WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical propagation

  1. Optical system defect propagation in ABCD systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKinley, W.G.; Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1988-01-01

    We describe how optical system defects (tilt/jitter, decenter, and despace) propagate through an arbitrary paraxial optical system that can be described by an ABCD ray transfer matrix. A pedagogical example is given that demonstrates the effect of alignment errors on a typical optical system....... © 1988 Optical Society of America...

  2. Optical Propagation in Anisotropic Metamaterials (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-22

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0309 OPTICAL PROPAGATION IN ANISOTROPIC METAMATERIALS (POSTPRINT) Rudra Gnawali, Partha P. Banerjee, and...October 2013 – 26 December 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTICAL PROPAGATION IN ANISOTROPIC METAMATERIALS (POSTPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-13-D...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Anisotropic metamaterials are widely used in the field of optics because of their unique electromagnetic properties. These

  3. Generation and propagation of optical vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozas, David

    Optical vortices are singularities in phase fronts of laser beams. They are characterized by a dark core whose size (relative to the size of the background beam) may dramatically affect their behavior upon propagation. Previously, only large-core vortices have been extensively studied. The object of the research presented in this dissertation was to explore ways of generating small-core optical vortices (also called optical vortex filaments ), and to examine their propagation using analytical, numerical and experimental methods. Computer-generated holography enabled us to create arbitrary distributions of optical vortex filaments for experimental exploration. Hydrodynamic analogies were used to develop an heuristic model which described the dependence of vortex motion on other vortices and the background beam, both qualitatively and quantitatively. We predicted that pair of optical vortex filaments will rotate with angular rates inversely proportional to their separation distance (just like vortices in a fluid). We also reported the first experimental observation of this novel fluid-like effect. It was found, however, that upon propagation in linear media, the fluid-like rotation was not sustained owing to the overlap of diffracting vortex cores. Further numerical studies and experiments showed that rotation angle may be enhanced in nonlinear self-defocusing media. The results presented in this thesis offer us a better understanding of dynamics of propagating vortices which may result in applications in optical switching, optical data storage, manipulation of micro-particles and optical limiting for eye protection.

  4. Rural Optical-Propagation Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Epple

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared with traditional communication technologies like wired or radio frequency communications, optical wireless communication has a unique fading behavior of the received signal, that does not allow to use existing channel models without modification. In this paper the statistics of received optical power obtained from experimental data are compared to often used statistical mathematical models. These models are the log-normal and the gamma-gamma distribution. It was found that the gamma-gamma gives better fits to the measured data, but the quality of the log-normal fits is sufficient for most needs. This means that the log-normal distribution can be used for the development of simplified channel models which have a better mathematical tractability than the models based on the gamma-gamma distribution.

  5. Dark propagation modes in optical lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavoni, M; Carminati, F R; Renzoni, F; Grynberg, G; Schiavoni, Michele; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Carminati, Francois-Regis; Renzoni, Ferruccio; Proxy, Gilbert Grynberg; ccsd-00000108, ccsd

    2002-01-01

    We examine the stimulated light scattering onto the propagation modes of a dissipative optical lattice. We show that two different pump-probe configurations may lead to the excitation, via different mechanisms, of the same mode. We found that in one configuration the scattering on the propagation mode results in a resonance in the probe transmission spectrum while in the other configuration no modification of the scattering spectrum occurs, i.e. the mode is dark. A theoretical explanation of this behaviour is provided.

  6. Optical pulse propagation with minimal approximations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Propagation equations for optical pulses are needed to assist in describing applications in ever more extreme situations—including those in metamaterials with linear and nonlinear magnetic responses. Here I show how to derive a single first-order propagation equation using a minimum of approximations and a straightforward “factorization” mathematical scheme. The approach generates exact coupled bidirectional equations, after which it is clear that the description can be reduced to a single unidirectional first-order wave equation by means of a simple “slow evolution” approximation, where the optical pulse changes little over the distance of one wavelength. It also allows a direct term-to-term comparison of an exact bidirectional theory with the approximate unidirectional theory.

  7. Turbulent Transitions in Optical Wave Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangeli, D; Di Mei, F; Di Domenico, G; Agranat, A J; Conti, C; DelRe, E

    2016-10-28

    We report the direct observation of the onset of turbulence in propagating one-dimensional optical waves. The transition occurs as the disordered hosting material passes from being linear to one with extreme nonlinearity. As the response grows, increased wave interaction causes a modulational unstable quasihomogeneous flow to be superseded by a chaotic and spatially incoherent one. Statistical analysis of high-resolution wave behavior in the turbulent regime unveils the emergence of concomitant rogue waves. The transition, observed in a photorefractive ferroelectric crystal, introduces a new and rich experimental setting for the study of optical wave turbulence and information transport in conditions dominated by large fluctuations and extreme nonlinearity.

  8. Nonlinear and Dispersive Optical Pulse Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijaili, Sol Peter

    In this dissertation, there are basically four novel contributions to the field of picosecond pulse propagation and measurement. The first contribution is the temporal ABCD matrix which is an analog of the traditional ABCD ray matrices used in Gaussian beam propagation. The temporal ABCD matrix allows for the easy calculation of the effects of linear chirp or group velocity dispersion in the time domain. As with Gaussian beams in space, there also exists a complete Hermite-Gaussian basis in time whose propagation can be tracked with the temporal ABCD matrices. The second contribution is the timing synchronization between a colliding pulse mode-locked dye laser and a gain-switched Fabry-Perot type AlGaAs laser diode that has achieved less than 40 femtoseconds of relative timing jitter by using a pulsed optical phase lock loop (POPLL). The relative timing jitter was measured using the error voltage of the feedback loop. This method of measurement is accurate since the frequencies of all the timing fluctuations fall within the loop bandwidth. The novel element is a broad band optical cross-correlator that can resolve femtosecond time delay errors between two pulse trains. The third contribution is a novel dispersive technique of determining the nonlinear frequency sweep of a picosecond pulse with relatively good accuracy. All the measurements are made in the time domain and hence there is no time-bandwidth limitation to the accuracy. The fourth contribution is the first demonstration of cross -phase modulation in a semiconductor laser amplifier where a variable chirp was observed. A simple expression for the chirp imparted on a weak signal pulse by the action of a strong pump pulse is derived. A maximum frequency excursion of 16 GHz due to the cross-phase modulation was measured. A value of 5 was found for alpha _{xpm} which is a factor for characterizing the cross-phase modulation in a similar manner to the conventional linewidth enhancement factor, alpha.

  9. Field Theory for Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of "matrix potential" to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential $g$, we present a gauge field theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multi-level media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can solved identically through $g$ and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second order differential equation with reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (nonabelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multi-level media in association with symmetric spaces $G/H$. In particular, we associate nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with $G/H=SU(2)/U(1)$ and three-level $\\L $- or V-systems with $G/H = SU(3)/U(2)$. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various new properties of the system including so...

  10. Propagation dynamics of vortices in Helico-Conical optical beams

    CERN Document Server

    Bareza, Nestor

    2015-01-01

    We present the dynamics of optical vortices (OVs) that came from the propagation of helico-conical optical beam. This dynamics is investigated numerically by tracking the OVs at several distances using rigorous scalar diffraction theory. To ensure that our numerical calculations are correct, we compare the intensity profiles and their corresponding interferograms taken at different propagation distances between simulations and experiments. We observe that the peripheral isopolar vortices transport radially inward, toward the optical axis along the transverse spatial space as the beam propagates. When the beam has a central vortex, these vortices have significant induced angular rates of motion about the optical axis. These propagation dynamics of vortices influence the internal energy flow and the wave profile reconstruction of the beam, which can be important when deciding their applications.

  11. Spatial and temporal pulse propagation for dispersive paraxial optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, G

    2016-04-04

    The formalism for pulse propagation through dispersive paraxial optical systems first presented by Kostenbauder (IEEE J. Quant. Elec.261148-1157 (1990)) using 4 × 4 ray-pulse matrices is extended to 6 × 6 matrices and includes non-separable spatial-temporal couplings in both transverse dimensions as well as temporal dispersive effects up to a quadratic phase. The eikonal in a modified Huygens integral in the Fresnell approximation is derived and can be used to propagate pulses through complicated dispersive optical systems within the paraxial approximation. In addition, a simple formula for the propagation of ultrashort pulses having a Gaussian profile both spatially and temporally is presented.

  12. Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W

    2011-12-01

    This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

  13. Intraband effects on ultrafast pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifier

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Hussain; S K Varshney; P K Datta

    2010-11-01

    High bit-rate (>10 Gb/s) signals are composed of very short pulses and propagation of such pulses through a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) requires consideration of intraband phenomena. Due to the intraband effects, the propagating pulse sees a fast recovering nonlinear gain which introduces less distortion in the pulse shape and spectrum of the output pulse but introduces a positive chirping at the trailing edge of the pulse.

  14. Generation and propagation of radially polarized beams in optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramachandran, Siddharth; Kristensen, P; Yan, M F

    2009-01-01

    Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even in the pres......Beams with polarization singularities have attracted immense recent attention in a wide array of scientific and technological disciplines. We demonstrate a class of optical fibers in which these beams can be generated and propagated over long lengths with unprecedented stability, even...... in the presence of strong bend perturbations. This opens the door to exploiting nonlinear fiber optics to manipulate such beams. This fiber also possesses the intriguingly counterintuitive property of being polarization maintaining despite being strictly cylindrically symmetric, a prospect hitherto considered...... infeasible with optical fibers. (C) 2009 Optical Society of America....

  15. Propagation of Optical Pulses in Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Ariel; Olivares, Ricardo

    2008-04-01

    The propagation of Gaussian optical pulses through optical PM-HiBi (Polarization Maintaining Highly Birefringent) fibers is analyzed and simulated. Based upon a model of propagation as described by Marcuse, et al., [1] and Sunnerud, et al., [2], and the use of PMD (Polarization Mode Dispersion) compensators and emulators used by Kogelnik, et al. [2], [3] and Lima, et al. [4], we construct a simple model that allows graphical representation of the distortion experienced by optical pulses when propagating in a PM-HiBi fiber for different initial polarizations. The results of our analysis have the benefit of being identical to the more elaborate models of [1], [2], while also providing the additional advantage of simple graphical representation.

  16. Propagation delay of femtosecond pulses in an optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The recent realization of tunable propagation delay of optical pulses in solid-state and semiconductor optical media1,2 has attracted great attention as such a functionality enables a whole new class of optical components in optical communications systems and signal processing3. The reported...... measurements as function of injected bias current. Good agreement is found with simple models of the real and imaginary parts of the active material's susceptibility. 1 M.S. Bigelow, N.N. Lepeshkin, and R. Boyd, Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 113903-1—4 (2003) 2 P.-C. Ku et al., Opt. Lett. 19, 2291—2293 (2004) 3 C...

  17. Propagation delay of femtosecond pulses in an optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    The recent realization of tunable propagation delay of optical pulses in solid-state and semiconductor optical media1,2 has attracted great attention as such a functionality enables a whole new class of optical components in optical communications systems and signal processing3. The reported...... results show a large reduction in group velocity but this was achieved at the cost of a small bandwidth (e.g. 37 Hz in the case of Bigelow et al.1) of the probe signal. In this paper, we report measurements of slowing down and speeding up of the propagation of 150 fs pulses, having a very large bandwidth....... In the first experiment, we prepare a narrow peak or dip in the SOA gain spectrum by injection of a strong pump pulse4. The resulting dispersion feature is then probed by a weak pulse. In the second experiment, we measure self-slowdown or advancement as pulse energy isincreased5. In both cases, we perform...

  18. Optical Propagation Modeling for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W H; Auerbach, J M; Henesian, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Manes, K R; Mehta, N C; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A; Shaw, M J; Widmayer, C C

    2004-01-12

    Optical propagation modeling of the National Ignition Facility has been utilized extensively from conceptual design several years ago through to early operations today. In practice we routinely (for every shot) model beam propagation starting from the waveform generator through to the target. This includes the regenerative amplifier, the 4-pass rod amplifier, and the large slab amplifiers. Such models have been improved over time to include details such as distances between components, gain profiles in the laser slabs and rods, transient optical distortions due to the flashlamp heating of laser slabs, measured transmitted and reflected wavefronts for all large optics, the adaptive optic feedback loop, and the frequency converter. These calculations allow nearfield and farfield predictions in good agreement with measurements.

  19. A Thermo-Optic Propagation Modeling Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Karl; Akau, Ron

    2014-10-01

    A new theoretical basis is derived for tracing optical rays within a finite-element (FE) volume. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FE methodology (FEM) is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The method is implemented in the Matlab(TM) environment and compared to closed- form gradient index models. A software architecture is also developed for implementing the algorithms in the Zemax(TM) commercial ray-trace application. A controlled thermal environment was constructed in the laboratory, and measured data was collected to validate the structural, thermal, and optical modeling methods.

  20. Graphene supports the propagation of subwavelength optical solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Nesterov, M L; Nikitin, A Yu; Garcia-Vidal, F J; Martin-Moreno, L

    2012-01-01

    We study theoretically nonlinear propagation of light in a graphene monolayer. We show that the large intrinsic nonlinearity of graphene at optical frequencies enables the formation of quasi one-dimensional self-guided beams (spatial solitons) featuring subwavelength widths at moderate electric-field peak intensities. We also demonstrate a novel class of nonlinear self-confined modes resulting from the hybridization of surface plasmon polaritons with graphene optical solitons.

  1. Ultrashort Optical Pulse Propagation in terms of Analytic Signal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Amiranashvili

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that ultrashort optical pulses propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium are naturally described through incorporation of analytic signal for the electric field. To this end a second-order nonlinear wave equation is first simplified using a unidirectional approximation. Then the analytic signal is introduced, and all nonresonant nonlinear terms are eliminated. The derived propagation equation accounts for arbitrary dispersion, resonant four-wave mixing processes, weak absorption, and arbitrary pulse duration. The model applies to the complex electric field and is independent of the slowly varying envelope approximation. Still the derived propagation equation posses universal structure of the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NSE. In particular, it can be solved numerically with only small changes of the standard split-step solver or more complicated spectral algorithms for NSE. We present exemplary numerical solutions describing supercontinuum generation with an ultrashort optical pulse.

  2. Light propagation in optically induced Fibonacci lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Boguslawski, Martin; Timotijevic, Dejan V; Denz, Cornelia; Savic, Dragana M Jovic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the optical induction of Fibonacci lattices in photorefractive strontium barium niobate by use of Bessel beam waveguide-wise writing techniques. Fibonacci elements A and B are used as lattice periods. We further use the induced structures to execute probing experiments with variously focused Gaussian beams in order to observe light confinement owing to the quasiperiodic character of Fibonacci word sequences. Essentially, we show that Gaussian beam expansion is just slowed down in Fibonacci lattices, as compared with appropriate periodic lattices.

  3. Complex sine-Gordon Equation in Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the McCall-Hahn theory of self-induced transparency in coherent optical pulse propagation can be identified with the complex sine-Gordon theory in the sharp line limit. We reformulate the theory in terms of the deformed gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and address various new aspects of self-induced transparency.

  4. Optical propagation in linear media atmospheric gases and particles, solid-state components, and water

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    PART I: Background Theory and Measurement. 1. Optical Electromagnetics I. 2. Optical Electromagnetics II. 3. Spectroscopy of Matter. 4. Electrodynamics I: Macroscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 5. Electrodynamics II: Microscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 6. Experimental Techniques. PART II: Practical Models for Various Media. 7. Optical Propagation in Gases and the Atmosphere of the Earth. 8. Optical Propagation in Solids. 9. Optical Propagation in Liquids. 10. Particle Absorption and Scatter. 11. Propagation Background and Noise

  5. Optical wave propagation in photonic crystal metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kaisar; Mnaymneh, Khaled; Awad, Hazem; Hasan, Imad; Hall, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    Metamaterials that provide negative refraction can be implemented in photonic crystals (PhCs) through careful design of the devices. Theoretically, we demonstrate that the dispersion can be altered to achieve negative refraction. This can be done through engineering the geometry of the device as well as selecting appropriate materials. The PhC also demonstrates slow light that facilitate sensing chemicals or biological agents. Using metallic materials such as gold nano-particle enables PhCs to guide optical waves in desired pathways. Also using magnetic materials such as highly doped n-GaAs, we can tune the band gap by changing magnetic field. The simulated results are consistent with some of the previously reported experimental results and give us guidance for future experiments.

  6. The analysis of optical wave beams propagation in lens systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, I.; Mosentsov, S.; Moskaletz, O.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper some aspects of the formation and propagation of optical wave beams in lens systems were considered. As an example, the two-lens optical information processing system was considered. Analysis of the two-lens optical circuit has been made with a systems approach perspective. As part of the radio-optical analogies had been applied certain provisions of the theory of dynamical systems to the spatial optical system. The lens system is represented as a simple series-connected optical elements with known spatial impulse response. General impulse response of such a system has been received, as well as consider some special cases of the impulse response. The question of the relationship between the parameters and the size of the input aperture lenses for undistorted transmission of the optical signal has been considered. Analysis of the energy loss resulting from the finite aperture of the lens. It's based on an assessment of the fraction of radiation that propagates beyond the lens. Analysis showed that the energy losses depend explicitly on the following parameters: radiation wavelength, distance between input aperture and lens, and ratio of the input aperture and lens aperture. With the computer help simulation the dependence of losses was shown on the above parameters

  7. Hamiltonian structure of propagation equations for ultrashort optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiranashvili, Sh.; Demircan, A.

    2010-07-01

    A Hamiltonian framework is developed for a sequence of ultrashort optical pulses propagating in a nonlinear dispersive medium. To this end a second-order nonlinear wave equation for the electric field is transformed into a first-order propagation equation for a suitably defined complex electric field. The Hamiltonian formulation is then introduced in terms of normal variables, i.e., classical complex fields referring to the quantum creation and annihilation operators. The derived z-propagated Hamiltonian accounts for forward and backward waves, arbitrary medium dispersion, and four-wave mixing processes. As a simple application we obtain integrals of motion for the pulse propagation. The integrals reflect time-averaged fluxes of energy, momentum, and photons transferred by the pulse. Furthermore, pulses in the form of stationary nonlinear waves are considered. They yield extremal values of the momentum flux for a given energy flux. Simplified propagation equations are obtained by reduction of the Hamiltonian. In particular, the complex electric field reduces to an analytic signal for the unidirectional propagation. Solutions of the full bidirectional model are numerically compared to the predictions of the simplified equation for the analytic signal and to the so-called forward Maxwell equation. The numerics is effectively tested by examining the conservation laws.

  8. Design and manufacture of imaging time-of-propagation optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Mike; Fast, James; Schwartz, Alan

    2016-09-01

    There are several challenges associated with the design and manufacture of the optics required for the imaging time-of- propagation detector constructed for the Belle II particle physics experiment. This detector uses Cherenkov light radiated in quartz bars to identify subatomic particles: pions, kaons, and protons. The optics are physically large (125 cm x 45 cm x 2 cm bars and 45 cm x 10 cm x 5 cm prisms), all surfaces are optically polished, and there is very little allowance for chamfers or surface defects. In addition to the optical challenges, there are several logistical and handling challenges associated with measuring, assembling, cleaning, packaging, and shipping these delicate precision optics. This paper describes a collaborative effort between Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, the University of Cincinnati, and ZYGO Corporation for the design and manufacture of 48 fused silica optics (30 bars and 18 prisms) for the iTOP Detector. Details of the iTOP detector design that drove the challenging optical requirements are provided, along with material selection considerations. Since the optics are so large, precise, and delicate, special care had to be given to the selection of a manufacturing process capable of achieving the challenging optical and surface defect requirements on such large and high-aspect-ratio (66:1) components. A brief update on the current status and performance of these optics is also provided.

  9. Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.

  10. Orbital angular momentum in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W

    2011-11-21

    This is the second of two papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. In the companion paper, it is shown that propagation through atmospheric turbulence can create non-trivial angular momentum. Here, we extend the result and demonstrate that this momentum is, at least in part, orbital angular momentum. Specifically, we demonstrate that branch points (in the language of the adaptive optic community) indicate the presence of photons with non-zero OAM. Furthermore, the conditions required to create photons with non-zero orbital angular momentum are ubiquitous. The repercussions of this statement are wide ranging and these are cursorily enumerated.

  11. Properties of nonreciprocal light propagation in a nonlinear optical isolator

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Light propagation in a nonlinear optical medium is nonreciprocal for spatially asymmetric linear permittivity. We here examine physical mechanism and properties of such nonreciprocity (NR). For this, we calculate transmission of light through a two-level atom asymmetrically coupled to light inside open waveguides. We determine the critical intensity of incident light for maximum NR and a dependence of the corresponding NR on asymmetry in the coupling. Surprisingly, we find that it is mainly c...

  12. Scintillation index of optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Rui-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A concise expression of the scintillation index is proposed for a plane optical wave and a spherical optical wave both propagating in a turbulent atmosphere with a zero inner scale and a finite inner scale under an arbitrary fluc- tuation condition. The expression is based on both the results in the Rytov approximation under a weak fluctuation condition and the numerical results in a strong fluctuation regime. The maximum value of the scintillation index and its corresponding Rytov index axe evaluated. These quantities are affected by the ratio of the turbulence inner scale to the Frcsnel size.

  13. Multiple-beam Propagation in an Anderson Localized Optical Fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Karbasi, Salman; Mafi, Arash

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the simultaneous propagation of multiple beams in a disordered Anderson localized optical fiber. The profiles of each beam fall off exponentially, enabling multiple channels at high-density. We examine the influence of fiber bends on the movement of the beam positions, which we refer to as drift. We investigate the extent of the drift of localized beams induced by macro-bending and show that it is possible to design Anderson localized optical fibers which can be used for practical beam-multiplexing applications.

  14. Propagation optical quarks after an uniaxial crystal: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Yu. A.; Konovalenko, V. L.; Zinovev, A. O.; Anischenko, P. M.; Glumova, M. V.

    2013-12-01

    There is a lots of different papers reporting about the propagation of the different types of an optical beams in a uniaxial crystals are known by that time. This beams are: Lager-Gaussian and Bessel- Gaussian beams. It is common for all this types of beams, that if propagation axis and crystal axis coincides, and accident beam had a circular polarization, are can get type spiral type degenerated umbilici, which corresponds to the charge 2 optical vortex in the orthogonal polarized beam component, generated by crystal [1] (Fig 1). This generation accurse due to total angular momentum conservation law symmetry axis of the crystal. One to the changing of the spin momentum which is associated with the beam polarization, this leads to the orbital momentum changes that associated with topological charge of formed orthogonal circular component. Double charged optical vortex could be easily perturbed by tilting beam axis with respect to the crystal axis. If the tilt angles are small (<0.1°) central umbilici splits on two lemons and the surrounding ring umbilici splits on two pairs of monster-star. The further increasing of the tilt angle leads to the topological charge of circular components becomes, equal, and additional orbital moment correspond to the beam mass center displacement.

  15. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cristofori, Valentina

    and can operate with a potentially low noise figure with respect to erbium-doped fiber amplifiers and Raman amplifiers, when working in phase-sensitive configurations. A characterization of the signal distortion mechanisms introduced by FOPAs is relevant for investigating the applicability of FOPAs......Fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPAs) are attractive because they can provide large gain over a broad range of central wavelengths, depending only on the availability of a suitable pump laser. In addition, FOPAs are suitable for the realization of all-optical signal processing functionalities...... transfer can be reduced in saturated F OPAs. In order to characterize propagation impairments such as dispersion and Kerr effect, affecting signals reaching multi-terabit per second per channel, short pulses on the order of 500 fs need to be considered. Therefore, a short pulses fiber laser source...

  16. Shock wave propagation in soda lime glass using optical shadowgraphy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRASAD Y B S R; BARNWAL S; NAIK P A; YADAV Y; PATIDAR R; KAMATH M P; UPADHYAY A; BAGCHI S; KUMAR A; JOSHI A S; GUPTA P D

    2016-07-01

    Propagation of shock waves in soda lime glass, which is a transparent material, has been studied using the optical shadowgraphy technique. The time-resolved shock velocity information has been obtained (1) in single shot, using the chirped pulse shadowgraphy technique, with a temporal resolution of tens of picoseconds and (2) in multiple shots, using conventional snapshot approach, with a second harmonic probe pulse. Transient shock velocities of $(5–7) \\times 10^{6}$ cm/s have been obtained. The scaling of the shock velocity with intensity in the $2 \\times 10^{13}–10^{14}$ W/cm$^2$ range has been obtained. The shock velocity is observed to scale with laser intensity as $I^{0.38}$. The present experiments also show the presence of ionization tracks, generated probably due to X-ray hotspots from small-scale filamentation instabilities. The results and various issues involved in these experiments are discussed

  17. Properties of nonreciprocal light propagation in a nonlinear optical isolator

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Dibyendu

    2016-01-01

    Light propagation in a nonlinear optical medium is nonreciprocal for spatially asymmetric linear permittivity. We here examine physical mechanism and properties of such nonreciprocity (NR). For this, we calculate transmission of light through a two-level atom asymmetrically coupled to light inside open waveguides. We determine the critical intensity of incident light for maximum NR and a dependence of the corresponding NR on asymmetry in the coupling. Surprisingly, we find that it is mainly coherent elastic scattering compared to incoherent scattering of incident light which causes maximum NR near the critical intensity. We also show a higher NR of an incident light in the presence of an additional weak light at the opposite port.

  18. Full vector modal analysis of microstructured optical fiber propagation characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zghal, Mourad; Bahloul, Faouzi; Chatta, Rihab; Attia, Rabah; Pagnoux, Dominique; Roy, Philippe; Melin, Gilles; Gasca, Laurent

    2004-10-01

    Microstructured optical fibers (MOFs) are optical fibers having a periodic air-silica cross-section. The air holes extend along the axis of the fiber for its entire length. The core of the fiber is formed by a missing hole in the periodic structure. Remarkable properties of MOFs have recently been reported. This paper presents new work in the modeling of the propagation characteristics of MOFs using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Galerkin Method (GM). This efficient electromagnetic simulation package provides a vectorial description of the electromagnetic fields and of the associated effective index. This information includes accurate determination of the spectral extent of the modes, cutoff properties and mode-field distributions. We show that FEM is well adapted for describing the fields at abrupt transitions of the refractive index while GM has the advantage to accurately analyze MOFs of significant complexity using only modest computational resources. This presentation will focus on the specific techniques required to determine single mode operation, dispersion properties and effective area through careful choice of the geometrical parameters of the fibers. We demonstrate that with suitable geometrical parameters, the zero dispersion wavelength can be shifted. This tool can also provide design criteria for fabricating MOFs and a corresponding map of effective area. This approach is validated by comparison with experimental results and measurements on actual MOFs fabricated at IRCOM and at Alcatel Research and Innovation Center.

  19. Numerical simulation of optical vortex propagation and reflection by the methods of scalar diffraction theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Nikolay V; Pavlov, Pavel V; Malov, A N

    2013-06-30

    Using the equations of scalar diffraction theory we consider the formation of an optical vortex on a diffractive optical element. The algorithms are proposed for simulating the processes of propagation of spiral wavefronts in free space and their reflections from surfaces with different roughness parameters. The given approach is illustrated by the results of numerical simulations. (propagation of wave fronts)

  20. Simulating atmospheric free-space optical propagation: rainfall attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Maha

    2002-04-01

    With recent advances and interest in Free-Space Optics (FSO) for commercial deployments, more attention has been placed on FSO weather effects and the availability of global weather databases. The Meteorological Visual Range (Visibility) is considered one of the main weather parameters necessary to estimate FSO attenuation due to haze, fog and low clouds. Proper understanding of visibility measurements conducted throughout the years is essential. Unfortunately, such information is missing from most of the databases, leaving FSO players no choice but to use the standard visibility equation based on 2% contrast and other assumptions on the source luminance and its background. Another challenge is that visibility is measured using the visual wavelength of 550 nm. Extrapolating the measured attenuations to longer infrared wavelengths is not trivial and involves extensive experimentations. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by spherical droplets of different sizes is considered to simulate FSO scattering effects. This paper serves as an introduction to a series of publications regarding simulation of FSO atmospheric propagation. This first part focuses on attenuation due to rainfall. Additional weather parameters, such as rainfall rate, temperature and relative humidity are considered to effectively build the rain model. Comparison with already published experimental measurement is performed to validate the model. The scattering cross section due to rain is derived from the density of different raindrop sizes and the raindrops fall velocity is derived from the overall rainfall rate. Absorption due the presence of water vapor is computed using the temperature and relative humidity measurements.

  1. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.B.; Kristensen, M.V.

    2011-01-01

    Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter-propagating sh......Counter-propagating beams have enabled the first stable three-dimensional optical trapping of microparticles and this procedure has been enhanced and developed over the years to achieve independent and interactive manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyse counter......-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show...... for optical trapping and manipulation using patterned counter-propagating beams, which still remains to be fully tapped....

  2. Analysis of Optical Fiber Complex Propagation Matrix on the Basis of Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng;

    2016-01-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel method for reconstruction of the complex propagation matrix of optical fibers supporting propagation of multiple vortex modes. This method is based on the azimuthal decomposition approach and allows the complex matrix elements to be determined...... by direct calculations. We apply the proposed method to demonstrate the feasibility of optical compensation for coupling between vortex modes in optical fiber....

  3. Influence of optical activity on rogue waves propagating in chiral optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temgoua, D. D. Estelle; Kofane, T. C.

    2016-06-01

    We derive the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in chiral optical fiber with right- and left-hand nonlinear polarization. We use the similarity transformation to reduce the generalized chiral NLS equation to the higher-order integrable Hirota equation. We present the first- and second-order rational solutions of the chiral NLS equation with variable and constant coefficients, based on the modified Darboux transformation method. For some specific set of parameters, the features of chiral optical rogue waves are analyzed from analytical results, showing the influence of optical activity on waves. We also generate the exact solutions of the two-component coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe optical activity effects on the propagation of rogue waves, and their properties in linear and nonlinear coupling cases are investigated. The condition of modulation instability of the background reveals the existence of vector rogue waves and the number of stable and unstable branches. Controllability of chiral optical rogue waves is examined by numerical simulations and may bring potential applications in optical fibers and in many other physical systems.

  4. Free-space propagation of guided optical vortices excited in an annular core fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongwei; Zhang, Entao; Zhao, Baoyin; Duan, Kailiang

    2012-07-30

    The analytical expression for the propagation of guided optical vortices through free space is derived and used to study the dynamic evolution of guided optical vortices after passing through the free space, and the dependence of guided optical vortices on the control parameters where the effect of propagation distance is stressed. It is shown that the motion, pair creation and annihilation of guided optical vortices may take place. In particular, the creation and annihilation of a pair of guided optical vortices do not take place by varying fiber length.

  5. Light propagation studies on laser modified waveguides using scanning near-field optical microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrise, X.; Berini, Abadal Gabriel; Jimenez, D.

    2001-01-01

    By means of direct laser writing on Al, a new method to locally modify optical waveguides is proposed. This technique has been applied to silicon nitride waveguides, allowing modifications of the optical propagation along the guide. To study the formed structures, a scanning near-held optical...

  6. Propagation of Coherent Gaussian Schell-Model Beam Array in a Misaligned Optical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Pu; WANG Xiao-Lin; MA Yan-Xing; MA Hao-Tong; XU Xiao-Jun; LIU Ze-Jin

    2011-01-01

    @@ Based on a generalized Collins formula,the analytical formula for the propagation property of coherent Gaussian Schell-rnodel(GSM) beam array through a misaligned optical system is derived.As numerical examples,the propagation of a coherent GSM beam array in a typical misaligned optical system with a thin lens is evaluated.The influence of different misalignment parameters is calculated and the normalized-intensity distribution is graphically illustrated.%Based on a generalized Collins formula, the analytical formula for the propagation property of coherent Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beam array through a misaligned optical system is derived. As numerical examples, the propagation of a coherent GSM beam array in a typical misaligned optical system with a thin lens is evaluated.The influence of different misalignment parameters is calculated and the normalized-intensity distribution is graphically illustrated.

  7. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2004-01-01

    The propagation of guided and nonconfined optical waves at fixed frequency through dielectric structures with piecewise constant, rectangular permittivity is considered in two spatial dimensions. Bidirectional versions of eigenmodes, computed for sequences of multilayer slab waveguides, constitute t

  8. Optical Soliton Propagation in a Free-Standing Nonlinear Graphene Monolayer with Defects

    CERN Document Server

    Moxley, Frederick Ira; Radadia, Adarsh; Dai, Weizhong

    2013-01-01

    Recently, optical soliton propagation in an intrinsic nonlinear graphene monolayer configuration has been discovered. However, optical soliton behavior in a free-standing graphene monolayer with defects has not yet been studied. The objective of this article is to employ the generalized finite- difference time-domain (G-FDTD) method to efficiently simulate bright optical solitons, illustrating propagation of the electric field distribution in a free-standing nonlinear layer with variation in nonlinearity along its width. These variations of nonlinearity along the width represent graphene impurities, or defects. Results show that solitons propagate effectively even in the presence of strong spatial variations in the nonlinearity, implying the robustness of the medium with respect to optical propagation.

  9. Propagation of partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戈迪; 蔡阳健; 林强

    2005-01-01

    By use of a tensor method, the transform formulae for the beam coherence-polarization matrix of the partially polarized Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems are derived. As an example, the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beam passing through a misaligned thin lens are illustrated numerically and discussed in detail. The derived formulae provide a convenient way to study the propagation properties of the partially polarized GSM beams through aligned and misaligned optical systems.

  10. Second-Order Statistics for Wave Propagation through Complex Optical Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yura, H.T.; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    1989-01-01

    -order Rytov approximation, explicit general expressions are presented for the mutual coherence function, the log-amplitude and phase correlation functions, and the mean-square irradiance that are obtained in propagation through an arbitrary paraxial ABCD optical system containing Gaussian-shaped limiting......Closed-form expressions are derived for various statistical functions that arise in optical propagation through arbitrary optical systems that can be characterized by a complex ABCD matrix in the presence of distributed random inhomogeneities along the optical path. Specifically, within the second...... apertures. Additionally, we consider the performance of adaptive-optics systems through arbitrary real paraxial ABCD optical systems and derive an expression for the mean irradiance of an adaptive-optics laser transmitter through such systems. © 1989 Optical Society of America...

  11. Self-similar propagation and amplification of parabolic pulses in optical fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermann, M E; Kruglov, V I; Thomsen, B C; Dudley, J M; Harvey, J D

    2000-06-26

    Ultrashort pulse propagation in high gain optical fiber amplifiers with normal dispersion is studied by self-similarity analysis of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with gain. An exact asymptotic solution is found, corresponding to a linearly chirped parabolic pulse which propagates self-similarly subject to simple scaling rules. The solution has been confirmed by numerical simulations and experiments studying propagation in a Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Additional experiments show that the pulses remain parabolic after propagation through standard single mode fiber with normal dispersion.

  12. Coupled Optical Solitons for Pulse Propagation in Multi-Level Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Guo-Xiang; Jacob Szeftel

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate the shape-preserving propagation of N optical pulses in an (N + 1)-level medium. We solve Maxwell-Schrodinger equations exactly and provide several types of explicit coupled soliton solutions, which are temporally amplitude- and group-velocity-matched multi-mode slow-optical pulses of the system.

  13. All-optical DAC using counter-propagating optical and electrical pulses in a Mach-Zehnder modulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Arthur James

    2014-10-20

    A novel method of converting binary-level electrical pulses into multi-level optical pulses using only a conventional traveling-wave optical modulator is presented. The method provides low inter-pulse interference due to the counter-propagating pulses, low amplitude noise, and a timing jitter determined chiefly by the quality of the optical pulse source. The method only requires one electrical drive per modulator and provides low-jitter variable-amplitude optical pulses that are suitable for shaping into a wide variety of modulation formats using a programmable optical filter.

  14. Propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform optical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chengliang; Cai, Yangjian

    2010-03-01

    Paraxial propagation of a general-type beam through a truncated fractional Fourier transform (FRT) optical system is investigated. Analytical formulas for the electric field and effective beam width of a general-type beam in the FRT plane are derived based on the Collins formula. Our formulas can be used to study the propagation of a variety of laser beams--such as Gaussian, cos-Gaussian, cosh-Gaussian, sine-Gaussian, sinh-Gaussian, flat-topped, Hermite-cosh-Gaussian, Hermite-sine-Gaussian, higher-order annular Gaussian, Hermite-sinh-Gaussian and Hermite-cos-Gaussian beams--through a FRT optical system with or without truncation. The propagation properties of a Hermite-cos-Gaussian beam passing through a rectangularly truncated FRT optical system are studied as a numerical example. Our results clearly show that the truncated FRT optical system provides a convenient way for laser beam shaping.

  15. Microcomputer Simulation of a Fourier Approach to Optical Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-06-01

    efficient method to model such ultrasonic propagation has been developed by Guyomar and Powers [Refs. 2,3]. Relying upon linear systems theory and...the application of linear systems theory , and the mathematical derivation of the field solution utilizing the Fourier approach. Chapter III commences...the spatial impulse response. Guyomar and Powers’ view differs from Stepanishen’s work in that linear systems theory is used to point out the

  16. Precise evaluation of the Helmholtz equation for optical propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, John E; Sutton, George W

    2015-01-01

    A precise computational integration of the Helmholtz equation was performed for laser propagation of an electromagnetic wave with no approximations or linearization. This computation integration was performed using 64-bit processors. This is illustrated for a uniform monochromatic beam from a circular aperture that has a uniform intensity. It predicts many Arago spots and near-field intensity fluctuations for a large ratio of aperture size to wavelength and converges to the usual Airy pattern in the far field.

  17. Generalized propagation of light through optical systems. II. Numerical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessmer, Manuel; Gross, Herbert

    2015-12-01

    We present an algorithm implemented in a MATLAB toolbox that is able to compute the wave propagation of coherent visible light through macroscopic lenses. The mathematical operations that complete the status at the end of the first paper of this sequence, where only limited configurations of the propagation direction were allowed toward arbitrarily directed input beam computations, are provided. With their help, high numerical aperture (NA) field tracing is made possible that is based on fast Fourier routines and is Maxwell exact in the limit of macroscopic structures and large curvature radii, including reflection and transmission. Whereas the curvature-dependent terms in the Helmholtz equation are under analytical control through the first perturbation order in the curvature, they are only included in the propagation distance in the current investigation for the sake of reasonable time consumption. We give a number of examples that demonstrate the strengths of our approach, describe essential differences from other approaches that were not obvious when Paper 1 was written, and list a number of drawbacks and possible simplifications to overcome them.

  18. Propagation of Complex Laser Pulses in Optically Dense Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, M. R.; Davis, J. C.; Goswami, D.; Yang, W.; Warren, W. S.

    1999-05-01

    Ultrafast laser pulses with complex envelopes (amplitude and frequency modulated) are used to excite an optically dense column of rubidium vapor. Pulse reshaping, stimulated emission dynamics, and residual electronic excitation in the Rb vapor are all shown to depend strongly on the laser pulse shape. Pulses that produce adiabatic passage in the optically thin limit exhibit more complex behavior in optically thick samples, including an unexpected dependence on the sign of the frequency sweep. Numerical solutions of the Maxwell-Bloch equations are shown to account for our results.

  19. Propagation Effect of Hollow Gaussian Beams Passing through a Misaligned Optical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Cheng-Liang; WANG Li-Gang; LU Xuan-Hui; WANG Yu-Zhu

    2006-01-01

    @@ A generalized formula of hollow Gaussian beams through the first-order misaligned ABCD systems is derived by using the generalized diffraction integral formula. It is shown that the hollow Gaussian beam passing through the misaligned system becomes a decentred hollow Gaussian beam. The propagation properties of the output beam are investigated when it propagates through a simple misaligned lens system. These results provide a powerful theoretical tool for applications of optical traps.

  20. Moment method, Higher order dispersion map and other effects in optical pulse propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Mondal, Basanti; Chowdhury, A. Roy.

    2005-01-01

    Analytical and numerical procedures are applied to show that both third and second order dispersion maps can be explicitly constructed and their mutual effects on the optical pulse propagation are analysed. In these connection it is also shown how the other important features such as amplification, intra-channel Raman Scattering(IRS), fibre loss, centre frequency of the pulse spectrum effect the propagation of pulse. Due to the presence of IRS, moment method is adopted which is easily reduced...

  1. Rayleigh scattering in an optical nanofiber as a probe of higher-order mode propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Jonathan E; Beadie, Guy; Rolston, Steven L; Orozco, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibers provide a rich platform for exploring atomic and optical phenomena even when they support only a single spatial mode. Nanofibers supporting higher-order modes provide additional degrees of freedom to enable complex evanescent field profiles for interaction with the surrounding medium, but local control of these profiles requires nondestructive evaluation of the propagating fields. Here, we use Rayleigh scattering for rapid measurement of the propagation of light in few-mode optical nanofibers. Imaging the Rayleigh scattered light provides direct visualization of the spatial evolution of propagating fields throughout the entire fiber, including the transition from core-cladding guidance to cladding-air guidance. We resolve the interference between higher-order modes to determine local beat lengths and modal content along the fiber, and show that the modal superposition in the waist can be systematically controlled by adjusting the input superposition. With this diagnostic we can measure vari...

  2. Partial coherence and imperfect optics at a synchrotron radiation source modeled by wavefront propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laundy, David; Alcock, Simon G.; Alianelli, Lucia; Sutter, John P.; Sawhney, Kawal J. S.; Chubar, Oleg

    2014-09-01

    A full wave propagation of X-rays from source to sample at a storage ring beamline requires simulation of the electron beam source and optical elements in the beamline. The finite emittance source causes the appearance of partial coherence in the wave field. Consequently, the wavefront cannot be treated exactly with fully coherent wave propagation or fully incoherent ray tracing. We have used the wavefront code Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) to perform partially coherent wavefront propagation using a parallel computing cluster at the Diamond Light Source. Measured mirror profiles have been used to correct the wavefront for surface errors.

  3. Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dam, JS

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available measurements and light propagation modelling J. S. Dam , A. Singh , and A. E. Karsten Biophotonics Group, National Laser Centre, CSIR, Pretoria. www.csir.co.za/biophotonics SAIP 2006 Slide 2 © CSIR 2006 www... and µ’s S a m p l e S a m p l e S a m p l e Integrating Sphere measurements “Measurements of the total transmittance and reflectance of a thin slab-shaped multiple scattering sample can yield the absorption- and the reduced...

  4. Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity

    KAUST Repository

    Saeed, A.

    2015-06-09

    The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding. © 2015, Nature Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

  5. Electromagnetic Propagation in Multimode Optical Fibers, Excited by Sources of Finite Bandwidth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-15

    2 treatment generalizes that of Marcuse , since it is ap- plicable to the propagation of a polychromatic signal, a However, it is hardly necessary to...situations. ’D. Marcuse , Theory of Dielectric Optical Waveguides (Aca- demic, New York, 1974). The general case of time-dependent propagation of 2S. D...fibers,",2 the mth and nth mode, that is 1586 J. Opt. Soc. Am., Vol. 68 , No. 11, November 1978 0030-3941178/6811-15800.50 0 1978 Optical Society of

  6. Stacked optical antennas for plasmon propagation in a 5 nm-confined cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, A; Panaro, S; Zaccaria, R Proietti; Raja, W; Liberale, C; Dipalo, M; Messina, G C; Wang, H; De Angelis, F; Toma, A

    2015-06-09

    The sub-wavelength concentration and propagation of electromagnetic energy are two complementary aspects of plasmonics that are not necessarily co-present in a single nanosystem. Here we exploit the strong nanofocusing properties of stacked optical antennas in order to highly concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a 5 nm metal-insulator-metal (MIM) cavity and convert free radiation into guided modes. The proposed nano-architecture combines the concentration properties of optical nanoantennas with the propagation capability of MIM systems, paving the way to highly miniaturized on-chip plasmonic waveguiding.

