

  6. Optical fiber communications

    CERN Document Server

    Keiser, Gerd


    The fourth edition of this popular text and reference book presents the fundamental principles for understanding and applying optical fiber technology to sophisticated modern telecommunication systems. Optical-fiber-based telecommunication networks have become a major information-transmission-system, with high capacity links encircling the globe in both terrestrial and undersea installations. Numerous passive and active optical devices within these links perform complex transmission and networking functions in the optical domain, such as signal amplification, restoration, routing, and switching. Along with the need to understand the functions of these devices comes the necessity to measure both component and network performance, and to model and stimulate the complex behavior of reliable high-capacity networks.

  7. [Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy]. (United States)

    Leo-Kottler, B; Wissinger, B


    Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) is a rare disease primarily affecting the retinal ganglion cells. In most cases patients with LHON develop permanent visual loss with a large central scotoma in the visual field of both eyes. The optic disc becomes partially or completely pale. At the onset of the disease many patients are considered to suffer from an optic neuritis and are treated under the diagnostic and therapeutic regimen of optic neuritis. LHON is mostly only considered when high dose cortisone therapy fails to be effective or the second eye is affected. Thereafter, molecular genetic analysis will prove LHON in these cases. Detailed anamnesis including pedigree analysis in combination with observance of the peripapillary microangiopathic alterations at the fundus will help to speed up the diagnosis of LHON, but even after exact clinical and molecular genetic diagnosis of LHON some aspects of the disease still remain a mystery today.

  8. Optical fiber synaptic sensor (United States)

    Pisarchik, A. N.; Jaimes-Reátegui, R.; Sevilla-Escoboza, R.; García-Lopez, J. H.; Kazantsev, V. B.


    Understanding neuron connections is a great challenge, which is needed to solve many important problems in neurobiology and neuroengineering for recreation of brain functions and efficient biorobotics. In particular, a design of an optical synapse capable to communicate with neuron spike sequences would be crucial to improve the functionality of neuromimmetic networks. In this work we propose an optical synaptic sensor based on an erbium-doped fiber laser driven by a FitzHung-Nagumo electronic neuron, to connect with another electronic neuron. Two possible optical synaptic configurations are analyzed for optoelectronic coupling between neurons: laser cavity loss modulation and pump laser modulation. The control parameters of the proposed optical synapse provide additional degrees of flexibility to the neuron connection traditionally controlled only by coupling strengths in artificial networks.

  9. Improved Optical Keyboard (United States)

    Jamieson, R. S.


    Optical keyboard surfaces used in typewriters, computer terminals, and telephone inexpensively fabricated using stack of printed-circuit cards set in laminate. Internal laminations carry all illuminating and sensing light conductors to keys.

  10. Atypical Optic Neuritis. (United States)

    Gaier, Eric D; Boudreault, Katherine; Rizzo, Joseph F; Falardeau, Julie; Cestari, Dean M


    Classic demyelinative optic neuritis is associated with multiple sclerosis and typically carries a good prognosis for visual recovery. This disorder is well characterized with respect to its presentation and clinical features by baseline data obtained through the optic neuritis treatment trial and numerous other studies. Atypical optic neuritis entails clinical manifestations that deviate from this classic pattern of features. Clinical signs and symptoms that deviate from the typical presentation should prompt consideration of less common etiologies. Atypical features to consider include lack of pain, simultaneous or near-simultaneous onset, lack of response to or relapse upon tapering from corticosteroids, or optic nerve head or peripapillary hemorrhages. The most important alternative etiologies to consider and the steps towards their respective diagnostic evaluations are suggested for these atypical features.

  11. Introduction to Optical Tweezers. (United States)

    Koch, Matthias D; Shaevitz, Joshua W


    Thirty years after their invention by Arthur Ashkin and colleagues at Bell Labs in 1986 [1], optical tweezers (or traps) have become a versatile tool to address numerous biological problems. Put simply, an optical trap is a highly focused laser beam that is capable of holding and applying forces to micron-sized dielectric objects. However, their development over the last few decades has converted these tools from boutique instruments into highly versatile instruments of molecular biophysics. This introductory chapter intends to give a brief overview of the field, highlight some important scientific achievements, and demonstrate why optical traps have become a powerful tool in the biological sciences. We introduce a typical optical setup, describe the basic theoretical concepts of how trapping forces arise, and present the quantitative position and force measurement techniques that are most widely used today.

  12. Optical wear monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kidane, Getnet S; Desilva, Upul P.; He, Chengli; Ulerich, Nancy H.


    A gas turbine includes first and second parts having outer surfaces located adjacent to each other to create an interface where wear occurs. A wear probe is provided for monitoring wear of the outer surface of the first part, and includes an optical guide having first and second ends, wherein the first end is configured to be located flush with the outer surface of the first part. A fiber bundle includes first and second ends, the first end being located proximate to the second end of the optical guide. The fiber bundle includes a transmit fiber bundle comprising a first plurality of optical fibers coupled to a light source, and a receive fiber bundle coupled to a light detector and configured to detect reflected light. A processor is configured to determine a length of the optical guide based on the detected reflected light.

  13. Optical Polarizationin Biomedical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tuchin, Valery V; Zimnyakov, Dmitry A


    Optical Polarization in Biomedical Applications introduces key developments in optical polarization methods for quantitative studies of tissues, while presenting the theory of polarization transfer in a random medium as a basis for the quantitative description of polarized light interaction with tissues. This theory uses the modified transfer equation for Stokes parameters and predicts the polarization structure of multiple scattered optical fields. The backscattering polarization matrices (Jones matrix and Mueller matrix) important for noninvasive medical diagnostic are introduced. The text also describes a number of diagnostic techniques such as CW polarization imaging and spectroscopy, polarization microscopy and cytometry. As a new tool for medical diagnosis, optical coherent polarization tomography is analyzed. The monograph also covers a range of biomedical applications, among them cataract and glaucoma diagnostics, glucose sensing, and the detection of bacteria.

  14. Optic nerve oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    la Cour, M; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Eysteinsson, T


    To investigate the influence of acute changes in intraocular pressure on the oxygen tension in the vicinity of the optic nerve head under control conditions and after intravenous administration of 500 mg of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor dorzolamide....

  15. Roadmap on optical security (United States)

    Javidi, Bahram; Carnicer, Artur; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Nomura, Takanori; Pérez-Cabré, Elisabet; Millán, María S.; Nishchal, Naveen K.; Torroba, Roberto; Fredy Barrera, John; He, Wenqi; Peng, Xiang; Stern, Adrian; Rivenson, Yair; Alfalou, A.; Brosseau, C.; Guo, Changliang; Sheridan, John T.; Situ, Guohai; Naruse, Makoto; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Juvells, Ignasi; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Lancis, Jesús; Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Pinkse, Pepijn W. H.; Mosk, Allard P.; Markman, Adam


    Information security and authentication are important challenges facing society. Recent attacks by hackers on the databases of large commercial and financial companies have demonstrated that more research and development of advanced approaches are necessary to deny unauthorized access to critical data. Free space optical technology has been investigated by many researchers in information security, encryption, and authentication. The main motivation for using optics and photonics for information security is that optical waveforms possess many complex degrees of freedom such as amplitude, phase, polarization, large bandwidth, nonlinear transformations, quantum properties of photons, and multiplexing that can be combined in many ways to make information encryption more secure and more difficult to attack. This roadmap article presents an overview of the potential, recent advances, and challenges of optical security and encryption using free space optics. The roadmap on optical security is comprised of six categories that together include 16 short sections written by authors who have made relevant contributions in this field. The first category of this roadmap describes novel encryption approaches, including secure optical sensing which summarizes double random phase encryption applications and flaws [Yamaguchi], the digital holographic encryption in free space optical technique which describes encryption using multidimensional digital holography [Nomura], simultaneous encryption of multiple signals [Pérez-Cabré], asymmetric methods based on information truncation [Nishchal], and dynamic encryption of video sequences [Torroba]. Asymmetric and one-way cryptosystems are analyzed by Peng. The second category is on compression for encryption. In their respective contributions, Alfalou and Stern propose similar goals involving compressed data and compressive sensing encryption. The very important area of cryptanalysis is the topic of the third category with two sections

  16. Computational toolbox for optical tweezers in geometrical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Callegari, Agnese; Gököz, A Burak; Volpe, Giovanni


    Optical tweezers have found widespread application in many fields, from physics to biology. Here, we explain in detail how optical forces and torques can be described within the geometrical optics approximation and we show that this approximation provides reliable results in agreement with experiments for particles whose characteristic dimensions are larger than the wavelength of the trapping light. Furthermore, we provide an object-oriented software package implemented in MatLab for the calculation of optical forces and torques in the geometrical optics regime: \\texttt{OTGO - Optical Tweezers in Geometrical Optics}. We provide all source codes for \\texttt{OTGO} as well as the documentation and code examples -- e.g., standard optical tweezers, optical tweezers with elongated particle, windmill effect, Kramers transitions between two optical traps -- necessary to enable users to effectively employ it in their research and teaching.

  17. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts , sponsored by the Documentation andInformation Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Networkof the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanicsand Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, is one of the series of science andtechnology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts started a quarterly publication in 1985,with the name of Chinese Science and Technology Document Catalogues: Optics andApplied Optics. It changed into a bimonthly publication with the name of Chinese Opticsand Applied Optics Abstracts in 1987. In combination with the Chinese Optics

  18. Optical remote sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Prasad, Saurabh; Chanussot, Jocelyn


    Optical remote sensing relies on exploiting multispectral and hyper spectral imagery possessing high spatial and spectral resolutions respectively. These modalities, although useful for most remote sensing tasks, often present challenges that must be addressed for their effective exploitation. This book presents current state-of-the-art algorithms that address the following key challenges encountered in representation and analysis of such optical remotely sensed data: challenges in pre-processing images, storing and representing high dimensional data, fusing different sensor modalities, patter

  19. Fiber optic detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partin, J.K.; Ward, T.E.; Grey, A.E.


    This invention is comprised of a portable fiber optic detector that senses the presence of specific target chemicals by exchanging the target chemical for a fluorescently-tagged antigen that is bound to an antibody which is in turn attached to an optical fiber. Replacing the fluorescently-tagged antigen reduces the fluorescence so that a photon sensing detector records the reduced light level and activates an appropriate alarm or indicator.

  20. Hybrid Optical Inference Machines (United States)


    imaging. A PC controlled data acquistion system with digital to analog-output was setup with serial- 66 - I controlled linear translation and rotation...rules in Eq. (4) of specific conclusions which are logica ,, .ferred form-the knowledge base. from the facts and rules in response to the queries. In...error rates, digital S 0ucries Conclusions optical signals (binary intensity levels) are assumed for all input and output signals in the optical

  1. Nonlinear optical thin films (United States)

    Leslie, Thomas M.


    A focused approach to development and evaluation of organic polymer films for use in optoelectronics is presented. The issues and challenges that are addressed include: (1) material synthesis, purification, and the tailoring of the material properties; (2) deposition of uniform thin films by a variety of methods; (3) characterization of material physical properties (thermal, electrical, optical, and electro-optical); and (4) device fabrication and testing. Photonic materials, devices, and systems were identified as critical technology areas by the Department of Commerce and the Department of Defense. This approach offers strong integration of basic material issues through engineering applications by the development of materials that can be exploited as the active unit in a variety of polymeric thin film devices. Improved materials were developed with unprecedented purity and stability. The absorptive properties can be tailored and controlled to provide significant improvement in propagation losses and nonlinear performance. Furthermore, the materials were incorporated into polymers that are highly compatible with fabrication and patterning processes for integrated optical devices and circuits. By simultaneously addressing the issues of materials development and characterization, keeping device design and fabrication in mind, many obstacles were overcome for implementation of these polymeric materials and devices into systems. We intend to considerably improve the upper use temperature, poling stability, and compatibility with silicon based devices. The principal device application that was targeted is a linear electro-optic modulation etalon. Organic polymers need to be properly designed and coupled with existing integrated circuit technology to create new photonic devices for optical communication, image processing, other laser applications such as harmonic generation, and eventually optical computing. The progression from microscopic sample to a suitable film

  2. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Lorenzo, Ruben M.


    Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project.......Cognitive networks are a promising solution for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. We review their fundamentals as well as a number of applications developed in the framework of the EU FP7 CHRON project....

