Sample records for optical phase conjugation

  1. Phase Conjugate Optics. (United States)


    VthsN+n where the recombination frequency is Yr = vthSN4o (2.6) where s is the cross section for the capture of an electron by an empty optical donor...ONe is constant. Thus, - DNeO for negligible depletion. (2.19) For negligible saturation, the recombination frequency vthsN+ is constant. thus Tr...which determine the effective recombination frequency vthsN+) are given in Equations 2.17 and 2.18, respectively. The first condition required for no

  2. Optical phase conjugation in semiconductor-doped glasses (United States)

    Roussignol, P.; Ricard, D.; Rustagi, K. C.; Flytzanis, C.


    We have studied optical phase conjugation in two types of semiconductor-doped glasses. Corning 3.68 and Schott OG 530 at λ = 0.532 μm using picosecond pulses. We observe a slow nonlinearity in agreement with the slow decay of luminescence. The saturation of the reflectivity is strongly correlated with the absorption saturation of these glasses and may be interpreted in terms of a three-level system model.

  3. Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors (United States)

    Donoghue, John James


    Optical phase conjugation in atomic beams and vapors using alkali metal atoms as the nonlinear medium is examined. The significance of the sodium system is that the nonlinear gain is high due to the hyperfine system, which behaves as a Raman system. The gains observed were larger than 100 in cases involving two separate pump lasers. The gain is also seen to be more complicated than a Raman system. The frequency of the beams is examined for three separate configurations. We examine a self pumped configuration, an externally pumped configuration consisting of two pump lasers and a probe, and a ring configuration. The observed gain in a self pumped configuration is a result of a mixture of a three level Mollow type gain and a Raman gain. The initial cavity laser is a result of the Mollow gain, and the conjugate produced is seen to arise from the interaction of the cavity beams with the initial pump beam to produce the conjugate. In the externally pumped scheme, the gain is due to Coherent Population Trapping (CPT) in a double-Λ Raman system. There is an equilibrium that is obtained that is responsible for the high gains observed in this particular setup. The bandwidth of the ground state two photon induced coherence is less than the natural lifetime, indicating CPT as the gain mechanism. In the ring configuration, we observed two separate gains. There is a forward and a backward gain. These two oscillations occur together for a 430 MHZ bandwidth which coincides with the observed width of the phase conjugate oscillation. The design of our vapor cells is discussed in depth. The heat pipe configuration, necessary to successfully conduct these experiments is shown in detail. The design of our atomic beams is also discussed.

  4. Optical phase-conjugation in erioglaucine dye-doped thin film

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Geethakrishnan; P K Palanisamy


    Optical phase-conjugation (OPC) has been demonstrated in erioglaucine (acid blue 9) dye-doped gelatin films via continuous-wave degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) using a low-power He-Ne laser at 633 nm. DFWM and holographic processes are found to contribute to the observed phase-conjugate signal. A maximum phase-conjugate beam reflectivity of about 0.24% has been observed in these dye-doped gelatin films.

  5. Effects of phase conjugation on electromagnetic optical fields propagating in free space (United States)

    Kanseri, Bhaskar


    By using the property of phase conjugation, we demonstrate that the inverse of van Cittert–Zernike theorem holds for electromagnetic (EM) fields propagating in free space. This essentially implies that spatially incoherent partially polarized field distributions can be generated from spatially coherent partially polarized optical fields. We further utilize phase conjugation with a polarization rotator to swap the spatial coherence properties of orthogonal polarization components of EM fields on propagation, at least in free space. This study suggests that the method of phase conjugation could be potentially useful in arbitrarily manipulating spatial coherence properties of vector optical fields in the field plane.

  6. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjugation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation(FDPC) is based on phase conjuga-tion of spectrum of an input signal.It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal.The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed.Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically.It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC.The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  7. Time-reversing a monochromatic subwavelength optical focus by optical phase conjugation of multiply-scattered light

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Jongchan; Lee, KyeoReh; Cho, Yong-Hoon; Park, YongKeun


    Due to its time-reversal nature, optical phase conjugation generates a monochromatic light wave which retraces its propagation paths. Here, we demonstrate the regeneration of a subwavelength optical focus by phase conjugation. Monochromatic light from a subwavelength source is scattered by random nanoparticles, and the scattered light is phase conjugated at the far-field region by coupling its wavefront into a single-mode optical reflector using a spatial light modulator. Then the conjugated beam retraces its propagation paths and forms a refocus on the source at the subwavelength scale. This is the first direct experimental realization of subwavelength focusing beyond the diffraction limit with far-field time reversal in the optical domain.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-da Xu; Yong Zhang; Xing-he Fan; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou


    An optically active monomer containing azobenzene moieties with chiral group (s-2-methyl-butyl), 4-[2-(methacryloyloxy)ethyloxy]-4'-(s-2-methyl-1-butyloxycarbonyl) azobenzene (M1) was synthesized. Polymer (PM1) possessing optical phase conjugated response was obtained by homopolymerization of the optically active monomer (M1) using free radical polymerization. The polymer was very soluble in common solvents and good optical quality films could be easily fabricated by spin coating. The optical phase conjugated responses of the polymer PM1 were measured by degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM). In comparison with polymer containing no chiral group, it was found from the preliminary measurement of photoisomeric change that optical phase conjugated response of the PM1 in the long-range order hexagonal symmetry microstructure could be easily controlled by choosing the appropriate polarization direction of the irradiating beams (514.5 nm) and the irradiating number, presumably due to the chiral group in the PM1 molecular structure. For the case of the polymer investigated here, a chiral group side chain was introduced to increase optical phase conjugated response intensity with different polarization directions of the irradiating beams, which aims originally at searching for a new photoactive material.

  9. Stimulated Brillouin scattering continuous wave phase conjugation in step-index fiber optics. (United States)

    Massey, Steven M; Spring, Justin B; Russell, Timothy H


    Continuous wave (CW) stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugation in step-index optical fibers was studied experimentally and modeled as a function of fiber length. A phase conjugate fidelity over 80% was measured from SBS in a 40 m fiber using a pinhole technique. Fidelity decreases with fiber length, and a fiber with a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.06 was found to generate good phase conjugation fidelity over longer lengths than a fiber with 0.13 NA. Modeling and experiment support previous work showing the maximum interaction length which yields a high fidelity phase conjugate beam is inversely proportional to the fiber NA(2), but find that fidelity remains high over much longer fiber lengths than previous models calculated. Conditions for SBS beam cleanup in step-index fibers are discussed.

  10. Focusing light through scattering media by full-polarization digital optical phase conjugation. (United States)

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V


    Digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) is an emerging technique for focusing light through or within scattering media such as biological tissue. Since DOPC systems are based on time reversal, they benefit from collecting as much information about the scattered light as possible. However, existing DOPC techniques record and subsequently phase-conjugate the scattered light in only a single-polarization state, limited by the operating principle of spatial light modulators. Here, we develop the first, to the best of our knowledge, full-polarization DOPC system that records and phase-conjugates scattered light along two orthogonal polarizations. When focusing light through thick scattering media, such as 2 mm and 4 mm-thick chicken breast tissue, our full-polarization DOPC system on average doubles the focal peak-to-background ratio achieved by single-polarization DOPC systems and improves the phase-conjugation fidelity.

  11. Demonstration of 400 Gb/s optical PDM-OFDM superchannel unrepeatered transmission by all optical phase-conjugated copy (United States)

    Chen, Yuanxiang; Li, Juhao; Zhu, Paikun; Wu, Zhongying; Chen, Jingbiao; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan


    Unrepeatered transmission delivers data over a few hundred kilometers without in-line active elements and it can effectively reduce the line complexity and the overall system cost. In this paper, we propose all optical phase-conjugated copy (OPC) to improve optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) margin and nonlinear tolerance for unrepeatered transmission of polarization division multiplexing (PDM) optical superchannel with EDFA only amplification. Orthogonal pumps FWM scheme is utilized to generate the optical phase-conjugated copy. The original superchannel and the phase-conjugated copy are simultaneously transmitted and received. The phases of the copy symbols are conjugated and summed with the original superchannel symbols to suppress both linear noise and nonlinear phase noise at the receiver. The proposed OPC scheme is simple and effective in phase-conjugated copy generation and digital signal processing (DSP). What is more, it is transparent to signal bit rate and modulation format, which applies to optical superchannel transmission. We experimentally verify the proposed scheme on a 400 Gb/s optical polarization division multiplexing orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (PDM-OFDM) superchannel. A Q-factor improvement of 2.1 dB is achieved after 180 km SSMF unrepeatered transmission. The optimum launch power in OPC scheme increases from -3 dBm to -2 dBm. To verify the maximum reach, we extend fiber length and realize 240 km SSMF unrepeatered transmission.

  12. Optical phase conjugation with less than a photon per degree of freedom

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, M; Vellekoop, I M


    We demonstrate experimentally that optical phase conjugation can be used to focus light through strongly scattering media even when far less than a photon per optical degree of freedom is detected. We found that the best achievable intensity contrast is equal to the total number of detected photons, as long as the resolution of the system is high enough. Our results demonstrate that phase conjugation can be used even when the photon budget is extremely low, such as in high-speed focusing through dynamic media, or imaging deep inside tissue.

  13. Multichannel nonlinear distortion compensation using optical phase conjugation in a silicon nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vukovic, Dragana; Schoerder, Jochen; Da Ros, Francesco


    silicon nanowire. A clear improvement in Q-factor is shown after 800-km transmission with high span input power when comparing the system with and without the optical phase conjugation module. The influence of OSNR degradation introduced by the silicon nanowire is analysed by comparing transmission......We experimentally demonstrate compensation of nonlinear distortion caused by the Kerr effect in a 3 x 32-Gbaud quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) transmission system. We use optical phase conjugation (OPC) produced by four-wave mixing (FWM) in a 7-mm long...... systems of three different lengths. This is the first demonstration of nonlinear compensation using a silicon nanowire. (C)2015 Optical Society of America...

  14. Enhanced Transmission Stability of Polarization Solitons in Birefringent Fibres with an Optical Phase Conjugator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟成; 谢嘉宁; 路洪; 徐文成


    An optical phase conjugator is used to enhance transmission stability of polarization solitons in highly birefringent fibres. Two polarization solitons form a breather in fibres with low birefringence firstly and the optical phase conjugator is used to make the spectra of polarization solitons converse, which results in the fact that the polarization soliton along the fast axis is compressed due to the strengthened self-phase modulation effect. Two polarization solitons are compressed further due to the cross-phase modulation effect. The enhanced nonlinear effects make the central peak frequencies of two polarization solitons shift to the larger range in opposite directions so that they trap each other fully to suppress the effect of birefringence.

  15. Stimulated Brillouin Scattering Phase Conjugation in Fiber Optic Waveguides (United States)


    these methods typically 66 compare the phase of each element with that of a reference beam at a photodetector and electronically adjust the phase...laser design for LIDAR aircraft safety application," Proceedings of SPIE 6367, 63670H (2006). 4. H. Stephens, "Toward a new laser era," Journal of the

  16. Studies of Phase-Conjugate Optical Device Concepts (United States)


    11. F. Laeri, T. Tschudi, and J. Albers , "Coherent cw Image Ampli- tion Using Incoherent Beams," Opt. Lett. 13,47-49 (1988). fiers and Oscillators...sin photon scattered, there is one phonon generated or anni - 8 = K). The phase 0 is either +90 or -900 depending hilated depending on whether the

  17. Coherent perfect absorption mediated enhancement and optical bistability in phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, K Nireekshan; Gupta, S Dutta


    We study phase conjugation in a nonlinear composite slab when the counter propagating pump waves are completely absorbed by means of coherent perfect absorption. Under the undepleted pump approximation the coupling constant and the phase conjugated reflectivity are shown to undergo a substantial increase and multivalued response. The effect can be used for efficient switching of the phase conjugated reflectivity in photonic circuits.

  18. Method for auto-alignment of digital optical phase conjugation systems based on digital propagation. (United States)

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Zhou, Haojiang; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Yang, Changhuei


    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) has enabled many optical applications such as aberration correction and image transmission through fiber. In recent years, implementation of digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) has opened up the possibility of its use in biomedical optics (e.g. deep-tissue optical focusing) due to its ability to provide greater-than-unity OPC reflectivity (the power ratio of the phase conjugated beam and input beam to the OPC system) and its flexibility to accommodate additional wavefront manipulations. However, the requirement for precise (pixel-to-pixel matching) alignment of the wavefront sensor and the spatial light modulator (SLM) limits the practical usability of DOPC systems. Here, we report a method for auto-alignment of a DOPC system by which the misalignment between the sensor and the SLM is auto-corrected through digital light propagation. With this method, we were able to accomplish OPC playback with a DOPC system with gross sensor-SLM misalignment by an axial displacement of up to~1.5 cm, rotation and tip/tilt of ~5° and in-plane displacement of ~5 mm (dependent on the physical size of the sensor and the SLM). Our auto-alignment method robustly achieved a DOPC playback peak-to-background ratio (PBR) corresponding to more than ~30 % of the theoretical maximum. As an additional advantage, the auto-alignment procedure can be easily performed at will and, as such, allows us to correct for small mechanical drifts within the DOPC systems, thus overcoming a previously major DOPC system vulnerability. We believe that this reported method for implementing robust DOPC systems will broaden the practical utility of DOPC systems.

  19. Transmission of 32.1 Gbit/s RZ-D8PSK over 160 km using dispersion compensation by optical phase conjugation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Peucheret, Christophe; Schiellerup, Gert


    A 32.1 Gbit/s RZ-D8PSK modulated signal was transmitted through 160 km SSMF with optical phase conjugation after 80 km. The phase conjugation was performed by four wave mixing......A 32.1 Gbit/s RZ-D8PSK modulated signal was transmitted through 160 km SSMF with optical phase conjugation after 80 km. The phase conjugation was performed by four wave mixing...

  20. Digital optical phase conjugation for delivering two-dimensional images through turbid media. (United States)

    Hillman, Timothy R; Yamauchi, Toyohiko; Choi, Wonshik; Dasari, Ramachandra R; Feld, Michael S; Park, YongKeun; Yaqoob, Zahid


    Optical transmission through complex media such as biological tissue is fundamentally limited by multiple light scattering. Precise control of the optical wavefield potentially holds the key to advancing a broad range of light-based techniques and applications for imaging or optical delivery. We present a simple and robust digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) implementation for suppressing multiple light scattering. Utilizing wavefront shaping via a spatial light modulator (SLM), we demonstrate its turbidity-suppression capability by reconstructing the image of a complex two-dimensional wide-field target through a highly scattering medium. Employing an interferometer with a Sagnac-like ring design, we successfully overcome the challenging alignment and wavefront-matching constraints in DOPC, reflecting the requirement that the forward- and reverse-propagation paths through the turbid medium be identical. By measuring the output response to digital distortion of the SLM write pattern, we validate the sub-wavelength sensitivity of the system.

  1. One-Wave Optical Phase Conjugation Mirror by Actively Coupling Arbitrary Light Fields into a Single-Mode Reflector (United States)

    Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, Junsung; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun


    Rewinding the arrow of time via phase conjugation is an intriguing phenomenon made possible by the wave property of light. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a one-wave optical phase conjugation mirror using a spatial light modulator. An adaptable single-mode filter is created, and a phase-conjugate beam is then prepared by reverse propagation through this filter. Our method is simple, alignment free, and fast while allowing high power throughput in the time-reversed wave, which has not been simultaneously demonstrated before. Using our method, we demonstrate high throughput full-field light delivery through highly scattering biological tissue and multimode fibers, even for quantum dot fluorescence.

  2. Orientation-enhanced nonlinear optical properties and phase-conjugate reflective system of a novel Azobenzene doped polymer film

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Ru-Sheng; Fan Wen-Bin; Lu Ming; Zhao You-Yuan


    This paper reports that the nonlinear refractive index of a novel organic optical storage film doped azodiphenylamine polymer is measured by using the Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index up to 3.7 ×10-6 cm2/W induced by thermo-optical effect is obtained. It indicates that the sample has excellent optical nonlinear properties. The physical mechanism of the great nonlinear optical effect is analysed and the optical conjugate characteristic is also discussed with degenerate four-wave-mixing. The phase conjugate wave diffracted from the formative refractive index grating in the sample is acquired and its equivalent reflectivity reaches about 22%. On this basis,the reflective wave phase-conjugated mirror system was designed, and the image aberration experienced in propagation in the storage experiment is corrected by using the system.

  3. Focusing light inside dynamic scattering media with millisecond digital optical phase conjugation. (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Shen, Yuecheng; Shi, Junhui; Wang, Lihong V


    Wavefront shaping based on digital optical phase conjugation (DOPC) focuses light through or inside scattering media, but the low speed of DOPC prevents it from being applied to thick, living biological tissue. Although a fast DOPC approach was recently developed, the reported single-shot wavefront measurement method does not work when the goal is to focus light inside, instead of through, highly scattering media. Here, using a ferroelectric liquid crystal based spatial light modulator, we develop a simpler but faster DOPC system that focuses light not only through, but also inside scattering media. By controlling 2.6 × 10(5) optical degrees of freedom, our system focused light through 3 mm thick moving chicken tissue, with a system latency of 3.0 ms. Using ultrasound-guided DOPC, along with a binary wavefront measurement method, our system focused light inside a scattering medium comprising moving tissue with a latency of 6.0 ms, which is one to two orders of magnitude shorter than those of previous digital wavefront shaping systems. Since the demonstrated speed approaches tissue decorrelation rates, this work is an important step toward in vivo deep-tissue non-invasive optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.

  4. Polarization properties of optical phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing (United States)

    Kauranen, Martti; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Malcuit, Michelle S.; Boyd, Robert W.


    We develop a semiclassical theory of the polarization properties of phase conjugation by two-photon resonant degenerate four-wave mixing. The theory includes the effects of saturation by the pump waves. We solve the density-matrix equations of motion in steady state for a nonlinear medium consisting of stationary atoms with a ground and excited state connected by two-photon transitions. As an illustration of the general results, we consider an S0-->S0 two-photon transition, which is known to lead to perfect polarization conjugation in the limit of third-order theory. We show that the fidelity of the polarization-conjugation process is degraded for excessively large pump intensities. The degradation can occur both due to transfer of population to the excited state and due to nonresonant Stark shifts. Theoretical results are compared to those of a recent experiment [Malcuit, Gauthier, and Boyd, Opt. Lett. 13, 663 (1988)].

  5. Optical retrodirective tracking system approach using an array of phase conjugators for communication and power transmission. (United States)

    Schäfer, Christian A; Matoba, Osamu; Kaya, Nobuyuki


    A new concept for a retrodirective tracking system applicable for communication and power transmission is proposed. In the proposed concept, the power transmitter utilizes a receiver's pilot signal to obtain information about its direction by conjugating the signal's phase inside a nonlinear medium. Power is therefore transmitted back to the receiver by the phase-conjugated signal beam. The power can be concentrated by an array of phase conjugators, which provides a large aperture so that the intensity can be increased on the receiver's photovoltaic panels compared to a single element. Controlling the phase and the direction of the readout beams in the four-wave-mixing process provides control over the interference pattern, its position, and its size. A numerical analysis is given for the phase and spot size control, and measurements with two Co-doped Sr(x)Ba(1-x)Nb(2)O(6) (Co:SBN) crystals confirm the occurrence of interference that is achieved for the case of two beams.

  6. Optical phase conjugation for nonlinearity compensation in WDM PDM 16-QAM transmission over dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Da Ros, Francesco; Sackey, I.; Jazayerifar, M.


    Kerr nonlinearity compensation by optical phase conjugation is demonstrated in a WDM PDM 16-QAM system. Improved received signal quality is reported for both dispersion-compensated and dispersion-uncompensated transmission and a comparison with digital backpropagation is provided....

  7. Simultaneous dispersion and non-linearity compensation with mid-span optical phase conjugation and distributed Raman amplifier for a sub-carrier multiplexed optical transmission link (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Vardhanan, A. Vishnu; Gangopadhyay, R.


    Optical phase conjugation (OPC) and distributed Raman amplifier (DRA) combination (OPC-DRA) is demonstrated as a potential enabling solution for simultaneous reduction of fiber non-linearities and dispersion compensation of a sub-carrier multiplexed (SCM) optical transmission link. The present work is focused on the use of OPC-DRA combination for system performance improvement in terms of composite second order distortion (CSO) and carrier to noise ratio (CNR) of the SCM link. The analysis further shows that, introduction of DRA with proper pumping scheme significantly reduce fiber non-linearity resulting in improvement of the system performance in terms of CNR, compared to the situation where only mid-way optical phase conjugation is used.

  8. Relation between speckle decorrelation and optical phase conjugation (OPC)- based turbidity suppression through dynamic scattering media: a study on in vivo mouse skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jang, Mooseok; Ruan, Haowen; Vellekoop, Ivo Micha; Judkewitz, Benjamin; Chung, Euiheon; Yang, Changhuei


    Light scattering in biological tissue significantly limits the accessible depth for localized optical interrogation and deep-tissue optical imaging. This challenge can be overcome by exploiting the time-reversal property of optical phase conjugation (OPC) to reverse multiple scattering events or

  9. Asynchronous transfer of individually addressable optical channels through a multimode fiber using phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Czarske, Jueurgen W; Koukourakis, Nektarios; Buettner, Lars


    Multimode fibers are attractive for a variety of applications such as internet data transfer, data center hubs, micromanipulation, optogenetics and other biomedical applications. A major hurdle for imaging through multimode fibers is the occurring scrambling, resulting in a randomization of light. Recently, clear imaging has been successfully accomplished using wavefront shaping, but the spatial information was transferred synchronously only. We demonstrate asynchronous information transmission using individual phase conjugations by employing only one spatial light modulator with multiple windows. Our findings pave the way towards individual signal transfer inside strongly scattering media.

  10. Fiber bundle phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Ward, Benjamin G.


    An improved method and apparatus for passively conjugating the phases of a distorted wavefronts resulting from optical phase mismatch between elements of a fiber laser array are disclosed. A method for passively conjugating a distorted wavefront comprises the steps of: multiplexing a plurality of probe fibers and a bundle pump fiber in a fiber bundle array; passing the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle array through a collimating lens and into one portion of a non-linear medium; passing the output from a pump collection fiber through a focusing lens and into another portion of the non-linear medium so that the output from the pump collection fiber mixes with the multiplexed output from the fiber bundle; adjusting one or more degrees of freedom of one or more of the fiber bundle array, the collimating lens, the focusing lens, the non-linear medium, or the pump collection fiber to produce a standing wave in the non-linear medium.

  11. Waveguide mutually pumped phase conjugators


    James, S. W.; Youden, K.E.; Jeffrey, P. M.; EASON, R. W.; Chandler, P.J.; Zhang, L.; Townsend, P.D.


    The operation of the Bridge Mutually Pumped Phase Conjugator is reported in a planar waveguide structure in photorefractive BaTiO3. The waveguide was fabricated by the technique of ion implantation. using 1.5 MeV H+ at a dose of 10^16 ions/cm^2. An order of magnitude decrease in response time is observed in the waveguide as compared to typical values obtained in bulk crystals, probably resulting from a combination of the optical confinement within the waveguide, and possibly modification of t...

  12. 110 km transmission of 160 Gbit/s RZ-DQPSK signals by midspan polarization-insensitive optical phase conjugation in a Ti:PPLN waveguide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Nouroozi, R.; Ludwig, R.;


    We demonstrate 160Gbit/s return-to-zero (RZ) differential quarternary phase-shift keying (DQPSK) signal transmission over a 110km single-mode fiber by taking advantage of mid-span optical phase conjugation (OPC). The technique is based on nonlinear wavelength conversion by cascaded second harmonic...

  13. Performance evaluation for 160-Gb/s optical phase conjugation systems considering dispersion mapping and third-order dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianqiang Li; Kun Xu; Guangtao Zhou; Jian Wu; Jintong Lin


    The impact of third-order dispersion (TOD) is investigated by numerical simulations in 160-Gb/s singlechannel systems incorporated with dispersion mapping and optical phase conjugation (OPC). System performances using retrun-to-zero (RZ) or carrier-suppressed RZ (CSRZ) modulation format are evaluated on the optimized dispersion map. The results indicate that even though TOD has been fully compensated,the intra-channel nonlinearity induced by local TOD would degrade the system performance in nonlinear regime. The scheme with an optimized dispersion map provides a much higher performance and offers a larger tolerance on a variation of pre-compensation. CSRZ modulation format is more robust due to its tradeoff between tolerances on intra-channel nonlinearity and dispersion.

  14. Reversible holography and optical phase conjugation for image formation/correction using highly efficient organic photorefractive polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José-Luis Maldonado


    Full Text Available In this work, we report the reversible reconstruction of holographic and distorted transmission images through the four wave mixing (FWM technique and optical phase conjugation (OPC, an alternative method to adaptive optics, by using highly efficient Photorefractive (PR polymers fabricated in our laboratories. These PR polymers are based on our synthesized nonlinear chromophore 4-[4-(diethylamino-2 hydroxybenzylideneamino] benzonitrile (Dc. For the PR devices, diffraction efficiencies as high as 90% at 25 wt.% doping level of Dc at an external applied electric field (Eext around 56 V/μm are achieved. The reconstruction implementation is simple, of low cost, all-optical and it is capable of recovering 90% of the original images. The real-time holographic experiments were performed at Eext of just 27 V/μm, which is one of the lowest reported values. Reversible holographic imaging is showed with a rise-time around 0.35 s.

  15. Visualization of phase conjugate ultrasound waves passed through inhomogeneous layer. (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Pernod, P; Preobrazhensky, V


    Compensation of phase distortions of ultrasound beams by means of parametric phase conjugation is visualized. Quasi-plane and focused primary beams were distorted by a polymer aberration layer introduced between the primary wave source and the wave phase conjugator. It is demonstrated acousto-optically that, while the acoustic field is strongly irregular in the area between aberration layer and conjugator, the phase conjugate wave visibly reproduces the primary beams in the area between the layer and the primary wave source. The phenomenon is observed in supercritical mode of parametric amplification when intensity of phase conjugate wave is high enough for manifestations of acoustic nonlinearities in water.

  16. Phase conjugation of high energy lasers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bliss, David E; Valley, Michael T.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Bigman, Verle Howard; Boye, Lydia Ann; Broyles, Robin Scott; Kimmel, Mark W.; Law, Ryan J.; Yoder, James R.


    In this report we explore claims that phase conjugation of high energy lasers by stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can compensate optical aberrations associated with severely distorted laser amplifier media and aberrations induced by the atmosphere. The SBS media tested was a gas cell pressurized up to 300 psi with SF6 or Xe or both. The laser was a 10 Hz, 3J, Q-switched Nd:YAG with 25 ns wide pulses. Atmospheric aberrations were created with space heaters, helium jets and phase plates designed with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum characterized by a Fried parameter, ro , ranging from 0.6 6.0 mm. Phase conjugate tests in the laboratory were conducted without amplification. For the strongest aberrations, D/ro ~ 20, created by combining the space heaters with the phase plate, the Strehl ratio was degraded by a factor of ~50. Phase conjugation in SF6 restored the peak focusable intensity to about 30% of the original laser. Phase conjugate tests at the outdoor laser range were conducted with laser amplifiers providing gain in combination with the SBS cell. A large 600,000 BTU kerosene space heater was used to create turbulence along the beam path. An atmospheric structure factor of Cn2 = 5x10-13 m2/3 caused the illumination beam to expand to a diameter 250mm and overfill the receiver. The phase conjugate amplified return could successfully be targeted back onto glints 5mm in diameter. Use of a lenslet arrays to lower the peak focusable intensity in the SBS cell failed to produce a useful phase conjugate beam; The Strehl ratio was degraded with multiple random lobes instead of a single focus. I will review literature results which show how multiple beams can be coherently combined by SBS when a confocal reflecting geometry is used to focus the laser in the SBS cell.

  17. Phase Conjugate Optics. (United States)


    Ydi t Y d t E 5Ydit e di Erg M sin kZ + E- e )2 (4.11) gi Eg9 Dss(1___ As an example of EDss , from Section 8 for the case of N+O << NeO, from...Equation 8.10 EDss - +o/g M sin kgz (4.12) A-31 *-**.~.-.:xY~ C

  18. Focusing light through biological tissue and tissue-mimicking phantoms up to 9.6 cm in thickness with digital optical phase conjugation (United States)

    Shen, Yuecheng; Liu, Yan; Ma, Cheng; Wang, Lihong V.


    Optical phase conjugation (OPC)-based wavefront shaping techniques focus light through or within scattering media, which is critically important for deep-tissue optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy. However, to date, the sample thickness in OPC experiments has been limited to only a few millimeters. Here, by using a laser with a long coherence length and an optimized digital OPC system that can safely deliver more light power, we focused 532-nm light through tissue-mimicking phantoms up to 9.6 cm thick, as well as through ex vivo chicken breast tissue up to 2.5 cm thick. Our results demonstrate that OPC can be achieved even when photons have experienced on average 1000 scattering events. The demonstrated penetration of nearly 10 cm (˜100 transport mean free paths) has never been achieved before by any optical focusing technique, and it shows the promise of OPC for deep-tissue noninvasive optical imaging, manipulation, and therapy.

  19. Optical correlation aspect of holography: from ghost-imaging to static phase-conjugation holographic associative memories (United States)

    Polyanskii, P. V.; Husak, Ye. M.


    We highlight the milestones of fifty-year history of emerging holographic associative memory as the chronologically first proposed practical application of the laser holographic techniques (van Heerden, 1963). Holographic associative memories are considered here as an important aspect of correlation optics, and the forming associative response is interpreted with account of fine phase relations among numerous partial images involved into discrimination mechanism of reconstruction. Three main approaches proposed for implementation of holographic associative memories are discussed and compared, namely, classical 'linear' ghost-image holography, the associateve memories based on resonator architectures using optical feedback and thresholding algorithms, and the quadric (second-order) hologrambased associative memories.