  7. Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanseri, Bhaskar

    2017-03-01

    By using the property of phase conjugation, we demonstrate that the inverse of van Cittert–Zernike theorem holds for electromagnetic (EM) fields propagating in free space. This essentially implies that spatially incoherent partially polarized field distributions can be generated from spatially coherent partially polarized optical fields. We further utilize phase conjugation with a polarization rotator to swap the spatial coherence properties of orthogonal polarization components of EM fields on propagation, at least in free space. This study suggests that the method of phase conjugation could be potentially useful in arbitrarily manipulating spatial coherence properties of vector optical fields in the field plane.

  8. Light propagation beyond the mean-field theory of standard optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javanainen, Juha; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-01-25

    With ready access to massive computer clusters we may now study light propagation in a dense cold atomic gas by means of basically exact numerical simulations. We report on a direct comparison between traditional optics, that is, electrodynamics of a polarizable medium, and numerical simulations in an elementary problem of light propagating through a slab of matter. The standard optics fails already at quite low atom densities, and the failure becomes dramatic when the average interatomic separation is reduced to around k(-1), where k is the wave number of resonant light. The difference between the two solutions originates from correlations between the atoms induced by light-mediated dipole-dipole interactions.

  9. A Modified Back propagation Algorithm for Optical Character Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Shrivastav

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Character Recognition (CR has been an active area of research and due to its diverse applicable environment; it continues to be a challenging research topic. There is a clear need for optical character recognition in order to provide a fast and accurate method to search both existing images as well as large archives of existing paper documents. However, existing optical character recognition programs suffer from a flawed tradeoff between speed and accuracy, making it less attractive for large quantities of documents. In this thesis, we present a new neural network based method for optical character recognition as well as handwritten character recognition. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves highest percent accuracy in optical character recognition. We present an overview of existing handwritten character recognition techniques. All these algorithms are described more or less on their own. Handwritten character recognition is a very popular and computationally expensive task. We also explain the fundamentals of handwritten character recognition. We describe today’s approaches for handwritten character recognition. From the broad variety of efficient techniques that have been developed we will compare the most important ones. We will systematize the techniques and analyze their performance based on both their run time performance and theoretical considerations. Their strengths and weaknesses are also investigated. It turns out that the behavior of the algorithms is much more similar as to be expected.

  10. Quantum Computations with Transverse Modes of an Optical Field Propagating in Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符建; 唐少芳

    2003-01-01

    A fully optical method to perform quantum computation with transverse modes of the optical field propagating in waveguide is proposed by supplying the prescriptions for a universal set of quantum gates. The proposal for quantum computation is based on implementing a quantum bit with two normal modes of multi-mode waveguides. The proposed C-NOT gate has the potential of being more compact and easily realized than some optical implementations, since it is based on planar lightwave circuit technology and can be constructed by using Mach-Zehnder interferometer having semiconductor optical amplifiers with very large refractive nonlinearity in its arms.

  11. Effective field theory for coherent optical pulse propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H; Park, Q Han

    1996-01-01

    Hidden nonabelian symmetries in nonlinear interactions of radiation with matter are clarified. In terms of a nonabelian potential variable, we construct an effective field theory of self-induced transparency, a phenomenon of lossless coherent pulse propagation, in association with Hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. Various new properties of self-induced transparency, e.g. soliton numbers, effective potential energy, gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, modified pulse area, conserved U(1)-charge etc. are addressed and elaborated in the nondegenerate two-level case where G/H = SU(2)/U(1). Using the U(1)-charge conservation, a new type of analysis on pulse stability is given which agrees with earlier numerical results.

  12. Superluminal propagation and broadband omnidirectional antireflection in optical reflectionless potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Thekkekara, L V; Kasture, Sachin; Mulay, Gajendra; Gupta, S Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Reflectionless potentials (RPs) represent a class of potentials that offer total transmission in the context of one dimensional scattering. Optical realization of RPs in stratified medium can exhibit broadband omnidirectional antireflection property. In addition to the antireflection property, RPs are also expected to demonstrate negative delay. We designed refractive index profiles conforming to RPs and realize them in stratified media consisting of Al2O3 and TiO2 heterolayers. In these structures we observed < 1% reflection over the broad wavelength range of 350 nm to 2500 nm for angles of incidence 0 - 50 degrees. The observed reflection and transmission response of RPs are polarization independent. A negative delay of about 31 fsec with discernible pulse narrowing was observed in passage through two RPs. These RPs can be interesting for optical instrumentation as broadband, omni-directional antireflection coatings as well as in pulse control and transmission applications like delay lines.

  13. Light propagation in Liquid-infiltrated Microstructured Optical Fibres”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Per Dalgaard

    2008-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis is focussed on studying the possibilities of tuning and optimizing the performance of infiltrated waveguides in systems where nonlinear optical effects are exploited. Infiltrated systems where either nonlinear temporal or spatial effects come into play have been...... considered. First a general introduction to the basic principles used throughout the work is given. It is then shown how infiltrated waveguides can be used for manipulating dispersive and diffractive properties of light propagartion....

  14. Wave turbulence in integrable systems: nonlinear propagation of incoherent optical waves in single-mode fibers

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    International audience; We study theoretically, numerically and experimentally the nonlinear propagation of partially incoherent optical waves in single mode optical fibers. We revisit the traditional treatment of the wave turbulence theory to provide a statistical kinetic description of the integrable scalar NLS equation. In spite of the formal reversibility and of the integrability of the NLS equation, the weakly nonlinear dynamics reveals the existence of an irreversible evolution toward a...

  15. Optical and electrical enhancement of the propagation time in superconducting transmission lines

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, S H

    2000-01-01

    optical pulse energy and current controlled delays in the propagation time of electrical picosecond pulses in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7 sub - sub x (YBCO) superconducting transmission lines have been investigated by using picosecond optoelectronic techniques. Electrical pulses, generated using silicon-on-sapphire photoconductive switches driven by a mode-locked Nd:YAG pumped dye laser, are propagated on superconducting transmission lines. The lines are patterned in the geometry of a microstrip and illuminated by the frequency-doubled output of an Nd:YAG laser. The measured propagation time shows a squared dependence on the optical pulse energy. For the applied current dependence, the delay through the line is tuned by 16 psec by varying the bias from zero to 190 mA. The results are in good agreement with the Ginzburg-Landau theory for the case of a uniform current density through a thin film.

  16. Self-similar Shape Mode of Optical Pulse Propagation in Medium with non-stationary Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Vycheslav A.; Lysak, Tatyana M.; Fedotov, Mihail V.; Prokopenko, Alexander S.

    2015-03-01

    We discuss laser pulse propagation with the self-similar shape in a medium with instantaneous nonlinear absorption. We consider two cases of the laser pulse propagation. First one corresponds to problem of laser-induced plasma generation in silica under action of TW laser pulse. The second one corresponds to femtosecond laser pulse propagation in medium with nanoparticles of noble metals. In both cases the mode of the self-similar shape of pulse is of interest. We discuss also a physical mechanism of non-linear acceleration or slowing-down for laser pulse propagation in a medium with nanoparticles. The last phenomena are important, in particular, for a problem of data processing of all optical method. We used analytical approach for considered problem as well as computer simulation.

  17. Málaga statistical distribution: the new universal analytical propagation model for atmospheric optical communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new and generalized statistical model, called Málaga or simply M distribution, has been proposed to characterize the irradiance fluctuations of an unbounded optical wavefront (plane and spherical waves) propagating through a turbulent medium under all irradiance fluctuation conditions...

  18. Propagation of an optical vortex in fiber arrays with triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushref, Muhammad Abdulrahman Abdulghani

    The propagation of optical vortices (OVs) in linear and nonlinear media is an important field of research in science and engineering. The most important goal is to explore the properties of guiding dynamics for potential applications such as sensing, all-optical switching, frequency mixing and modulation. In this dissertation, we present analytical methods and numerical techniques to investigate the propagation of an optical vortex in fiber array waveguides. Analytically, we model wave propagation in a waveguide by coupled mode Equations as a simplified approximation. The beam propagation method (BPM) is also employed to numerically solve the paraxial wave Equation by finite difference (FD) techniques. We will investigate the propagation of fields in a 2D triangular lattice with different core arrangements in the optical waveguide. In order to eliminate wave reflections at the boundaries of the computational area, the transparent boundary condition (TBC) is applied. In our explorations for the propagation properties of an optical vortex in a linear and a non-linear triangular lattice medium, images are numerically generated for the field phase and intensity in addition to the interferogram of the vortex field with a reference plane or Gaussian field. The finite difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) with transparent boundary condition (TBC) is a robust approach to numerically deal with optical field propagations in waveguides. In a fiber array arranged in triangular lattices, new vortices vary with respect to the propagation distance and the number of cores in the fiber array for both linear and nonlinear regimes. With more cores and longer propagation distances, more vortices are created. However, they do not always survive and may disappear while other new vortices are formed at other points. In a linear triangular lattice, the results demonstrated that the number of vortices may increase or decrease with respect to the number of cores in the array lattice

  19. JLIFE: THE JEFFERSON LAB INTERACTIVE FRONT END FOR THE OPTICAL PROPAGATION CODE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Anne M. [JLAB; Shinn, Michelle D. [JLAB

    2013-08-01

    We present details on a graphical interface for the open source software program Optical Propagation Code, or OPC. This interface, written in Java, allows a user with no knowledge of OPC to create an optical system, with lenses, mirrors, apertures, etc. and the appropriate drifts between them. The Java code creates the appropriate Perl script that serves as the input for OPC. The mode profile is then output at each optical element. The display can be either an intensity profile along the x axis, or as an isometric 3D plot which can be tilted and rotated. These profiles can be saved. Examples of the input and output will be presented.

  20. Propagation of Ultra-fast Femtosecond Pulses in Silicon-on-insulator Optical Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-wei; LUO Feng-guang; Cristiano de Mello Gallep

    2007-01-01

    A complete theoretical modeling, avoiding any priori-assumption, is deduced and demonstrated for ultra-fast femtosecond optical pulses in silicon-on-insulator optical waveguides which includes the group velocity dispersion, third-order dispersion, self-phase and cross-phase modulations, self-steepening and shock formation, Raman depletion, propagation loss, two-photon absorption, free-carrier absorption, and free-carrier dispersion. Finally, the temporal and spectral characteristics of 100 fs optical pulses at 1.55 μm are numerically observed in 5-mm-long waveguides while considering different initial chirps and incident peak intensity levels.

  1. Time-Frequency (Wigner Analysis of Linear and Nonlinear Pulse Propagation in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Azaña

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Time-frequency analysis, and, in particular, Wigner analysis, is applied to the study of picosecond pulse propagation through optical fibers in both the linear and nonlinear regimes. The effects of first- and second-order group velocity dispersion (GVD and self-phase modulation (SPM are first analyzed separately. The phenomena resulting from the interplay between GVD and SPM in fibers (e.g., soliton formation or optical wave breaking are also investigated in detail. Wigner analysis is demonstrated to be an extremely powerful tool for investigating pulse propagation dynamics in nonlinear dispersive systems (e.g., optical fibers, providing a clearer and deeper insight into the physical phenomena that determine the behavior of these systems.

  2. Bi-photon propagation control with optimized wavefront by means of Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Minozzi, M; Sergienko, A V; Vallone, G; Villoresi, P

    2012-01-01

    We present an efficient method to control the spatial modes of entangled photons produced through SPDC process. Bi-photon beam propagation is controlled by a deformable mirror, that shapes a 404nm CW diode laser pump interacting with a nonlinear BBO type-I crystal. Thanks to adaptive optical system, the propagation of 808nm SPDC light produced is optimized over a distance of 2m. The whole system optimization is carried out by a feedback between deformable mirror action and entangled photon coincidence counts. We also demonstrated the improvement of the two-photon coupling into single mode fibers.

  3. Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiuxiang

    2007-12-24

    The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.

  4. Simulating Atmospheric Free-Space Optical Propagation; Part II: Haze, Fog, and Low Clouds Attenuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achour, Maha

    2002-12-01

    One of the biggest challenges facing Free-Space Optics deployment is proper understanding of optical signal propagation in different atmospheric conditions. In an earlier study by the author (30), attenuation by rain was analyzed and successfully modeled for infrared signal transmission. In this paper, we focus on attenuation due to scattering by haze, fog and low clouds droplets using the original Mie Scattering theory. Relying on published experimental results on infrared propagation, electromagnetic waves scattering by spherical droplet, atmospheric physics and thermodynamics, UlmTech developed a computer-based platform, Simulight, which simulates infrared signal (750 nm-12 μm) propagation in haze, fog, low clouds, rain and clear weather. Optical signals are scattered by fog droplets during transmission in the forward direction preventing the receiver from detecting the minimum required power. Weather databases describe foggy conditions by measuring the visibility parameter, which is, in general, defined as the maximum distance that the visible 550 nm signal can travel while distinguishing between the target object and its background at 2% contrast. Extrapolating optical signal attenuations beyond 550 nm using only visibility is not as straightforward as stated by the Kruse equation which is unfortunately widely used. We conclude that it is essential to understand atmospheric droplet sizes and their distributions based on measured attenuations to effectively estimate infrared attenuation. We focus on three types of popular fogs: Evolving, Stable and Selective.

  5. Composite optical vortices in noncollinear Laguerre-Gaussian beams and their propagation in free space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Ke; Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-Da

    2008-01-01

    Taking two Laguerre-Gauasian beams with topological charge l=±1 as an example,this paper studies the composite optical vortices formed by two noncollinear Laguerre-Gaussian beams with different phases,amplitudes,waist widths,off-axis distances,and their propagation in flee space. It is shown by detailed numerical illustrative examples that the number and location of composite vortices at the waist plane are variable by varying the relative phase β,amplitude ratio η,waist width ratio ξ,or off-axis distance ratio μ.The net topological charge lnet is not always equal to the sum lsum of charges of the two component beams.The motion,creation and annihilation of composite vortices take place in the free-space propagation,and the net charge during the propagation remains unchanged and equals to the net charge at the waist plane.

  6. Slant path average intensity of finite optical beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Zhang; Gaogang Wang

    2006-01-01

    The average intensity of finite laser beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere is calculated from the extended Huygens Fresnel principle. Formulas are presented for the slant path average intensity from an arbitrarily truncated Gaussian beam. The new expressions are derived from the modified von Karman spectrum for refractive-index fluctuations, quadratic approximation of the structure function,and Gaussian approximation for the product of Gaussian function and Bessel function. It is shown that the form of average intensity is not a Gaussian function but a polynomial of the power of the binomial function, Gaussian function, and the incomplete gamma function. The results also show that the mean irradiance of a finite optical beam propagating in slant path turbulent atmosphere not only depends on the effective beam radius at the transmitting aperture plane, propagation distance, and long-term lateral coherence length of spherical wave, but also on the radius of emit aperture.

  7. An Approximate Numerical Technique for Characterizing Optical Pulse Propagation in Inhomogeneous Biological Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chintha C. Handapangoda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An approximate numerical technique for modeling optical pulse propagation through weakly scattering biological tissue is developed by solving the photon transport equation in biological tissue that includes varying refractive index and varying scattering/absorption coefficients. The proposed technique involves first tracing the ray paths defined by the refractive index profile of the medium by solving the eikonal equation using a Runge-Kutta integration algorithm. The photon transport equation is solved only along these ray paths, minimizing the overall computational burden of the resulting algorithm. The main advantage of the current algorithm is that it enables to discretise the pulse propagation space adaptively by taking optical depth into account. Therefore, computational efficiency can be increased without compromising the accuracy of the algorithm.

  8. Peculiarities of the propagation of multidimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Alexander V.; Bouffanais, Roland; Konobeeva, Natalia N.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.

    2016-09-01

    In this Letter, we study the propagation characteristics of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene. A distinguishing feature of germanene-in comparison with other graphene-like structures-is the presence of a significant spin-orbit interaction. The account of this interaction has a significant impact on the evolution of extremely short pulses in such systems. Specifically, extremely short optical pulses, consisting of two electric field oscillations, cause the appearance of a tail associated with the excitation of nonlinear waves. Due to the large spin-orbit interaction in germanene, this tail behind the main pulse is much smaller in germanene-based samples as compared to graphene-based ones, thereby making germanene a preferred material for the stable propagation of pulses along the sample.

  9. Matter-wave propagation in optical lattices: geometrical and flat-band effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Mekena; Chern, Gia-Wei; Di Ventra, Massimiliano; Chien, Chih-Chun

    2016-04-01

    The geometry of optical lattices can be engineered, allowing the study of atomic transport along paths arranged in patterns that are otherwise difficult to probe in the solid state. A question feasible to atomic systems is related to the speed of matter-wave propagation as a function of the lattice geometry. To address this issue, we investigated, theoretically, the quantum transport of noninteracting and weakly-interacting ultracold fermionic atoms in several 2D optical lattice geometries. We find that the triangular lattice has a higher propagation velocity compared to the square lattice, and the cross-linked square lattice has an even faster propagation velocity. The increase results from the mixing of the momentum states which leads to different group velocities in quantum systems. Standard band theory provides an explanation and allows for a systematic way to search and design systems with controllable matter-wave propagation. Moreover, the presence of a flat band such as in a two-leg ladder geometry leads to a dynamical density discontinuity due to its localized atoms. Possible realizations of those dynamical phenomena are discussed.

  10. Effects of initial frequency chirp on the linear propagation characteristics of the exponential optical pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Hong-Jun; Liu Shan-Liang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the linear propagation characteristics of the exponential optical pulse with initial linear and nonlinear frequency chirp are numerically studied in a single mode fibre for β2< 0. It can be found that the temporal full width at half maximum and time-bandwidth product of exponential pulse monotonically increase with the increase of propagation distance and decrease with the increase of linear chirp C for C < 0.5, go through an initial decreasing stage near ζ = 1, then increase with the increase of propagation distance and linear chirp C for C ≥ 0.5. The broadening of pulses with negative chirp is faster than that with positive chirp. The exponential pulse with linear chirp gradually evolves into a near-Gaussian pulse. The effect of nonlinear chirp on waveform of the pulse is much greater than that of linear chirp. The temporal waveform breaking of exponential pulse with nonlinear chirp is first observed in linear propagation. Furthermore, the expressions of the spectral width and time-bandwidth product of the exponential optical pulse with the frequency chirp are given by use of the numerical analysis method.

  11. Polarization attraction using counter-propagating waves in optical fiber at telecommunication wavelengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitois, S; Fatome, J; Millot, G

    2008-04-28

    In this work, we report the experimental observation of a polarization attraction process which can occur in optical fibers at telecommunication wavelengths. More precisely, we have numerically and experimentally shown that a polarization attractor, based on the injection of two counter-propagating waves around 1.55microm into a 2-m long high nonlinear fiber, can transform any input polarization state into a unique well-defined output polarization state.

  12. Reconstruction of Dielectric Constants of Core and Cladding of Optical Fibers Using Propagation Constants Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Karchevskii

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present new numerical methods for the solution of inverse spectral problem to determine the dielectric constants of core and cladding in optical fibers. These methods use measurements of propagation constants. Our algorithms are based on approximate solution of a nonlinear nonselfadjoint eigenvalue problem for a system of weakly singular integral equations. We study three inverse problems and prove that they are well posed. Our numerical results indicate good accuracy of new algorithms.

  13. Optical modulator based on propagating surface plasmon coupled fluorescent thin film: proof-of-concept studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Shuo-Hui; Wang, Zheng-Chuang; Weng, Yu-Hua; Xie, Kai-Xin; Chen, Min; Zhai, Yan-Yun; Li, Yao-Qun

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate that the propagating surface plasmon coupled fluorescent thin film can be utilized as a fluorescence modulator to mimic multiple representative Boolean logic operations. Surface plasmon mediated fluorescence presents characteristic properties including directional and polarized emission, which hold the feasibility in creating a universal optical modulator. In this work, through constructing the thin layer with the specific thickness, surface plasmon mediated fluorescence can be modulated with an ON-OFF ratio by more than 5-fold, under a series of coupling configurations.

  14. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Ángel-Toro, Luciano

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB® software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  15. Understanding the Physical Optics Phenomena by Using a Digital Application for Light Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra-Sosa, Daniel-Esteban; Angel-Toro, Luciano, E-mail: dsierras@eafit.edu.co, E-mail: langel@eafit.edu.co [Grupo de Optica Aplicada, Universidad EAFIT, 1 Medellin (Colombia)

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the light propagation on the basis of the Huygens-Fresnel principle stands for a fundamental factor for deeper comprehension of different physical optics related phenomena like diffraction, self-imaging, image formation, Fourier analysis and spatial filtering. This constitutes the physical approach of the Fourier optics whose principles and applications have been developed since the 1950's. Both for analytical and digital applications purposes, light propagation can be formulated in terms of the Fresnel Integral Transform. In this work, a digital optics application based on the implementation of the Discrete Fresnel Transform (DFT), and addressed to serve as a tool for applications in didactics of optics is presented. This tool allows, at a basic and intermediate learning level, exercising with the identification of basic phenomena, and observing changes associated with modifications of physical parameters. This is achieved by using a friendly graphic user interface (GUI). It also assists the user in the development of his capacity for abstracting and predicting the characteristics of more complicated phenomena. At an upper level of learning, the application could be used to favor a deeper comprehension of involved physics and models, and experimenting with new models and configurations. To achieve this, two characteristics of the didactic tool were taken into account when designing it. First, all physical operations, ranging from simple diffraction experiments to digital holography and interferometry, were developed on the basis of the more fundamental concept of light propagation. Second, the algorithm was conceived to be easily upgradable due its modular architecture based in MATLAB (registered) software environment. Typical results are presented and briefly discussed in connection with didactics of optics.

  16. Nonparaxial propagation of Lorentz-Gauss beams in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xun; Liu, Zhirong; Zhao, Daomu

    2014-04-01

    Analytical expressions for the three components of nonparaxial propagation of a polarized Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are derived and used to investigate its propagation properties in uniaxial crystal. The influences of the initial beam parameters and the parameters of the uniaxial crystal on the evolution of the beam-intensity distribution in the uniaxial crystal are examined in detail. Results show that the statistical properties of a nonparaxial Lorentz-Gauss beam in a uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis are closely determined by the initial beam's parameters and the parameters of the crystal: the beam waist sizes-w(0), w(0x), and w(0y)-not only affect the size and shape of the beam profile in uniaxial crystal but also determine the nonparaxial effect of a Lorentz-Gauss beam; the beam profile of a Lorentz-Gauss beam in uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x or y direction, which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index; with increasing deviation of the ratio from unity, the extension of the beam profile augments. The results indicate that uniaxial crystal provides an effective and convenient method for modulating the Lorentz-Gauss beams. Our results may be valuable in some fields, such as optical trapping and nonlinear optics, where a light beam with a special profile and polarization is required.

  17. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M; Huguet, J M; Ritort, F

    2013-04-01

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  18. Counter-propagating dual-trap optical tweezers based on linear momentum conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribezzi-Crivellari, M.; Huguet, J. M. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ritort, F. [Small Biosystems Lab, Dept. de Fisica Fonamental, Universitat de Barcelona, Avda. Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ciber-BBN de Bioingenieria, Biomateriales y Nanomedicina, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-15

    We present a dual-trap optical tweezers setup which directly measures forces using linear momentum conservation. The setup uses a counter-propagating geometry, which allows momentum measurement on each beam separately. The experimental advantages of this setup include low drift due to all-optical manipulation, and a robust calibration (independent of the features of the trapped object or buffer medium) due to the force measurement method. Although this design does not attain the high-resolution of some co-propagating setups, we show that it can be used to perform different single molecule measurements: fluctuation-based molecular stiffness characterization at different forces and hopping experiments on molecular hairpins. Remarkably, in our setup it is possible to manipulate very short tethers (such as molecular hairpins with short handles) down to the limit where beads are almost in contact. The setup is used to illustrate a novel method for measuring the stiffness of optical traps and tethers on the basis of equilibrium force fluctuations, i.e., without the need of measuring the force vs molecular extension curve. This method is of general interest for dual trap optical tweezers setups and can be extended to setups which do not directly measure forces.

  19. Quantification of optical turbulence in the ocean and its effects on beam propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nootz, Gero; Jarosz, Ewa; Dalgleish, Fraser R; Hou, Weilin

    2016-11-01

    The influence of optically active turbulence on the propagation of laser beams is investigated in clear ocean water over a path length of 8.75 m. The measurement apparatus is described and the effects of optical turbulence on the laser beam are presented. The index of refraction structure constant is extracted from the beam deflection and the results are compared to independently made measures of the turbulence strength (Cn2) by a vertical microstructure profiler. Here we present values of Cn2 taken from aboard the R/V Walton Smith during the Bahamas optical turbulence exercise (BOTEX) in the Tongue of the Ocean between June 30 and July 12, 2011, spanning a range from 10-14 to 10-10  m-2/3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time such measurements are reported for the ocean.

  20. Optical coherence tomography detection of shear wave propagation in MCF7 cell modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razani, Marjan; Mariampillai, Adrian; Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; Kiehl, Tim-Rasmus; Yang, Victor X. D.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-02-01

    In this work, we explored the potential of measuring shear wave propagation using Optical Coherence Elastography (OCE) in MCF7 cell modules (comprised of MCF7 cells and collagen) and based on a swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. Shear waves were generated using a piezoelectric transducer transmitting sine-wave bursts of 400 μs, synchronized with an OCT swept source wavelength sweep imaging system. Acoustic radiation force was applied to the MCF7 cell constructs. Differential OCT phase maps, measured with and without the acoustic radiation force, demonstrate microscopic displacement generated by shear wave propagation in these modules. The OCT phase maps are acquired with a swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. We also calculated the tissue mechanical properties based on the propagating shear waves in the MCF7 + collagen phantoms using the Acoustic Radiation Force (ARF) of an ultrasound transducer, and measured the shear wave speed with the OCT phase maps. This method lays the foundation for future studies of mechanical property measurements of breast cancer structures, with applications in the study of breast cancer pathologies.

  1. Peculiarities of the propagation of multidimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Alexander V., E-mail: alex_zhukov@sutd.edu.sg [Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Bouffanais, Roland [Singapore University of Technology and Design, 8 Somapah Road, 487372 Singapore (Singapore); Konobeeva, Natalia N. [Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Belonenko, Mikhail B. [Laboratory of Nanotechnology, Volgograd Institute of Business, 400048 Volgograd (Russian Federation); Volgograd State University, 400062 Volgograd (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-07

    Highlights: • Established dynamics of ultra-short pulses in germanene. • Studied balance between dispersive and nonlinear effects in germanene. • Spin–orbit interaction effect onto pulse propagation. - Abstract: In this Letter, we study the propagation characteristics of both two-dimensional and three-dimensional extremely short optical pulses in germanene. A distinguishing feature of germanene—in comparison with other graphene-like structures—is the presence of a significant spin–orbit interaction. The account of this interaction has a significant impact on the evolution of extremely short pulses in such systems. Specifically, extremely short optical pulses, consisting of two electric field oscillations, cause the appearance of a tail associated with the excitation of nonlinear waves. Due to the large spin–orbit interaction in germanene, this tail behind the main pulse is much smaller in germanene-based samples as compared to graphene-based ones, thereby making germanene a preferred material for the stable propagation of pulses along the sample.

  2. Propagation of optical spatial solitary waves in bias-free nematic-liquid-crystal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minzoni, Antonmaria A. [Fenomenos Nonlineales y Mecanica (FENOMEC), Department of Mathematics and Mechanics, Instituto de Investigacion en Matematicas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Sciberras, Luke W.; Worthy, Annette L. [School of Mathematics and Applied Statistics, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, New South Wales 2522 (Australia); Smyth, Noel F. [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The propagation of a bulk optical solitary wave in a rectangular cell filled with a nematic liquid crystal--a nematicon--is mathematically modelled. In order to overcome the Freedricksz threshold the cell walls are rubbed to pretilt the nematic. A modulation theory, based on a Lagrangian formulation, is developed for the (2+1)-dimensional propagation of the solitary wave beam down the cell. This modulation theory is based on two different formulations of the director distribution. The relative advantages and disadvantages of these two methods are discussed. A previously unexplored method based on images is found to possess significant advantages. Excellent agreement with full numerical solutions of the nematicon equations is found for both methods. Finally, the implications of the results obtained for some widely used approximations to the nematicon equations are discussed, particularly their use in comparisons with experimental results.

  3. Efficient matrix approach to optical wave propagation and Linear Canonical Transforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Sami A; Fried, David L; Pease, Edwin A; Brennan, Terry J; Dolash, Thomas M

    2015-10-01

    The Fresnel diffraction integral form of optical wave propagation and the more general Linear Canonical Transforms (LCT) are cast into a matrix transformation form. Taking advantage of recent efficient matrix multiply algorithms, this approach promises an efficient computational and analytical tool that is competitive with FFT based methods but offers better behavior in terms of aliasing, transparent boundary condition, and flexibility in number of sampling points and computational window sizes of the input and output planes being independent. This flexibility makes the method significantly faster than FFT based propagators when only a single point, as in Strehl metrics, or a limited number of points, as in power-in-the-bucket metrics, are needed in the output observation plane.

  4. Optical vortex conversion in the elliptic vortex-beam propagating orthogonally to the crystal optical axis: the experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolenko, Bogdan; Kudryavtseva, Maria; Zinovyev, Alexey; Konovalenko, Victor; Rubass, Alex

    2012-01-01

    We have experimentally analyzed the topological reactions occurred in the elliptic vortex-beam transmitting orthogonally to the optical axis of the SiO2 crystal. We have revealed that the oscillations of the polarization state when propagating the beam are accompanied by reconstruction of the polarization singularities at the beam cross-section that, in turn, entails the reconstruction of the wavefront in each circularly polarized beam component. Both synchronic oscillations of the spin angular momentum and the sign of the vortex topological charge are expressing in a field structure as birth and annihilation of topological dipoles. Also periodical conversion of the vortex ellipticity along the crystal length z and huge splash of spin angular momentum were analysed. The run of the dislocation reactions in the beam component results in converting the sign of the topological charge in the centered optical vortex, the distance of the vortex conversion being about 0.05 of the wavelength.

  5. Nonlinear Propagation of Coupling Optical Pulse under Compton Scattering in Laser Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; ZHANG Xiao-fu

    2006-01-01

    After considering Kerr nonlinear effect,group velocity dispersion of host and gain distribution of active particle in laser amplifying medium,a basic equation describing propagation of the coupling optical pulse under the multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering in the laser amplifying medium has been deduced. Besides,the profile and power spectrum of a picosecond-level super-Gaussian coupling pulse in the laser amplifying medium have been discussed when its central frequency coincides with the gain peak frequency of the laser amplifying medium.

  6. Pulse propagation in a two-pass optical amplifier with arbitrary laser beams overlap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH Farahbod

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical model for two-pass optical amplifier with arbitrary beams overlap has been developed which generalized the classical theory of Frantz-Nodvik for single pass amplifier. The effect of counterpropagating beams on gain and output energy fluence included in the model. Moreover, the appropriate limiting relations for two special cases of weak input signal and saturation state of the amplifier gain have been derived. The results indicate that for complete beams overlap, the gain and output energy have the least values. The model predictions are consistent with experimental observations and exact analytical model for two-pass amplifier when beam propagation paths are coincided.

  7. A modified split—step fourier method for optical pulse propagation with polarization mode dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RaoMin; SunXiao-Han; ZhangMing-De

    2003-01-01

    A modified split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is presented to solve the coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equation (CNLS) that can be used to model high-speed pulse propagation in optical fibres with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). We compare our approach with the SSFM and demonstrate that our approach is much faster with no loss of pre-chirped RZ(CRZ) formats in the presence of high PMD through this approach. The simulation results show that CRZ pulses are the most tolerant to high PMD values and the extinct ratio has a great impact on the transmission performance.

  8. Nonlinear continuous-wave optical propagation in nematic liquid crystals: Interplay between reorientational and thermal effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberucci, Alessandro; Laudyn, Urszula A.; Piccardi, Armando; Kwasny, Michał; Klus, Bartlomiej; Karpierz, Mirosław A.; Assanto, Gaetano

    2017-07-01

    We investigate nonlinear optical propagation of continuous-wave (CW) beams in bulk nematic liquid crystals. We thoroughly analyze the competing roles of reorientational and thermal nonlinearity with reference to self-focusing/defocusing and, eventually, the formation of nonlinear diffraction-free wavepackets, the so-called spatial optical solitons. To this extent we refer to dye-doped nematic liquid crystals in planar cells excited by a single CW beam in the highly nonlocal limit. To adjust the relative weight between the two nonlinear responses, we employ two distinct wavelengths, inside and outside the absorption band of the dye, respectively. Different concentrations of the dye are considered in order to enhance the thermal effect. The theoretical analysis is complemented by numerical simulations in the highly nonlocal approximation based on a semi-analytic approach. Theoretical results are finally compared to experimental results in the Nematic Liquid Crystals (NLC) 4-trans-4'-n-hexylcyclohexylisothiocyanatobenzene (6CHBT) doped with Sudan Blue dye.

  9. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  10. Matrix formalism for light propagation and absorption in thick textured optical sheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenlohr, Johannes; Tucher, Nico; Höhn, Oliver; Hauser, Hubert; Peters, Marius; Kiefel, Peter; Goldschmidt, Jan Christoph; Bläsi, Benedikt

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we introduce a simulation formalism for determining the Optical Properties of Textured Optical Sheets (OPTOS). Our matrix-based method allows for the computationally-efficient calculation of non-coherent light propagation and absorption in thick textured sheets, especially solar cells, featuring different textures on front and rear side that may operate in different optical regimes. Within the simulated system, the angular power distribution is represented by a vector. This light distribution is modified by interaction with the surfaces of the textured sheets, which are described by redistribution matrices. These matrices can be calculated for each individual surface texture with the most appropriate technique. Depending on the feature size of the texture, for example, either ray- or wave-optical methods can be used. The comparison of the simulated absorption in a sheet of silicon for a variety of surface textures, both with the results from other simulation techniques and experimentally measured data, shows very good agreement. To demonstrate the versatility of this newly-developed approach, the absorption in silicon sheets with a large-scale structure (V-grooves) at the front side and a small-scale structure (diffraction grating) at the rear side is calculated. Moreover, with minimal computational effort, a thickness parameter variation is performed.

  11. Propagation of bright femtosecond pulses in a nonlinear optical fibre with the third-and fourth-order dispersions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ao Sheng-Mei; Yan Jia-Ren; Yu Hui-You

    2007-01-01

    We solve the generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation describing the propagation of femtosecond pulses in a nonlinear optical fibre with higher-order dispersions by using the direct approach to perturbation for bright solitons, and discuss the combined effects of the third- and fourth-order dispersions on velocity, temporal intensity distribution and peak intensity of femtosecond pulses. It is noticeable that the combined effects of the third- and fourth-order dispersions on an initial propagated soliton can partially compensate each other, which seems to be significant for the stability controlling of soliton propagation features.

  12. Global error maps of aerosol optical properties: an error propagation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tsigaridis

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the numerous atmospheric constituents, aerosols play a unique role on climate, due to their scattering and absorbing capabilities, visibility degradation and their effect on incoming and outgoing radiation. The most important optical properties are the aerosol optical depth (AOD, the asymmetry parameter (g and the single scattering albedo (SSA. Uncertainties in aerosol microphysics in global models, which in turn affect their optical properties, propagate to uncertainties on the effect of aerosols on climate. This study aims to estimate the uncertainty of AOD, g and SSA attributable to the aerosol representation in models, namely mixing state, aerosol size and aerosol associated water. As a reference, the monthly mean output of the general circulation model LMDz-INCA from the international comparison exercise AEROCOM B was used. For the optical properties calculations, aerosols were considered either externally mixed, homogeneously internally mixed or coated spheres. The radius was allowed to vary by ±20% (with 2% intervals and the aerosol water content by ±50% (with 5% intervals with respect to the reference model output. All of these possible combinations were assumed to be equally likely and the optical properties were calculated for each one of them. A probability density function (PDF was constructed at each model grid point for AOD, g and SSA. From this PDF, the 1σ and 2σ uncertainties of the AOD, g and SSA were calculated and are available as global maps for each month. For the range of the cases studied, we derive a maximum 2σ uncertainty range in AOD of 70%, while for g and SSA the maxima reach 18% and 28% respectively. The mixing state was calculated to be important, with the aerosol absorption and SSA being the most affected properties when absorbing aerosols are present.

  13. Method for auto-alignment of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on digital propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Zhou, Haojiang; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei

    2014-06-16

    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) has enabled many optical applications such as aberration correction and image transmission through fiber. In recent years, implementation of digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has opened up the possibility of its use in biomedical optics (e.g. deep-tissue optical focusing) due to its ability to provide greater-than-unity OPC reflectivity (the power ratio of the phase conjugated beam and input beam to the OPC system) and its flexibility to accommodate additional wavefront manipulations. However, the requirement for precise (pixel-to-pixel matching) alignment of the wavefront sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) limits the practical usability of DOPC systems. Here, we report a method for auto-alignment of a DOPC system by which the misalignment between the sensor and the SLM is auto-corrected through digital light propagation. With this method, we were able to accomplish OPC playback with a DOPC system with gross sensor-SLM misalignment by an axial displacement of up to~1.5 cm, rotation and tip/tilt of ~5° and in-plane displacement of ~5 mm (dependent on the physical size of the sensor and the SLM). Our auto-alignment method robustly achieved a DOPC playback peak-to-background ratio (PBR) corresponding to more than ~30 % of the theoretical maximum. As an additional advantage, the auto-alignment procedure can be easily performed at will and, as such, allows us to correct for small mechanical drifts within the DOPC systems, thus overcoming a previously major DOPC system vulnerability. We believe that this reported method for implementing robust DOPC systems will broaden the practical utility of DOPC systems.

  14. Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Caillaud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An original way to obtain fibers with special chromatic dispersion and single-mode behavior is to consider microstructured optical fibers (MOFs. These fibers present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. In this study, the first all-solid all-chalcogenide MOFs exhibiting photonic bandgap transmission have been achieved and optically characterized. The fibers are made of an As38Se62 matrix, with inclusions of Te20As30Se50 glass that shows a higher refractive index (n = 2.9. In those fibers, several transmission bands have been observed in mid infrared depending on the geometry. In addition, for the first time, propagation by photonic bandgap effect in an all-chalcogenide MOF has been observed at 3.39 µm, 9.3 µm, and 10.6 µm. The numerical simulations based on the optogeometric properties of the fibers agree well with the experimental characterizations.

  15. A technique to measure optical properties of brownout clouds for modeling terahertz propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorino, Steven T; Deibel, Jason A; Grice, Phillip M; Novak, Markus H; Spinoza, Julian; Owens, Lindsay; Ganti, Satya

    2012-06-01

    Brownout, the loss of visibility caused by dust resultant of helicopter downwash, is a factor in the large majority of military helicopter accidents. As terahertz radiation readily propagates through the associated dust aerosols and is attenuated by atmospheric water vapor within short distances, it can provide low-profile imaging that improves effective pilot visibility. In order to model this application of terahertz imaging, it is necessary to determine the optical properties of obscurants at these frequencies. We present here a method of empirical calculation and experimental measurement of the complex refractive index of the obscuring aerosols. Results derived from terahertz time-domain spectral measurements are incorporated into the AFIT CDE Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) software.

  16. Impact of slow-light enhancement on optical propagation in active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; de Lasson, Jakob Rosenkrantz; Gregersen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    We derive and validate a set of coupled Bloch wave equations for analyzing the reflection and transmission properties of active semiconductor photonic crystal waveguides. In such devices, slow-light propagation can be used to enhance the material gain per unit length, enabling, for example......, the realization of short optical amplifiers compatible with photonic integration. The coupled wave analysis is compared to numerical approaches based on the Fourier modal method and a frequency domain finite element technique. The presence of material gain leads to the build-up of a backscattered field, which...... is interpreted as distributed feedback effects or reflection at passive-active interfaces, depending on the approach taken. For very large material gain values, the band structure of the waveguide is perturbed, and deviations from the simple coupled Bloch wave model are found....

  17. Coherent optical propagation and ultrahigh resolution mass sensor based on photonic molecules optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Jun; Chen, Chang-Zhao; Li, Yang; Fang, Xian-Wen; Tang, Xu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate the coherent optical propagation properties based on a photonic molecules optomechanics. With choosing a suitable detuning of the pump field from optomechanical cavity resonance, both the slow- and fast-light effect of the probe field appear in the system. The coupling strength of the two cavities play a key role, which affords a quantum channel and influences the width of the transparency window. Based on the photonic molecules optomechanical system, a high resolution mass sensor is also proposed. The mass of external nanoparticles deposited onto the cavity can be measured straightforward via tracking the mechanical resonance frequency shifts due to mass changes in the probe transmission spectrum. Compared with the single-cavity optomechanics mass sensors, the mass resolution is improved significantly due to the cavity-cavity coupling. The photonic molecules optomechanics provide a new platform for on-chip applications in quantum information processing and ultrahigh resolution sensor devices.

  18. Stable scalable control of soliton propagation in broadband nonlinear optical waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Peleg, Avner; Huynh, Toan T

    2015-01-01

    We develop a method for achieving scalable transmission stabilization and switching of $N$ colliding soliton sequences in optical waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss. We show that dynamics of soliton amplitudes in $N$-sequence transmission is described by a generalized $N$-dimensional predator-prey model. Stability and bifurcation analysis for the predator-prey model are used to obtain simple conditions on the physical parameters for robust transmission stabilization as well as on-off and off-on switching of $M$ out of $N$ soliton sequences. Numerical simulations with a system of $N$ coupled nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equations with $2 \\le N \\le 4$ show excellent agreement with the predator-prey model's predictions and stable propagation over significantly larger distances compared with other broadband nonlinear waveguides. Moreover, stable on-off and off-on switching of multiple soliton sequences and stable multiple transmission switching events are demonstrated b...

  19. Underwater optical communication performance for laser beam propagation through weak oceanic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiang; Li, Zan; Liu, Zengji

    2015-02-20

    In clean ocean water, the performance of a underwater optical communication system is limited mainly by oceanic turbulence, which is defined as the fluctuations in the index of refraction resulting from temperature and salinity fluctuations. In this paper, using the refractive index spectrum of oceanic turbulence under weak turbulence conditions, we carry out, for a horizontally propagating plane wave and spherical wave, analysis of the aperture-averaged scintillation index, the associated probability of fade, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate. Our theoretical results show that for various values of the rate of dissipation of mean squared temperature and the temperature-salinity balance parameter, the large-aperture receiver leads to a remarkable decrease of scintillation and consequently a significant improvement on the system performance. Such an effect is more noticeable in the plane wave case than in the spherical wave case.

  20. A modified split-step Fourier method for optical pulse propagation with polarization mode dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    饶敏; 孙小菡; 张明德

    2003-01-01

    A modified split-step Fourier method (SSFM) is presented to solve the coupled nonlinear Schrǒdinger equation (CNLS) that can be used to model high-speed pulse propagation in optical fibres with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). We compare our approach with the SSFM and démonstrate that our approach is much faster with no loss of accuracy. We discuss the pulse distortion and system Q-factor of non-return-to-zero (NRZ), return-to-zero (RZ) and pre-chirped RZ (CRZ) formats in the presence of high PMD through this approach. The simulation results show that CRZ pulses are the most tolerant to high PMD wlues and the extinct ratio has a great impact on the transmission performance.