  3. Velocity selective optical pumping


    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.


    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  4. Optically fixed photorefractive correlator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘友文; 刘立人; 周常河; 徐良瑛


    An optically fixed photorefractive correlator is presented, where two-centre non-volatile holographic recording isemployed to write and fix the matched filter in doubly doped LiNbO3 crystals. This correlator shows good correlationcharacteristics and insensitivity to the writing beam during readout. It can be used in cases requiring stability and notrequiring modification for a long period, and it is refreshed optically when new information needs to be registered.

  5. Fiber optics welder (United States)

    Higgins, R.W.; Robichaud, R.E.

    A system is described for welding fiber optic waveguides together. The ends of the two fibers to be joined together are accurately, collinearly aligned in a vertical orientation and subjected to a controlled, diffuse arc to effect welding and thermal conditioning. A front-surfaced mirror mounted at a 45/sup 0/ angle to the optical axis of a stereomicroscope mounted for viewing the junction of the ends provides two orthogonal views of the interface during the alignment operation.

  6. Toroidal optical activity

    CERN Document Server

    Raybould, T A; Papasimakis, N; Kuprov, I; Youngs, I; Chen, W T; Tsai, D P; Zheludev, N I


    Optical activity is ubiquitous across natural and artificial media and is conventionally understood in terms of scattering from electric and magnetic moments. Here we demonstrate experimentally and confirm numerically a type of optical activity that cannot be attributed to electric and magnetic multipoles. We show that our observations can only be accounted for by the inclusion of the toroidal dipole moment, the first term of the recently established peculiar family of toroidal multipoles.

  7. Regeneration of Optic Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok-Fai So


    Full Text Available The optic nerve is part of the central nervous system (CNS and has a structure similar to other CNS tracts. The axons that form the optic nerve originate in the ganglion cell layer of the retina and extend through the optic tract. As a tissue, the optic nerve has the same organization as the white matter of the brain in regard to its glia. There are three types of glial cells: Oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. Little structural and functional regeneration of the CNS takes place spontaneously following injury in adult mammals. In contrast, the ability of the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS to regenerate axons after injury is well documented. A number of factors are involved in the lack of CNS regeneration, including: (i the response of neuronal cell bodies against the damage; (ii myelin-mediated inhibition by oligodendrocytes; (iii glial scarring, by astrocytes; (iv macrophage infiltration; and (v insufficient trophic factor support. The fundamental difference in the regenerative capacity between CNS and PNS neuronal cell bodies has been the subject of intensive research. In the CNS the target normally conveys a retrograde trophic signal to the cell body. CNS neurons die because of trophic deprivation. Damage to the optic nerve disconnects the neuronal cell body from its target-derived trophic peptides, leading to the death of retinal ganglion cells. Furthermore, the axontomized neurons become less responsive to the peptide trophic signals they do receive. On the other hand, adult PNS neurons are intrinsically responsive to neurotrophic factors and do not lose trophic responsiveness after axotomy. In this talk different strategies to promote optic-nerve regeneration in adult mammals are reviewed. Much work is still needed to resolve many issues. This is a very important area of neuroregeneration and neuroprotection, as currently there is no cure after traumatic optic nerve injury or retinal disease such as glaucoma, which

  8. Optical Diagnostics in Medicine (United States)

    Iftimia, Nicusor


    Light has a unique potential for non-invasive tissue diagnosis. The relatively short wavelength of light allows imaging of tissue at the resolution of histopathology. While strong multiple scattering of light in tissue makes attainment of this resolution difficult for thick tissues, most pathology emanates from epithelial surfaces. Therefore, high-resolution diagnosis of many important diseases may be achieved by transmitting light to the surface of interest. The recent fiber-optic implementation of technologies that reject multiple scattering, such as confocal microscopy and optical low coherence interferometry, have brought us one step closer to realizing non-invasive imaging of architectural and cellular features of tissue. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can produce high-resolution cross-sectional images of biological structures. Clinical OCT studies conducted in the gastrointestinal tract and cardiovascular system have shown that OCT is capable of providing images of the architectural (> 20 µm) microanatomy of a variety of epithelial tissues, including the layered structure of squamous epithelium and arterial vessels. Fine Needle Aspiration- Low Coherence Interferometry (FNA-LCI) is another optical diagnostics technique, which is a suitable solution to increase the effectiveness of the FNA procedures. LCI is capable of measuring depth resolved (axial, z) tissue structure, birefringence, flow (Doppler shift), and spectra at a resolution of several microns. Since LCI systems are fiber-optic based, LCI probes may easily fit within the bore of a fine gauge needle, allowing diagnostic information to be obtained directly from the FNA biopsy site. Fiber optic spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a new confocal microscopy method, which eliminates the need for rapid beam scanning within the optical probe. This advance enables confocal microscopy to be performed through small diameter probes and will allow assessment of internal human tissues in vivo at

  9. Pappus in optical space. (United States)

    Koenderink, Jan J; van Doorn, Andrea J; Kappers, Astrid M L; Todd, James T


    Optical space differs from physical space. The structure of optical space has generally been assumed to be metrical. In contradistinction, we do not assume any metric, but only incidence relations (i.e., we assume that optical points and lines exist and that two points define a unique line, and two lines a unique point). (The incidence relations have generally been assumed implicitly by earlier authors.) The condition that makes such an incidence structure into a projective space is the Pappus condition. The Pappus condition describes a projective relation between three collinear triples of points, whose validity can--in principle--be verified empirically. The Pappus condition is a necessary condition for optical space to be a homogeneous space (Lobatchevski hyperbolic or Riemann elliptic space) as assumed by, for example, the well-known Luneburg theory. We test the Pappus condition in a full-cue situation (open field, broad daylight, distances of up to 20 m, visual fields of up to 160 degrees diameter). We found that although optical space is definitely not veridical, even under full-cue conditions, violations of the Pappus condition are the exception. Apparently optical space is not totally different from a homogeneous space, although it is in no way close to Euclidean.

  10. Physics of optical tweezers. (United States)

    Nieminen, Timo A; Knöner, Gregor; Heckenberg, Norman R; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina


    We outline the basic principles of optical tweezers as well as the fundamental theory underlying optical tweezers. The optical forces responsible for trapping result from the transfer of momentum from the trapping beam to the particle and are explained in terms of the momenta of incoming and reflected or refracted rays. We also consider the angular momentum flux of the beam in order to understand and explain optical torques. In order to provide a qualitative picture of the trapping, we treat the particle as a weak positive lens and the forces on the lens are shown. However, this representation does not provide quantitative results for the force. We, therefore, present results of applying exact electromagnetic theory to optical trapping. First, we consider a tightly focused laser beam. We give results for trapping of spherical particles and examine the limits of trappability in terms of type and size of the particles. We also study the effect of a particle on the beam. This exact solution reproduces the same qualitative effect as when treating the particle as a lens where changes in the convergence or divergence and in the direction of the trapping beam result in restoring forces acting on the particle. Finally, we review the fundamental theory of optical tweezers.

  11. Optical computer motherboards (United States)

    Jannson, Tomasz P.; Xu, Guoda; Bartha, John M.; Gruntman, Michael A.


    In this paper, we investigate the application of precision plastic optics into a communication/computer sub-system, such as a hybrid computer motherboard. We believe that using optical waveguides for next-generation computer motherboards can provide a high performance alternative for present multi-layer printed circuit motherboards. In response to this demand, we suggest our novel concept of a hybrid motherboard based on an internal-fiber-coupling (IFC) wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical backplane. The IFC/WDM backplane provides dedicated Tx/Rx connections, and applies low-cost, high-performance components, including CD LDs, GRIN plastic fibers, molding housing, and nonimaging optics connectors. Preliminary motherboard parameters are: speed 100 MHz/100 m, or 1 GHz/10 m; fiber loss approximately 0.01 dB/m; almost zero fan-out/fan-in optical power loss, and eight standard wavelength channels. The proposed hybrid computer motherboard, based on innovative optical backplane technology, should solve low-speed, low-parallelism bottlenecks in present electric computer motherboards.

  12. Magneto-optical multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bader, S.D.


    Magneto-optical multilayers are of interest to the optical data storage community as a possible second-generation medium of the future. The important Co/Pt-superlattice system is introduced in this respect, and an extensive reference listing is provided to previous research. Magneto-optical modeling studies of Co/Pt are presented, and it is concluded that the interfacial Pt is magnetized and is magneto-optically active at the short wavelengths of interest ({approximately}4 eV) for applications. Magneto-optics in the ultrathin limit are discussed, and an additivity law is presented and verified experimentally utilizing data for epitaxial Fe/Ag(111) superlattices. Finally, the surface magnetic anisotropy that provides the vertical easy axes of magnetization in candidate superlattice systems is discussed and illustrated experimentally using ultrathin epitaxial films of Fe grown on a variety of substrates. It is concluded that magneto-optic multilayers will provide many stimulating basic and applied challenges in the years ahead.

  13. Improved optically driven microrotors (United States)

    Asavei, Theodor; Loke, Vincent L. Y.; Nieminen, Timo A.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina


    Two-photon polymerization of optically curing resins is a powerful method to fabricate micron sized objects which can be used as tools to measure properties at small scales. These microdevices can be driven by means of externally applied focused laser beams (optical tweezers) through angular momentum exchange, giving rise to a net torque. The advantage of the optical drive is that no contact is required, therefore making the microdevices suited to non-invasive biological applications. The fabrication method is versatile and allows building objects of any 3D shape. We discuss the design and modelling of various optically driven rotors. In particular, we consider fabrication of microspheres with an internal shape birefringence in order to obtain rotation in an optical trap. The reason for fabricating this type of object is that they are well-suited for studies of mechanical properties of single biomolecules such as the torsional stiffness of DNA or torque generated by molecular motors. The microspheres fabricated are able to transduce torques of 2000 pNnm with optical powers of 500 mW and could be rotated with frequencies up to 40 Hz in circularly polarized light.

  14. Fiber Optic Microphone (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; George, Thomas; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)


    Research into advanced pressure sensors using fiber-optic technology is aimed at developing compact size microphones. Fiber optic sensors are inherently immune to electromagnetic noise, and are very sensitive, light weight, and highly flexible. In FY 98, NASA researchers successfully designed and assembled a prototype fiber-optic microphone. The sensing technique employed was fiber optic Fabry-Perot interferometry. The sensing head is composed of an optical fiber terminated in a miniature ferrule with a thin, silicon-microfabricated diaphragm mounted on it. The optical fiber is a single mode fiber with a core diameter of 8 micron, with the cleaved end positioned 50 micron from the diaphragm surface. The diaphragm is made up of a 0.2 micron thick silicon nitride membrane whose inner surface is metallized with layers of 30 nm titanium, 30 nm platinum, and 0.2 micron gold for efficient reflection. The active sensing area is approximately 1.5 mm in diameter. The measured differential pressure tolerance of this diaphragm is more than 1 bar, yielding a dynamic range of more than 100 dB.

  15. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang


    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  16. Optical design and testing: introduction. (United States)

    Liang, Chao-Wen; Koshel, John; Sasian, Jose; Breault, Robert; Wang, Yongtian; Fang, Yi Chin


    Optical design and testing has numerous applications in industrial, military, consumer, and medical settings. Assembling a complete imaging or nonimage optical system may require the integration of optics, mechatronics, lighting technology, optimization, ray tracing, aberration analysis, image processing, tolerance compensation, and display rendering. This issue features original research ranging from the optical design of image and nonimage optical stimuli for human perception, optics applications, bio-optics applications, 3D display, solar energy system, opto-mechatronics to novel imaging or nonimage modalities in visible and infrared spectral imaging, modulation transfer function measurement, and innovative interferometry.