  20. Double phase conjugation in tungsten bronze crystals. (United States)

    Sharp, E J; Clark Iii, W W; Miller, M J; Wood, G L; Monson, B; Salamo, G J; Neurgaonkar, R R


    In this paper we report a new method for double phase conjugation particularly suited to the tungsten bronze crystal strontium barium niobate. It has also been observed to produce conjugate waves in BaTiO(3) and BSKNN. This new arrangement is called the bridge conjugator because the two beams enter opposing [100] crystal faces and fan together to form a bridge without reflection off a crystal face. Our measurements indicate that the bridge conjugator is competitive with previously reported double phase conjugate mirrors in reflectivity, response time, ease of alignment, and fidelity.

  1. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves through polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplification enabling transmission over 4000-km dispersion-managed TWRS fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.;


    We experimentally demonstrate the first Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin waves, consisting of eight 128-Gb/s PDM-QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optical parametric amplifier, enabling more than doubled reach in dispersion-managed transmission. © ...

  2. Predicting the optical gap of conjugated systems (United States)

    Botelho, Andre Leitao

    The adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model is developed in this work as a tool for in silico prediction of the optical gap of pi-conjugated systems for photovoltaic applications. Full transferability of the model ensures reliable predictive power - excellent agreement with 180 independent experimental data points covering virtually all existing conjugated system types with an accuracy exceeding the time-dependent density functional theory, one of the most accurate first-principles methods. Insights on the structure-property relation of conjugated systems obtained from the model lead to guiding rules for optical gap design: 1) fusing aromatic rings parallel to the conjugated path does not significantly lower the optical gap, 2) fusing rings perpendicularly lowers the optical gap of the monomer, but has a reduced benefit from polymerization, and 3) copolymers take advantage of the lower optical gap of perpendicular fused rings and benefit from further optical gap reduction through added parallel fused rings as electronic communicators. A copolymer of parallel and perpendicular benzodithiophenes, differing only in sulfur atom locations, is proposed as a candidate to achieve the optimal 1.2 eV donor optical gap for organic photovoltaics. For small-molecule organic photovoltaics, substituting the end pairs of carbon atoms on pentacene with sulfur atoms is predicted to lower the optical gap from 1.8 eV to 1.1 eV. Furthermore, the model offers an improvement of orders of magnitude in the computational efficiency over commonly used first-principles tools.

  3. Fiber nonlinearity compensation of an 8-channel WDM PDM-QPSK signal using multiple phase conjugations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Dinu, M.;


    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using optical phase conjugation of an 8-chamiel WDM 32-Gbaud PDM QPSK signal. Conjugating phase every 600 km in a fiber loop enabled a 6000 km transmission over True Wave fiber. © 2013 Optical Society of America....

  4. Photorefractive dynamic holography using self-pumped phase conjugate beam

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arun Anand; C S Narayanamurthy


    Dynamic holography in photorefractive materials using self-pumped phase conjugate beam of the object beam itself as the other writing beam is proposed. Our detailed theoretical analysis shows four-fold increase in the diffraction efficiency of dynamic holograms if recorded using this geometry even in photorefractive crystal like BTO (having low optical activity) without applying external field. Detailed theoretical analysis is given.

  5. Conjugated amplifying polymers for optical sensing applications. (United States)

    Rochat, Sébastien; Swager, Timothy M


    Thanks to their unique optical and electrochemical properties, conjugated polymers have attracted considerable attention over the last two decades and resulted in numerous technological innovations. In particular, their implementation in sensing schemes and devices was widely investigated and produced a multitude of sensory systems and transduction mechanisms. Conjugated polymers possess numerous attractive features that make them particularly suitable for a broad variety of sensing tasks. They display sensory signal amplification (compared to their small-molecule counterparts) and their structures can easily be tailored to adjust solubility, absorption/emission wavelengths, energy offsets for excited state electron transfer, and/or for use in solution or in the solid state. This versatility has made conjugated polymers a fluorescence sensory platform of choice in the recent years. In this review, we highlight a variety of conjugated polymer-based sensory mechanisms together with selected examples from the recent literature.

  6. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S.;


    -optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled......We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all...... reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ∼3.8 dB in signal quality factors....

  7. Generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated twin vector waves by a polarization-insensitive optical parametric amplifier for fiber-nonlinearity-tolerant transmission. (United States)

    Liu, Xiang; Hu, Hao; Chandrasekhar, S; Jopson, R M; Gnauck, A H; Dinu, M; Xie, C; Winzer, P J


    We experimentally demonstrate the generation of 1.024-Tb/s Nyquist-WDM phase-conjugated vector twin waves (PCTWs), consisting of eight 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed QPSK signals and their idlers, by a broadband polarization-insensitive fiber optic parametric amplifier. This novel all-optical signal processing approach to generate WDM-PCTWs enables a 2-fold reduction in the needed optical transmitters as compared to the conventional approach where each idler is generated by a dedicated transmitter. Digital coherent superposition of the twin waves at the receiver enables more than doubled reach in a dispersion-managed transmission link. We further study the impact of polarization-mode dispersion on the performance gain brought by the phase-conjugated twin waves, showing a gain of ~3.8 dB in signal quality factors.

  8. Dependence of the compensation error on the error of a sensor and corrector in an adaptive optics phase-conjugating system (United States)

    Kiyko, V. V.; Kislov, V. I.; Ofitserov, E. N.


    In the framework of a statistical model of an adaptive optics system (AOS) of phase conjugation, three algorithms based on an integrated mathematical approach are considered, each of them intended for minimisation of one of the following characteristics: the sensor error (in the case of an ideal corrector), the corrector error (in the case of ideal measurements) and the compensation error (with regard to discreteness and measurement noises and to incompleteness of a system of response functions of the corrector actuators). Functional and statistical relationships between the algorithms are studied and a relation is derived to ensure calculation of the mean-square compensation error as a function of the errors of the sensor and corrector with an accuracy better than 10%. Because in adjusting the AOS parameters, it is reasonable to proceed from the equality of the sensor and corrector errors, in the case the Hartmann sensor is used as a wavefront sensor, the required number of actuators in the absence of the noise component in the sensor error turns out 1.5 - 2.5 times less than the number of counts, and that difference grows with increasing measurement noise.

  9. Photorefractive phase-conjugation digital holographic microscopy (United States)

    Chang, Chi-Ching; Chan, Huang-Tian; Shiu, Min-Tzung; Chew, Yang-Kun


    In this work, we propose an innovative method for digital holographic microscopy named as photorefractive phaseconjugation digital holographic microscopy (PPCDHM) technique based on the phase conjugation dynamic holographic process in photorefractive BaTiO3 crystal and the retrieval of phase and amplitude of the object wave were performed by a reflection-type digital holographic method. Both amplitude and phase reconstruction benefit from the prior amplification by self-pumped conjugation (SPPC) as they have an increased SNR. The interest of the PPCDHM is great, because its hologram is created by interfered the amplified phase-conjugate wave field generated from a photorefractive phase conjugator (PPC) correcting the phase aberration of the imaging system and the reference wave onto the digital CCD camera. Therefore, a precise three-dimensional description of the object with high SNR can be obtained digitally with only one hologram acquisition. The method requires the acquisition of a single hologram from which the phase distribution can be obtained simultaneously with distribution of intensity at the surface of the object.

  10. Transparency in Bragg scattering and phase conjugation. (United States)

    Longhi, S


    Reflectionless transmission of light waves with unitary transmittance is shown to occur in a certain class of gain-grating structures and phase-conjugation mirrors in the unstable (above-threshold) regime. Such structures are synthesized by means of the Darboux method developed in the context of supersymmetric relativistic quantum mechanics. Transparency is associated to superluminal pulse transmission.

  11. Study of optical phase conjugation in amorphous Zn(x)-S(y)-Se(100-x-y) chalcogenide thin films using degenerate four-wave mixing. (United States)

    Rani, Sunita; Mohan, Devendra; Kishore, Nawal


    Degenerate four-wave mixing (DFWM) experiment is performed to obtain light wavefront inversion (phase conjugation) in semiconducting chalcogenide thin films. Third order nonlinearity of amorphous Zn(x)-S(y)-Se(100-x-y) chalcogenide thin films using DFWM technique is studied at second harmonic of Nd:YAG laser. Influence of total input irradiance on phase conjugate signal is deliberated using log-log plot that has a slope of three and hence implies third order nonlinearity. The dependence of phase conjugate signal on forward beam and backward beam is also studied. The period of the grating formed by interference of forward and probe beam is determined. As the temporal overlapping and sample thickness conditions are satisfied, the third order nonlinear susceptibility, figure of merit and nonlinear refractive index of amorphous films are estimated. The nonlinear behavior is analyzed in terms of decrease in band gap with increasing Zinc and decreasing Sulfur content. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. All solid-state SBS phase conjugate mirror (United States)

    Dane, C.B.; Hackel, L.A.


    A stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) phase conjugate laser mirror uses a solid-state nonlinear gain medium instead of the conventional liquid or high pressure gas medium. The concept has been effectively demonstrated using common optical-grade fused silica. An energy threshold of 2.5 mJ and a slope efficiency of over 90% were achieved, resulting in an overall energy reflectivity of >80% for 15 ns, 1 um laser pulses. The use of solid-state materials is enabled by a multi-pass resonant architecture which suppresses transient fluctuations that would otherwise result in damage to the SBS medium. This all solid state phase conjugator is safer, more reliable, and more easily manufactured than prior art designs. It allows nonlinear wavefront correction to be implemented in industrial and defense laser systems whose operating environments would preclude the introduction of potentially hazardous liquids or high pressure gases. 8 figs.

  13. Phase noise reduction by self-phase locking in semiconductor lasers using phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lykke; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Nielsen, Torben Nørskov


    A theoretical analysis of the behavior of the frequency/phase noise of semiconductor lasers with external phase conjugate feedback is presented. It is shown that the frequency noise is drastically reduced even for lasers with butt-coupled phase conjugate mirrors. In this laser system, the phase...

  14. Nonlinear optical response in doped conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Harigaya, K


    Exciton effects on conjugated polymers are investigated in soliton lattice states. We use the Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model with long-range Coulomb interactions. The Hartree-Fock (HF) approximation and the single-excitation configuration- interaction (single-CI) method are used to obtain optical absorption spectra. The third-harmonic generation (THG) at off-resonant frequencies is calculated as functions of the soliton concentration and the chain length of the polymer. The magnitude of the THG at the 10 percent doping increases by the factor about 10^2 from that of the neutral system. This is owing to the accumulation of the oscillator strengths at the lowest exciton with increasing the soliton concentration. The increase by the order two is common for several choices of Coulomb interaction strengths.

  15. Experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning with phase-conjugate inputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabuncu, Metin; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Leuchs, G.


    We report the first experimental demonstration of continuous variable cloning of phase-conjugate coherent states as proposed by Cerf and Iblisdir [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 247903 (2001)]. In contrast to this proposal, the cloning transformation is accomplished using only linear optical components......, homodyne detection, and feedforward. As a result of combining phase conjugation with a joint measurement strategy, superior cloning is demonstrated with cloning fidelities reaching 89%....

  16. Optical study of pi-conjugated polymers and pi-conjugated polymers/fullerene blends (United States)

    Drori, Tomer

    In this research, we studied the optical properties of a variety of pi-conjugated polymers and pi-conjugated polymers/fullerene blends, using various continuous wave optical spectroscopies. We found an illumination-induced metastable polaron-supporting phase in films of a soluble derivative of poly-p-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV). Pristine, MEH-PPV polymer films in the dark do not show long-lived photogenerated polarons. Prolonged UV illumination, however, is found to induce a reversible, metastable phase characterized by its ability to support abundant long-lived photogenerated polarons. We also discovered a photobleaching band in our photomodulation measurement around 0.9eV that scales with and thus is related to the observed polaron band. In the dark, the illumination-induced metastable phase reverts back to the phase of the original MEH-PPV within about 30 min at room temperature. We also applied our experimental techniques in polymer/fullerene blends for studying the photophysics of bulk heterostructures with below-gap excitation. In contrast to the traditional view, we found that below-gap excitation, which is incapable of generating intrachain excitons, nevertheless efficiently generates polarons on the polymer chains and fullerene molecules. Using frequency dependence photomodulation, we distinguished between the two mechanisms of photoinduced charge transfer using above-gap and below-gap excitations, and found a distinguishable long polaron lifetime when photogenerated with below-gap excitation. The polaron action spectrum extends deep inside the gap as a result of a charge-transfer complex state formed between the polymer chain and fullerene molecule. Using the electroabsorption technique, we were able to detect the optical transition of the charge transfer complex state that lies below the gap of the polymer and the fullerene. With appropriate design engineering the long-lived polarons might be harvested in solar cell devices. Another system studied was

  17. Stellar photometry with Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fiorentino, Giuliana; McConnachie, Alan; Stetson, Peter B; Bono, Giuseppe; Turri, Paolo; Andersen, David; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Diolaiti, Emiliano; Schreiber, Laura; Ciliegi, Paolo; Bellazzini, Michele; Tolstoy, Eline; Monelli, Matteo; Iannicola, Giacinto; Ferraro, Ivan; Testa, Vincenzo


    We overview the current status of photometric analyses of images collected with Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) at 8-10m class telescopes that operated, or are operating, on sky. Particular attention will be payed to resolved stellar population studies. Stars in crowded stellar systems, such as globular clusters or in nearby galaxies, are ideal test particles to test AO performance. We will focus the discussion on photometric precision and accuracy reached nowadays. We briefly describe our project on stellar photometry and astrometry of Galactic globular clusters using images taken with GeMS at the Gemini South telescope. We also present the photometry performed with DAOPHOT suite of programs into the crowded regions of these globulars reaching very faint limiting magnitudes Ks ~21.5 mag on moderately large fields of view (~1.5 arcmin squared). We highlight the need for new algorithms to improve the modeling of the complex variation of the Point Spread Function across the ?eld of view. Finally, we outl...

  18. Coexistence of Self-pumped Phase Conjugation and Mutual-pumped Phase Conjugation in Ce∶BaTiO3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Weilong; Lee Wing-Kee


    Self-pumped phase conjugation(SPPC) and mutual-pumped phase conjugation (MPPC) have been found to coexist in Ce∶BaTiO3 by using two coherent beams of 514.5nm wavelength from an argon ion laser. Both phase conjugations are of the stimulated backscattering and four-wave mixing type. For 7/6 incident power ratio and 26 mW total incident power,he shortest phase conjugate mirror formation time is 10s . Phase conjugate reflectivity of one the beams can reach 70%,hich is ~20% higher than the SPPC reflectivity using only one beam. When the total incident power is increased to 40 mW and the incident power ratio remains constant,a maximum phase conjugatate reflectivity of as much as 88% is obtained.

  19. Optical-domain Compensation for Coupling between Optical Fiber Conjugate Vortex Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyubopytov, Vladimir S.; Tatarczak, Anna; Lu, Xiaofeng


    We demonstrate for the first time optical-domain compensation for coupling between conjugate vortex modes in optical fibers. We introduce a novel method for reconstructing the complex propagation matrix of the optical fiber with straightforward implementation....

  20. Theoretical study on phase conjugation in weakly injected vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Wei-Li; Pan Wei; Luo Bin; Li Xiao-Feng; Zou Xi-Hua; Wang Meng-Yao


    This paper gives a detailed theoretical investigation on phase conjugation induced by nearly degenerate fourwave mixing in single mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with~weak optical injection.Considering VCSELs that can work in linearly polarized or elliptically polarized states,it derives the theoretical expression of the conjugated field by small signal analysis based on the vectoral rate equations--the spin-flip model.For linearly polarized state,VCSELs show similar conjugate spectra to edge-emitting semiconductor lasers.For the eUiptically polarized state,dichroism and birefringence parameters as well as the spin-flip rate can change the conjugate spectra.Especially,when frequency detuning of the probe and pump waves is between the positive and negative relaxation oscillation frequency,changes are evident.For specific values of parameters,conjugate efficiency between 20 dB to 40 dB are obtained.

  1. KrF laser amplifier with phase-conjugate Brillouin retroreflectors. (United States)

    Gower, M C


    We have demonstrated the use of phase-conjugate stimulated Brillouin scattering mirrors to produce high-quality, short-pulse KrF laser beams from angular multiplexed and regenerative amplifiers. The mirror was also shown to isolate systems optically from amplifier spontaneous emission. Automatic alignment of targets using this mirror as a retroreflector was also demonstrated.

  2. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics


    Helin, T; Yudytskiy, M.


    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction m...

  3. Fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime by ultrasound pulse guided digital phase conjugation

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Meng; Fiolka, Reto


    Fluorescence microscopy has revolutionized biomedical research over the past three decades. Its high molecular specificity and unrivaled single molecule level sensitivity have enabled breakthroughs in a variety of research fields. For in vivo applications, its major limitation is the superficial imaging depth as random scattering in biological tissues causes exponential attenuation of the ballistic component of a light wave. Here we present fluorescence microscopy beyond the ballistic regime by combining single cycle pulsed ultrasound modulation and digital optical phase conjugation. We demonstrate near isotropic 3D localized sound-light interaction with an imaging depth as high as thirteen scattering path lengths. With the exceptionally high optical gain provided by the digital optical phase conjugation system, we can deliver sufficient optical power to a focus inside highly scattering media for not only fluorescence microscopy but also a variety of linear and nonlinear spectroscopy measurements. This techno...

  4. Nonlinear Optical Response of Conjugated Polymer to Electric Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yu-fang; ZHUANG De-xin; CUI Bin


    The organic π-conjugated polymers are of major interest materials for the use in electro-optical and nonlinear optical devices. In this work, for a selected polyacetylene chain, the optical absorption spectra in UV/Vis regime as well as the linear polarizabilitiy and nonlinear hyperpolarizability are calculated by using quantum chemical ab initio and semiempirical methods. The relationship of its optical property to electric field is obtained. Some physical mechanism of electric field effect on molecular optical property is discussed by means of electron distribution and intramolecular charge transfer.

  5. Phase conjugation of gap solitons: A numerical study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S C Manga Rao; S Dutta Gupta


    We study the effect of a nearby phase-conjugate mirror (PCM) on the gap soliton of a Kerr non-linear periodic structure. We show that phase conjugation of the gap soliton (in the sense of replication of the amplitude profile in the reverse direction) is possible under the condition of PCM reflectivity approaching unity. This is in contrast with the results for linear structures, where the wave profiles can be conjugated for arbitrary values of the PCM reflectivity. The sensitivity of the conjugation of the gap solitons to PCM reflectivity is ascribed to the fine balance of non-linearity with dispersion, necessary for their existence.

  6. Optical Absorption of Poly(thiophene vinylene) Conjugated Polymers. Experiment and First Principle Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilenko, A V; Bonner, C E; Sun, S -S; Zhang, C; Gavrilenko, V I


    Optical absorption spectra of poly(thiophene vinylene) (PTV) conjugated polymers have been studied at room temperature in the spectral range of 450 to 800 nm. A dominant peak located at 577 nm and a prominent shoulder at 619 nm are observed. Another shoulder located at 685 nm is observed at high concentration and after additional treatment (heat, sonification) only. Equilibrium atomic geometries and optical absorption of PTV conjugated polymers have also been studied by first principles density functional theory (DFT). For PTV in solvent, the theoretical calculations predict two equilibrium geometries with different interchain distances. By comparative analysis of the experimental and theoretical data, it is demonstrated that the new measured long-wavelength optical absorption shoulder is consistent with new optical absorption peak predicted for most energetically favorable PTV phase in the solvent. This shoulder is interpreted as a direct indication of increased interchain interaction in the solvent which ha...

  7. Exploring the origin of high optical absorption in conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Vezie, Michelle S.


    The specific optical absorption of an organic semiconductor is critical to the performance of organic optoelectronic devices. For example, higher light-harvesting efficiency can lead to higher photocurrent in solar cells that are limited by sub-optimal electrical transport. Here, we compare over 40 conjugated polymers, and find that many different chemical structures share an apparent maximum in their extinction coefficients. However, a diketopyrrolopyrrole-thienothiophene copolymer shows remarkably high optical absorption at relatively low photon energies. By investigating its backbone structure and conformation with measurements and quantum chemical calculations, we find that the high optical absorption can be explained by the high persistence length of the polymer. Accordingly, we demonstrate high absorption in other polymers with high theoretical persistence length. Visible light harvesting may be enhanced in other conjugated polymers through judicious design of the structure.

  8. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Helin, Tapio


    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domain. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate gradient based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simul...

  9. Wavelet methods in multi-conjugate adaptive optics (United States)

    Helin, T.; Yudytskiy, M.


    The next generation ground-based telescopes rely heavily on adaptive optics for overcoming the limitation of atmospheric turbulence. In the future adaptive optics modalities, like multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), atmospheric tomography is the major mathematical and computational challenge. In this severely ill-posed problem, a fast and stable reconstruction algorithm is needed that can take into account many real-life phenomena of telescope imaging. We introduce a novel reconstruction method for the atmospheric tomography problem and demonstrate its performance and flexibility in the context of MCAO. Our method is based on using locality properties of compactly supported wavelets, both in the spatial and frequency domains. The reconstruction in the atmospheric tomography problem is obtained by solving the Bayesian MAP estimator with a conjugate-gradient-based algorithm. An accelerated algorithm with preconditioning is also introduced. Numerical performance is demonstrated on the official end-to-end simulation tool OCTOPUS of European Southern Observatory.

  10. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry


    Mercedes E. Filho; Garcia, Paulo; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie


    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce...

  11. Interplay of alternative conjugated pathways and steric interactions on the electronic and optical properties of donor-acceptor conjugated polymers

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Igo T.


    Donor-acceptor π-conjugated copolymers are of interest for a wide range of electronic applications, including field-effect transistors and solar cells. Here, we present a density functional theory (DFT) study of the impact of varying the conjugation pathway on the geometric, electronic, and optical properties of donor-acceptor systems. We consider both linear ("in series"), traditional conjugation among the donor-acceptor moieties versus structures where the acceptor units are appended orthogonally to the linear, donor-only conjugated backbone. Long-range-corrected hybrid functionals are used in the investigation with the values of the tuned long-range separation parameters providing an estimate of the extent of conjugation as a function of the oligomer architecture. Considerable differences in the electronic and optical properties are determined as a function of the nature of the conjugation pathway, features that should be taken into account in the design of donor-acceptor copolymers.

  12. Optical phase encryption by phase contrast using electrically addressed spatial light modulator (United States)

    Nishchal, Naveen Kumar; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar


    We report the use of an electrically addressed liquid crystal spatial light modulator (EALCSLM) operating in the phase mode as a phase-contrast filter (PCF). As an application, an optical phase encryption system has been implemented. We encrypt and decrypt a two-dimensional phase image obtained from an amplitude image. Encrypted image is holographically recorded in a Barium titanate crystal and is then decrypted by generating through phase conjugation, a conjugate of the encrypted image. The decrypted phase image is converted into an amplitude image using an EASLM as a PCF. The idea has been supported by the experimental results.

  13. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase-conjugator

    CERN Document Server

    Okulov, A Yu


    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to configuration most suitable for a coherent coupling of a thousands of a fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that Michelson phase conjugating configuration with double passage through array of fiber amplifiers have the definite advantages compared to one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless to amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on entrance/output beamsplitter. In both configurations the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope due to gain saturation is capable to randomize the position of chirp inside envelope thus it may reduce the visibility of interference pattern at output beamsplitter. A certain advantages...

  14. Dye linked conjugated homopolymers: using conjugated polymer electroluminescence to optically pump porphyrin-dye emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.T.; Spanggaard, H.; Krebs, Frederik C


    . Electroluminescent devices of the homopolymer itself and of the zinc-porphyrin containing polymer were prepared and the nature of the electroluminescence was characterized. The homopolymer segments were found to optically pump the emission of the zinc-porphyrin dye moities. The homopolymer exhibits blue......Zinc-porphyrin dye molecules were incorporated into the backbone of a conjugated polymer material by a method, which allowed for the incorporation of only one zinc-porphyrin dye molecule into the backbone of each conjugated polymer molecule. The electronic properties of the homopolymer were......-green emission and the zinc-porphyrin linked homopolymers emit near-infrared/infrared light. This was demonstrated to be due to electroluminescence pumping of the zinc-porphyrin moieties that were covalently linked to homopolymer material. When only one zinc-porphyrin dye was incorporated into the backbone...

  15. Third Order Nonlinear Optical Effects in Conjugated Polymers (United States)

    Halvorson, Craig Steven

    Third order nonlinear optical effects in conjugated materials were studied using two different spectroscopic methods, third harmonic generation and two photon absorption. The third harmonic generation spectra of cis-polyacetylene, trans-polyacetylene, oriented trans-polyacetylene, three isomers of polyaniline, cis and trans-polyacetylene in polyvinyl butyral, polyheptdadiester, polyheptadiketone, and MEH-PPV/polyethylene blends were measured. The nonlinear optical susceptibility increases with structural order, and is enhanced by the presence of a degenerate ground state. The magnitude of the susceptibility reaches as high as 10^{-7} esu, which is sufficient for the creation of all-optical nonlinear devices. The two photon absorption spectrum of oriented transpolyacetylene was measured using nonlinear photothermal deflection. The spectrum reveals directly the Ag state at 1.1 eV in trans-polyacetylene, and reveals another Ag state at higher energy. The magnitude of the two photon absorption is large enough to rule out using trans-polyacetylene in serial all-optical nonlinear devices; all-optical devices made from conjugated polymers must be parallel, not serial. A new figure of merit for nonlinear devices was proposed.

  16. Design of a high-quality optical conjugate structure in optical tweezers. (United States)

    Hu, Chunguang; An, Ran; Zhang, Chengwei; Lei, Hai; Hu, Xiaodong; Li, Hongbin; Hu, Xiaotang


    We propose an approach to realize a high-quality optical conjugate of a piezo-driven mirror (PM) in optical tweezers. Misalignments between the optical beam and the steering center of the PM are analyzed mathematically. The decentrations in different directions cause different changes, either a position change of the conjugate plane or a spot variation of the beam during PM steering. On the other hand, these misalignment-introduced problems provide the information to check the assembling errors. Thus a wanted conjugate plane of the PM can be effectively and precisely achieved according to the detection signals. This approach is also available to deal with multifactor coupling error. At the end, the procedure for error analysis is given by testing homebuilt optical tweezers.

  17. Phase-Conjugate Receiver for Gaussian-State Quantum Illumination (United States)

    Erkmen, Baris I.; Guha, Saikat


    An active optical sensor probes a region of free space that is engulfed in bright thermal noise to determine the presence (or absence) of a weakly reflecting target. The returned light (which is just thermal noise if no target is present, and thermal noise plus a weak reflection of the probe beam if a target is present) is measured and processed by a receiver and a decision is made on whether a target is present. It has been shown that generating an entangled pair of photons (which is a highly nonclassical state of light), using one photon as the probe beam and storing the other photon for comparison to the returned light, has superior performance to the traditional classical-light (coherent-state) target detection sensors. An entangled-photon transmitter and optimal receiver combination can yield up to a factor of 4 (i.e., 6 dB) gain in the error-probability exponent over a coherent state transmitter and optimal receiver combination, in a highly lossy and noisy scenario (when both sensors have the same number of transmitted photons). However, the receiver that achieves this advantage is not known. One structured receiver can close half of the 6-dB gap (i.e., a 3-dB improvement). It is based on phase-conjugating the returned light, then performing dual-balanced difference detection with the stored half of the entangled-photon pair. Active optical sensors are of tremendous value to NASA s missions. Although this work focuses on target detection, it can be extended to imaging (2D, 3D, hyperspectral, etc.) scenarios as well, where the image quality can be better than that offered by traditional active sensors. Although the current work is theoretical, NASA s future missions could benefit significantly from developing and demonstrating this capability. This is an optical receiver design whose components are, in principle, all implementable. However, the work is currently entirely theoretical. It is necessary to: 1. Demonstrate a bench-top proof of the theoretical

  18. Fiber nonlinearity compensation by repeated phase conjugation in 2.048-Tbit/s WDM transmission of PDM 16-QAM channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Hao; Jopson, R. M.; Gnauck, A. H.;


    We demonstrate compensation of fiber nonlinearities using repeated optical phase conjugation (OPC) in a WDM system with eight 32-Gbaud PDM 16-QAM channels, showing improved performance over a single mid-span OPC and no OPC....

  19. Electronic and optical excitations in crystalline conjugated polymers (United States)

    van der Horst, J.-W.; Bobbert, P. A.; Michels, M. A.


    We calculate the electronic and optical excitations of crystalline polythiophene and polyphenylenevinylene, using the GW approximation for the electronic self-energy and including excitonic effects by solving the electron-hole Bethe-Salpeter equation. We compare with our earlier calculations on an isolated polythiophene chain and polymer chains embedded in a dielectric medium. Surprisingly, we find for the crystalline calculations optical gaps and exciton binding energies that are significantly smaller than present experimental values. We attribute the disagreement to the fact that the quantum-mechanical coherence between polymer chains, present in the calculations, is absent in most experimental situations. We discuss possible reasons for this absence. Our general conclusion is that the picture of a polymer chain in a dielectric medium is most appropriate in describing the present experimental data on electronic and optical excitations in conjugated polymers.

  20. Phase conjugation by four-wave mixing in inhomogeneous plasmas (United States)

    Williams, Edward A.; Lininger, Diana M.; Goldman, Martin V.