  1. Optical Properties and Wave Propagation in Semiconductor-Based Two-Dimensional Photonic Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agio, Mario [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2002-12-31

    This work is a theoretical investigation on the physical properties of semiconductor-based two-dimensional photonic crystals, in particular for what concerns systems embedded in planar dielectric waveguides (GaAs/AlGaAs, GaInAsP/InP heterostructures, and self-standing membranes) or based on macro-porous silicon. The photonic-band structure of photonic crystals and photonic-crystal slabs is numerically computed and the associated light-line problem is discussed, which points to the issue of intrinsic out-of-lane diffraction losses for the photonic bands lying above the light line. The photonic states are then classified by the group theory formalism: each mode is related to an irreducible representation of the corresponding small point group. The optical properties are investigated by means of the scattering matrix method, which numerically implements a variable-angle-reflectance experiment; comparison with experiments is also provided. The analysis of surface reflectance proves the existence of selection rules for coupling an external wave to a certain photonic mode. Such rules can be directly derived from symmetry considerations. Lastly, the control of wave propagation in weak-index contrast photonic-crystal slabs is tackled in view of designing building blocks for photonic integrated circuits. The proposed designs are found to comply with the major requirements of low-loss propagation, high and single-mode transmission. These notions are then collected to model a photonic-crystal combiner for an integrated multi-wavelength-source laser.

  2. Sub-picosecond chirped return-to-zero nonlinear optical pulse propagating in dense dispersion-managed fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shuqin; Le, Zichun; Quan, Bisheng

    2006-01-01

    By numerical simulation, we show that the fourth-order dispersion (FOD) makes sub-picosecond optical pulse broaden as second-order dispersion (SOD), makes optical pulse oscillate simultaneously as third-order dispersion (TOD). Based on above two reasons, sub-picosecond optical pulse will be widely broaden and lead to emission of continuum radiation during propagation. Here, resemble to two- and third-order dispersion compensation, fourth-order dispersion compensation is also suggested in a dispersion-managed optical fiber link, which is realized by arranging two kinds of fiber with opposite dispersion sign in each compensation cell. For sake of avoiding excessively broadening, ultra short scale dispersion compensation cell is required in ultra high speed optical communication system. In a full dispersion compensation optical fiber system which path average dispersion is zero about SOD, TOD, and FOD, even suffering from affection of high order nonlinear like self-steep effect and self-frequency shift, 200 fs gauss optical pulse can stable propagate over 1000 km with an optimal initial chirp. When space between neighboring optical pulse is only 2 picoseconds corresponding to 500 Gbit/s transmitting capacity, eye diagram is very clarity after 1000 km. The results demonstrate that ultra short scale dispersion compensation including FOD is need and effective in ultra-high speed optical communication.

  3. Influence of parameters on light propagation dynamics in optically induced planar waveguide arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction and refraction of light beam in optical periodic structures can be determined by the photonic band-gap structures of spatial frequency.In this paper,by employing the equation governing the nonlinear light propagations in photorefractive crystals,we study the photonic band-gap structures, Bloch modes,and light transmission properties of optically induced planar waveguide arrays.The relationship between the photonic band-gap structures and the light diffraction characteristics is discussed in detail.Then the influence of the parameters of planar waveguide arrays on the band-gaps structures,Bloch modes,and linear light transmissions is analyzed.It is revealed that the linear light transmission properties of waveguide arrays are tightly related to the diffraction relationships determined by band-gap structures.And the Bloch modes corresponding to different transmission bands can be excited by different excitation schemes.Both the increases of the intensity and the period of the array writing beam will lead to the broadening of the forbidden gaps and the concentration of the energy of the Bloch modes to the high-index regions.Furthermore,the broadening of the forbidden gaps will lead to separation and transition between the Bloch modes of neighboring bands around the Bragg angle.Additionally,with the increase of the intensity of the array writing beams,the influences from light intensity will tend to be steady due to the saturation of the photorefractive effect.

  4. Influence of parameters on light propagation dynamics in optically induced planar waveguide arrays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Sheng; ZHANG Peng; XIAO FaJun; YANG DeXing; ZHAO JianLin

    2009-01-01

    The diffraction and refraction of light beam in optical periodic structures can be determined by the photonic band-gap structures of spatial frequency. In this paper, by employing the equation governing the nonlinear light propagations in photorefractive crystals, we study the photonic band-gap structures,Bloch modes, and light transmission properties of optically induced planar waveguide arrays. The relationship between the photonic band-gap structures and the light diffraction characteristics is discussed in detail. Then the influence of the parameters of planar waveguide arrays on the band-gaps structures, Bloch modes, and linear light transmissions is analyzed. It is revealed that the linear light transmission properties of waveguide arrays are tightly related to the diffraction relationships determined by band-gap structures. And the Bloch modes corresponding to different transmission bands can be excited by different excitation schemes. Both the increases of the intensity and the period of the array writing beam will lead to the broadening of the forbidden gaps and the concentration of the energy of the Bloch modes to the high-index regions. Furthermore, the broadening of the forbidden gaps will lead to separation and transition between the Bloch modes of neighboring bands around the Bragg angle. Additionally, with the increase of the intensity of the array writing beams, the influences from light intensity will tend to be steady due to the saturation of the photorefractive effect.

  5. Optical Trapping-Formed Colloidal Assembly with Horns Extended to the Outside of a Focus through Light Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Tetsuhiro; Wang, Shun-Fa; Yuyama, Ken-Ichi; Masuhara, Hiroshi

    2016-05-11

    We report optical trapping and assembling of colloidal particles at a glass/solution interface with a tightly focused laser beam of high intensity. It is generally believed that the particles are gathered only in an irradiated area where optical force is exerted on the particles by laser beam. Here we demonstrate that, the propagation of trapping laser from the focus to the outside of the formed assembly leads to expansion of the assembly much larger than the irradiated area with sticking out rows of linearly aligned particles like horns. The shape of the assembly, its structure, and the number of horns can be controlled by laser polarization. Optical trapping study utilizing the light propagation will open a new avenue for assembling and crystallizing quantum dots, metal nanoparticles, molecular clusters, proteins, and DNA.

  6. Quadridirectional eigenmode expansion scheme for 2-D modeling of wave propagation in integrated optics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred; Honsa, R.; Richter, L.

    2003-01-01

    Superpositions of two perpendicularly oriented bidirectional eigenmode propagation (BEP) fields, composed of basis modes that satisfy Dirichlet boundary conditions, can establish rigorous semianalytical solutions for problems of 2-D fixed-frequency wave propagation on unbounded, cross-shaped domains

  7. Stable scalable control of soliton propagation in broadband nonlinear optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peleg, Avner; Nguyen, Quan M.; Huynh, Toan T.

    2017-02-01

    We develop a method for achieving scalable transmission stabilization and switching of N colliding soliton sequences in optical waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss. We show that dynamics of soliton amplitudes in N-sequence transmission is described by a generalized N-dimensional predator-prey model. Stability and bifurcation analysis for the predator-prey model are used to obtain simple conditions on the physical parameters for robust transmission stabilization as well as on-off and off-on switching of M out of N soliton sequences. Numerical simulations for single-waveguide transmission with a system of N coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations with 2 ≤ N ≤ 4 show excellent agreement with the predator-prey model's predictions and stable propagation over significantly larger distances compared with other broadband nonlinear single-waveguide systems. Moreover, stable on-off and off-on switching of multiple soliton sequences and stable multiple transmission switching events are demonstrated by the simulations. We discuss the reasons for the robustness and scalability of transmission stabilization and switching in waveguides with broadband delayed Raman response and narrowband nonlinear gain-loss, and explain their advantages compared with other broadband nonlinear waveguides.

  8. Modelling of optical aberrations caused by light propagation in mouse cranial bone using second harmonic generation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrani, Kayvan; Kner, Peter; Mortensen, Luke J.

    2017-02-01

    Multiphoton imaging through the bone to image into the bone marrow or the brain is an emerging need in the scientific community. Due to the highly scattering nature of bone, bone thinning or removal is typically required to enhance the resolution and signal intensity at the imaging plane. The optical aberrations and scattering in the bone significantly affect the resolution and signal to noise ratio of deep tissue microscopy. Multiphoton microscopy uses long wavelength (nearinfrared and infrared) excitation light to reduce the effects of scattering. However, it is still susceptible to optical aberrations and scattering since the light propagates through several layers of media with inhomogeneous indices of refraction. Mechanical removal of bone is highly invasive, laborious, and cannot be applied in experiments where imaging inside of the bone is desired. Adaptive optics technology can compensate for these optical aberrations and potentially restore the diffraction limited point spread function of the system even in deep tissue. To design an adaptive optics system, a priori knowledge of the sample structure assists selection of the proper correction element and sensing methods. In this work we present the characterization of optical aberrations caused by mouse cranial bone, using second harmonic generation imaging of bone collagen. We simulate light propagation through the bone, calculate aberrations and determine the correction that can be achieved using a deformable mirror.

  9. Nonlinear propagation analysis of few-optical-cycle pulses for subfemtosecond compression and carrier envelope phase effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuta, Yo; Nagasawa, Minoru; Ohtani, Morimasa; Yamashita, Mikio

    2005-12-01

    A numerical approach called Fourier direct method (FDM) is applied to nonlinear propagation of optical pulses with the central wavelength 800 nm, the width 2.67-12.00 fs, and the peak power 25-6870 kW in a fused-silica fiber. Bidirectional propagation, delayed Raman response, nonlinear dispersion (self-steepening, core dispersion), as well as correct linear dispersion are incorporated into “bidirectional propagation equations” which are derived directly from Maxwell’s equations. These equations are solved for forward and backward waves, instead of the electric-field envelope as in the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). They are integrated as multidimensional simultaneous evolution equations evolved in space. We investigate, both theoretically and numerically, the validity and the limitation of assumptions and approximations used for deriving the NLSE. Also, the accuracy and the efficiency of the FDM are compared quantitatively with those of the finite-difference time-domain numerical approach. The time-domain size 500 fs and the number of grid points in time 2048 are chosen to investigate numerically intensity spectra, spectral phases, and temporal electric-field profiles up to the propagation distance 1.0 mm. On the intensity spectrum of a few-optical-cycle pulses, the self-steepening, core dispersion, and the delayed Raman response appear as dominant, middle, and slight effects, respectively. The delayed Raman response and the core dispersion reduce the effective nonlinearity. Correct linear dispersion is important since it affects the intensity spectrum sensitively. For the compression of femtosecond optical pulses by the complete phase compensation, the shortness and the pulse quality of compressed pulses are remarkably improved by the intense initial peak power rather than by the short initial pulse width or by the propagation distance longer than 0.1 mm. They will be compressed as short as 0.3 fs below the damage threshold of fused-silica fiber 6

  10. Orbital angular moment of a partially coherent beam propagating through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with loss or gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yangjian; Zhu, Shijun

    2014-04-01

    We derive the general expression for the orbital angular momentum (OAM) flux of an astigmatic partially coherent beam carrying twist phase [i.e., twisted anisotropic Gaussian-Schell model (TAGSM) beam] propagating through an astigmatic ABCD optical system with loss or gain. The evolution properties of the OAM flux of a TAGSM beam in a Gaussian cavity or propagating through a cylindrical thin lens are illustrated numerically with the help of the derived formula. It is found that we can modulate the OAM of a partially coherent beam by varying the parameters of the cavity or the orientation angle of the cylindrical thin lens, which will be useful in some applications, such as free-space optical communications and particle trapping.

  11. Off-axis phonon and photon propagation in porous silicon superlattices studied by Brillouin spectroscopy and optical reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, L. C., E-mail: lcparsons@mun.ca; Andrews, G. T., E-mail: tandrews@mun.ca [Department of Physics and Physical Oceanography, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland A1B 3X7 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    Brillouin light scattering experiments and optical reflectance measurements were performed on a pair of porous silicon-based optical Bragg mirrors which had constituent layer porosity ratios close to unity. For off-axis propagation, the phononic and photonic band structures of the samples were modeled as a series of intersecting linear dispersion curves. Zone-folding was observed for the longitudinal bulk acoustic phonon and the frequency of the probed zone-folded longitudinal phonon was shown to be dependent on the propagation direction as well as the folding order of the mode branch. There was no conclusive evidence of coupling between the transverse and the folded longitudinal modes. Two additional observed Brillouin peaks were attributed to the Rayleigh surface mode and a possible pseudo-surface mode. Both of these modes were dispersive, with the velocity increasing as the wavevector decreased.

  12. Optical trapping of nanoparticles with significantly reduced laser powers by using counter-propagating beams (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chenglong; LeBrun, Thomas W.

    2015-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles (GNP) have wide applications ranging from nanoscale heating to cancer therapy and biological sensing. Optical trapping of GNPs as small as 18 nm has been successfully achieved with laser power as high as 855 mW, but such high powers can damage trapped particles (particularly biological systems) as well heat the fluid, thereby destabilizing the trap. In this article, we show that counter propagating beams (CPB) can successfully trap GNP with laser powers reduced by a factor of 50 compared to that with a single beam. The trapping position of a GNP inside a counter-propagating trap can be easily modulated by either changing the relative power or position of the two beams. Furthermore, we find that under our conditions while a single-beam most stably traps a single particle, the counter-propagating beam can more easily trap multiple particles. This (CPB) trap is compatible with the feedback control system we recently demonstrated to increase the trapping lifetimes of nanoparticles by more than an order of magnitude. Thus, we believe that the future development of advanced trapping techniques combining counter-propagating traps together with control systems should significantly extend the capabilities of optical manipulation of nanoparticles for prototyping and testing 3D nanodevices and bio-sensing.

  13. Optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Zuo-Liang; Chen Jian-Ping; Li Ru-Xin; Lin Li-Huang; Xu Zhi-Zhan

    2004-01-01

    We report the experiments on the optical breakdown and filamentation of femtosecond laser pulses propagating in air at a kHz repetition rate and with several hundreds micro-joule-energy. A 10m-long filament and its breakup and merging at the nonlinear focal region produced by modulational instability of femtosecond laser pulses in air are observed. A simple model based on the nonlinear Schrodinger equation coupled with multiphoton ionization law is presented to explain the several experimental results.

  14. Reverse propagation and negative angular momentum density flux of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial fractional Bessel vortex beam of progressive waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, F G

    2016-09-01

    Energy and angular momentum flux density characteristics of an optical nondiffracting nonparaxial vector Bessel vortex beam of fractional order are examined based on the dual-field method for the generation of symmetric electric and magnetic fields. Should some conditions determined by the polarization state, the half-cone angle as well as the beam-order (or topological charge) be met, the axial energy and angular momentum flux densities vanish (representing Poynting singularities), before they become negative. These negative counterintuitive properties suggest retrograde (negative) propagation as well as a rotation reversal of the angular momentum with respect to the beam handedness. These characteristics of nondiffracting nonparaxial Bessel fractional vortex beams of progressive waves open new capabilities in optical tractor beam tweezers, optical spanners, invisibility cloaks, optically engineered metamaterials, and other applications.

  15. Application of the optical flow method for the experimental analysis of turbulent flame propagation in a transparent engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Mario; Lombardi, Simone; Continillo, Gaetano; Sementa, Paolo; Vaglieco, Bianca Maria

    2016-12-01

    This paper illustrates the analysis conducted on high-definition, high sampling rate image sequences collected in experiments with a single spark ignition optically accessible engine. Images are first processed to identify the reaction front, and then analyzed by an optical flow estimation technique. The results show that each velocity component of the estimated flow field has an ECDF very similar to the CDF of a Gaussian distribution, whereas the velocity magnitude has an ECDF well fitted by a Rayleigh probability distribution. The proposed non-intrusive method provides a fast statistical characterization of the flame propagation phenomenon in the engine combustion chamber.

  16. Alternative modes for optical trapping and manipulation using counter-propagating shaped beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.B.; Kristensen, M.V.;

    2011-01-01

    -propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from the conventional geometry based on symmetric, coaxial counter-propagating beams. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the axial and transverse trapping stiffnesses. We also show...

  17. Light propagation in optical crystal powders: effects of particle size and volume filling factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GarcIa-Ramiro, B [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Illarramendi, M A [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Aramburu, I [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Fernandez, J [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Balda, R [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Al-Saleh, M [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada I, Escuela Tecnica Superior de IngenierIa, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Alameda Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-11-14

    In this work, we analyse the light propagation in some laser and nonlinear crystal powders. In particular, we study the dependence of the diffusive absorption lengths and the transport lengths on particle size and volume filling factor. The theoretical calculations have been made by assuming a diffusive propagation of light in these materials.

  18. geometric optics and WKB method for electromagnetic wave propagation in an inhomogeneous plasma near cutoff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Light, Max Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2017-04-13

    This report outlines the theory underlying electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in an unmagnetized, inhomogeneous plasma. The inhomogeneity is given by a spatially nonuniform plasma electron density ne(r), which will modify the wave propagation in the direction of the gradient rne(r).

  19. Fröhlich electron-interface and -propagating optical phonon interactions in a wurtzite multi-shell cylindrical heterostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Shi, Jun-Jie

    2006-04-01

    Under the dielectric continuum model and Loudon's uniaxial crystal model, the polar optical phonon modes in a wurtzite multi-shell cylindrical heterostructure are analyzed and discussed. The analytical electrostatic potential functions are presented for all the five types of polar optical phonon modes including the interface optical (IO) modes, the propagating (PR) modes, the quasi-confined (QC) modes, the half-space-like (HSL) modes and the exactly confined (EC) modes. By adopting a transfer matrix method, the free IO and PR phonon fields and corresponding Fröhlich electron -IO and -PR interaction Hamiltonians are obtained via the method of electrostatic potential expansion. The analytical formulas are universal and can be applied to single, double and some complex cylindrical wurtzite quantum systems.

  20. Propagation characteristics of a high-power broadband laser beam passing through a nonlinear optical medium with defects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueqiong; Chen; Xiaoyan; Li; Ziyang; Chen; Jixiong; Pu; Guowen; Zhang; Jianqiang; Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The intensity distributions of a high-power broadband laser beam passing through a nonlinear optical medium with defects and then propagating in free space are investigated based on the general nonlinear Schr¨odinger equation and the split-step Fourier numerical method. The influences of the bandwidth of the laser beam, the thickness of the medium,and the defects on the light intensity distribution are revealed. We find that the nonlinear optical effect can be suppressed and that the uniformity of the beam can be improved for a high-power broadband laser beam with appropriate wide bandwidth. It is also found that, under the same incident light intensity, a thicker medium will lead to a stronger self-focusing intensity, and that the influence of defects in the optical elements on the intensity is stronger for a narrowband beam than for a broadband beam.

  1. Unidirectional optical pulse propagation equation for materials with both electric and magnetic responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsler, Paul

    2010-02-01

    I derive unidirectional wave equations for fields propagating in materials with both electric and magnetic dispersion and nonlinearity. The derivation imposes no conditions on the pulse profile except that the material modulates the propagation slowly, that is, that loss, dispersion, and nonlinearity have only a small effect over the scale of a wavelength. It also allows a direct term-to-term comparison of the exact bidirectional theory with its approximate unidirectional counterpart.

  2. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Ultra-Wide-Band Optical Pulses in Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-Zhou; WANG Li; YANG Guo-Zhen

    2000-01-01

    The propagation of ultrashort coherent electromagnetic pulses with broad spectral bandwidth in free space is studied by using scalar diffraction theory. It is confirmed and experimentally demonstrated that the diffraction not only affects the spatial structure but also changes the temporal waveform of an ultra-wide-band pulse during propagation. The terahertz pulse travelling as basic mode of Gaussian beam is discussed in detail

  3. Light propagation along the pericardium meridian at human wrist as evidenced by the optical experiment and Monte Carlo method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi-fan; Chen, Chang-shui; Liu, Xiao-mei; Liu, Rong-ting; Liu, Song-hao

    2015-04-01

    To explore the characteristics of light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian and its surrounding areas at human wrist by using optical experiment and Monte Carlo method. An experiment was carried out to obtain the distribution of diffuse light on Pericardium Meridian line and its surrounding areas at the wrist, and then a simplified model based on the anatomical structure was proposed to simulate the light transportation within the same area by using Monte Carlo method. The experimental results showed strong accordance with the Monte Carlo simulation that the light propagation along the Pericardium Meridian had an advantage over its surrounding areas at the wrist. The advantage of light transport along Pericardium Merdian line was related to components and structure of tissue, also the anatomical structure of the area that the Pericardium Meridian line runs.

  4. Propagation properties of off-axis Hermite-cosh-Gaussian beam combinations through a first-order optical system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Qian-Jin; Chen Da-Ming; Yu Yong-Ai; Hu Qi-Quan

    2006-01-01

    Based on the Collins integral formula, the analytic expressions of propagation of the coherent and the incoherent off-axis Hermite-cosh-Gaussian (HChG) beam combinations with rectangular symmetry passing through a paraxial first-order optical system are derived, and corresponding numerical examples are given and analysed. The resulting beam quality is discussed in terms of power in the bucket (PIB). The study suggests that the resulting beam cannot keep the initial intensity shape during the propagation and the beam quality for coherent mode is not always better than that for incoherent mode. Reviewing the numerical simulations of Gaussian, Hermite-Gaussian (HG) and cosh-Gaussian (ChG) beam combinations indicates that the Hermite polynomial exerts a chief influence on the irradiance profile of composite beam and far field power concentration.

  5. Modeling of light propagation in the human neck for diagnoses of thyroid cancers by diffuse optical tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, H; Yamada, Y; Kobayashi, K; Watanabe, M; Hoshi, Y

    2016-08-17

    Diffuse optical tomography using near-infrared light in a wavelength range from 700 to 1000 nm has the potential to enable non-invasive diagnoses of thyroid cancers; some of which are difficult to detect by conventional methods such as ultrasound tomography. Diffuse optical tomography needs to be based on a physically accurate model of light propagation in the neck, because it reconstructs tomographic images of the optical properties in the human neck by inverse analysis. Our objective here was to investigate the effects of three factors on light propagation in the neck using the 2D time-dependent radiative transfer equation: (1) the presence of the trachea, (2) the refractive-index mismatch at the trachea-tissue interface, and (3) the effect of neck organs other than the trachea (spine, spinal cord, and blood vessels). There was a significant influence of reflection and refraction at the trachea-tissue interface on the light intensities in the region between the trachea and the front of the neck surface. Organs other than the trachea showed little effect on the light intensities measured at the front of the neck surface although these organs affected the light intensities locally. These results indicated the necessity of modeling the refractive-index mismatch at the trachea-tissue interface and the possibility of modeling other neck organs simply as a homogeneous medium when the source and detectors were far from large blood vessels.

  6. Raman spectroscopy of femtosecond laser written low propagation loss optical waveguides in Schott N-SF8 glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotillo, B.; Chiappini, A.; Bharadwaj, V.; Ramos, M.; Fernandez, T. T.; Rampini, S.; Ferrari, M.; Ramponi, R.; Fernández, P.; Gholipour, B.; Soci, C.; Eaton, S. M.

    2017-10-01

    We have performed high repetition rate femtosecond laser bulk modification of TiO2-SiO2 based glass (Schott N-SF8 glass), leading to a decrease in the refractive index near the focal volume. From μRaman and X-ray microanalysis we have associated the decrease in the refractive index to a volume expansion due to glass network modifications induced by the laser irradiation. By writing two lines close together we have been able to confine the optical mode and obtain propagation losses of 0.7 dB/cm in the near infrared.

  7. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: II. Theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1994-05-20

    Theoretical aspects of the frequency-translation ring circuit are considered through numerical simulations. We analyze the signal and noise propagation around an optical ring circuit that contains a frequency shifter, an erbium-doped fiber amplifier and a bandpass filter (BPF). The relations between the frequency-translation limit and some important parameters such as the BPF bandwidth and the polarization state are clarified. Numerical results for the frequency-translation limit are compared with reported experiments and a frequency translation of more than 100 GHz is predicted.

  8. The Riemann problem method for solving a perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation describing pulse propagation in optic fibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihalache, D.; Panoiu, N.-C.; Moldoveanu, F.; Baboiu, D.-M. [Dept. of Theor. Phys., Inst. of Atomic Phys., Bucharest (Romania)

    1994-09-21

    We used the Riemann problem method with a 3*3 matrix system to find the femtosecond single soliton solution for a perturbed nonlinear Schroedinger equation which describes bright ultrashort pulse propagation in properly tailored monomode optical fibres. Compared with the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko approach, the major advantage of the Riemann problem method is that it provides the general single soliton solution in a simple and compact form. Unlike the standard nonlinear Schroedinger equation, here the single soliton solution exhibits periodic evolution patterns. (author)

  9. Modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation and spectra of optical excitations in complex media using 4x4 matrix formalism

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, P D; Sirenko, A A

    2011-01-01

    Using 4x4 matrix formalism we analyzed electromagnetic wave propagation and Jones matrix components for reflectivity and transmittivity in bi-anisotropic materials. Analytic formulas for complex reflection and transmission coefficients for bi-anisotropic materials in both semi-infinite and thin-film configurations have been derived. The obtained results are applicable for analysis of the optical spectra of multiferroic crystals and metamaterials. The Adjusted Oscillator Strength Matching Condition (AOSM) for hybrid magnetic- and electric-dipole excitations in anisotropic multiferroics is derived for oblique angles of incidence. Mueller Matrices are used to simulate spectra of magneto-electric and chiral excitations and methods to distinguish them are discussed.

  10. Accurate finite difference beam propagation method for complex integrated optical structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Povlsen, Jørn Hedegaard; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard

    1993-01-01

    A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions......A simple and effective finite-difference beam propagation method in a z-varying nonuniform mesh is developed. The accuracy and computation time for this method are compared with a standard finite-difference method for both the 3-D and 2-D versions...

  11. Unidirectional light propagation through two-layer nanostructures based on optical near-field interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Naruse, Makoto; Ishii, Satoshi; Drezet, Aurélien; Huant, Serge; Hoga, Morihisa; Ohyagi, Yasuyuki; Matsumoto, Tsutomu; Tate, Naoya; Ohtsu, Motoichi

    2014-01-01

    We theoretically demonstrate direction-dependent polarization conversion efficiency, yielding unidirectional light transmission, through a two-layer nanostructure by using the angular spectrum representation of optical near-fields. The theory provides results that are consistent with electromagnetic numerical simulations. This study reveals that optical near-field interactions among nanostructured matter can provide unique optical properties, such as the unidirectionality observed here, and offers fundamental guiding principles for understanding and engineering nanostructures for realizing novel functionalities.

  12. Propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with apertures and its application to focal shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Sun; Jin, Guo; Tingfeng, Wang

    2013-07-01

    Based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel diffraction integral (Collins' formula), the propagation equation of Hermite-Gauss beams through a complex optical system with a limiting aperture is derived. The elements of the optical system may be all those characterized by an ABCD ray-transfer matrix, as well as any kind of apertures represented by complex transmittance functions. To obtain the analytical expression, we expand the aperture transmittance function into a finite sum of complex Gaussian functions. Thus the limiting aperture is expressed as a superposition of a series of Gaussian-shaped limiting apertures. The advantage of this treatment is that we can treat almost all kinds of apertures in theory. As application, we define the width of the beam and the focal plane using an encircled-energy criterion and calculate the intensity distribution of Hermite-Gauss beams at the actual focus of an aperture lens.

  13. A transmission line model for propagation in elliptical core optical fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgantzos, E.; Boucouvalas, A. C. [Department of Telecommunications and Informatics, University of Peloponnese, Karaiskaki 70, 221 00, Tripoli Greece (Greece); Papageorgiou, C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, National technical University of Athens, Iroon Politechniou 9, Kaisariani, 16121, Athens (Greece)

    2015-12-31

    The calculation of mode propagation constants of elliptical core fibers has been the purpose of extended research leading to many notable methods, with the classic step index solution based on Mathieu functions. This paper seeks to derive a new innovative method for the determination of mode propagation constants in single mode fibers with elliptic core by modeling the elliptical fiber as a series of connected coupled transmission line elements. We develop a matrix formulation of the transmission line and the resonance of the circuits is used to calculate the mode propagation constants. The technique, used with success in the case of cylindrical fibers, is now being extended for the case of fibers with elliptical cross section. The advantage of this approach is that it is very well suited to be able to calculate the mode dispersion of arbitrary refractive index profile elliptical waveguides. The analysis begins with the deployment Maxwell’s equations adjusted for elliptical coordinates. Further algebraic analysis leads to a set of equations where we are faced with the appearance of harmonics. Taking into consideration predefined fixed number of harmonics simplifies the problem and enables the use of the resonant circuits approach. According to each case, programs have been created in Matlab, providing with a series of results (mode propagation constants) that are further compared with corresponding results from the ready known Mathieu functions method.

  14. Exact solutions of optical pulse propagation in nonlinear meta-materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2017-01-01

    An analytical and simulation based method has been used to exactly solve the nonlinear wave propagation in bulk media exhibiting frequency dependent dielectric susceptibility and magnetic permeability. The method has been further extended to investigate the intensity distribution in a nonlinear meta-material with negative refractive index where both ɛ and μ are dispersive and negative in nature.

  15. Tunable propagation delay of femtosecond pulse in quantum-dot optical amplifier at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    Optically induced dispersion over a large bandwidth of 2.6 THz is used to slow or speed up a 150 fs pulse in a quantum-dot optical amplifier. A group refractive index change of 4*10-3 is observed.......Optically induced dispersion over a large bandwidth of 2.6 THz is used to slow or speed up a 150 fs pulse in a quantum-dot optical amplifier. A group refractive index change of 4*10-3 is observed....

  16. Tunable propagation delay of femtosecond pulses in a quantum-dot optical amplifier at room temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    Optically induced dispersion over a large bandwidth of 2.6 THz is used to slow or speed up a 150 fs pulse in a quantum-dot optical amplifier. A group refractive index change of 4*10-3 is observed......Optically induced dispersion over a large bandwidth of 2.6 THz is used to slow or speed up a 150 fs pulse in a quantum-dot optical amplifier. A group refractive index change of 4*10-3 is observed...

  17. Dynamic optical interferometry applied to analyse out of plane displacement fields for crack propagation in brittle materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedan, S.; Pop, O.; Valle, V.; Cottron, M.

    2006-08-01

    We propose in this paper, to analyse, the evolution of out-of-plane displacement fields for a crack propagation in brittle materials. As the crack propagation is a complex process that involves the deformation mechanisms, the out-of-plane displacement measurement gives pertinent information about the 3D effects. For investigation, we use the interferometric method. The optical device includes a laser source, a Michelson interferometer and an ultra high-speed CCD camera. To take into account the crack velocity, we dispose of a maximum frame rate of 1Mfps. The experimental tests have been carried out for a SEN (Single Edge Notch) specimen of PMMA material. The crack propagation is initiated by adding a dynamic energy given by the impact of a cutter on the initial crack. The obtained interferograms are analysed with a new phase extraction method entitled MPC [6]. This analysis, which has been developed specially for dynamic studies, gives the out-of-plane displacement with an accuracy of about 10 nm.

  18. Optical Simulation for Multi-Striped Orthogonal Photon-Photocarrier-Propagation Solar Cell (MOP3SC) with Redirection Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Akira; Kobayashi, H.; Taniguchi, T.; Kondo, K.; Kasai, T.

    2016-12-01

    We have calculated optical fields for waveguide-coupled orthogonal photon-photocarrier propagation solar cell (MOP3SC)in which the photons propagate in the direction orthogonal to that of the photocarriers'. By exploiting the degree of freedom along the photon propagation and using multi-semiconductor stripes in which the incoming photons first encounter the widest gap semiconductor, and the narrowest at last, we can convert virtually the whole spectrum of solar spectrum into electricity resulting in high conversion efficiency. The waveguide-coupled MOP3SC can not only optimize the absorption of light and the photocarrier collection independently converting virtually the whole spectrum of sunlight into electricity, but also can serve as a highly efficient concentration solar-cell system with low temperature rise thanks to its minimal thermal dissipation and the diffusive-light-convertibility when used with the parabola cross-section structure on top of the waveguide. The waveguide-coupled MOP3SC is also of potential interest as a high reliability system, because the high energy photons that can damage bonding of the materials, being converted into electricity already at upstream, never go into the medium or narrow gap semiconductors, resulting in low degradation of materials used in the MOP3SC.

  19. High-refractive index particles in counter-propagating optical tweezers - manipulation and forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, Astrid van der

    2006-01-01

    With a tightly focused single laser beam, also called optical tweezers, particles of a few nanometers up to several micrometers in size can be trapped and manipulated in 3D. The size, shape and refractive index of such colloidal particles are of influence on the optical forces exerted on them in the

  20. Maxwell-Bloch Equations Modeling of Ultrashort Optical Pulse Propagation in Semiconductor Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind, P.

    1997-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed that solves the semiconductor Maxwell-Bloch equations, without making the standard slowly-varying envelope (SVEA) and rotating-wave (RWA) approximations. It is applied to study the propagation of ultrashort pulses in semiconductor materials. The results include many-body effects due to the Coulomb interaction among the charge carriers as well as the nonlinear effects resulting from spectral hole-burning.

  1. Exact solutions of optical wave propagation in nonlinear negative refractive medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Lipsa

    2016-04-01

    An analytical and simulation based method has been used to exactly solve the nonlinear Schrödinger's equation (NLSE) and study the solitonic forms in a medium which exhibits frequency dependent dielectric permittivity (ɛ) and magnetic permeability (μ). The model has been extended to describe the propagation of a wave in a nonlinear negative refractive medium (NRM) which is dispersive and negative in nature.

  2. Propagation of ring Airy Gaussian beams with optical vortices through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Dong; Tao, Rumao; Zhou, Pu; Ma, Yanxing; Wu, Wuming; Wang, Xiaolin; Si, Lei

    2017-03-01

    A new ring Airy Gaussian (RAiG) vortex beam generation method by coherent combination of Gaussian beam array has been proposed. To validate the feasibility of this method, the propagation properties of the RAiG vortex beam and the coherent combining beam in vacuum have been studied and analyzed. From the comparisons of the intensity distributions and phase patterns along the propagation path, we can conclude that the coherent combining beam has the same properties as those of the ideal RAiG vortex beam. So this method can be used to obtain RAiG vortex beam in practice. Then the general analytical expression of the root-mean-square (RMS) beam width of the RAiG vortex beam, which is appropriately generated by coherent combining method, through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence has been derived. The influence of anisotropic turbulence on RMS beam width of the generated RAiG vortex beam has been numerically calculated. This generation method has good appropriation to the ideal RAiG vortex beam and is very useful for deriving the analytical expression of propagation properties through a random media. The conclusions are useful in practical applications, such as laser communication and remote sensing systems.

  3. Optical wave beam propagation in two-lens scheme with arbitrary parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazakov, Vasily I.

    2016-04-01

    Two-lens optical scheme as a system of the optical information processing and transmission is considered. On the basis of applying radio-optics methods, the theory of linear systems and system approach a mathematical model describing the transformation of the optical wave beam in this system is proposed. Input-output ratio of the system in the form of a general spatial impulse response of all linear units included in the system is established. The problem of energy losses of the optical radiation in such a system is considered. As the input and output of system of the single-mode optical fiber is used. The equations defining the minimum possible level of energy losses caused by the diffraction of beam is obtained. The analysis showed that the losses depend explicitly on several parameters: the radiation wavelength, the distance between the end of fiber and the aperture, and the ratio of the diameter of fiber and lens aperture. With the help of computer simulation in Matlab system the losses depending on the parameters mentioned above is presented.

  4. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  5. Effects of underwater turbulence on laser beam propagation and coupling into single-mode optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Frank; Lasher, Mark

    2010-06-01

    We characterize and compare the effects of turbulence on underwater laser propagation with theory. Measurements of the coupling efficiency of the focused beam into a single-mode fiber are reported. A simple tip-tilt control system, based on the position of the image centroid in the focal plane, was shown to maintain good coupling efficiency for a beam radius equal to the transverse coherence length, r(0). These results are relevant to high bandwidth communication technology that requires good spatial mode quality.

  6. Nonlinear effects in the propagation of optically generated magnetostatic volume mode spin waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilburg, L. J. A.; Buijnsters, F. J.; Fasolino, A.; Rasing, T.; Katsnelson, M. I.

    2017-08-01

    Recent experimental work has demonstrated optical control of spin wave emission by tuning the shape of the optical pulse [Satoh et al., Nat. Photon. 6, 662 (2012), 10.1038/nphoton.2012.218]. We reproduce these results and extend the scope of the control by investigating nonlinear effects for large amplitude excitations. We observe an accumulation of spin wave power at the center of the initial excitation combined with short-wavelength spin waves. These kinds of nonlinear effects have not been observed in earlier work on nonlinearities of spin waves. Our observations pave the way for the manipulation of magnetic structures at a smaller scale than the beam focus, for instance in devices with all-optical control of magnetism.

  7. Analysis of the Light Propagation Model of the Optical Voltage Sensor for Suppressing Unreciprocal Errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Fu, Zhida; Liu, Liying; Lin, Zhili; Deng, Wei; Feng, Lishuang

    2017-01-03

    An improved temperature-insensitive optical voltage sensor (OVS) with a reciprocal dual-crystal sensing method is proposed. The inducing principle of OVS reciprocity degradation is expounded by taking the different temperature fields of two crystals and the axis-errors of optical components into consideration. The key parameters pertaining to the system reciprocity degeneration in the dual-crystal sensing unit are investigated in order to optimize the optical sensing model based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The influencing principle of axis-angle errors on the system nonlinearity in the Pockels phase transfer unit is analyzed. Moreover, a novel axis-angle compensation method is proposed to improve the OVS measurement precision according to the simulation results. The experiment results show that the measurement precision of OVS is superior to ±0.2% in the temperature range from -40 °C to +60 °C, which demonstrates the excellent temperature stability of the designed voltage sensing system.

  8. Comparison of all-optical co- and counter-propagating high-speed signal processing in SOA-based Mach-Zehnder interferometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Buxens, Alvaro; Fischer, S.;

    2001-01-01

    The all-optical signal processing performance of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) is investigated. Calculated switching windows are used to investigate and understand the physical mechanisms limiting the high speed performance. Especially, the co- and counter-propagating operation of the MZI...... is discussed and important differences in the performance for the two schemes are addressed. The non-regenerative all-optical clear and drop functionality is investigated for a 2, 4 and 8 x 40 Gbit/s signal, showing good performance in the co-propagating case. Regenerative simultaneous clear and drop...... functionality in a single MZI is demonstrated experimentally and compared to the large signal model predictions....

  9. Integrated optical sensors utilizing slow-light propagation in grated-waveguide cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, Van So

    2012-01-01

    Owing to the small size of integrated optical (IO) devices many basic functions can be integrated on one single IO chip. IO sensors are suitable candidates for accurate detection of small changes of physical or chemical parameters. The integration offers advantages such as enabling a high density of

  10. General model of signal propagation in a Raman amplified single-mode fiber based coherent optical communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jingchi; Tang, Ming; Fu, Songnian; Shum, Perry Ping; Liu, Deming

    2016-12-01

    The distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) has been widely utilized in state-of-the-art coherent optical communication systems using multi-level modulation formatted signals in order to improve transmission performance. A general model based on Jones vector notation governing the signal propagation under Raman amplified link is proposed. Primary physics including both linear and nonlinear effects have been taken into account. The numerical approach for solving the equations is illustrated in detail. Using the model, system characterization and optimization can be easily performed. We also compare our model with the commonly used coarse-step method. It is found that the coarse-step method will exaggerate the cross-polarization modulation induced impairments by over 6 dB and will become unusable when the pump power is as high as several Watts. The proposed model provides a guideline for the simulation of Raman amplified coherent transmission systems.

  11. Gaussian Wave formalism model for propagation of charged-particle beam through a first-order optical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Bao-Xin

    2006-01-01

    An elliptical Gaussian wave formalism model of a charged-particle beam is proposed by analogy with an elliptical Gaussian light beam.In the paraxial approximation.the charged-particle beam can be described as a whole by a complex radius of curvature in the real space domains.Therefore,the propagation and transform of charged-particle beam passing through a first-order optical system is represented by the ABCD-like law.As an example of the application of this model,the relation between the beam waist and the minimum beam spot at a fixed target is discussed.The result.well matches that from conventional phase space model,and proves that the Gaussian wave formalism model is highly effective and reasonable.

  12. Modeling Optical Spectra of Large Organic Systems Using Real-Time Propagation of Semiempirical Effective Hamiltonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Andersen, Amity; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J; Govind, Niranjan

    2017-09-12

    We present an implementation of a time-dependent semiempirical method (INDO/S) in NWChem using real-time (RT) propagation to address, in principle, the entire spectrum of valence electronic excitations. Adopting this model, we study the UV/vis spectra of medium-sized systems such as P3B2 and f-coronene, and in addition much larger systems such as ubiquitin in the gas phase and the betanin chromophore in the presence of two explicit solvents (water and methanol). RT-INDO/S provides qualitatively and often quantitatively accurate results when compared with RT- TDDFT or experimental spectra. Even though we only consider the INDO/S Hamiltonian in this work, our implementation provides a framework for performing electron dynamics in large systems using semiempirical Hartree-Fock Hamiltonians in general.

  13. Modeling Optical Spectra of Large Organic Systems using Real-Time Propagation of Semiempirical Effective Hamiltonians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Soumen; Andersen, Amity; Gagliardi, Laura; Cramer, Christopher J.; Govind, Niranjan

    2017-09-01

    We present an implementation of a time-dependent semiempirical method (INDO/S) in NWChem using real-time (RT) propagation to address, in principle, the entire spectrum of valence electronic excitations. Adopting this model, we study the UV-visible spectra of medium-sized systems like P3B2, f-coronene, and in addition much larger systems like ubiquitin in the gas phase and the betanin chromophore in the presence of two explicit solvents (water and methanol). RT-INDO/S provides qualitatively and indeed often quantitatively accurate results when compared with RT- TDDFT or experimental spectra. While demonstrated here for INDO/S in particular, our implementation provides a framework for performing electron dynamics in large systems using semiempirical Hartree-Fock (HF) Hamiltonians in general.

  14. Propagation of optical excitations by dipolar interactions in metal nanoparticles chains

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, W H

    2004-01-01

    Dispersion relations for dipolar modes propagating along a chain of metal nanoparticles are calculated by solving the full Maxwell equations, including radiation damping. The nanoparticles are treated as point dipoles, which means the results are valid only for a/d <= 1/3, where a is the particle radius and d the spacing. The discrete modes for a finite chain are first calculated, then these are mapped onto the dispersion relations appropriate for the infinite chain. Computed results are given for a chain of 50-nm diameter Ag spheres spaced by 75 nm. We find large deviations from previous quasistatic results: Transverse modes interact strongly with the light line. Longitudinal modes develop a bandwidth more than twice as large, resulting in a group velocity that is more than doubled. All modes for which k_mode <= w/c show strongly enhanced decay due to radiation damping.

  15. Propagation of dark stripe beams in nonlinear media: Snake instability and creation of optical vortices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamaev, A.V.; Saffman, M.; Zozulya, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the evolution of (1+1) dimensional dark stripe beams in bulk media with a photorefractive nonlinear response. These beams, including solitary wave solutions, are shown to be unstable with respect to symmetry breaking and formation of structure along the initially homogeneous coordinate....... Experimental results show the complete sequence of events starting from self-focusing of the stripe, its bending due to the snake instability, and subsequent decay into a set of optical vortices....