  17. Roadmap on optical sensors (United States)

    Ferreira, Mário F. S.; Castro-Camus, Enrique; Ottaway, David J.; López-Higuera, José Miguel; Feng, Xian; Jin, Wei; Jeong, Yoonchan; Picqué, Nathalie; Tong, Limin; Reinhard, Björn M.; Pellegrino, Paul M.; Méndez, Alexis; Diem, Max; Vollmer, Frank; Quan, Qimin


    Sensors are devices or systems able to detect, measure and convert magnitudes from any domain to an electrical one. Using light as a probe for optical sensing is one of the most efficient approaches for this purpose. The history of optical sensing using some methods based on absorbance, emissive and florescence properties date back to the 16th century. The field of optical sensors evolved during the following centuries, but it did not achieve maturity until the demonstration of the first laser in 1960. The unique properties of laser light become particularly important in the case of laser-based sensors, whose operation is entirely based upon the direct detection of laser light itself, without relying on any additional mediating device. However, compared with freely propagating light beams, artificially engineered optical fields are in increasing demand for probing samples with very small sizes and/or weak light-matter interaction. Optical fiber sensors constitute a subarea of optical sensors in which fiber technologies are employed. Different types of specialty and photonic crystal fibers provide improved performance and novel sensing concepts. Actually, structurization with wavelength or subwavelength feature size appears as the most efficient way to enhance sensor sensitivity and its detection limit. This leads to the area of micro- and nano-engineered optical sensors. It is expected that the combination of better fabrication techniques and new physical effects may open new and fascinating opportunities in this area. This roadmap on optical sensors addresses different technologies and application areas of the field. Fourteen contributions authored by experts from both industry and academia provide insights into the current state-of-the-art and the challenges faced by researchers currently. Two sections of this paper provide an overview of laser-based and frequency comb-based sensors. Three sections address the area of optical fiber sensors, encompassing both

  18. Harnessing Light: Laser/Satellite Relay Mirror Systems and Deterrence in 2035 (United States)


    satellites. 49 Shutter Controls – Shutter controls on a satellite would enable the electronics and optical sensors to be protected, either as a...from a high-energy laser beam, but it would be a prudent precaution, especially if the shutters were constructed out of one of the advanced materials...October 2009). Fusion Energy Foundation. Beam Defense: An Alternative to Nuclear Destruction. Fallbrook, CA: Aero Publishers, Inc., 1983

  19. New optical microbarometer (United States)

    Olivier, Nathalie; Olivier, Serge; Hue, Anthony; Le Mallet, Serge


    Usually, transducers implemented in infrasound sensor (microbarometer) are mainly composed of two associated elements. The first one converts the external pressure variation into a physical linear displacement. The second one converts this motion into an electrical signal. According to this configuration, MB3, MB2000 and MB2005 microbarometers are using an aneroid capsule for the first one, and an electromagnetic transducer (Magnet-coil or LVDT) for the second one. CEA DAM (designer of MB series) and PROLANN / SEISMO WAVE (manufacturer and seller of MB3) have associated their expertise to design a new optical microbarometer: We aim at thinking that changing the electromagnetic transducer by an interferometer is an interesting solution in order to increase the dynamic and the resolution of the sensor. Currently, we are exploring this way in order to propose a future optical microbarometer which will enlarge the panel of infrasound sensors. First, we will present the new transducer principles, taking into account the aneroid capsule and the interferometer using integrated optics technology. More specifically, we will explain the operation of this optical technology, and discuss on its advantages and drawbacks. Secondly, we will present the optical microbarometer in which the interferometer is positioned inside the aneroid capsule under vacuum. The adjustment of the interferometer position is a challenge we solved. The optical measurement is naturally protected from environmental disturbances. Four prototypes were manufactured in order to compare their performances, and also an optical digitizer specifically designed to record the four channels interferometer. Finally, we will present the results we obtained with this sensor (sensitivity, self-noise, effect of environmental disturbance, etc) compared to those of a MB3 microbarometer, and discuss about the advantages of this new sensor.

  20. Optical communication components (United States)

    Eldada, Louay


    We review and contrast key technologies developed to address the optical components market for communication applications. We first review the component requirements from a network perspective. We then look at different material systems, compare their properties, and describe the functions achieved to date in each of them. The material systems reviewed include silica fiber, silica on silicon, silicon on insulator, silicon oxynitride, sol-gels, polymers, thin-film dielectrics, lithium niobate, indium phosphide, gallium arsenide, magneto-optic materials, and birefringent crystals. We then describe the most commonly used classes of optical device technology and present their pros and cons as well as the functions achieved to date in each of them. The technologies reviewed include passive, actuation, and active technologies. The passive technologies described include fused fibers, dispersion-compensating fiber, beam steering, Bragg gratings, diffraction gratings, holographic elements, thin-film filters, photonic crystals, microrings, and birefringent elements. The actuation technologies include thermo-optics, electro-optics, acousto-optics, magneto-optics, electroabsorption, liquid crystals, total internal reflection technologies, and mechanical actuation. The active technologies include heterostructures, quantum wells, rare-earth doping, dye doping, Raman amplification, and semiconductor amplification. We also investigate the use of different material systems and device technologies to achieve building-block functions, including lasers, amplifiers, detectors, modulators, polarization controllers, couplers, filters, switches, attenuators, isolators, circulators, wavelength converters, chromatic dispersion compensators, and polarization mode dispersion compensators. Some of the technologies presented are well established in the industry and in some cases have reached the commodity stage, others have recently become ready for commercial introduction, while some others

  1. Adaptive optics optical coherence tomography in glaucoma. (United States)

    Dong, Zachary M; Wollstein, Gadi; Wang, Bo; Schuman, Joel S


    Since the introduction of commercial optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems, the ophthalmic imaging modality has rapidly expanded and it has since changed the paradigm of visualization of the retina and revolutionized the management and diagnosis of neuro-retinal diseases, including glaucoma. OCT remains a dynamic and evolving imaging modality, growing from time-domain OCT to the improved spectral-domain OCT, adapting novel image analysis and processing methods, and onto the newer swept-source OCT and the implementation of adaptive optics (AO) into OCT. The incorporation of AO into ophthalmic imaging modalities has enhanced OCT by improving image resolution and quality, particularly in the posterior segment of the eye. Although OCT previously captured in-vivo cross-sectional images with unparalleled high resolution in the axial direction, monochromatic aberrations of the eye limit transverse or lateral resolution to about 15-20 μm and reduce overall image quality. In pairing AO technology with OCT, it is now possible to obtain diffraction-limited resolution images of the optic nerve head and retina in three-dimensions, increasing resolution down to a theoretical 3 μm(3). It is now possible to visualize discrete structures within the posterior eye, such as photoreceptors, retinal nerve fiber layer bundles, the lamina cribrosa, and other structures relevant to glaucoma. Despite its limitations and barriers to widespread commercialization, the expanding role of AO in OCT is propelling this technology into clinical trials and onto becoming an invaluable modality in the clinician's arsenal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Optical closure of parameterized bio-optical relationships (United States)

    He, Shuangyan; Fischer, Jürgen; Schaale, Michael; He, Ming-xia


    An optical closure study on bio-optical relationships was carried out using radiative transfer model matrix operator method developed by Freie Universität Berlin. As a case study, the optical closure of bio-optical relationships empirically parameterized with in situ data for the East China Sea was examined. Remote-sensing reflectance ( R rs) was computed from the inherent optical properties predicted by these biooptical relationships and compared with published in situ data. It was found that the simulated R rs was overestimated for turbid water. To achieve optical closure, bio-optical relationships for absorption and scattering coefficients for suspended particulate matter were adjusted. Furthermore, the results show that the Fournier and Forand phase functions obtained from the adjusted relationships perform better than the Petzold phase function. Therefore, before bio-optical relationships are used for a local sea area, the optical closure should be examined.

  3. Optical Performance Monitoring and Signal Optimization in Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Martin Nordal


    -optical-electrical regeneration points decreases. This thesis evaluates the impact of signal degrading effects that are becoming of increasing concern in all-optical high-speed networks due to all-optical switching and higher bit-rates. Especially group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) and a number of nonlinear effects will require......The thesis studies performance monitoring for the next generation optical networks. The focus is on all-optical networks with bit-rates of 10 Gb/s or above. Next generation all-optical networks offer large challenges as the optical transmitted distance increases and the occurrence of electrical...... enhanced attention to avoid signal degradations. The requirements for optical performance monitoring features are discussed, and the thesis evaluates the advantages and necessity of increasing the level of performance monitoring parameters in the physical layer. In particular, methods for optical...

  4. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy. (United States)

    Fu, L; Gu, M


    Nonlinear optical microscopy has been an indispensable laboratory tool of high-resolution imaging in thick tissue and live animals. Rapid developments of fibre-optic components in terms of growing functionality and decreasing size provide enormous opportunities for innovations in nonlinear optical microscopy. Fibre-based nonlinear optical endoscopy is the sole instrumentation to permit the cellular imaging within hollow tissue tracts or solid organs that are inaccessible to a conventional optical microscope. This article reviews the current development of fibre-optic nonlinear optical microscopy and endoscopy, which includes crucial technologies for miniaturized nonlinear optical microscopy and their embodiments of endoscopic systems. A particular attention is given to several classes of photonic crystal fibres that have been applied to nonlinear optical microscopy due to their unique properties for ultrashort pulse delivery and signal collection. Furthermore, fibre-optic nonlinear optical imaging systems can be classified into portable microscopes suitable for imaging behaving animals, rigid endoscopes that allow for deep tissue imaging with minimally invasive manners, and flexible endoscopes enabling imaging of internal organs. Fibre-optic nonlinear optical endoscopy is coming of age and a paradigm shift leading to optical microscope tools for early cancer detection and minimally invasive surgery.

  5. Optics Supply Planning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaylord, J


    The purpose of this study is to specify the design for an initial optics supply planning system for NIF, and to present quality assurance and test plans for the construction of the system as specified. The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a large laser facility that is just starting operations. Thousands of specialized optics are required to operate the laser, and must be exchanged over time based on the laser shot plan and predictions of damage. Careful planning and tracking of optic exchanges is necessary because of the tight inventory of spare optics, and the long lead times for optics procurements and production changes. Automated inventory forecasting and production planning tools are required to replace existing manual processes. The optics groups members who are expected to use the supply planning system are the stakeholders for this project, and are divided into three groups. Each of these groups participated in a requirements specification that was used to develop this design. (1) Optics Management--These are the top level stakeholdersk, and the final decision makers. This group is the interface to shot operations, is ultimately responsible for optics supply, and decides which exchanges will be made. (2) Work Center Managers--This group manages the on site optics processing work centers. They schedule the daily work center operations, and are responsible for developing long term processing, equipment, and staffing plans. (3) Component Engineers--This group manages the vendor contracts for the manufacture of new optics and the off site rework of existing optics. They are responsible for sourcing vendors, negotiating contracts, and managing vendor processes. The scope of this analysis is to describe the structure and design details of a system that will meet all requirements that were described by stakeholders and documented in the analysis model for this project. The design specifies the architecture, components, interfaces, and data stores of the system

  6. Quantum optical rotatory dispersion (United States)

    Tischler, Nora; Krenn, Mario; Fickler, Robert; Vidal, Xavier; Zeilinger, Anton; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel


    The phenomenon of molecular optical activity manifests itself as the rotation of the plane of linear polarization when light passes through chiral media. Measurements of optical activity and its wavelength dependence, that is, optical rotatory dispersion, can reveal information about intricate properties of molecules, such as the three-dimensional arrangement of atoms comprising a molecule. Given a limited probe power, quantum metrology offers the possibility of outperforming classical measurements. This has particular appeal when samples may be damaged by high power, which is a potential concern for chiroptical studies. We present the first experiment in which multiwavelength polarization-entangled photon pairs are used to measure the optical activity and optical rotatory dispersion exhibited by a solution of chiral molecules. Our work paves the way for quantum-enhanced measurements of chirality, with potential applications in chemistry, biology, materials science, and the pharmaceutical industry. The scheme that we use for probing wavelength dependence not only allows one to surpass the information extracted per photon in a classical measurement but also can be used for more general differential measurements. PMID:27713928

  7. Roadmap on optical metamaterials (United States)

    Urbas, Augustine M.; Jacob, Zubin; Dal Negro, Luca; Engheta, Nader; Boardman, A. D.; Egan, P.; Khanikaev, Alexander B.; Menon, Vinod; Ferrera, Marcello; Kinsey, Nathaniel; DeVault, Clayton; Kim, Jongbum; Shalaev, Vladimir; Boltasseva, Alexandra; Valentine, Jason; Pfeiffer, Carl; Grbic, Anthony; Narimanov, Evgenii; Zhu, Linxiao; Fan, Shanhui; Alù, Andrea; Poutrina, Ekaterina; Litchinitser, Natalia M.; Noginov, Mikhail A.; MacDonald, Kevin F.; Plum, Eric; Liu, Xiaoying; Nealey, Paul F.; Kagan, Cherie R.; Murray, Christopher B.; Pawlak, Dorota A.; Smolyaninov, Igor I.; Smolyaninova, Vera N.; Chanda, Debashis


    Optical metamaterials have redefined how we understand light in notable ways: from strong response to optical magnetic fields, negative refraction, fast and slow light propagation in zero index and trapping structures, to flat, thin and perfect lenses. Many rules of thumb regarding optics, such as μ = 1, now have an exception, and basic formulas, such as the Fresnel equations, have been expanded. The field of metamaterials has developed strongly over the past two decades. Leveraging structured materials systems to generate tailored response to a stimulus, it has grown to encompass research in optics, electromagnetics, acoustics and, increasingly, novel hybrid material responses. This roadmap is an effort to present emerging fronts in areas of optical metamaterials that could contribute and apply to other research communities. By anchoring each contribution in current work and prospectively discussing future potential and directions, the authors are translating the work of the field in selected areas to a wider community and offering an incentive for outside researchers to engage our community where solid links do not already exist.