    The effects of density, temperature, and velocity gradients on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a plasma are investigated. A fluid model is used in which the stimulated Brillouin terms are included, but pump depletion is neglected. The steady state phase conjugate reflectivity and signal transmission coefficients are calculated and discussed for both degenerate and resonant FWM. The substantial effects of inhomogeneity on the use of FWM as a plasma diagnostic are discussed.

  1. Optical Control of Living Cells Electrical Activity by Conjugated Polymers. (United States)

    Martino, Nicola; Bossio, Caterina; Vaquero Morata, Susana; Lanzani, Guglielmo; Antognazza, Maria Rosa


    Hybrid interfaces between organic semiconductors and living tissues represent a new tool for in-vitro and in-vivo applications. In particular, conjugated polymers display several optimal properties as substrates for biological systems, such as good biocompatibility, excellent mechanical properties, cheap and easy processing technology, and possibility of deposition on light, thin and flexible substrates. These materials have been employed for cellular interfaces like neural probes, transistors for excitation and recording of neural activity, biosensors and actuators for drug release. Recent experiments have also demonstrated the possibility to use conjugated polymers for all-optical modulation of the electrical activity of cells. Several in-vitro study cases have been reported, including primary neuronal networks, astrocytes and secondary line cells. Moreover, signal photo-transduction mediated by organic polymers has been shown to restore light sensitivity in degenerated retinas, suggesting that these devices may be used for artificial retinal prosthesis in the future. All in all, light sensitive conjugated polymers represent a new approach for optical modulation of cellular activity. In this work, all the steps required to fabricate a bio-polymer interface for optical excitation of living cells are described. The function of the active interface is to transduce the light stimulus into a modulation of the cell membrane potential. As a study case, useful for in-vitro studies, a polythiophene thin film is used as the functional, light absorbing layer, and Human Embryonic Kidney (HEK-293) cells are employed as the biological component of the interface. Practical examples of successful control of the cell membrane potential upon stimulation with light pulses of different duration are provided. In particular, it is shown that both depolarizing and hyperpolarizing effects on the cell membrane can be achieved depending on the duration of the light stimulus. The reported

  2. Phase-only optical encryption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, P.C.; Glückstad, J.


    We have implemented a phase-only optical encryption and decryption system with a readout based on the generalized phase-contrast method. The experimental system has been implemented with Liquid-crystal spatial light modulators to generate binary phase-encrypted masks and a decrypting key. A phase...

  3. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Filho, Mercedes E; Duvert, Gilles; Duchene, Gaspard; Thiebaut, Eric; Young, John; Absil, Olivier; Berger, Jean-Phillipe; Beckert, Thomas; Hoenig, Sebastian; Schertl, Dieter; Weigelt, Gerd; Testi, Leonardo; Tatuli, Eric; Borkowski, Virginie; de Becker, Michael; Surdej, Jean; Aringer, Bernard; Hron, Joseph; Lebzelter, Thomas; Chiavassa, Andrea; Corradi, Romano; Harries, Tim


    One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere. While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce images. Such techniques allow only to achieve modest dynamic ranges. However, with high contrast objects, for faint targets or when structure detail is needed, phase referencing techniques as used in radio interferometry, should theoretically achieve higher dynamic ranges for the same number of telescopes. Our approach is not to provide evidence either for or against the hypothesis that phase referenced imaging gives better dynamic range than closure phase imaging. Instead we wish to explore the potential of this techniq...

  4. Precursor polymer approach towards functional conjugated polymer networks and ultrathin film electro-optical applications (United States)

    Taranekar, Prasad

    leads to intra- and inter-molecularly linked structures where the formation of conjugated chain oligomers or polymers, ultimately determines their electronic and optical nature. The associated structural phase behavior imparted by the backbone during cross-linking, strongly impacts the physical properties manifested by each class of precursor polymer. In summary, we have found a rational protocol for the design and synthesis of new conjugated polymeric materials based on the electrochemical crosslinking of precursor polymers exhibiting unique processability and electro-optical properties.

  5. Correlating structure with fluorescence emission in phase-separated conjugated-polymer blends. (United States)

    Chappell, John; Lidzey, David G; Jukes, Paul C; Higgins, Anthony M; Thompson, Richard L; O'Connor, Stephen; Grizzi, Ilaria; Fletcher, Robert; O'Brien, Jim; Geoghegan, Mark; Jones, Richard A L


    Blends of conjugated polymers are frequently used as the active semiconducting layer in light-emitting diodes and photovoltaic devices. Here we report the use of scanning near-field optical microscopy, scanning force microscopy and nuclear-reaction analysis to study the structure of a thin film of a phase-separated blend of two conjugated polymers prepared by spin-casting. We show that in addition to the well-known micrometre-scale phase-separated morphology of the blend, one of the polymers preferentially wets the surface and forms a 10-nm-thick, partially crystallized wetting layer. Using near-field microscopy we identify unexpected changes in the fluorescence emission from the blend that occurs in a 300-nm-wide band located at the interface between the different phase-separated domains. Our measurements provide an insight into the complex structure of phase-separated conjugated-polymer thin films. Characterizing and controlling the properties of the interfaces in such films will be critical in the further development of efficient optoelectronic devices.

  6. Phase-preserved optical elevator (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei


    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  7. Axial range of conjugate adaptive optics in two-photon microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Paudel, Hari P; Mertz, Jerome; Bifano, Thomas


    We describe an adaptive optics technique for two-photon microscopy in which the deformable mirror used for aberration compensation is positioned in a plane conjugate to the plane of the aberration. We demonstrate in a proof-of-principle experiment that this technique yields a large field of view advantage in comparison to standard pupil-conjugate adaptive optics. Further, we show that the extended field of view in conjugate AO is maintained over a relatively large axial translation of the deformable mirror with respect to the conjugate plane. We conclude with a discussion of limitations and prospects for the conjugate AO technique in two-photon biological microscopy.

  8. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase conjugator. (United States)

    Okulov, A Yu


    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to the most suitable configuration for a coherent coupling of thousands of fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that a Michelson phase-conjugating configuration with double passage through an array of fiber amplifiers has the definite advantage compared to a one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless of the amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers, the Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on an entrance/output beam splitter. In both configurations, the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope, due to gain saturation, is capable of randomizing the position of chirp inside an envelope; thus it may reduce the visibility of the interference pattern at an output beam splitter. Certain advantages are inherent to the sech-form temporal envelope because of the exponential precursor and self-similar propagation in gain medium. The Gaussian envelope is significantly compressed in a deep gain saturation regime, and the frequency chirp position inside pulse envelope is more deformed.

  9. Phase conjugation by degenerate four wave mixing in disodium fluorescein solution in methanol (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Sekhar, P. Chandra; Venkateswarlu, P.; Geroge, M. C.


    Organic dyes are known to show the resonant type of nonlinear optical properties, including phase conjugation. In the present work, disodium fluorescein in methanol is used as an organic nonlinear medium for degenerate four wave mixing at 532 nm to see the intensity dependence of the phase conjugate signal at different concentrations of the solution. It is observed that the maximum reflectivity of the signal occurs in a concentration range of 5 x 10(exp -3)/cu cm to 1.2 x 10(exp -2) g/cu cm. It is also observed that the intensity of the signal drops suddenly to less than half of its maximum outside the concentration range mentioned above. An investigation of the phase conjugate signal intensity by changing the delay time between probe signal and the forward pump is also examined. Briefly discussed is the possibility of population grating in dye liquids as a source of enhancing the third order susceptibility besides the other techniques mentioned in reference. The experiment is done by beam splitting the second harmonic (532 nm) of Nd:YAG laser, Q-switched at 20 pulses/sec (pulse width is approximately 8 and 200 mJ per pulse).

  10. Phase estimation in optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rastogi, Pramod


    Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today. The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre

  11. Demonstration of all-optical phase noise suppression scheme using optical nonlinearity and conversion/dispersion delay. (United States)

    Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Khaleghi, Salman; Ziyadi, Morteza; Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Almaiman, Ahmed; Daab, Wajih; Rogawski, Devora; Tur, Moshe; Touch, Joseph D; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E


    We propose and demonstrate an all-optical phase noise reduction scheme that uses optical nonlinear mixing and tunable optical delays to suppress the low-speed phase noise induced by laser linewidth. By utilizing the phase conjugate copy of the original signal and two narrow-linewidth optical pumps, the phase noise induced by laser linewidth can be reduced by a factor of ∼5 for a laser with 500-MHz phase noise bandwidth. The error-vector-magnitude can be improved from ∼30% to ∼14% for the same laser linewidth for 40-Gbit/s quadrature phase shift keying signal.

  12. Configuration optimization of laser guide stars and wavefront correctors for multi-conjugation adaptive optics (United States)

    Xuan, Li; He, Bin; Hu, Li-Fa; Li, Da-Yu; Xu, Huan-Yu; Zhang, Xing-Yun; Wang, Shao-Xin; Wang, Yu-Kun; Yang, Cheng-Liang; Cao, Zhao-Liang; Mu, Quan-Quan; Lu, Xing-Hai


    Multi-conjugation adaptive optics (MCAOs) have been investigated and used in the large aperture optical telescopes for high-resolution imaging with large field of view (FOV). The atmospheric tomographic phase reconstruction and projection of three-dimensional turbulence volume onto wavefront correctors, such as deformable mirrors (DMs) or liquid crystal wavefront correctors (LCWCs), is a very important step in the data processing of an MCAO’s controller. In this paper, a method according to the wavefront reconstruction performance of MCAO is presented to evaluate the optimized configuration of multi laser guide stars (LGSs) and the reasonable conjugation heights of LCWCs. Analytical formulations are derived for the different configurations and are used to generate optimized parameters for MCAO. Several examples are given to demonstrate our LGSs configuration optimization method. Compared with traditional methods, our method has minimum wavefront tomographic error, which will be helpful to get higher imaging resolution at large FOV in MCAO. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174274, 11174279, 61205021, 11204299, 61475152, and 61405194) and the State Key Laboratory of Applied Optics, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  13. Control of polarization signal distortion by frequency domain phase conjusation in optical fiber systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BU Yang; WANG XiangZhao


    Optical frequency domain phase conjugation (FDPC) is based on phase conjugation of spectrum of an input signal. It is equivalent to the phase conjugation and the time reversal of the temporal envelope of an input signal. The use of FDPC to con-trol polarization signal distortion in birefringent optical fiber systems is proposed. Evolution of polarization signals in the system using midway FDPC is analyzed theoretically and simulated numerically. It is shown that the distortion of polariza-tion signals can be controlled effectively by FDPC. The impairments due to disper-sion and nonlinear effects can be suppressed simultaneously.

  14. Phase conjugator with two coherent beams in a BaTiO3: Ce crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建劳; 谢平; 戴建华; 张洪钧


    A phase conjugator which includes two coherent beams that are incident upon one of a-faces of a BaTiO3: Ce crystal without internal reflection is performed experimentally. Based on the four-wave mixing, the mechanism of this conjugator is investigated numerically. in comparison with the cor-responding self-pumped phase conjugator, the phase-conjugate behavior of this conjugator is estab-lished much more quickly, its phase conjugate reflectivity is greater in some cases and the intensity threshold is lower by over two orders of magnitude. The configuration of this conjugator is easy to per-form because the output response exists over a wide range of angular and lateral positions of the two incident beams on the crystal.

  15. Structure and optical bandgap relationship of π-conjugated systems. (United States)

    Botelho, André Leitão; Shin, Yongwoo; Liu, Jiakai; Lin, Xi


    In bulk heterojunction photovoltaic systems both the open-circuit voltage as well as the short-circuit current, and hence the power conversion efficiency, are dependent on the optical bandgap of the electron-donor material. While first-principles methods are computationally intensive, simpler model Hamiltonian approaches typically suffer from one or more flaws: inability to optimize the geometries for their own input; absence of general, transferable parameters; and poor performance for non-planar systems. We introduce a set of new and revised parameters for the adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (aSSH) Hamiltonian, which is capable of optimizing geometries, along with rules for applying them to any [Formula: see text]-conjugated system containing C, N, O, or S, including non-planar systems. The predicted optical bandgaps show excellent agreement to UV-vis spectroscopy data points from literature, with a coefficient of determination [Formula: see text], a mean error of -0.05 eV, and a mean absolute deviation of 0.16 eV. We use the model to gain insights from PEDOT, fused thiophene polymers, poly-isothianaphthene, copolymers, and pentacene as sources of design rules in the search for low bandgap materials. Using the model as an in-silico design tool, a copolymer of benzodithiophenes along with a small-molecule derivative of pentacene are proposed as optimal donor materials for organic photovoltaics.

  16. Structure and optical bandgap relationship of π-conjugated systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Leitão Botelho

    Full Text Available In bulk heterojunction photovoltaic systems both the open-circuit voltage as well as the short-circuit current, and hence the power conversion efficiency, are dependent on the optical bandgap of the electron-donor material. While first-principles methods are computationally intensive, simpler model Hamiltonian approaches typically suffer from one or more flaws: inability to optimize the geometries for their own input; absence of general, transferable parameters; and poor performance for non-planar systems. We introduce a set of new and revised parameters for the adapted Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (aSSH Hamiltonian, which is capable of optimizing geometries, along with rules for applying them to any [Formula: see text]-conjugated system containing C, N, O, or S, including non-planar systems. The predicted optical bandgaps show excellent agreement to UV-vis spectroscopy data points from literature, with a coefficient of determination [Formula: see text], a mean error of -0.05 eV, and a mean absolute deviation of 0.16 eV. We use the model to gain insights from PEDOT, fused thiophene polymers, poly-isothianaphthene, copolymers, and pentacene as sources of design rules in the search for low bandgap materials. Using the model as an in-silico design tool, a copolymer of benzodithiophenes along with a small-molecule derivative of pentacene are proposed as optimal donor materials for organic photovoltaics.

  17. NIF optics phase gradient specfication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W.; Auerbach, J.; Hunt, J.; Lawson, L.; Manes, K.; Orth, C.; Sacks, R.; Trenholme, J.; Wegner, P.


    A root-mean-square (rms) phase gradient specification seems to allow a good connection between the NIP optics quality and focal spot requirements. Measurements on Beamlet optics individually, and as a chain, indicate they meet the assumptions necessary to use this specification, and that they have a typical rms phase gradient of {approximately}80 {angstrom}/cm. This may be sufficient for NIP to meet the proposed Stockpile Stewardship Management Program (SSMP) requirements of 80% of a high- power beam within a 200-250 micron diameter spot. Uncertainties include, especially, the scale length of the optics phase noise, the ability of the adaptive optic to correct against pump-induced distortions and optics noise, and the possibility of finding mitigation techniques against whole-beam self-focusing (e.g. a pre- correction optic). Further work is needed in these areas to better determine the NIF specifications. This memo is a written summary of a presentation on this topic given by W. Williams 24 April 1997 to NIP and LS&T personnel.

  18. Phase conjugate of quantum states in finite-dimensional Hilbert space

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, X F; Guo, G C; Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Zhang, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Guang-Can


    We show that, for $N$ parallel input states, an anti-linear map with respect to a specific basis is essentially a classical operator. We also consider the information contained in phase-conjugate pairs $|\\phi > |\\phi^*>$, and prove that there is more information about a quantum state encoded in phase-conjugate pairs than in parallel pairs.

  19. A Scanning Hologram Recorded by Phase Conjugate Property of Nonlinear Crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zi-Liang, Ping; Dalsgaard, Erik


    A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given.......A methode of recording a scanning hologram with phase conjugate property of nonlinear crystal is provided. The principle of recording, setup and experiments are given....

  20. Phase Conjugated and Transparent Wavelength Conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM Signals Employing a Single-Layer Graphene Coated Fiber Device. (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Zeng, Mengqi; Long, Yun; Liu, Jun; Zhu, Yixiao; Zou, Kaiheng; Zhang, Fan; Fu, Lei; Wang, Jian


    We fabricate a nonlinear optical device based on a fiber pigtail cross-section coated with a single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Using the fabricated graphene-assisted nonlinear optical device and employing Nyquist 16-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) signal, we experimentally demonstrate phase conjugated wavelength conversion by degenerate four-wave mixing (FWM) and transparent wavelength conversion by non-degenerate FWM in graphene. We study the conversion efficiency as functions of the pump power and pump wavelength and evaluate the bit-error rate (BER) performance. We also compare the time-varying symbol sequence for graphene-assisted phase conjugated and transparent wavelength conversions of Nyquist 16-QAM signal.

  1. The Optical Signature of Charges in Conjugated Polymers (United States)


    Electrical charge flowing through organic semiconductors drives many of today’s mobile phone displays and television screens, suggesting an internally consistent model of charge-carrier properties in these materials to have manifested. In conjugated polymers, charges give rise to additional absorption of light at wavelengths longer than those absorbed by the electrically neutral species. These characteristic absorption bands are universally being related to the emergence of localized energy levels shifted into the forbidden gap of organic semiconductors due to local relaxation of the molecular geometry. However, the traditional view on these energy levels and their occupation is incompatible with expected changes in electron removal and addition energies upon charging molecules. Here, I demonstrate that local Coulomb repulsion, as captured by nonempirically optimized electronic-structure calculations, restores compatibility and suggests a different origin of the charge-induced optical transitions. These results challenge a widely accepted and long-established picture, but an improved understanding of charge carriers in molecular materials promises a more targeted development of organic and hybrid organic/inorganic (opto-)electronic devices. PMID:27280165

  2. Phase conjugation of vector fields by degenerate four-wave mixing in a Fe-doped LiNbO₃. (United States)

    Qian, Sheng-Xia; Li, Yongnan; Kong, Ling-Jun; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Hui-Tian


    We propose a method to generate the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field by degenerate four-wave mixing in a c-cut Fe-doped LiNbO3 crystal. We demonstrate experimentally that the phase-conjugate wave of the vector field can be generated. In particular, the phase-conjugate vector field has also the peculiar function of compensating the polarization distortion, as the traditional phase-conjugate scaler field can compensate the phase distortion.

  3. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Au-Nanoparticles Conjugated with Lipoic Acid in Water (United States)

    Trejo-Durán, M.; Cornejo-Monroy, D.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Olivares-Vargas, A.; Castano, V. M.


    Gold nanoparticles were chemically conjugated with lipoic acid to control their optical properties. Z-scan and other optical techniques were used to characterize the non-linear behavior of the resulting nanostructured materials. The results show that the nonlinearity is of thermal origin, which can be controlled by the use of lipoic acid as well as other organic molecules conjugated onto metal nanoparticles. In particular, the presence of lipoic acid increases n_2 and dn/dT.

  4. Preparation of bioconjugates by solid-phase conjugation to ion exchange matrix-adsorbed carrier proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houen, G.; Olsen, D.T.; Hansen, P.R.;


    A solid-phase conjugation method utilizing carrier protein bound to an ion exchange matrix was developed. Ovalbumin was adsorbed to an anion exchange matrix using a batch procedure, and the immobilized protein was then derivatized with iodoacetic acid N-hydroxysuccinimid ester. The activated......, and immunization experiments with the eluted conjugates showed that the more substituted conjugates gave rise to the highest titers of glutathione antibodies. Direct immunization with the conjugates adsorbed to the ion exchange matrix was possible and gave rise to high titers of glutathione antibodies. Conjugates...... of ovalbumin and various peptides were prepared in a similar manner and used for production of peptide antisera by direct immunization with the conjugates bound to the ion exchanger. Advantages of the method are its solid-phase nature, allowing fast and efficient reactions and intermediate washings...

  5. Optical, Electrochemical and Thermal Studies of Conjugated Polymers Synthesized by Eutectic Melt Reaction. (United States)

    Bathula, Chinna; Buruga, Kezia; Kang, Youngjong; Khazi, Imtiyaz Ahmed M


    This paper reports on the synthesis of a novel donor-acceptor conjugated polymers, P1 and P2 by solvent free eutectic melt polymerization reaction. Triisopropylsilylethynyl(TIPS) substituted benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b']dithiophene(BDT) is used as donor, thienithiophene(TT) and thienopyrroledione(TPD) are utilized as acceptors for demonstrating eutectic polymerization. The most important fact in the solvent-free reaction between solid reactants actually proceeds through bulk liquid phases. Such liquid phases are possible due to the formation of eutectics between the reactants and product(s) and any evolution of heat. Naphthalene is explored in this reaction for forming eutectics with the reactants, resulting in desired polymers. Thermal stability, optical and electrochemical properties of these polymers were determined. Optical band gaps of the polymers were found to be 1.58 and 1.65 eV. Electrochemical studies by cyclic voltametry experiment revealed HOMO and LUMO energy levels to be -5.22, -5.60 eV, and -3.76, -4.16 eV, respectively. The polymers were thermally stable up to 285-400 °C. Thermal, optical and electrochemical studies indicated these materials to be promising candidates in organic electronic applications.

  6. Theory of optical transitions in conjugated polymers. I. Ideal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barford, William, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Marcus, Max [Department of Chemistry, Physical and Theoretical Chemistry Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QZ (United Kingdom); Magdalen College, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 4AU (United Kingdom)


    We describe a theory of linear optical transitions in conjugated polymers. The theory is based on three assumptions. The first is that the low-lying excited states of conjugated polymers are Frenkel excitons coupled to local normal modes, described by the Frenkel-Holstein model. Second, we assume that the relevant parameter regime is ℏω ≪ J, i.e., the adiabatic regime, and thus the Born-Oppenheimer factorization of the electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom is generally applicable. Finally, we assume that the Condon approximation is valid, i.e., the exciton-polaron wavefunction is essentially independent of the normal modes. Using these assumptions we derive an expression for an effective Huang-Rhys parameter for a chain (or chromophore) of N monomers, given by S(N) = S(1)/IPR, where S(1) is the Huang-Rhys parameter for an isolated monomer. IPR is the inverse participation ratio, defined by IPR = (∑{sub n}|Ψ{sub n}|{sup 4}){sup −1}, where Ψ{sub n} is the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction. Since the IPR is proportional to the spread of the exciton center-of-mass wavefunction, this is a key result, as it shows that S(N) decreases with chain length. As in molecules, in a polymer S(N) has two interpretations. First, ℏωS(N) is the relaxation energy of an excited state caused by its coupling to the normal modes. Second, S(N) appears in the definition of an effective Franck-Condon factor, F{sub 0v}(N) = S(N){sup v}exp ( − S(N))/v! for the vth vibronic manifold. We show that the 0 − 0 and 0 − 1 optical intensities are proportional to F{sub 00}(N) and F{sub 01}(N), respectively, and thus the ratio of the 0 − 1 to 0 − 0 absorption and emission intensities are proportional to S(N). These analytical results are checked by extensive DMRG calculations and found to be generally valid, particularly for emission. However, for large chain lengths higher-lying quasimomentum exciton states become degenerate with the lowest vibrational excitation of the

  7. Observation of Image Transfer and Phase Conjugation in Stimulated Down-Conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Souto-Ribeiro, P H; Almeida, M P; Huguenin, J A; Dos Santos, B C; Khoury, A Z


    We observe experimentally the transfer of angular spectrum and image formation in the process of stimulated parametric down-conversion. Images and interference patterns can be transferred either from the pump or the auxiliary laser beams to the stimulated down-converted one. The stimulated field propagates as the complex conjugate of the auxiliary laser. The phase conjugation is observed through intensity pattern measurements.

  8. BaTiO3 waveguide self-pumped phase conjugator


    James, S. W.; Youden, K.E.; Jeffrey, P. M.; EASON, R. W.; Chandler, P.J.; Zhang, L.; Townsend, P.D.


    For the first time to our knowledge, self-pumped phase conjugation is reported in a planar waveguide structure in a BaTiO3 single crystal. The waveguide was fabricated by the technique of ion implantation, with 1.5-MeV H+ ions at a dose of 10^16 ions/cm^2. Phase-conjugate reflectivities >20% have been measured for waveguide self-pumped phase conjugation, and, for a given input power, an order-of-magnitude reduction in the response time is observed in the waveguide compared with the bulk. The ...

  9. Pump induced normal mode splittings in phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Dutta Gupta


    Phase conjugation in a Kerr nonlinear waveguide is studied with counter-propagating normally incident pumps and a probe beam at an arbitrary angle of incidence. Detailed numerical results for the specular and phase conjugated reflectivities are obtained with full account of pump depletion. For sufficient strengths of the pump a normal mode splitting is demonstrated in both the specular and the phase conjugated reflectivities of the probe wave. The splitting is explained in terms of a simple model under undepleted pump approximation.

  10. Properties of cat mutually pumped phase conjugation and two-wave mixing gain in doped KNSBN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinguang Xu(许心光); Zongshu Shao(邵宗书); Zhengping Wang(王正平); Junhai Liu(刘均海); Guibao Xu(许贵宝); Dawei Hu(胡大伟)


    Cat mutually pumped phase conjugation configuration is discovered and investigated by using two-wavemixing in (KyNa1-y)2z(SrxBa1-x)1-zNb2O6 (KNSBN) crystal. When only one signal or pumped beamdoes not give birth to phase conjugation, the maximum reflectivity of signal and pumped beam attain140% and 30% due to two-wave mixing, respectively. The experimental results show that the two-wavemixing can reduce the threshold of incident beams power, extend the incident angle range, and shortenresponse rate in the process of self-pumped phase conjugator (SPPC) in KNSBN crystal.

  11. Multiple-beams Mutually Pumped Phase Conjugation Generated by a Bridge Phase Conjugator in Photorefractive Ba1 - xSrxTi03 Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Yishen; LU Tuansun; HUANG Wenchai; ZHENG Zhiqiang; ZHUANG Jian; TANG Dingyuan


    A new method generating multiple-beams mutually pumped phase conjugation (MMPPC) in a photorefractive Bat- xSrxTiO3 crystal is demonstrated, in which a pumping beam is incident upon a-face of the crystal and two signal beams are introduced into + c face of the crystal with the almost same incident angle and position. The time evolution of the phase conjugations from signal beams and the dependence of phase-conjugate reflectivities on the input-beam intensity ratios are presented. Also, the amplitude coupled-wave equations based on the model of two interaction reigns is derived. The results obtained by numerical calculation of the corresponding coupled-wave equations show qualitative agreement with the experimental results.

  12. Phase-conjugate resonant holographic interferometry applied to NH concentration measurements in a 2D diffusion flame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzannis, A.P.; Beaud, P.; Frey, H.M.; Gerber, T.; Mischler, B.; Radi, P.P. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    Resonant Holographic Interferometry is a method based on the anomalous dispersion of light having a frequency close to an electronic transition of a molecule. We propose a novel single-laser, two-colour setup for recording resonant holograms and apply it to 2D species concentration measurements. The second colour is generated by optical phase-conjugation from Stimulated Brillouin scattering in a cell. Phase-Conjugate Resonant Holographic Interferometry (PCRHI) is demonstrated in a 2D NH{sub 3}/O{sub 2} flame yielding interferograms that contain information on the NH radical distribution in the flame. Experimental results are quantified by applying a numerical computation of the Voigt profiles. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  13. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Keang-Po


    Fiber-optic communication systems have revolutionized our telecommunication infrastructures – currently, almost all telephone land-line, cellular, and internet communications must travel via some form of optical fibers. In these transmission systems, neither the phase nor frequency of the optical signal carries information – only the intensity of the signal is used. To transmit more information in a single optical carrier, the phase of the optical carrier must be explored. As a result, there is renewed interest in phase-modulated optical communications, mainly in direct-detection DPSK signals for long-haul optical communication systems. When optical amplifiers are used to maintain certain signal level among the fiber link, the system is limited by amplifier noises and fiber nonlinearities. Phase-Modulated Optical Communication Systems surveys this newly popular area, covering the following topics: The transmitter and receiver for phase-modulated coherent lightwave systems Method for performance analysis o...

  14. Optical phased-array ladar. (United States)

    Montoya, Juan; Sanchez-Rubio, Antonio; Hatch, Robert; Payson, Harold


    We demonstrate a ladar with 0.5 m class range resolution obtained by integrating a continuous-wave optical phased-array transmitter with a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode receiver array. In contrast with conventional ladar systems, an array of continuous-wave sources is used to effectively pulse illuminate a target by electro-optically steering far-field fringes. From the reference frame of a point in the far field, a steered fringe appears as a pulse. Range information is thus obtained by measuring the arrival time of a pulse return from a target to a receiver pixel. This ladar system offers a number of benefits, including broad spectral coverage, high efficiency, small size, power scalability, and versatility.

  15. Optical phased array radiating optical vortex with manipulated topological charges. (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoliang; Pu, Mingbo; Li, Xiong; Huang, Cheng; Pan, Wenbo; Zhao, Bo; Cui, Jianhua; Luo, Xiangang


    Optical antennas are key elements in quantum optics emitting and sensing, and behave wide range applications in optical domain. However, integration of optical antenna radiating orbital angular momentum is still a challenge in nano-scale. We theoretically demonstrate a sub-wavelength phased optical antenna array, which manipulates the distribution of the orbital angular momentum in the near field. Orbital angular momentum with topological charge of 4 can be obtained by controlling the phase distribution of the fundamental mode orbital angular momentum in each antenna element. Our results indicate this phased array may be utilized in high integrated optical communication systems.

  16. Realization of preconditioned Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms on optical linear algebra processors. (United States)

    Ghosh, A


    Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are important in computational linear algebra. In this paper, a parallel pipelined realization of these algorithms on a ring of optical linear algebra processors is described. The flow of data is designed to minimize the idle times of the optical multiprocessor and the redundancy of computations. The effects of optical round-off errors on the solutions obtained by the optical Lanczos and conjugate gradient algorithms are analyzed, and it is shown that optical preconditioning can improve the accuracy of these algorithms substantially. Algorithms for optical preconditioning and results of numerical experiments on solving linear systems of equations arising from partial differential equations are discussed. Since the Lanczos algorithm is used mostly with sparse matrices, a folded storage scheme to represent sparse matrices on spatial light modulators is also described.