  16. Optical Connecting of Fibers by Laser Beams Propagating from the Fibers Edges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Nikolayevich Mensov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A possibility to connect nonprecise positioned fibers in photopolymerizable compositions is under discussion in this paper. The processes of optical synthesis of connective waveguiding structures forming in such mediums directly by the radiation leaving the edges of connecting fibers are investigated numerically and experimentally as well. It was shown that nonlinear interaction of the light beams allows to connect misaligned and transversally shifted fibers with high efficiency.

  17. Analysis of the Light Propagation Model of the Optical Voltage Sensor for Suppressing Unreciprocal Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Fu, Zhida; Liu, Liying; Lin, Zhili; Deng, Wei; Feng, Lishuang

    2017-01-01

    An improved temperature-insensitive optical voltage sensor (OVS) with a reciprocal dual-crystal sensing method is proposed. The inducing principle of OVS reciprocity degradation is expounded by taking the different temperature fields of two crystals and the axis-errors of optical components into consideration. The key parameters pertaining to the system reciprocity degeneration in the dual-crystal sensing unit are investigated in order to optimize the optical sensing model based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory. The influencing principle of axis-angle errors on the system nonlinearity in the Pockels phase transfer unit is analyzed. Moreover, a novel axis-angle compensation method is proposed to improve the OVS measurement precision according to the simulation results. The experiment results show that the measurement precision of OVS is superior to ±0.2% in the temperature range from −40 °C to +60 °C, which demonstrates the excellent temperature stability of the designed voltage sensing system. PMID:28054951

  18. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  19. Luminous phase of nanosecond discharge in deionized water: morphology, propagation velocity and optical emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimek, Milan; Pongrác, Branislav; Babický, Václav; Člupek, Martin; Lukeš, Petr

    2017-07-01

    We employed the techniques of time-resolved intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) microscopy and spectroscopy to register basic morphologic and emission fingerprints of micro-discharges produced in deionized water. Fast rise-time positive high-voltage pulses (full width at half maximum of ˜7 ns and amplitude of ˜100 kV) in a point-to-plane electrode geometry produced micro-discharges, either periodically or in a single-pulse regime with the energy of ˜0.1 J dissipated during a single discharge event. Time resolved ICCD images evidence typical streamer-like branched filamentary morphology. Luminous discharge filaments show very fast and approximately linear initial expansion of the length with propagation velocity of ˜2 × 105 m s-1. When the HV pulse reaches its maximum value, the length of the primary luminous filaments reaches ˜1.3 mm. After initial expansion, the length of luminous filaments collapses and can be characterised by velocity of ˜1.9 × 104 m s-1. The first collapse is followed by a second slightly slower expansion, which is driven by the arrival of a reflected HV pulse, and which can be roughly approximated by propagation velocity of ˜1.5 × 105 m s-1. The second collapse (occurring after second expansion) proceeds at a nearly identical velocity compared with the first one. By combining two ICCD based techniques, we have been able to associate, for the first time ever, characteristic emission spectra with the most important phases of the micro-discharge development. The UV-vis-NIR emission spectra show a broad-band continuum evolving during the first expansion and collapse, followed by the well-known HI/OI atomic lines occurring together with continuum emission during the second expansion and collapse. We conclude that bound-free and free-free radiative transitions are basic emission characteristics of the nanosecond discharge initiation mechanism in liquid water which does not involve the formation of vapour bubbles.

  20. Simulation of emission and propagation of coherent synchrotron radiation wave fronts using the methods of wave optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chubar, O.

    2006-09-01

    The paper describes methods of efficient calculation of spontaneous synchrotron radiation (SR) by relativistic electrons in storage rings, and propagation of this radiation through optical elements and drift spaces of beamlines, using the principles of wave optics. In addition to the SR from one electron, incoherent and coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by electron bunches is treated. CPU-efficient CSR calculation method taking into account 6D phase space distribution of electrons in a bunch is proposed. The properties of CSR emitted by electron bunches with small longitudinal and large transverse size are studied numerically (such situation can be realized in storage rings e.g. by transverse deflection of the electron bunches in special RF cavities). It is shown that if the transverse size of a bunch is much larger than the diffraction limit for single-electron SR at a given wavelength - it affects the angular distribution of the CSR at this wavelength and reduces the coherent flux. Nevertheless, for transverse bunch dimensions up to several millimeters and the longitudinal bunch size smaller than hundred micrometers, the resulting CSR flux in the far infrared spectral range is still many orders of magnitude higher than the flux of incoherent SR.

  1. Comparison of optical and acoustical monitoring during a crack propagation, implication for slow earthquake dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengliné, Olivier; Schmittbuhl, Jean; Elkhoury, Jean; Toussaint, Renaud; Daniel, Guillaume; Maloy, Knut Jurgen

    2010-05-01

    Observations of aseismic transients in several tectonic context suggest that they might be linked to seismicity. However a clear observation and description of these phenomena and their interaction is lacking. This owes to the difficulty of characterizing with a sufficient resolution processes taking place at depth. Here we aim to study these interactions between aseismic and seismic slip taking advantage of an unique experimental setup. We conducted a series of mode I crack propagation experiments on transparent materials (PMMA). The crack advance is trapped in a weakness plane which is the interface between two previously sandblasted and annealed plexiglass plates. A fast video camera taking up to 500 frames per second ensures the tracking of the front rupture. The acoustic system is composed of a maximum of 44 channels continuously recording at 5 MHz for a few tens of seconds. Piezo-electric sensors are composed of a 32 elements linear array and individual sensors surrounding the crack front. An automatic detection and localization procedure allows us to obtain the position of acoustic emission (A.E.) that occurred during the crack advance. Crack front image processing reveals an intermittent opening which might be linked to the time and space clustering of the AE. An analogy between the mode I (opening) and the mode III (antiplane slip) allows us to interpret our results in term of slip on faults. Our experiment thus helps to reveal the interplay between seismic and aseismic slip on faults.

  2. Influence of a thin metal layer on a beam propagation in a biconical optical fibre taper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stasiewicz, K. A.; Moś, J. E.

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents results of a simulation of the plasmon effect achieved between a thin precious metal layer and a biconical optical fibre taper, manufactured on a standard single mode fibre. Gold, silver and titanium were used as a metal which fulfilled a cladding function for a small diameter structure. For simulation Mode Solution software was used on which modal and frequency analyses of a wavelength were provided in the range of 800-1700 nm. A displacement of a plasmon pick in dependence of thickness of a deposited precious layer for the highest plasmon effects was observed.

  3. Observation of laser pulse propagation in optical fibers with a SPAD camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburton, Ryan; Aniculaesei, Constantin; Clerici, Matteo; Altmann, Yoann; Gariepy, Genevieve; McCracken, Richard; Reid, Derryck; McLaughlin, Steve; Petrovich, Marco; Hayes, John; Henderson, Robert; Faccio, Daniele; Leach, Jonathan

    2017-03-01

    Recording processes and events that occur on sub-nanosecond timescales poses a difficult challenge. Conventional ultrafast imaging techniques often rely on long data collection times, which can be due to limited device sensitivity and/or the requirement of scanning the detection system to form an image. In this work, we use a single-photon avalanche detector array camera with pico-second timing accuracy to detect photons scattered by the cladding in optical fibers. We use this method to film supercontinuum generation and track a GHz pulse train in optical fibers. We also show how the limited spatial resolution of the array can be improved with computational imaging. The single-photon sensitivity of the camera and the absence of scanning the detection system results in short total acquisition times, as low as a few seconds depending on light levels. Our results allow us to calculate the group index of different wavelength bands within the supercontinuum generation process. This technology can be applied to a range of applications, e.g., the characterization of ultrafast processes, time-resolved fluorescence imaging, three-dimensional depth imaging, and tracking hidden objects around a corner.

  4. An empirical approach to estimate near-infra-red photon propagation and optically induced drug release in brain tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu Verleker, Akshay; Fang, Qianqian; Choi, Mi-Ran; Clare, Susan; Stantz, Keith M.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an alternate empirical approach to estimate near-infra-red (NIR) photon propagation and quantify optically induced drug release in brain metastasis, without relying on computationally expensive Monte Carlo techniques (gold standard). Targeted drug delivery with optically induced drug release is a noninvasive means to treat cancers and metastasis. This study is part of a larger project to treat brain metastasis by delivering lapatinib-drug-nanocomplexes and activating NIR-induced drug release. The empirical model was developed using a weighted approach to estimate photon scattering in tissues and calibrated using a GPU based 3D Monte Carlo. The empirical model was developed and tested against Monte Carlo in optical brain phantoms for pencil beams (width 1mm) and broad beams (width 10mm). The empirical algorithm was tested against the Monte Carlo for different albedos along with diffusion equation and in simulated brain phantoms resembling white-matter (μs'=8.25mm-1, μa=0.005mm-1) and gray-matter (μs'=2.45mm-1, μa=0.035mm-1) at wavelength 800nm. The goodness of fit between the two models was determined using coefficient of determination (R-squared analysis). Preliminary results show the Empirical algorithm matches Monte Carlo simulated fluence over a wide range of albedo (0.7 to 0.99), while the diffusion equation fails for lower albedo. The photon fluence generated by empirical code matched the Monte Carlo in homogeneous phantoms (R2=0.99). While GPU based Monte Carlo achieved 300X acceleration compared to earlier CPU based models, the empirical code is 700X faster than the Monte Carlo for a typical super-Gaussian laser beam.

  5. Deep and optically resolved imaging through scattering media by space-reversed propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Glastre, Wilfried; Hugon, Olivier; De Chatellus, Hugues Guillet; Lacot, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We propose a novel technique of microscopy to overcome the effects of both scattering and limitation of the accessible depth due to the objective working distance. By combining Laser Optical Feedback Imaging (LOFI) with Acoustic Photon Taging (APT) and Synthetic Aperture (SA) refocusing we demonstrate an ultimate shot noise sensitivity at low power (required to preserve the tissues) and a high resolution beyond the microscope working distance. More precisely, with a laser power of 10mW, we obtain images with a micrometric resolution over ~8 transport mean free paths, corresponding to 1.3 times the microscope working distance. Various applications such as biomedical diagnosis, research and development of new drugs and therapies can benefit from our imaging setup.

  6. Pulse propagation in inhomogeneous optical waveguides. Final report, September 15, 1992--March 14, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyuk, C.R.

    1998-08-17

    Accomplishments include two Ph.D. dissertations, twenty-six archival journal publications that have appeared in print, six articles that have appeared in conference or summer school proceedings, sixteen regular conference presentations, and eleven invited conference presentations. A complete record of the publications and presentations may be found in Sec. II.E. The areas in which the author has been working--randomly varying optical fiber birefringence, passively modelocked lasers, and quasi-phase matched second harmonic generation--are all still of great current interest. Recent progress in soliton transmission has been nothing short of outstanding with the recent achievement of single channel 15 Gbit/sec, nearly error-free transmission over 35,000 km. At the same time, remarkable progress with the presently used NRZ (non-return-to-zero) transmission mode makes it less clear that solitons will ultimately be used. The author has contributed in important respects to all these areas. In long-distance transmission systems, the length scale on which the birefringence varies randomly (30--100 m) is short compared to the nonlinear and dispersive scale lengths (100--1,000 km). Consequently, it is crucial to understand and characterize this randomly varying birefringence when studying long-distance evolution in optical fibers. That has been done in a series of studies that has also led to the proposal of a numerical scheme for modeling these systems that should be orders of magnitude faster than the schemes presently being used. In the studies of the fiber ring and figure-8 lasers, the author proposed that nonlinear polarization rotation is the mechanism responsible for fast saturable absorption in the fiber ring lasers--a result that was later verified experimentally. He also explored a new approach to determining the conditions for modelocking and self-starting in these lasers that uses the computer to determine the linear stability of both the pulsed and cw solutions

  7. Propagation of Single-Mode Fibre Laser Beams through an Optical ABCD System with Circular Aperture at the Fibre Output End

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DUAN Sai-Liang; LI Jian-Feng; ZHAO Wei; WANG Yi-Shan

    2008-01-01

    @@ Based on the expansion expression of the fundamental mode of a single-mode fibre in terms of Laguerre-Gauss modes, the propagation of a beam of a weakly guiding fibre laser through an optical ABCD system with a circular aperture at the fibre end is studied. The results show that there is much difference between the propagation of the laser beam described by the expansion expression and by the Gaussian mode approximation. The depth of focus of the laser beam is longer than that of the Gaussian modes.

  8. Optical spectroscopy of free-propagating plasma and its interaction with tungsten targets in PF-1000 facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skladnik-Sadowska, E.; Malinowski, K. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Sadowski, M.J. [The Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, IPJ, 05-400 Otwock-Swierk (Poland)] [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Kubkowska, M.; Jakubowska, K.; Paduch, M.; Scholz, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, IPPLM, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Garkusha, I.E.; Ladygina, M.; Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics, NSC KIPT, 61-108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2011-07-01

    The paper reports on optical spectroscopy of pulsed plasma streams during their free propagation within a vacuum chamber and their interaction with tungsten targets. Experiments were performed with the PF-1000 facility and particular attention was paid to improvements in spectroscopic diagnostics techniques. In contrary to preliminary studies, the recent spectroscopic measurements of the free plasma streams were carried out perpendicular to the z-axis and at a larger distance from the electrode outlet. The center of the observation quartz-window was located at z = 30 cm in order to observe first a pure deuterium-plasma stream, and later on some heavy impurities which might reach that distance with a delay induced by differences in their production and time-of-flight. The recorded spectral lines were identified by means of a Kurucz database. It was confirmed that at the pure D{sub 2}-filling the PF-1000 facility emits first the deuterium-plasma stream and one can observe intense deuterium Balmer lines, but at a distance z = 30 cm, after about 2 microseconds there appear many impurity lines originating mainly from the Cu-electrodes, i.e. Cu-lines. The second part of the experiment concerned the spectroscopic measurements of metal plasma 'pillow' produced by the plasma stream impinging upon a solid target made of pure tungsten. The described measurements enabled the most intense spectral lines to be identified. This document is composed of an abstract followed by the slides of the presentation

  9. Traveling-wave method for solving the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation describing soliton propagation along optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingzhen, Xu; Wenzheng, Wang

    1995-02-01

    We give a traveling-wave method for obtaining exact solutions of the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation iut+ɛuxx+2p||u||2u +2iq(||u||2u)x=0, describing the propagation of light pulses in optical fibers, where u represents a normalized complex amplitude of a pulse envelope, t is the normalized distance along a fiber, and x is the normalized time within the frame of reference moving along the fiber at the group velocity. With the help of the ``potential function'' we obtained by this method, we find a family of solutions that are finite everywhere, particularly including periodic solutions expressed in terms of Jacobi elliptic functions, stationary periodic solutions, and ``algebraic'' soliton solutions. Compared with previous work [D. Mihalache and N. C. Panoiu, J. Math. Phys. 33, 2323 (1992)] in which two kinds of the simplest solution were given, the physical meaning of the integration constants in the potential function we give is clearer and more easily fixed with the initial parameters of the light pulse.

  10. Analysis of light propagation for a crossing of thin silicon wires using vertical tunnelling coupling with a thick optical channel waveguide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsarev, A V; Kolosovskii, E A [A.V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-31

    Using silicon photonic wires in a silicon-on-insulator structure as an example, we examine the problem of crossings of thin, high-index-contrast channel waveguides. To ensure high optical wave transmission efficiency at as low a level of parasitic scattering as possible, we propose using a structure with vertical coupling between a thin tapered silicon waveguide and a thick polymer waveguide, separated by a thin buffer oxide layer. Numerical simulation is used to find conditions under which such a structure (3 × 90 μm in dimensions) ensures 98 % and 99 % transmission efficiency at ∼1.55 μm in 35- and 26-nm spectral ranges, respectively, for direct propagation and 99.99 % transmission in the transverse direction. The optical element in question is proposed for use in optical microchips with multiple channel waveguide crossings. (integrated optical waveguides)

  11. High-speed reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnects based on hybrid free-space and multi-mode fiber propagations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Nirmalathas, Ampalavanapillai; Lim, Christina; Skafidas, Efstratios; Alameh, Kamal

    2013-12-16

    In this paper, a high-speed reconfigurable card-to-card optical interconnect architecture based on hybrid free-space and multi-mode fiber (MMF) propagation is proposed. The use of free-space signal transmission provides flexibility and reconfigurability and the MMF extends the achievable interconnection range. A printed-circuit-board (PCB) based integrated optical interconnect module is designed and developed and proof-of-concept demonstration experiments are carried out. Results show that 3 × 10 Gb/s reconfigurable optical interconnect is realized with ~12 cm free-space propagation and a 10 m MMF length. In addition, since air turbulence due to high temperature of electronic components and heat dissipation fans always exists in typical interconnect environments and it normally results in system performance degradation, its impact on the proposed reconfigurable optical interconnect scheme is also experimentally investigated. Results indicate that even with comparatively strong air turbulence, 3 × 10 Gb/s optical interconnects with flexibility can still be achieved and the power penalty is <0.7 dB.

  12. Calculation of error propagation by use of total reflection geometry for evaluating third-order nonlinear optical materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiguchi, M

    1999-09-20

    The intrinsic error propagation in a technique that uses total reflection geometry for the measurement of chi(3) is calculated. The results show how accurately the parameters should be measured to obtain the chi(3) value with the required precision. The film thickness should be slightly less than the fundamental wavelength to reduce the chi(3) error that propagates from other parameters.

  13. The Extended Parabolic Equation Method and Implication of Results for Atmospheric Millimeter-Wave and Optical Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.

    2004-01-01

    The extended wide-angle parabolic wave equation applied to electromagnetic wave propagation in random media is considered. A general operator equation is derived which gives the statistical moments of an electric field of a propagating wave. This expression is used to obtain the first and second order moments of the wave field and solutions are found that transcend those which incorporate the full paraxial approximation at the outset. Although these equations can be applied to any propagation scenario that satisfies the conditions of application of the extended parabolic wave equation, the example of propagation through atmospheric turbulence is used. It is shown that in the case of atmospheric wave propagation and under the Markov approximation (i.e., the -correlation of the fluctuations in the direction of propagation), the usual parabolic equation in the paraxial approximation is accurate even at millimeter wavelengths. The methodology developed here can be applied to any qualifying situation involving random propagation through turbid or plasma environments that can be represented by a spectral density of permittivity fluctuations.

  14. Characteristics of paraxial propagation of a super Lorentz-Gauss SLG01 mode in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Guo-Quan

    2012-01-01

    Analytical propagation expression of a super Lorentz-Gauss(SLG)01 mode in uniaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis is derived.The SLG01 mode propagating in umiaxial crystal orthogonal to the optical axis mainly depends on the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index.The SLG01 mode propagating in uniaxial crystals becomes an astigmatic beam.The beam spot of the SLGo1 mode in the uniaxial crystal is elongated in the x-or y-direction,which is determined by the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index.With the increase of the deviation of the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index from unity,the elongation of the beam spot also augments.In different observation planes,the phase distribution of an SLGo1 mode in the uniaxial crystal takes on different shapes.With the variation of the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index,the phase distribution is elongated in one transversal direction and is contracted in the other perpendicular direction.This research is beneficial to the practical applications of an SLG mode.

  15. A Microwave Radiometric Method to Obtain the Average Path Profile of Atmospheric Temperature and Humidity Structure Parameters and Its Application to Optical Propagation System Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Robert M.; Vyhnalek, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The values of the key atmospheric propagation parameters Ct2, Cq2, and Ctq are highly dependent upon the vertical height within the atmosphere thus making it necessary to specify profiles of these values along the atmospheric propagation path. The remote sensing method suggested and described in this work makes use of a rapidly integrating microwave profiling radiometer to capture profiles of temperature and humidity through the atmosphere. The integration times of currently available profiling radiometers are such that they are approaching the temporal intervals over which one can possibly make meaningful assessments of these key atmospheric parameters. Since these parameters are fundamental to all propagation conditions, they can be used to obtain Cn2 profiles for any frequency, including those for an optical propagation path. In this case the important performance parameters of the prevailing isoplanatic angle and Greenwood frequency can be obtained. The integration times are such that Kolmogorov turbulence theory and the Taylor frozen-flow hypothesis must be transcended. Appropriate modifications to these classical approaches are derived from first principles and an expression for the structure functions are obtained. The theory is then applied to an experimental scenario and shows very good results.

  16. Fabrication and evaluation of propagation loss of Si/SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides for Si based optical modulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Younghyun, E-mail: yhkim@mosfet.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Takenaka, Mitsuru [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Osada, Takenori; Hata, Masahiko [Sumitomo Chemical Co. Ltd., 6 Kitahara, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 300-3294 (Japan); Takagi, Shinichi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2014-04-30

    We have characterized photonic-wire waveguides with Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure ribs for Si-based optical modulators. The Si (80 nm)/Si{sub 0.72}Ge{sub 0.28} (40 nm) layers grown on Si-on-insulator by molecular beam epitaxy for optical modulators were evaluated by in-situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscope, X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, exhibiting that the fully-strained highly-crystalline SiGe layer was obtained. We have evaluated the propagation loss of the Si/strained SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides. The wavelength dependence of the propagation loss exhibits the bandgap narrowing of the strained Si{sub 0.72}Ge{sub 0.28}, while the optical absorption of the strained Si{sub 0.72}Ge{sub 0.28} is not significant for the optical modulator application at 1.55-μm wavelength. - Highlights: • We have characterized photonic-wire waveguides with Si/SiGe/Si heterostructure ribs. • The Si/Si{sub 0.72}Ge{sub 0.28} grown on Si-on-insulator were evaluated to be fully strained. • We have fabricated and evaluated the Si/strained SiGe/Si photonic-wire waveguides. • The wavelength dependence exhibits bandgap narrowing of the strained Si{sub 0.72}Ge{sub 0.28}. • Optical absorption of the SiGe is not significant for optical modulators at 1.55 μm.

  17. Cytoarchitecture-Dependent Decrease in Propagation Velocity of Cortical Spreading Depression in the Rat Insular Cortex Revealed by Optical Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Satoshi; Mizoguchi, Naoko; Aoki, Ryuhei; Cui, Yilong; Koshikawa, Noriaki; Kobayashi, Masayuki

    2016-04-01

    Cortical spreading depression (SD) is a self-propagating wave of depolarization accompanied by a substantial disturbance of the ionic distribution between the intra- and extracellular compartments. Glial cells, including astrocytes, play critical roles in maintenance of the extracellular environment, including ionic distribution. Therefore, SD propagation in the cerebral cortex may depend on the density of astrocytes. The present study aimed to examine the profile of SD propagation in the insular cortex (IC), which is located between the neocortex and paleocortex and is where the density of astrocytes gradually changes. The velocity of SD propagation in the neocortex, including the somatosensory, motor, and granular insular cortices (5.7 mm/min), was higher than that (2.8 mm/min) in the paleocortex (agranular insular and piriform cortices). Around thick vessels, including the middle cerebral artery, SD propagation was frequently delayed and sometimes disappeared. Immunohistological analysis of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) demonstrated the sparse distribution of astrocytes in the somatosensory cortex and the IC dorsal to the rhinal fissure, whereas the ventral IC showed a higher density of astrocytes. These results suggest that cortical cytoarchitectonic features, which possibly involve the distribution of astrocytes, are crucial for regulating the velocity of SD propagation in the cerebral cortex.

  18. Evolution properties of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziren; Liu, Lin; Wang, Fei; Cai, Yangjian

    2015-03-01

    Analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density function and the second-order moments of a Laguerre-Gaussian correlated Schell-model (LGCSM) beam propagating in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis are derived. Based on the formulas derived, we study the propagation properties, such as beam irradiance, beam diameters, and the spectral degree of coherence, of a LGCSM beam inside uniaxial crystals in detail. The effect of the initial beam parameters (mode order and spatial coherence length) and the parameters of the uniaxial crystals on the evolution properties of a LGCSM beam is revealed through numerical examples. The uniaxial crystals provide one way to modulate the properties of a LGCSM beam.

  19. 3D characterization of the forces in optical traps based on counter-propagation beams shaped by a spatial light modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M. V.; Lindballe, T.; Kylling, A.

    2010-01-01

    An experimental characterization of the 3D forces, acting on a trapped polystyrene bead in a counter-propagating beam geometry, is reported. Using a single optical trap with a large working distance (in the BioPhotonics Workstation), we simultaneously measure the transverse and longitudinal trapp...... power of 2x35 mW) for displacements in opposite directions. The Equipartition method is limited by mechanical noise and is shown to be applicable only when the total laser power in a single 10 µm counter-propagating trap is below 2x20 mW....... trapping force constants. Two different methods were used: The Drag force method and the Equipartition method. We show that the counterpropagating beams traps are simple harmonic for small displacements. The force constants reveal a transverse asymmetry as - = 9.7 pN/µm and + = 11.3 pN/µm (at a total laser...

  20. The noise propagator in an optical system using EDFAs and its effect on system performance: accurate evaluation based on linear perturbation

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhongxi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2012-01-01

    For optical systems amplified by EDFAs, we present a new approach to obtain the noise propagator from the accurate linearized noise equation (LNE) proposed by Holzlohner et al . With the help of fourth-order Runge-Kutta in the interaction picture (RK4IP) method, we solve both the accurate LNE and nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) for the noise-free signal simultaneously. The noise propagator matrix thus obtained dose not need the jitter separation required by the covariance matrix method (CMM). Based on this new approach, the calculated BERs in a DPSK system agree well with the CMM results. By introducing a deterministic phase shift induced by Gordon-Mollenauer noise effect, our numerical results also agree well with the experimental data of multi-span DPSK systems.

  1. A method for reduction of propagation loss of surface plasmons. Experimental demonstration of the loss reduction for Fe/MgO/AlGaAs plasmonic structure integrated with AlGaAs/GaAs optical waveguide

    CERN Document Server

    Zayets, V; Ando, K; Yuasa, S

    2015-01-01

    A method for the substantial reduction of propagation loss of surface plasmons was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The method is based on the fact that the propagation loss of the surface plasmons depends significantly on the optical confinement of the plasmon. A plasmonic structure, which contains a metal and two dielectric layers of different refractive indexes, is proposed in order to optimize optical confinement and to reduce propagation loss of the surface plasmons. A low propagation loss of 0.17 dB/um for a surface plasmon in a Fe/MgO/AlGaAs plasmonic structure was achieved. A good coupling efficiency of 2.2 dB/facet between a surface plasmon in Fe/MgO/AlGaAs and a waveguide mode in AlGaAs/GaAs optical waveguide was demonstrated.

  2. Single-Mode Behaviour Judgment of Optical Waveguides by Imaginary-Distance Beam Propagation Method Under Perfectly Matched Layer Boundary Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-Ping; YU Jin-Zhong; XIA Jin-Song; Chen Shao-Wu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Imaginary-distance beam propagation method under the perfectly matched layer boundary condition is applied to judge single-mode behaviour of optical waveguides, for the first time to our knowledge. A new kind of siliconon-insulator-based rib structures with half-circle cross-section is presented. The single-mode behaviour of this kind of waveguide with radius 2μm is investigated by this method. It is single-mode when the slab height is not smaller than the radius.

  3. The nonlinear Schrödinger equation and the propagation of weakly nonlinear waves in optical fibers and on the water surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chabchoub, A., E-mail: achabchoub@swin.edu.au [Centre for Ocean Engineering Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia); Kibler, B.; Finot, C.; Millot, G. [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne (ICB), UMR 6303 CNRS, Université de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France); Onorato, M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, INFN, Sezione di Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Dudley, J.M. [Institut FEMTO-ST, UMR 6174 CNRS- Université de Franche-Comté, 25030 Besançon (France); Babanin, A.V. [Centre for Ocean Engineering Science and Technology, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    The dynamics of waves in weakly nonlinear dispersive media can be described by the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE). An important feature of the equation is that it can be derived in a number of different physical contexts; therefore, analogies between different fields, such as for example fiber optics, water waves, plasma waves and Bose–Einstein condensates, can be established. Here, we investigate the similarities between wave propagation in optical Kerr media and water waves. In particular, we discuss the modulation instability (MI) in both media. In analogy to the water wave problem, we derive for Kerr-media the Benjamin–Feir index, i.e. a nondimensional parameter related to the probability of formation of rogue waves in incoherent wave trains.

  4. Nonlinear pulse propagation in InAs/InP quantum-dot optical amplifiers: Rabi-oscillations in the presence of non-resonant nonlinearities

    CERN Document Server

    Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gad; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2014-01-01

    We study the interplay between coherent light-matter interactions and non-resonant pulse propagation effects when ultra-short pulses propagate in room-temperature quantum-dot (QD) semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). The signatures observed on a pulse envelope after propagating in a transparent SOA, when coherent Rabi-oscillations are absent, highlight the contribution of two-photon absorption (TPA), and its accompanying Kerr-like effect, as well as of linear dispersion, to the modification of the pulse complex electric field profile. These effects are incorporated into our previously developed finite-difference time-domain comprehensive model that describes the interaction between the pulses and the QD SOA. The present, generalized, model is used to investigate the combined effect of coherent and non-resonant phenomena in the gain and absorption regimes of the QD SOA. It confirms that in the QD SOA we examined, linear dispersion in the presence of the Kerr-like effect causes pulse compression, which coun...

  5. High performance polarization-independent Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifier with 22 dB fiber to fiber gain using Mode Propagation Tuning without additional polarization controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmani, Ali; Farhang, Mahmoud; Sheikhi, Mohammad H.

    2017-08-01

    A detailed numerical investigation of polarization-independent quantum dot InAs/GaAs semiconductor optical amplifier (PIQS) based on a technique called mode propagation tuning (MPT) without the need for the polarization controller (PC) is reported, which can solve the limitation caused by polarization sensitivity in a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA). Our calculations show that by a suitable tuning of the thickness of the active layer, only the TE0 and TM0 modes can propagate. Moreover, the gain saturation behavior of this SOA was measured at 1.55 μ m and found to be polarization-independent (PI). At active layer thickness of 1.7 μ m, the confinement factor was 0.75 and 0.7 for TE0 and TM0 modes, respectively, which leads to a gain difference up to 0.1 dB. The rate equations of the QD-SOA were also solved and a fiber to fiber gain of 22 dB was obtained. Additionally, a numerical simulation is presented which shows that the residual gain ripple and polarization sensitivity are sufficiently reduced when residual facet reflectivities of the SOA are in the range below 10-4 . In addition, the full-width at half-maximum of the horizontal and vertical far-field patterns (FFPs) are measured as 30° × 30°. The proposed structure can be used for logical applications.

  6. Frequency translation of light waves by propagation around an optical ring circuit containing a frequency shifter: I. Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1993-11-20

    A technique for the external frequency translation of light waves is reported. The technique permits the stepwise sweeping of an optical frequency over a wide range with high linearity with respect to time. The frequency translator is composed of an optical pulse modulator and an optical ring circuit containing an acousto-optic frequency shifter and an optical amplifier. The pulse launched into the ring circuit undergoes a constant frequency shift for each circulation around the circuit and the frequency can be translated to a considerable degree from that of the original input pulse. We report a stepwise frequency translation over approximately 68 GHz for a 1.5-µm light wave with a strictly constant frequency-sweep rate and an approximately constant intensity.

  7. Effects of Corrugated Temperature Sheets on Optical Propagation along Quasi-Horizontal Paths in the Stably Stratified Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-11

    atmosphere, pioneered by Tatarskii and coworkers in the 1950s and 1960s (Tatarskii, 1961, 1971), continues to be the conceptual basis for progress in...various science and engineering disciplines, such as remote sensing of the optically clear atmosphere, astronomy, free- space optical communication...correlation function of AOA fluctuations obtained from two closely spaced , light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The first method relies on the time delay of the

  8. Research on laser beam propagation characteristic of Cassegrain optical antenna%卡塞格伦光学天线光传输特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何文森; 杨华军; 江萍

    2014-01-01

    The laser beam propagation characteristic of Cassegrain optical antenna is analyzed theoretically.Several important factors (includes antenna gain factor,angle factor,distance factor,obscuration ratio,etc.)affecting the quality of laser beam in space optical communication have been researched in detail.This provides a theoretical basis for practical research on light-transfer characteristic of optical antenna in atmospheric laser communication system and has important practical value.%对卡塞格伦光学天线光传输特性进行了理论分析,重点研究了影响光学天线光传输质量的几个重要因素,并进行了测试结果与仿真验证。为实际研究大气激光通信系统中光学天线的光传输特性提供了理论依据,具有重要的实用价值。

  9. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun, E-mail: yuanxh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  10. Single-Mode Propagation in Optical Waveguides and Fibres: A Critical Review of its Treatment in Physics Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddock, Ivan S.

    2009-01-01

    The derivation and description of the modes in optical waveguides and fibres are reviewed. The version frequently found in undergraduate textbooks is shown to be incorrect and misleading due to the assumption of an axial ray of light corresponding to the lowest order mode. It is pointed out that even the lowest order must still be represented in…

  11. Improved performance of analog and digital acousto-optic modulation with feedback under profiled beam propagation for secure communication using chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almehmadi, Fares S.; Chatterjee, Monish R.

    2014-12-01

    Using intensity feedback, the closed-loop behavior of an acousto-optic hybrid device under profiled beam propagation has been recently shown to exhibit wider chaotic bands potentially leading to an increase in both the dynamic range and sensitivity to key parameters that characterize the encryption. In this work, a detailed examination is carried out vis-à-vis the robustness of the encryption/decryption process relative to parameter mismatch for both analog and pulse code modulation signals, and bit error rate (BER) curves are used to examine the impact of additive white noise. The simulations with profiled input beams are shown to produce a stronger encryption key (i.e., much lower parametric tolerance thresholds) relative to simulations with uniform plane wave input beams. In each case, it is shown that the tolerance for key parameters drops by factors ranging from 10 to 20 times below those for uniform plane wave propagation. Results are shown to be at consistently lower tolerances for secure transmission of analog and digital signals using parameter tolerance measures, as well as BER performance measures for digital signals. These results hold out the promise for considerably greater information transmission security for such a system.

  12. Analysis of pattern forming instabilities in an ensemble of two-level atoms optically excited by counter-propagating fields

    CERN Document Server

    Firth, W J; Labeyrie, G; Camara, A; Gomes, P; Ackemann, T

    2016-01-01

    We explore various models for the pattern forming instability in a laser-driven cloud of cold two-level atoms with a plane feedback mirror. Focus is on the combined treatment of nonlinear propagation in a diffractively thick medium and the boundary condition given by feedback. The combined presence of purely transverse transmission gratings and reflection gratings on wavelength scale is addressed. Different truncation levels of the Fourier expansion of the dielectric susceptibility in terms of these gratings are discussed and compared to literature. A formalism to calculate the exact solution for the homogenous state in presence of absorption is presented. The relationship between the counterpropagating beam instability and the feedback instability is discussed. Feedback reduces the threshold by a factor of two under optimal conditions. Envelope curves which bound all possible threshold curves for varying mirror distances are calculated. The results are comparing well to experimental results regarding the obs...

  13. Nonlinear High-Energy Pulse Propagation in Graded-Index Multimode Optical Fibers for Mode-Locked Fiber Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-23

    bels or specify how to translate the μ index into the p;m index pair. jAμzj2 represents the optical power in the LGpm mode. Fig. 1. GIMF of...crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 31, 1480–1482 (2006). 19. T. F. S. Büttner, D. D. Hudson, E. C. Mägi, A. Casas Bedoya, T. Taunay, and B. J. Eggleton

  14. Laser beam propagation generation and propagation of customized light

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    ""The text is easy to read and is accompanied by beautiful illustrations. It is an excellent book for anyone working in laser beam propagation and an asset for any library.""-Optics & Photonics News, July 2014

  15. Topology optimization of wave-propagation problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2006-01-01

    Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures.......Topology optimization is demonstrated as a useful tool for systematic design of wave-propagation problems. We illustrate the applicability of the method for optical, acoustic and elastic devices and structures....

  16. Bidirectional beam propagation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarski, P.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1988-05-01

    A bidirectional extension of the beam propagation method (BPM) to optical waveguides with a longitudinal discontinuity is presented. The algorithm is verified by computing a reflection of the TE(0) mode from a semiconductor laser facet. The bidirectional BPM is applicable to other configurations such as totally reflecting waveguide mirrors, an abruption transition in a waveguide, or a waveguide with many discontinuities generating multiple reflections. The method can also be adapted to TM polarization.

  17. Optical Propagation in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-05-01

    idly installed in the open on the platform of the building. For reasons of economy and safety, a swivelling arrangement was dispensed with. The...generally valid for long and short pulses. For reasons of economy , other investigators have developed similar but more restricted codes that yield...Wetterdienstes, 22, 10-15. BRUCH, H., 1940, "Die Vertikale Verteilung von Windgeschwindigheit under Temperatur in den untersten Metern Uber dor

  18. Special Topics in Optical Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-01

    pour un cas tris simple, celul do cinq points alignis rocovant uno onde qui a travers6 une atmosphire perturbie. 5. SURFACES CORRECTRICES Salt filo...rleure A M4 (vecteurs dipendants). Si le rang de B,(19) est inf~rleur A celul de B (go) 11 est impossible d’annuler les erreurs :on ne dispose pas d un

  19. Wave Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrarese, Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    Lectures: A. Jeffrey: Lectures on nonlinear wave propagation.- Y. Choquet-Bruhat: Ondes asymptotiques.- G. Boillat: Urti.- Seminars: D. Graffi: Sulla teoria dell'ottica non-lineare.- G. Grioli: Sulla propagazione del calore nei mezzi continui.- T. Manacorda: Onde nei solidi con vincoli interni.- T. Ruggeri: "Entropy principle" and main field for a non linear covariant system.- B. Straughan: Singular surfaces in dipolar materials and possible consequences for continuum mechanics

  20. Electromagnetic beam propagation in nonlinear media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.V.Semak; M.N.Shneider

    2015-01-01

    We deduce a complete wave propagation equation that includes inhomogeneity of the dielectric constant and present this propagation equation in compact vector form. Although similar equations are known in narrow fields such as radio wave propagation in the ionosphere and electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation in stratified media, we develop here a novel approach of using such equations in the modeling of laser beam propagation in nonlinear media. Our approach satisfies the correspondence principle since in the limit of zero-length wavelength it reduces from physical to geometrical optics.

  1. Lagrangian optics

    CERN Document Server

    Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan; Thyagarajan, K

    2002-01-01

    Ingeometrical optics, light propagation is analyzed in terms of light rays which define the path of propagation of light energy in the limitofthe optical wavelength tending to zero. Many features oflight propagation can be analyzed in terms ofrays,ofcourse, subtle effects near foci, caustics or turning points would need an analysis based on the wave natureoflight. Allofgeometric optics can be derived from Fermat's principle which is an extremum principle. The counterpart in classical mechanics is of course Hamilton's principle. There is a very close analogy between mechanics ofparticles and optics oflight rays. Much insight (and useful results) can be obtained by analyzing these analogies. Asnoted by H. Goldstein in his book Classical Mechanics (Addison Wesley, Cambridge, MA, 1956), classical mechanics is only a geometrical optics approximation to a wave theory! In this book we begin with Fermat's principle and obtain the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian pictures of ray propagation through various media. Given the ...

  2. SIMULATION OF FORWARD AND BACKWARD WAVES EVOLUTION OF FEW-CYCLE PULSES PROPAGATING IN AN OPTICAL WAVEGUIDE WITH DISPERSION AND CUBIC NONLINEARITY OF ELECTRONIC AND ELECTRONIC-VIBRATION NATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. S. Konev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Numerical method for calculation of forward and backward waves of intense few-cycle laser pulses propagating in an optical waveguide with dispersion and cubic nonlinearity of electronic and electronic-vibration nature is described. Simulations made with the implemented algorithm show that accounting for Raman nonlinearity does not lead to qualitative changes in behavior of the backward wave. Speaking about quantitative changes, the increase of efficiency of energy transfer from the forward wave to the backward wave is observed. Presented method can be also used to simulate interaction of counterpropagating pulses.

  3. Propagation engineering in wireless communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    This book covers the basic principles for understanding radio wave propagation for common frequency bands used in radio-communications. This includes achievements and developments in propagation models for wireless communication. This book is intended to bridge the gap between the theoretical calculations and approaches to the applied procedures needed for radio links design in a proper manner. The authors emphasize propagation engineering by giving fundamental information and explain the use of basic principles together with technical achievements. This new edition includes additional information on radio wave propagation in guided media and technical issues for fiber optics cable networks with several examples and problems. This book also includes a solution manual - with 90 solved examples distributed throughout the chapters - and 158 problems including practical values and assumptions.

  4. Invisibility cloaking without superluminal propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perczel, Janos; Leonhardt, Ulf [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St Andrews, North Haugh, St Andrews KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Tyc, Tomas, E-mail: jp394@st-andrews.ac.uk, E-mail: tomtyc@physics.muni.cz, E-mail: ulf@st-andrews.ac.uk [Faculty of Science, Kotlarska 2 and Faculty of Informatics, Botanicka 68a, Masaryk University, 61137 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2011-08-15

    Conventional cloaking based on Euclidean transformation optics requires that the speed of light should tend to infinity on the inner surface of the cloak. Non-Euclidean cloaking still needs media with superluminal propagation. Here we show by giving an example that this is no longer necessary.

  5. Wave Beam Propagation Through Density Fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balakin, A. A.; Bertelli, N.; Westerhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    Perturbations induced by edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beams propagating in fusion plasmas are studied by means of a quasi-optical code. The effects of such fluctuations are illustrated here by showing the beam propagation in the case of single harmonic perturbations to the wa

  6. Non-linear propagation of laser beam and focusing due to self-action in optical fiber: Non-paraxial approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Khanna; R C Chouhan

    2003-10-01

    A somewhat more general analysis for solving spatial propagation characteristics of intense Gaussian beam is presented and applied to the laser beam propagation in step-index profile as well as parabolic profile dielectric fibers with Kerr non-linearity. Considering self-action due to saturating and non-saturating non-linearity in the refractive index, a general theory has been developed without any kind of power series expansion for the dielectric constant as is usually done in other theories that make use of paraxial approximation. Result of the steady state self-focusing analysis indicates that the Kerr non-linearity acts as a perturbation on the radial inhomogeneity due to fiber geometry. Analysis indicates that the paraxial rays and peripheral rays focus at different points, indicating aberration effect. Calculated critical power matches with the experimentally reported result.

  7. Application of the Jones calculus for a modulated double-refracted light beam propagating in a homogeneous and nondepolarizing electro-optic uniaxial crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izdebski, Marek; Kucharczyk, Włodzimierz; Raab, Roger E

    2004-01-01

    The Jones matrix calculus is applied to an electro-optic crystal with uniaxial symmetry when the light beam is incident nearly normally on the crystal face. The approach allows one to treat refracted waves and rays that diverge in the crystal and are modulated by an external low-frequency field. The effect of partial interference of overlapping refracted beams is allowed for and calculated for the case of uniform intensity of the beam over its cross section. The method is employed to analyze optical systems containing an imprecisely cut and aligned electro-optic crystal plate.