  8. Solar Adaptive Optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R. Rimmele


    Full Text Available Adaptive optics (AO has become an indispensable tool at ground-based solar telescopes. AO enables the ground-based observer to overcome the adverse effects of atmospheric seeing and obtain diffraction limited observations. Over the last decade adaptive optics systems have been deployed at major ground-based solar telescopes and revitalized ground-based solar astronomy. The relatively small aperture of solar telescopes and the bright source make solar AO possible for visible wavelengths where the majority of solar observations are still performed. Solar AO systems enable diffraction limited observations of the Sun for a significant fraction of the available observing time at ground-based solar telescopes, which often have a larger aperture than equivalent space based observatories, such as HINODE. New ground breaking scientific results have been achieved with solar adaptive optics and this trend continues. New large aperture telescopes are currently being deployed or are under construction. With the aid of solar AO these telescopes will obtain observations of the highly structured and dynamic solar atmosphere with unprecedented resolution. This paper reviews solar adaptive optics techniques and summarizes the recent progress in the field of solar adaptive optics. An outlook to future solar AO developments, including a discussion of Multi-Conjugate AO (MCAO and Ground-Layer AO (GLAO will be given.

  9. Roadmap of optical communications (United States)

    Agrell, Erik; Karlsson, Magnus; Chraplyvy, A. R.; Richardson, David J.; Krummrich, Peter M.; Winzer, Peter; Roberts, Kim; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Savory, Seb J.; Eggleton, Benjamin J.; Secondini, Marco; Kschischang, Frank R.; Lord, Andrew; Prat, Josep; Tomkos, Ioannis; Bowers, John E.; Srinivasan, Sudha; Brandt-Pearce, Maïté; Gisin, Nicolas


    Lightwave communications is a necessity for the information age. Optical links provide enormous bandwidth, and the optical fiber is the only medium that can meet the modern society's needs for transporting massive amounts of data over long distances. Applications range from global high-capacity networks, which constitute the backbone of the internet, to the massively parallel interconnects that provide data connectivity inside datacenters and supercomputers. Optical communications is a diverse and rapidly changing field, where experts in photonics, communications, electronics, and signal processing work side by side to meet the ever-increasing demands for higher capacity, lower cost, and lower energy consumption, while adapting the system design to novel services and technologies. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of this rich research field, Journal of Optics has invited 16 researchers, each a world-leading expert in their respective subfields, to contribute a section to this invited review article, summarizing their views on state-of-the-art and future developments in optical communications.

  10. Wearable Optical Sensors

    KAUST Repository

    Ballard, Zachary S.


    The market for wearable sensors is predicted to grow to $5.5 billion by 2025, impacting global health in unprecedented ways. Optics and photonics will play a key role in the future of these wearable technologies, enabling highly sensitive measurements of otherwise invisible information and parameters about our health and surrounding environment. Through the implementation of optical wearable technologies, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and glucose monitors, among others, individuals are becoming more empowered to generate a wealth of rich, multifaceted physiological and environmental data, making personalized medicine a reality. Furthermore, these technologies can also be implemented in hospitals, clinics, point-of-care offices, assisted living facilities or even in patients’ homes for real-time, remote patient monitoring, creating more expeditious as well as resource-efficient systems. Several key optical technologies make such sensors possible, including e.g., optical fiber textiles, colorimetric, plasmonic, and fluorometric sensors, as well as Organic Light Emitting Diode (OLED) and Organic Photo-Diode (OPD) technologies. These emerging technologies and platforms show great promise as basic sensing elements in future wearable devices and will be reviewed in this chapter along-side currently existing fully integrated wearable optical sensors.

  11. Meta-Optics (United States)

    Engheta, Nader


    As the fields of metamaterial and plasmonic nanophotonics reach certain levels of development, new directions and novel vistas appear in the horizon. Modularization, parameterization and functionalization of metamaterials may be exploited to provide new functionalities and applications stemming from such interesting platforms of ``meta-optics.'' Indeed, the metamaterial ``forms'' may lead to novel ``functions.'' These may include metamaterial ``bits'' and ``bytes'' as building blocks for digitizing metamaterials, ``optical metatronics'' - metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry - formed by judicious arrangement of nanostructures capable of optical processing at the nanoscale, ``meta-systems'' formed by metamaterials and metasurfaces providing wave-based signal handling and processing, graphene metatronics as one-atom-thick mid IR circuits, and nonreciprocal metastructures for unusual control over flow of photons, to name a few. We are exploring various features and characteristics of these concepts, topics, and directions in the paradigms of meta-optics and are investigating new classes of potential applications such paradigms may provide. We will present an overview of our most recent results from a sample of these topics and will discuss future directions and potentials.

  12. Illusion induced overlapped optics. (United States)

    Zang, XiaoFei; Shi, Cheng; Li, Zhou; Chen, Lin; Cai, Bin; Zhu, YiMing; Zhu, HaiBin


    The traditional transformation-based cloak seems like it can only hide objects by bending the incident electromagnetic waves around the hidden region. In this paper, we prove that invisible cloaks can be applied to realize the overlapped optics. No matter how many in-phase point sources are located in the hidden region, all of them can overlap each other (this can be considered as illusion effect), leading to the perfect optical interference effect. In addition, a singular parameter-independent cloak is also designed to obtain quasi-overlapped optics. Even more amazing of overlapped optics is that if N identical separated in-phase point sources covered with the illusion media, the total power outside the transformation region is N2I0 (not NI0) (I0 is the power of just one point source, and N is the number point sources), which seems violating the law of conservation of energy. A theoretical model based on interference effect is proposed to interpret the total power of these two kinds of overlapped optics effects. Our investigation may have wide applications in high power coherent laser beams, and multiple laser diodes, and so on.

  13. Solar tomography adaptive optics. (United States)

    Ren, Deqing; Zhu, Yongtian; Zhang, Xi; Dou, Jiangpei; Zhao, Gang


    Conventional solar adaptive optics uses one deformable mirror (DM) and one guide star for wave-front sensing, which seriously limits high-resolution imaging over a large field of view (FOV). Recent progress toward multiconjugate adaptive optics indicates that atmosphere turbulence induced wave-front distortion at different altitudes can be reconstructed by using multiple guide stars. To maximize the performance over a large FOV, we propose a solar tomography adaptive optics (TAO) system that uses tomographic wave-front information and uses one DM. We show that by fully taking advantage of the knowledge of three-dimensional wave-front distribution, a classical solar adaptive optics with one DM can provide an extra performance gain for high-resolution imaging over a large FOV in the near infrared. The TAO will allow existing one-deformable-mirror solar adaptive optics to deliver better performance over a large FOV for high-resolution magnetic field investigation, where solar activities occur in a two-dimensional field up to 60'', and where the near infrared is superior to the visible in terms of magnetic field sensitivity.

  14. Plasmonic optical nanotweezers (United States)

    Kotb, Rehab; El Maklizi, Mahmoud; Ismail, Yehea; Swillam, Mohamed A.


    Plasmonic grating structures can be used in many applications such as nanolithography and optical trapping. In this paper, we used plasmonic grating as optical tweezers to trap and manipulate dielectric nano-particles. Different plasmonic grating structures with single, double, and triple slits have been investigated and analyzed. The three configurations are optimized and compared to find the best candidate to trap and manipulate nanoparticles. The three optimized structures results in capability to super focusing and beaming the light effectively beyond the diffraction limit. A high transverse gradient optical force is obtained using the triple slit configuration that managed to significantly enhance the field and its gradient. Therefore, it has been chosen as an efficient optical tweezers. This structure managed to trap sub10nm particles efficiently. The resultant 50KT potential well traps the nano particles stably. The proposed structure is used also to manipulate the nano-particles by simply changing the angle of the incident light. We managed to control the movement of nano particle over an area of (5μm x 5μm) precisely. The proposed structure has the advantage of trapping and manipulating the particles outside the structure (not inside the structure such as the most proposed optical tweezers). As a result, it can be used in many applications such as drug delivery and biomedical analysis.

  15. Superconducting optical modulator (United States)

    Bunt, Patricia S.; Ference, Thomas G.; Puzey, Kenneth A.; Tanner, David B.; Tache, Nacira; Varhue, Walter J.


    An optical modulator based on the physical properties of high temperature superconductors has been fabricated and tested. The modulator was constructed form a film of Yttrium Barium Copper Oxide (YBCO) grown on undoped silicon with a buffer layer of Yttria Stabilized Zirconia. Standard lithographic procedures were used to pattern the superconducting film into a micro bridge. Optical modulation was achieved by passing IR light through the composite structure normal to the micro bridge and switching the superconducting film in the bridge region between the superconducting and non-superconducting states. In the superconducting state, IR light reflects from the superconducting film surface. When a critical current is passed through the micro bridge, it causes the film in this region to switch to the non-superconducting state allowing IR light to pass through it. Superconducting materials have the potential to switch between these two states at speeds up to 1 picosecond using electrical current. Presently, fiber optic transmission capacity is limited by the rate at which optical data can be modulated. The superconducting modulator, when combined with other components, may have the potential to increase the transmission capacity of fiber optic lines.

  16. Optical phased array radiating optical vortex with manipulated topological charges. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang


    Optical antennas are key elements in quantum optics emitting and sensing, and behave wide range applications in optical domain. However, integration of optical antenna radiating orbital angular momentum is still a challenge in nano-scale. We theoretically demonstrate a sub-wavelength phased optical antenna array, which manipulates the distribution of the orbital angular momentum in the near field. Orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 4 can be obtained by controlling the phase distribution of the fundamental mode orbital angular momentum in each antenna element. Our results indicate this phased array may be utilized in high integrated optical communication systems.

  17. Optical manipulation of gold nanoparticles using an optical nanofiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Hu Yan-Jun


    Gold nanoparticles are gaining increasing attention due to their biological and medical applications.In this letter,we experimentally demonstrate the optical manipulation of 250-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles along an optical nanofiber (550 nm in diameter) injected by an 808-nm laser light.The nanoparticles situated in the evanescent optical field are trapped by optical gradient force and move along the direction of light propagation due to optical scattering force.The velocities reach as high as 132 μm/s at an optical power of 80 mW.

  18. Optical trapping and optical binding using cylindrical vector beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Skelton


    Full Text Available We report on the use of cylindrical vector beams for optical manipulation of micron and sub-micron sized particles using the methods of a single-beam gradient force trap (optical tweezers and an evanescent-field surface trap (optical binding. We have demonstrated a stable interferometric method for the synthesis of cylindrical vector beams (CVBs, and present measurements demonstrating polarization-controlled focal volume shaping using CVBs in an optical tweezers. Furthermore we show how appropriate combinations of CVBs corresponding to superpositions of optical fibre modes can be used for controlled trapping and trafficking of micro- and nanoparticles along a tapered optical fibre.

  19. The optic nerve head in hereditary optic neuropathies. (United States)

    O'Neill, Evelyn C; Mackey, David A; Connell, Paul P; Hewitt, Alex W; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Crowston, Jonathan G


    Hereditary optic neuropathies are a prominent cause of blindness in both children and adults. The disorders in this group share many overlapping clinical characteristics, including morphological changes that occur at the optic nerve head. Accurate and prompt clinical diagnosis, supplemented with imaging when indicated, is essential for optimum management of the relevant optic neuropathy and appropriate counseling of the patient on its natural history. Patient history, visual field assessment, optic disc findings and imaging are the cornerstones of a correct diagnosis. This Review highlights the characteristic optic nerve head features that are common to the various hereditary optic neuropathies, and describes the features that enable the conditions to be differentiated.