  17. Principles of adaptive optics

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Robert


    History and BackgroundIntroductionHistoryPhysical OpticsTerms in Adaptive OpticsSources of AberrationsAtmospheric TurbulenceThermal BloomingNonatmospheric SourcesAdaptive Optics CompensationPhase ConjugationLimitations of Phase ConjugationArtificial Guide StarsLasers for Guide StarsCombining the LimitationsLinear AnalysisPartial Phase ConjugationAdaptive Optics SystemsAdaptive Optics Imaging SystemsBeam Propagation Syst

  18. Synthesis and optical properties of terminally substituted conjugated polyenes


    Effenberger, Franz; Schlosser, Hubert; Bäuerle, Peter; Maier, Stefan; Port, Helmut; Wolf, Hans Christoph


    Long-chain, conjugated polyenes can function as molecular wires. This is shown by the photophysical properties of polyenes containing naphthyl, anthryl, and tetraphenylporphyrinyl (TPP) terminal groups. When the anthryl group in 1, which is obtainable by a sequence of Wittig reactions, is selectively excited, strong TPP emission is observed.

  19. Chaos crisis and bistability of self-pulsing dynamics in a laser diode with phase-conjugate feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virte, Martin; Karsaklian Dal Bosco, Andreas; Wolfersberger, Delphine; Sciamanna, Marc [Supelec, OPTEL Research Group, Laboratoire Materiaux Optiques, Photonique et Systemes, EA-4423, 2 rue Edouard Belin, F-57070 Metz (France)


    A laser diode subject to a phase-conjugate optical feedback can exhibit rich nonlinear dynamics and chaos. We report here on two bifurcation mechanisms that appear when increasing the amount of light being fed back to the laser. First, we report on a full suppression of chaos from a crisis induced by a saddle-node bifurcation on self-pulsing, so-called external-cavity-mode solutions (ECMs). Second, the feedback-dependent torus and saddle-node bifurcations on ECMs may be responsible for large regions of bistability between ECMs of different and high (beyond gigahertz) frequencies.

  20. Fragment-based solid-phase assembly of oligonucleotide conjugates with peptide and polyethylene glycol ligands. (United States)

    Dirin, Mehrdad; Urban, Ernst; Noe, Christian R; Winkler, Johannes


    Ligand conjugation to oligonucleotides is an attractive strategy for enhancing the therapeutic potential of antisense and siRNA agents by inferring properties such as improved cellular uptake or better pharmacokinetic properties. Disulfide linkages enable dissociation of ligands and oligonucleotides in reducing environments found in endosomal compartments after cellular uptake. Solution-phase fragment coupling procedures for producing oligonucleotide conjugates are often tedious, produce moderate yields and reaction byproducts are frequently difficult to remove. We have developed an improved method for solid-phase coupling of ligands to oligonucleotides via disulfides directly after solid-phase synthesis. A 2'-thiol introduced using a modified nucleotide building block was orthogonally deprotected on the controlled pore glass solid support with N-butylphosphine. Oligolysine peptides and a short monodisperse ethylene glycol chain were successfully coupled to the deprotected thiol. Cleavage from the resin and full removal of oligonucleotide protection groups were achieved using methanolic ammonia. After standard desalting, and without further purification, homogenous conjugates were obtained as demonstrated by HPLC, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry. The attachment of both amphiphilic and cationic ligands proves the versatility of the conjugation procedure. An antisense oligonucleotide conjugate with hexalysine showed pronounced gene silencing in a cell culture tumor model in the absence of a transfection reagent and the corresponding ethylene glycol conjugate resulted in down regulation of the target gene to nearly 50% after naked application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Impedance Conjugate Matching of Plasmonic Nanoantenna in Optical Nanocircuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sachkou, Yauhen; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei


    nanocircuitry to nanoscale optical microscopy and ultra-sensing. The coupling efficiency between nanoantenna and other elements in integrated optical nanocircuit strongly depends on its properties where the impedance matching plays a crucial role. We investigate the dependence of impedance of the T...

  2. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Møller, Holger Jon; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov


    AIM: To study the effect of a new anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate targeting activated macrophages on the hepatic acute phase response in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intravenous with either the CD163 targeted dexamethasone-conjugate (0.02 mg/kg) or free dexamethasone (0.02 or 1 mg/...... the hepatic acute phase response to LPS. This indicates an anti-inflammatory potential of the conjugate in vivo.......AIM: To study the effect of a new anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate targeting activated macrophages on the hepatic acute phase response in rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were injected intravenous with either the CD163 targeted dexamethasone-conjugate (0.02 mg/kg) or free dexamethasone (0.02 or 1 mg....../kg) 24 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). We measured plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) 2 h post-LPS and liver mRNAs and serum concentrations of the rat acute phase protein α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) 24 h after LPS. Also...

  3. Optical Heterodyne With Lower Phase Noise (United States)

    Logan, Ronald T.


    Proposed improvement enhances utility of optical-heterodyne apparatus used to generate radio signal at chosen frequency between 1 and 1,000 GHz. Two lasers injection-locked to third, mode-locked laser. Beat-frequency heterodyne output contains much less phase noise if generated from outputs of two independent lasers, and phase-coherent with reference signal. Potential applications include phased-array radar, fiber-optic communication systems, fiber-optic stabilized oscillators, and other applications involving conversions between optical and millimeter-wave signals.

  4. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George


    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  5. Optical twists in phase and amplitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daria, Vincent R.; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper


    beams, the far field projection of the twisted optical beam maintains a high photon concentration even at higher values of topological charge. Optical twisters have therefore profound applications to fundamental studies of light and atoms such as in quantum entanglement of the OAM, toroidal traps......Light beams with helical phase profile correspond to photons having orbital angular momentum (OAM). A Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam is an example where its helical phase sets a phase-singularity at the optical axis and forms a ring-shaped transverse amplitude profile. Here, we describe a unique beam...... where both phase and amplitude express a helical profile as the beam propagates in free space. Such a beam can be accurately referred to as an optical twister. We characterize optical twisters and demonstrate their capacity to induce spiral motion on particles trapped along the twisters’ path. Unlike LG...

  6. Physics and Applications of Coherently Coupled Phase Conjugators (United States)


    sas ý Wckiueig in phatec-n~ugate &be~dI She AArxtgatnpdti4.wat-ts optical Eyr*ou~get L.has wdtagi& css a.tsci itas,t hfj aab, I lateMashoet. I S.i tt...anincareasindepefuncti of 0L. BThe accomponend of Photorefractive crystals such as GaAs, CdTe , GaP, InP, I B, (L) 12 are independent of 0. The ac...many electro- optic crystals, including LiNbO3, SaTiO3 , SON, BSO, BGO, GaAs, ItnP, and CdTe . This effect arises from optically generated charge

  7. Phase conjugated Andreev backscattering in two-dimensional ballistic cavities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morpurgo, A.F.; Holl, S.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Borghs, G.


    We have experimentally investigated transport in two-dimensional ballistic cavities connected to a point contact and to two superconducting electrodes with a tunable macroscopic phase difference. The point contact resistance oscillates as a function of the phase difference in a way which reflects

  8. Quantum phases in optical lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickerscheid, Dennis Brian Martin


    An important new development in the field of ultracold atomic gases is the study of the properties of these gases in a so-called optical lattice. An optical lattice is a periodic trapping potential for the atoms that is formed by the interference pattern of a few laser beams. A reason for the

  9. All solid-state diode pumped Nd:YAG MOPA with stimulated Brillouin phase conjugate mirror

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Offerhaus, H.L.; Godfried, H.P.; Witteman, W.J.


    At the Nederlands Centrum voor Laser Research (NCLR) a 1 kHz diode-pumped Nd:YAG Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) chain with a Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) Phase Conjugate mirror is designed and operated. A small Brewster angle Nd:YAG slab (2 by 2 by 20 mm) is side pumped with 200 μ

  10. Source signature processing in deep water, Gulf of Mexico: comparison between deterministic deconvolution and phase conjugation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Partouche


    Full Text Available The Center for Marine Resources and Environmental Technology has been developing a new method to improve the resolution of high-resolution seismic profiling. To achieve this the source signature is recorded and the reflected data are sampled at a very high rate. In addition a certain amount of post processing is performed. During September 1999 a series of seismic profiles were acquired in the Gulf of Mexico using a 15 in³ watergun towed at the surface and a short single-channel hydrophone array towed about 250 m below the surface. The profiles were digitized at a rate of 80 000 samples per second; the length of each record was 4 s. Two different processes were applied to the data: deterministic deconvolution and phase conjugation. Both have the effect of compressing each reflected wavelet into a short pulse that is symmetrical about a central lobe. The ratio of compression obtained by applying deterministic deconvolution on the source signature pulse was about 300; it was about 160 when applying phase conjugation. This produced a resolution of about 6 cm by the deconvolution process and about 10 cm by using phase conjugation. The deconvolution process however is more subject to noise so the better result in this experiment was found to be provided by phase conjugation.

  11. Ultrafast All-Optical Phenomena and Devices Using Conjugated Polymer Thin Films (United States)

    Hays, Andrew Wayne

    The Su-Schrieffer-Heeger formalism predicts shifts of oscillator strength from the valence and conduction bands to new sub-gap absorptions for both degenerate and nondegenerate ground state conjugated polymers. Photoinduced absorption studies on polyacetylene confirmed this behavior in degenerate ground state polymers. The shift in oscillator strength to form solitons takes place in less than one optical phonon period (family) with similar time scale for the creation of polarons and with time decays on the order of 10-1000 ps. These fast (and large) changes in the optical absorption spectrum suggest that the materials are excellent candidates for use in nonlinear optical devices and systems. Thin film waveguides are the obvious first choice. We have used the focused light attenuated total reflection technique (FLATR) to measure both the sign and the magnitude of the change in the complex index of refraction of a conjugated polymer in a waveguide configuration. In poly(3-hexylthiophene) we observe a picosecond decrease in the refractive index correlated with the subgap induced absorption. The magnitude of the picosecond modulation is | n_2 | ~eq 1 times 10^{ -4} (MW/cm^2)^{ -1}. Optical devices based on waveguiding are inherently serial devices. These sorts of devices would find use in general purpose digital optical computers and switching application for telecommunications. We have explored the possibility of using an engineered polymer in a parallel processing architecture. The final project in this thesis describes a femtosecond optical correlator based on degenerate four-wave mixing in the conjugated polymer poly (1,6 heptadiester) (PHDE). PHDE is a degenerate ground state polymer with a backbone similar to trans-polyacetylene. This material was synthesized to retain the ultrafast time response of polyacetylene and large optical nonlinearities. Additionally, side groups were added to yield solubility in organic solvents and improve environmental stability. Our

  12. Ionic two photon states and optical nonlinearity in. pi. -conjugated polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, S.N. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Guo, D.; Mazumdar, S. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    A microscopic mechanism of optical nonlinearity in {pi}-conjugated polymers is presented. It is shown that the bulk of the nonlinearity is determined by only two well defined channels, even though an infinite number of channels are possible in principle. The above conclusion is true for both short and long range Coulomb interactions. The complete frequency dependence of the third harmonic generation in both trans-polyacetylene and polydiacetylene are explained within the same theoretical picture. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Optically detected magnetic resonance studies on {pi}-conjugate polymers and novel carbon allotropes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Partee, J.


    This report describes the following: introduction to photoluminescence detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR); introduction to {pi}-conjugated systems; PLDMR measurements on poly(p-phenylene)-type ladder polymers; PLMDR measurements on poly(p-phenylene ethylene); and PLDMR measurements on C{sub 70}, polythiophene, poly(p-phenylene vinylene) and Dan-40. Appendices to this report describe: Operation of ODMR (optically detected magnetic resonance) spectrometer; ODMR system parameters; and Special purpose circuitry.

  14. Luminescent Properties of Arylpolyene Organic Dyes and Cross-Conjugated Ketones Promising for Quantum Optics and Nanophotonics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naumova N. L.


    Full Text Available The spectral-luminescent properties of some dyes of substituted arylpolyenes and cross-conjugated ketones class in Shpolsky matrices, promising for using in solving quantum optics and nanophotonics, were studied.

  15. Luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes: optical dyes for revealing pathological hallmarks of protein misfolding diseases (United States)

    Hammarström, Per; Lindgren, Mikael; Nilsson, K. Peter R.


    Luminescent conjugated polymers (LCPs) have been frequently utilized for optical biosensors. The detection schemes of these sensors are employing the light harvesting properties or the conformation sensitive optical properties of the conjugated polymers. LCPs have been utilized as colorimetric and fluorescent sensing elements for the recording of biological processes. However, LCPs have several limitations for being used as real time in vivo imaging agents. In this regard, novel thiophene based molecular scaffolds, denoted luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) have been developed. These LCOs are chemically defined molecules having distinct side chain functionalizations and a precise number of thiophene units. Herein the utilization of LCOs as specific ligands for the pathological hallmarks underlying protein misfolding diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, is described. The use of the conformation sensitive optical properties of the LCOs for spectral separation of these pathological entities in a diversity of in vitro, ex vivo or in vivo systems is demonstrated. The protein aggregates are easily identified due to the conformation-dependent emission profile from the LCOs and spectral assignment of protein aggregates can be obtained. Overall, these probes will offer practical research tools for studying protein misfolding diseases and facilitate the study of the molecular mechanism underlying these disorders.

  16. Research algorithm for synthesis of double conjugation optical systems in the Gauss region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Ostrun


    Full Text Available The article focuses on the research of variable magnification optical systems of sophistic class - so-called double conjugation systems. When the magnification changes, they provide two pairs of fixed conjugate planes, namely object and image, as well as entrance and exit pupils. Similar systems are used in microscopy and complex schemes, where it is necessary to conform the pupils of contiguous removable optical components. Synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region is not an easy task. To ensure complete immobility of the exit pupil in the system there should be three movable components or components with variable optical power.Analysis of the literature shows that the design of double conjugation optical system in the paraxial region has been neglected, all methods are not completely universal and suitable for automation.Based on the foregoing, the research and development of a universal method for automated synthesis of double conjugation systems in Gauss region formulated as an objective of the present work seem to be a challenge.To achieve this goal a universal algorithm is used. It is based on the fact that the output coordinates of paraxial rays are multilinear functions of optical surfaces and of axial thicknesses between surfaces. It allows us to create and solve a system of multilinear equations in semi-automatic mode to achieve the chosen values of paraxial characteristics.As a basic scheme for the synthesis a five-component system has been chosen with extreme fixed components and three mobile "internal" ones. The system was considered in two extreme states of moving parts. Initial values of axial thicknesses were taken from Hopkins' patent. Optical force five components were considered unknown. For calculation the system of five equations was created, which allowed us to obtain a certain back focal length, to provide the specified focal length and a fixed position of the exit pupil at a fixed entrance pupil.The scheme

  17. Solid-phase synthesis, characterization, and cellular activities of collagen-model nanodiamond-peptide conjugates. (United States)

    Knapinska, Anna M; Tokmina-Roszyk, Dorota; Amar, Sabrina; Tokmina-Roszyk, Michal; Mochalin, Vadym N; Gogotsi, Yury; Cosme, Patrick; Terentis, Andrew C; Fields, Gregg B


    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have received considerable attention as potential drug delivery vehicles. NDs are small (∼5 nm diameter), can be surface modified in a controllable fashion with a variety of functional groups, and have little observed toxicity in vitro and in vivo. However, most biomedical applications of NDs utilize surface adsorption of biomolecules, as opposed to covalent attachment. Covalent modification provides reliable and reproducible ND-biomolecule ratios, and alleviates concerns over biomolecule desorption prior to delivery. The present study has outlined methods for the efficient solid-phase conjugation of ND to peptides and characterization of ND-peptide conjugates. Utilizing collagen-derived peptides, the ND was found to support or even enhance the cell adhesion and viability activities of the conjugated sequence. Thus, NDs can be incorporated into peptides and proteins in a selective manner, where the presence of the ND could potentially enhance the in vivo activities of the biomolecule it is attached to.

  18. Phase-II conjugation ability for PAH metabolism in amphibians: characteristics and inter-species differences. (United States)

    Ueda, Haruki; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Tanaka-Ueno, Tomoko; Ishizuka, Mayumi


    The present study examines amphibian metabolic activity - particularly conjugation - by analysis of pyrene (a four ring, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) metabolites using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detector (FD), a mass spectrometry detector (MS) system and kinetic analysis of conjugation enzymes. Six amphibian species were exposed to pyrene (dissolved in water): African claw frog (Xenopus laevis); Tago's brown frog (Rana tagoi); Montane brown frog (Rana ornativentris); Wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa); Japanese newt (Cynops pyrrhogaster); and Clouded salamander (Hynobius nebulosus); plus one fish species, medaka (Oryzias latipes); and a fresh water snail (Clithon retropictus), and the resultant metabolites were collected. Identification of pyrene metabolites by HPLC and ion-trap MS system indicated that medaka mainly excreted pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG), while pyrene-1-sulfate (PYOS) was the main metabolite in all amphibian species. Pyrene metabolites in amphibians were different from those in invertebrate fresh water snails. Inter-species differences were also observed in pyrene metabolism among amphibians. Metabolite analysis showed that frogs relied more strongly on sulfate conjugation than did Japanese newts and clouded salamanders. Furthermore, urodelan amphibians, newts and salamanders, excreted glucose conjugates of pyrene that were not detected in the anuran amphibians. Kinetic analysis of conjugation by hepatic microsomes and cytosols indicated that differences in excreted metabolites reflected differences in enzymatic activities. Furthermore, pyrenediol (PYDOH) glucoside sulfate was detected in the Japanese newt sample. This novel metabolite has not been reported previously to this report, in which we have identified unique characteristics of amphibians in phase II pyrene metabolism.

  19. Dual correlated pumping scheme for phase noise preservation in all-optical wavelength conversion. (United States)

    Anthur, Aravind P; Watts, Regan T; Shi, Kai; Carroll, John O'; Venkitesh, Deepa; Barry, Liam P


    We study the effect of transfer of phase noise in different four wave mixing schemes using a coherent phase noise measurement technique. The nature of phase noise transfer from the pump to the generated wavelengths is shown to be independent of the type of phase noise (1 / f or white noise frequency components). We then propose a novel scheme using dual correlated pumps to prevent the increase in phase noise in the conjugate wavelengths. The proposed scheme is experimentally verified by the all-optical wavelength conversion of a DQPSK signal at 10.7 GBaud.

  20. Phase-conjugate interferometer to estimate refractive index and thickness of transparent plane parallel plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pastrana-Sanchez, R.; Rodriguez-Zurita, G.; Vazquez-Castillo, J. F. [Benemerita Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Puebla (Mexico)


    A technique to estimate the refractive index and thickness of homogeneous plane parallel dielectric plates is proposed using a phase-conjugate interferometer, in which counting of interference fringes is employed. The light beam impinges a tilted plate before it enters a phase-conjugate interferometer, and a count of the fringes passing through a given reference at the observing plane gives the phase changes as a function of tilting angle. The obtained data is fitted to a mathematical model, which leads to the determination of both refractive index and thickness simultaneously. In this letter, experimental data from two interferometers are also discussed for comparison. One with an externally-pumped phase-conjugate mirror achieved with a BSO photorefractive crystal and another one with conventional mirrors. Results show that the phase sensitivity of the phase-conjugate interferometer is not simply twice the corresponding sensitivity of the conventional version. [Spanish] Se propone una tecnica para medir indices de refraccion y espesores de placas dielectricas plano paralelas homogeneas empleando un interferometro con fase conjugada, en el cual se usa el conteo de franjas. El haz luminoso incide en una placa inclinada bajo inspeccion antes de entrar en un interferometro equipado con un espejo conjugador de fase, y se realiza un conteo de las franjas que pasan por determinada referencia en el plano de observacion, proporcionando los cambios de fase en funcion del angulo de inclinacion. Los datos obtenidos se ajustan a un modelo, el cual conduce a la determinacion, tanto del indice de refraccion como del espesor, simultaneamente. En este trabajo se discuten datos experimentales provenientes de dos interferometros para su comparacion. Uno de ellos tiene un espejo conjugador basado en un cristal BSO fotorrefractivo, mientras que el otro es una variante con espejos convencionales. Se muestra que la sensibilidad de fase del interferometro con conjugador de fase no

  1. Pentanidium-catalyzed enantioselective phase-transfer conjugate addition reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Ting


    A new chiral entity, pentanidium, has been shown to be an excellent chiral phase-transfer catalyst. The enantioselective Michael addition reactions of tert-butyl glycinate-benzophenone Schiff base with various α,β- unsaturated acceptors provide adducts with high enantioselectivities. A successful gram-scale experiment at a low catalyst loading of 0.05 mol % indicates the potential for practical applications of this methodology. Phosphoglycine ester analogues can also be utilized as the Michael donor, affording enantioenriched α-aminophosphonic acid derivatives and phosphonic analogues of (S)-proline. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  2. Search for Optical Binding with Shape Phase Holographic Optical Trapping (United States)

    Roichman, Yohai; Polin, Marco; Cholis, Ilias; Grier, David


    Light scattered by an illuminated particle should repel that particle's neighbors through radiation pressure. Nearly two decades ago, Burns, Fournier and Golovchenko (BFG) proposed that the coherent superposition of scattered fields can lead to an attractive interparticle interaction, which they called optical binding. Their pioneering experimental observation has generated considerable interest, most of which has focused on developing the theory for the effect. Accurate measurements of the optical binding force in the BFG geometry have been lacking, however. The need to quantify optical binding forces is particularly acute for colloidal interaction measurements on linear optical traps. We present a new method to directly measure optical binding forces between colloidal spheres that exploits the ability of shape-phase holography to create linear optical traps with accurately specified intensity and phase profiles. Our ability to control the trap's phase profile makes possible precise discrimination between intensity- and field-dependent interactions, i.e. between radiation pressure and optical binding. The same novel technique that allows us to project holographic line traps also can be used to project two- and three-dimensionally structured ring traps, novel Bessel-beam traps, which we also will describe.

  3. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves. (United States)

    Muñoz, Antonio García; Isaak, Kate G


    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve--from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the extent and location of the clouds. These considerations are relevant to the interpretation of optical phase curves with general circulation models. Finally, we estimate that the spherical albedo of Kepler-7b over the Kepler passband is in the range 0.4-0.5.

  4. Research on multi-component gas optical detection system based on conjugated interferometer (United States)

    Gui, Xin; Tong, Yuheng; Wang, Honghai; Yu, Haihu; Li, Zhengying


    An optical multi-component gas detection system based on the conjugated interferometer (CI) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It can realize the concentration detection of mixture gas in the environment. The CI can transform the absorption spectrum of the target gases to a conjugated emission spectrum, when combining the CI with the broadband light source, the spectrum of output light matches well with the absorption spectrum of target gases. The CI design for different target gases can be achieved by replacing the kind of target absorbing gas in the CI filter. Traditional fiber gas sensor system requires multiple light sources for detection when there are several kinds of gases, and this problem has been solved by using the CI filter combined with the broadband light source. The experimental results show that the system can detect the concentration of multi-component gases, which are mixed with C2H2 and NH3. Experimental results also show a good concentration sensing linearity.

  5. Phase conjugation, isotropic and anisotropic higher order diffraction generation, and image correlation using photorefractive barium titanate (United States)

    Buranasiri, Prathan


    Using barium titanate as the photorefractive material, we demonstrate phase conjugation, beam coupling, higher diffraction order generation. At small incident angles less than 0.015 radian, both codirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CODIS) and contradirectional isotropic self-diffraction (CONDIS) are generated simultaneously. At bigger incident angles approximately more than 0.2094 radian, only codirectional anisotropic-self diffraction (CODAS) are generated. On going imaging correlation is also showing.

  6. First-principles calculation of optical absorption spectra in conjugated polymers: Role of electron-hole interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohlfing, Michael; Tiago, M.L.; Louie, Steven G.


    Experimental and theoretical studies have shown that excitonic effects play an important role in the optical properties of conjugated polymers. The optical absorption spectrum of trans-polyacetylene, for example, can be understood as completely dominated by the formation of exciton bound states. We review a recently developed first-principles method for computing the excitonic effects and optical spectrum, with no adjustable parameters. This theory is used to study the absorption spectrum of two conjugated polymers: trans-polyacetylene and poly-phenylene-vinylene(PPV).

  7. Clear widens the field for observations of the Sun with multi-conjugate adaptive optics (United States)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Gorceix, Nicolas; Goode, Philip R.; Marino, Jose; Rimmele, Thomas; Berkefeld, Thomas; Wöger, Friedrich; Zhang, Xianyu; Rigaut, François; von der Lühe, Oskar


    The multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) pathfinder Clear on the New Solar Telescope in Big Bear Lake has provided the first-ever MCAO-corrected observations of the Sun that show a clearly and visibly widened corrected field of view compared to quasi-simultaneous observations with classical adaptive optics (CAO) correction. Clear simultaneously uses three deformable mirrors, each conjugated to a different altitude, to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. While the MCAO correction was most effective over an angle that is approximately three times wider than the angle that was corrected by CAO, the full 53'' field of view did benefit from MCAO correction. We further demonstrate that ground-layer-only correction is attractive for solar observations as a complementary flavor of adaptive optics for observational programs that require homogenous seeing improvement over a wide field rather than diffraction-limited resolution. We show illustrative images of solar granulation and of a sunspot obtained on different days in July 2016, and present a brief quantitative analysis of the generalized Fried parameters of the images. The movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at

  8. Frequency domain optical tomography using a conjugate gradient method without line search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 Boulevard de l' Universite, P4-3240, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    A conjugate gradient method without line search (CGMWLS) is presented. This method is used to retrieve the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the tissue-like test medium, with the synthetic data. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method based on the frequency domain formulation of radiative transfer equation. The inversion results demonstrate that the CGMWLS can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by reducing cross-talk between absorption and scattering coefficients.

  9. Fourth-Order Interference on Polarization Beats with Phase-Conjugation Geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yan-Peng; SUN Li-Qun; TANG Tian-Tong; ZHANG Lu; FU Pan-Ming


    The effect of fourth-order coherence on ultrafast modulation spectroscopy (UMS) with phase-conjugation geome try (PCUMS) in a cascade three-level system is investigated using chaotic and phase-diffusion models. It has been found that the modulation terms of the beat signal depend on the second-order coherence function, and different stochastic models of the laser field affect only the fourth-order coherence function. The difference between the PCUMS and UMS is discussed from a physical viewpoint.

  10. Probing exoplanet clouds with optical phase curves

    CERN Document Server

    Munoz, A Garcia


    Kepler-7b is to date the only exoplanet for which clouds have been inferred from the optical phase curve -- from visible-wavelength whole-disk brightness measurements as a function of orbital phase. Added to this, the fact that the phase curve appears dominated by reflected starlight makes this close-in giant planet a unique study case. Here we investigate the information on coverage and optical properties of the planet clouds contained in the measured phase curve. We generate cloud maps of Kepler-7b and use a multiple-scattering approach to create synthetic phase curves, thus connecting postulated clouds with measurements. We show that optical phase curves can help constrain the composition and size of the cloud particles. Indeed, model fitting for Kepler-7b requires poorly absorbing particles that scatter with low-to-moderate anisotropic efficiency, conclusions consistent with condensates of silicates, perovskite, and silica of submicron radii. We also show that we are limited in our ability to pin down the...

  11. Synthesis and Nonlinear Optical Property of a Series of New Chromophores Containing Furan Ring as the Only Conjugation Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper reports the synthesis and the nonlinear optical property of a series of new chromophores which contain furan ring as the only conjugation bridge for the first time. They are characterized by UV-VIS, FT-IR, 1H NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Their dipole moment and the first-order molecular hyperpolarizability (β) are calculated and compared with those of the analogues containing either benzene or thiophene as the conjugation bridge.

  12. An Optical Phased Array for LIDAR (United States)

    Wang, Y.; Wu, M. C.


    We have previously demonstrated the development of an Optical Phased Array (OPA) micromechanical system (MEMS) used for beam steering, which shows great advantages over previous mechanisms such as opto-mechanical, acousto-optical (AO) or electro-optical (EO). We aim to integrate the OPA MEMS system into the application of automobile navigation, which is currently primarily dominated by opto-mechanical scanning based systems. Opto-mechanical scanning devices are usually bulky and relatively slow, while competing technologies (AO, EO) utilize devices that while small in size, cannot provide the steering speeds and versatility necessary for many applications. In drawing from phased array concepts that revolutionized RADAR technology by providing a compact, agile alternative to mechanically steered technology, the OPA based LIDAR program seeks to integrate thousands of closely packed optical emitting facets, precise relative electronic phase control of these facets, and all within a very small form factor. Comparing with other competing LIDAR system, the OPA based LIDAR system will have multiple degrees of freedom for phase control which enables not only agile beam steering but also beam forming and multiple beam generation, greatly expanding the diversity of applications.

  13. Calculated optical absorption of different perovskite phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castelli, Ivano Eligio; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    We present calculations of the optical properties of a set of around 80 oxides, oxynitrides, and organometal halide cubic and layered perovskites (Ruddlesden-Popper and Dion-Jacobson phases) with a bandgap in the visible part of the solar spectrum. The calculations show that for different classes...

  14. Optical correlation algorithm for reconstructing phase skeleton of complex optical fields for solving the phase problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Gorsky, M. P.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;


    We propose an optical correlation algorithm illustrating a new general method for reconstructing the phase skeleton of complex optical fields from the measured two-dimensional intensity distribution. The core of the algorithm consists in locating the saddle points of the intensity distribution an...... and connecting such points into nets by the lines of intensity gradient that are closely associated with the equi-phase lines of the field. This algorithm provides a new partial solution to the inverse problem in optics commonly referred to as the phase problem....