  8. Propagation in Diagonal Anisotropic Chirowaveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Aib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study of electromagnetic wave propagation in parallel plate chirowaveguide is presented. The waveguide is filled with a chiral material having diagonal anisotropic constitutive parameters. The propagation characterization in this medium is based on algebraic formulation of Maxwell’s equations combined with the constitutive relations. Three propagation regions are identified: the fast-fast-wave region, the fast-slow-wave region, and the slow-slow-wave region. This paper focuses completely on the propagation in the first region, where the dispersion modal equations are obtained and solved. The cut-off frequencies calculation leads to three cases of the plane wave propagation in anisotropic chiral medium. The particularity of these results is the possibility of controlling the appropriate cut-off frequencies by choosing the adequate physical parameters values. The specificity of this study lies in the bifurcation modes confirmation and the possible contribution to the design of optical devices such as high-pass filters, as well as positive and negative propagation constants. This negative constant is an important feature of metamaterials which shows the phenomena of backward waves. Original results of the biaxial anisotropic chiral metamaterial are obtained and discussed.

  9. Generalized rectangular finite difference beam propagation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujecki, Slawomir

    2008-08-10

    A method is proposed that allows for significant improvement of the numerical efficiency of the standard finite difference beam propagation algorithm. The advantages of the proposed method derive from the fact that it allows for an arbitrary selection of the preferred direction of propagation. It is demonstrated that such flexibility is particularly useful when studying the properties of obliquely propagating optical beams. The results obtained show that the proposed method achieves the same level of accuracy as the standard finite difference beam propagation method but with lower order Padé approximations and a coarser finite difference mesh.

  10. Propagation handbook for wireless communication system design

    CERN Document Server

    Crane, Robert K

    2003-01-01

    PROPAGATION PHENOMENA AFFECTING WIRELESS SYSTEMS Types of SystemsDesign Criteria Antenna Considerations Propagation Effects Propagation Models Model Verification Statistics and RiskList of Symbols ReferencesPROPAGATION FUNDAMENTALSMaxwell's EquationsPlane Waves Spherical Waves Reflection and Refraction Geometrical OpticsRay TracingScalar Diffraction Theory Geometrical Theory of Diffraction List of Symbols ReferencesABSORPTION Molecular Absorption Absorption on a Slant Path ACTS Statistics List of Symbols ReferencesREFRACTION Ray BendingPath Delay ScintillationList of Symbols ReferencesATTENUAT

  11. 光纤中基于布里渊激光振荡的超光速传输首次在实验上实现%Superluminal Propagation in Optical Fibers Based on Brillouin Lasing Oscillation First Demonstrated

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    上海交通大学物理系詹黎教授(图1)以及其博士研究生张亮(图2)首次在实验上实现了光纤中基于布里渊激光振荡的低损耗长距离超光速传输,其研究成果以"Superluminal propagation at negative groupvelocity in optical fibers based on Brillouin lasing oscillation"为标题发表在物理领域国际顶级期刊物理评论快报( Physical Review Letters)(Phys.Rev.Lett.,Vol.107,093903,2011).

  12. Optical investigation of the propagation of the amorphous-crystalline boundary in ion-beam irradiated LiNbO{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivares, J. [Instituto de Optica ' Daza de Valdes' , CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Garcia, G. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Lopez, F. [Centro de Microanalisis de Materiales, CMAM-UAM, Parque Cientifico de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de Materiales, C-IV, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Agullo-Rueda, F. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Soares, J.C. [Centro de Fisica Nuclear da Universidade de Lisboa, P-1649-003 Lisbon (Portugal); Kling, A. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear (ITN), P-2685 Sacavem (Portugal)

    2006-01-15

    The effects of high-energy silicon (5 MeV, 7.5 MeV and 30 MeV) irradiations have been optically investigated by the dark-mode m-lines technique. In all cases, an optically isotropic homogeneous layer is created after a certain critical fluence that depends on ion and energy. The structure of the layer has been investigated by micro-Raman spectroscopy and RBS/channeling. The inner boundary of the layer separating the amorphous and crystalline regions moves into the crystal on increasing fluence. The results are discussed based on the occurrence of a sharp threshold in the electronic stopping power leading to the formation of overlapped latent (amorphous) tracks.

  13. Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: Dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richou, B.; Richou, J. [Laboratoire d` Optoelectronique, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Toulon et du Var, BP 132, La Garde 83957 (France); Schertz, I.; Gobin, I. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique/Vaujours, Moronvilliers, BP 7, Courtry 77181 (France)

    1997-03-01

    A large-core multimode optical fiber of a few meters length is studied as a 10-MW beam delivery system for a 15-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A laser-to-fiber vacuum coupler is used to inhibit air breakdown and reduce the probability of dielectric breakdown on the fiber front surface. Laser-induced damage inside the fiber core is observed behind the fiber front surface. An explanation based on a high power density is illustrated by a ray trace. Damaged spots and measurements of fiber output energies are reported for two laser beam distributions: a flat-hat type and a near-Gaussian type. Experiments have been performed to deliver a 100-pulse mean energy between 100 and 230 mJ without catastrophic damage. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  14. GPU-based optical propagation simulator of a laser-processed crystal block for the X'tal cube PET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuma; Ohnishi, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a next-generation DOI detector for PET that we are developing to offer higher resolution and higher sensitivity than is available with present detectors. It is constructed from a cubic monolithic scintillation crystal and silicon photomultipliers which are coupled on various positions of the six surfaces of the cube. A laser-processing technique is applied to produce 3D optical boundaries composed of micro-cracks inside the monolithic scintillator crystal. The current configuration is based on an empirical trial of a laser-processed boundary. There is room to improve the spatial resolution by optimizing the setting of the laser-processed boundary. In fact, the laser-processing technique has high freedom in setting the parameters of the boundary such as size, pitch, and angle. Computer simulation can effectively optimize such parameters. In this study, to design optical characteristics properly for the laser-processed crystal, we developed a Monte Carlo simulator which can model arbitrary arrangements of laser-processed optical boundaries (LPBs). The optical characteristics of the LPBs were measured by use of a setup with a laser and a photo-diode, and then modeled in the simulator. The accuracy of the simulator was confirmed by comparison of position histograms obtained from the simulation and from experiments with a prototype detector composed of a cubic LYSO monolithic crystal with 6 × 6 × 6 segments and multi-pixel photon counters. Furthermore, the simulator was accelerated by parallel computing with general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit. The calculation speed was about 400 times faster than that with a CPU.

  15. Beam-propagation method - Analysis and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roey, J.; van der Donk, J.; Lagasse, P. E.

    1981-07-01

    A method for the calculation of the propagation of a light beam through an inhomogeneous medium is presented. A theoretical analysis of this beam-propagation method is given, and a set of conditions necessary for the accurate application of the method is derived. The method is illustrated by the study of a number of integrated-optic structures, such as thin-film waveguides and gratings.

  16. Modeling of nonlinear propagation in fiber tapers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    A full-vectorial nonlinear propagation equation for short pulses in tapered optical fibers is developed. Specific emphasis is placed on the importance of the field normalization convention for the structure of the equations, and the interpretation of the resulting field amplitudes. Different...... numerical schemes for interpolation of fiber parameters along the taper are discussed and tested in numerical simulations on soliton propagation and generation of continuum radiation in short photonic-crystal fiber tapers....

  17. Unidirectional reflectionless light propagation at exceptional points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Yin

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we provide a comprehensive review of unidirectional reflectionless light propagation in photonic devices at exceptional points (EPs. EPs, which are branch point singularities of the spectrum, associated with the coalescence of both eigenvalues and corresponding eigenstates, lead to interesting phenomena, such as level repulsion and crossing, bifurcation, chaos, and phase transitions in open quantum systems described by non-Hermitian Hamiltonians. Recently, it was shown that judiciously designed photonic synthetic matters could mimic the complex non-Hermitian Hamiltonians in quantum mechanics and realize unidirectional reflection at optical EPs. Unidirectional reflectionlessness is of great interest for optical invisibility. Achieving unidirectional reflectionless light propagation could also be potentially important for developing optical devices, such as optical network analyzers. Here, we discuss unidirectional reflectionlessness at EPs in both parity-time (PT-symmetric and non-PT-symmetric optical systems. We also provide an outlook on possible future directions in this field.

  18. Effect of Soliton Propagation in Fiber Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The propagation of optical solitons in fiber amplifiers is discussed by considering a model that includes linear high order dispersion, two-photon absorption, nonlinear high-order dispersion, self-induced Ramam and five-order nonlinear effects. Based on travelling wave method, the solutions of the nonlinear Schrdinger equations, and the influence on soliton propagation as well as high-order effect in the fiber amplifier are discussed in detail. It is found that because of existing five-order nonlinear effect, the solution is not of secant hyperbola type, but shows high gain state of the fiber amplifier which is very favourable to the propagation of solitons.

  19. Coherence properties of light propagated through a scattering medium

    CERN Document Server

    Aruldoss, C K; Nugent, K A; Roberts, A

    2007-01-01

    Partially-coherent, quasi-monochromatic optical fields are fully described by their Mutual Optical Intensity (MOI) or the phase-space equivalent, the Generalised Radiance (GR). This paper reports on the application of a propagation-based phase-space tomographic technique for determining both the MOI and the GR of wavefields. This method is applied to the reconstruction of the MOI and the GR of an optical wavefield propagated through a suspension of \\~10micrometre diameter polystyrene spheres.

  20. Error propagation in polarimetric demodulation

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A Asensio

    2008-01-01

    The polarization analysis of the light is typically carried out using modulation schemes. The light of unknown polarization state is passed through a set of known modulation optics and a detector is used to measure the total intensity passing the system. The modulation optics is modified several times and, with the aid of such several measurements, the unknown polarization state of the light can be inferred. How to find the optimal demodulation process has been investigated in the past. However, since the modulation matrix has to be measured for a given instrument and the optical elements can present problems of repeatability, some uncertainty is present in the elements of the modulation matrix and/or covariances between these elements. We analyze in detail this issue, presenting analytical formulae for calculating the covariance matrix produced by the propagation of such uncertainties on the demodulation matrix, on the inferred Stokes parameters and on the efficiency of the modulation process. We demonstrate...

  1. Delivery of 10-MW Nd:YAG laser pulses by large-core optical fibers: dependence of the laser-intensity profile on beam propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richou, B; Schertz, I; Gobin, I; Richou, J

    1997-03-01

    A large-core multimode optical fiber of a few meters length is studied as a 10-MW beam delivery system for a 15-ns pulsed Nd:YAG laser. A laser-to-fiber vacuum coupler is used to inhibit air breakdown and reduce the probability of dielectric breakdown on the fiber front surface. Laser-induced damage inside the fiber core is observed behind the fiber front surface. An explanation based on a high power density is illustrated by a ray trace. Damaged spots and measurements of fiber output energies are reported for two laser beam distributions: a flat-hat type and a near-Gaussian type. Experiments have been performed to deliver a 100-pulse mean energy between 100 and 230 mJ without catastrophic damage.

  2. Viscothermal wave propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhof, Marten Jozef Johannes

    2010-01-01

    In this work, the accuracy, efficiency and range of applicability of various (approximate) models for viscothermal wave propagation are investigated. Models for viscothermal wave propagation describe thewave behavior of fluids including viscous and thermal effects. Cases where viscothermal effects a

  3. Optical Solitons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. R.

    2005-08-01

    1. Optical solitons in fibres: theoretical review A. Hasegawa; 2. Solitons in optical fibres: an experimental account L. F. Mollenauer; 3. All-optical long-distance soliton-based transmission systems K. Smith and L. F. Mollenauer; 4. Nonlinear propagation effects in optical fibres: numerical studies K. J. Blow and N. J. Doran; 5. Soliton-soliton interactions C. Desem and P. L. Chu; 6. Soliton amplification in erbium-doped fibre amplifiers and its application to soliton communication M. Nakazawa; 7. Nonlinear transformation of laser radiation and generation of Raman solitons in optical fibres E. M. Dianov, A. B. Grudinin, A. M. Prokhorov and V. N. Serkin; 8. Generation and compression of femtosecond solitons in optical fibers P. V. Mamyshev; 9. Optical fibre solitons in the presence of higher order dispersion and birefringence C. R. Menyuk and Ping-Kong A. Wai; 10. Dark optical solitons A. M. Weiner; 11. Soliton Raman effects J. R. Taylor; Bibliography; Index.

  4. Quality of Spatial Entanglement Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Reichert, Matthew; Fleischer, Jason W

    2016-01-01

    We explore, both experimentally and theoretically, the propagation dynamics of spatially entangled photon pairs (biphotons). Characterization of entanglement is done via the Schmidt number, which is a universal measurement of the degree of entanglement directly related to the non-separability of the state into its subsystems. We develop expressions for the terms of the Schmidt number that depend on the amplitude and phase of the commonly used double-Gaussian approximation for the biphoton wave function, and demonstrate migration of entanglement between amplitude and phase upon propagation. We then extend this analysis to incorporate both phase curvature in the pump beam and higher spatial frequency content of more realistic non-Gaussian wave functions. Specifically, we generalize the classical beam quality parameter $M^2$ to the biphotons, allowing the description of more information-rich beams and more complex dynamics. Agreement is found with experimental measurements using direct imaging and Fourier optics...

  5. Flame Propagation Through Concentration Gradient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JunyaIINO; MitsuakiTANABE; 等

    2000-01-01

    The experiment was carried out in homogeneous propane-air mixture and in several concentration gradient of mixture.Igniter is put on the upper side of the combustion chamber,In concentration gradient experiment.ixture was ignited from lean side.An experimental study was conducted in a combustion chamber.The combustion chamber has glass windows for optical measurements at any side.For the measurement of distribution of fuel concentration,infraed absorption method using 3.39μm He-Ne laser was used,and for the observation of proagating flams,Schlieren method was employed.As a measurment result of flame propagation velocity and flammable limit,for a mixture of an identical local equivalence ratio.flame propagation velocity in concentration gradient is faster than that in homogeneous mixture,and rich flammable limit in concentration gradient shows a tendency to be higher than that in homogeneous mixture.

  6. A localized and propagating SPR, and molecular imprinting based fiber-optic ascorbic acid sensor using an in situ polymerized polyaniline-Ag nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastav, Anand M.; Usha, Sruthi P.; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-08-01

    We report a successful approach for the fabrication and characterization of a fiber-optic sensor for ascorbic acid (AA) detection, using a molecularly imprinted polyaniline-Ag (PANI-Ag) nanocomposite layer based on the combined phenomena of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and localized SPR (LSPR). The PANI-Ag nanocomposite is synthesized by an in situ polymerization process and AA imprints are prepared on the polymeric composite. The confirmation of the PANI-Ag nanocomposite and AA imprinting is performed using various characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. From XRD, the size of Ag nanoparticles is analyzed. The absorbance spectra are recorded for samples of different concentrations of AA around the sensing region of the probe. An increase in peak absorbance wavelength with the increase in AA concentration is observed with a linear response for the concentration range from 10-8 M to 10-6 M. The sensor possesses a high sensitivity of 45.1 nm log-1 M near an AA concentration of 10-8 M. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification of the sensor are found to be 7.383 × 10-11 M and 4.16 × 10-10 M, respectively. The LOD of the sensor is compared to studies reported in the literature and is found to be the lowest. The sensor possesses several other advantages such as cost effectiveness, selectivity, and low response time (<5 s), along with abilities of remote sensing and online monitoring.

  7. Perfect Derived Propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2008-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear equations both with and without coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance. This paper shows how to use variable views, previously introduced for an implementation architecture, to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and channeling are developed for several variable domains. We evaluate the massive impact of derived propagators. Without derived propagators, Gecode would require 140000 rather than 40000 ...

  8. Negative propagation effect in nonparaxial Airy beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaveliuk, Pablo; Martinez-Matos, Oscar

    2012-11-19

    Negative propagation is an unusual effect concerning the local sign change in the Poynting vector components of an optical beam under free propagation. We report this effect for finite-energy Airy beams in a subwavelength nonparaxial regime. This effect is due to a coupling process between propagating and evanescent plane waves forming the beam in the spectral domain and it is demonstrated for a single TE or TM mode. This is contrary to what happens for vector Bessel beams and vector X-waves, for which a complex superposition of TE and TM modes is mandatory. We also show that evanescent waves cannot contribute to the energy flux density by themselves such that a pure evanescent Airy beam is not physically realizable. The break of the shape-preserving and diffraction-free properties of Airy beams in a nonparaxial regime is exclusively caused by the propagating waves. The negative propagation effect in subwavelength nonparaxial Airy beams opens new capabilities in optical traps and tweezers, optical detection of invisibility cloacks and selective on-chip manipulation of nanoparticles.

  9. EFECTOS DE LA DISPERSIÓN POR MODO DE POLARIZACIÓN (PMD EN LA PROPAGACIÓN DE PULSOS A TRAVÉS DE FIBRAS ÓPTICAS EFFECTS OF POLARIZATION MODE DISPERSION (PMD ON PROPAGATION OF OPTICAL PULSES IN OPTICAL FIBERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Leiva L

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisan los conceptos fundamentales de la dispersión por modo de polarización (PMD: Polarization Mode Dispersion que ocurre en fibras ópticas. PMD produce ensanchamientos aleatorios de los pulsos ópticos transmitidos a través de una fibra óptica y su efecto es considerable para velocidades de transmisión digital iguales o superiores a 10 Gbps. Se revisa la teoría de PMD y se plantea la relevancia de caracterizar el fenómeno en transmisión por fibra óptica, concluyéndose con un método de simulación de la propagación de pulsos afectados por PMD. Este trabajo constituye un punto de partida para posteriores análisis de los efectos de PMD en sistemas de transmisión, para su compensación y mediciónThis work reviews the fundamental concepts of polarization mode dispersion (PMD occurring in optical fibers. PMD broadens optical pulses transmitted through an optical fiber at random and its effect is significant for bit rates equal or exceeding 10 Gbps. The theory of PMD and relevance of characterizing this phenomenon in optical fiber transmission is presented, concluding with a simulation model of the optical pulse propagation, subject to PMD. This provides a starting point for further analysis of the effects of PMD in transmission systems and how to measure and compensate these

  10. Experimental study on the optical propagation effect of the flowfield surrounding the optical headcover in supersonic wind tunnel%光学头罩超声速绕流流场光学传输效应风洞试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚向红; 吴运刚; 陈勇; 谢伟明

    2013-01-01

    For measuring optical propagation effects of a head-cover's flow fields,a simulated test method is introduced in a continuous supersonic wind tunnel (Ma=3).With the analysis of vibration measurement and isolation,specialized test equipment is developed.Finally,optical propagation effects are measured both with Hartmann wavefront sensor and shearing interferometer.In the pilot study,with different combinations of the experimental apparatus,a large number of tests have been done,from which to study the effectiveness of the experimental apparatus and the repeatability of the data.And the data analysis focus on the PV and RMS of the probe beam.With the test result,we can conclude that the wind guiding deflector is able to reduce the interference of boundary layer generated by the wall of wind tunnels,and the experimental equipment and method we developed are quite qualified for optical propagation effects measurement in continuous wind tunnels.%在Ma=3连续超声速风洞中,开展了光学头罩绕流流场光学传输效应的风洞模拟试验方法研究,进行了现场振动测量与隔离,研制了专用试验装置,采用哈特曼传感器和剪切干涉仪两种手段进行了光学传输效应的试验测量.试验中,针对试验装置各部分的不同组合状态,进行了大量的测试,研究了试验装置有效性以及试验数据重复性,着重分析了探测光束的PV值与RMS值.结果表明:导流板可明显抑制风洞洞壁边界层干扰,试验装置与方法可行,对于连续式风洞中模型绕流流场光学传输效应测试有一定参考价值.

  11. Vertical laser beam propagation through the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minott, P. O.; Bufton, J. L.; Schaefer, W. H.; Grolemund, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    The characteristics of the earth's atmosphere and its effects upon laser beams was investigated in a series of balloon borne, optical propagation experiments. These experiments were designed to simulate the space to ground laser link. An experiment to determine the amplitude fluctuation, commonly called scintillation, caused by the atmosphere was described.

  12. Electromagnetic wave propagations in conjugate metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yadong; Fu, Yangyang; Chen, Huanyang

    2017-03-06

    In this work, by employing field transformation optics, we deduce a special kind of materials called conjugate metamaterials, which can support intriguing electromagnetic wave propagations, such as negative refractions and lasing phenomena. These materials could also serve as substrates for making a subwavelength-resolution lens, and the so-called "perfect lens" is demonstrated to be a limiting case.

  13. The Wheeler Propagator

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

    1998-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples tha...

  14. Theoretical tools for atom-laser-beam propagation

    OpenAIRE

    Riou, Jean-Félix; Le Coq, Yann; Impens, François; Guerin, William; Bordé, Christian,; Aspect, Alain; Bouyer, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    We present a theoretical model for the propagation of non self-interacting atom laser beams. We start from a general propagation integral equation, and we use the same approximations as in photon optics to derive tools to calculate the atom laser beam propagation. We discuss the approximations that allow to reduce the general equation whether to a Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral calculated by using the stationary phase method, or to the eikonal. Within the paraxial approximation, we also introduce...

  15. Topology optimization for transient wave propagation problems in one dimension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Jonas; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard; Sigmund, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Structures exhibiting band gap properties, i.e., having frequency ranges for which the structure attenuates propagating waves, have applications in damping of acoustic and elastic wave propagation and in optical communication. A topology optimization method for synthesis of such structures, emplo...

  16. Time-domain Wave Propagation in Dispersive Media①

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    The equation of time-domain wave propagation in dispersive media and the explicit beam propagation method are presented in this paper.This method is demonstrated by the short optical pulses in a directional coupler with second order dispersive effect and shows to be in full agreement with former references.This method is simple,easy and practical.

  17. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; van der Slot, Petrus J.M.; Volokhine, I.; Verschuur, Jeroen W.J.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for

  18. Modeling paraxial wave propagation in free-electron laser oscillators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karssenberg, J.G.; Slot, van der P.J.M.; Volokhine, I.V.; Verschuur, J.W.J.; Boller, K.J.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling free-electron laser (FEL) oscillators requires calculation of both the light-beam interaction within the undulator and the light propagation outside the undulator. We have developed a paraxial optical propagation code that can be combined with various existing models of gain media, for exam

  19. Analytical characterization of Gaussian pulse propagation in semiconductor optical amplifiers with dispersion%高斯脉冲在半导体光放大器中传输的解析表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺炜; 惠战强; 吴惠民

    2012-01-01

    采用解析方法,在考虑材料损耗和色散的情况下,详细研究了无啁啾高斯脉冲和啁啾高斯脉冲在半导体光放大器中传输的物理过程,分析了强度增益、脉冲宽度和频率啁嗽与线宽增强因子、色散系数、小信号增益特征参数及初始啁啾之间的关系.结果表明:当输入变换极限的高斯脉冲时,色散会引起增益压缩,脉冲展宽和频率啁啾;同样情况下,线宽增强因子越大,脉宽加宽越明显,输出脉冲啁嗽越大,且随着线宽增强因子的增大,输出脉冲啁啾极大值向特征参数值较小的一边移动.当输入啁啾高斯脉冲时,初始脉冲啁嗽越大,增益压缩越明显,啁啾系数为正时,脉冲单纯展宽,输出啁啾随特征参数的增大而逐渐减小,啁啾系数为负时,初始啁啾与群速度色散导致的啁啾相互竞争,致使脉冲先被压缩后被展宽;脉冲最窄处对应的特征参数随线宽增强因子的增大而先增大后减小,输出啁啾随特征参数的增大而经历振荡后趋于平稳.%Analytical characterization of un-chirped Gaussian pulse and chirped Gaussian pulse propagating through a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is presented under consideration of material loss and dispersion.The physical mechanism of interaction between Gaussian pulse and semiconductor material is analyzed.Energy gain,pulse width as well as frequency chirp of Gaussian pulse output from SOA are investigated.The results demonstrate that linewidth enhancement factor,dispersion coefficient and feature parameter all play important roles in deciding the output pulse characteristic.The material dispersion has no obvious impact on gain compression induced by group velocity dispersion.The pulse width is broadened under the combined effect of material dispersion and group velocity dispersion.When a chirped Gaussian pulse propagates in an SOA,the same chirp component means the same gain compression no matter the chirp is positive

  20. Shallow-Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Shallow- Water Propagation William L. Siegmann Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute 110 Eighth Street Troy, New York 12180-3590 phone: (518) 276...ocean_acoustics LONG-TERM GOALS Develop methods for propagation and coherence calculations in complex shallow- water environments, determine...intensity and coherence. APPROACH (A) Develop high accuracy PE techniques for applications to shallow- water sediments, accounting for

  1. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert

    2010-01-01

    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  2. Dynamical anisotropy of the optical propagation paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenyan, Tatiana I.; Pisklin, Maksim V.; Suhareva, Natalia A.; Zotov, Aleksey M.

    2015-11-01

    Dynamics of laser beam intensity profile spatial modulations over a model tropospheric path with the controlled meteorological parameters was studied. Influence of the underlying surface temperature as well as the side wind load were considered. The increase of dynamic anisotropic disturbances saturation with the path length was observed. Spatio-temporal correlation characteristics of the directivity pattern in the signal beam registration plane were obtained. Proposed method of the experimental samples analysis on the base of chronogram with the following definition of the dynamic structure tensors array allows to estimate local and averaged projections of the flow velocities over the chosen spatio-temporal region and to restore their geometry in the zone of intersection with the signal beam. Additional characteristics suggested for the diagonalized local structure tensors such as local energy capacity and local structuredness are informative for the estimation of the inhomogeneities spatial dimensions, time of access through the section considered, the dynamics of energetic jets. The concepts of rotational and translational dynamic anisotropy are introduced to discriminate the types of the changes of the local ellipsoids axes orientation as well as their values. Rotational anisotropy shows itself in the changes of the local ellipsoids orientation, thus characterizing the illumination variation over the beam cross-section. Translational anisotropy describes the difference between the axes values for local ellipsoids.

  3. Optical holography

    CERN Document Server

    Collier, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Optical Holography deals with the use of optical holography to solve technical problems, with emphasis on the properties of holograms formed with visible light. Topics covered include the Fourier transform, propagation and diffraction, pulsed-laser holography, and optical systems with spherical lenses. A geometric analysis of point-source holograms is also presented, and holograms and hologram spatial filters formed with spatially modulated reference waves are described. This book is comprised of 20 chapters and begins with an introduction to concepts that are basic to understanding hologr

  4. Deterministic simulation of UWB indoor propagation channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yang; Zhang Naitong; Zhang Qinyu; Zhang Zhongzhao

    2008-01-01

    A site-specific model of UWB pulse propagation in indoor environment is addressed. The simulation utilizes the principles of geometrical optics (GO) for direct and reflected paths' tracing and the time domain technique for describing the transient electromagnetic field reflected from wall, floor, ceiling, and objects. The polarization of the received waveform is determined by taking into account the radiation pattern of the transmitting and receiving antennas, as well as the polarization changes owing to every reflection. The model provides more intrinsical interpretations for UWB pulse propagation in realistic indoor environment.

  5. Hollow Gaussian Schell-model beam and its propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Li-Gang

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new model, hollow Gaussian-Schell model beams (HGSMBs), to describe the practical dark hollow beams. An analytical propagation formula for HGSMBs passing through a paraxial first-order optical system is derived based on the theory of coherence. Based on the derived formula, an application example showing the influence of spatial coherence on the propagation of beams is illustrated. It is found that the beam propagating properties of HGSMBs will be greatly affected by their spatial coherence. Our model provides a very convenient way for analyzing the propagation properties of partially coherent dark hollow beams.

  6. On the propagation of truncated localized waves in dispersive silica

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of truncated Localized Waves propagating in dispersive silica and free space are numerically analyzed. It is shown that those characteristics are affected by the changes in the relation between the transverse spatial spectral components and the wave vector. Numerical experiments demonstrate that as the non-linearity of this relation gets stronger, the pulses propagating in silica become more immune to decay and distortion whereas the pulses propagating in free-space suffer from early decay and distortion. © 2010 Optical Society of America.

  7. Gear Crack Propagation Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    Reduced weight is a major design goal in aircraft power transmissions. Some gear designs incorporate thin rims to help meet this goal. Thin rims, however, may lead to bending fatigue cracks. These cracks may propagate through a gear tooth or into the gear rim. A crack that propagates through a tooth would probably not be catastrophic, and ample warning of a failure could be possible. On the other hand, a crack that propagates through the rim would be catastrophic. Such cracks could lead to disengagement of a rotor or propeller from an engine, loss of an aircraft, and fatalities. To help create and validate tools for the gear designer, the NASA Lewis Research Center performed in-house analytical and experimental studies to investigate the effect of rim thickness on gear-tooth crack propagation. Our goal was to determine whether cracks grew through gear teeth (benign failure mode) or through gear rims (catastrophic failure mode) for various rim thicknesses. In addition, we investigated the effect of rim thickness on crack propagation life. A finite-element-based computer program simulated gear-tooth crack propagation. The analysis used principles of linear elastic fracture mechanics, and quarter-point, triangular elements were used at the crack tip to represent the stress singularity. The program had an automated crack propagation option in which cracks were grown numerically via an automated remeshing scheme. Crack-tip stress-intensity factors were estimated to determine crack-propagation direction. Also, various fatigue crack growth models were used to estimate crack-propagation life. Experiments were performed in Lewis' Spur Gear Fatigue Rig to validate predicted crack propagation results. Gears with various backup ratios were tested to validate crack-path predictions. Also, test gears were installed with special crack-propagation gages in the tooth fillet region to measure bending-fatigue crack growth. From both predictions and tests, gears with backup ratios

  8. The Wheeler Propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Bollini, C G

    1998-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators. We show with some examples that perturbative unitarity holds, whatever the mass (real or complex). Some possible applications are discussed.

  9. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  10. Polarization shaping for control of nonlinear propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Yao, Alison M; Travis, Christopher; De Leon, Israel; Rubano, Andrea; Karimi, Ebrahim; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-01-01

    We study the nonlinear optical propagation of two different classes of space-varying polarized light beams -- radially symmetric vector beams and Poincar\\'e beams with lemon and star topologies -- in a rubidium vapour cell. Unlike Laguerre-Gauss and other types of beams that experience modulational instabilities, we observe that their propagation is not marked by beam breakup while still exhibiting traits such as nonlinear confinement and self-focusing. Our results suggest that by tailoring the spatial structure of the polarization, the effects of nonlinear propagation can be effectively controlled. These findings provide a novel approach to transport high-power light beams in nonlinear media with controllable distortions to their spatial structure and polarization properties.

  11. Polarization Shaping for Control of Nonlinear Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Frédéric; Larocque, Hugo; Yao, Alison M; Travis, Christopher; De Leon, Israel; Rubano, Andrea; Karimi, Ebrahim; Oppo, Gian-Luca; Boyd, Robert W

    2016-12-02

    We study the nonlinear optical propagation of two different classes of light beams with space-varying polarization-radially symmetric vector beams and Poincaré beams with lemon and star topologies-in a rubidium vapor cell. Unlike Laguerre-Gauss and other types of beams that quickly experience instabilities, we observe that their propagation is not marked by beam breakup while still exhibiting traits such as nonlinear confinement and self-focusing. Our results suggest that, by tailoring the spatial structure of the polarization, the effects of nonlinear propagation can be effectively controlled. These findings provide a novel approach to transport high-power light beams in nonlinear media with controllable distortions to their spatial structure and polarization properties.

  12. Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....

  13. Polarization controlled directional propagation of Bloch surface wave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalevich, Tatiana; Boyer, Philippe; Suarez, Miguel; Salut, Roland; Kim, Myun-Sik; Herzig, Hans Peter; Bernal, Maria-Pilar; Grosjean, Thierry

    2017-03-06

    Bloch surface waves (BSWs) are recently developing alternative to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). Due to dramatically enhanced propagation distance and strong field confinement these surface states can be successfully used in on-chip all-optical integrated devices of increased complexity. In this work we propose a highly miniaturized grating based BSW coupler which is gathering launching and directional switching functionalities in a single element. This device allows to control with polarization the propagation direction of Bloch surface waves at subwavelength scale, thus impacting a large panel of domains such as optical circuitry, function design, quantum optics, etc.

  14. Terahertz polariton propagation in patterned materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, Nikolay S; Ward, David W; Feurer, Thomas; Nelson, Keith A

    2002-10-01

    Generation and control of pulsed terahertz-frequency radiation have received extensive attention, with applications in terahertz spectroscopy, imaging and ultrahigh-bandwidth electro-optic signal processing. Terahertz 'polaritonics', in which terahertz lattice waves called phonon-polaritons are generated, manipulated and visualized with femtosecond optical pulses, offers prospects for an integrated solid-state platform for terahertz signal generation and guidance. Here, we extend terahertz polaritonics methods to patterned structures. We demonstrate femtosecond laser fabrication of polaritonic waveguide structures in lithium tantalate and lithium niobate crystals, and illustrate polariton focusing into, and propagation within, the fabricated waveguide structures. We also demonstrate a 90 degrees turn within a structure consisting of two waveguides and a reflecting face, as well as a structure consisting of splitting and recombining elements that can be used as a terahertz Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The structures permit integrated terahertz signal generation, propagation through waveguide-based devices, and readout within a single solid-state platform.

  15. Light propagation and interaction observed with electrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Word, Robert C; Fitzgerald, J P S; Könenkamp, R

    2016-01-01

    We discuss possibilities for a microscopic optical characterization of thin films and surfaces based on photoemission electron microscopy. We show that propagating light with wavelengths across the visible range can readily be visualized, and linear and non-linear materials properties can be evaluated non-invasively with nanometer spatial resolution. While femtosecond temporal resolution can be achieved in pump-probe-type experiments, the interferometric approach presented here has typical image frame times of ~200 fs.

  16. Pulse propagation in the tapered wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abawi, H.; McIver, J. K.; Moore, G. T.; Scully, M. O.

    Theory and preliminary numerical calculations are presented for coherent optical and electron pulse propagation in a free-electron laser with a tapered wiggler. Since only trapped electrons contribute significantly to the laser radiation, it is possible to define generalized 'slow' space-time coordinates in terms of which the electron pulse envelope may be considered constant. The theory is outlined first for the helical wiggler and then is developed for an arbitrary quasiperiodic wiggler, using a more rigorous 'multiple-scaling' approach. In the latter case a modified definition of the electron phase angle is required, and optical harmonic generation is predicted. The numerical calculations show that substantial energy extraction is achievable, but that the optical pulse rapidly breaks up into a series of spikes in the time domain. Surprisingly, the optical spectrum remains quite smooth in appearance.

  17. Nonparaxial Propagation of Vectorial Elliptical Gaussian Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the vectorial Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral formulae, analytical expressions for a vectorial elliptical Gaussian beam’s nonparaxial propagating in free space are derived and used to investigate target beam’s propagation properties. As a special case of nonparaxial propagation, the target beam’s paraxial propagation has also been examined. The relationship of vectorial elliptical Gaussian beam’s intensity distribution and nonparaxial effect with elliptic coefficient α and waist width related parameter fω has been analyzed. Results show that no matter what value of elliptic coefficient α is, when parameter fω is large, nonparaxial conclusions of elliptical Gaussian beam should be adopted; while parameter fω is small, the paraxial approximation of elliptical Gaussian beam is effective. In addition, the peak intensity value of elliptical Gaussian beam decreases with increasing the propagation distance whether parameter fω is large or small, and the larger the elliptic coefficient α is, the faster the peak intensity value decreases. These characteristics of vectorial elliptical Gaussian beam might find applications in modern optics.

  18. Simulation of vortex laser beams propagation in parabolic index media based on fractional Fourier transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoulina, O. A.; Kirilenko, M. S.; Khonina, S. N.

    2016-08-01

    We use radial Fractional Fourier transform to model vortex laser beams propagation in optical waveguides with parabolic dependence of the refractive index. To overcome calculation difficulties at distances proportional to a quarter of the period we use varied calculation step. Numerical results for vortex modes superposition propagation in a parabolic optical fiber show that the transverse beam structure can be changed significantly during the propagation. To provide stable transverse distribution input scale modes should be in accordance with fiber parameters.

  19. Hierarchical Affinity Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Givoni, Inmar; Frey, Brendan J

    2012-01-01

    Affinity propagation is an exemplar-based clustering algorithm that finds a set of data-points that best exemplify the data, and associates each datapoint with one exemplar. We extend affinity propagation in a principled way to solve the hierarchical clustering problem, which arises in a variety of domains including biology, sensor networks and decision making in operational research. We derive an inference algorithm that operates by propagating information up and down the hierarchy, and is efficient despite the high-order potentials required for the graphical model formulation. We demonstrate that our method outperforms greedy techniques that cluster one layer at a time. We show that on an artificial dataset designed to mimic the HIV-strain mutation dynamics, our method outperforms related methods. For real HIV sequences, where the ground truth is not available, we show our method achieves better results, in terms of the underlying objective function, and show the results correspond meaningfully to geographi...

  20. Propagation of waves

    CERN Document Server

    David, P

    2013-01-01

    Propagation of Waves focuses on the wave propagation around the earth, which is influenced by its curvature, surface irregularities, and by passage through atmospheric layers that may be refracting, absorbing, or ionized. This book begins by outlining the behavior of waves in the various media and at their interfaces, which simplifies the basic phenomena, such as absorption, refraction, reflection, and interference. Applications to the case of the terrestrial sphere are also discussed as a natural generalization. Following the deliberation on the diffraction of the "ground? wave around the ear

  1. 五阶非线性光纤中连续谱相位扰动下的光传输与脉冲串产生%Propagation of Optical Wave with Phase Perturbed by Continuous Spectrum and Generation of Pulse Trains in Optical Fibers with Quintic Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟先琼; 向安平; 程科

    2011-01-01

    According to the extended nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation including quintic nonlinearity in optical fibers,modulation instability (MI) based generation of high-repetition-rate optical pulse trains is numerically demonstrated by using the optical wave with its phase perturbed by Gaussian-typed continuous spectrum instead of conventional monochromatic one. The results show that,the pulse trains can also be generated due to MI effect like the conventional case.However,being different from the conventional case,the generated pulse trains here consist of limited number of pulses which are generally not equal in width,intensity,and interval.And the pulse number increases with the propagation distance.Moreover,when the other parameters are the same,the positive quintic nonlinearity can make the pulse width and interval shorten,which means that the positive quintic nonlinearity is beneficial to generate higher repetition rate pulse trains.While the negative one takes the opposite.The numerically calculated chirps developed during the generation process of pulse trains indicate that,both the chirps and their variations with the distance are highly nonmonotonic,and the quintic nonlinearity will change both the chirp range and the chirp amount.%根据包含五阶非线性的扩展非线性薛定谔方程,数值研究了高斯型连续谱相位扰动而不是传统单色扰动下基于调制不稳定性的高重复率脉冲串产生.结果表明:脉冲串也能像传统情形那样形成,但却呈现出不同的特性.如脉冲数目有限,且各脉冲的高度、强度及间距不等.脉冲数目随传输距离增加而增加.而五阶非线性能使脉冲宽度和间距变小因而有利于高重复率脉冲串产生,负五阶非线性则相反.对脉冲串形成过程中演变啁啾的数值计算表明,啁啾及其随距离的变化都是高度非单调的,五阶非线性将改变啁啾的范围和量值.

  2. DROMO propagator revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrutxua, Hodei; Sanjurjo-Rivo, Manuel; Peláez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    In the year 2000 an in-house orbital propagator called DROMO (Peláez et al. in Celest Mech Dyn Astron 97:131-150, 2007. doi: 10.1007/s10569-006-9056-3) was developed by the Space Dynamics Group of the Technical University of Madrid, based in a set of redundant variables including Euler-Rodrigues parameters. An original deduction of the DROMO propagator is carried out, underlining its close relation with the ideal frame concept introduced by Hansen (Abh der Math-Phys Cl der Kon Sachs Ges der Wissensch 5:41-218, 1857). Based on the very same concept, Deprit (J Res Natl Bur Stand Sect B Math Sci 79B(1-2):1-15, 1975) proposed a formulation for orbit propagation. In this paper, similarities and differences with the theory carried out by Deprit are analyzed. Simultaneously, some improvements are introduced in the formulation, that lead to a more synthetic and better performing propagator. Also, the long-term effect of the oblateness of the primary is studied in terms of DROMO variables, and new numerical results are presented to evaluate the performance of the method.

  3. Shallow Water Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...these modes decay much more slowly than leaky modes as they propagate. The initial focus is on modal phase and group velocity formulas, obtained from...acoustic quantities such as transmission loss and scintillation index. (C) Both physical understanding and reasonable estimates of

  4. Nonlinear fiber optics

    CERN Document Server

    Agrawal, Govind P

    2001-01-01

    The Optical Society of America (OSA) and SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering have awarded Govind Agrawal with an honorable mention for the Joseph W. Goodman Book Writing Award for his work on Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd edition.Nonlinear Fiber Optics, 3rd Edition, provides a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the nonlinear phenomena occurring inside optical fibers. It retains most of the material that appeared in the first edition, with the exception of Chapter 6, which is now devoted to the polarization effects relevant for light propagation in optical

  5. Light propagation and localization in modulated photonic lattices and waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Garanovich, Ivan L; Sukhorukov, Andrey A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2011-01-01

    We review both theoretical and experimental advances in the recently emerged physics of modulated photonic lattices. Artificial periodic dielectric media, such as photonic crystals and photonic lattices, provide a powerful tool for the control of the fundamental properties of light propagation in photonic structures. Photonic lattices are arrays of coupled optical waveguides, where the light propagation becomes effectively discretized. Such photonic structures allow one to study many useful optical analogies with other fields, such as the physics of solid state and electron theory. In particular, the light propagation in periodic photonic structures resembles the motion of electrons in a crystalline lattice of semiconductor materials. The discretized nature of light propagation gives rise to many new phenomena which are not possible in homogeneous bulk media, such as discrete diffraction and diffraction management, discrete and gap solitons, and discrete surface waves. Recently, it was discovered that applyin...

  6. Detecting electromagnetic cloaks using backward-propagating waves

    KAUST Repository

    Salem, Mohamed

    2011-08-01

    A novel approach for detecting transformation-optics invisibility cloaks is proposed. The detection method takes advantage of the unusual backward-propagation characteristics of recently reported beams and pulses to induce electromagnetic scattering from the cloak. Even though waves with backward-propagating energy flux cannot penetrate the cloaking shell and interact with the cloaked objects (i.e., they do not make the cloaked object visible), they provide a mechanism for detecting the presence of cloaks. © 2011 IEEE.

  7. Liouvillian propagators, Riccati equation and differential Galois theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Humánez, Primitivo; Suazo, Erwin

    2013-11-01

    In this paper a Galoisian approach to building propagators through Riccati equations is presented. The main result corresponds to the relationship between the Galois integrability of the linear Schrödinger equation and the virtual solvability of the differential Galois group of its associated characteristic equation. As the main application of this approach we solve Ince’s differential equation through the Hamiltonian algebrization procedure and the Kovacic algorithm to find the propagator for a generalized harmonic oscillator. This propagator has applications which describe the process of degenerate parametric amplification in quantum optics and light propagation in a nonlinear anisotropic waveguide. Toy models of propagators inspired by integrable Riccati equations and integrable characteristic equations are also presented.