  20. [Introduction to tissue optics and optical dosimetry]. (United States)

    Eichler, J; Kim, B M


    The spatial distribution of radiation during medical laser application is determined by the characteristics of the beam (power, time, beam geometry) and the optical properties of the tissue. The irradiance E (in W/m2) describes the primary laser beam. Scattered radiation, in turn, is taken into account by the fluence rate phi (also in W/m2). The basic parameters of tissue optics are the absorption coefficient mu a, the scattering coefficient mu s and the anisotropy factor g. In addition, derived parameters are also used, i.e., total attenuation coefficient mu t, reduced scattering coefficient mu s', effective attenuation coefficient mu eff, mean free path of a photon d and penetration depth delta. Further tissue properties are the diffuse reflectance Rd and the back-scattering factor k. In an one-dimensional model the fluence rate phi in tissue is a nearly exponential function characterized by the penetration depth delta. At the tissue surface, the relationship exists phi = kE. This model is compared with the results of a computer program based on the finite element method.

  1. Fiber optic sensing and imaging

    CERN Document Server


    This book is designed to highlight the basic principles of fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. The editor has organized the book to provide the reader with a solid foundation in fiber optic imaging and sensing devices. It begins with an introductory chapter that starts from Maxwell’s equations and ends with the derivation of the basic optical fiber characteristic equations and solutions (i.e. fiber modes). Chapter 2 reviews most common fiber optic interferometric devices and Chapter 3 discusses the basics of fiber optic imagers with emphasis on fiber optic confocal microscope. The fiber optic interferometric sensors are discussed in detail in chapter 4 and 5. Chapter 6 covers optical coherence tomography and goes into the details of signal processing and systems level approach of the real-time OCT implementation. Also useful forms of device characteristic equations are provided so that this book can be used as a reference for scientists and engineers in the optics and related fields.

  2. Optical characterization of muscle (United States)

    Oliveira, Luís; Lage, Armindo; Pais Clemente, Manuel; Tuchin, Valery V.


    Optical characterization and internal structure of biological tissues is highly important for biomedical optics. In particular for optical clearing processes, such information is of vital importance to understand the mechanisms involved through the variation of the refractive indices of tissue components. The skeletal muscle presents a fibrous structure with an internal arrangement of muscle fiber cords surrounded by interstitial fluid that is responsible for strong light scattering. To determine the refractive index of muscle components we have used a simple method of measuring tissue mass and refractive index during dehydration. After performing measurements for natural and ten dehydration states of the muscle samples, we have determined the dependence between the refractive index of the muscle and its water content. Also, we have joined our measurements with some values reported in literature to perform some calculations that have permitted to determine the refractive index of the dried muscle fibers and their corresponding volume percentage inside the natural muscle.

  3. Polyplanar optic display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veligdan, J.; Biscardi, C.; Brewster, C.; DeSanto, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology; Beiser, L. [Leo Beiser Inc., Flushing, NY (United States)


    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. This display screen is 2 inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. The new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid state laser (532 nm) as its optical source. In order to produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments, Inc. A variable astigmatic focusing system is used to produce a stigmatic image on the viewing face of the POD. In addition to the optical design, the authors discuss the electronic interfacing to the DLP{trademark} chip, the opto-mechanical design and viewing angle characteristics.

  4. Electrically driven optical antennas (United States)

    Kern, Johannes; Kullock, René; Prangsma, Jord; Emmerling, Monika; Kamp, Martin; Hecht, Bert


    Unlike radiowave antennas, so far optical nanoantennas cannot be fed by electrical generators. Instead, they are driven by light or indirectly via excited discrete states in active materials in their vicinity. Here we demonstrate the direct electrical driving of an in-plane optical antenna by the broadband quantum-shot noise of electrons tunnelling across its feed gap. The spectrum of the emitted photons is determined by the antenna geometry and can be tuned via the applied voltage. Moreover, the direction and polarization of the light emission are controlled by the antenna resonance, which also improves the external quantum efficiency by up to two orders of magnitude. The one-material planar design offers facile integration of electrical and optical circuits and thus represents a new paradigm for interfacing electrons and photons at the nanometre scale, for example for on-chip wireless communication and highly configurable electrically driven subwavelength photon sources.

  5. Optical source transformations. (United States)

    Kundtz, N; Roberts, D A; Allen, J; Cummer, S; Smith, D R


    Transformation optics is a recently appreciated methodology for the design of complex media that control the propagation of electromagnetic and other types of waves. The transformation optical technique involves the use of coordinate transformations applied to some region of space, providing a conceptual means to redirect the flow of waves. Successfully designed devices to date have made use of transformations acting on passive space only; however, the technique can also be applied when source distributions (e.g., current and charge) are included within the space being transformed. In this paper we present examples of source transformations that illustrate the potential of these expanded transformation optical methods. In particular, using finite-element full-wave simulations, we confirm the restoration of dipole radiation patterns from both a distorted 'pin-wheel' antenna and a bent dipole partially occluded by a cylindrical scatterer. We propose the technique of source transformations as a powerful approach for antenna design, especially in relation to conformal antennas.

  6. Anisotropic Contrast Optical Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Peev, D; Kananizadeh, N; Wimer, S; Rodenhausen, K B; Herzinger, C M; Kasputis, T; Pfaunmiller, E; Nguyen, A; Korlacki, R; Pannier, A; Li, Y; Schubert, E; Hage, D; Schubert, M


    An optical microscope is described that reveals contrast in the Mueller matrix images of a thin, transparent or semi-transparent specimen located within an anisotropic object plane (anisotropic filter). The specimen changes the anisotropy of the filter and thereby produces contrast within the Mueller matrix images. Here we use an anisotropic filter composed of a semi-transparent, nanostructured thin film with sub-wavelength thickness placed within the object plane. The sample is illuminated as in common optical microscopy but the light is modulated in its polarization using combinations of linear polarizers and phase plate (compensator) to control and analyze the state of polarization. Direct generalized ellipsometry data analysis approaches permit extraction of fundamental Mueller matrix object plane images dispensing with the need of Fourier expansion methods. Generalized ellipsometry model approaches are used for quantitative image analyses. We demonstrate the anisotropic contrast optical microscope by mea...

  7. Ultrafast nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Leburn, Christopher; Reid, Derryck


    The field of ultrafast nonlinear optics is broad and multidisciplinary, and encompasses areas concerned with both the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses of light, as well as those concerned with the applications of such pulses. Ultrashort pulses are extreme events – both in terms of their durations, and also the high peak powers which their short durations can facilitate. These extreme properties make them powerful experiment tools. On one hand, their ultrashort durations facilitate the probing and manipulation of matter on incredibly short timescales. On the other, their ultrashort durations can facilitate high peak powers which can drive highly nonlinear light-matter interaction processes. Ultrafast Nonlinear Optics covers a complete range of topics, both applied and fundamental in nature, within the area of ultrafast nonlinear optics. Chapters 1 to 4 are concerned with the generation and measurement of ultrashort pulses. Chapters 5 to 7 are concerned with fundamental applications of ultrasho...

  8. Linearizing nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, Bruno E; Ernotte, Guilmot; Clerici, Matteo; Morandotti, Roberto; Ibrahim, Heide; Legare, Francois


    In the framework of linear optics, light fields do not interact with each other in a medium. Yet, when their field amplitude becomes comparable to the electron binding energies of matter, the nonlinear motion of these electrons emits new dipole radiation whose amplitude, frequency and phase differ from the incoming fields. Such high fields are typically achieved with ultra-short, femtosecond (1fs = 10-15 sec.) laser pulses containing very broad frequency spectra. Here, the matter not only couples incoming and outgoing fields but also causes different spectral components to interact and mix through a convolution process. In this contribution, we describe how frequency domain nonlinear optics overcomes the shortcomings arising from this convolution in conventional time domain nonlinear optics1. We generate light fields with previously inaccessible properties because the uncontrolled coupling of amplitudes and phases is turned off. For example, arbitrary phase functions are transferred linearly to the second har...

  9. Silicon photonics: optical modulators (United States)

    Reed, G. T.; Gardes, F. Y.; Hu, Youfang; Thomson, D.; Lever, L.; Kelsall, R.; Ikonic, Z.


    Silicon Photonics has the potential to revolutionise a whole raft of application areas. Currently, the main focus is on various forms of optical interconnects as this is a near term bottleneck for the computing industry, and hence a number of companies have also released products onto the market place. The adoption of silicon photonics for mass production will significantly benefit a range of other application areas. One of the key components that will enable silicon photonics to flourish in all of the potential application areas is a high performance optical modulator. An overview is given of the major Si photonics modulator research that has been pursued at the University of Surrey to date as well as a worldwide state of the art showing the trend and technology available. We will show the trend taken toward integration of optical and electronic components with the difficulties that are inherent in such a technology.

  10. Transformation optics using graphene. (United States)

    Vakil, Ashkan; Engheta, Nader


    Metamaterials and transformation optics play substantial roles in various branches of optical science and engineering by providing schemes to tailor electromagnetic fields into desired spatial patterns. We report a theoretical study showing that by designing and manipulating spatially inhomogeneous, nonuniform conductivity patterns across a flake of graphene, one can have this material as a one-atom-thick platform for infrared metamaterials and transformation optical devices. Varying the graphene chemical potential by using static electric field yields a way to tune the graphene conductivity in the terahertz and infrared frequencies. Such degree of freedom provides the prospect of having different "patches" with different conductivities on a single flake of graphene. Numerous photonic functions and metamaterial concepts can be expected to follow from such a platform.

  11. Cognitive Dynamic Optical Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Miguel, Ignacio; Duran, Ramon J.; Jimenez, Tamara


    learning with the aim of improving performance. In this paper, we review the fundamentals of cognitive networks and focus on their application to the optical networking area. In particular, a number of cognitive network architectures proposed so far, as well as their associated supporting technologies......The use of cognition is a promising element for the control of heterogeneous optical networks. Not only are cognitive networks able to sense current network conditions and act according to them, but they also take into account the knowledge acquired through past experiences; that is, they include......, are reviewed. Moreover, several applications, mainly developed in the framework of the EU FP7 Cognitive Heterogeneous Reconfigurable Optical Network (CHRON) project, are also described....

  12. Optical imaging. Expansion microscopy. (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Tillberg, Paul W; Boyden, Edward S


    In optical microscopy, fine structural details are resolved by using refraction to magnify images of a specimen. We discovered that by synthesizing a swellable polymer network within a specimen, it can be physically expanded, resulting in physical magnification. By covalently anchoring specific labels located within the specimen directly to the polymer network, labels spaced closer than the optical diffraction limit can be isotropically separated and optically resolved, a process we call expansion microscopy (ExM). Thus, this process can be used to perform scalable superresolution microscopy with diffraction-limited microscopes. We demonstrate ExM with apparent ~70-nanometer lateral resolution in both cultured cells and brain tissue, performing three-color superresolution imaging of ~10(7) cubic micrometers of the mouse hippocampus with a conventional confocal microscope.

  13. Digital Optical Control System (United States)

    Jordan, David H.; Tipton, Charles A.; Christmann, Charles E.; Hochhausler, Nils P.


    We describe the digital optical control system (DOGS), a state-of-the-art controller for electrical feedback in an optical system. The need for a versatile optical controller arose from a number of unique experiments being performed by the Air Force Weapons Laboratory. These experiments use similar detectors and actuator-controlled mirrors, but the control requirements vary greatly. The experiments have in common a requirement for parallel control systems. The DOGS satisfies these needs by allowing several control systems to occupy a single chassis with one master controller. The architecture was designed to allow upward compatibility with future configurations. Combinations of off-the-shelf and custom boards are configured to meet the requirements of each experiment. The configuration described here was used to control piston error to X/80 at a wavelength of 0.51 Am. A peak sample rate of 8 kHz, yielding a closed loop bandwidth of 800 Hz, was achieved.