  15. Conjugate adaptive optics in widefield microscopy with an extended-source wavefront sensor

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiang; Paudel, Hari; Barankov, Roman; Bifano, Thomas; Mertz, Jerome


    Adaptive optics is a strategy to compensate for sample-induced aberrations in microscopy applications. Generally, it requires the presence of "guide stars" in the sample to serve as localized reference targets. We describe an implementation of conjugate adaptive optics that is amenable to widefield (i.e. non-scanning) microscopy, and can provide aberration corrections over potentially large fields of view without the use of guide stars. A unique feature of our implementation is that it is based on wavefront sensing with a single-shot partitioned-aperture sensor that provides large dynamic range compatible with extended samples. Combined information provided by this sensor and the imaging camera enable robust image de-blurring based on a rapid estimation of sample and aberrations obtained by closed-loop feedback. We present the theoretical principle of our technique and proof of concept experimental demonstrations.

  16. Optical, Electrical and Magnetic Studies of Pi-Conjugated Organic Semiconductor Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vardeny, Zeev Valentine [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)


    Over the duration of this grant our group has studied the transient and cw optical response of various π-conjugated polymers, oligomers, single crystals, fullerene molecules and blends of organic donor-acceptor molecules. We have been also involved in complementary experiments such as magneto-optical studies and spin-physics. We have advanced the field of photophysics of these materials by providing information on their excited state energies and primodal and long-lived photoexcitations such as singlet excitons, triplet excitons, polaron-pairs, excimers and exciplexes. We also fabricated various organic optoelectronic devices such as organic light emitting diodes (OLED), electrochemical cells, organic diodes, organic spin-valves (OSV), and organic photovoltaic (OPV) solar cells. These devices benefited the society in terms of cheap and energy saving illumination, as well as harnessing the solar energy.

  17. Role of amorphous and aggregate phases on field-induced exciton dissociation in a conjugated polymer (United States)

    Mróz, Marta M.; Lüer, Larry; Houarner-Rassin, Coralie; Anderson, Harry L.; Cabanillas-Gonzalez, Juan


    We have applied electric field assisted pump-probe spectroscopy in order to unravel the interplay of amorphous and aggregate phases on the polaron-pair photogeneration process in a conjugated porphyrin polymer. We find that excitons photogenerated in both phases are precursors for polaron pairs with different yields. Kinetic modeling indicates a substantially larger barrier for exciton dissociation in aggregates compared to amorphous areas. The majority of polaron pairs are however formed in aggregate phases due to efficient energy transfer from the amorphous phase. Based on the change in the Stark shift associated with the photogenerated polaron density, we provide a picture of the motion of polaron pairs under the external electric field.

  18. D-A conjugated polymers containing substituted thiophene, 1,3,4-oxadiazole and non-conjugation linkers: Synthesis and study of optical and electrochemical properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    In this communication, we report synthesis and characterization of new D-A conjugated polymers (P1-P3) consisting of electron-donating (D) 3,4-didodecyloxythiophene, electron-accepting (A) 1,3,4- oxadiazole unit and non-conjugation linkers. The conjugated segment in P1-P3 contains only five aromatic rings resulting in short conjugation length, but has an alternate D-A arrangement which significantly enhances the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interaction within the segment. As a result, these polymers exhibited lowoptical band gap in the range 2.51–2.76 eV. Fluorescence emission studies revealed that the polymer thin films emit intense blue light with emission maxima in the wavelength rage 430–480 nm. All three polymers undergo both oxidation and reduction processes under electrochemical conditions. Further, these polymers (P1–P3) exhibit low-lying HOMO and LUMO levels as a result of D-A structure of the conjugated segment. Polymer light-emitting devices were fabricated using these polymers as emissive layer with a device configuration of ITO/MoO₃/polymer/LiF/Al. The test device based on P2 emitted blue light with a low threshold voltage of 5 V. Z-scan studies reveal that the polymers exhibit a strong optical limiting behavior. The value of the nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) of polymers is of the order 10⁻¹¹m/W which indicates that these materials may be accomplished for fabricating optical limiters.

  19. Optimal stellar photometry for multi-conjugate adaptive optics systems using science-based metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Turri, P; Stetson, P B; Fiorentino, G; Andersen, D R; Bono, G; Massari, D; Veran, J -P


    We present a detailed discussion of how to obtain precise stellar photometry in crowded fields using images obtained with multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO), with the intent of informing the scientific development of this key technology for the Extremely Large Telescopes. We use deep J and K$_\\mathrm{s}$ exposures of NGC 1851 obtained using the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System (GeMS) on Gemini South to quantify the performance of the system and to develop an optimal strategy for extracting precise stellar photometry from the images using well-known PSF-fitting techniques. We judge the success of the various techniques we employ by using science-based metrics, particularly the width of the main sequence turn-off region. We also compare the GeMS photometry with the exquisite HST data of the same target in the visible. We show that the PSF produced by GeMS possesses significant spatial and temporal variability that must be accounted for during the photometric analysis by allowing the PSF model a...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Self-Pumped Phase Conjugate Plane-Curve Loop Mirror Based on Photorefractive Nonlinearity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mehran Vahdani Moghaddam; Zeynab Chenari; Hamid Latifi; Vladimir Vladimirovich Shuvalov; Konestantin Valentinovich Rudenko


    @@ We deal with computer simulation of a transient process in a self-pumped phase conjugate plane-curve loop mirror based on BaTiO3. In optimal circumstances the nonlinear reflectivity and fidelity of such a mirror respectively achieve 0.80-0.90 and 0.95-0.98. The generation of conjugate wave-front occurs due to scattering from the dynamic hologram which is produced in the region of self-intersection of forward and backward beams. In such a model the scenario of passing to unstable generation regimes is similar to the self-pumped phase conjugate plane-plane loop mirror and substantially differs from a single-crystal double phase conjugate mirror.

  1. Estimating Absolute-Phase Maps Using ESPIRiT and Virtual Conjugate Coils

    CERN Document Server

    Uecker, Martin


    Purpose: To develop an ESPIRiT-based method to estimate coil sensitivities with image phase. Theory and Methods: ESPIRiT is a new framework for calibration of the coil sensitivities and reconstruction in parallel Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Applying ESPIRiT to a combined set of physical and virtual conjugate coils yields sensitivities with unknown joint phase but known relative phase, which allows the determination of the absolute phase up to a sign ambiguity. The accuracy of the computed maps with phase is experimentally evaluated using a test based on projection onto fully sampled coil images. The use of multiple ESPIRiT maps in a phase-constrained parallel imaging reconstruction is compared to the use of a single map. Results: The proposed method can estimate accurate sensitivities which include low-resolution image phase. In case of high-frequency phase variations ESPIRiT yields additional set of maps which capture the high-frequency phase component. Taking this additional set of maps into account c...

  2. Lateral shifting sensitivity of a ground glass for holographic encryption and multiplexing using phase conjugate readout algorithm (United States)

    Sun, Ching-Cherng; Su, Wei-Chia; Wang, Bor; Chiou, Arthur E. T.


    An encryption-selectable holographic storage algorithm with use of random phase encoding and angular multiplexing is proposed and demonstrated. The pattern for storage can be encrypted and multiplexed with use of a ground glass, which is also used to decrypt the pattern. A phase conjugation of the reference beam is used to generate phase conjugate waves of the stored patterns. The lateral shifting sensitivity of the ground glass used to decrypt the information is theoretically analyzed and is compared with experimental measurement. The shifting tolerance for various ground glasses under imperfection phase reconstruction in the decryption processing is studied.

  3. Plant virus-resembling optical nano-materials conjugated with anti-EGFR for targeted cancer imaging (United States)

    Gupta, Sharad; Wilder, Hailey; Rao, A. L. N.; Vullev, V. I.; Anvari, Bahman


    We recently reported the construction of a new type of optically active nano-particles composed of genome-depleted plant infecting brome mosaic virus (BMV) doped with indocyanine green (ICG), an FDA-approved chromophore . We refer to these constructs as optical viral ghosts (OVGs) since only the capsid protein (CP) subunits of BMV remain to encapsulate ICG. Herein, we covalently conjugated the surface of OVGs with anti-epidermal growth factor receptors (anti-EGFR) to target cancerous human bronchial epithelial cells (C-HBECs) in-vitro. Our preliminary results demonstrate the utility of conjugated OVGs for targeted imaging of cancer cells.

  4. Stability of the single-mode output of a laser diode array with phase conjugate feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul Jensen, S.; Løbel, M.; Petersen, P.M.


    The stability of the output of a single-mode laser diode array with frequency selective phase conjugate feedback has been investigated experimentally. Both the long-term stability of the laser output and the sensitivity to feedback generated by external reflection of the output beam are examined....... The output power and the center wavelength are found to be extremely stable in a 100 h stability measurement. External feedback of the output beam into the laser is seen to decrease both the spatial and the temporal coherence of the output significantly. We outline an approach to obtain a stable single...

  5. Exciton scattering approach for optical spectra calculations in branched conjugated macromolecules (United States)

    Li, Hao; Wu, Chao; Malinin, Sergey V.; Tretiak, Sergei; Chernyak, Vladimir Y.


    The exciton scattering (ES) technique is a multiscale approach based on the concept of a particle in a box and developed for efficient calculations of excited-state electronic structure and optical spectra in low-dimensional conjugated macromolecules. Within the ES method, electronic excitations in molecular structure are attributed to standing waves representing quantum quasi-particles (excitons), which reside on the graph whose edges and nodes stand for the molecular linear segments and vertices, respectively. Exciton propagation on the linear segments is characterized by the exciton dispersion, whereas exciton scattering at the branching centers is determined by the energy-dependent scattering matrices. Using these ES energetic parameters, the excitation energies are then found by solving a set of generalized "particle in a box" problems on the graph that represents the molecule. Similarly, unique energy-dependent ES dipolar parameters permit calculations of the corresponding oscillator strengths, thus, completing optical spectra modeling. Both the energetic and dipolar parameters can be extracted from quantum-chemical computations in small molecular fragments and tabulated in the ES library for further applications. Subsequently, spectroscopic modeling for any macrostructure within a considered molecular family could be performed with negligible numerical effort. We demonstrate the ES method application to molecular families of branched conjugated phenylacetylenes and ladder poly-para-phenylenes, as well as structures with electron donor and acceptor chemical substituents. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) is used as a reference model for electronic structure. The ES calculations accurately reproduce the optical spectra compared to the reference quantum chemistry results, and make possible to predict spectra of complex macromolecules, where conventional electronic structure calculations are unfeasible.

  6. Early detection of breast cancer: a molecular optical imaging approach using novel estrogen conjugate fluorescent dye (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Shubhadeep; Jose, Iven


    Estrogen induced proliferation of mutant cells is widely understood to be the one of major risk determining factor in the development of breast cancer. Hence determination of the Estrogen Receptor[ER] status is of paramount importance if cancer pathogenesis is to be detected and rectified at an early stage. Near Infrared Fluorescence [NIRf] Molecular Optical Imaging is emerging as a powerful tool to monitor bio-molecular changes in living subjects. We discuss pre-clinical results in our efforts to develop an optical imaging diagnostic modality for the early detection of breast cancer. We have successfully carried out the synthesis and characterization of a novel target-specific NIRf dye conjugate aimed at measuring Estrogen Receptor[ER] status. The conjugate was synthesized by ester formation between 17-β estradiol and a hydrophilic derivative of Indocyanine Green (ICG) cyanine dye, bis-1,1-(4-sulfobutyl) indotricarbocyanine-5-carboxylic acid, sodium salt. In-vitro studies regarding specific binding and endocytocis of the dye performed on ER+ve [MCF-7] and control [MDA-MB-231] adenocarcinoma breast cancer cell lines clearly indicated nuclear localization of the dye for MCF-7 as compared to plasma level staining for MDA-MB-231. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells showed ~4.5-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity compared to MDA-MB-231. A 3-D mesh model mimicking the human breast placed in a parallel-plate DOT Scanner is created to examine the in-vivo efficacy of the dye before proceeding with clinical trials. Photon migration and florescence flux intensity is modeled using the finite-element method with the coefficients (quantum yield, molar extinction co-efficient etc.) pertaining to the dye as obtained from photo-physical and in-vitro studies. We conclude by stating that this lipophilic dye can be potentially used as a target specific exogenous contrast agent in molecular optical imaging for early detection of breast cancer.

  7. Phase sensor for solar adaptive-optics

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae


    Wavefront sensing in solar adaptive-optics is currently done with correlating Shack-Hartmann sensors, although the spatial- and temporal-resolutions of the phase measurements are then limited by the extremely fast computing required to correlate the sensor signals at the frequencies of daytime atmospheric-fluctuations. To avoid this limitation, a new wavefront-sensing technique is presented, that makes use of the solar brightness and is applicable to extended sources. The wavefront is sent through a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A small, central part of the wavefront is used as reference and is made to interfere with the rest of the wavefront. The contrast of two simultaneously measured interference-patterns provides a direct estimate of the wavefront phase, no additional computation being required. The proposed optical layout shows precise initial alignment to be the critical point in implementing the new wavefront-sensing scheme.

  8. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths (United States)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.


    Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light, with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications. Finally, by incorporating a certain correlation between scattering by neighbouring metasurface constituents new types of functionalities can be realised, such as a Lambertian reflector.

  9. Optimization of electro-optic phase shifters for integrated optical phased arrays (United States)

    Macik, Dwayne D.; Bravo, Tyler E.; Pentecost, Seeley M.; Espinal, Francisco A.; Madsen, Christi K.


    A low-loss, high-speed optical phased array (OPA) has been designed and fabricated. Two different platforms have been utilized in combination to leverage electro-optic (EO) tuning. A lithium niobate (LiNbO3) optical phased array was fabricated and used in conjunction with a silicon nitride (Si3N4) 8x8 waveguide array that condenses the output pitch and utilizes the TriplexTM waveguide technology. This OPA allows for the non-mechanical beam steering (NMBS) of 1550 nm light on an edge coupled optic platform and takes advantage of the high electro-optic coefficient and high speed capability of LiNbO3 for electro-optic phase tuning. This coupled OPA has an overall insertion loss of 3.5 dB which is advantageous to silicon-on-insulator OPAs that have shown overall insertion losses of 14 dB. To characterize and tune this device, a 3 lens imaging system was employed to produce both near- and far- field intensity patterns of the output of the OPA on a static image plane. At the image plane, a high resolution infrared camera was used to observe the resulting intensity pattern. The control software for tuning the OPA reads the intensity incident at a specified position on the detector array, and has a PWM interface to drive the electro-optic phase controls. Beam steering was accomplished using an iterative tuning algorithm.

  10. Quantum Phases of Matter in Optical Lattices (United States)


    findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department of the Army position , policy or...phases in beyond-standard optical lattices”, Oct 25, 2013 Nikhil Monga, John Shumway, Kaden Hazzard, Erich Mueller, Steven Desch, " Renormalization of...Ho, “Cold Atoms in Curved Space ”, Quantum Materials-Perspectives and Opportunities, The Rice Center for Quantum Materials, December 15, 2014

  11. Nanoparticles of conjugated polymers prepared from phase-separated films of phospholipids and polymers for biomedical applications. (United States)

    Yoon, Jungju; Kwag, Jungheon; Shin, Tae Joo; Park, Joonhyuck; Lee, Yong Man; Lee, Yebin; Park, Jonghyup; Heo, Jung; Joo, Chulmin; Park, Tae Jung; Yoo, Pil J; Kim, Sungjee; Park, Juhyun


    Phase separation in films of phospholipids and conjugated polymers results in nanoassemblies because of a difference in the physicochemical properties between the hydrophobic polymers and the polar lipid heads, together with the comparable polymer side-chain lengths to lipid tail lengths, thus producing nanoparticles of conjugated polymers upon disassembly in aqueous media by the penetration of water into polar regions of the lipid heads.

  12. Selective intracellular vaporisation of antibody-conjugated phase-change nano-droplets in vitro (United States)

    Ishijima, A.; Minamihata, K.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yamahira, S.; Ichikawa, R.; Kobayashi, E.; Iijima, M.; Shibasaki, Y.; Azuma, T.; Nagamune, T.; Sakuma, I.


    While chemotherapy is a major mode of cancer therapeutics, its efficacy is limited by systemic toxicities and drug resistance. Recent advances in nanomedicine provide the opportunity to reduce systemic toxicities. However, drug resistance remains a major challenge in cancer treatment research. Here we developed a nanomedicine composed of a phase-change nano-droplet (PCND) and an anti-cancer antibody (9E5), proposing the concept of ultrasound cancer therapy with intracellular vaporisation. PCND is a liquid perfluorocarbon nanoparticle with a liquid–gas phase that is transformable upon exposure to ultrasound. 9E5 is a monoclonal antibody targeting epiregulin (EREG). We found that 9E5-conjugated PCNDs are selectively internalised into targeted cancer cells and kill the cells dynamically by ultrasound-induced intracellular vaporisation. In vitro experiments show that 9E5-conjugated PCND targets 97.8% of high-EREG-expressing cancer cells and kills 57% of those targeted upon exposure to ultrasound. Furthermore, direct observation of the intracellular vaporisation process revealed the significant morphological alterations of cells and the release of intracellular contents. PMID:28333127

  13. Transient photoconductivity and femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of a conjugated polymer-graphene oxide composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nalla, Venkatram; Ji Wei [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Manga, Kiran Kumar; Goh, Bee Min; Loh, Kian Ping; Xu Qinghua, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)


    A water soluble conjugated thiophene polymer, sodium salt of poly[2-(3-thienyl)ethoxy-4-butylsulfonate] (TPP), and graphene oxide (GO) composite film (GO-TPP) device was prepared. Transient photoconductivity measurements were carried out on the GO-TPP composite film using 150 ns laser pulses of 527 nm wavelength. Highly efficient photocurrent generation was observed from the GO-TPP film. The relationships of the film photoconductivity, photocurrent decay time and electron decay times with the incident light intensity were investigated. The photoconductive gain of the film was determined to be greater than 40% and to be independent of the light intensity. Furthermore, the femtosecond nonlinear optical properties of the GO-TPP film were measured using 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses and the composite film exhibited high nonlinear absorption and nonlinear refraction coefficients.

  14. Cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in conjugated energetic materials: A TD-DFT study. (United States)

    Sifain, Andrew E; Tadesse, Loza F; Bjorgaard, Josiah A; Chavez, David E; Prezhdo, Oleg V; Scharff, R Jason; Tretiak, Sergei


    Conjugated energetic molecules (CEMs) are a class of explosives with high nitrogen content that posses both enhanced safety and energetic performance properties and are ideal for direct optical initiation. As isolated molecules, they absorb within the range of conventional lasers. Crystalline CEMs are used in practice, however, and their properties can differ due to intermolecular interaction. Herein, time-dependent density functional theory was used to investigate one-photon absorption (OPA) and two-photon absorption (TPA) of monomers and dimers obtained from experimentally determined crystal structures of CEMs. OPA scales linearly with the number of chromophore units, while TPA scales nonlinearly, where a more than 3-fold enhancement in peak intensity, per chromophore unit, is calculated. Cooperative enhancement depends on electronic delocalization spanning both chromophore units. An increase in sensitivity to nonlinear laser initiation makes these materials suitable for practical use. This is the first study predicting a cooperative enhancement of the nonlinear optical response in energetic materials composed of relatively small molecules. The proposed model quantum chemistry is validated by comparison to crystal structure geometries and the optical absorption of these materials dissolved in solution.

  15. Phase retrieval techniques for adaptive optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrano, C. J., LLNL


    We have developed and tested a method for minimizing static aberrations in adaptive optics systems. In order to correct the static phase aberrations, we need to measure the aberrations through the entire system. We have employed various phase retrieval algorithms to detect these aberrations. We have performed simulations of our experimental setup demonstrating that phase retrieval can improve the static aberrations to below the 20 nm rms level, with the limiting factor being local turbulence in the A0 system. Experimentally thus far, we have improved the static aberrations down to the 50 nm level, with the limiting factor being the ability to adjust the deformable mirror. This should be improved with better control algorithms now being implemented.

  16. Digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry for phase noise mitigation. (United States)

    Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun


    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM).

  17. Partially dark optical molecule via phase control (United States)

    Wang, Z. H.; Xu, Xun-Wei; Li, Yong


    We study the tunable photonic distribution in an optical molecule consisting of two linearly coupled single-mode cavities. With the intercavity coupling and two driving fields, the energy levels of the optical-molecule system form a closed cyclic energy-level diagram, and the phase difference between the driving fields serves as a sensitive controller on the dynamics of the system. Due to the quantum interference effect, we can realize a partially dark optical molecule, where the steady-state mean photon number in one of the cavities achieves zero even under the external driving. And the dark cavity can be changed from one of the cavities to the other by only adjusting the phase difference. We also show that our proposal is robust to the noise at zero temperature. Furthermore, we show that when one of the cavities couples with an atomic ensemble, it will be dark under the same condition as that in the case without atoms, but the condition for the other cavity to be dark is modified.

  18. Phase disruption as a new design paradigm for optimizing the nonlinear-optical response

    CERN Document Server

    Lytel, Rick; Kuzyk, Mark G


    The intrinsic optical nonlinearities of quasi-one dimensional structures, including conjugated chain polymers and nanowires, are shown to be dramatically enhanced by the judicious placement of a side group or wire of sufficiently short length to create a large phase disruption in the dominant eigenfunctions along the main path of probability current. Phase disruption is proposed as a new general principle for the design of molecules, nanowires and any quasi-1D quantum system with large intrinsic response and does not require charge donors-acceptors at the ends.

  19. Characterization of optical quantum circuits using resonant phase shifts

    CERN Document Server

    Poot, Menno


    We demonstrate that important information about linear optical circuits can be obtained through the phase shift induced by integrated optical resonators. As a proof of principle, the phase of an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer is determined. Then the method is applied to a complex optical circuit designed for linear optical quantum computation. In this controlled-NOT gate with qubit initialization and tomography stages, the relative phases are determined as well as the coupling ratios of its directional couplers.

  20. Tunable phase-only optical filters with a uniaxial crystal. (United States)

    Xiao, Fanrong; Yuan, Jinghe; Wang, Guiying; Xu, Zhizhan


    A novel method of fabricating phase-only optical filters that is based on the properties of a uniaxial crystal is proposed. With these optical filters, the phase differences are tunable among the different filter zones. Many focal patterns can be obtained if these optical filters are placed in front of a lens; furthermore, these optical filters can also be used to make up for the distortions in fabrications in which they were used only as untunable optical filters.

  1. Stable Optical Phase Modulation with Micromirrors

    CERN Document Server

    Knoernschild, Caleb; Maunz, Peter; Crain, Stephen; Kim, Jungsang


    We measure the motional fluctuations of a micromechanical mirror using a Michelson interferometer, and demonstrate its interferometric stability. The position stability of the micromirror is dominated by the thermal mechanical noise of the structure. With this level of stability, we utilize the micromirror to realize an ideal optical phase modulator by simply reflecting light off the mirror and modulating its position. The resonant frequency of the modulator can be tuned by applying a voltage between the mirror and an underlying electrode. Full modulation depth of +/-\\pi is achieved when the mirror resonantly excited with a sinusoidal voltage at an amplitude of 11V.

  2. High-speed optical phase-shifting apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zortman, William A.


    An optical phase shifter includes an optical waveguide, a plurality of partial phase shifting elements arranged sequentially, and control circuitry electrically coupled to the partial phase shifting elements. The control circuitry is adapted to provide an activating signal to each of the N partial phase shifting elements such that the signal is delayed by a clock cycle between adjacent partial phase shifting elements in the sequence. The transit time for a guided optical pulse train between the input edges of consecutive partial phase shifting elements in the sequence is arranged to be equal to a clock cycle, thereby enabling pipelined processing of the optical pulses.

  3. Performance comparisons between passive-phase conjugation and decision-feedback equalizer for underwater acoustic communications (United States)

    Yang, T. C.


    Passive-phase conjugation (PPC) uses passive time reversal to remove intersymbol interferences (ISI) for acoustic communications in a multipath environment. It is based on the theory of signal propagation in a waveguide, which says that the Green function (or the impulse response function) convolved with its time-reversed conjugate, summed over a large aperture vertical array of receivers is a delta function in space and time. A decision feedback equalizer (DFE) uses a nonlinear filter to remove ISI based on the minimum mean square errors (MSE) between the estimated and the true (or decision) symbols. These two approaches are motivated by different principles. In this paper, we analyze both using a common framework, illustrating the commonality and differences, pro and con between the two methods, and compare their performances in realistic ocean environments. The performance measures are MSE, output signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate (BER) as a function of the number of receivers. For a small number of receivers, DFE outperforms PPC in all measures. As the number of receivers increases the BER for both processors approaches zero, but at a different rate. The results are supported by both simulated and real data. [Work supported by ONR.

  4. Characterization of electrosynthesized conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite: optical nonlinearity and electrical property. (United States)

    Bahrami, Afarin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Shahriari, Esmaeil; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Kasim, Anuar; Behzad, Kasra


    The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT) concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n(2)) and the nonlinear absorption (β) of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW) laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n(2) and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  5. Astrometric performance of the Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system in crowded fields

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, Benoit; Rigaut, Francois; Ammons, S Mark; Carrasco, Eleazar R; Lassalle, Emmanuel


    The Gemini Multi-conjugate adaptive optics System (GeMS) is a facility instrument for the Gemini-South telescope. It delivers uniform, near-diffraction-limited image quality at near-infrared wavelengths over a 2 arcminute field of view. Together with the Gemini South Adaptive Optics Imager (GSAOI), a near-infrared wide field camera, GeMS/GSAOI's combination of high spatial resolution and a large field of view will make it a premier facility for precision astrometry. Potential astrometric science cases cover a broad range of topics including exo-planets, star formation, stellar evolution, star clusters, nearby galaxies, black holes and neutron stars, and the Galactic center. In this paper, we assess the astrometric performance and limitations of GeMS/GSAOI. In particular, we analyze deep, mono-epoch images, multi-epoch data and distortion calibration. We find that for single-epoch, un-dithered data, an astrometric error below 0.2 mas can be achieved for exposure times exceeding one minute, provided enough star...

  6. Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system review II: Commissioning, operation and overall performance

    CERN Document Server

    Neichel, Benoit; Vidal, Fabrice; van Dam, Marcos A; Garrel, Vincent; Carrasco, Eleazar Rodrigo; Pessev, Peter; Winge, Claudia; Boccas, Maxime; d'Orgeville, Céline; Arriagada, Gustavo; Serio, Andrew; Fesquet, Vincent; Rambold, William N; Lührs, Javier; Moreno, Cristian; Gausachs, Gaston; Galvez, Ramon L; Montes, Vanessa; Vucina, Tomislav B; Marin, Eduardo; Urrutia, Cristian; Lopez, Ariel; Diggs, Sarah J; Marchant, Claudio; Ebbers, Angelic W; Trujillo, Chadwick; Bec, Matthieu; Trancho, Gelys; McGregor, Peter; Young, Peter J; Colazo, Felipe; Edwards, Michelle L


    The Gemini Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics System - GeMS, a facility instrument mounted on the Gemini South telescope, delivers a uniform, near diffraction limited images at near infrared wavelengths (0.95 microns- 2.5 microns) over a field of view of 120 arc seconds. GeMS is the first sodium layer based multi laser guide star adaptive optics system used in astronomy. It uses five laser guide stars distributed on a 60 arc seconds square constellation to measure for atmospheric distortions and two deformable mirrors to compensate for it. In this paper, the second devoted to describe the GeMS project, we present the commissioning, overall performance and operational scheme of GeMS. Performance of each sub-system is derived from the commissioning results. The typical image quality, expressed in full with half maximum, Strehl ratios and variations over the field delivered by the system are then described. A discussion of the main contributor to performance limitation is carried-out. Finally, overheads and future ...

  7. Characterization of Electrosynthesized Conjugated Polymer-Carbon Nanotube Composite: Optical Nonlinearity and Electrical Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afarin Bahrami


    Full Text Available The effects of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT concentration on the structural, optical and electrical properties of conjugated polymer-carbon nanotube composite are discussed. Multi-walled carbon nanotube-polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by electrochemical polymerization of monomers in the presence of different amounts of MWNTs using sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (SDBS as surfactant at room temperature and normal pressure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM indicates that the polymer is wrapped around the nanotubes. Measurement of the nonlinear refractive indices (n2 and the nonlinear absorption (β of the samples with different MWNT concentrations measurements were performed by a single Z-scan method using continuous wave (CW laser beam excitation wavelength of λ = 532 nm. The results show that both nonlinear optical parameters increased with increasing the concentration of MWNTs. The third order nonlinear susceptibilities were also calculated and found to follow the same trend as n2 and β. In addition, the conductivity of the composite film was found to increase rapidly with the increase in the MWNT concentration.

  8. Development status on the real-time controller for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (United States)

    Kong, Lin; Zhu, Lei; Rao, Changhui


    Solar observations are performed over an extended field of view (FoV) and the isoplanatic patch which conventional adaptive optics (AO) provides diffraction limited resolution is a severe limitation. Multi-conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) can be used to extend the corrected FoV of AO system. Compared to AO, MCAO which usually utilizes a wide-field Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor to control multiple deformable mirrors(DMs) is more complicated. Because the Sun is an extended object, correlation algorithms are applied to detect gradients in solar MCAO system. Moreover, due to the fast evolving daytime seeing conditions and the fact that much science has to be done at visible wavelengths, a very high closed-loop bandwidth is also required. The computation and delay development of the real-time controller (RTC) in solar MCAO system is more challenging than that in night-time MCAO system. This paper reviews the solar MCAO techniques and systems in the world, especially emphasizes the framework and implementation of the RTC. The development of MCAO in China is also introduced. An outlook of the RTC for the solar MCAO system in development is given.