  8. The discrete regime of flame propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Francois-David; Goroshin, Samuel; Higgins, Andrew

    The propagation of laminar dust flames in iron dust clouds was studied in a low-gravity envi-ronment on-board a parabolic flight aircraft. The elimination of buoyancy-induced convection and particle settling permitted measurements of fundamental combustion parameters such as the burning velocity and the flame quenching distance over a wide range of particle sizes and in different gaseous mixtures. The discrete regime of flame propagation was observed by substitut-ing nitrogen present in air with xenon, an inert gas with a significantly lower heat conductivity. Flame propagation in the discrete regime is controlled by the heat transfer between neighbor-ing particles, rather than by the particle burning rate used by traditional continuum models of heterogeneous flames. The propagation mechanism of discrete flames depends on the spa-tial distribution of particles, and thus such flames are strongly influenced by local fluctuations in the fuel concentration. Constant pressure laminar dust flames were observed inside 70 cm long, 5 cm diameter Pyrex tubes. Equally-spaced plate assemblies forming rectangular chan-nels were placed inside each tube to determine the quenching distance defined as the minimum channel width through which a flame can successfully propagate. High-speed video cameras were used to measure the flame speed and a fiber optic spectrometer was used to measure the flame temperature. Experimental results were compared with predictions obtained from a numerical model of a three-dimensional flame developed to capture both the discrete nature and the random distribution of particles in the flame. Though good qualitative agreement was obtained between model predictions and experimental observations, residual g-jitters and the short reduced-gravity periods prevented further investigations of propagation limits in the dis-crete regime. The full exploration of the discrete flame phenomenon would require high-quality, long duration reduced gravity environment

  9. Nanosecond Optical Shutters

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, N. S. P.; Yates, G. J.; Jaramillo, S. A.; Pagano, T. S.; Black, J. Paul

    1986-01-01

    A comparison of gated optical shuttering responses for commercially available micro-channel plate image intensifier tubes (MCPTs) with the performance of a new design for improved optical shuttering is presented. Measurements of opacity, photocathode quantum efficiency, and shutter pulse propagation characteristics are discussed.

  10. Propagating Instabilities in Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriakides, Stelios

    1998-03-01

    Instability is one of the factors which limit the extent to which solids can be loaded or deformed and plays a pivotal role in the design of many structures. Such instabilities often result in localized deformation which precipitates catastrophic failure. Some materials have the capacity to recover their stiffness following a certain amount of localized deformation. This local recovery in stiffness arrests further local deformation and spreading of the instability to neighboring material becomes preferred. Under displacement controlled loading the propagation of the transition fronts can be achieved in a steady-state manner at a constant stress level known as the propagation stress. The stresses in the transition fronts joining the highly deformed zone to the intact material overcome the instability nucleation stresses and, as a result, the propagation stress is usually much lower than the stress required to nucleate the instability. The classical example of this class of material instabilities is L/"uders bands which tend to affect mild steels and other metals. Recent work has demonstrated that propagating instabilities occur in several other materials. Experimental and analytical results from four examples will be used to illustrate this point: First the evolution of L=FCders bands in mild steel strips will be revisited. The second example involves the evolution of stress induced phase transformations (austenite to martensite phases and the reverse) in a shape memory alloy under displacement controlled stretching. The third example is the crushing behavior of cellular materials such as honeycombs and foams made from metals and polymers. The fourth example involves the axial broadening/propagation of kink bands in aligned fiber/matrix composites under compression. The microstructure and, as a result, the micromechanisms governing the onset, localization, local arrest and propagation of instabilities in each of the four materials are vastly different. Despite this

  11. Characteristic of laser diode beam propagation through a collimating lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Han, Yiping; Cui, Zhiwei

    2010-01-20

    A mathematical model of a laser diode beam propagating through a collimating lens is presented. Wave propagation beyond the paraxial approximation is studied. The phase delay of the laser diode wave in passing through the lens is analyzed in detail. The propagation optical field after the lens is obtained from the diffraction integral by the stationary phase method. The model is employed to predict the light intensity at various beam cross sections, and the computed intensity distributions are in a good agreement with the corresponding measurements.

  12. Study on the electromagnetic waves propagation characteristics in partially ionized plasma slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Bin Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation characteristics of electromagnetic (EM waves in partially ionized plasma slabs are studied in this paper. Such features are significant to applications in plasma antennas, blackout of re-entry flying vehicles, wave energy injection to plasmas, and etc. We in this paper developed a theoretical model of EM wave propagation perpendicular to a plasma slab with a one-dimensional density inhomogeneity along propagation direction to investigate essential characteristics of EM wave propagation in nonuniform plasmas. Particularly, the EM wave propagation in sub-wavelength plasma slabs, where the geometric optics approximation fails, is studied and in comparison with thicker slabs where the geometric optics approximation applies. The influences of both plasma and collisional frequencies, as well as the width of the plasma slab, on the EM wave propagation characteristics are discussed. The results can help the further understanding of propagation behaviours of EM waves in nonuniform plasma, and applications of the interactions between EM waves and plasmas.

  13. Modeling of ultrafast laser pulse propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesik, Miroslav; Brown, Jeffrey; Bahl, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Computer simulations of ultrafast optical pulses face multiple challenges. This requires one to construct a propagation model to reduce the Maxwell system so that it can be efficiently simulated at the temporal and spatial scales relevant to experiments. The second problem concerns the light-matter interactions, demanding novel approaches for gaseous and condensed media alike. As the nonlinear optics pushes into new regimes, the need to honor the first principles is ever greater, and requires striking a balance between computational complexity and physical fidelity of the model. With the emphasis on the dynamics in intense optical pulses, this paper discusses some recent developments and promising directions in the field of ultrashort pulse modeling.

  14. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  15. Modeling Light Propagation in Luminescent Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Derya

    This study presents physical, computational and analytical modeling approaches for light propagation in luminescent random media. Two different approaches are used, namely (i) a statistical approach: Monte-Carlo simulations for photon transport and (ii) a deterministic approach: radiative transport theory. Both approaches account accurately for the multiple absorption and reemission of light at different wavelengths and for anisotropic luminescence. The deterministic approach is a generalization of radiative transport theory for solving inelastic scattering problems in random media. We use the radiative transport theory to study light propagation in luminescent media. Based on this theory, we also study the optically thick medium. Using perturbation methods, a corrected diffusion approximation with asymptotically accurate boundary conditions and a boundary layer solution are derived. The accuracy and the efficacy of this approach is verified for a plane-parallel slab problem. In particular, we apply these two approaches (MC and radiative transport theory) to model light propagation in semiconductor-based luminescent solar concentrators (LSCs). The computational results for both approaches are compared with each other and found to agree. The results of this dissertation present practical and reliable techniques to use for solving forward/inverse inelastic scattering problems arising in various research areas such as optics, biomedical engineering, nuclear engineering, solar science and material science.

  16. Vegetative propagation of jojoba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, C.B.; Hackett, W.P.

    1981-03-01

    Development of jojoba as an economically viable crop requires improved methods of propagation and culture. Rooting experiments were performed on cutting material collected from wild jojoba plants. A striking seasonal fluctuation in rooting potential was found. Jojoba plants can be successfully propagated from stem cuttings made during spring, summer, and, to some extent, fall. Variability among jojoba plants may also play a role in rooting potential, although it is not as important as season. In general, the use of auxin (4,000 ppm indolebutyric acid) on jojoba cuttings during periods of high rooting potential promotes adventitious root formation, but during periods of low rooting potential it has no effect or is even slightly inhibitory. In the greenhouse, cutting-grown plants apparently reproductively matured sooner than those grown from seed. If this observation holds true for plants transplanted into the field, earlier fruit production by cutting--grown plants would mean earlier return of initial planting and maintenance costs.

  17. Propagation of Tau aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedert, Michel; Spillantini, Maria Grazia

    2017-05-30

    Since 2009, evidence has accumulated to suggest that Tau aggregates form first in a small number of brain cells, from where they propagate to other regions, resulting in neurodegeneration and disease. Propagation of Tau aggregates is often called prion-like, which refers to the capacity of an assembled protein to induce the same abnormal conformation in a protein of the same kind, initiating a self-amplifying cascade. In addition, prion-like encompasses the release of protein aggregates from brain cells and their uptake by neighbouring cells. In mice, the intracerebral injection of Tau inclusions induced the ordered assembly of monomeric Tau, followed by its spreading to distant brain regions. Short fibrils constituted the major species of seed-competent Tau. The existence of several human Tauopathies with distinct fibril morphologies has led to the suggestion that different molecular conformers (or strains) of aggregated Tau exist.

  18. Stochastic wave propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Sobczyk, K

    1985-01-01

    This is a concise, unified exposition of the existing methods of analysis of linear stochastic waves with particular reference to the most recent results. Both scalar and vector waves are considered. Principal attention is concentrated on wave propagation in stochastic media and wave scattering at stochastic surfaces. However, discussion extends also to various mathematical aspects of stochastic wave equations and problems of modelling stochastic media.

  19. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maas Axel

    2017-01-01

    The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  20. Optical Isolator Utilizing Surface Plasmons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Yuasa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Feasibility of usage of surface plasmons in a new design of an integrated optical isolator has been studied. In the case of surface plasmons propagating at a boundary between a transition metal and a double-layer dielectric, there is a significant difference of optical loss for surface plasmons propagating in opposite directions. Utilizing this structure, it is feasible to fabricate a competitive plasmonic isolator, which benefits from a broad wavelength operational bandwidth and a good technological compatibility for integration into the Photonic Integrated Circuits (PIC. The linear dispersion relation was derived for plasmons propagating in a multilayer magneto-optical slab.

  1. Near-field observation of light propagation in nanocoax waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, Juan M; Ye, Fan; Rizal, Binod; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-06-16

    We report the observation of propagating modes of visible and near infrared light in nanoscale coaxial (metal-dielectric-metal) structures, using near-field scanning optical microscopy. Together with numerical calculations, we show that the propagated modes have different nature depending on the excitation wavelength, i.e., plasmonic TE11 and TE21 modes in the near infrared and photonic TE31, TE41 and TM11 modes in the visible. Far field transmission out of the nanocoaxes is dominated by the superposition of Fabry-Perot cavity modes resonating in the structures, consistent with theory. Such coaxial optical waveguides may be useful for future nanoscale photonic systems.

  2. A Highly Adjustable Helical Beam: Design and Propagation Characteristic

    CERN Document Server

    Wen, Yuanhui; Yu, Siyuan

    2016-01-01

    Light fields with extraordinary propagation behaviours such as nondiffracting and self-bending are useful in optical delivery for energy, information, and even objects. A kind of helical beams is constructed here based on the caustic method. With appropriate design, the main lobe of these helical beams can be both well-confined and almost nondiffracting while moving along a helix with its radius, period, the number of rotations and main lobes highly adjustable. In addition, the main lobe contains almost half of the optical power and the peak intensity fluctuates below 15% during propagation. These promising characteristics may enable a variety of potential applications based on these beams.

  3. Counter-propagating patterns in the BioPhotonics Workstation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Lindballe, T.; Kristensen, M.V.

    2010-01-01

    for stable three-dimensional manipulation of multiple particles. In this work, we analyze counter-propagating shaped-beam traps that depart from this conventional geometry. We show that projecting shaped beams with separation distances previously considered axially unstable can, in fact, enhance the trap...... by improving axial and transverse trapping stiffness. We also show interesting results of trapping and micromanipulation experiments that combine optical forces with fluidic forces. These results hint about the rich potential of using patterned counter-propagating beams for optical trapping and manipulation...

  4. Optical systems for synchrotron radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howells, M.R.

    1985-12-01

    Various fundamental topics which underlie the design and use of optical systems for synchrotron radiation are considered from the viewpoint of linear system theory. These topics include the damped harmonic oscillator, free space propagation of an optical field, electromagnetic theory of optical properties of materials, theory of dispersion, and the Kramers-Kronig relations. 32 refs., 5 figs. (LEW)

  5. Application of propagating beam methods to electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation problems - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagasse, P.E.; Baets, R.

    1987-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers. 28 references.

  6. Application of propagating beam methods to electromagnetic and acoustic wave propagation problems - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagasse, P. E.; Baets, R.

    1987-12-01

    The advantages and disadvantages of various propagating beam methods (BPMs) used in the solution of electromagnetic and acoustical problems are considered. The basic assumptions and approximations which are necessary for the derivation of the BPM algorithm are discussed with respect to applications to acoustics and optics and linear and nonlinear materials. Particular attention is given to the case of passive waveguiding structures and the role that BPM can play in the analysis of nonlinear structures such as semiconductor lasers.

  7. Anisotropy of light propagation in human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Stephan; Hermann, Marcus; Essenpreis, Matthias; Farrell, Thomas J.; Krämer, Uwe; Patterson, Michael S.

    2000-10-01

    Using spatially resolved, steady state diffuse reflectometry, a directional dependence was found in the propagation of visible and near infrared light through human skin in vivo. The skin's reduced scattering coefficient µ's varies by up to a factor of two between different directions of propagation at the same position. This anisotropy is believed to be caused by the preferential orientation of collagen fibres in the dermis, as described by Langer's skin tension lines. Monte Carlo simulations that examine the effect of partial collagen fibre orientation support this hypothesis. The observation has consequences for non-invasive diagnostic methods relying on skin optical properties, and it could be used non-invasively to determine the direction of lines of cleavage in order to minimize scars due to surgical incisions.

  8. Light propagation in inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Fleury, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The standard model of cosmology is based on the hypothesis that the Universe is spatially homogeneous and isotropic. When interpreting most observations, this cosmological principle is applied stricto sensu: the light emitted by distant sources is assumed to propagate through a Friedmann-Lema\\^itre spacetime. The main goal of the present thesis was to evaluate how reliable this assumption is, especially when small scales are at stake. After having reviewed the laws of geometric optics in curved spacetime, and the standard interpretation of cosmological observables, the dissertation reports a comprehensive analysis of light propagation in Swiss-cheese models, designed to capture the clumpy character of the Universe. The resulting impact on the interpretation of the Hubble diagram is quantified, and shown to be relatively small, thanks to the cosmological constant. When applied to current supernova data, the associated corrections tend however to improve the agreement between the cosmological parameters inferre...

  9. Light propagation in periodically modulated complex waveguides

    CERN Document Server

    Nixon, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Light propagation in optical waveguides with periodically modulated index of refraction and alternating gain and loss are investigated for linear and nonlinear systems. Based on a multiscale perturbation analysis, it is shown that for many non-parity-time ($\\mathcal{PT}$) symmetric waveguides, their linear spectrum is partially complex, thus light exponentially grows or decays upon propagation, and this growth or delay is not altered by nonlinearity. However, several classes of non-$\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric waveguides are also identified to possess all-real linear spectrum. In the nonlinear regime longitudinally periodic and transversely quasi-localized modes are found for $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric waveguides both above and below phase transition. These nonlinear modes are stable under evolution and can develop from initially weak initial conditions.

  10. Photon propagation in slowly varying electromagnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Karbstein, Felix

    2016-01-01

    We study the effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counter-propagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. As we treat the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  11. Laser beam shaping profiles and propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shealy, David L; Hoffnagle, John A

    2006-07-20

    We consider four families of functions--the super-Gaussian, flattened Gaussian, Fermi-Dirac, and super-Lorentzian--that have been used to describe flattened irradiance profiles. We determine the shape and width parameters of the different distributions, when each flattened profile has the same radius and slope of the irradiance at its half-height point, and then we evaluate the implicit functional relationship between the shape and width parameters for matched profiles, which provides a quantitative way to compare profiles described by different families of functions. We conclude from an analysis of each profile with matched parameters using Kirchhoff-Fresnel diffraction theory and M2 analysis that the diffraction patterns as they propagate differ by small amounts, which may not be distinguished experimentally. Thus, beam shaping optics is designed to produce either of these four flattened output irradiance distributions with matched parameters will yield similar irradiance distributions as the beam propagates.

  12. Wave propagation in elastic solids

    CERN Document Server

    Achenbach, Jan

    1984-01-01

    The propagation of mechanical disturbances in solids is of interest in many branches of the physical scienses and engineering. This book aims to present an account of the theory of wave propagation in elastic solids. The material is arranged to present an exposition of the basic concepts of mechanical wave propagation within a one-dimensional setting and a discussion of formal aspects of elastodynamic theory in three dimensions, followed by chapters expounding on typical wave propagation phenomena, such as radiation, reflection, refraction, propagation in waveguides, and diffraction. The treat

  13. Stochastic model in microwave propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranfagni, A. [“Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, CNR Florence Research Area, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Mugnai, D., E-mail: d.mugnai@ifac.cnr.it [“Nello Carrara” Institute of Applied Physics, CNR Florence Research Area, Via Madonna del Piano 10, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2011-11-28

    Further experimental results of delay time in microwave propagation are reported in the presence of a lossy medium (wood). The measurements show that the presence of a lossy medium makes the propagation slightly superluminal. The results are interpreted on the basis of a stochastic (or path integral) model, showing how this model is able to describe each kind of physical system in which multi-path trajectories are present. -- Highlights: ► We present new experimental results on electromagnetic “anomalous” propagation. ► We apply a path integral theoretical model to wave propagation. ► Stochastic processes and multi-path trajectories in propagation are considered.

  14. Temporal scaling in information propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-18

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  15. Temporal scaling in information propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Junming; Li, Chao; Wang, Wen-Qiang; Shen, Hua-Wei; Li, Guojie; Cheng, Xue-Qi

    2014-06-01

    For the study of information propagation, one fundamental problem is uncovering universal laws governing the dynamics of information propagation. This problem, from the microscopic perspective, is formulated as estimating the propagation probability that a piece of information propagates from one individual to another. Such a propagation probability generally depends on two major classes of factors: the intrinsic attractiveness of information and the interactions between individuals. Despite the fact that the temporal effect of attractiveness is widely studied, temporal laws underlying individual interactions remain unclear, causing inaccurate prediction of information propagation on evolving social networks. In this report, we empirically study the dynamics of information propagation, using the dataset from a population-scale social media website. We discover a temporal scaling in information propagation: the probability a message propagates between two individuals decays with the length of time latency since their latest interaction, obeying a power-law rule. Leveraging the scaling law, we further propose a temporal model to estimate future propagation probabilities between individuals, reducing the error rate of information propagation prediction from 6.7% to 2.6% and improving viral marketing with 9.7% incremental customers.

  16. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUJi-Zhen; ZHOULi-Juan; MAWei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the “rainbow”approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions A/(p2), Bl(p2) and effective mass M$(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  17. Validity of Parametrized Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; MA Wei-Xing

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensively study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized fully dressed quark propagator is proposed in this paper. The parametrized propagator describes a confining quark propagator in hadron since it is analytic everywhere in complex p2-plane and has no Lemmann representation. The validity of the new propagator is discussed by comparing its predictions on selfenergy functions Af(p2), Bf(p2) and effective mass Mf(p2) of quark with flavor f to their corresponding theoretical results produced by Dyson-Schwinger equations. Our comparison shows that the parametrized quark propagator is a good approximation to the fully dressed quark propagator given by the solutions of Dyson-Schwinger equations in the rainbow approximation and is convenient to use in any theoretical calculations.

  18. PIV uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciacchitano, Andrea; Wieneke, Bernhard

    2016-08-01

    This paper discusses the propagation of the instantaneous uncertainty of PIV measurements to statistical and instantaneous quantities of interest derived from the velocity field. The expression of the uncertainty of vorticity, velocity divergence, mean value and Reynolds stresses is derived. It is shown that the uncertainty of vorticity and velocity divergence requires the knowledge of the spatial correlation between the error of the x and y particle image displacement, which depends upon the measurement spatial resolution. The uncertainty of statistical quantities is often dominated by the random uncertainty due to the finite sample size and decreases with the square root of the effective number of independent samples. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to assess the accuracy of the uncertainty propagation formulae. Furthermore, three experimental assessments are carried out. In the first experiment, a turntable is used to simulate a rigid rotation flow field. The estimated uncertainty of the vorticity is compared with the actual vorticity error root-mean-square, with differences between the two quantities within 5-10% for different interrogation window sizes and overlap factors. A turbulent jet flow is investigated in the second experimental assessment. The reference velocity, which is used to compute the reference value of the instantaneous flow properties of interest, is obtained with an auxiliary PIV system, which features a higher dynamic range than the measurement system. Finally, the uncertainty quantification of statistical quantities is assessed via PIV measurements in a cavity flow. The comparison between estimated uncertainty and actual error demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed uncertainty propagation methodology.

  19. Slow light, induced dispersion, enhanced nonlinearity, and optical solitons in a resonator-array waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E Heebner, John; Boyd, Robert W; Park, Q-Han

    2002-03-01

    We describe an optical transmission line that consists of an array of wavelength-scale optical disk resonators coupled to an optical waveguide. Such a structure leads to exotic optical characteristics, including ultraslow group velocities of propagation, enhanced optical nonlinearities, and large dispersion with a controllable magnitude and sign. This device supports soliton propagation, which can be described by a generalized nonlinear Schrodinger equation.

  20. Ionospheric Radio Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1948-06-25

    applies Chapter 2 presents in simple form the mathe - principles which have been found to work in prac- matical theory underlying the propagation of...6.17, which was described under sec- L713 412 812.111 410.511171IS1&41&716.3 A& tion 6.5 above, and read the value of the muf for muFi .-f------ - 01...twepse, 71. mathe 1measuring virtual 6elghts, is world contour charts. 57; zero distance, 73. Se .1.. Contour chairt MCNiII, A. 0., 106 G Median value

  1. Sequential Back—Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晖; 刘大有; 等

    1994-01-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of sequential processing and present a sequential model based on the back-propagation algorithm.This model is intended to deal with intrinsically sequential problems,such as word recognition,speech recognition,natural language understanding.This model can be used to train a network to learn the sequence of input patterns,in a fixed order or a random order.Besides,this model is open- and partial-associative,characterized as “resognizing while accumulating”, which, as we argue, is mental cognition process oriented.

  2. Nonlinear Characteristics of an Intense Laser Pulse Propagating in Partially Stripped Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qiang-Lin; LIU Shi-Bing; CHEN Tao; JIANG Yi-Jian

    2005-01-01

    The nonlinear optic characteristics of an intense laser pulse propagating in partially stripped plasmas are investigated analytically. The phase and group velocity of the laser pulse propagation as well as the three general expressions governing the nonlinear optic behavior, based on the photon number conservation, are obtained by considering the partially stripped plasma as a nonlinear optic medium. The numerical result shows that the presence of the bound electrons in partially stripped plasma can significantly change the propagating property of the intense laser pulse.

  3. Ocean optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinard, R.W.; Carder, K.L.; Perry, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    This volume is the twenty fifth in the series of Oxford Monographs in Geology and Geophysics. The propagation off light in the hydra-atmosphere systems is governed by the integral-differential Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). Closure and inversion are the most common techniques in optical oceanography to understand the most basic principles of natural variability. Three types of closure are dealt with: scale closure, experimental closure, and instrument closure. The subject is well introduced by Spinard et al. in the Preface while Howard Gordon in Chapter 1 provides an in-depth introduction to the RTE and its inherent problems. Inherent and apparent optical properties are dealt with in Chapter 2 by John Kirk and the realities of optical closure are presented in the following chapter by Ronald Zaneveld. The balance of the papers in this volume is quite varied. The early papers deal in a very mathematical manner with the basics of radiative transfer and the relationship between inherent and optical properties. Polarization of sea water is discussed in a chapter that contains a chronological listing of discoveries in polarization, starting at about 1000 AD with the discovery of dichroic properties of crystals by the Vikings and ending with the demonstration of polarotaxis in certain marine organisms by Waterman in 1972. Chapter 12 on Raman scattering in pure water and the pattern recognition techniques presented in Chapter 13 on the optical effects of large particles may be of relevance to fields outside ocean optics.

  4. The Soliton Transmissions in Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leos Bohac

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to familiarize readers with the basic analytical propagation model of short optical pulses in optical fiber. Based on this model simulation of propagation of the special type of pulse, called a soliton, will be carried out. A soliton transmission is especially attractive in the fiber optic telecommunication systems as it does not change a pulses shape during propagating right-down the fiber link to the receiver. The model of very short pulse propagation is based on the numerical solution of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation (NLSE, although in some specific cases it is possible to solve it analytically.

  5. Determination of the optimal relaxation parameter in a numerical procedure for solitons propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Cirilo, Eliandro Rodrigues; Romeiro, Neyva Maria Lopes; Natti, Erica Regina Takano

    2010-01-01

    In this work, considering a numerical procedure developed to solve a system of coupled nonlinear complex differential equations, which describes the solitons propagation in dielectric optical fibers, we optimize the numerical processing time, in relation to the relaxation parameter of the procedure, for relevant groups of values of the dielectric variables of the optic fiber. Key-words: optical soliton, processing time, optimization.

  6. Anisotropy of light propagation in biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, A.; Forster, F. K.; Hibst, R.

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the propagation of light in biological tissues that have aligned cylindrical microstructures (e.g., muscle, skin, bone, tooth). Because of pronounced anisotropic light scattering by cylindrical structures (e.g., myofibrils and collagen fibers) the spatially resolved reflectance exhibits a directional dependence that is different close to and far from the incident source. We applied Monte Carlo simulations, using the phase function of an infinitely long cylinder, to explain quantitatively the experimental results. These observations have consequences for noninvasive determination of the optical properties of tissue as well as for the diagnosis of early tissue alterations.

  7. Propagation of light in area metric backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punzi, Raffaele; Wohlfarth, Mattias N R [Zentrum fuer Mathematische Physik und II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Hamburg, Luruper Chaussee 149, 22761 Hamburg (Germany); Schuller, Frederic P, E-mail: raffaele.punzi@desy.d, E-mail: fps@aei.mpg.d, E-mail: mattias.wohlfarth@desy.d [Max Planck Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik, Albert Einstein Institut, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)

    2009-02-07

    The propagation of light in area metric spacetimes, which naturally emerge as refined backgrounds in quantum electrodynamics and quantum gravity, is studied from first principles. In the geometric-optical limit, light rays are found to follow geodesics in a Finslerian geometry, with the Finsler norm being determined by the area metric tensor. Based on this result, and an understanding of the nonlinear relation between ray vectors and wave covectors in such refined backgrounds, we study light deflection in spherically symmetric situations and obtain experimental bounds on the non-metricity of spacetime in the solar system.

  8. Light Propagation Volumes

    OpenAIRE

    Mikulica, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem diplomové práce je popsat různé metody výpočtu globálního osvětlení scény včetně techniky Light Propagation Volumes. Pro tuto metodu jsou podrobně popsány všechny tři kroky výpočtu: injekce, propagace a vykreslení. Dále je navrženo několik vlastních rozšíření zlepšující grafickou kvalitu metody. Části návrhu a implementace jsou zaměřeny na popis scény, zobrazovacího systému, tvorby stínů, implementace metody Light Propagation Volumes a navržených rozšíření. Práci uzavírá měření, porovná...

  9. Optical rogue waves and soliton turbulence in nonlinear fibre optics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genty, G.; Dudley, J. M.; de Sterke, C. M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required.......We examine optical rogue wave generation in nonlinear fibre propagation in terms of soliton turbulence. We show that higher-order dispersion is sufficient to generate localized rogue soliton structures, and Raman scattering effects are not required....

  10. The Up-Link Problem: Using RytovProp for Beam Propagation Calculations--Conference Proceedings (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Foucault at SAIC. – 14 – The split-step wave optics propagation simulations were all run with a frame rate of 3,000 frames per second. These simulations...formulate the analysis so that such eigen values do not show up. 7). Lastly, I would like to thank Barry Foucault for making his wave optics propagation

  11. Non-approximated numerical modeling of propagation of light in any state of spatial coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Román; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2011-12-01

    Due to analytical and numerical difficulties, the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is traditionally computed under severe approximations. The paraxial approach in the Fresnel-Fraunhofer domain is one of the most widely used. These approximations provide a rough knowledge of the actual light behavior as it propagates, which is not enough for supporting applications, such as light propagation under a high numerical aperture (NA). In this paper, a non-approximated model for the propagation of optical fields in any state of spatial coherence is presented. The method is applicable in very practical cases, as high-NA propagations, because of its simplicity of implementation. This approach allows for studying unaware behaviors of light as it propagates. The light behavior close to the diffracting transmittances can also be analyzed with the aid of the proposed tool.

  12. Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2014-03-24

    Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

  13. Modeling beam propagation and frequency conversion for the beamlet laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    The development of the Beamlet laser has involved extensive and detailed modeling of laser performance and beam propagation to: (1) predict the performance limits of the laser, (2) select system configurations with higher performance, (3) analyze experiments and provide guidance for subsequent laser shots, and (4) design optical components and establish component manufacturing specifications. In contrast to modeling efforts of previous laser systems such as Nova, those for Beamlet include as much measured optical characterization data as possible. This article concentrates on modeling of beam propagation in the Beamlet laser system, including the frequency converter, and compares modeling predictions with experimental results for several Beamlet shots. It briefly describes the workstation-based propagation and frequency conversion codes used to accomplish modeling of the Beamlet.

  14. Gamma-beam propagation in the anisotropic medium

    CERN Document Server

    Maisheev, V A

    2000-01-01

    Propagation of gamma-beam in the anisotropic medium is considered. The simpliest example of such a medium of the general type is a combination of the two linearly polarized monochromatic laser waves with different frequencies (dichromatic wave). The optical properties of this combination are described with the use of the permittivity tensor. The refractive indices and polarization characteristics of normal electromagnetic waves propagating in the anisotropic medium are found. The relations, describing variations of gamma-beam intensity and Stokes parameters as functions of propagation length are obtained. The influence of laser wave intensity on the propagation process are calculated. The gamma-beam intensity losses in the dichromatic wave depend on the initial circular polarization of gamma-quanta. This effect is also applied to the single crystals, which are oriented in some regions of coherent pair production. In principle, the single crystal sensitivity to a circular polarization can be used for determina...

  15. Propagation of Weak Pressure Waves against Two Parallel Subsonic Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Makiko YONAMINE; Takanori USHIJIMA; Yoshiaki MIYAZATO; Mitsuharu MASUDA; Hiroshi KATANODA; Kazuyasu MATSUO

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of a pressure wave propagating against two parallel subsonic streams in a constant-area straight duct are investigated by one-dimensional analysis, two-dimensional numerical simulation,and experiments. Computations have been carried out by the two-dimensional Euler Equations using the Chakravarthy-Osher-type TVD scheme. Optical observations by the schlieren method as well as wall pressure measurements have been performed to clarify both the structure and the propagation velocity of pressure waves.The results show that the pressure wave propagating against the streams changes into a bifurcated pressure wave and the bifurcation occurs in the low speed streams. It is also found that the propagation velocity of the pressure wave obtained by the analysis and computation agrees well with the present experimental data.

  16. Scintillation Reduction for Laser Beams Propagating Through Turbulent Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, G P; Torous, S V

    2010-01-01

    We numerically examine the spatial evolution of the structure of coherent and partially coherent laser beams, including the optical vortices, propagating in turbulent atmospheres. The influence of beam fragmentation and wandering relative to the axis of propagation (z-axis) on the value of the scintillation index (SI) of the signal at the detector is analyzed. These studies were performed for different dimensions of the detector, distances of propagation, and strengths of the atmospheric turbulence. Methods for significantly reducing the scintillation index are described. These methods utilize averaging of the signal at the detector over a set of partially coherent beams (PCBs). It is demonstrated that the most effective approach is using a set of PCBs with definite initial directions of propagation relative to the z-axis. This approach results in a significant compensation of the beam wandering which in many cases is the main contributor to the SI. A novel method is to generate the PCBs by combining two lase...

  17. Propagation of Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihao, Yu; Ruihuang, Zhao; Fu, Deng; Jiayao, Huang; Chidao, Chen; Xiangbo, Yang; Yanping, Zhao; Dongmei, Deng

    2016-04-01

    The propagation dynamics of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams in uniaxial crystals orthogonal to the optical axis has been investigated analytically and numerically. The propagation expression of the beams has been obtained. The propagation features of the Airy Gaussian vortex beams are shown with changes of the distribution factor and the ratio of the extraordinary refractive index to the ordinary refractive index. The correlations between the ratio and the maximum intensity value during the propagation, and its appearing distance have been investigated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11374108, 11374107, 10904041, and 11547212), the Foundation of Cultivating Outstanding Young Scholars of Guangdong Province, China, the CAS Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, University of Science and Technology of China, the National Training Program of Innovation and Entrepreneurship for Undergraduates (Grant No. 2015093), and the Science and Technology Projects of Guangdong Province, China (Grant No. 2013B031800011).

  18. EO Signal Propagation in a Simulated Underwater Turbulence Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    scattering I. INTRODUCTION Recent research on underwater vision and optical, as well as acoustical signal propagation suggests better understanding is...most astronomy , as well as reconnaissance imaging needs. However, this is not the case for the most oceanic turbulence study, unless vertical

  19. Validation of atmospheric propagation models in littoral waters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.N. de; Schwering, P.B.W.; Eijk, A.M.J. van; Gunter, W.H.

    2013-01-01

    Various atmospheric propagation effects are limiting the long range performance of electro-optical imaging systems. These effects include absorption and scattering by molecules and aerosols, refraction due to vertical temperature gradients and scintillation and blurring due to turbulence. In maritim

  20. Ubiquitous Fast Propagating Intensity Disturbances in Solar Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, M.; Katsukawa, Y.; Suematsu, Y.; Kano, R.; Bando, T.; Narukage, N.; Ishikawa, R.; Hara, H.; Giono, G.; Winebarger, A.; Kobayashi, K.

    2016-01-01

    High cadence observations by the slit-jaw (SJ) optics system of the sounding rocket experiment "the Chromospheric Lyman Alpha SpectroPolarimeter (CLASP)" reveal ubiquitous intensity disturbances that recurrently propagate in either the chromosphere, transition region, or both at a speed much higher than the sound speed.

  1. Direct mapping of light propagation in photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S.I.; Volkov, V.S.; Arentoft, J.;

    2002-01-01

    Using near-field optical microscopy, we directly map the propagation of light in the wavelength range of 1510-1560 nm along bent photonic crystal waveguides formed by removing a single row of holes in the triangular 400-nm-period lattice and connected to access ridge waveguides, the structure being...

  2. Wave propagation in turbulent media: use of convergence acceleration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, A; Tsadka, S; Azar, Z; Tur, M

    1988-06-01

    We propose the use of convergence acceleration methods for the evaluation of integral expressions of an oscillatory nature, often encountered in the study of optical wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. These techniques offer substantial savings in computation time with appreciable gain in accuracy. As an example, we apply the Levin u acceleration scheme to the problem of remote sensing of transversal wind profiles.

  3. Light Front Boson Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2011-01-01

    stract The scope and aim of this work is to describe the two-body interaction mediated by a particle (either the scalar or the gauge boson) within the light-front formulation. To do this, first of all we point out the importance of propagators and Green functions in Quantum Mechanics. Then we project the covariant quantum propagator onto the light front time to get the propagator for scalar particles in these coordinates. This operator propagates the wave function from x+ = 0 to x+ > O. It corresponds to the definition of the time ordering operation in the light front time x+. We calculate the light-front Green's function for 2 interacting bosons propagating forward in x+. We also show how to write down the light front Green's function from the Feynman propagator and finally make a generalization to N bosons.

  4. Gauge engineering and propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  5. Gauge engineering and propagators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Axel

    2017-03-01

    Beyond perturbation theory gauge-fixing becomes more involved due to the Gribov-Singer ambiguity: The appearance of additional gauge copies requires to define a procedure how to handle them. For the case of Landau gauge the structure and properties of these additional gauge copies will be investigated. Based on these properties gauge conditions are constructed to account for these gauge copies. The dependence of the propagators on the choice of these complete gauge-fixings will then be investigated using lattice gauge theory for Yang-Mills theory. It is found that the implications for the infrared, and to some extent mid-momentum behavior, can be substantial. In going beyond the Yang-Mills case it turns out that the influence of matter can generally not be neglected. This will be briefly discussed for various types of matter.

  6. Counting Belief Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Kersting, Kristian; Natarajan, Sriraam

    2012-01-01

    A major benefit of graphical models is that most knowledge is captured in the model structure. Many models, however, produce inference problems with a lot of symmetries not reflected in the graphical structure and hence not exploitable by efficient inference techniques such as belief propagation (BP). In this paper, we present a new and simple BP algorithm, called counting BP, that exploits such additional symmetries. Starting from a given factor graph, counting BP first constructs a compressed factor graph of clusternodes and clusterfactors, corresponding to sets of nodes and factors that are indistinguishable given the evidence. Then it runs a modified BP algorithm on the compressed graph that is equivalent to running BP on the original factor graph. Our experiments show that counting BP is applicable to a variety of important AI tasks such as (dynamic) relational models and boolean model counting, and that significant efficiency gains are obtainable, often by orders of magnitude.

  7. Propagators and path integrals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1995-08-22

    Path-integral expressions for one-particle propagators in scalar and fermionic field theories are derived, for arbitrary mass. This establishes a direct connection between field theory and specific classical point-particle models. The role of world-line reparametrization invariance of the classical action and the implementation of the corresponding BRST-symmetry in the quantum theory are discussed. The presence of classical world-line supersymmetry is shown to lead to an unwanted doubling of states for massive spin-1/2 particles. The origin of this phenomenon is traced to a `hidden` topological fermionic excitation. A different formulation of the pseudo-classical mechanics using a bosonic representation of {gamma}{sub 5} is shown to remove these extra states at the expense of losing manifest supersymmetry. (orig.).

  8. Study of the Wheeler Propagator

    OpenAIRE

    Bollini, C. G.; Rocca, M. C.

    2010-01-01

    We study the half advanced and half retarded Wheeler Green function and its relation to Feynman propagators. First for massless equation. Then, for Klein-Gordon equations with arbitrary mass parameters; real, imaginary or complex. In all cases the Wheeler propagator lacks an on-shell free propagation. The Wheeler function has support inside the light-cone (whatever the mass). The associated vacuum is symmetric with respect to annihilation and creation operators.

  9. Validation of Three-Dimensional Ray-Tracing Algorithm for Indoor Wireless Propagations

    OpenAIRE

    Majdi Salem; Mahamod Ismail; Norbahiah Misran

    2011-01-01

    A 3D ray tracing simulator has been developed for indoor wireless networks. The simulator uses geometrical optics (GOs) to propagate the electromagnetic waves inside the buildings. The prediction technique takes into account multiple reflections and transmissions of the propagated waves. An interpolation prediction method (IPM) has been proposed to predict the propagated signal and to make the ray-tracing algorithm faster, accurate, and simple. The measurements have been achieved by using a s...

  10. Fundamentals of plastic optical fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Koike, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Polymer photonics is an interdisciplinary field which demands excellence both in optics (photonics) and materials science (polymer). However, theses disciplines have developed independently, and therefore the demand for a comprehensive work featuring the fundamentals of photonic polymers is greater than ever.This volume focuses on Polymer Optical Fiber and their applications. The first part of the book introduces typical optical fibers according to their classifications of material, propagating mode, and structure. Optical properties, the high bandwidth POF and transmission loss are discussed,

  11. Advanced simulations of x-ray beam propagation through CRL transfocators using ray-tracing and wavefront propagation methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baltser, Jana; Bergbäck Knudsen, Erik; Vickery, Anette

    2011-01-01

    of X-ray beamline designs for particular user experiments. In this work we used the newly developed McXtrace ray-tracing package and the SRW wave-optics code to simulate the beam propagation of X-ray undulator radiation through such a "transfocator" as implemented at ID- 11 at ESRF. By applying two...

  12. Optical Fibre Based Frequency Shifters Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-28

    A fibre optic frequency shifter can be used to replace the Bragg cell acousto-optic modulator, currently used to generate low frequency optical...carriers, in fibre optic communications and sensor systems. This new form of frequency shifter, being an all fibre device, in which the propagating optical...large number of workers in recent years, (for example references [2-81 and those contained therein). The main elements of a fibre - optic frequency

  13. Design of optical switches by illusion optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoorian, H. R.; Abrishamian, M. S.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, illusion optics theory is employed to form Bragg gratings in an optical waveguide in order to design an optical switch. By using an illusion device at a certain distance from the waveguide, the effective refractive index of the waveguide is remotely modulated, turning the waveguide into a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) which blocks the waves at a stop band. By removing the illusion device, the waves propagate through the waveguide again. In addition, this method is used to remotely tune DBR optical properties such as resonant frequency and bandwidth in a wide range, which leads to a tunable filter for optical switching applications. Finally, using an illusion device at a distance, an optical cavity is created by inserting defects remotely in a DBR without any physical damage in the primary device.

  14. Nonreciprocity light propagation in coupled microcavities system beyond weak-excitation approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, A S; Chen, H; Mei, T; Liu, J

    2016-01-01

    We propose an alternative scheme for nonreciprocal light propagation in two coupled cavities system, in which a two-level quantum emitter is coupled to one of the optical microcavities. For the case of parity-time (\\textrm{PT}) system (i.e., active-passive coupled cavities system), the cavity gain can significantly enhance the optical nonlinearity induced by the interaction between a quantum emitter and cavity field beyond weak-excitation approximation. The giant optical nonlinearity results in the non-lossy nonreciprocal light propagation with high isolation ratio in proper parameters range. In addition, our calculations show that nonreciprocal light propagation will not be affected by the unstable output field intensity caused by optical bistability and we can even switch directions of nonreciprocal light propagation by appropriately adjusting the system parameters.

  15. Estimation of propagation losses for infrared laser beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaponov, A. E.; Sakharov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    In present work, the radiation propagation in atmosphere from laser source to the receiver is considered by taking into account deviations of optical beam due to turbulence. The photon flux density on the receiver has been evaluated.

  16. In-situ observations on crack propagation along polymer/glass interfaces.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vellinga, W.P; Timmerman, R.; van Tijum, R.; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Buchheit, TE; Minor, AM; Spolenak, R; Takashima, K

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of crack fronts along a PET-glass interface is illustrated. The experimental set-up consists of an Asymmetric Double Cantilever Beam in an optical microscope. Image processing techniques used to isolate the crack fronts are discussed in some detail. The fronts are found to propagate

  17. Nonparaxial Fourier propagation tool for aberration analysis and point spread function calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cain, Stephen C.; Watts, Tatsuki

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a Fourier propagator for computing the impulse response of an optical system, while including terms ignored in Fresnel and Fraunhofer calculations. The propagator includes a Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula calculation from a distant point through the optical system to its image point predicted by geometric optics. The propagator then approximates the neighboring field points via the traditional binomial approximation of the Taylor series expansion around that field point. This technique results in a propagator that combines the speed of a Fourier transform operation with the accuracy of the Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction formula calculation and extends Fourier optics to cases that are nonparaxial. The proposed propagator facilitates direct calculation of aberration coefficients, making it more versatile than the angular spectrum propagator. Bounds on the phase error introduced by the approximations are derived, which show that it should be more widely applicable than the Fresnel propagator. Guidance on how to sample the pupil and detector planes of a simulated imaging system is provided. This report concludes by showing examples of diffraction calculations for a laboratory setup and comparing them to measured diffraction patterns to demonstrate the utility of the propagator.

  18. Controlling single-photon Fock-state propagation through opaque scattering media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, T.J.; Huisman, S.R.; Mosk, A.P.; Pinkse, P.W.H.

    2014-01-01

    The control of light scattering is essential in many quantum optical experiments. Wavefront shaping is a technique used for ultimate control over wave propagation through multiple-scattering media by adaptive manipulation of incident waves. We control the propagation of single-photon Fock states thr

  19. Beam Propagation Factor and Generation of Cosh-squared-Gaussian Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Kaicheng; TANG Huiqin; ZHU Zhenhe

    2001-01-01

    A new light beam termed as a cosh-squared-Gaussian beam (ChSGB) which may be one of solutions of the paraxial wave equation for propagation in complex optical systems has been introduced. Their beam propagation factor (M2-factor) is derived and schemes to generate this light beams are proposed.