  14. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel


    The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  15. Inherited mitochondrial optic neuropathies (United States)

    Yu-Wai-Man, P; Griffiths, P G; Hudson, G; Chinnery, P F


    Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and autosomal dominant optic atrophy (DOA) are the two most common inherited optic neuropathies and they result in significant visual morbidity among young adults. Both disorders are the result of mitochondrial dysfunction: LHON from primary mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations affecting the respiratory chain complexes; and the majority of DOA families have mutations in the OPA1 gene, which codes for an inner mitochondrial membrane protein critical for mtDNA maintenance and oxidative phosphorylation. Additional genetic and environmental factors modulate the penetrance of LHON, and the same is likely to be the case for DOA which has a markedly variable clinical phenotype. The selective vulnerability of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) is a key pathological feature and understanding the fundamental mechanisms that underlie RGC loss in these disorders is a prerequisite for the development of effective therapeutic strategies which are currently limited. PMID:19001017

  16. Optical tweezers: wideband microrheology

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Daryl; Tassieri, Manlio; Evans, R M L; Gibson, Graham M; Padgett, Miles J; Cooper, Jonathan M


    Microrheology is a branch of rheology having the same principles as conventional bulk rheology, but working on micron length scales and micro-litre volumes. Optical tweezers have been successfully used with Newtonian fluids for rheological purposes such as determining fluid viscosity. Conversely, when optical tweezers are used to measure the viscoelastic properties of complex fluids the results are either limited to the material's high-frequency response, discarding important information related to the low-frequency behavior, or they are supplemented by low-frequency measurements performed with different techniques, often without presenting an overlapping region of clear agreement between the sets of results. We present a simple experimental procedure to perform microrheological measurements over the widest frequency range possible with optical tweezers. A generalised Langevin equation is used to relate the frequency-dependent moduli of the complex fluid to the time-dependent trajectory of a probe particle as...

  17. Optically Reconfigurable Photonic Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Gholipour, Behrad; Wang, Chih-Ming; Yuan, Guanghui; Teng, Jinghua; Zheludev, Nikolay I


    Optoelectronic components with adjustable parameters, from variable-focal-length lenses to spectral filters that can change functionality upon stimulation, have enormous technological importance. Tuning of such components is conventionally achieved by either micro- or nano-mechanical actuation of their consitutive parts, stretching or application of thermal stimuli. Here we report a new dielectric metasurface platform for reconfigurable optical components that are created with light in a non-volatile and reversible fashion. Such components are written, erased and re-written as two-dimensional binary or grey-scale patterns into a nanoscale film of phase change material by inducing a refractive-index-changing phase-transition with tailored trains of femtosecond pulses. We combine germanium-antimony-tellurium-based films optimized for high-optical-contrast ovonic switching with a sub-wavelength-resolution optical writing process to demonstrate technologically relevant devices: visible-range reconfigurable bi-chr...

  18. Quantum enhanced optical sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens

    The work in this thesis is embedded in the framework of quantum metrology and explores quantum effects in solid state emitters and optical sensing. Specifically, the thesis comprises studies on silicon vacancy centres in nanodiamonds, phase measurements and cavity optomechanics utilising optical...... squeezed states, and a theoretical study on quantum amplifiers. Due to its similarity to single atoms, colour centres in diamond are ideal objects for exploring and exploiting quantum effects, because they are comparably easy to produce, probe and maintain. While nitrogen vacancy centres are the most...... identified spectral diffusion as the main hindrance in extending spin coherence times. Overcoming this issue will provide a promising candidate as an emitter for quantum information. Next, the question of how squeezed states of light can improve optical sensing was addressed. For this purpose, a squeezed...

  19. Optics and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa, Manuel F M; De Campos, J Ayres; Lira, Madalena; Franco, Sandra [Centro de Fisica da Universidade do Minho (Portugal); Vazquez-Dorrio, Jose B, E-mail: [Universidad de Vigo, EIM, Departamento de Fisica (Spain)


    Light and Optics are subjects that 'naturally' attracts the interest and sympathy of children even from very early ages. In this communication, we present a series of experiments and support material designed in this hands-on perspective, to be used to introduce the study of light and optics to kindergarten and early basic school students. Our hands-on investigative approach leads the students, aged 4 to 10 years, to observe the experiment and discover themselves, in a critical and active way, different aspects of light and optics. Preparing funny eye catching situations and experiments predispose the children to work, effectively, enjoying themselves while building up their self-confidence.

  20. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D


    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  1. Holographic Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Andersen, G.

    For the last two decades adaptive optics has been used as a technique for correcting imaging applications and directed energy/laser targeting and laser communications systems affected by atmospheric turbulence. Typically these systems are bulky and limited to system with the potential to operate at speeds of MHz. The system utilizes a hologram to perform an all-optical wavefront analysis that removes the need for any computer. Finally, the sensing is made on a modal basis so it is largely insensitive to scintillation and obscuration. We have constructed a prototype device and will present experimental results from our research. The holographic adaptive optics system begins with the creation of a multiplexed hologram. This hologram is created by recording the maximum and minimum response functions of every actuator in the deformable mirror against a unique focused reference beam. When a wavefront of some arbitrary phase is incident on the processed hologram, a number of focal spots are created -- one pair for each actuator in the DM. The absolute phase error at each particular actuator location is simply related to the ratio of the intensity of each pair of spots. In this way we can use an array of photodetectors to give a direct readout of phase error without the need for any calculations. The advantages of holographic adaptive optics are many. To begin with, the measurement of phase error is made all optically, so the wavefront sensor directly controls the actuators in the DM without any computers. Using fast, photon counting photodetectors allows for closed loop correction limited only by the speed of the deformable mirror which in the case of MEMS devices can be 100 kHz or more. All this can be achieved in an extremely compact and lightweight package making it perfectly suited to applications such as UAV surveillance imagery and free space optical communications systems. Lastly, since the correction is made on a modal basis instead of zonal, it is virtually

  2. Optical Coherence Tomography (United States)

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  3. All-optical signal processing technique for secure optical communication (United States)

    Qian, Feng-chen; Su, Bing; Ye, Ya-lin; Zhang, Qian; Lin, Shao-feng; Duan, Tao; Duan, Jie


    Secure optical communication technologies are important means to solve the physical layer security for optical network. We present a scheme of secure optical communication system by all-optical signal processing technique. The scheme consists of three parts, as all-optical signal processing unit, optical key sequence generator, and synchronous control unit. In the paper, all-optical signal processing method is key technology using all-optical exclusive disjunction (XOR) gate based on optical cross-gain modulation effect, has advantages of wide dynamic range of input optical signal, simple structure and so on. All-optical XOR gate composed of two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) is a symmetrical structure. By controlling injection current, input signal power, delay and filter bandwidth, the extinction ratio of XOR can be greater than 8dB. Finally, some performance parameters are calculated and the results are analyzed. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can be achieved over 10Gbps optical signal encryption and decryption, which is simple, easy to implement, and error-free diffusion.

  4. Fluoride glass fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Ishwar D


    Fluoride Glass Fiber Optics reviews the fundamental aspects of fluoride glasses. This book is divided into nine chapters. Chapter 1 discusses the wide range of fluoride glasses with an emphasis on fluorozirconate-based compositions. The structure of simple fluoride systems, such as BaF2 binary glass is elaborated in Chapter 2. The third chapter covers the intrinsic transparency of fluoride glasses from the UV to the IR, with particular emphasis on the multiphonon edge and electronic edge. The next three chapters are devoted to ultra-low loss optical fibers, reviewing methods for purifying and

  5. Introduction to modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fowles, Grant R


    This incisive text provides a basic undergraduate-level course in modern optics for students in physics, technology and engineering. The first half of the book deals with classical physical optics; the second principally with the quantum nature of light. Chapters 1 and 2 treat the propagation of light waves, including the concepts of phase and group velocities, and the vectorial nature of light. Chapter 3 applies the concepts of partial coherence and coherence length to the study of interference, and Chapter 4 takes up multiple-beam interference and includes Fabry-Perot interferometry and mul

  6. Optical fiber rotation sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, William K; Kelley, Paul


    Optical Fiber Rotation Sensing is the first book devoted to Interferometric Fiber Optic Gyros (IFOG). This book provides a complete overview of IFOGs, beginning with a historical review of IFOG development and including a fundamental exposition of basic principles, a discussion of devices and components, and concluding with industry reports on state-of-the-art activity. With several chapters contributed by principal developers of this solid-state device, the result is an authoritative work which will serve as the resource for researchers, students, and users of IFOGs.* * State-of-t

  7. Handbook of biomedical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Boas, David A


    Biomedical optics holds tremendous promise to deliver effective, safe, non- or minimally invasive diagnostics and targeted, customizable therapeutics. Handbook of Biomedical Optics provides an in-depth treatment of the field, including coverage of applications for biomedical research, diagnosis, and therapy. It introduces the theory and fundamentals of each subject, ensuring accessibility to a wide multidisciplinary readership. It also offers a view of the state of the art and discusses advantages and disadvantages of various techniques.Organized into six sections, this handbook: Contains intr

  8. Microstructured Optical Fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    complete PBGs, which reflects light incident from air or vacuum. Such structures may be used as cladding structures in optical fibres, where light is confined and thereby guided in a hollow core region. In addition, the present invention relates to designs for ultra low-loss PBG waveguiding structures......The present invention relates to a new class of optical waveguides, in which waveguiding along one or more core regions is obtained through the application of the Photonic Bandgap (PBG) effect. The invention further relates to optimised two-dimensional lattice structures capable of providing...

  9. CELT optics Alignment Procedure (United States)

    Mast, Terry S.; Nelson, Jerry E.; Chanan, Gary A.; Noethe, Lothar


    The California Extremely Large Telescope (CELT) is a project to build a 30-meter diameter telescope for research in astronomy at visible and infrared wavelengths. The current optical design calls for a primary, secondary, and tertiary mirror with Ritchey-Chretién foci at two Nasmyth platforms. The primary mirror is a mosaic of 1080 actively-stabilized hexagonal segments. This paper summarizes a CELT report that describes a step-by-step procedure for aligning the many degrees of freedom of the CELT optics.

  10. Reflecting telescope optics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Raymond N


    R.N. Wilson's two-volume treatise on reflecting telescope optics has become a classic in its own right. It is intended to give a complete treatment of the subject, addressing professionals in research and industry as well as students of astronomy and amateur astronomers. This first volume, Basic Design Theory and its Historical Development, is devoted to the theory of reflecting telescope optics and systematically recounts the historical progress. The author's approach is morphological, with strong emphasis on the historical development. The book is richly illustrated including spot-diagrams a

  11. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan


    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  12. Optical Clocks and Relativity (United States)

    Chou, C. W.; Hume, D. B.; Rosenband, T.; Wineland, D. J.


    Observers in relative motion or at different gravitational potentials measure disparate clock rates. These predictions of relativity have previously been observed with atomic clocks at high velocities and with large changes in elevation. We observed time dilation from relative speeds of less than 10 meters per second by comparing two optical atomic clocks connected by a 75-meter length of optical fiber. We can now also detect time dilation due to a change in height near Earth’s surface of less than 1 meter. This technique may be extended to the field of geodesy, with applications in geophysics and hydrology as well as in space-based tests of fundamental physics.

  13. Supersymmetric Optical Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Miri, Mohammad-Ali; El-Ganainy, Ramy; Christodoulides, Demetrios N


    We show that supersymmetry can provide a versatile platform in synthesizing a new class of optical structures with desired properties and functionalities. By exploiting the intimate relationship between superpatners, one can systematically construct index potentials capable of exhibiting the same scattering and guided wave characteristics. In particular, in the Helmholtz regime, we demonstrate that one-dimensional supersymmetric pairs display identical reflectivities and transmittivities for any angle of incidence. Optical SUSY is then extended to two-dimensional systems where a link between specific azimuthal mode subsets is established. Finally we explore supersymmetric photonic lattices where discreteness can be utilized to design lossless integrated mode filtering arrangements.

  14. Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deri, R. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    The Gigashot Optical Laser Demonstrator (GOLD) project has demonstrated a novel optical amplifier for high energy pulsed lasers operating at high repetition rates. The amplifier stores enough pump energy to support >10 J of laser output, and employs conduction cooling for thermal management to avoid the need for expensive and bulky high-pressure helium subsystems. A prototype amplifier was fabricated, pumped with diode light at 885 nm, and characterized. Experimental results show that the amplifier provides sufficient small-signal gain and sufficiently low wavefront and birefringence impairments to prove useful in laser systems, at repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  15. Free space optical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat


    This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.