  9. Optical signal monitoring in phase modulated optical fiber transmission systems (United States)

    Zhao, Jian

    Optical performance monitoring (OPM) is one of the essential functions for future high speed optical networks. Among the parameters to be monitored, chromatic dispersion (CD) is especially important since it has a significant impact on overall system performance. In this thesis effective CD monitoring approaches for phase-shift keying (PSK) based optical transmission systems are investigated. A number of monitoring schemes based on radio frequency (RF) spectrum analysis and delay-tap sampling are proposed and their performance evaluated. A method for dispersion monitoring of differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) signals based on RF power detection is studied. The RF power spectrum is found to increase with the increase of CD and decrease with polarization mode dispersion (PMD). The spectral power density dependence on CD is studied theoretically and then verified through simulations and experiments. The monitoring sensitivity for nonreturn-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (NRZ-DPSK) and return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) based systems can reach 80ps/nm/dB and 34ps/nm/dB respectively. The scheme enables the monitoring of differential group delay (DGD) and CD simultaneously. The monitoring sensitivity of CD and DGD can reach 56.7ps/nm/dB and 3.1ps/dB using a bandpass filter. The effects of optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), DGD, fiber nonlinearity and chirp on the monitoring results are investigated. Two RF pilot tones are employed for CD monitoring of DPSK signals. Specially selected pilot tone frequencies enable good monitoring sensitivity with minimum influence on the received signals. The dynamic range exceeding 35dB and monitoring sensitivity up to 9.5ps/nm/dB are achieved. Asynchronous sampling technique is employed for CD monitoring. A signed CD monitoring method for 10Gb/s NRZ-DPSK and RZ-DPSK systems using asynchronous delay-tap sampling technique is studied. The demodulated signals suffer asymmetric waveform distortion if

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of optical and electrochemical properties of a new conjugated polymer containing substituted thiophene and non-conjugation linkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R, Prashanth Kumar K, E-mail:; D, Udayakumar, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, D.K 575 025 (India); K, Siji Narendran N; K, Chandrasekharan [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Kerala, 673 601 (India)


    Conjugated polymers have been developed in a variety of applied fields owing to their promising optoelectronic properties. These are pursuing considerable interest as opto-electrical material because of their chemical stability and processability. This paper describes the synthesis and study of electro-optical properties of a new donoracceptor polymer composed of substituted thiophene and 4,4′-propane-2,2-diyldiphenol units as electron rich moieties and 1,3,4-oxadiazole unit as electron deficient moiety. The optical properties of the polymer are studied using UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and fluorescent emission spectroscopy. From the electrochemical data, HOMO and LUMO energy levels of the polymer are calculated.

  11. Synchronous phase detection for optical fiber interferometric sensors. (United States)

    Bush, I J; Phillips, R L


    A system has been developed to accurately detect phase signals produced in optical interferometric sensors. The system employs optical heterodyning and synchronously detects optical phase by feeding back an error signal to a phase modulator in the reference leg of the interferometer. This system is seen to have properties similar to a phase-locked loop. The system is mathematically analyzed and a simple second-order model developed which accurately predicts the system response.

  12. In-vivo gingival sulcus imaging using full-range, complex-conjugate-free, endoscopic spectral domain optical coherence tomography (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Kang; Yi, WonJin; Kang, Jin U.


    Frequent monitoring of gingival sulcus will provide valuable information for judging the presence and severity of periodontal disease. Optical coherence tomography, as a 3D high resolution high speed imaging modality is able to provide information for pocket depth, gum contour, gum texture, gum recession simultaneously. A handheld forward-viewing miniature resonant fiber-scanning probe was developed for in-vivo gingival sulcus imaging. The fiber cantilever driven by magnetic force vibrates at resonant frequency. A synchronized linear phase-modulation was applied in the reference arm by the galvanometer-driven reference mirror. Full-range, complex-conjugate-free, real-time endoscopic SD-OCT was achieved by accelerating the data process using graphics processing unit. Preliminary results showed a real-time in-vivo imaging at 33 fps with an imaging range of lateral 2 mm by depth 3 mm. Gap between the tooth and gum area was clearly visualized. Further quantification analysis of the gingival sulcus will be performed on the image acquired.

  13. Adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark William; Wick, David Victor


    The combination of phase diversity and adaptive optics offers great flexibility. Phase diverse images can be used to diagnose aberrations and then provide feedback control to the optics to correct the aberrations. Alternatively, phase diversity can be used to partially compensate for aberrations during post-detection image processing. The adaptive optic can produce simple defocus or more complex types of phase diversity. This report presents an analysis, based on numerical simulations, of the efficiency of different modes of phase diversity with respect to compensating for specific aberrations during post-processing. It also comments on the efficiency of post-processing versus direct aberration correction. The construction of a bench top optical system that uses a membrane mirror as an active optic is described. The results of characterization tests performed on the bench top optical system are presented. The work described in this report was conducted to explore the use of adaptive optics and phase diversity imaging for responsive space applications.

  14. Anti-CD163-dexamethasone conjugate inhibits the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Karen Louise; Møller, Holger Jon; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov;


    /kg) 24 h prior to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (2.5 mg/kg intraperitoneal). We measured plasma concentrations of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) 2 h post-LPS and liver mRNAs and serum concentrations of the rat acute phase protein α-2-macroglobulin (α-2-M) 24 h after LPS. Also...... μg/mL, P = 0.04) after LPS compared to low dose dexamethasone treated animals, while none of the free dexamethasone doses had an effect on liver mRNA or serum levels of α-2-M. Also, the conjugate reduced TNF-α (7208 ± 1977 pg/mL vs 21583 ± 7117 pg/mL, P = 0.03) and IL-6 (15685 ± 3779 pg/mL vs 25715...

  15. Intercarrier interference reduction in MC-CDMA system through second order duobinary coded phase rotated conjugate cancellation scheme. (United States)

    Chitra, S; Kumaratharan, N


    Multi-carrier code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) technique is one of the strong candidates for next generation wireless mobile communication systems. Multi-carrier systems are very much sensitive to carrier frequency offset (CFO) results in intercarrier interference (ICI). To mitigate ICI without any spectral loss, a second order duobinary coded phase rotated conjugate cancellation algorithm is proposed in this paper. In the conventional phase rotated conjugate cancellation (PRCC) technique, one path carries the MC-CDMA signal with a phase spin of ϕ and the other path carries the conjugate of the first path signal with -ϕ phase spin. This artificial phase rotation allows the transmitter to tune the transmitted signals so that the ICI effects could be mutually cancelled at the receiver. Although the PRCC technique reduces the spectral efficiency, the limitation can be overcome by the joint second order duobinary coding scheme with PRCC technique. In the proposed method, the correlative coding between the binary symbols modulated on adjacent subcarriers is used to reduce the ICI without any spectral loss. Simulation results show that the proposed PRCC method provides better carrier to interference ratio (CIR) and bit error rate (BER) performances compared to the conventional conjugate cancellation (CC) technique.

  16. A Phase-Conjugate-Mirror Inspired Approach for Building Cloaking Structures with Left-handed Materials. (United States)

    Zheng, Guoan; Heng, Xin; Yang, Changhuei


    A phase conjugate mirror (PCM) has a remarkable property of cancellation the back-scattering wave of the lossless scatterers. The similarity of a phase conjugate mirror to the interface of a matched RHM (right-handed material) and a LHM (left-handed material) prompts us to explore the potentials of using the RHM-LHM structure to achieve the anti-scattering property of the PCM. In this paper, we present two such structures. The first one is a RHM-LHM cloaking structure with a lossless arbitrary-shape scatterer imbedded in the RHM and its left-handed duplicate imbedded in the matched LHM. It is shown that such a structure is transparent to the incident electromagnetic (EM) field. As a special case of this structure, we proposed an EM tunnel that allows EM waves to spatially transport to another location in space without significant distortion and reflection. The second one is an RHM-PEC (perfect electric conductor)-LHM cloaking structure, which is composed of a symmetric conducting shell embedded in the interface junction of an RHM and the matched LHM layer. Such a structure presents an anomalously small scattering cross-section to an incident propagating EM field, and the interior of the shell can be used to shield small objects (size comparable to the wavelength) from interrogation. We report the results of 2D finite-element-method (FEM) simulations that were performed to verify our idea, and discuss the unique properties of the proposed structures as well as their limitations.

  17. Separation of polyamines, conjugated to DNA, by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Mateos, J L; Reyes, A; Vicente, C; Legaz, M E


    Genomic DNA was isolated from the lichen Evernia prunastri in order to analyze by high-performance liquid chromatography the occurrence of polyamines conjugated to the macromolecule. The acid-insoluble (PH) fraction of this DNA contained mainly conjugated spermidine, although small amounts of free putrescine and spermidine were also present. The PH fraction of DNA also contained conjugated evernic acid, the main phenol produced by this lichen species. Conjugation of polyamines to calf thymus DNA was carried out under in vitro conditions. Conjugation was to spermidine and mainly to spermine and produced DNA compactation. Evernic acid enhanced the action of polyamines in order to produce DNA aggregation.

  18. Tuning backbones and side-chains of cationic conjugated polymers for optical signal amplification of fluorescent DNA detection. (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Qin; Liu, Xing-Fen; Fan, Qu-Li; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Wang, Lian-Hui; Fan, Chunhai; Huang, Wei


    Three cationic conjugated polymers (CCPs) exhibiting different backbone geometries and charge densities were used to investigate how their conjugated backbone and side chain properties, together with the transitions of DNA amphiphilic properties, interplay in the CCP/DNA-C* (DNA-C*: fluorophore-labeled DNA) complexes to influence the optical signal amplification of fluorescent DNA detection based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). By examining the FRET efficiencies to dsDNA-C* (dsDNA: double-stranded DNA) and ssDNA-C* (ssDNA: single-stranded DNA) for each CCP, twisted conjugated backbones and higher charge densities were proved to facilitate electrostatic attraction in CCP/dsDNA-C* complexes, and induced improved sensitivity to DNA hybridization. Especially, by using the CCP with twisted conjugated backbone and the highest charge density, a more than 7-fold higher efficiency of FRET to dsDNA-C* was found than to ssDNA-C*, indicating a high signal amplification for discriminating between dsDNA and ssDNA. By contrast, linear conjugated backbones and lower charge density were demonstrated to favor hydrophobic interactions in CCP/ssDNA-C* complexes. These findings provided guidelines for the design of novel sensitive CCP, which can be useful to recognize many other important DNA activities involving transitions of DNA amphiphilic properties like DNA hybridization, such as specific DNA binding with ions, some secondary or tertiary structural changes of DNA, and so forth.

  19. Optical DPSK demodulator based on pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating with an optically turnable phase shifter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, T.-Y.; Hanawa, M.; Kim, Sun-Jong


    We propose and demonstrate a novel optical differential phase-shift keying (DPSK) demodulator with an optically tunable phase shifter. The proposed DPSK demodulator is implemented by using a pi-phase-shifted fiber Bragg grating and an Yb3+-Al3+ codoped optical fiber. A 10-Gb/s DPSK signal was suc...... was successfully demodulated by the proposed demodulator, showing clearly open eye diagrams as well as bit-error-free performance. Moreover, the phase of delayed optical signal can be tuned by the phase shifter that is controlled by a pumping light at around 980nm....

  20. Terahertz cross-phase modulation of an optical mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Novitsky, Andrey; Zalkovskij, Maksim


    We discuss an optical scheme which facilitates modulation of an optical waveguide mode by metallic-nanoslit-enhanced THz radiation. The waveguide mode acquires an additional phase shift due to THz nonlinearity with fields reachable in experiments.......We discuss an optical scheme which facilitates modulation of an optical waveguide mode by metallic-nanoslit-enhanced THz radiation. The waveguide mode acquires an additional phase shift due to THz nonlinearity with fields reachable in experiments....

  1. Effect of Ultrasonication on Optical Properties and Electronic States of Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Meng; YANG Gui-zhong; WANG Meng; WANG Wei-zhi; WANG Min; LIU Tian-xi


    Poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene](MEH-PPV) solutions with different concentrations were prepared in chloroform for different ultrasonication times. The ultraviolet absorption and photoluminescence(PL) spectra of the MEH-PPV solutions were measured,and the electronic states of the polymer chains under different experimental conditions were studied.The results showed that the effects of ultrasonication on the dilute and concentrated solutions were different.After ultrasonication,the intensity of the absorption peak at 280 nm significantly decreased,relative to the absorption peak at 500 nm for both dilute and concentrated solutions,indicating that the proportion of the two excited states in the polymer chains had changed.For dilute MEH-PPV solutions,the blue-shifted absorption(at about 500 nm) and PL spectra show that ultrasonication also led to polymer chain degradation and thus shortened the effective conjugation length.For concentrated solutions,however,the peak positions of the absorption spectra remained unchanged.In addition,the effects of the solution temperatures on the optical spectra for the MEH-PPV solutions were also discussed.

  2. The Chandra Deep Field South as a test case for Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Portaluri, E.; Viotto, V.; Ragazzoni, R.; Gullieuszik, M.; Bergomi, M.; Greggio, D.; Biondi, F.; Dima, M.; Magrin, D.; Farinato, J.


    The era of the next generation of giant telescopes requires not only the advent of new technologies but also the development of novel methods, in order to exploit fully the extraordinary potential they are built for. Global Multi Conjugate Adaptive Optics (GMCAO) pursues this approach, with the goal of achieving good performance over a field of view of a few arcmin and an increase in sky coverage. In this article, we show the gain offered by this technique to an astrophysical application, such as the photometric survey strategy applied to the Chandra Deep Field South as a case study. We simulated a close-to-real observation of a 500 × 500 arcsec2 extragalactic deep field with a 40-m class telescope that implements GMCAO. We analysed mock K-band images of 6000 high-redshift (up to z = 2.75) galaxies therein as if they were real to recover the initial input parameters. We attained 94.5 per cent completeness for source detection with SEXTRACTOR. We also measured the morphological parameters of all the sources with the two-dimensional fitting tools GALFIT. The agreement we found between recovered and intrinsic parameters demonstrates GMCAO as a reliable approach to assist extremely large telescope (ELT) observations of extragalactic interest.

  3. Shortcut access to peptidosteroid conjugates: building blocks for solid-phase bile acid scaffold decoration by convergent ligation. (United States)

    Verzele, Dieter; Figaroli, Sara; Madder, Annemieke


    We present three versatile solid-supported scaffold building blocks based on the (deoxy)cholic acid framework and decorated with handles for further derivatization by modern ligation techniques such as click chemistry, Staudinger ligation or native chemical ligation. Straightforward procedures are presented for the synthesis and analysis of the steroid constructs. These building blocks offer a new, facile and shorter access route to bile acid-peptide conjugates on solid-phase with emphasis on heterodipodal conjugates with defined spatial arrangements. As such, we provide versatile new synthons to the toolbox for bile acid decoration.

  4. Shortcut Access to Peptidosteroid Conjugates: Building Blocks for Solid-Phase Bile Acid Scaffold Decoration by Convergent Ligation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Figaroli


    Full Text Available We present three versatile solid-supported scaffold building blocks based on the (deoxycholic acid framework and decorated with handles for further derivatization by modern ligation techniques such as click chemistry, Staudinger ligation or native chemical ligation. Straightforward procedures are presented for the synthesis and analysis of the steroid constructs. These building blocks offer a new, facile and shorter access route to bile acid-peptide conjugates on solid-phase with emphasis on heterodipodal conjugates with defined spatial arrangements. As such, we provide versatile new synthons to the toolbox for bile acid decoration.

  5. Determination of conjugated bile acids in human bile and duodenal fluid by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. (United States)

    Bloch, C A; Watkins, J B


    A simple mehtod using reverse-phase liquid chromatography is presented for resolution and quantitation of the major conjugated bile acids of man, including the glycine and taurine conjugates of the dihydroxy bile acids, chenodeoxycholic and deoxycholic acid. Using modern, high-performance chromatographic equipment, analysis time is less than 30 minutes. The quantitative range of the method, with detection by refractive index, is 0.05 to 0.1 mumol of bile acid and the limit of detection for an injection sample is 0.01 mumol. This provides a sensitivity sufficient for analysis of dilute duodenal and gallbladder bile with minimal sample preparation.

  6. All-optical WDM Regeneration of DPSK Signals using Optical Fourier Transformation and Phase Sensitive Amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Røge, Kasper Meldgaard; Kjøller, Niels-Kristian;


    We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time.......We propose a novel all-optical WDM regeneration scheme for DPSK signals based on optical Fourier transformation and phase sensitive amplification. Phase regeneration of a WDM signal consisting of 4x10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK channels is demonstrated for the first time....

  7. The influence of underwater turbulence on optical phase measurements (United States)

    Redding, Brandon; Davis, Allen; Kirkendall, Clay; Dandridge, Anthony


    Emerging underwater optical imaging and sensing applications rely on phase-sensitive detection to provide added functionality and improved sensitivity. However, underwater turbulence introduces spatio-temporal variations in the refractive index of water which can degrade the performance of these systems. Although the influence of turbulence on traditional, non-interferometric imaging has been investigated, its influence on the optical phase remains poorly understood. Nonetheless, a thorough understanding of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through underwater turbulence are crucial to the design of phase-sensitive imaging and sensing systems. To address this concern, we combined underwater imaging with high speed holography to provide a calibrated characterization of the effects of turbulence on the optical phase. By measuring the modulation transfer function of an underwater imaging system, we were able to calibrate varying levels of optical turbulence intensity using the Simple Underwater Imaging Model (SUIM). We then used high speed holography to measure the temporal dynamics of the optical phase of light passing through varying levels of turbulence. Using this method, we measured the variance in the amplitude and phase of the beam, the temporal correlation of the optical phase, and recorded the turbulence induced phase noise as a function of frequency. By bench marking the effects of varying levels of turbulence on the optical phase, this work provides a basis to evaluate the real-world potential of emerging underwater interferometric sensing modalities.

  8. Suppression of phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors using an optical phase modulation technique. (United States)

    Chan, Erwin H W


    A technique that can suppress the dominant phase-induced intensity noise in fibre optic delay line signal processors is presented. It is based on phase modulation of the optical carrier to distribute the phase noise at the information band into a high frequency band which can be filtered out. This technique is suitable for suppressing the phase noise in various delay line structures and for integrating in the conventional fibre optic links. It can also suppress the coherent interference effect at the same time. A model for predicting the amount of phase noise reduction in various delay line structures using the optical phase modulation technique is presented for the first time and is experimentally verified. Experimental results demonstrate the technique can achieve a large phase noise reduction in various fibre optic delay line signal processors.

  9. Solution-phase laser processing of π-conjugated polymers: Switching between different molecular states (United States)

    Takada, K.; Tomioka, A.


    Liquid-phase laser processing, where the laser-irradiated target material is immersed in water for cooling, has been reported as a promising processing technique for thermally fragile organic materials. Although nanometer-sized particles have been reported to be obtained with the liquid-phase laser processing, the physical property did not change because quantum-mechanical size effect does not exhibit itself in the zero-radius Frenkel excitons. In the present study, we step further to use solution droplets as a target material, where organic molecules are molecularly dispersed in organic solvent and, therefore, expected to easily alter the conformation and the energy state upon laser irradiation. Small volume organic solvent is quickly evaporated upon laser irradiation, letting the bare organic molecule placed in water and rapidly cooled. To prevent the chemical decomposition of the target π-conjugated molecule, the specimen was resonantly irradiated by a ns-pulse green laser, not by a conventional UV laser. When the solid state spin-coat film made from MEH-PPV chloroform solution was used as a irradiation target immersed in water, resulting MEH-PPV particles showed similar photoluminescence (PL) like the PL of the spin-coat film and PL of the chloroform solution, including the 0→1, 0→2 vibrational transitions: this indicates that the energy levels were not modified from the spin-coat film. In comparison, when tiny droplets of MEH-PPV chloroform solution (orange color) were suspended in water, laser irradiation gave rise to yellow MEH-PPV particles which showed 550 nm and 530 nm PL (type B), blue-shifted from the spin-coat film PL 580 nm (type A), suggesting a successful phase transition of MEH-PPV polymer to type B. Further solution-phase laser processing left the type B state unchanged. The irreversible phase transition from type A to type B suggests that the type B ground state has lower energy than type A, which is consistent with the blue-shifted PL of

  10. Phase-coherent all-optical frequency division by three

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Dong-Hoon; Klein, M.E.; Meyn, Jan-Peter; Wallenstein, Richard; Gross, P.; Boller, Klaus J.


    The properties of all-optical phase-coherent frequency division by 3, based on a self-phase-locked continuous-wave (cw) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), are investigated theoretically and experimentally. The frequency to be divided is provided by a diode laser master-oscillator power-amplifier

  11. A First Calibration of SBF using Mulit-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (United States)

    Gibson, Zachary; Jensen, Joseph B.; Blakeslee, John; Schirmer, Mischa


    We measured Surface Brightness Fluctuations (SBF) in three galaxies, ESO137-G006, NGC 3309, and NGC 5128, using the GeMS Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) system on the Gemini South telescope. ESO137-G006 is located in the Norma Cluster, NGC 3309 is located in the Hydra Cluster, while NGC 5128, also known as Centaurus A, is a nearby galaxy with numerous other distance measurements, including Cepheids. These galaxies were observed as a pathfinder to establish the SBF technique using the MCAO system.The J and K-band images taken with MCAO were astrometrically corrected and combined using the THELI software. This method allowed us to accurately account for the distortions of the focal plane when combining the images. The foreground stars as well as the globular clusters were measured to account for their contribution to the SBF. J-K color measurements were made to calibrate SBF and determine the stellar populations of the galaxies.The results of these measurements give us an SBF calibration that we can use to measure the distances to much more distant galaxies. Accurate distances are needed to determine the true spatial motions of galaxies and measure the mass distribution and density of the Universe. We now live in the era of "precision cosmology" in which distance measurements have transformed our understanding of the composition of the Universe and revealed the presence of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, the two dominant (but still unidentified) components of the Universe. The origins and nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy are among the most important unsolved mysteries in physics.

  12. Negative reflection of Lamb waves at a free edge: Tunable focusing and mimicking phase conjugation (United States)

    Gérardin, Benoît; Laurent, Jérôme; Prada, Claire; Aubry, Alexandre


    The paper studies the interaction of Lamb waves with the free edge of a plate. The reflection coefficients of a Lamb mode at a plate free edge are calculated using a semi-analytical method, as a function of frequency and angle of incidence. The conversion between forward and backward Lamb modes is thoroughly investigated. It is shown that, at the zero-group velocity (ZGV) frequency, the forward $S_1$ Lamb mode fully converts into the backward $S_{2b}$ Lamb mode at normal incidence. Besides, this conversion is very efficient over most of the angular spectrum and remains dominant at frequencies just above the ZGV-point. This effect is observed experimentally on a Duralumin plate. Firstly, the $S_1$ Lamb mode is selectively generated using a transducer array, secondly the $S_{2b}$ mode is excited using a single circular transducer. The normal displacement field is probed with an interferometer. The free edge is shown to retro-focus the incident wave at different depths depending on the wave number mismatch between the forward and backward propagating modes. In the vicinity of the ZGV-point, wave numbers coincide and the wave is retro-reflected on the source. In this frequency range, the free edge acts as a perfect phase conjugating mirror.

  13. Optical atomic phase reference and timing. (United States)

    Hollberg, L; Cornell, E H; Abdelrahmann, A


    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10(-20) As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10(-20), that could make an important impact in gravity wave science.This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  14. Optical atomic phase reference and timing (United States)

    Hollberg, L.; Cornell, E. H.; Abdelrahmann, A.


    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10-20. As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10-20, that could make an important impact in gravity wave science. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  15. The effect of input phase modulation to a phase-sensitive optical amplifier

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Tian; Horrom, Travis; Jones, Kevin M; Lett, Paul D


    Many optical applications depend on amplitude modulating optical beams using devices such as acousto-optical modulators (AOMs) or optical choppers. Methods to add amplitude modulation (AM) often inadvertently impart phase modulation (PM) onto the light as well. While this PM is of no consequence to many phase-insensitive applications, phase-sensitive processes can be affected. Here we study the effects of input phase and amplitude modulation on the output of a quantum-noise limited phase-sensitive optical amplifier (PSA) realized in hot $^{85}$Rb vapor. We investigate the dependence of PM on AOM alignment and demonstrate a novel approach to quantifying PM by using the PSA as a diagnostic tool. We then use this method to measure the alignment-dependent PM of an optical chopper which arises due to diffraction effects as the chopper blade passes through the optical beam.

  16. Simultaneous all-optical phase noise mitigation and automatically locked homodyne reception of an incoming QPSK data signal. (United States)

    Mohajerin-Ariaei, Amirhossein; Ziyadi, Morteza; Almaiman, Ahmed; Cao, Yinwen; Alishahi, Fatemeh; Chitgarha, Mohammad Reza; Fallahpour, Ahmad; Yang, Jeng-Yuan; Bao, Changjing; Liao, Peicheng; Shamee, Bishara; Akasaka, Youichi; Sekiya, Motoyoshi; Touch, Joseph D; Tur, Moshe; Langrock, Carsten; Fejer, Martin M; Willner, Alan E


    Simultaneous phase noise mitigation and automatic phase/frequency-locked homodyne reception is demonstrated for a 20-32 Gbaud QPSK signal. A phase quantization function is realized to squeeze the phase noise of the signal by optical wave mixing of the signal, its third-order harmonic, and their corresponding delayed variant conjugates, converting the noisy input into a noise-mitigated signal. In a simultaneous nonlinear process, the noise-mitigated signal is automatically phase- and frequency-locked with a "local" pump laser, avoiding the need for feedback or phase/frequency tracking for homodyne detection. Open eye-diagrams are obtained for in-phase and quadrature-phase components of the signal and ∼2  dB OSNR gain is achieved at BER 10-3.

  17. Optical Phase Imaging Using Synthetic Aperture Illumination and Phase Retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Dennis J


    We perform quantitative phase imaging using phase retrieval to implement synthetic aperture imaging. Compared to digital holography, the developed technique is simpler, less expensive, and more stable.

  18. Optical Phased Array Using Guided Resonance with Backside Reflectors (United States)

    Horie, Yu (Inventor); Arbabi, Amir (Inventor); Faraon, Andrei (Inventor)


    Methods and systems for controlling the phase of electromagnetic waves are disclosed. A device can consist of a guided resonance grating layer, a spacer, and a reflector. A plurality of devices, arranged in a grid pattern, can control the phase of reflected electromagnetic phase, through refractive index control. Carrier injection, temperature control, and optical beams can be applied to control the refractive index.

  19. Phase 2 enzyme induction by conjugated linoleic acid improves lupus-associated oxidative stress. (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; Rossi, Mauro


    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) exhibits anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. Its ability to increase total GSH (GSH+GSSG) amount and gamma-glutamylcysteine ligase (gammaGCL) protein expression was recently associated with the inhibition of typical pathological signs in MRL/MpJ-Fas(lpr) mice (MRL/lpr). In the present study the ability of CLA to modulate oxidative stress and phase 2 enzyme activity in the same animal model was investigated. Disease severity was associated with age-dependent production of anti-double-stranded DNA antibodies (anti-dsDNA IgGs) and with enhanced extent of oxidative stress markers: reduced total GSH, increased protein 3-nitrotyrosines (3-NT), and protein-bound carbonyl (PC) amounts. To examine the effect of CLA on antioxidant status, CLA or olive oil (as control) was administered to pregnant MRL/lpr mice. Significantly higher total GSH and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) levels were measured in serum of CLA-treated dams (and their pups), as compared with controls. Finally, the antioxidant and chemopreventive properties of CLA were investigated in old MRL/lpr mice. Sera of CLA-treated mice contained higher concentrations of total GSH which were negatively correlated with the levels of oxidative stress markers. Moreover, increased GSH, gammaGCL, glutathione S-transferase (GSTs), and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1) activities were measured in liver and spleen of CLA-treated animals. In conclusion our data indicate that the activation of detoxifying enzymes may be one of the mechanisms whereby dietary CLA down-regulates oxidative stress in MRL/lpr mice.

  20. Ultrafast all-optical clock recovery based on phase-only linear optical filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael


    We report on a novel, efficient technique for all-optical clock recovery from RZ-OOK data signals based on spectral phase-only (all-pass) optical filtering. This technique significantly enhances both the recovered optical clock quality and energy efficiency in comparison with conventional amplitude...... optical filtering approaches using a Fabry-Perot filter. The proposed concept is validated through recovery of the optical clock from a 640 Gbit/s RZ-OOK data signal using a commercial linear optical waveshaper. (C) 2014 Optical Society of America...