  20. Transverse wave propagation in photonic crystal based on holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuh, Andy Ying-Guey; Li, Ming Shian; Wu, Shing Trong

    2011-07-04

    This study investigates the transversely propagating waves in a body-centered tetragonal photonic crystal based on a holographic polymer-dispersed liquid crystal film. Rotating the film reveals three different transverse propagating waves. Degeneracy of optical Bloch waves from reciprocal lattice vectors explains their symmetrical distribution.

  1. Role of beam propagation in Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P

    2008-07-01

    We derive the polarization-dependent displacements parallel and perpendicular to the plane of incidence for a Gaussian light beam reflected from a planar interface, taking into account the propagation of the beam. Using a classical-optics formalism we show that beam propagation may greatly affect both Goos-Hänchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts when the incident beam is focused.

  2. Electromagnetic Propagation of Fiber Probe for Near-field Optical Recording Using 3-D FDTD Method%用3D-FDTD法分析用于近场光存储的光纤探针电磁波传输特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凯; 白明; 鲁拥华; 唐麟; 王超; 明海

    2001-01-01

    The data density of the near-field optical recording is mainlydetermined by near-field electromagnetic distribution of probe fiber such as transmission efficiency, near-field light spot size, polarization keeping and the grade of the electromagnetic field. The optical characters and light wave propagation of various fiber probes for near-field optical recording are numerically simulated using 3D finite-difference time-domain (3D-FDTD) method in this paper. The possible application in near-field optical recording with these probes is discussed. The entirely metal coat probe is pointed out to have an extremely small near-field spot size about 10 nm, which is far less than that of the conventional probe.%提高近场光存储的存储信息密度的关键主要在于掌握近场存储光纤探针的透光率、近场光斑直径尺寸以及场梯度等近场物理量。采用三维时域有限差分(3D-FDTD)法分析了可用于近场光存储的光纤探针尖的光学性质,对不同类型光纤的近场光场分布进行了数值计算,给出结果并进行比较,从光学性质的角度对其在近场光存储中的应用加以讨论。完全镀膜光纤尖在极近场处的光斑可获得10nm的尺寸,远小于传统光纤光学聚焦的光斑尺寸大小。

  3. Simple and fast method for step size determination in computations of signal propagation through nonlinear fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Christian Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    Presents a simple and fast method for determination of the step size that exactly leads to a prescribed accuracy when signal propagation through nonlinear optical fibres is computed using the split-step Fourier method.......Presents a simple and fast method for determination of the step size that exactly leads to a prescribed accuracy when signal propagation through nonlinear optical fibres is computed using the split-step Fourier method....

  4. Enhanced Propagating Surface Plasmon Signal Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Y.; Joly, Alan G.; El-Khoury, Patrick Z.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2016-12-21

    Overcoming the dissipative nature of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) is pre-requisite to realizing functional plasmonic circuitry, in which large bandwidth signals can be manipulated over length scales far-below the diffraction limit of light. To this end, we report on a novel PSP enhanced signal detection technique achieved in an all-metallic substrate. We take advantage of two strategically spatio-temporally separated phase-locked femtosecond laser pulses, incident onto lithographically patterned PSP coupling structures. We follow PSP propagation with joint femtosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution in a time-resolved non-linear photoemission electron microscopy scheme. Initially, a PSP signal wave packet is launched from a hole etched into the silver surface from where it propagates through an open trench structure and is decoded through the use of a timed probe pulse. FDTD calculations demonstrate that PSP signal waves may traverse open trenches in excess of 10 microns in diameter, thereby allowing remote detection even through vacuum regions. This arrangement results in a 10X enhancement in photoemission relative to readout from the bare metal surface. The enhancement is attributed to an all-optical homodyne detection technique that mixes signal and reference PSP waves in a non-linear scheme. Larger readout trenches achieve higher readout levels, however reduced transmission through the trench limits the trench size to 6 microns for maximum readout levels. However, the use of an array of trenches increases the maximum enhancement to near 30X. The attainable enhancement factor may be harnessed to achieve extended coherent PSP propagation in ultrafast plasmonic circuitry.

  5. Propagation of Aberrations through Phase Induced Amplitude Apodization coronagraph

    CERN Document Server

    Pueyo, Laurent; Shaklan, Stuart; 10.1364/JOSAA.28.000189

    2011-01-01

    The specification of polishing requirements for the optics in coronagraphs dedicated to exo-planet detection requires careful and accurate optical modelling. Numerical representations of the propagation of aberrations through the system as well as simulations of the broadband wavefront compensation system using multiple DMs are critical when one devises an error budget for such a class of instruments. In this communication we introduce an analytical tool that serves this purpose for Phase Induced Amplitude Apodisation (PIAA) coronagraphs. We first start by deriving the analytical form of the propagation of a harmonic ripple through a PIAA unit. Using this result we derive the chromaticity of the field at any plane in the optical train of a telescope equipped with such a coronagraph. Finally we study the chromatic response of a sequential DM wavefront actuator correcting such a corrugated field and thus quantify the requirements on the manufacturing of PIAA mirrors

  6. Propagation of Ion Acoustic Perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1975-01-01

    Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered.......Equations describing the propagation of ion acoustic perturbations are considered, using the assumption that the electrons are Boltzman distributed and isothermal at all times. Quasi-neutrality is also considered....

  7. Optical manipulation of gold nanoparticles using an optical nanofiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ying; Hu Yan-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles are gaining increasing attention due to their biological and medical applications.In this letter,we experimentally demonstrate the optical manipulation of 250-nm-diameter gold nanoparticles along an optical nanofiber (550 nm in diameter) injected by an 808-nm laser light.The nanoparticles situated in the evanescent optical field are trapped by optical gradient force and move along the direction of light propagation due to optical scattering force.The velocities reach as high as 132 μm/s at an optical power of 80 mW.

  8. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications

    CERN Document Server

    Ghasemi, Abdollah; Ghasemi, Farshid

    2012-01-01

    Wireless communications has seen explosive growth in recent decades, in a realm that is both broad and rapidly expanding to include satellite services, navigational aids, remote sensing, telemetering, audio and video broadcasting, high-speed data communications, mobile radio systems and much more. Propagation Engineering in Wireless Communications deals with the basic principles of radiowaves propagation for frequency bands used in radio-communications, offering descriptions of new achievements and newly developed propagation models. The book bridges the gap between theoretical calculations and approaches, and applied procedures needed for advanced radio links design. The primary objective of this two-volume set is to demonstrate the fundamentals, and to introduce propagation phenomena and mechanisms that engineers are likely to encounter in the design and evaluation of radio links of a given type and operating frequency. Volume one covers basic principles, along with tropospheric and ionospheric propagation,...

  9. View-based Propagator Derivation

    CERN Document Server

    Schulte, Christian

    2009-01-01

    When implementing a propagator for a constraint, one must decide about variants: When implementing min, should one also implement max? Should one implement linear constraints both with unit and non-unit coefficients? Constraint variants are ubiquitous: implementing them requires considerable (if not prohibitive) effort and decreases maintainability, but will deliver better performance than resorting to constraint decomposition. This paper shows how to use views to derive perfect propagator variants. A model for views and derived propagators is introduced. Derived propagators are proved to be indeed perfect in that they inherit essential properties such as correctness and domain and bounds consistency. Techniques for systematically deriving propagators such as transformation, generalization, specialization, and type conversion are developed. The paper introduces an implementation architecture for views that is independent of the underlying constraint programming system. A detailed evaluation of views implement...

  10. Directed HK propagator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocia, Lucas; Heller, Eric J.

    2015-09-01

    We offer a more formal justification for the successes of our recently communicated "directed Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay" (DHK) time propagator by examining its performance in one-dimensional bound systems which exhibit at least quasi-periodic motion. DHK is distinguished by its single one-dimensional integral—a vast simplification over the usual 2N-dimensional integral in full Heller-Herman-Kluk-Kay (for an N-dimensional system). We find that DHK accurately captures particular coherent state autocorrelations when its single integral is chosen to lie along these states' fastest growing manifold, as long as it is not perpendicular to their action gradient. Moreover, the larger the action gradient, the better DHK will perform. We numerically examine DHK's accuracy in a one-dimensional quartic oscillator and illustrate that these conditions are frequently satisfied such that the method performs well. This lends some explanation for why DHK frequently seems to work so well and suggests that it may be applicable to systems exhibiting quite strong anharmonicity.

  11. Range Information Propagation Transform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈向荣; 朱志刚; 等

    1998-01-01

    A novel method of model-based object recognition is presented in this paper.Its novelty stems from the fact that the gray level image captured by a camera is merged with sparse range information in an active manner.By using a projective transform, which is determined by the sparse range data,festures(e.g.edge points)related to a single planar surface patch of figure in the scene can be assignew with their corresponding range values respectively.As a result,the shape of the very planar patch or figure can be recovered and various kinds of description in the Euclidean space can be calculated.Based on these descriptions values,the hypothesis about the identification of the object and its pose in space can be obtained with a high probability of success,and a high efficiency of hypothesis-verification process can be expected.Another advantage of this method is that the edge detection process can be navigated to the proper location hinted by the sparse range image.In consequence edge features can be extracted even in the regions with low contrast.In this paper the principle of range information propagation transform(RIPT)is explained,and some implementation issues,such as the algorithms using calibrated or uncalibrated gray level image for object recognition,are discussed.The preliminary experimental results are presented to indicate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method.

  12. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  13. A database for propagation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantak, Anil V.; Suwitra, Krisjani; Le, Choung

    1993-08-01

    The NASA Propagation Program supports academic research that models various propagation phenomena in the space research frequency bands. NASA supports such research via school and institutions prominent in the field. The products of such efforts are particularly useful for researchers in the field of propagation phenomena and telecommunications systems engineers. The systems engineer usually needs a few propagation parameter values for a system design. Published literature on the subject, such as the Cunsultative Committee for International Radio (CCIR) publications, may help somewhat, but often times, the parameter values given in such publications use a particular set of conditions which may not quite include the requirements of the system design. The systems engineer must resort to programming the propagation phenomena model of interest and to obtain the parameter values to be used in the project. Furthermore, the researcher in the propagation field must then program the propagation models either to substantiate the model or to generate a new model. The researcher or the systems engineer must either be a skillful computer programmer or hire a programmer, which of course increases the cost of the effort. An increase in cost due to the inevitable programming effort may seem particularly inappropriate if the data generated by the experiment is to be used to substantiate the already well-established models, or a slight variation thereof. To help researchers and the systems engineers, it was recommended by the participants of NASA Propagation Experimenters (NAPEX) 15 held in London, Ontario, Canada on 28-29 June 1991, that propagation software should be constructed which will contain models and prediction methods of most propagation phenomenon. Moreover, the software should be flexible enough for the user to make slight changes to the models without expending a substantial effort in programming.

  14. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  15. Analysis of laser beam propagation in a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. H.

    1985-09-01

    The beam propagation method, based on the parabolic approximation to the wave equation, is used in conjunction with Papoulis' redefinition for optical fields of Woodward's ambiguity function. A simple derivation is given of Tatarskii's formula for the lateral coherence function, and hence the mean intensity profile, of a laser beam propagating through a turbulent atmosphere. Statistics of the received signal and the effects of spatial nonstationarity of the turbulence can also be deduced using this technique, as can the effects of very large-scale variations in refractive index and receiver directivity.

  16. Short-Pulsed Wavepacket Propagation in Ray-Chaotic Enclosures

    CERN Document Server

    Castaldi, Giuseppe; Pinto, Innocenzo M

    2011-01-01

    Wave propagation in ray-chaotic scenarios, characterized by exponential sensitivity to ray-launching conditions, is a topic of significant interest, with deep phenomenological implications and important applications, ranging from optical components and devices to time-reversal focusing/sensing schemes. Against a background of available results that are largely focused on the time-harmonic regime, we deal here with short-pulsed wavepacket propagation in a ray-chaotic enclosure. For this regime, we propose a rigorous analytical framework based on a short-pulsed random-plane-wave statistical representation, and check its predictions against the results from finite-difference-time-domain numerical simulations.

  17. Instability versus equilibrium propagation of a laser beam in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushnikov, Pavel M; Rose, Harvey A

    2004-06-25

    We obtain, for the first time, an analytic theory of the forward stimulated Brillouin scattering instability of a spatially and temporally incoherent laser beam that controls the transition between statistical equilibrium and nonequilibrium (unstable) self-focusing regimes of beam propagation. The stability boundary may be used as a comprehensive guide for inertial confinement fusion designs. Well into the stable regime, an analytic expression for the angular diffusion coefficient is obtained, which provides an essential correction to a geometric optic approximation for beam propagation.

  18. A finite element beam propagation method for simulation of liquid crystal devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbrabant, Pieter J M; Beeckman, Jeroen; Neyts, Kristiaan; James, Richard; Fernandez, F Anibal

    2009-06-22

    An efficient full-vectorial finite element beam propagation method is presented that uses higher order vector elements to calculate the wide angle propagation of an optical field through inhomogeneous, anisotropic optical materials such as liquid crystals. The full dielectric permittivity tensor is considered in solving Maxwell's equations. The wide applicability of the method is illustrated with different examples: the propagation of a laser beam in a uniaxial medium, the tunability of a directional coupler based on liquid crystals and the near-field diffraction of a plane wave in a structure containing micrometer scale variations in the transverse refractive index, similar to the pixels of a spatial light modulator.

  19. Transient processes in the parametric interaction of counter-propagating waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slabko, V V; Rasskazova, E V; Tkachenko, V A; Moskalev, A K [Siberian Federal University, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation); Popov, A K [Purdue University, 1205 W State St, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Myslivets, S A [L.V.Kirensky Institute of Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academgorodok, Krasnoyarsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-31

    We present a comparative analysis of transient processes in media with a negative refractive index for the parametric interaction of co- and counter-propagating waves. The transient time for the interaction of counter-propagating waves is shown to considerably exceed that for the interaction of co-propagating waves. In the case of counter-propagating waves, we present fitting results for the generated wave amplitude as a function of time and for the transient time vs. the amplitude of the pump wave and the length of the medium. (optical metamaterials)

  20. Correlations Decrease with Propagation of Spiking Activity in the Mouse Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Gayathri Nattar; Koester, Helmut Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity through neuronal populations is important for the function of the central nervous system. Neural correlations have an impact on cortical function particularly on the signaling of information and propagation of spiking activity. Therefore we measured the change in correlations as suprathreshold spiking activity propagated between recurrent neuronal networks of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Using optical methods we recorded spiking activity from large samples of neurons from two neural populations simultaneously. The results indicate that correlations decreased as spiking activity propagated from layer 4 to layer 2/3 in the rodent barrel cortex. PMID:21629764

  1. Correlations decrease with propagation of spiking activity in the mouse barrel cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayathri Nattar Ranganathan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Propagation of suprathreshold spiking activity through neuronal populations is important for the function of the central nervous system. Neural correlations have an impact on cortical function particularly on the signaling of information and propagation of spiking activity. Therefore we measured the change in correlations as suprathreshold spiking activity propagated between recurrent neuronal networks of the mammalian cerebral cortex. Using optical methods we recorded spiking activity from large samples of neurons from two neural populations simultaneously. The results indicate that correlations decreased as spiking activity propagated from layer 4 to layer 2/3 in the rodent barrel cortex.

  2. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Grgic, Jure; Pedersen, Jesper Goor

    2010-01-01

    Coupled-resonator optical waveguides hold potential for slow-light propagation of optical pulses. The dispersion properties may adequately be analyzed within the framework of coupled-mode theory. We extend the standard coupled-mode theory for such structures to also include complex-valued paramet...

  3. Radial propagators and Wilson loops

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, S; Leupold, Stefan; Weigert, Heribert

    1996-01-01

    We present a relation which connects the propagator in the radial (Fock-Schwinger) gauge with a gauge invariant Wilson loop. It is closely related to the well-known field strength formula and can be used to calculate the radial gauge propagator. The result is shown to diverge in four-dimensional space even for free fields, its singular nature is however naturally explained using the renormalization properties of Wilson loops with cusps and self-intersections. Using this observation we provide a consistent regularization scheme to facilitate loop calculations. Finally we compare our results with previous approaches to derive a propagator in Fock-Schwinger gauge.

  4. Particle propagation in cosmological backgrounds

    CERN Document Server

    Arteaga, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    We study the quantum propagation of particles in cosmological backgrounds, by considering a doublet of massive scalar fields propagating in an expanding universe, possibly filled with radiation. We focus on the dissipative effects related to the expansion rate. At first order, we recover the expected result that the decay rate is determined by the local temperature. Beyond linear order, the decay rate has an additional contribution governed by the expansion parameter. This latter contribution is present even for stable particles in the vacuum. Finally, we analyze the long time behaviour of the propagator and briefly discuss applications to the trans-Planckian question.

  5. Light Propagation For Accelerated Observers

    CERN Document Server

    Adewole, A I A

    2001-01-01

    We show that for an observer in translational, rotational or gravitational motion, a linearly polarized plane wave has two modes of propagation in a stationary, homogeneous and isotropic medium according to Hertz's version of Maxwell's theory. The first mode is characterized by polarization at right angles to the direction of propagation and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the material constants of the medium. The second mode is characterized by polarization along the propagation direction and has a phase velocity that is controlled by the motion of the observer. We outline some applications of the second mode in emerging technologies.

  6. TSUNAMI WAVE PROPAGATION ALONG WAVEGUIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei G. Marchuk

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a study of tsunami wave propagation along the waveguide on a bottom ridge with flat sloping sides, using the wave rays method. During propagation along such waveguide the single tsunami wave transforms into a wave train. The expression for the guiding velocities of the fastest and slowest signals is defined. The tsunami wave behavior above the ocean bottom ridges, which have various model profiles, is investigated numerically with the help of finite difference method. Results of numerical experiments show that the highest waves are detected above a ridge with flat sloping sides. Examples of tsunami propagation along bottom ridges of the Pacific Ocean are presented.

  7. Visual attitude propagation for small satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawashdeh, Samir A.

    As electronics become smaller and more capable, it has become possible to conduct meaningful and sophisticated satellite missions in a small form factor. However, the capability of small satellites and the range of possible applications are limited by the capabilities of several technologies, including attitude determination and control systems. This dissertation evaluates the use of image-based visual attitude propagation as a compliment or alternative to other attitude determination technologies that are suitable for miniature satellites. The concept lies in using miniature cameras to track image features across frames and extracting the underlying rotation. The problem of visual attitude propagation as a small satellite attitude determination system is addressed from several aspects: related work, algorithm design, hardware and performance evaluation, possible applications, and on-orbit experimentation. These areas of consideration reflect the organization of this dissertation. A "stellar gyroscope" is developed, which is a visual star-based attitude propagator that uses relative motion of stars in an imager's field of view to infer the attitude changes. The device generates spacecraft relative attitude estimates in three degrees of freedom. Algorithms to perform the star detection, correspondence, and attitude propagation are presented. The Random Sample Consensus (RANSAC) approach is applied to the correspondence problem to successfully pair stars across frames while mitigating falsepositive and false-negative star detections. This approach provides tolerance to the noise levels expected in using miniature optics and no baffling, and the noise caused by radiation dose on orbit. The hardware design and algorithms are validated using test images of the night sky. The application of the stellar gyroscope as part of a CubeSat attitude determination and control system is described. The stellar gyroscope is used to augment a MEMS gyroscope attitude propagation

  8. Distributed nonlinear optical response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolov, Nikola Ivanov

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented here is to investigate basic physical properties in nonlinear optical materials with delayed or nonlocal nonlinearity. Soliton propagation, spectral broadening and the influence of the nonlocality or delay of the nonlinearity are the main focusses in the work...

  9. Resonance propagation in heavy-ion scattering

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bijoy Kundu; B K Jain

    2001-06-01

    The formalism developed earlier by us for the propagation of a resonance in the nuclear medium in proton–nucleus collisions has been modified to the case of vector boson production in heavy-ion collisions. The formalism includes coherently the contribution to the observed di-lepton production from the decay of a vector boson inside as well as outside the nuclear medium. The medium modification of the boson is incorporated through an energy dependent optical potential. The calculated invariant mass distributions are presented for the -meson production using optical potentials estimated within the VDM and the resonance model. The shift in the invariant mass distribution is found to be small. To achieve the mass shift (of about 200 MeV towards lower mass) as indicated in the high energy heavy-ion collision experiments, an unusually strong optical potential of about -120 MeV is required. We also observe that, for not so heavy nuclear systems and/or for fast moving resonances, the shape, magnitude and peak position of the invariant mass distribution is substantially different if the contributions from the resonance decay inside and outside are summedup at the amplitude level (coherently) or at the cross section level (incoherently).

  10. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  11. Wave propagation in electromagnetic media

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Julian L

    1990-01-01

    This is the second work of a set of two volumes on the phenomena of wave propagation in nonreacting and reacting media. The first, entitled Wave Propagation in Solids and Fluids (published by Springer-Verlag in 1988), deals with wave phenomena in nonreacting media (solids and fluids). This book is concerned with wave propagation in reacting media-specifically, in electro­ magnetic materials. Since these volumes were designed to be relatively self­ contained, we have taken the liberty of adapting some of the pertinent material, especially in the theory of hyperbolic partial differential equations (concerned with electromagnetic wave propagation), variational methods, and Hamilton-Jacobi theory, to the phenomena of electromagnetic waves. The purpose of this volume is similar to that of the first, except that here we are dealing with electromagnetic waves. We attempt to present a clear and systematic account of the mathematical methods of wave phenomena in electromagnetic materials that will be readily accessi...

  12. Reconstruction of nonlinear wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Jason W; Barsi, Christopher; Wan, Wenjie

    2013-04-23

    Disclosed are systems and methods for characterizing a nonlinear propagation environment by numerically propagating a measured output waveform resulting from a known input waveform. The numerical propagation reconstructs the input waveform, and in the process, the nonlinear environment is characterized. In certain embodiments, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment facilitates determination of an unknown input based on a measured output. Similarly, knowledge of the characterized nonlinear environment also facilitates formation of a desired output based on a configurable input. In both situations, the input thus characterized and the output thus obtained include features that would normally be lost in linear propagations. Such features can include evanescent waves and peripheral waves, such that an image thus obtained are inherently wide-angle, farfield form of microscopy.

  13. Ultra High Energy Nuclei Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Aloisio, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the problem of ultra high energy nuclei propagation in astrophysical backgrounds. We present a new analytical computation scheme based on the hypothesis of continuos energy losses in a kinetic formulation of the particles propagation. This scheme enables the computation of the fluxes of ultra high energy nuclei as well as the fluxes of secondaries (nuclei and nucleons) produced by the process of photo-disintegration suffered by nuclei.

  14. High numerical aperture imaging by using multimode fibers with micro-fabricated optics

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi, Silvio

    2014-01-01

    Controlling light propagation into multimode optical fibers through spatial light modulators provides highly miniaturized endoscopes and optical micromanipulation probes. We increase the numerical aperture up to nearly 1 by micro-optics fabricated on the fiber-end.

  15. Acousto-optic filter for electronic laser tuning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronically tunable lithium niobate filter utilizes acoustic-optic diffraction for tuning laser to desired frequencies. Filter placed inside laser cavity diffracts incident optical signal of one polarization into orthogonal polarization by collinearly propagating acoustic beam to desired wavelength.

  16. Collisions and turbulence in optical rogue wave formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genty, G.; de Sterke, C.M.; Bang, Ole

    2010-01-01

    We discuss optical rogue wave generation in terms of collisions and turbulence processes. Simulations of picosecond pulse propagation in optical fibres show rogue soliton generation from either third-order dispersion or Raman scattering independently. Simulations of rogue soliton emergence...

  17. Correction of edge-flame propagation speed in a counterflow, annular slot burner

    KAUST Repository

    Tran, Vu Manh

    2015-10-22

    To characterize the propagation modes of flames, flame propagation speed must be accurately calculated. The impact of propagating edge-flames on the flow fields of unburned gases is limited experimentally. Thus, few studies have evaluated true propagation speeds by subtracting the flow velocities of unburned gases from flame displacement speeds. Here, we present a counterflow, annular slot burner that provides an ideal one-dimensional strain rate and lengthwise zero flow velocity that allowed us to study the fundamental behaviors of edge-flames. In addition, our burner has easy optical access for detailed laser diagnostics. Flame displacement speeds were measured using a high-speed camera and related flow fields of unburned gases were visualized by particle image velocimetry. These techniques allowed us to identify significant modifications to the flow fields of unburned gases caused by thermal expansion of the propagating edges, which enabled us to calculate true flame propagation speeds that took into account the flow velocities of unburned gases.

  18. Mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Igor P

    2014-05-20

    Transformation of vortex Bessel beams during propagation in turbulent atmosphere is theoretically analyzed. Deforming influence of the random inhomogeneity of the turbulent medium on propagation of diffraction-free beams leads to disappearance of their invariant properties. In the given research, features of evolution of the spatial structure of distribution of mean intensity of vortex Bessel beams in turbulent atmosphere are analyzed. A quantitative criterion of possibility of carrying over of a dark central domain by vortex Bessel beams in a turbulent atmosphere is derived. The analysis of the behavior of several physical parameters of mean-level optical radiation shows that the shape stability of a vortex Bessel beam increases with the topological charge of this beam during its propagation in a turbulent atmosphere.

  19. Propagation of Vortex Electron Wave Functions in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gallatin, Gregg M

    2012-01-01

    The physics of coherent beams of photons carrying axial orbital angular momentum (OAM) is well understood and such beams, sometimes known as vortex beams, have found applications in optics and microscopy. Recently electron beams carrying very large values of axial OAM have been generated. In the absence of coupling to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of such vortex electron beams is virtually identical mathematically to that of vortex photon beams propagating in a medium with a homogeneous index of refraction. But when coupled to an external electromagnetic field the propagation of vortex electron beams is distinctly different from photons. Here we use the exact path integral solution to Schrodingers equation to examine the time evolution of an electron wave function carrying axial OAM. Interestingly we find that the nonzero OAM wave function can be obtained from the zero OAM wave function, in the case considered here, simply by multipling it by an appropriate time and position dependent pref...

  20. Investigations of two-phase flame propagation under microgravity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokalp, Iskender

    2016-07-01

    uniformly distributed. Ethanol-air mixtures are used and the experiments are performed under reduced gravity conditions in the Airbus A310 ZERO-G of the CNES, during which a 10-2g gravity level is achieved. The experiments are conducted in a pressure-release type dual chamber which consists of a spherical combustion chamber of 1 L which is centered in a high pressure chamber of 11 L. Propagating flames under various mixture, droplet size and pressure conditions are investigated with various optical techniques. The collected flame images and the deduced flame propagation velocities enabled to establish various flame propagation and cellular instability regimes, mainly depending on the droplet size and droplet density. The experiments also permitted comparisons with gaseous flames having the same global equivalence ratio as the two-phase flames, therefore allowing analyzing clearly the role of the presence of the droplets in the flame propagation process.

  1. Photon Propagation in Slowly Varying Electromagnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbstein, F.

    2017-03-01

    Effective theory of soft photons in slowly varying electromagnetic background fields is studied at one-loop order in QED. This is of relevance for the study of all-optical signatures of quantum vacuum nonlinearity in realistic electromagnetic background fields as provided by high-intensity lasers. The central result derived in this article is a new analytical expression for the photon polarization tensor in two linearly polarized counterpropagating pulsed Gaussian laser beams. Treating the peak field strengths of both laser beams as free parameters, this field configuration can be considered as interpolating between the limiting cases of a purely right- or left-moving laser beam (if one of the peak field strengths is set equal to zero) and the standing-wave type scenario with two counter-propagating beams of equal strength.

  2. Impact of Fog on Electromagnetic Wave Propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jonathon; Fleisch, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    This experiment was designed to explore the impact of fog on electromagnetic radiation, in particular microwaves and infrared light. For years law enforcement agencies have used microwave radiation (radar guns) to measure the speed of vehicles, and the last ten years has seen increased use of LIDAR, which uses 905-nm infrared radiation rather than microwaves. To evaulate the effect of fog on the operation of these devices, we have constructed a fog chamber with microwave and optical portals to allow light from a HeNe laser and 10.6-GHz microwaves to propagate through various densities of fog. Data is acquired using Vernier Logger Pro and analyzed using MATLAB and Mathematica. Using the attenuation of the laser light to determine fog density, the impact of fog on the signal-to-noise ratio of both microwave and IR devices may be quantified, and the maximum useful range may be calculated.

  3. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, R; Yao, J Q; Xu, D G; Wang, J L; Wang, P, E-mail: wangran19861014@163.com [College of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Institute of Laser and Opto-electronics, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  4. The physical theory and propagation model of THz atmospheric propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, R.; Yao, J. Q.; Xu, D. G.; Wang, J. L.; Wang, P.

    2011-02-01

    Terahertz (THz) radiation is extensively applied in diverse fields, such as space communication, Earth environment observation, atmosphere science, remote sensing and so on. And the research on propagation features of THz wave in the atmosphere becomes more and more important. This paper firstly illuminates the advantages and outlook of THz in space technology. Then it introduces the theoretical framework of THz atmospheric propagation, including some fundamental physical concepts and processes. The attenuation effect (especially the absorption of water vapor), the scattering of aerosol particles and the effect of turbulent flow mainly influence THz atmosphere propagation. Fundamental physical laws are illuminated as well, such as Lamber-beer law, Mie scattering theory and radiative transfer equation. The last part comprises the demonstration and comparison of THz atmosphere propagation models like Moliere(V5), SARTre and AMATERASU. The essential problems are the deep analysis of physical mechanism of this process, the construction of atmospheric propagation model and databases of every kind of material in the atmosphere, and the standardization of measurement procedures.

  5. Wireless optical telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchet, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Wireless optical communication refers to communication based on the unguided propagation of optical waves. The past 30 years have seen significant improvements in this technique - a wireless communication solution for the current millennium - that offers an alternative to radio systems; a technique that could gain attractiveness due to recent concerns regarding the potential effects of radiofrequency waves on human health.The aim of this book is to look at the free space optics that are already used for the exchange of current information; its many benefits, such as incorporating chan

  6. Laser beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals at the temperature close to the nematicisotropic critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Sung; Jiang, I-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan

    2008-03-17

    This study investigates the optical nonlinearity of beam propagation in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells at a temperature close to the nematic-isotropic temperature (TNI). The undulate propagation mode with convergent and divergent loops appearing alternately is reported and the thermally enhanced optical reorientation nonlinearity at the focus is described. The optically induced phase transition exists along the pump beam direction. With the application of the conscopic technique, the arrangements of LC at the focus are proposed in this study. Results of this study demonstrate that the evolution of the LC configuration was affected by the pump beam based on the analysis of conoscopic patterns.

  7. Nonlinear pulse propagation: a time-transformation approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yuzhe; Agrawal, Govind P; Maywar, Drew N

    2012-04-01

    We present a time-transformation approach for studying the propagation of optical pulses inside a nonlinear medium. Unlike the conventional way of solving for the slowly varying amplitude of an optical pulse, our new approach maps directly the input electric field to the output one, without making the slowly varying envelope approximation. Conceptually, the time-transformation approach shows that the effect of propagation through a nonlinear medium is to change the relative spacing and duration of various temporal slices of the pulse. These temporal changes manifest as self-phase modulation in the spectral domain and self-steepening in the temporal domain. Our approach agrees with the generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation for 100 fs pulses and the finite-difference time-domain solution of Maxwell's equations for two-cycle pulses, while producing results 20 and 50 times faster, respectively.

  8. Guided propagation in a step-index, multi-mode fiber: effect of index difference variation on allowable TM propagation constants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Todd R.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice; Passian, Ali; Wig, Andrew; Ferrell, Thomas L.

    1999-11-01

    The effect of variation of core and cladding index difference, Δ n= ncore- ncladding, on allowable values for the guided mode transverse magnetic propagation constants within a step-index, multi-mode optical fiber is investigated. We use a iterative computational technique to calculate the propagation constants for modes inside and outside the core that satisfy the boundary conditions contained within the characteristic eigen-equation for the TM field components. Evidence of a strong dependence of the allowable propagation constants on changes of Δ n is shown.

  9. Plan of propagation and communication experiments using ETS-VI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmori, Shingo

    1988-01-01

    In 1992, an Engineering Test Satellite VI is scheduled to be launched by an H-II rocket. The missions of ETS-VI are to establish basic technologies of inter-satellite communications using millimeter waves and optical beams and fix satellite communications using multibeam antenna on board the satellite. Several kinds of frequency bands will be used for the communications missions. However, these frequencies can be used for propagation experiments.

  10. Channel plasmon polariton propagation in nanoimprinted V-groove waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Fernandez-Cuesta, I.; Boltasseva, Alexandra;

    2008-01-01

    We present the results of optical characterization of metal V-groove waveguides using scanning near-field microscopy, showing broadband transmission with subwavelength confinement and propagation lengths exceeding 100 mu m. An updated fabrication method using a combination of UV and nanoimprint l...... lithography is presented. The developed approach is mass-production compatible, adaptable to different designs, and offers wafer-scale parallel fabrication of plasmonic components based on profiled metal surfaces....

  11. Atomic Interferometry with Detuned Counter-Propagating Electromagnetic Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsang, Ming -Yee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-09-05

    Atomic fountain interferometry uses atoms cooled with optical molasses to 1 μK, which are then launched in a fountain mode. The interferometer relies on the nonlinear Raman interaction of counter-propagating visible light pulses. We present models of these key transitions through a series of Hamiltonians. Our models, which have been verified against special cases with known solutions, allow us to incorporate the effects of non-ideal pulse shapes and realistic laser frequency or wavevector jitter.

  12. Nonlinear Propagation of Light in One Dimensional Periodic Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Roy H.; Weinstein, Michael I.; Philip J Holmes

    2000-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear propagation of light in an optical fiber waveguide as modeled by the anharmonic Maxwell-Lorentz equations (AMLE). The waveguide is assumed to have an index of refraction which varies periodically along its length. The wavelength of light is selected to be in resonance with the periodic structure (Bragg resonance). The AMLE system considered incorporates the effects non-instantaneous response of the medium to the electromagnetic field (chromatic or material dispersion...

  13. Monte Carlo methods for light propagation in biological tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Vinckenbosch, Laura; Lacaux, Céline; Tindel, Samy; Thomassin, Magalie; Obara, Tiphaine

    2016-01-01

    Light propagation in turbid media is driven by the equation of radiative transfer. We give a formal probabilistic representation of its solution in the framework of biological tissues and we implement algorithms based on Monte Carlo methods in order to estimate the quantity of light that is received by a homogeneous tissue when emitted by an optic fiber. A variance reduction method is studied and implemented, as well as a Markov chain Monte Carlo method based on the Metropolis–Hastings algori...

  14. Free space propagation of concentric vortices through underwater turbid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, K. S.; Miller, J. K.; Cochenour, B. M.; Li, W.; Li, Y.; Watkins, R. J.; Johnson, E. G.

    2016-10-01

    Concentric optical vortex beams of 3-petal, 5-petal, and 6-petal spatial profiles are generated at 450 nm using a single diffractive optical element. The spatial and temporal propagation characteristics of these beams are then studied in a scattering underwater environment. Experimental results demonstrate a less than 5% reduction in the spatial pattern for turbidities in excess of 10 attenuation lengths. The temporal properties of concentric vortex beams are studied by temporally encoding an on-off keyed, non-return-to-zero (OOK-NRZ) data stream at 1.5 GHz.

  15. On the propagation of Voigt waves in energetically active materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2016-11-01

    If Voigt-wave propagation is possible in a dissipative anisotropic dielectric material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, then it is also possible in the analogous energetically active material characterised by the permittivity dyadic \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=}, where \\mathop{\\tilde{\\varepsilon }}\\limits\\raise{2pt=} is the hermitian conjugate of \\mathop{\\varepsilon }\\limits\\raise{2pt=}. This symmetry follows directly from a theoretical analysis of the necessary and sufficient conditions for Voigt-wave propagation in anisotropic materials. As a consequence of this symmetry, a porous dissipative material that exhibits Voigt-wave propagation can be used to construct a material that allows the propagation of Voigt waves with attendant linear gain in amplitude with propagation distance, by means of infiltration with an electrically or optically activated dye, for example. This phenomenon is captured by the Bruggeman formalism for homogenised composite materials based on isotropic dielectric component materials that are randomly distributed as oriented spheroidal particles.

  16. Beaconless operation for optimal laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Corruption of the wavefront, beam wondering and power density degradation at the receiving end are the effects typically observed at laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere. Compensation of these effects can be achieved if the reciprocal conditions for the propagating wave are satisfied along the propagation range. Practical realization of these conditions requires placing a localized beacon at the receiving end of the range and high-performance adaptive optics system (AOS). The key condition for an effective performance of AOS is a high value of the reciprocal component in the outgoing wave, since only this component is getting compensated after propagating turbulence perturbed path. The nonreciprocal components that is present in the wave directed toward the target is caused by three factors (detailed in this paper) that determine the partial restoration of the structure of the beacon beam. Thus solution of a complex problem of focusing the laser beam propagating through turbulent media can be achieved for the share of the outgoing wave that has a reciprocal component. This paper examines the ways and means that can be used in achieving the stated goal of effective laser power delivery on the distant image-resolved object.

  17. Observational evidence for matter propagation in accretion flows

    CERN Document Server

    Revnivtsev, M; Kniazev, A; Burenin, R; Buckley, D A H; Churazov, E

    2010-01-01

    We study simultaneous X-ray and optical observations of three intermediate polars EX Hya, V1223 Sgr and TV Col with the aim to understand the propagation of matter in their accretion flows. We show that in all cases the power spectra of flux variability of binary systems in X-rays and in optical band are similar to each other and the majority of X-ray and optical fluxes are correlated with time lag <1 sec. These findings support the idea that optical emission of accretion disks, in these binary systems,largely originates as reprocessing of X-ray luminosity of their white dwarfs. In the best obtained dataset of EX Hya we see that the optical lightcurve unambiguously contains some component, which leads the X-ray emission by ~7 sec. We interpret this in the framework of the model of propagating fluctuations and thus deduce the time of travel of the matter from the innermost part of the truncated accretion disk to the white dwarf surface. This value agrees very well with the time expected for matter threaded ...

  18. Parametrization of Fully Dressed Quark Propagator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Wei-Xing; ZHU Ji-Zhen; ZHOU Li-Juan; SHEN Peng-Nian; HU Zhao-Hui

    2005-01-01

    Based on an extensive study of the Dyson-Schwinger equations for a fully dressed quark propagator in the "rainbow" approximation, a parametrized form of the quark propagator is suggested. The corresponding quark selfform of the quark propagator proposed in this work describes a confining quark propagation, and is quite convenient to be used in any numerical calculations.

  19. Survey of propagation Model in wireless Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemant Kumar Sharma

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available To implementation of mobile ad hoc network wave propagation models are necessary to determine propagation characteristic through a medium. Wireless mobile ad hoc networks are self creating and self organizing entity. Propagation study provides an estimation of signal characteristics. Accurate prediction of radio propagation behaviour for MANET is becoming a difficult task. This paper presents investigation of propagation model. Radio wave propagation mechanisms are absorption, reflection, refraction, diffraction and scattering. This paper discuss free space model, two rays model, and cost 231 hata and its variants and fading model, and summarized the advantages and disadvantages of these model. This study would be helpful in choosing the correct propagation model.

  20. The FLIC Overlap Quark Propagator

    CERN Document Server

    Kamleh, W; Leinweber, D B; Williams, A G; Zhang, J; Kamleh, Waseem; Bowman, Patrick O.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.; Zhang, Jianbo

    2004-01-01

    FLIC overlap fermions are a variant of the standard (Wilson) overlap action, with the FLIC (Fat Link Irrelevant Clover) action as the overlap kernel rather than the Wilson action. The structure of the FLIC overlap fermion propagator in momentum space is studied, and a comparison against previous studies of the Wilson overlap propagator in quenched QCD is performed. To explore the scaling properties of the propagator for the two actions, numerical calculations are performed in Landau Gauge across three lattices with different lattice spacing $a$ and similar physical volumes. We find that at light quark masses the acti ons agree in both the infrared and the ultraviolet, but at heavier masses some disagreement in the ultraviolet appears. This is attributed to the two action s having different discretisation errors with the FLIC overlap providing superior performance in this regime. Both actions scale reasonably, but some scaling violations are observed.

  1. Wave propagation in ballistic gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naarayan, Srinivasan S; Subhash, Ghatu

    2017-01-23

    Wave propagation characteristics in long cylindrical specimens of ballistic gelatine have been investigated using a high speed digital camera and hyper elastic constitutive models. The induced transient deformation is modelled with strain rate dependent Mooney-Rivlin parameters which are determined by modelling the stress-strain response of gelatine at a range of strain rates. The varying velocity of wave propagation through the gelatine cylinder is derived as a function of prestress or stretch in the gelatine specimen. A finite element analysis is conducted using the above constitutive model by suitably defining the impulse imparted by the polymer bar into the gelatine specimen. The model results are found to capture the experimentally observed wave propagation characteristics in gelatine effectively.

  2. Propagating Class and Method Combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Erik

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a mixin based class and method combination mechanism with block structure propagation. Traditionally, mixins can be composed to form new classes, possibly merging the implementations of methods (as in CLOS). In our approach, a class or method combination operation may cause any...... number of implicit combinations. For example, it is possible to specify separate aspects of a family of classes, and then combine several aspects into a full-fledged class family. The combination expressions would explicitly combine whole-family aspects, and by propagation implicitly combine the aspects...... for each member of the class family, and again by propagation implicitly compose each method from its aspects. As opposed to CLOS, this is type-checked statically; and as opposed to other systems for advanced class combination/ merging/weaving, it is integrated directly in the language, ensuring a clear...

  3. Gluon propagator with dynamical quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Papavassiliou, Joannis

    2014-01-01

    We review recent work on the effects of quark loops on the gluon propagator in the Landau gauge, relying mainly on the Schwinger-Dyson equations that describe the two-point sector of QCD. Particularly important in this context is the detailed study of how the standard gluon mass generation mechanism, which is responsible for the infrared finiteness of the quenched gluon propagator, is affected by the inclusions of dynamical quarks. This issue is especially relevant and timely, given the qualitative picture that emerges from recent unquenched lattice simulations. Our results demonstrate clearly that the gluon mass generation persists, and that the corresponding saturation points of the unquenched gluon propagators are progressively suppressed, as the number of quark flavors increases.

  4. Modulational instability of short pulses in long optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukla, P. K.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1986-01-01

    The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed......The effect of time-derivative nonlinearity is incorporated into the study of the modulational instability of heat pulses propagating through long optical fibers. Conditions for soliton formation are discussed...

  5. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-06-24

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation.

  6. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  7. SIS epidemic propagation on hypergraphs

    CERN Document Server

    Bodó, Ágnes; Simon, Péter L

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of epidemic propagation on networks is extended to hypergraphs in order to account for both the community structure and the nonlinear dependence of the infection pressure on the number of infected neighbours. The exact master equations of the propagation process are derived for an arbitrary hypergraph given by its incidence matrix. Based on these, moment closure approximation and mean-?eld models are introduced and compared to individual-based stochastic simulations. The simulation algorithm, developed for networks, is extended to hypergraphs. The e?ects of hypergraph structure and the model parameters are investigated via individual-based simulation results.

  8. Coupled-resonator optical waveguides: Q-factor and disorder influence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Jure; Campaioli, Enrico; Raza, Søren;

    2011-01-01

    Coupled resonator optical waveguides (CROW) can significantly reduce light propagation pulse velocity due to pronounced dispersion properties. A number of interesting applications have been proposed to benefit from such slow-light propagation. Unfortunately, the inevitable presence of disorder, i...