  16. Optical Vorticity Meter Task (United States)


    should have a high-reflect- ______ ing power R of 95% to SO% transmitting only a small * percentage of the light. An auxiliary, usually much Ftc.1. wo- eam ...medium occupies the entire optical path of the ring cavity, which is drilled out of a Magneto-optic alternatives monolithic block of a special the light So urce the rilninim delectable rotation rate i.s (for 1? 15 cm, c, = 2 dBr /hu, R - 10 se~,and to 0.5): -1.5 X 10 -9 rad,ec

  17. Optical fiber telecommunications IIIb

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Thomas L


    Updated to include the latest information on light wave technology, Optical Fiber Telecommunication III, Volumes A & B are invaluable for scientists, students, and engineers in the modern telecommunications industry. This two-volume set includes the most current research available in optical fiber telecommunications, light wave technology, and photonics/optoelectronics. The authors cover important background concepts such as SONET, coding device technology, andWOM components as well as projecting the trends in telecommunications for the 21st century.Key Features* One of the hottest subjects of

  18. Fundamentals of nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E


    Peter Powers's rigorous but simple description of a difficult field keeps the reader's attention throughout. … All chapters contain a list of references and large numbers of practice examples to be worked through. … By carefully working through the proposed problems, students will develop a sound understanding of the fundamental principles and applications. … the book serves perfectly for an introductory-level course for second- and third-order nonlinear optical phenomena. The author's writing style is refreshing and original. I expect that Fundamentals of Nonlinear Optics will fast become pop

  19. Grazing Incidence Neutron Optics (United States)

    Gubarev, Mikhail V. (Inventor); Ramsey, Brian D. (Inventor); Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Inventor)


    Neutron optics based on the two-reflection geometries are capable of controlling beams of long wavelength neutrons with low angular divergence. The preferred mirror fabrication technique is a replication process with electroform nickel replication process being preferable. In the preliminary demonstration test an electroform nickel optics gave the neutron current density gain at the focal spot of the mirror at least 8 for neutron wavelengths in the range from 6 to 20.ANG.. The replication techniques can be also be used to fabricate neutron beam controlling guides.

  20. Optically switchable photonic metasurfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waters, R. F.; MacDonald, K. F. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Hobson, P. A. [QinetiQ Ltd., Cody Technology Park, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX (United Kingdom); Zheludev, N. I. [Centre for Photonic Metamaterials and Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies and The Photonics Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637371 (Singapore)


    We experimentally demonstrate an optically switchable gallium-based metasurface, in which a reversible light-induced transition between solid and liquid phases occurring in a confined nanoscale surface layer of the metal drives significant changes in reflectivity and absorption. The metasurface architecture resonantly enhances the metal's “active plasmonic” phase-change nonlinearity by an order of magnitude, offering high contrast all-optical switching in the near-infrared range at low, μW μm{sup −2}, excitation intensities.

  1. The Athena Optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bavdaz, Marcos; Wille, Eric; Shortt, Brian


    The Advanced Telescope for High ENergy Astrophysics (Athena) was selected in 2014 as the second large class mission (L2) of the ESA Cosmic Vision Science Programme within the Directorate of Science and Robotic Exploration. The mission development is proceeding via the implementation of the system...... studies and in parallel a comprehensive series of technology preparation activities. [1-3].The core enabling technology for the high performance mirror is the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO), a modular X-ray optics technology, which utilises processes and equipment developed for the semiconductor industry [4...

  2. Optical Aberrations and Wavefront

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Polat


    Full Text Available The deviation of light to create normal retinal image in the optical system is called aberration. Aberrations are divided two subgroup: low-order aberrations (defocus: spherical and cylindrical refractive errors and high-order aberrations (coma, spherical, trefoil, tetrafoil, quadrifoil, pentafoil, secondary astigmatism. Aberrations increase with aging. Spherical aberrations are compensated by positive corneal and negative lenticular spherical aberrations in youth. Total aberrations are elevated by positive corneal and positive lenticular spherical aberrations in elderly. In this study, we aimed to analyze the basic terms regarding optic aberrations which have gained significance recently. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 306-11

  3. Optical fiber crossbar switch (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michael K.; Beccue, Stephen M.; Brar, Berinder; Robinson, G.; Pedrotti, Kenneth D.; Haber, William A.


    Advances in high performance computers and signal processing systems have led to parallel system architectures. The main limitation in achieving the performance expected of these parallel systems has been the realization of an efficient means to interconnect many processors into a effective parallel system. Electronic interconnections have proved cumbersome, costly and ineffective. The Optical Fiber Crossbar Switch (OFCS) is a compact low power, multi-gigahertz bandwidth multi-channel switch which can be used in large scale computer and telecommunication applications. The switch operates in the optical domain using GaAs semiconductor lasers to transmit wideband multiple channel optical data over fiber optic cables. Recently, a 32 X 32 crossbar switching system was completed and demonstrated. Error free performance was obtained at a data bandwidth of 410 MBPS, using a silicon switch IC. The switch can be completely reconfigured in less than 50 nanoseconds under computer control. The fully populated OFCS has the capability to handle 12.8 gigabits per second (GBPS) of data while switching this data over 32 channels without the loss of a single bit during switching. GaAs IC technology has now progressed to the point that 16 X 16 GaAs based crossbar switch Ics are available which have increased the data bandwidth capability to 2.4 GBPS. The present optical interfaces are integrated GaAs transmitter drivers, GaAs lasers, and integrated GaAs optical receivers with data bandwidths exceeding 2.4 GBPS. A system using all Ill-V switching and optoelectronic components is presently under development for both NASA and DoD programs. The overall system is designed to operate at 1.3 GBPS. It is expected that these systems will find wide application in high capacity computing systems based on parallel microprocessor architecture which require high data bandwidth communication between processors. The OFCS will also have application in commercial optical telecommunication systems

  4. Introductory Quantum Optics (United States)

    Gerry, Christopher; Knight, Peter


    1. Introduction; 2. Field quantization; 3. Coherent states; 4. Emission and absorption of radiation by atoms; 5. Quantum coherence functions; 6. Beam splitters and interferometers; 7. Nonclassical light; 8. Dissipative interactions and decoherence; 9. Optical test of quantum mechanics; 10. Experiments in cavity QED and with trapped ions; 11. Applications of entanglement: Heisenberg-limited interferometry and quantum information processing; Appendix A. The density operator, entangled states, the Schmidt decomposition, and the von Neumann entropy; Appendix B. Quantum measurement theory in a (very small) nutshell; Appendix C. Derivation of the effective Hamiltonian for dispersive (far off-resonant) interactions; Appendix D. Nonlinear optics and spontaneous parametric down-conversion.

  5. Optical Packet Switching Demostrator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brian Bach; Berger, Michael Stübert


    In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set-up and the m......In the IST project DAVID (data and voice integration over DWDM) work is carried out defining possible architectures of future optical packet switched networks. The feasibility of the architecture is to be verified in a demonstration set-up. This article describes the demonstrator set...

  6. Inorganic optical dielectric films (United States)

    Woollam, John A.


    Dielectric coatings have been in use for a very long time, yet today they represent a steadily growing wold-wide industry. A wide range of materials, and applications from the near ultraviolet into the infrared are in use, or under development. This paper is a brief survey, including references to the literature, and a discussion of materials diagnostics. Discussed is the microstructure, optical constants and their relationship as determined especially by optical measurements. This paper emphasizes the materials science aspects rather than applications.

  7. Aperture optical antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Wenger, Jerome


    This contribution reviews the studies on subwavelength aperture antennas in the optical regime, paying attention to both the fundamental investigations and the applications. Section 2 reports on the enhancement of light-matter interaction using three main types of aperture antennas: single subwavelength aperture, single aperture surrounded by shallow surface corrugations, and subwavelength aperture arrays. A large fraction of nanoaperture applications is devoted to the field of biophotonics to improve molecular sensing, which are reviewed in Section 3. Lastly, the applications towards nano-optics (sources, detectors and filters) are discussed in Section 4.

  8. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  9. Field guide to nonlinear optics

    CERN Document Server

    Powers, Peter E


    Optomechanics is a field of mechanics that addresses the specific design challenges associated with optical systems. This [i]Field Guide [/i]describes how to mount optical components, as well as how to analyze a given design. It is intended for practicing optical and mechanical engineers whose work requires knowledge in both optics and mechanics. This Field Guide is designed for those looking for a condensed and concise source of key concepts, equations, and techniques for nonlinear optics. Topics covered include technologically important effects, recent developments in nonlinear optics

  10. Microwave to Optical Link Using an Optical Microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, J D; Lecaplain, C; Brasch, V; Pfeiffer, M H P; Kippenberg, T J


    The ability to phase coherently link optical to radio frequencies with femtosecond modelocked lasers has enabled counting cycles of light and is the basis of optical clocks, absolute frequency synthesis, tests of fundamental physics, and improved spectroscopy. Using an optical microresonator frequency comb to establish a coherent link promises to greatly extend optical frequency synthesis and measurements to areas requiring compact form factor, on chip integration and repetition rates in the microwave regime, including coherent telecommunications, astrophysical spectrometer calibration or microwave photonics. Here we demonstrate for the first time a microwave to optical link using a microresonator. Using a temporal dissipative single soliton state in an ultra high Q crystalline microresonator an optical frequency comb is generated that is self-referenced, allowing to phase coherently link a 190 THZ optical carrier directly to a 14 GHz microwave frequency. Our work demonstrates that precision optical frequency...

  11. Demonstrational Optics Part 2: Coherent and Statistical Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Marchenko, Oleg; Windholz, Laurentius


    Demonstrational Optics presents a new didactical approach to the study of optics. Emphasizing the importance of elaborate new experimental demonstrations, pictorial illustrations, computer simulations and models of optical phenomena in order to ensure a deeper understanding of wave and geometric optics. It includes problems focused on the pragmatic needs of students, secondary school teachers, university professors and optical engineers. Part 2, Coherent and Statistical Optics, contains chapters on interference, diffraction, Fourier optics, light quanta, thermal radiation (Shot noise and Gaussian light), Correlation of light fields and Correlation of light intensities. A substantial part of this volume is devoted to thermal radiation and its properties, especially with partial coherence. A detailed treatment of the photo-effect with respect to statistical properties leads to the basics of statistical optics. To illustrate the phenomena covered by this volume, a large number of demonstration experiments are de...

  12. Isolation of Integrated Optical Acousto-Optic Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Li-Feng; LIU Ying; WANG Wei-Peng; GENG Fan


    @@ Isolation of a new structured acousto-optic switch based on an integrated optical polarization-independent quasicollinear acousto-optic tunable filter is studied in detail. The factors that influence the isolation of the optical switch are analysed, the expressions of the isolation are educed, and the isolation of the device is measured in experiment. It is found that the isolation mainly depends on the TE/TM mode intensity ratio, the mode-splitter extinction rate, and the conversion efficiency.

  13. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  14. Brief Introduction to Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The Chinese Optics and Applied Optics Abstracts, sponsored by the Documentation and Information Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the Optical Information Network of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Changchun Institute of Optics,Fine Mechanics and Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences,is one of the series of science and technology indexing periodicals published by the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  15. The optic nerve sheath on MRI in acute optic neuritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hickman, S.J. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom); Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Miszkiel, K.A. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Lysholm Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Plant, G.T. [Moorfields Eye Hospital, Department of Neuro-Ophthalmology, London (United Kingdom); Miller, D.H. [University College London, NMR Research Unit, Department of Neuroinflammation, Institute of Neurology, London (United Kingdom)


    Optic nerve sheath dilatation or gadolinium-enhancement on magnetic resonance imaging in acute optic neuritis have been previously reported but have been thought to be rare occurrences. This study recruited 33 patients with acute unilateral optic neuritis. All had their optic nerves imaged with fat-saturated fast spin-echo (FSE) imaging, and 28 had imaging before and after triple-dose gadolinium-enhanced fat-saturated T{sub 1}-weighted imaging. Follow-up imaging was performed on 20 patients (15 following gadolinium). A dilated subarachnoid space at the anterior end of the symptomatic optic nerve on FSE imaging was seen in 15/33 cases. In three of these cases, dilatation was visible on short-term follow-up. Optic nerve sheath enhancement was seen in 21/28 cases acutely: seven at the anterior end of the lesion only, five at the posterior end only and nine at both ends. Optic sheath enhancement was seen in 13 patients on follow-up. This study suggests that optic nerve sheath dilatation on FSE images and optic nerve sheath enhancement on triple-dose gadolinium-enhanced images are common findings in acute optic neuritis. Optic nerve sheath dilatation may be due to inflammation of the optic nerve, with its associated swelling, interrupting the communication between the subarachnoid space of the diseased optic nerve and the chiasmal cistern. Optic nerve sheath enhancement suggests that meningeal inflammation occurs in optic neuritis, in agreement with pathological studies of both optic neuritis and multiple sclerosis. (orig.)