  1. Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance Studies on π-conjugated semiconductor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ying [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Optically Detected Magnetic Resonance (ODMR) techniques were used to investigate the dynamics of excitons and charge carriers in π-conjugated organic semiconductors. Degradation behavior of the negative spin-1/2 electroluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (ELDMR) was observed in Alq3 devices. The increase in the resonance amplitude implies an increasing bipolaron formation during degradation, which might be the result of growth of charge traps in the device. The same behavior of the negative spin-1/2 ELDMR was observed in 2wt% Rubrene doped Tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)aluminium (Alq3) devices. However, with increasing injection current, a positive spin-1/2 ELDMR, together with positive spin 1 triplet powder patterns at ΔmS=±1 and ΔmS=±2, emerges. Due to the similarities in the frequency dependences of single and double modulated ELDMR and the photoluminescence-detected magnetic resonance (PLDMR) results in poly[2-methoxy-5-(2 -ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenyl ene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) films, the mechanism for this positive spin-1/2 ELDMR was assigned to enhanced triplet-polaron quenching under resonance conditions. The ELDMR in rubrene doped Alq3 devices provides a path to investigate charge distribution in the device under operational conditions. Combining the results of several devices with different carrier blocking properties and the results from transient EL, it was concluded trions not only exist near buffer layer but also exist in the electron transport layer. This TPQ model can also be used to explain the positive spin-1/2 PLDMR in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) films at low temperature and in MEH-PPV films at various temperatures up to room temperature. Through quantitative analysis, TE-polaron quenching (TPQ) model is shown having the ability to explain most behaviors of the positive spin-1/2 resonance. Photocurrent detected magnetic resonance (PCDMR) studies on MEH-PPV devices revealed a novel transient resonance signal. The signal

  2. Optical Phase Locking of Modelocked Lasers for Particle Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plettner, T.; Sinha, S.; Wisdom, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Colby, E.R.; /SLAC


    Particle accelerators require precise phase control of the electric field through the entire accelerator structure. Thus a future laser driven particle accelerator will require optical synchronism between the high-peak power laser sources that power the accelerator. The precise laser architecture for a laser driven particle accelerator is not determined yet, however it is clear that the ability to phase-lock independent modelocked oscillators will be of crucial importance. We report the present status on our work to demonstrate long term phaselocking between two modelocked lasers to within one degree of optical phase and describe the optical synchronization techniques that we employ.

  3. Self-pumped phase conjugation and four-wave mixing in 0- and 45-deg-cut n-type BaTiO3:Co (United States)

    Garrett, M. H.; Chang, J. Y.; Jenssen, H. P.; Warde, C.


    Relatively fast self-pumped phase-conjugate and four-wave-mixing rise times are reported in n-type cobalt-doped barium titanate. With the crystal oriented in a 45-deg cut as compared with the same crystal in a 0-deg cut we find a factor of 3 decrease in the 0-90-percent rise time to 800 ms with 25-mW input power at 514.5 nm. Also, the self-pumped phase-conjugate reflectivity increases from 20 to 40 percent. We deduce that the phase conjugation is from internally seeded stimulated photorefractive backscattering. The four-wave-mixing rise time of the 45-deg-cut crystal is 4 ms with a reflectivity of 48 percent when the pumping beams are derived from self-pumped phase conjugation that has an input power of 25 mW.

  4. Tunable optical frequency division using a phase-locked optical parametric oscillator. (United States)

    Lee, D; Wong, N C


    We report the experimental demonstration of a novel optical parametric oscillator approach to tunable optical frequency division. The beat frequency of the signal and idler subharmonic outputs of a tunable cw KTP optical parametric oscillator was phase locked to a microwave reference frequency source, which thus permitted precise determination of the output frequencies at approximately half the input pump frequency.

  5. Controlling the coexistence of structural phases and the optical properties of gallium nanoparticles with optical excitation (United States)

    MacDonald, K. F.; Fedotov, V. A.; Pochon, S.; Stevens, G.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Emel'yanov, V. I.; Zheludev, N. I.


    We have observed reversible structural transformations, induced by optical excitation at 1.55 μm, between the β, γ and liquid phases of gallium in self-assembled gallium nanoparticles, with a narrow size distribution around 50 nm, on the tip of an optical fiber. Only a few tens of nanowatts of optical excitation per particle are required to control the transformations, which take the form of a dynamic phase coexistence and are accompanied by substantial changes in the optical properties of the nanoparticle film. The time needed to achieve phase equilibrium is in the microsecond range, and increases sharply near the transition temperatures.

  6. Superfluid and Insulating Phases of Fermion Mixtures in Optical Lattices (United States)

    Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sá


    The ground state phase diagram of fermion mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, fermion filling factor, and tunneling parameters. In addition to standard superfluid, phase-separated or coexisting superfluid excess-fermion phases found in homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems, fermions in optical lattices have several insulating phases, including a molecular Bose-Mott insulator (BMI), a Fermi-Pauli (band) insulator (FPI), a phase-separated BMI-FPI mixture or a Bose-Fermi checkerboard (BFC). The molecular BMI phase is the fermion mixture counterpart of the atomic BMI found in atomic Bose systems, the BFC or BMI-FPI phases exist in Bose-Fermi mixtures, and lastly the FPI phase is particular to the Fermi nature of the constituent atoms of the mixture.

  7. Optical Mode Control by Geometric Phase in Quasicrystal Metasurface

    CERN Document Server

    Yulevich, Igor; Shitrit, Nir; Veksler, Dekel; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez


    We report on the observation of optical spin-controlled modes from a quasicrystalline metasurface as a result of an aperiodic geometric phase induced by anisotropic subwavelength structure. When geometric phase defects are introduced in the aperiodic structured surface, the modes exhibit polarization helicity dependence resulting in the optical spin-Hall effect. The radiative thermal dispersion bands from a quasicrystal structure were studied where the observed bands arise from the optical spin-orbit interaction induced by the aperiodic space-variant orientations of anisotropic antennas. The optical spin-flip behavior of the revealed modes that arise from the geometric phase pickup was experimentally observed within the visible spectrum by measuring the spin-projected diffraction patterns. The introduced ability to manipulate the light-matter interaction of quasicrystals in a spin-dependent manner provides the route for molding light via spin-optical aperiodic artificial planar surfaces.

  8. Fabrication of conjugated polymers nanostructures via direct near-field optical lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cacialli, F.; Riehn, Robert; Downes, A.; Latini, G.; Charas, Ana; Morgado, Jorge


    We report our investigations into the fabrication of nanostructures of poly(p-phenylene vinylene) via direct scanning near-field lithography of its soluble precursor. Our technique is based on the spatially selective inhibition of the precursor solubility by exposure to the ultraviolet optical field present at the apex of commercially available, Au-coated near-field probes with aperture diameters between 40 and 80 nm ({+-}5 nm). After development in methanol and thermal conversion under vacuum we obtain features with a minimum dimension of 160 nm. We analyse our results via tapping-mode atomic force microscopy, and find a clear phase contrast between the core and the centre of the lithographed features, corroborating the hypothesis that hard, fully insolubilised regions are surrounded by a gel-like phase, which we estimate of the order of 110-130 nm for the smallest features, by comparing our experiments with simulations carried out using a Bethe-Bouwkamp model. Use of such model also allows us to discuss the influence of probe size, tip-sample distance, and film thickness on the resolution of the lithographic process. We demonstrate the use of the technique for the direct writing of two-dimensional periodic structures with intentional defects and a periodicity relevant to applications in the visible range.

  9. Studies of nondegenerate, quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


    We have performed extensive numerical studies of quasi-phase-matched optical parametric amplification with the aim to improve its nondegenerate spectral bandwidth. Our multi-section fan-out design calculations indicate a 35-fold increase in spectral bandwidth.

  10. Phase-sensitive optical processing in silicon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petermann, Klaus; Gajda, A.; Dziallas, Claudia


    Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals......Parametric optical signal processing is reviewed for silicon nano-rib-waveguides with a reverse-biased pin-junction. Phase-sensitive parametric amplification with a phase-sensitive extinction of more than 20 dB has been utilized for the regeneration of DPSK signals...

  11. Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development (United States)


    Phase Laser Development Acknowledgement of Support and Disclaimer This material is based upon work supported by Air Force Office of Scientific...00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optically-Based Diagnostics for Gas-Phase Laser Development 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Sciences Inc. Role of Optical Diagnostics in High Energy Gas Laser Development  Chemically rich, energetic, reacting flow with competing phenomena

  12. Ultrafast optical measurements of charge generation and transfer mechanisms of pi-conjugated polymers for solar cell applications (United States)

    Holt, Joshua Michael

    Current developments in organic solar cells based on donor-acceptor blends require understanding and control of photoinduced charge transfer and electronic state dynamics. In this work the ultrafast dynamics of photoexcitations in pi-conjugated organic semiconductors were studied using a low-intensity, high-repetition rate laser system in the broad mid- to near-infrared (IR) spectral range from 0.25 to 1.1 eV, and a high-intensity, low-repetition rate laser system in the spectral range from 1.2 to 2.5 eV, in the time domain up to 1 ns with 150 fs resolution. We also applied CW photomodulation spectroscopy along with excitation spectrum, modulation frequency sweeps, photoluminescence and electroabsorption to study the excited states of pi-conjugated polymers and acceptor-donor blends. One current drawback to organic solar cell efficiency is negligible absorption in the near infrared spectral range of the solar spectrum. We provide and compare evidence that poly(2-methoxy-5(2'-ethyl)hexoxy-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV) [electron donor] blended with 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) [strong electron acceptor] form a below-gap charge transfer complex (CTC) state that can extend absorption into the near infrared. The transient PA measurements also show that significant charge species are initially photogenerated, a majority of which geminately recombine within 8-10 ps, but the few that escape geminate recombination are subsequently captured in long-lived traps. In addition polarons could be also photogenerated with high efficiency at near-IR excitation, with similar fate. This demonstrates that a CTC state exists below the MEH-PPV polymer optical gap, but with low dissociation efficiency. We compare our results to those in blends of MEH-PPV/C60 where apparently a charge transport pathway to the electrodes is formed and the obtained CTC state has higher dissociation efficiency. The most efficient all-organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells to date (˜6% power conversion efficiency

  13. Phase contrast without phase plates and phase rings--optical solutions for improved imaging of phase structures. (United States)

    Piper, Timm; Piper, Jörg


    Using the optical methods described, phase specimens can be observed with a modified light microscope in enhanced clarity, purified from typical artifacts which are apparent in standard phase contrast illumination. In particular, haloing and shade-off are absent, lateral and vertical resolution are maximized and the image quality remains constant even in problematic preparations which cannot be well examined in normal phase contrast, such as specimens beyond a critical thickness or covered by obliquely situated cover slips. The background brightness and thus the range of contrast can be continuously modulated and specimens can be illuminated in concentric-peripheral, axial or paraxial light. Additional contrast effects can be achieved by spectral color separation. Normal glass or mirror lenses can be used; they do not need to be fitted with a phase plate or a phase ring. The methods described should be of general interest for all disciplines using phase microscopy.

  14. Optical phased arrays with evanescently-coupled antennas (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Watts, Michael R; Yaacobi, Ami; Timurdogan, Erman


    An optical phased array formed of a large number of nanophotonic antenna elements can be used to project complex images into the far field. These nanophotonic phased arrays, including the nanophotonic antenna elements and waveguides, can be formed on a single chip of silicon using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) processes. Directional couplers evanescently couple light from the waveguides to the nanophotonic antenna elements, which emit the light as beams with phases and amplitudes selected so that the emitted beams interfere in the far field to produce the desired pattern. In some cases, each antenna in the phased array may be optically coupled to a corresponding variable delay line, such as a thermo-optically tuned waveguide or a liquid-filled cell, which can be used to vary the phase of the antenna's output (and the resulting far-field interference pattern).

  15. Application of optical diffraction method in designing phase plates (United States)

    Lei, Ze-Min; Sun, Xiao-Yan; Lv, Feng-Nian; Zhang, Zhen; Lu, Xing-Qiang


    Continuous phase plate (CPP), which has a function of beam shaping in laser systems, is one kind of important diffractive optics. Based on the Fourier transform of the Gerchberg-Saxton (G-S) algorithm for designing CPP, we proposed an optical diffraction method according to the real system conditions. A thin lens can complete the Fourier transform of the input signal and the inverse propagation of light can be implemented in a program. Using both of the two functions can realize the iteration process to calculate the near-field distribution of light and the far-field repeatedly, which is similar to the G-S algorithm. The results show that using the optical diffraction method can design a CPP for a complicated laser system, and make the CPP have abilities of beam shaping and phase compensation for the phase aberration of the system. The method can improve the adaptation of the phase plate in systems with phase aberrations.

  16. Fourier phase in Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Uttam, Shikhar; Liu, Yang


    Phase of an electromagnetic wave propagating through a sample-of-interest is well understood in the context of quantitative phase imaging in transmission-mode microscopy. In the past decade, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography has been used to extend quantitative phase imaging to the reflection-mode. Unlike transmission-mode electromagnetic phase, however, the origin and characteristics of reflection-mode Fourier phase are poorly understood, especially in samples with a slowly varying refractive index. In this paper, the general theory of Fourier phase from first principles is presented, and it is shown that Fourier phase is a joint estimate of subresolution offset and mean spatial frequency of the coherence-gated sample refractive index. It is also shown that both spectral-domain phase microscopy and depth-resolved spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy are special cases of this general theory. Analytical expressions are provided for both, and simulations are presented to explain and support the theoretical results. These results are further used to show how Fourier phase allows the estimation of an axial mean spatial frequency profile of the sample, along with depth-resolved characterization of localized optical density change and sample heterogeneity. Finally, a Fourier phase-based explanation of Doppler optical coherence tomography is also provided.

  17. Optical phase noise engineering via acousto-optic interaction and its interferometric applications

    CERN Document Server

    Satapathy, Nandan; Bannerjee, Sourish; Ramachandran, Hema


    We exercise rapid and fine control over the phase of light by transferring digitally gen- erated phase jumps from radio frequency (rf) electrical signals onto light by means of acousto-optic interaction. By tailoring the statistics of phase jumps in the electrical signal and thereby engineering the optical phase noise, we manipulate the visibil- ity of interference fringes in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that incorporates two acousto-optic modulators. Such controlled dephasing finds applications in modern experiments involving the spread or diffusion of light in an optical network. Further, we analytically show how engineered partial phase noise can convert the dark port of a stabilised interferometer to a weak source of highly correlated photons.

  18. Demonstration of optical steganography transmission using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. (United States)

    Hong, Xuezhi; Wang, Dawei; Xu, Lei; He, Sailing


    A novel approach is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for optical steganography transmission in WDM networks using temporal phase coded optical signals with spectral notch filtering. A temporal phase coded stealth channel is temporally and spectrally overlaid onto a public WDM channel. Direct detection of the public channel is achieved in the presence of the stealth channel. The interference from the public channel is suppressed by spectral notching before the detection of the optical stealth signal. The approach is shown to have good compatibility and robustness to the existing WDM network for optical steganography transmission.

  19. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting


    , with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications......Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify...... the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting...

  20. Achromatic metasurface optical components by dispersive phase compensation

    CERN Document Server

    Aieta, Francesco; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico


    The replacement of bulk refractive elements with flat ones enables the miniaturization of optical components required for integrated optical systems. This process comes with the limitation that planar optics suffers from large chromatic aberrations due to the dispersion of the phase accumulated by light during propagation. We show that this limitation can be overcome by compensating the dispersion of the propagation phase with the wavelength-dependent phase shift imparted by a metasurface. We demonstrate dispersion-free multi-wavelength dielectric metasurface deflectors in the near-infrared and design an achromatic flat lens in the same spectral region. Our design is based on low-loss coupled dielectric resonators, which introduce a dense spectrum of modes to enable dispersive phase compensation. Achromatic metasurfaces will find applications as multi-band-pass filters, lightweight collimators, and chromatically-corrected imaging lenses.

  1. Optical phase estimation via coherent state and displaced photon counting

    CERN Document Server

    Izumi, Shuro; Wakui, Kentaro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Ema, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Masahide


    We consider the phase sensing via weak optical coherent state at quantum limit precision. A new detection scheme for the phase estimation is proposed which is inspired by the suboptimal quantum measurement in coherent optical communication. We theoretically analyze a performance of our detection scheme, which we call the displaced-photon counting, for phase sensing in terms of the Fisher information and show that the displaced-photon counting outperforms the static homodyne and heterodyne detections in wide range of the target phase. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed with linear optics and a superconducting nanowire single photon detector. The result shows that our scheme overcomes the limit of the ideal homodyne measurement even under practical imperfections.

  2. Argus phase II optical data collection system (United States)

    Wasson, Wayne E.


    The Argus aircraft is a highly modified NC-135E fitted with an infrared and ultraviolet-visible sensor suite for radiometric and spectral data collection. Each suite is operated independently with its own separate gimbal for precision pointing, telescope, and relay optics. The system includes a silica window for the ultraviolet-visible, and a zinc selenide window for the infrared. The entire system was developed and fabricated in-house at the Phillips Laboratory. All sensors are calibrated as a system onboard the aircraft through a unique facility called the aircraft optical calibration facility. The data is all recorded digitally, and can be transferred to secure data reduction facilities via optical fiber. The system is modular, in that the ultraviolet-visible and infrared benches can be separated, or the entire system can be quickly removed to allow for the introduction of other sensor suites or systems. The gimbals and telescopes can be used independently of the rest of the system. The aircraft is also fitted with an anemometry system, which can be operated independently of the sensor systems. This aircraft is capable of many types of missions, and will soon be fitted with a LIDAR system for remote sensing. The philosophy in building the system is to make it capable of quick changes during mission.

  3. Optical tweezers formed by pure phase pupil filter (United States)

    Lv, Wei; You, Chenglong; Wang, Mei; Yun, Maojin


    The focusing properties of vector beams have attracted great attention and quickly became the subject of extensive worldwide research due to their applications in lithography, optical storage, microscopy, material processing, and optical trapping. Focusing properties of the radially polarized beam and generalized cylindrical vector beams in high numerical aperture system with designed pure phase filter are analyzed in detail by using vector Debye diffraction theory. By utilizing diffractive optical element to partly change the polarization of vector beams, the energy density of light field in the vicinity of focus is studied by the numerical analysis. Numerical simulation result shows that optical bubbles can be obtained by changing the composition and polarization of the incident beams. At last, optical tweezers are constituted by two optical bubbles around the focus.

  4. The Role of Morphology and Electronic Chain Aggregation on the Optical Gain Properties of Semiconducting Conjugated Polymers (United States)

    Lampert, Zachary Evan

    Conjugated polymers (CPs) are a novel class of materials that exhibit the optical and electrical properties of semiconductors while still retaining the durability and processability of plastics. CPs are also intrinsically 4-level systems with high luminescence quantum efficiencies making them particularly attractive as organic gain media for solid-state laser applications. However, before CPs can emerge as a commercially available laser technology, a more comprehensive understanding of the morphological dependence of the photophysics is required. In this thesis, the morphology and chain conformation dependence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and optical gain in thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) was investigated. By changing the chemical nature of the solvent from which films were cast, as well as the temperature at which films were annealed, CP films with different morphologies, and hence different degrees of interchain interactions were achieved. Contrary to the common perception that polymer morphology plays a decisive role in determining the ASE behavior of thin CP films, we found that chromophore aggregation and degree of conformational order have minimal impact on optical gain. In fact, experimental results indicated that an extremely large fraction of interchain aggregate species and/or exciton dissociating defects are required to significantly alter the optical properties and suppress stimulated emission. These results are pertinent to the fabrication and optimization of an electrically pumped laser device, as improvements in charge carrier mobility through controlled increases in chain aggregation may provide a viable means of optimizing injection efficiency without significantly degrading optical gain. To offset charge-induced absorption losses under electrical pumping, and to enable the use of more compact and economical sources under optical pumping, conjugated polymers exhibiting low lasing

  5. Mass spectrometric evaluation of mephedrone in vivo human metabolism: identification of phase I and phase II metabolites, including a novel succinyl conjugate. (United States)

    Pozo, Óscar J; Ibáñez, María; Sancho, Juan V; Lahoz-Beneytez, Julio; Farré, Magí; Papaseit, Esther; de la Torre, Rafael; Hernández, Félix


    In recent years, many new designer drugs have emerged, including the group of cathinone derivatives. One frequently occurring drug is mephedrone; although mephedrone was originally considered as a "legal high" product, it is currently banned in most Western countries. Despite the banning, abuse of the drug and seizures are continuously reported. Although the metabolism of mephedrone has been studied in rats or in vitro using human liver microsomes, to the best of our knowledge, no dedicated study with human volunteers has been performed for studying the in vivo metabolism of mephedrone in humans. Therefore, the aim of this study was to establish the actual human metabolism of mephedrone and to compare it with other models. For this purpose, urine samples of two healthy volunteers, who ingested 200 mg mephedrone orally, were taken before administration and 4 hours after substance intake. The discovery and identification of the phase I and phase II metabolites of mephedrone were based on ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, operating in the so-called MS(E) mode. Six phase I metabolites and four phase II metabolites were identified, four of them not previously reported in the literature. The structure of four of the detected metabolites was confirmed by synthesis of the suggested compounds. Remarkably, a mephedrone metabolite conjugated with succinic acid has been identified and confirmed by synthesis. According to the reviewed literature, this is the first time that this type of conjugate is reported for human metabolism.

  6. Optical electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Yariv, Amnon


    This classic text introduces engineering students to the first principles of major phenomena and devices of optoelectronics and optical communication technology. Yariv's "first principles" approach employs real-life examples and extensive problems. The text includes separate chapters on quantum well and semiconductor lasers, as well as phase conjugation and its applications. Optical fiber amplification, signal and noise considerations in optical fiber systems, laser arrays and distributed feedback lasers all are covered extensively in major sections within chapters.

  7. Significant geomagnetic differences in both phase and amplitude observed at "conjugate" polar latitudes near the December 1903 Solstice (United States)

    Egeland, Alv; Deehr, Charles


    During Roald Amundsen's exploration of the Northwest Passage (1903-1906) he conducted systematic measurements of diurnal and seasonal variations of the north magnetic dip pole (NMDP) at Gjøahavn (~ 68 N, 95 E). The NMDP variations have been largely interpreted as indicating control by the polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF); the Svalgard-Mansurov (S-M) effect. In Sir Robert Scott's Discovery expedition, geomagnetic observations were made in 1903 from Cape Armitage, Antarctica (~78 S, 168 E). Unwittingly, the measurements of Amundsen and Scott were acquired near conjugate ends of the same magnetic field lines. While their separation in solar local time is ~ 5 hours, they differ in magnetic local time less than 1/2 hour. However, up to this time no direct comparison of the two sets of magnetic observations has ever been made. This presentation contains an analysis of magnetic perturbations observed at both locations for comparison with contemporary and present day monthly-averaged diurnal variations, even if the overlap in data among these expeditions is somewhat limited. The near magnetic conjugacy of Gjøahavn- Cape Armitage locations makes these measurements valuable. Our analysis shows: (1) While similar variations appeared at both ends of the joining magnetic field they manifest significant differences in both phase and amplitude, (2) present day NMDP variations appear consistent with the S-M effect analyses when compared with satellite measurements of solar wind/IMF measurements, (3) differences at the "conjugate" locations cannot be explained in terms of the S-M effect alone. The roles of lobe cell and ionospheric conductance at polar magnetically "conjugate" locations are used to explain the observed phase and amplitude differences.

  8. Interferometric adaptive optics for high power laser pointing, wave-front control and phasing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, K L; Stappaerts, E A; Homoelle, D C; Henesian, M A; Bliss, E S; Siders, C W; Barty, C J


    Implementing the capability to perform fast ignition experiments, as well as, radiography experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) places stringent requirements on the control of each of the beam's pointing and overall wavefront quality. One quad of the NIF beams, 4 beam pairs, will be utilized for these experiments and hydrodynamic and particle-in-cell simulations indicate that for the fast ignition experiments, these beams will be required to deliver 50% (4.0 kJ) of their total energy (7.96 kJ) within a 40 {micro}m diameter spot at the end of a fast ignition cone target. This requirement implies a stringent pointing and overall phase conjugation error budget on the adaptive optics system used to correct these beam lines. The overall encircled energy requirement is more readily met by phasing of the beams in pairs but still requires high Strehl ratios, Sr, and rms tip/tilt errors of approximately one {micro}rad. To accomplish this task we have designed an interferometric adaptive optics system capable of beam pointing, high Strehl ratio and beam phasing with a single pixilated MEMS deformable mirror and interferometric wave-front sensor. We present the design of a testbed used to evaluate the performance of this wave-front sensor below along with simulations of its expected performance level.

  9. Optical image encryption using Kronecker product and hybrid phase masks (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta


    In this paper, we propose a new technique for security enhancement in optical image encryption system. In this technique we have used the Kronecker product of two random matrices along with the double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme in the Fresnel domain for optical image encryption. The phase masks used here are different than the random masks used in conventional DRPE scheme. These hybrid phase masks are generated by using the combination of random phase masks and a secondary image. For encryption, the input image is first randomized and then the DRPE in the Fresnel domain is performed using the hybrid phase masks. Secondly, the Kronecker product of two random matrices is multiplied with the DRPE output to get the final encoded image for transmission. The proposed technique consists of more unknown keys for enhanced security and robust against various attacks. The simulation results along with effects under various attacks are presented in support of the proposed technique.

  10. Image edge-enhancement in optical microscopy with a phase mismatched spiral phase plate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shibiao Wei; Jing Bu; Siwei Zhu; Xiaocong Yuan


    @@ We present a spiral phase filtering system with a large tolerance for edge enhancement of both phase and amplitude objects in optical microscopy.The method is based on a Fourier 4-f spatial filtering system.A phase mismatched spiral phase plate (SPP) fabricated by electron beam lithography is employed as the radial Hilbert transform for image edge enhancement.Compared with holography, SPP is simple,economical, reliable, and easy to integrate.%We present a spiral phase filtering system with a large tolerance for edge enhancement of both phase and amplitude objects in optical microscopy. The method is based on a Fourier 4-f spatial filtering system.A phase mismatched spiral phase plate (SPP) fabricated by electron beam lithography is employed as the radial Hilbert transform for image edge enhancement. Compared with holography, SPP is simple,economical, reliable, and easy to integrate.

  11. Incorporation of a platinum center in the pi-conjugated core of push-pull chromophores for nonlinear optics (NLO). (United States)

    Durand, Raphaël J; Gauthier, Sébastien; Achelle, Sylvain; Kahlal, Samia; Saillard, Jean-Yves; Barsella, Alberto; Wojcik, Laurianne; Le Poul, Nicolas; Robin-Le Guen, Françoise


    In this article, we describe the synthesis, redox characteristics, and linear and nonlinear optical (NLO) properties of seven new unsymmetrical push-pull diacetylide platinum-based complexes. These D-π-Pt-π-A complexes incorporate pyranylidene ligands as pro-aromatic donor groups (D), diazine rings as electron-withdrawing groups (A), and various aromatic fragments (styryl or thienylvinyl) as π-linkers separating the platinum diacetylide unit from the donor and the acceptor groups. This is one of the first examples of push-pull chromophores incorporating a platinum center in the π-conjugated core. The NLO properties of these complexes were compared with those of their purely organic analogues. All compounds (organic and organometallic) exhibited positive μβ values, which dramatically increased upon methylation of the pyrimidine fragment. However, this increase was even more significant in the complexes due to the presence of platinum in the π-conjugated core. The effects of the linker on the redox and spectroscopic properties of the complexes are also discussed. In addition, DFT calculations were performed in order to gain further insight into the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) occurring through the platinum center.

  12. Real-time optical signal processors employing optical feedback: amplitude and phase control. (United States)

    Gallagher, N C


    The development of real-time coherent optical signal processors has increased the appeal of optical computing techniques in signal processing applications. A major limitation of these real-time systems is the. fact that the optical processing material is generally of a phase-only type. The result is that the spatial filters synthesized with these systems must be either phase-only filters or amplitude-only filters. The main concern of this paper is the application of optical feedback techniques to obtain simultaneous and independent amplitude and phase control of the light passing through the system. It is shown that optical feedback techniques may be employed with phase-only spatial filters to obtain this amplitude and phase control. The feedback system with phase-only filters is compared with other feedback systems that employ combinations of phase-only and amplitude-only filters; it is found that the phase-only system is substantially more flexible than the other two systems investigated.

  13. Revisiting conjugate schedules. (United States)

    MacAleese, Kenneth R; Ghezzi, Patrick M; Rapp, John T


    The effects of conjugate reinforcement on the responding of 13 college students were examined in three experiments. Conjugate reinforcement was provided via key presses that changed the clarity of pictures displayed on a computer monitor in a manner proportional to the rate of responding. Experiment 1, which included seven parameters of clarity change per response, revealed that responding decreased as the percentage clarity per response increased for all five participants. These results indicate that each participant's responding was sensitive to intensity change, which is a parameter of conjugate reinforcement schedules. Experiment 2 showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement phases and decreased during extinction phases for all four participants. Experiment 3 also showed that responding increased during conjugate reinforcement and further showed that responding decreased during a conjugate negative punishment condition for another four participants. Directions for future research with conjugate schedules are briefly discussed.

  14. Optical vortex metrology: Are phase singularities foes or friends in optical metrology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeda, M.; Wang, W.; Hanson, Steen Grüner;


    We raise an issue whether phase singularities are foes or friends in optical metrology, and give an answer by introducing the principle and applications of a new technique which we recently proposed for displacement and flow measurements. The technique is called optical vortex metrology because...

  15. Phase noise reduction of a semiconductor laser in a composite optical phase-locked loop (United States)

    Satyan, Naresh; Sendowski, Jacob; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; Yariv, Amnon


    The bandwidth and residual phase noise of optical phase-locked loops (OPLLs) using semiconductor lasers are typically constrained by the nonuniform frequency modulation response of the laser, limiting their usefulness in a number of applications. It is shown in this work that additional feedback control using an optical phase modulator improves the coherence between the master and slave lasers in the OPLL by achieving bandwidths determined only by the propagation delay in the loop. A phase noise reduction by more than a factor of two is demonstrated in a proof-of-concept experiment using a commercial distributed feedback semiconductor laser.

  16. Diffractive generalized phase contrast for adaptive phase imaging and optical security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper


    We analyze the properties of Generalized Phase Contrast (GPC) when the input phase modulation is implemented using diffractive gratings. In GPC applications for patterned illumination, the use of a dynamic diffractive optical element for encoding the GPC input phase allows for onthe- fly...... optimization of the input aperture parameters according to desired output characteristics. For wavefront sensing, the achieved aperture control opens a new degree of freedom for improving the accuracy of quantitative phase imaging. Diffractive GPC input modulation also fits well with grating-based optical...