  9. Optic glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glioma - optic; Optic nerve glioma; Juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma; Brain cancer - optic glioma ... Optic gliomas are rare. The cause of optic gliomas is unknown. Most optic gliomas are slow-growing ...

  10. Spatio-temporal optical vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Jhajj, N; Rosenthal, E W; Zahedpour, S; Wahlstrand, J K; Milchberg, H M

    2016-01-01

    We present the first experimental, theoretical, and numerical evidence of spatio-temporal optical vortices (STOVs). Quantized STOVs are a fundamental element of the nonlinear collapse and subsequent propagation of short optical pulses in material media. A STOV consists of a ring-shaped null in the electromagnetic field about which the phase is spiral, forming a dynamic torus which is concentric with and tracks the propagating pulse. Depending on the sign of the material dispersion, the local electromagnetic energy flow is saddle or spiral about the STOV. STOVs are born and evolve conserving topological charge; they can be simultaneously created in pairs with opposite windings, or generated from a point null. Our results, here obtained for optical pulse collapse and filamentation in air, are generalizable to a broad class of nonlinearly propagating waves.

  11. Divergence of optical vortex beams

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Salla Gangi; Prabhakar, Shashi; Anwar, Ali; Banerji, J; Singh, R P

    2015-01-01

    We show, both theoretically and experimentally, that the propagation of optical vortices in free space can be analysed by using the width ($w(z)$) of the host Gaussian beam and the inner and outer radii of the vortex beam at the source plane ($z=0$) as defined in \\textit{Optics Letters \\textbf{39,} 4364-4367 (2014)}. We also studied the divergence of vortex beams, considered as the rate of change of inner or outer radius with the propagation distance, and found that it varies with the order in the same way as that of the inner and outer radii at zero propagation distance. These results may be useful in designing optical fibers for orbital angular momentum modes that play a crucial role in quantum communication.

  12. Optical Beams in Nonlocal Nonlinear Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Królikowski, W.; Bang, Ole; Wyller, J.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons.......We discuss propagation of optical beams in nonlocal Kerr-like media with the nonlocality of general form. We study the effect of nonlocality on modulational instability of the plane wave fronts, collapse of finite beams and formation of spatial solitons....

  13. Sound propagation through nonuniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of determining the transmission and attenuation of sound propagating in nonuniform ducts with and without mean flows are discussed. The approaches reviewed include purely numerical techniques, quasi-one-dimensional approximations, solutions for slowly varying cross sections, solutions for weak wall undulations, approximation of the duct by a series of stepped uniform cross sections, variational methods and solutions for the mode envelopes.

  14. Radio frequency propagation made easy

    CERN Document Server

    Faruque, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces Radio Frequency Propagation to a broad audience.  The author blends theory and practice to bring readers up-to-date in key concepts, underlying principles and practical applications of wireless communications.  The presentation is designed to be easily accessible, minimizing mathematics and maximizing visuals.

  15. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, B. W.

    1987-06-01

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.

  16. Expectation Propagation for Exponential Families

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Matthias

    2005-01-01

    This is a tutorial describing the Expectation Propagation (EP) algorithm for a general exponential family. Our focus is on simplicity of exposition. Although the overhead of translating a specific model into its exponential family representation can be considerable, many apparent complications of EP can simply be sidestepped by working in this canonical representation.

  17. Overseas propagation of kiwifruit pollinator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ One year after granting to the Italian firm Kiwigold Consortium the world-wide propagation and commercialization rights of Jintao,a female cultivar plant from the novel variety of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch), the CAS Wuhan Botanical Garden (WBG) reached a new agreement with the firm on the similar right of a male plant cultivar Moshan-4.

  18. Propagators in Polymer Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Flores-González, Ernesto; Reyes, Juan D

    2013-01-01

    Polymer Quantum Mechanics is based on some of the techniques used in the loop quantization of gravity that are adapted to describe systems possessing a finite number of degrees of freedom. It has been used in two ways: on one hand it has been used to represent some aspects of the loop quantization in a simpler context, and, on the other, it has been applied to each of the infinite mechanical modes of other systems. Indeed, this polymer approach was recently implemented for the free scalar field propagator. In this work we compute the polymer propagators of the free particle and a particle in a box; amusingly, just as in the non polymeric case, the one of the particle in a box may be computed also from that of the free particle using the method of images. We verify the propagators hereby obtained satisfy standard properties such as: consistency with initial conditions, composition and Green's function character. Furthermore they are also shown to reduce to the usual Schr\\"odinger propagators in the limit of sm...

  19. Light Front Fermion Model Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jorge Henrique Sales; Alfredo Takashi Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    In this work we consider the propagation of two fermion fields interacting with each other by the exchange of intermediate scalar bosons in the light front.We obtain the corrections up to fourth order in the coupling constant using hierarchical equations in order to obtain the bound state equation (Bethe-Salpeter equation).

  20. Self-Averaging Expectation Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cakmak, Burak; Opper, Manfred; Fleury, Bernard Henri

    We investigate the problem of approximate inference using Expectation Propagation (EP) for large systems under some statistical assumptions. Our approach tries to overcome the numerical bottleneck of EP caused by the inversion of large matrices. Assuming that the measurement matrices are realizat...... on a signal recovery problem of compressed sensing and compare with standard EP....

  1. Ultraviolet asymptotics of glueball propagators

    CERN Document Server

    Bochicchio, M

    2013-01-01

    We point out that perturbation theory in conjunction with the renormalization group (RG) puts a severe constraint on the structure of the large-N non-perturbative glueball propagators in SU(N) pure YM, in QCD and in n=1 SUSY QCD with massless quarks, or in any confining asymptotically-free gauge theory massless in perturbation theory. For the scalar and pseudoscalar glueball propagators in pure YM and QCD with massless quarks we check in detail the RG-improved estimate to the order of the leading and next-to-leading logarithms by means of a remarkable three-loop computation by Chetyrkin et al. We investigate as to whether the aforementioned constraint is satisfied by any of the scalar or pseudoscalar glueball propagators computed in the framework of the AdS String/ large-N Gauge Theory correspondence and of a recent proposal based on a Topological Field Theory underlying the large-N limit of YM. We find that none of the proposals for the scalar or the pseudoscalar glueball propagators based on the AdS String/...

  2. Lossless propagation in metal-semiconductor-metal plasmonic waveguides using quantum dot active medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhi, K; Granpayeh, N; Ahmadi, V; Pahlavan, S

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze and simulate the lossless propagation of lightwaves in the active metal-semiconductor-metal plasmonic waveguides (MSMPWs) at the wavelength range of 1540-1560 nm using a quantum dot (QD) active medium. The Maxwell's equations are solved in the waveguide, and the required gains for achieving lossless propagation are derived. On the other hand, the rate equations in quantum dot active regions are solved by using the Runge-Kutta method, and the achievable optical gain is derived. The analyses results show that the required optical gain for lossless propagation in MSMPWs is achievable using the QD active medium. Also, by adjusting the active medium parameters, the MSMPWs loss can be eliminated in a specific bandwidth, and the propagation length increases obviously.

  3. The influence of the edge density fluctuations on electron cyclotron wave beam propagation in tokamaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelli, N.; Balakin, A.A.; Westerhof, E.

    2010-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the electron cyclotron (EC) wave beam propagation in the presence of edge density fluctuations by means of a quasi-optical code [Balakin A. A. et al, Nucl. Fusion 48 (2008) 065003] is presented. The effects of the density fluctuations on the wave beam propagation...... are estimated in a vacuum beam propagation between the edge density layer and the EC resonance absorption layer. Consequences on the EC beam propagation are investigated by using a simplified model in which the density fluctuations are described by a single harmonic oscillation. In addition, quasi......-optical calculations are shown by using edge density fluctuations as calculated by two-dimensional interchange turbulence simulations and validated with the experimental data [O. E. Garcia et al, Nucl. Fusion 47 (2007) 667]...

  4. Basic Optics for the Astronomical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Breckinridge, James

    2012-01-01

    This text was written to provide students of astronomy and engineers an understanding of optical science - the study of the generation, propagation, control, and measurement of optical radiation - as it applies to telescopes and instruments for astronomical research in the areas of astrophysics, astrometry, exoplanet characterization, and planetary science. The book provides an overview of the elements of optical design and physical optics within the framework of the needs of the astronomical community.

  5. Controllable Optical Solitons in Optical Fiber System with Distributed Coefficients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-Fei; HE Wan-Quan; ZHANG Pei; ZHANG Peng

    2011-01-01

    We present how to control the dynamics of optical solitons in optical fibers under nonlinearity and dispersion management, together with the fiber loss or gain. We obtain a family of exact solutions for the nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation, which describes the propagation of optical pulses in optical fibers, and investigate the dynamical features of solitons by analyzing the exact analytical solutions in different physical situations. The results show that under the appropriate condition, not only the group velocity dispersion and the nonlinearity, but also the loss/gain can be used to manipulate the light pulse.

  6. Aerodynamic distortion propagation calculation in application of high-speed target detection by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yonghui; Sun, Huayan; Zhao, Yanzhong; Chen, Jianbiao

    2015-10-01

    Active laser detection technique has a broad application prospect in antimissile and air defense, however the aerodynamic flow field around the planes and missiles cause serious distortion effect on the detecting laser beams. There are many computational fluid dynamics(CFD) codes that can predict the air density distribution and also the density fluctuations of the flow field, it's necessary for physical optics to be used to predict the distortion properties after propagation through the complex process. Aiming at the physical process of laser propagation in "Cat-eye" lenses and aerodynamic flow field for twice, distortion propagation calculation method is researched in this paper. In the minds of dividing the whole process into two parts, and tread the aero-optical optical path difference as a phase distortion, the incidence and reflection process are calculated using Collins formula and angular spectrum diffraction theory respectively. In addition, turbulent performance of the aerodynamic flow field is estimated according to the electromagnetic propagation theory through a random medium, the rms optical path difference and Strehl ratio of the turbulent optical distortion are obtained. Finally, Computational fluid mechanics and aero-optical distortion properties of the detecting laser beams are calculated with the hemisphere-on-cylinder turret as an example, calculation results are showed and analysed.

  7. Subwavelength propagation and localization of light using surface plasmons: A brief perspective

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G V Pavan Kumar; Danveer Singh; Partha Pratim Patra; Arindam Dasgupta

    2014-01-01

    Surface plasmons at the metal–dielectric interface have emerged as an important candidate to propagate and localize light at subwavelength scales. By tailoring the geometry and arrangement of metallic nanoarchitectures, propagating and localized surface plasmons can be obtained. In this brief perspective, we discuss: (1) how surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs) can be optically excited in metallic nanoarchitectures by employing a variety of optical microscopy methods; (2) how SPPs and LSPs in plasmonic nanowires can be utilized for subwavelength polarization optics and single-molecule surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on a photonic chip; and (3) how individual plasmonic nanowire can be optically manipulated using optical trapping methods.

  8. Propagation of an electromagnetic soliton in an anisotropic biquadratic ferromagnetic medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.Kavitha; M.Saravanan; D.Gopi

    2013-01-01

    Information storage technology based on anisotropic ferromagnets with sufficiently high magneto-optical effects has received much attention in recent years.Magneto-optical recording combines the merits of magnetic and optical techniques.We investigate the magneto-optical effects on a biquadratic ferromagnet and show that the dynamics of the system are govemed by a perturbed nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equation.The evolutions of amplitude and velocity of the soliton are found to be time independent,thereby admitting the lossless propagation of the electromagnetic soliton in the medium,which may have potential applications in soliton based optical communication systems.We also exploit the role of perturbation,which has a significant impact on the propagation of an electromagnetic soliton.

  9. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Silver, Jonathan M.; Stebbings, Sarah L.; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a concept of fundamental importance in many areas of physics, underpinning such diverse phenomena as ferromagnetism, superconductivity, superfluidity and the Higgs mechanism. Here we demonstrate nonreciprocity and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) states of light to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, this effect can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. Our findings pave the way for a variety of applications including optically controllable circulators and isolators, all-optical switching, nonlinear-enhanced rotation sensing, optical flip-flops for photonic memories as well as exceptionally sensitive power and refractive index sensors. PMID:28220865

  10. Symmetry Breaking of Counter-Propagating Light in a Nonlinear Resonator

    CERN Document Server

    Del Bino, Leonardo; Stebbings, Sarah L; Del'Haye, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Light is generally expected to travel through isotropic media independent of its direction. This makes it challenging to develop non-reciprocal optical elements like optical diodes or circulators, which currently rely on magneto-optical effects and birefringent materials. Here we present measurements of non-reciprocal transmission and spontaneous symmetry breaking between counter-propagating light in dielectric microresonators. The symmetry breaking corresponds to a resonance frequency splitting that allows only one of two counter-propagating (but otherwise identical) light waves to circulate in the resonator. Equivalently, the symmetry breaking can be seen as the collapse of standing waves and transition to travelling waves within the resonator. We present theoretical calculations to show that the symmetry breaking is induced by Kerr-nonlinearity-mediated interaction between the counter-propagating light. This effect is expected to take place in any dielectric ring-resonator and might constitute one of the m...

  11. Demonstration of sub-luminal propagation of single-cycle terahertz pulses for particle acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, D A; Snedden, E W; Cliffe, M J; Graham, D M; Jamison, S P

    2016-01-01

    The sub-luminal phase velocity of electromagnetic waves in free space is generally unobtainable, being closely linked to forbidden faster than light group velocities. The requirement of effective sub-luminal phase-velocity in laser-driven particle acceleration schemes imposes a fundamental limit on the total acceleration achievable in free-space, and necessitates the use of dielectric structures and waveguides for extending the field-particle interaction. Here we demonstrate a new travelling-source and free space propagation approach to overcoming the sub-luminal propagation limits. The approach exploits the relative ease of generating ultrafast optical sources with slow group velocity propagation, and a group-to-phase front conversion through non-linear optical interaction near a material-vacuum boundary. The concept is demonstrated with two terahertz generation processes, non-linear optical rectification and current-surge rectification. The phase velocity is tunable, both above and below vacuum speed of lig...

  12. Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    As nonlinear optics further develops as a field of research in electromagnetic wave propagation, its state-of-the-art technologies will continue to strongly impact real-world applications in a variety of fields useful to the practicing scientist and engineer. From basic principles to examples...... of applications, Nonlinear Optics: Principles and Applications effectively bridges physics and mathematics with relevant applied material for real-world use. The book progresses naturally from fundamental aspects to illustrative examples, and presents a strong theoretical foundation that equips the reader...... and matter, this text focuses on the physical understanding of nonlinear optics, and explores optical material response functions in the time and frequency domain....

  13. Beam wandering statistics of twin thin laser beam propagation under generalized atmospheric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Darío G; Funes, Gustavo

    2012-12-03

    Under the Geometrics Optics approximation is possible to estimate the covariance between the displacements of two thin beams after they have propagated through a turbulent medium. Previous works have concentrated in long propagation distances to provide models for the wandering statistics. These models are useful when the separation between beams is smaller than the propagation path-regardless of the characteristics scales of the turbulence. In this work we give a complete model for these covariances, behavior introducing absolute limits to the validity of former approximations. Moreover, these generalizations are established for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric models.

  14. Photothermal determination of optical coefficients using an optical fibre sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Laufer, J

    2000-01-01

    configuration is more sensitive to the thermal coefficients than the optical coefficients of the target. Pulsed photothermal radiometry was found to have higher sensitivity to the optical coefficients than has the optical fibre sensor in its present form. However, modifications to the configuration of the sensor can produce a performance matching that of pulsed photothermal radiometry. This thesis is concerned with the development of an optical fibre sensor for the photothermal determination of the optical coefficients of tissue. The detection of differences in tissue optical properties might be used for the diagnosis of cancers and other tissue pathologies. The sensor consists of a thin transparent polymer film mounted at the distal end of an optical fibre. The film acts as a Fabry-Perot interferometer. The absorption of short, low energy laser pulses transmitted through the film and into the tissue generates thermal as well as acoustic transients, which propagate into/the film and modulate its thickness. Th...

  15. Microwave propagation characteristics under subtropical environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Sukla

    The LOS microwave communication is still in existence in many parts of the world. In a well designed link, the radio waves transmitted from the transmitter reaches the receiver with no deterioration in signal quality, but sometimes it is seen that the radio signal while passing through the medium gets degraded and may at times be lost. As the reception quality of the radio signal is controlled by the environment through which the radio signal propagates, it has been an interesting topic of research since the first installation of LOS link. Though, with the advent of optical communications this mode of propagation is believed to have lost its importance, the operation of LOS links are still very much in existence in this country. So a look on the operational reliability and predictability of the microwave hops is worth noting. Degradation of such signal is always measured in terms of attenuation and fading and prediction reliability of such signal is very important, and as a result a number of models with these aims have been developed. But even with all these models and volume of information, there is no single model that can provide a flawless link prediction at different terrain and environmental situations. Such studies also help in understanding the basic physics of the system and more so the coupling processes between earth and the near earth environment as the North Eastern region of India has varied tropospheric and topological characters, a single model will not be sufficient to study and analyse the attenuation or enhancement of microwave signal energy at the receiving end. Very little theoretical and experimental work has been carried out over this region, as a result the necessity arises to develop models to improve the quality of signal reception. The aims of this work is based on these facts. For this purpose, links under study are so selected, they have almost same hop length, same topology but located at different situations. 1. Milmilia

  16. General theory of light propagation and imaging through the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    McKechnie, T Stewart

    2016-01-01

    This book lays out a new, general theory of light propagation and imaging through Earth’s turbulent atmosphere. Current theory is based on the – now widely doubted – assumption of Kolmogorov turbulence. The new theory is based on a generalized atmosphere, the turbulence characteristics of which can be established, as needed, from readily measurable properties of point-object, or star, images. The pessimistic resolution predictions of Kolmogorov theory led to lax optical tolerance prescriptions for large ground-based astronomical telescopes which were widely adhered to in the 1970s and 1980s. Around 1990, however, it became clear that much better resolution was actually possible, and Kolmogorov tolerance prescriptions were promptly abandoned. Most large telescopes built before 1990 have had their optics upgraded (e.g., the UKIRT instrument) and now achieve, without adaptive optics (AO), almost an order of magnitude better resolution than before. As well as providing a more comprehensive and precise under...

  17. Polymer optical fiber fuse

    CERN Document Server

    Mizuno, Yosuke; Tanaka, Hiroki; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2013-01-01

    Although high-transmission-capacity optical fibers are in demand, the problem of the fiber fuse phenomenon needs to be resolved to prevent the destruction of fibers. As polymer optical fibers become more prevalent, clarifying their fuse properties has become important. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a fuse propagation velocity of 21.9 mm/s, which is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude slower than that in standard silica fibers. The achieved threshold power density and proportionality constant between the propagation velocity and the power density are respectively 1/186 of and 16.8 times the values for silica fibers. An oscillatory continuous curve instead of periodic voids is formed after the passage of the fuse. An easy fuse termination method is presented herein, along with its potential plasma applications.

  18. Thermal blooming on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fuyin; Wang, Jihong; Ren, Ge; Tan, Yufeng; Zhu, Nengbing; Ai, Zhiwei

    2016-10-01

    Thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation can seriously degrade performance of far-field beam quality and energy distribution. Numerical simulation is carried out to study the influences of thermal blooming on laser propagation in line pipes. A physical model of thermal blooming effect of gas on laser propagation in an aspirating pipe is established. Axial flow and suction in the outlet are used to attenuate the thermal blooming effect. Based on the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, stable calculation of flow field is carried out first, then the optical field and the fluent field is coupling calculated by means of user defined function (UDF). The results show that radial flow is enhanced in the aspirating pipe and the index of refraction gradient caused by thermal blooming effect is decreased. It is indicated that the beam quality of the outlet is improved compared with the pipe model without aspirating. The optical path difference (OPD) distribution of the outlet is analyzed and decomposed by Zernike polynomials. It is shown that the defocus item of 4m aspirating pipe is decreased more than an order of magnitude compared with the 4m pipe without aspirating.

  19. Effects of light propagation in middle intensity atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubua YUAN; Dexiu HUANG; Bangxu LI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an experimental study of the effects of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence.Free space optical communication is a line-of-sight technology that transmits a modulated beam of visible light through the atmosphere for broadband communication.The fundamental limitations of free space optical communications arise from the environment through which it propagates.However these systems are vulnerable to atmospheric turbulence, such as attenuation and scintillation, Scintillation is due to the air index variation under the temperature effects.These factors cause an attenuated receiver signal and lead to higher bit error rate (BER).An experiment of laser propagation was carried out to characterize the light intensity through turbulent air in the laboratory environment.The experimental results agree with the calculation based on Rytov for the case of weak to intermediate turbulence.Also, we show the characteristics of irradiance scintillation, intensity distribution and atmospheric turbulence strength.By means of laboratory simulated turbulence, the turbulence box is constructed with the following measurements: 0.5 m wide, 2m long and 0.5m high.The simulation box consists of three electric heaters and is well described for understanding the experimental set up.The fans and heaters are used to increase the homogeneity of turbulence and to create different scintillation indices.The received intensity scintillation and atmosphere turbulence strength were obtained and the variation of refractive index, with its corresponding structure parameter, is calculated from the experimental results.

  20. Atmospheric propagation of THz radiation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wanke, Michael Clement; Mangan, Michael A.; Foltynowicz, Robert J.

    2005-11-01

    In this investigation, we conduct a literature study of the best experimental and theoretical data available for thin and thick atmospheres on THz radiation propagation from 0.1 to 10 THz. We determined that for thick atmospheres no data exists beyond 450 GHz. For thin atmospheres data exists from 0.35 to 1.2 THz. We were successful in using FASE code with the HITRAN database to simulate the THz transmission spectrum for Mauna Kea from 0.1 to 2 THz. Lastly, we successfully measured the THz transmission spectra of laboratory atmospheres at relative humidities of 18 and 27%. In general, we found that an increase in the water content of the atmosphere led to a decrease in the THz transmission. We identified two potential windows in an Albuquerque atmosphere for THz propagation which were the regions from 1.2 to 1.4 THz and 1.4 to 1.6 THz.

  1. Exact propagators in harmonic superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzenko, Sergei M.

    2004-10-01

    Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super-Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in arxiv:hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super-Yang-Mills theory.

  2. Exact propagators in harmonic superspace

    CERN Document Server

    Kuzenko, S M

    2004-01-01

    Within the background field formulation in harmonic superspace for quantum N = 2 super Yang-Mills theories, the propagators of the matter, gauge and ghost superfields possess a complicated dependence on the SU(2) harmonic variables via the background vector multiplet. This dependence is shown to simplify drastically in the case of an on-shell vector multiplet. For a covariantly constant background vector multiplet, we exactly compute all the propagators. In conjunction with the covariant multi-loop scheme developed in hep-th/0302205, these results provide an efficient (manifestly N = 2 supersymmetric) technical setup for computing multi-loop quantum corrections to effective actions in N = 2 supersymmetric gauge theories, including the N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory.

  3. Scintillation reduction for laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, G P; Gorshkov, V N [Theoretical Division, T-4 and CNLS MS B213, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Torous, S V, E-mail: gpb@lanl.gov [National Technical University of Ukraine ' KPI' , 37 Peremogy Avenue, Building 7, Kiev-56, 03056 (Ukraine)

    2011-03-14

    We numerically examine the spatial evolution of the structure of coherent and partially coherent laser beams, including the optical vortices, propagating in turbulent atmospheres. The influence of beam fragmentation and wandering relative to the axis of propagation (z-axis) on the value of the scintillation index (SI) of the signal at the detector is analysed. These studies were performed for different dimensions of the detector, distances of propagation, and strengths of the atmospheric turbulence. Methods for significantly reducing the SI are described. These methods utilize averaging of the signal at the detector over a set of partially coherent beams (PCBs). It is demonstrated that the most effective approach is using a set of PCBs with definite initial directions of propagation relative to the z-axis. This approach results in a significant compensation of the beam wandering which in many cases is the main contributor to the SI. A novel method is to generate the PCBs by combining two laser beams-Gaussian and vortex beams, with different frequencies (the difference between these two frequencies being significantly smaller than the frequencies themselves). In this case, the effective suppression of the SI does not require high-frequency modulators. This result is important for achieving gigabit data rates in long-distance laser communication through turbulent atmospheres.

  4. Interprocedural Analysis with Lazy Propagation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Simon Holm; Møller, Anders; Thiemann, Peter

    2010-01-01

    We propose lazy propagation as a technique for flow- and context-sensitive interprocedural analysis of programs with objects and first-class functions where transfer functions may not be distributive. The technique is described formally as a systematic modification of a variant of the monotone...... framework and its theoretical properties are shown. It is implemented in a type analysis tool for JavaScript where it results in a significant improvement in performance....

  5. Sound Propagation around Underwater Seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    N00014-04-1-0124. Contents Table of Contents List of Figures List of Tables 1 Introduction 1.1 Hypotheses ................... 1.2 Experim ent...132 . . . . . . . 133 Chapter 1 Introduction Basin-scale acoustic propagation in the ocean has been utilized by tomography and teleme- try... magnetostriction , a process caused by magnetic forces acting on the core and back iron magnetic domains, and the square relationship between mechanical force and

  6. Soliton propagation in relativistic hydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fogaça, D A; 10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2007.03.104

    2013-01-01

    We study the conditions for the formation and propagation of Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) solitons in nuclear matter. In a previous work we have derived a KdV equation from Euler and continuity equations in non-relativistic hydrodynamics. In the present contribution we extend our formalism to relativistic fluids. We present results for a given equation of state, which is based on quantum hadrodynamics (QHD).

  7. Acoustic Propagation Modeling Using MATLAB

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Acoustic propagation, transient waves, transfer function, linear systems theory 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 13. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 1...method of diffraction prediction. This report describes an ap- proach based on linear systems theory and the Fourier transform. The goal was to achieve a...differed by the use of linear systems theory . Linear systems theory revealed the importance of the total impulse response and its equivalence to the

  8. Hsp104 and prion propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanova, Nina V; Chernoff, Yury O

    2009-01-01

    High-ordered aggregates (amyloids) may disrupt cell functions, cause toxicity at certain conditions and provide a basis for self-perpetuated, protein-based infectious heritable agents (prions). Heat shock proteins acting as molecular chaperones counteract protein aggregation and influence amyloid propagation. The yeast Hsp104/Hsp70/Hsp40 chaperone complex plays a crucial role in interactions with both ordered and unordered aggregates. The main focus of this review will be on the Hsp104 chaperone, a molecular "disaggregase".

  9. Clonal propagation of Pelargonium sidoides: A threatened ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tommy

    2006-01-16

    Jan 16, 2006 ... vines length to assess suitable plant part for vegetative propagation of the species. Data were ... harvested from the wild (Cunningham, 1988; Lange, .... Hormones and Different Rootstocks on Rose Propagation Pakistan J.

  10. Propagation Techniques for Highland Bamboo (Arundinaria alpina ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    larger scale plantation, six types of vegetative propagation materials ... (10 new shoots per propagule), along its stem length (at the upper, middle and butt ..... can be used to get starting materials for macro-propagation purposes so that mass.

  11. Wave Propagation in Modified Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Lindroos, Jan Ø; Mota, David F

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the propagation of scalar waves induced by matter sources in the context of scalar-tensor theories of gravity which include screening mechanisms for the scalar degree of freedom. The usual approach when studying these theories in the non-linear regime of cosmological perturbations is based on the assumption that scalar waves travel at the speed of light. Within General Relativity such approximation is good and leads to no loss of accuracy in the estimation of observables. We find, however, that mass terms and non-linearities in the equations of motion lead to propagation and dispersion velocities significantly different from the speed of light. As the group velocity is the one associated to the propagation of signals, a reduction of its value has direct impact on the behavior and dynamics of nonlinear structures within modified gravity theories with screening. For instance, the internal dynamics of galaxies and satellites submerged in large dark matter halos could be affected by the fact that t...

  12. Georges Sagnac: A life for optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrigol, Olivier

    2014-12-01

    Georges Sagnac is mostly known for the optical effect in rotating frames that he demonstrated in 1913. His scientific interests were quite diverse: they included photography, optical illusions, X-ray physics, radioactivity, the blue of the sky, anomalous wave propagation, interferometry, strioscopy, and acoustics. An optical theme nonetheless pervaded his entire œuvre. Within optics, an original theory of the propagation of light motivated most of his investigations, from an ingenious explanation of the Fresnel drag, through the discovery of the Sagnac effect, to his quixotic defense of an alternative to relativity theory. Optical analogies efficiently guided his work in other domains. Optics indeed was his true passion. He saw himself as carrying the torch of the two great masters of French optics, Augustin Fresnel and Hippolyte Fizeau. In this mission he overcame his poor health and labored against the modernist tide, with much success originally and bitter isolation in the end. xml:lang="fr"

  13. Cross resonant optical antenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P; Huang, J S; Duò, L; Finazzi, M; Hecht, B

    2009-06-26

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  14. Cross Resonant Optical Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, P.; Huang, J. S.; Duò, L.; Finazzi, M.; Hecht, B.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a novel cross resonant optical antenna consisting of two perpendicular nanosized gold dipole antennas with a common feed gap. We demonstrate that the cross antenna is able to convert propagating fields of any polarization state into correspondingly polarized, localized, and enhanced fields and vice versa. The cross antenna structure therefore opens the road towards the control of light-matter interactions based on polarized light as well as the analysis of polarized fields on the nanometer scale.

  15. Introduction to modern optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fowles, Grant R

    1989-01-01

    This incisive text provides a basic undergraduate-level course in modern optics for students in physics, technology and engineering. The first half of the book deals with classical physical optics; the second principally with the quantum nature of light. Chapters 1 and 2 treat the propagation of light waves, including the concepts of phase and group velocities, and the vectorial nature of light. Chapter 3 applies the concepts of partial coherence and coherence length to the study of interference, and Chapter 4 takes up multiple-beam interference and includes Fabry-Perot interferometry and mul

  16. Free space optical communication

    CERN Document Server

    Kaushal, Hemani; Kar, Subrat

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth understanding of free space optical (FSO) communication with a particular emphasis on optical beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence. The book is structured in such a way that it provides a basic framework for the beginners and also gives a concise description from a designer’s perspective. The book provides an exposure to FSO technology, fundamental limitations, design methodologies, system trade-offs, acquisition, tracking and pointing (ATP) techniques and link-feasibility analysis. The contents of this book will be of interest to professionals and researchers alike. The book may also be used as a textbook for engineering coursework and professional training.

  17. Calculations of precursor propagation in dispersive dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacon, Larry Donald

    2003-08-01

    The present study is a numerical investigation of the propagation of electromagnetic transients in dispersive media. It considers propagation in water using Debye and composite Rocard-Powles-Lorentz models for the complex permittivity. The study addresses this question: For practical transmitted spectra, does precursor propagation provide any features that can be used to advantage over conventional signal propagation in models of dispersive media of interest? A companion experimental study is currently in progress that will attempt to measure the effects studied here.

  18. Confining crack propagation in defective graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Polín, Guillermo; Gómez-Herrero, Julio; Gómez-Navarro, Cristina

    2015-03-11

    Crack propagation in graphene is essential to understand mechanical failure in 2D materials. We report a systematic study of crack propagation in graphene as a function of defect content. Nanoindentations and subsequent images of graphene membranes with controlled induced defects show that while tears in pristine graphene span microns length, crack propagation is strongly reduced in the presence of defects. Accordingly, graphene oxide exhibits minor crack propagation. Our work suggests controlled defect creation as an approach to avoid catastrophic failure in graphene.

  19. Terahertz wave electro-optic measurements with optical spectral filtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilyakov, I. E., E-mail: igor-ilyakov@mail.ru; Shishkin, B. V. [Institute of Applied Physic RAS, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Kitaeva, G. Kh. [Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Akhmedzhanov, R. A. [Institute of Applied Physic RAS, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-23

    We propose electro-optic detection techniques based on variations of the laser pulse spectrum induced during pulse co-propagation with terahertz wave radiation in a nonlinear crystal. Quantitative comparison with two other detection methods is made. Substantial improvement of the sensitivity compared to the standard electro-optic detection technique (at high frequencies) and to the previously shown technique based on laser pulse energy changes is demonstrated in experiment.

  20. Propagation and Interactions of Ultrahigh Power Light: Relativistic Nonlinear Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    3 G. Golovin et al. (to be submitted) 4 G. Golovin et al., Physical Review Letters (submitted) Figure 6: Spectra of...Powers, B. Zhao, G. Golovin , I. Ghebregziabher, et al, Proc. SPIE 8599, Solid State Lasers XXII: Technology and Devices, 859919 (2013). [2] D...Zhang, S. Chen, G. Golovin , S. Banerjee, B. Zhao, N. Powers, I. Ghebregziabher, and D. Umstadter, Opt. Lett. 39, 80 (2014). [7] S. Y. Kalmykov, S

  1. Software Package for Optical Propagation in the Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-25

    I3 =B.*(cos(w)).*(sin(w))/bscatt; cs =zeros(1,55); cs (1)=pi* I3 (1)*w(1); NMAX=55; for n=2:NMAX... cs (n)= cs (n-1)+pi*( I3 (n)+ I3 (n-1))*(w(n)-w(n-1)); end costhetabar= cs (NMAX)%rms angle in degrees %calculate the avg of (cos(theta))^2 w=g*th...load probclear% loads prob dist pb , angles th, VSF B, bscatt lb=length( pb ); %Data from deep water at Autec by Petzold(24 deg 29.0 min N, 77 deg 33

  2. Short-pulse propagation in fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Cristofori, Valentina; Rottwitt, Karsten; Peucheret, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Fiberoptiske parametriske forstærkere (FPF) er attraktive fordi de kan levere stor forstærkning over et bredt spektrum, afhængigt kun af tilstedeværelsen af en passende pumpelaser. Derudover er FPF velegnede til fuldoptisk signal processering, og kan operere med en potentielt lav støjgrænse, sammenlignet med erbium-doterede og Raman fiberforstærkere, når de arbejder i en fase-følsom konfiguration. En karakterisering af signalforvrængningsmekanismer i FPF er relevant for at undersøge anvendeli...

  3. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph High Accuracy Optical Propagation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project is considering several approaches to discovering planets orbiting stars far from earth and assessing their suitability to...

  4. Optics in Atmospheric Propagation and Adaptive Systems II. Volume 3219

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Fig. 4: Functional diagram of IRBLEM 57 For the meteorology data shown before and for the sensors we used, IRBLEM was run. The raytracing diagrams are...10 15 20 25 30 Range in km 17. July 1996 Waveband 8...12 um i i i i i i 35 40 45 Fig. 5: Raytracing diagrams for both...25 30 Range in km 35 40 45 15 20 25 30 Range in km Fig. 6: Raytracing diagrams for both wavebands on July 22, local time 20

  5. Terrestrial Planet Finder Coronagraph High Accuracy Optical Propagation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project is considering several approaches to discovering planets orbiting stars far from earth and assessing their suitability...

  6. Japanese propagation experiments with ETS-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi

    1989-01-01

    Propagation experiments for maritime, aeronautical, and land mobile satellite communications were performed using Engineering Test Satellite-Five (ETS-5). The propagation experiments are one of major mission of Experimental Mobile Satellite System (EMSS) which is aimed for establishing basic technology for future general mobile satellite communication systems. A brief introduction is presented for the experimental results on propagation problems of ETS-5/EMSS.

  7. Fast Heat Pulse Propagation by Turbulence Spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Mantica, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of a cold pulse initiated by edge cooling in JET is compared to propagation of the heat wave originating from a modulation of the heating source roughly at mid radius. It is found that the propagation of the cold pulse is by far faster than what could be predicted on the basis of ...

  8. Fast Heat Pulse Propagation by Turbulence Spreading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naulin, Volker; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Mantica, Paola

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of a cold pulse initiated by edge cooling in JET is compared to propagation of the heat wave originating from a modulation of the heating source roughly at mid radius. It is found that the propagation of the cold pulse is by far faster than what could be predicted on the basis of ...

  9. 47 CFR 80.767 - Propagation curve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Propagation curve. 80.767 Section 80.767... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.767 Propagation curve. The propagation graph, § 80.767 Graph 1, must be used in computing the service area contour. The graph...

  10. 49 CFR 195.111 - Fracture propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fracture propagation. 195.111 Section 195.111... PIPELINE Design Requirements § 195.111 Fracture propagation. A carbon dioxide pipeline system must be designed to mitigate the effects of fracture propagation....

  11. Chiral quantum optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodahl, Peter; Mahmoodian, Sahand; Stobbe, Søren; Rauschenbeutel, Arno; Schneeweiss, Philipp; Volz, Jürgen; Pichler, Hannes; Zoller, Peter

    2017-01-25

    Advanced photonic nanostructures are currently revolutionizing the optics and photonics that underpin applications ranging from light technology to quantum-information processing. The strong light confinement in these structures can lock the local polarization of the light to its propagation direction, leading to propagation-direction-dependent emission, scattering and absorption of photons by quantum emitters. The possibility of such a propagation-direction-dependent, or chiral, light-matter interaction is not accounted for in standard quantum optics and its recent discovery brought about the research field of chiral quantum optics. The latter offers fundamentally new functionalities and applications: it enables the assembly of non-reciprocal single-photon devices that can be operated in a quantum superposition of two or more of their operational states and the realization of deterministic spin-photon interfaces. Moreover, engineered directional photonic reservoirs could lead to the development of complex quantum networks that, for example, could simulate novel classes of quantum many-body systems.

  12. Nonvariational mechanism of front propagation: Theory and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Socorro, A. J.; Clerc, M. G.; González-Cortés, G.; Wilson, M.

    2017-01-01

    Multistable systems exhibit a rich front dynamics between equilibria. In one-dimensional scalar gradient systems, the spread of the fronts is proportional to the energy difference between equilibria. Fronts spreading proportionally to the energetic difference between equilibria is a characteristic of one-dimensional scalar gradient systems. Based on a simple nonvariational bistable model, we show analytically and numerically that the direction and speed of front propagation is led by nonvariational dynamics. We provide experimental evidence of nonvariational front propagation between different molecular orientations in a quasi-one-dimensional liquid-crystal light valve subjected to optical feedback. Free diffraction length allows us to control the variational or nonvariational nature of this system. Numerical simulations of the phenomenological model have quite good agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren

    2016-04-01

    In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.

  14. Signatures of thermal hysteresis in Tamm-wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiadini, Francesco; Fiumara, Vincenzo; Mackay, Tom G.; Scaglione, Antonio; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh

    2017-10-01

    We numerically solved the boundary-value problem for Tamm waves (which may also be classified as Uller-Zenneck waves here) guided by the planar interface of a homogeneous isotropic dissipative dielectric (HIDD) material and a periodically multilayered isotropic dielectric material. The HIDD material was chosen to be VO${}_2$ which, at optical wavelengths, has a temperature-dependent refractive index with a hysteresis feature, i.e., the temperature-dependence of its refractive index varies depending upon whether the temperature is increasing or decreasing. A numerical code was implemented to extract solutions of the dispersion equation at a fixed wavelength for both $p$- and $s$-polarization states over the temperature range [50,80] degrees. A multitude of Tamm waves of both linear polarization states were found, demonstrating a clear demarcation of the heating and cooling phases in terms of wavenumbers and propagation distances. Thereby, the signatures of thermal hysteresis in Tamm-wave propagation were revealed.

  15. Crack propagation of Ti alloy via adiabatic shear bands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza, I., E-mail: ivanmendozabravo@gmail.com [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Villalobos, D. [Instituto Tecnológico de Veracruz (Mexico); Alexandrov, B.T. [The Ohio State University (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This study was focused on the characterization of the origin and mechanism of crack propagation as a result of hot induction bending of Ti alloy. Plates of Ti–6Al–4V alloy with 12.5 mm of thickness were submitted to hot induction bending below the beta transus temperature. Optical and scanning electron microscopy analysis showed crack formation in the tensile zone. Microstructural evidence showed that cracks propagate through the adiabatic shear bands by Dimple-Void mechanism. However, voids formation before shear banding also occurred. In both mechanisms adiabatic shear bands are formed via dynamic recrystallization where the alpha–beta interphase works as stress concentrator promoting the formation of dimples and voids.

  16. Slow light and pulse propagation in semiconductor waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Lunnemann

    This thesis concerns the propagation of optical pulses in semiconductor waveguide structures with particular focus on methods for achieving slow light or signal delays. Experimental pulse propagation measurements of pulses with a duration of 180 fs, transmitted through quantum well based waveguide...... structures, are presented. Simultaneous measurements of the pulse transmission and delay are measured as a function of input pulse energy for various applied electrical potentials. Electrically controlled pulse delay and advancement are demonstrated and compared with a theoretical model. The limits...... of the model as well as the underlying physical mechanisms are analysed and discussed. A method to achieve slow light by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened quantum dot medium is proposed. The basic principles of EIT are assessed and the main dissimilarities between...

  17. Theory of Radio Propagation in Inhomogeneous Media (The Eikonal Method)

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, S; Settimi, A

    2010-01-01

    The Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia has been involved since its foundation in the forecast of the conditions in which a radio link that makes use of propagation by means of ionospheric wave takes place. In the last times it gained interest also the precise forecast of the trajectory covered by a radio wave propagating into the atmosphere, specifically into the ionosphere, which can be considered, at first approximation, as an inhomogeneous medium, defined by a refraction index slowly varying in time. This work describes the theoretical bases to study a trajectory; they substantially make use of the methods of the geometrical optics. Such theoretical bases find applications in numerical methods to calculate the trajectories, as quoted in references [Bianchi, 2009].

  18. Tropospheric radiowave propagation beyond the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Du Castel, François

    1966-01-01

    Tropospheric Radiowave Propagation Beyond the Horizon deals with developments concerning the tropospheric propagation of ultra-short radio waves beyond the horizon, with emphasis on the relationship between the theoretical and the experimental. Topics covered include the general conditions of propagation in the troposphere; general characteristics of propagation beyond the horizon; and attenuation in propagation. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with a brief historical look at the various stages that have brought the technique of transhorizon links to its state of developmen

  19. Characterizing light propagation in bone for photodynamic therapy of osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Vincent M.; Gustafson, Scott B.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2009-02-01

    This work aims at characterizing how light propagates through bone in order to efficiently guide treatment of osteosarcoma with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Optical properties of various bone tissues need to be characterized in order to have a working model of light propagation in bone. Bone tissues of particular interest include cortical bone, red and yellow marrow, cancellous bone, and bone cancers themselves. With adequate knowledge of optical properties of osseous tissues, light dosimetry can determine how best to deliver adequate light to achieve phototoxic effects within bone. An optical fiber source-collector pair is used for diffuse reflectance spectroscopic measurements in order to determine the scattering and absorption properties of bone tissues. Native absorbers of interest at visible and near-IR wavelengths include water and oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin. A cylindrically symmetric Monte Carlo model is then used, incorporating these results, in order to predict and guide the delivery of light within bone in order to achieve the desired phototoxic effect in PDT.

  20. Helmholtz Hodge decomposition of scalar optical fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Monika; Senthilkumaran, P

    2012-11-01

    It is shown that the vector field decomposition method, namely, the Helmholtz Hodge decomposition, can also be applied to analyze scalar optical fields that are ubiquitously present in interference and diffraction optics. A phase gradient field that depicts the propagation and Poynting vector directions can hence be separated into solenoidal and irrotational components.