  16. Optical switching device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeder, F.J.A. den; Hanzen, R.M.N.; Duine, P.A.; Jungblut, R.M.; Draijer, C.; Roozeboom, F.; Sluis, P. van der


    A description is given of an optical switching device (1) comprising a transparent substrate (3), a switching film (5) of a hydride compound of a trivalent transition or rare earth metal having a thickness of 300 nm, and a palladium capping layer (7) having a thickness of 30 nm. The capping layer is

  17. Optical Complex Systems 2008 (United States)

    Brun, Guillaume

    The Optical Complex Systems are more and more in the heart of various systems that industrial applications bring to everyday life. From environment up to spatial applications, OCS is also relevant in monitoring, transportation, robotics, life sciences, sub-marine, and even for agricultural purposes.

  18. Dielectric optical invisibility cloaks (United States)

    Blair, J.; Tamma, V. A.; Park, W.; Summers, C. J.


    Recently, metamaterial cloaks for the microwave frequency range have been designed using transformative optics design techniques and experimentally demonstrated. The design of these structures requires extreme values of permittivity and permeability within the device, which has been accomplished by the use of resonating metal elements. However, these elements severely limit the operating frequency range of the cloak due to their non-ideal dispersion properties at optical frequencies. In this paper we present designs to implement a simpler demonstration of cloaking, the carpet cloak, in which a curved reflective surface is compressed into a flat reflective surface, effectively shielding objects behind the curve from view with respect to the incoming radiation source. This approach eliminates the need for metallic resonant elements. These structures can now be fabricated using only high index dielectric materials by the use of electron beam lithography and standard cleanroom technologies. The design method, simulation analysis, device fabrication, and near field optical microscopy (NSOM) characterization results are presented for devices designed to operate in the 1400-1600nm wavelength range. Improvements to device performance by the deposition/infiltration of linear, and potentially non-linear optical materials, were investigated.

  19. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Feng Lin


    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  20. Integrated Optical Circuit Devices (United States)


    with a carrier frequency exactly at phase match (w ■ OJQ). 68 I I’ I HI III I "I ■ ^^^^^m^r^^ REFLECTION COEFFICIENT...34 Applied Optics, v9, n 11,p 2444-2452, November 1^70 Marcuse , D., "TL Modes of Graded-Index Slab Waveguides," IFFt J of Quantum Electronics v QF

  1. Materials for Optical Cryocoolers (United States)


    temperature.9,53 They used 5 mol% and 10 mol% Yb3+-doped YLF single crystals that were grown by AC Materials Inc. using the Czochralski method . The...reaching the attached payload. The design of the thermal link involves optimization of the optical geometry as well as careful choice of the methods

  2. SELENE Optics Team (United States)


    The SELENE Optics project was designed to send powerful laser beams into space to repower satellites and to recharge their batteries, as well as sending laser beams to the moon for the same purpose instead of relying on solar power. This project also was intended to be used for repowering extended space flights.

  3. MSFC Optical Test Pallet (United States)

    Hadaway, James B.; Stahl, H. Philip (Technical Monitor)


    Several mirror technology development programs have been initiated by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The goal is to advance the technology for producing 0.5-2.0 m class, ultra light-weight (<15 kg/sq m) mirrors that can be operated at or near 35 K. The NGST Mirror System Demonstrators (NMSDs) consist of a 1.6 m glass-on-composite mirror from Composite Optics Incorporated (COI) and a 2.0 m glass-on-actuators-on-composite mirror from the University of Arizona. The Subscale Beryllium Mirror Demonstrator (SBMD) is a 0.5 m beryllium mirror from Ball Aerospace. These mirrors require cryogenic surface figure and radius of curvature testing in order to verify their performance in the operational environment predicted for the NGST. An optical testing capability has been developed at the X-Ray Calibration Facility (XRCF) at MSFC. This paper will describe the optical test goals, the optical testing system design, the test instrumentation, and the test system performance as used for SBMD & NMSD cryogenic testing.

  4. Optical Tomography in Combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evseev, Vadim

    . JQSRT 113 (2012) 2222, 10.1016/j.jqsrt.2012.07.015] included in the PhD thesis as an attachment. The knowledge and experience gained in the PhD project is the first important step towards introducing the advanced optical tomography methods of combustion diagnostics developed in the project to future...

  5. Isotropic optical metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, C.


    Metamaterial imaging applications require optical isotropy. We show that highly symmetric unit cells do not necessarily exhibit this property. We prove that the dispersion relation can be tailored using a supercell metama-terial. Such metamaterial exhibits an isotropic negative index close to -1...

  6. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov


    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  7. Beyond optical horizons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    When you open this book, you might expect to find an interesting description of state-of-the-art technologies within the field of modern optics or photonics. As you look closer, you will - indeed - find that but you will also find much, much more. We are giving you a glimpse into possible version...

  8. Magnetic-Optical Filter

    CERN Document Server

    Formicola, I; Pinto, C; Cerulo, P


    Magnetic-Optical Filter (MOF) is an instrument suited for high precision spectral measurements for its peculiar characteristics. It is employed in Astronomy and in the field of the telecommunications (it is called FADOF there). In this brief paper we summarize its fundamental structure and functioning.

  9. Nonlinear fibre optics overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, J. C.; Frosz, Michael Henoch; Dudley, J. M.


    , provides a background to the associated nonlinear optical processes, treats the generation mechanisms from continuous wave to femtosecond pulse pump regimes and highlights the diverse applications. A full discussion of numerical methods and comprehensive computer code are also provided, enabling readers...

  10. Electrospun amplified fiber optics. (United States)

    Morello, Giovanni; Camposeo, Andrea; Moffa, Maria; Pisignano, Dario


    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ∼20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm(-1)). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics.

  11. Optic nerve hypoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savleen Kaur


    Full Text Available Optic nerve hypoplasia (ONH is a congenital anomaly of the optic disc that might result in moderate to severe vision loss in children. With a vast number of cases now being reported, the rarity of ONH is obviously now refuted. The major aspects of ophthalmic evaluation of an infant with possible ONH are visual assessment, fundus examination, and visual electrophysiology. Characteristically, the disc is small, there is a peripapillary double-ring sign, vascular tortuosity, and thinning of the nerve fiber layer. A patient with ONH should be assessed for presence of neurologic, radiologic, and endocrine associations. There may be maternal associations like premature births, fetal alcohol syndrome, maternal diabetes. Systemic associations in the child include endocrine abnormalities, developmental delay, cerebral palsy, and seizures. Besides the hypoplastic optic nerve and chiasm, neuroimaging shows abnormalities in ventricles or white- or gray-matter development, septo-optic dysplasia, hydrocephalus, and corpus callosum abnormalities. There is a greater incidence of clinical neurologic abnormalities in patients with bilateral ONH (65% than patients with unilateral ONH. We present a review on the available literature on the same to urge caution in our clinical practice when dealing with patients with ONH. Fundus photography, ocular coherence tomography, visual field testing, color vision evaluation, neuroimaging, endocrinology consultation with or without genetic testing are helpful in the diagnosis and management of ONH. (Method of search: MEDLINE, PUBMED.

  12. Optically Active Organic Microrings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balzer, Frank; Beermann, J.; Bozhevolnyi, S.I.


    -hexaphenyl molecules are generated on mica surfaces, possessing narrow size distributions with mean diameters of a few micrometers, wall widths of 100 to 200 nm, and wall heights of several hundred nanometers. Polarized linear and nonlinear optics reveals that the rings are made up of radially...

  13. Optical properties of nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin


    At the NBI I am involved in projects relating to optical properties of metallic nanoparticles in particular with respect to plasmonic heating with direct applications to photothermal cancer therapy. For this purpose we have developed heating assays that can be used to measure the heating of any...... nanoscopic heat source like an irradiated nanoparticle...

  14. Enhanced Optical Filter Design

    CERN Document Server

    Cushing, David


    This book serves as a supplement to the classic texts by Angus Macleod and Philip Baumeister, taking an intuitive approach to the enhancement of optical coating (or filter) performance. Drawing from 40 years of experience in thin film design, Cushing introduces the basics of thin films, the commonly used materials and their deposition, the major coatings and their applications, and improvement methods for each.

  15. Circuit switched optical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kloch, Allan


    -connects can substitute the electrical nodes that today connect the installed optical fibres. This substitution will enable a massive increase in capacity since the bandwidth of the individual wavelength channels can be increased drastically when the electronic bit processing can be omitted. Furthermore...

  16. Loss Tolerant Optical Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    Ralph, T C; Gilchrist, A; Gilchrist, Alexei


    We present a linear optics quantum computation scheme that employs a new encoding approach that incrementally adds qubits and is tolerant to photon loss errors. The scheme employs a circuit model but uses techniques from cluster state computation and achieves comparable resource usage. To illustrate our techniques we describe a quantum memory which is fault tolerant to photon loss.

  17. Quantum optics, what next? (United States)

    Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kimble, H. Jeff


    Quantum optics is a well-established field that spans from fundamental physics to quantum information science. In the coming decade, areas including computation, communication and metrology are all likely to experience scientific and technological advances supported by this far-reaching research field.

  18. Isotropic optical metamaterials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lederer, Falk; Rockstuhl, C.; Menzel, C.;


    Metamaterial imaging applications require optical isotropy. We show that highly symmetric unit cells do not necessarily exhibit this property. We prove that the dispersion relation can be tailored using a supercell metama-terial. Such metamaterial exhibits an isotropic negative index close to -1...

  19. Optically switchable natural silk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnov, Igor, E-mail:; Müller, Martin, E-mail: [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Krekiehn, Nicolai R.; Jung, Ulrich; Magnussen, Olaf M. [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Krywka, Christina [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Zillohu, Ahnaf U.; Strunskus, Thomas [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Elbahri, Mady [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Universität Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany)


    An optically active bio-material is created by blending natural silk fibers with photoisomerizable chromophore molecules—azobenzenebromide (AzBr). The material converts the energy of unpolarized light directly into mechanical work with a well-defined direction of action. The feasibility of the idea to produce optically driven microsized actuators on the basis of bio-material (silk) is proven. The switching behavior of the embedded AzBr molecules was studied in terms of UV/Vis spectroscopy. To test the opto-mechanical properties of the modified fibers and the structural changes they undergo upon optically induced switching, single fiber X-ray diffraction with a micron-sized synchrotron radiation beam was combined in situ with optical switching as well as with mechanical testing and monitoring. The crystalline regions of silk are not modified by the presence of the guest molecules, hence occupy only the amorphous part of the fibers. It is shown that chromophore molecules embedded into fibers can be reversibly switched between the trans and cis conformation by illumination with light of defined wavelengths. The host fibers respond to this switching with a variation of the internal stress. The amplitude of the mechanical response is independent of the applied external stress and its characteristic time is shorter than the relaxation time of the usual mechanical response of silk.

  20. Infrared Fiber Optic Sensors (United States)


    Successive years of Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from Langley Research Center to Sensiv Inc., a joint venture between Foster-Miller Inc. and Isorad, Ltd., assisted in the creation of remote fiber optic sensing systems. NASA's SBIR interest in infrared, fiber optic sensor technology was geared to monitoring the curing cycles of advanced composite materials. These funds helped in the fabrication of an infrared, fiber optic sensor to track the molecular vibrational characteristics of a composite part while it is being cured. Foster-Miller ingenuity allowed infrared transmitting optical fibers to combine with Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to enable remote sensing. Sensiv probes operate in the mid-infrared range of the spectrum, although modifications to the instrument also permits its use in the near-infrared region. The Sensiv needle-probe is built to be placed in a liquid or powder and analyze the chemicals in the mixture. Other applications of the probe system include food processing control; combustion control in furnaces; and maintenance problem solving.