  17. Retrodirective tracking of a moving target using phase conjugate light generated in a Fabry-Pérot Nd:YAG laser (United States)

    Kawakami, K.; Komurasaki, K.; Okamura, H.


    This report describes the retrodirective tracking of a target moving at a constant speed using a Fabry-Pérot laser resonator-type self-starting phase conjugator. Three-dimensional pointing ability was confirmed with this system: the generated phase conjugate light can focus at a target position. To track the moving targets, target-reflected light is Doppler-shifted, which causes wash-out of the gain grating. To address this problem, numerical analysis and experiments showed that shortening the pulse width is an efficient means of eliminating the gain grating wash-out effect. For the measured target speeds of 0-80 mm/s, the phase conjugate light output is unaffected when the pulse width of 18 ns was used, in contrast to the case of 400 μs pulse width, where the phase conjugate light output rapidly decreased as the target speed approached 10 mm/s. Numerical simulation revealed that phase conjugate light can even be generated for fast-moving targets such as space debris in low-earth-orbit with pulses of several tens of picoseconds. Unlike conventional mechanical gimbal steering methods, this system is applicable for wireless energy transfer to rapidly moving objects.

  18. Experimental phase-space-based optical amplification of scar modes

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Claire; Doya, Valerie; Aschieri, Pierre; Blanc, Wilfried; Legrand, Olivier; Mortessagne, Fabrice


    Waves billiard which are chaotic in the geometrical limit are known to support non-generic spatially localized modes called scar modes. The interaction of the scar modes with gain has been recently investigated in optics in micro-cavity lasers and vertically-cavity surface-emitting lasers. Exploiting the localization properties of scar modes in their wave analogous phase space representation, we report experimental results of scar modes selection by gain in a doped D-shaped optical fiber.

  19. Extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation and the effect of conjugate fields in optical resonator frequency combs

    CERN Document Server

    Loures, Cristian Redondo; Biancalana, Fabio


    Starting from the infinite-dimensional Ikeda map, we derive an extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation that may account for the effects of the conjugate electromagnetic fields (also called `negative frequency fields'). In the presence of nonlinearity in a ring cavity, these fields lead to new forms of modulational instability and resonant radiations. Numerical simulations based on the new extended Lugiato-Lefever model show that the negative-frequency resonant radiations emitted by ultrashort cavity solitons can impact Kerr frequency comb formation in externally pumped temporal optical cavities of small size. Our theory is very general, is not based on the slowly-varying envelope approximation, and the predictions are relevant to all kinds of resonators, such as fiber loops, microrings and microtoroids.

  20. Study of π-conjugation effect of organic semiconductors on their optical parameters (United States)

    Ahmad, Zubair; Zafar, Qayyum; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.


    Metal free organic semiconductor "7,16-bis(3,3-dimethyl-3H-indol-2-yl)-5,14-dihydrodibenzo [b,i][1,4,8,11] tetraazacyclotetradecine" and metal free with extended π-conjugation organic semiconductor "8,19-bis(3,3-dimethyl-3H-indol-2-yl)-6,17-dihydrodinaphthol [2,3-b:2‧,3‧-i][1,4,8,11] tetraazacyclotetradecine have been synthesized and the effect of conjugation on their photovoltaic parameters have been investigated. The photo-physical study reveals band gaps of 2.61 eV for metal free and 2.16 eV for extended material. The HOMO/LUMO levels of the materials are calculated using cyclic voltammetry (CV) study. The open circuit voltages of metal free and extended materials in single layer photovoltaic cells are observed to be 0.72 and 0.73 under simulated solar light illumination (air mass 1.5 G, 100 mW/cm2), respectively. The short circuit current in the extended materials is found to be more than ∼1.5 times higher the metal free material.

  1. Synthesis of a new π-conjugated redox oligomer: Electrochemical and optical investigation (United States)

    Blili, Saber; Zaâboub, Zouhour; Maaref, Hassen; Haj Said, Ayoub


    A new π-conjugated redox oligomer was prepared according a two-Step Synthesis. Firstly, an oligophenylene (OMPA) was obtained from the anodic oxidation of the (4-methoxyphenyl)acetonitrile. Then, the resulting material was chemically modified by the Knoevenagel condensation with the ferrocenecarboxaldehyde. This reaction led to a redox-conjugated oligomer the Fc-OMPA. The synthesized material was characterized using different spectroscopic techniques: NMR, FTIR, UV-vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The Fc-OMPA was used to modify a platinum electrode surface and the electrochemical response of the ferrocene redox-center was investigated by cyclic voltammetry. Moreover, the room temperature PL spectra of Fc-OMPA revealed that the ferrocene moiety, which acts as an electron donor, can effectively quench the oligomer luminescence. However, when ferrocene was oxidized to ferrocenium ion, the intramolecular charge transfer process was prevented which consequently enhanced the light emission. Thus, the oligomer light-emission can be, chemically or electrochemically tuned. The obtained results showed that the prepared material is a good candidate for the elaboration of electrochemical sensors and for the development of luminescent Redox-switchable devices.

  2. Extra phase noise from thermal fluctuations in nonlinear optical crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    César, J. E. S.; Coelho, A.S.; Cassemiro, K.N.


    We show theoretically and experimentally that scattered light by thermal phonons inside a second-order nonlinear crystal is the source of additional phase noise observed in optical parametric oscillators. This additional phase noise reduces the quantum correlations and has hitherto hindered the d...... the direct production of multipartite entanglement in a single nonlinear optical system. We cooled the nonlinear crystal and observed a reduction in the extra noise. Our treatment of this noise can be successfully applied to different systems in the literature....

  3. Axial Phase-Darkfield-Contrast (APDC), a new technique for variable optical contrasting in light microscopy. (United States)

    Piper, T; Piper, J


    Axial phase-darkfield-contrast (APDC) has been developed as an illumination technique in light microscopy which promises significant improvements and a higher variability in imaging of several transparent 'problem specimens'. With this method, a phase contrast image is optically superimposed on an axial darkfield image so that a partial image based on the principal zeroth order maximum (phase contrast) interferes with an image, which is based on the secondary maxima (axial darkfield). The background brightness and character of the resulting image can be continuously modulated from a phase contrast-dominated to a darkfield-dominated character. In order to achieve this illumination mode, normal objectives for phase contrast have to be fitted with an additional central light stopper needed for axial (central) darkfield illumination. In corresponding condenser light masks, a small perforation has to be added in the centre of the phase contrast providing light annulus. These light modulating elements are properly aligned when the central perforation is congruent with the objective's light stop and the light annulus is conjugate with the phase ring. The breadth of the condenser light annulus and thus the intensity of the phase contrast partial image can be regulated with the aperture diaphragm. Additional contrast effects can be achieved when both illuminating light components are filtered at different colours. In this technique, the axial resolution (depth of field) is significantly enhanced and the specimen's three-dimensional appearance is accentuated with improved clarity as well as fine details at the given resolution limit. Typical artefacts associated with phase contrast and darkfield illumination are reduced in our methods.

  4. Optical characterization of multilayer stacks used as phase-change media of optical disk data storage. (United States)

    Liang, Rongguang; Peng, Chubing; Nagata, Kenichi; Daly-Flynn, Kelly; Mansuripur, Masud


    We report results of measurements of the optical constants of the dielectric layer (ZnS-SiO2), reflecting layer (aluminum-chromium alloy), and phase-change layer (GeSbTe, AgInSbTe) used as the media of phase-change optical recording. The refractive index n and the absorption coefficient k of these materials vary to some extent with the film thickness and with the film deposition environment. We report the observed variations of optical constants among samples of differing structure and among samples fabricated in different laboratories.

  5. All-optical phase modulation for integrated interferometric biosensors. (United States)

    Dante, Stefania; Duval, Daphné; Sepúlveda, Borja; González-Guerrero, Ana Belen; Sendra, José Ramón; Lechuga, Laura M


    We present the theoretical and the experimental implementation of an all-optical phase modulation system in integrated Mach-Zehnder Interferometers to solve the drawbacks related to the periodic nature of the interferometric signal. Sensor phase is tuned by modulating the emission wavelength of low-cost commercial laser diodes by changing their output power. FFT deconvolution of the signal allows for direct phase readout, immune to sensitivity variations and to light intensity fluctuations. This simple phase modulation scheme increases the signal-to-noise ratio of the measurements in one order of magnitude, rendering in a sensor with a detection limit of 1.9·10⁻⁷ RIU. The viability of the all-optical modulation approach is demonstrated with an immunoassay detection as a biosensing proof of concept.

  6. Interactive cell segmentation based on phase contrast optics. (United States)

    Su, Hang; Su, Zhou; Zheng, Shibao; Yang, Hua; Wei, Sha


    Cell segmentation in phase contrast microscopy images lays a crucial foundation for numerous subsequent computer-aided cell image analysis, but it encounters many unsolved challenges due to image qualities and artifacts caused by phase contrast optics. Addressing the unsolved challenges, the authors propose an interactive cell segmentation scheme over phase retardation features. After partitioning the images into phase homogeneous atoms, human annotations are propagated to unlabeled atoms over an affinity graph that is learned based on discrimination analysis. Then, an active query strategy is proposed for which the most informative unlabeled atom is selected for annotation, which is also propagated to the other unlabeled atoms. Cell segmentation converges to quality results after several rounds of interactions involving both the user's intentions and characteristics of image features. Experimental results demonstrate that cells with different optical properties are well segmented via the proposed approach.

  7. Metabolic profile of mephedrone: Identification of nor-mephedrone conjugates with dicarboxylic acids as a new type of xenobiotic phase II metabolites. (United States)

    Linhart, Igor; Himl, Michal; Židková, Monika; Balíková, Marie; Lhotková, Eva; Páleníček, Tomáš


    Metabolic profile of mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, 4-MMC), a frequently abused recreational drug, was determined in rats in vivo. The urine of rats dosed with a subcutaneous bolus dose of 20mg 4-MMC/kg was analysed by LC/MS. Ten phase I and five phase II metabolites were identified by comparison of their retention times and MS(2) spectra with those of authentic reference standards and/or with the MS(2) spectra of previously identified metabolites. The main metabolic pathway was N-demethylation leading to normephedrone (4-methylcathinone, 4-MC) which was further conjugated with succinic, glutaric and adipic acid. Other phase I metabolic pathways included oxidation of the 4-methyl group, carbonyl reduction leading to dihydro-metabolites and ω-oxidation at the position 3'. Five of the metabolites detected, namely, 4-carboxynormephedrone (4-carboxycathinone, 4-CC), 4-carboxydihydronormephedrone (4-carboxynorephedrine, 4-CNE), hydroxytolyldihydro-normephedrone (4-hydroxymethylnorephedrine, 4-OH-MNE) and conjugates of 4-MC with glutaric and adipic acid, have not been reported as yet. The last two conjugates represent a novel, hitherto unexploited, type of phase II metabolites in mammals together with an analogous succinic acid conjugate of 4-MC identified by Pozo et al. (2015). These conjugates might be potentially of great importance in the metabolism of other psychoactive amines.

  8. Quantum phases of Fermi-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices


    Iskin, M.; de Melo, C. A. R. Sa


    The ground state phase diagram of Fermi-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices is analyzed as a function of interaction strength, population imbalance, filling fraction and tunneling parameters. It is shown that population imbalanced Fermi-Fermi mixtures reduce to strongly interacting Bose-Fermi mixtures in the molecular limit, in sharp contrast to homogeneous or harmonically trapped systems where the resulting Bose-Fermi mixture is weakly interacting. Furthermore, insulating phases are found in ...

  9. Linear ray and wave optics in phase space bridging ray and wave optics via the Wigner phase-space picture

    CERN Document Server

    Torre, Amalia


    Ray, wave and quantum concepts are central to diverse and seemingly incompatible models of light. Each model particularizes a specific ''manifestation'' of light, and then corresponds to adequate physical assumptions and formal approximations, whose domains of applicability are well-established. Accordingly each model comprises its own set of geometric and dynamic postulates with the pertinent mathematical means.At a basic level, the book is a complete introduction to the Wigner optics, which bridges between ray and wave optics, offering the optical phase space as the ambience and the Wigner f

  10. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity (United States)

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…

  11. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity (United States)

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…

  12. Optical phase curves of exoplanets at small and large phase angles (United States)

    García Muñoz, Antonio


    Phase curves and secondary eclipses provide key information on exoplanet atmospheres. Indeed, recent work on close-in giant planets observed by Kepler has shown that it is possible to constrain various reflecting, dynamical and thermal properties of their atmospheres from the analysis of the planets' phase curves. This presentation discusses new diagnostic possibilities for the characterization of exoplanet atmospheres with optical phase curves. These possibilities benefit from the fact that at optical wavelengths the signal from the planet is either partly or mostly determined by scattering of starlight within its atmosphere, which entails that the structure of the planet's phase curve mimics to some extent the optical properties of the atmospheric medium. In particular, we will show how cloud properties such as the particle size or the atmospheric scale height might be constrained through observations at small (i.e. near transit) and large (i.e. near occultation) phase angles. We will emphasize how the interpretation of optical phase curves differs from the interpretation of phase curves obtained at longer wavelengths. The conclusions are relevant to the study of Kepler planets, but also to the investigation of phase curves to be delivered by upcoming space missions such as CHEOPS, JWST, PLATO and TESS.

  13. Self-organization, optical, and electrical properties of alpha-quinquethiophene-dinucleotide conjugates. (United States)

    Alesi, Silvia; Brancolini, Giorgia; Viola, Ilenia; Capobianco, Massimo Luigi; Venturini, Alessandro; Camaioni, Nadia; Gigli, Giuseppe; Melucci, Manuela; Barbarella, Giovanna


    The synthesis and properties of (5')TA(3')-t5 (8a) and (5')CG(3')-t5 (8b) conjugates, in which the self-complementary dinucleotides TA and CG are covalently bound to the central ring of alpha-quinquethiophene (t5), are described. According to molecular mechanics calculations, the preferred conformation of both 8a and 8b is that with the dinucleotide folded over the planar t5 backbone, with the nucleobases facing t5 at stacking distance. The calculations show that the aggregation process of 8a and 8b is driven by a mix of nucleobase-thiophene interactions, hydrogen bonding between nucleobases (non Watson-Crick (W&C) in TA, and W&C in CG), van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions. While 8b is scarcely soluble in any solvents, 8a is soluble in water, indicating that the aggregates of the former are more stable than those of the latter. Microfluidic-induced self-assembly studies of 8a showed the formation of lamellar, spherulitic, and dendritic supramolecular structures, depending on the concentration and solvent evaporation time. The self-assembled structures displayed micrometer dimensions in the xy plane of the substrate and nanometer dimensions in the z direction. Spatially resolved confocal microscopy and spectroscopy showed that the aggregates were characterized by intense fluorescence emission. Cast films of 8a from water solutions showed chirality transfer from the dinucleotide to t5. The hole mobility of the cast films of 8a was estimated using a two-electrode device under high vacuum and found to be up to two orders of magnitude greater than those previously measured for dinucleotide-quarterthiophene conjugates under the same experimental conditions.

  14. Safety and preliminary immunogenicity of Cuban pneumococcal conjugate vaccine candidate in healthy children: a randomized phase I clinical trial. (United States)

    Dotres, Carlos P; Puga, Rinaldo; Ricardo, Yariset; Broño, Carmen R; Paredes, Beatriz; Echemendía, Vladimir; Rosell, Sandra; González, Nadezhda; García-Rivera, Dagmar; Valdés, Yury; Goldblatt, David; Vérez-Bencomo, Vicente


    A new heptavalent conjugate vaccine (PCV7-TT) is under development in Cuba. PCV7-TT contains 2 μg of serotypes 1, 5, 14, 18C, 19F, 23F and 4 μg of 6B, each one conjugated to tetanus toxoid (TT). This vaccine was designed with the serotypes that cause most invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) worldwide. In the present study, we investigated the safety and explored the immunogenicity of PCV7-TT during a controlled, randomized and double blind clinical trial phase I in 4-5-year-old children. PCV7-TT was well tolerated and as safe as Synflorix used as control vaccine. Following a single-dose vaccination, all individual serotypes included in PCV7-TT induced statistically significant increase of IgG GMC and OPA GMT. These are the first clinical results of PCV7-TT in children and they pave the way toward next clinical trials in children and infants. This clinical trial was published in the Cuban Public Register of Clinical Trials with code RPCEC00000173.

  15. Analysis of the optical parameters of phase holographic gratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є.О. Тихонов


    Full Text Available  Suitability of 2- wave approximation of the coupled waves theory tor description of holographic phase gratings recorded on photopolymer compound ФПК-488 is proved. Using the basic formulas of the theory, main grating optical parameters - a depth of modulation and finished thickness are not measured immediately are determined.

  16. Quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional optical lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Liberto, M.F.


    In this thesis, we discuss quantum phase transitions in low-dimensional optical lattices, namely one- and two-dimensional lattices. The dimensional confinement is realized in experiments by suppressing the hopping in the extra dimensions through a deep potential barrier that prevents the atoms to tu

  17. Optically controlled phased-array antenna with PSK communications (United States)

    Cooper, Martin J.; Sample, Peter; Lewis, Meirion F.; Wilson, Rebecca A.


    An optically controlled RF/microwave/mm-wave phased array antenna has been developed operating at 10 GHz with 30 kHz reconfiguration rate via the use of a micromachined silicon Spatial Light Modulator. A communications function has been demonstrated with a variety of Phase Shift Keying modulation schemes (BPSK, QPSK, MSK) at data rates up to 200 Mbit/s and low BER (<1×10-9). A single channel has been demonstrated at 35 GHz. The properties of photonic components are taken advantage of in several ways: (i) since the carrier frequency is derived from heterodyning of lasers, it is tuneable from almost DC-100 GHz, (ii) the use of optical fiber allows for EMI immune antenna remoting, and (iii) the wide information bandwidth of optical modulators, which in this configuration is carrier frequency independent. The above is achieved in a lightweight and compact format, with considerable scope for further reductions in size and weight.

  18. Ultra-low noise optical phase-locked loop (United States)

    Ayotte, Simon; Babin, André; Costin, François


    The relative phase between two fiber lasers is controlled via a high performance optical phase-locked loop (OPLL). Two parameters are of particular importance for the design: the intrinsic phase noise of the laser (i.e. its linewidth) and a high-gain, low-noise electronic locking loop. In this work, one of the lowest phase noise fiber lasers commercially available was selected (i.e. NP Photonics Rock fiber laser module), with sub-kHz linewidth at 1550.12 nm. However, the fast tuning mechanism of such lasers is through stretching its cavity length with a piezoelectric transducer which has a few 10s kHz bandwidth. To further increase the locking loop bandwidth to several MHz, a second tuning mechanism is used by adding a Lithium Niobate phase modulator in the laser signal path. The OPLL is thus divided into two locking loops, a slow loop acting on the laser piezoelectric transducer and a fast loop acting on the phase modulator. The beat signal between the two phase-locked lasers yields a highly pure sine wave with an integrated phase error of 0.0012 rad. This is orders of magnitude lower than similar existing systems such as the Laser Synthesizer used for distribution of photonic local oscillator (LO) for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array radio telescope in Chile. Other applications for ultra-low noise OPLL include coherent power combining, Brillouin sensing, light detection and ranging (LIDAR), fiber optic gyroscopes, phased array antenna and beam steering, generation of LOs for next generation coherent communication systems, coherent analog optical links, terahertz generation and coherent spectroscopy.

  19. Optical refraction in silver: counterposition, negative phase velocity and orthogonal phase velocity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, Qaisar A [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mackay, Tom G [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [NanoMM-Nanoengineered Metamaterials Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable changes in the Abraham and Minkowski momentum densities. In particular, orthogonal phase velocity is associated with nonzero Abraham and Minkowski momentum densities.

  20. Cylindrical PVF2 film based fiber optic phase modulator - Phase shift nonlinearity and frequency response (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.


    A new cylindrical coil configuration for polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film based fiber optic phase modulator is studied for the frequency response and nonlinearity of phase shift at the resonance frequency. This configuration, hitherto unapproached for PVF2 film modulators, offers resonance at well defined, controllable and higher frequencies than possible for the flat-strip configuration. Two versions of this configuration are presented that differ strongly in both the resonance frequency and the phase shift nonlinearity coefficient.

  1. Investigation on the Optical and Surface Morphology of Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV:ZnO Nanocomposite Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Zayana Yahya


    Full Text Available Thin films of red color poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy-phenylene vinylene (MEH-PPV containing different weight percent of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by spin-coating techniques. The MEH-PPV:ZnO solutions were spin coated onto silicon and glass substrates. The spun MEH-PPV:ZnO thin films were then used to investigate optical properties by using ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL. The morphologies were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, while the identification of ZnO in the final product was determined by using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS. The UV-Vis absorption band increases, while the optical bandgap decreases when the amount of ZnO nanoparticles increases. ZnO nanoparticles apparently have no effect on the conjugation segments of MEH-PPV. PL spectra show that the emission peak increases and slightly red shift as ZnO concentration increases. Based on SEM images of MEH-PPV:ZnO nanocomposite thin films, ZnO nanoparticles form agglomerated regions.

  2. A sensitivity function-based conjugate gradient method for optical tomography with the frequency-domain equation of radiative transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Keol [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada); Charette, Andre [Departement des Sciences Appliquees, Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, Chicoutimi, Que., G7H 2B1 (Canada)]. E-mail:


    The Sensitivity Function-based Conjugate Gradient Method (SFCGM) is described. This method is used to solve the inverse problems of function estimation, such as the local maps of absorption and scattering coefficients, as applied to optical tomography for biomedical imaging. A highly scattering, absorbing, non-reflecting, non-emitting medium is considered here and simultaneous reconstructions of absorption and scattering coefficients inside the test medium are achieved with the proposed optimization technique, by using the exit intensity measured at boundary surfaces. The forward problem is solved with a discrete-ordinates finite-difference method on the framework of the frequency-domain full equation of radiative transfer. The modulation frequency is set to 600 MHz and the frequency data, obtained with the source modulation, is used as the input data. The inversion results demonstrate that the SFCGM can retrieve simultaneously the spatial distributions of optical properties inside the medium within a reasonable accuracy, by significantly reducing a cross-talk between inter-parameters. It is also observed that the closer-to-detector objects are better retrieved.

  3. Coherent Detection of Optical Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying Signals With Carrier Phase Estimation (United States)

    Ly-Gagnon, Dany-Sebastien; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro


    This paper describes a coherent optical receiver for demodulating optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. At the receiver, a phase-diversity homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). To handle the carrier phase drift, the carrier phase is estimated with digital signal processing (DSP) on the homodyne-detected signal. Such a scheme presents the following major advantages over the conventional optical differential detection. First, its bit error rate (BER) performance is better than that of differential detection. This higher sensitivity can extend the reach of unrepeated transmission systems and reduce crosstalk between multiwavelength channels. Second, the optoelectronic conversion process is linear, so that the whole optical signal information can be postprocessed in the electrical domain. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-array PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The performance of the receiver is evaluated through various simulations and experiments. As a result, an unrepeated transmission over 210 km with a 20-Gb/s optical QPSK signal is achieved. Moreover, in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment, coherent detection allows the filtering of a desired wavelength channel to reside entirely in the electrical domain, taking advantage of the sharp cutoff characteristics of electrical filters. The experiments show the feasibility to transmit polarization-multiplexed 40-Gb/s QPSK signals over 200 km with channel spacing of 16 GHz, leading to a spectral efficiency as high as 2.5 b/s/Hz.

  4. Improving the privacy of optical steganography with temporal phase masks. (United States)

    Wang, Z; Fok, M P; Xu, L; Chang, J; Prucnal, P R


    Temporal phase modulation of spread stealth signals is proposed and demonstrated to improve optical steganography transmission privacy. After phase modulation, the temporally spread stealth signal has a more complex spectral-phase-temporal relationship, such that the original temporal profile cannot be restored when only dispersion compensation is applied to the temporally spread stealth signals. Therefore, it increases the difficulty for the eavesdropper to detect and intercept the stealth channel that is hidden under a public transmission, even with a correct dispersion compensation device. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach and display insignificant degradation in transmission performance, compared to the conventional stealth transmission without temporal phase modulation. The proposed system can also work without a clock transmission for signal synchronization. Our analysis and simulation results show that it is difficult for the adversary to detect the existence of the stealth transmission, or find the correct phase mask to recover the stealth signals.

  5. 4F-based optical phase imaging system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    The invention relates to 4F-based optical phase imaging system and in particular to reconstructing quantitative phase information of an object when using such systems. The invention applies a two-dimensional, complex spatial light modulator (SLM) to impress a complex spatial synthesized modulation...... in addition to the complex spatial modulation impressed by the object. This SLM is arranged so that the synthesized modulation is superimposed with the object modulation and is thus placed at an input plane to the phase imaging system. By evaluating output images from the phase imaging system, the synthesized...... modulation is selected to optimize parameters in the output image which improves the reconstruction of qualitative and quantitative object phase information from the resulting output images....

  6. Generation of Optical Vortices by Linear Phase Ramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Vyas


    Full Text Available Generation of optical vortices using linear phase ramps is experimentally demonstrated. When two regions of a wavefront have opposite phase gradients then along the line of phase discontinuity vortices can be generated. It is shown that vortices can evolve during propagation even with the unequal magnitude of tilt in the two regions of the wavefront. The number of vortices and their location depend upon the magnitude of tilt. vortex generation is experimentally realized by encoding phase mask on spatial light modulator and their presence is detected interferometrically. Numerical simulation has been performed to calculate the diffracted intensity distribution from the phase mask, and presence of vortices in the diffracted field is detected by computational techniques.

  7. Synthesis, growth and characterization of π conjugated organic nonlinear optical chalcone derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabhu, A.N., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Upadhyaya, V. [Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India); Jayarama, A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Mangalore Institute of Technology and Engineering (MITE), Moodabidri 574225 (India); Subrahmanya Bhat, K. [Department of Chemistry, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104 (India)


    A new potentially useful nonlinear optical organic material, 1-(5-chlorothiophen-2-yl)-3-(2,3-dimethoxyphenyl)prop-2-en-1-one, has been synthesized and grown as a high-quality single crystal by the slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, thermal analysis, and UV–visible spectroscopy. The material is thermally stabile up to 111 °C. The mechanical property of the grown crystals was studied using Vickers microhardness tester and the load dependence hardness was observed. The third order nonlinear optical properties of the material such as real and imaginary part of χ{sup (3)}, nonlinear absorption coefficient and nonlinear refractive index were determined using nanosecond laser pulses at 532 nm wavelength by employing Z-scan technique. The nonlinear refractive index is found to be of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1}. The magnitude of third order susceptibility is of the order of 10{sup −13} esu. The observed increase in the third order nonlinearity in these molecules clearly indicates the electronic origin. The compounds exhibit good optical limiting at 532 nm. The best optical limiting behavior of this molecule is due to the substituted strong electron donor. - Highlights: ► A novel thiophene substituted NLO crystal has been grown using methanol as solvent. ► The crystals were characterized by using FTIR, TGA/DTA and UV–visible spectroscopy. ► The n{sub 2} and χ{sup (3)} values is of the order of 10{sup −11} cm{sup 2} W{sup −1} and 10{sup −13} esu respectively. ► The crystals show better optical limiting behavior.

  8. Nonlinear Phase Distortion in a Ti:Sapphire Optical Amplifier for Optical Stochastic Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andorf, Matthew [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, Valeri [Fermilab; Piot, Philippe [NICADD, DeKalb; Ruan, Jinhao [Fermilab


    Optical Stochastic Cooling (OSC) has been considered for future high-luminosity colliders as it offers much faster cooling time in comparison to the micro-wave stochastic cooling. The OSC technique relies on collecting and amplifying a broadband optical signal from a pickup undulator and feeding the amplified signal back to the beam. It creates a corrective kick in a kicker undulator. Owing to its superb gain qualities and broadband amplification features, Titanium:Sapphire medium has been considered as a gain medium for the optical amplifier (OA) needed in the OSC*. A limiting factor for any OA used in OSC is the possibility of nonlinear phase distortions. In this paper we experimentally measure phase distortions by inserting a single-pass OA into one leg of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The measurement results are used to estimate the reduction of the corrective kick a particle would receive due to these phase distortions in the kicker undulator.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In communication system, the noise process must be known, in order to compute the system performance. The nonlinear effects act as strong perturbation in long- haul system. This perturbation effects the signal, when interact with amplitude noise, and results in random motion of the phase of the signal. Based on the perturbation theory, the variance of nonlinear phase noise contaminated by both self- and cross-phase modulation, is derived analytically for phase-shift- keying system. Through this work, it is investigated that for longer transmission distance, 40-Gb/s systems are more sensitive to nonlinear phase noise as compared to 50-Gb/s systems. Also, when transmitting the data through the fiber optic link, bit errors are produced due to various effects such as noise from optical amplifiers and nonlinearity occurring in fiber. On the basis of the simulation results , we have compared the bit error rate based on 8-PSK with theoretical results, and result shows that in real time approach, the bit error rate is high for the same signal to noise ratio. MATLAB software is used to validate the analytical expressions for the variance of nonlinear phase noise.

  10. Multilevel optical data recording methods on phase-change media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖家曦; 齐国生; 佘鹏; 刘嵘; 徐端颐


    Multilevel data storage (ML) is a new method in the optical storage field, which is also a trend for improving the capability of future optical discs. This article introduces several ML methods based on phase-change media including pit depth modulation (PDM) and mark radial width modulation (MRWM). In addition, some disadvantages and advantages concerning the principle of these methods will be discussed. Finally, a new ML method will be advanced, through which the levels in one recording pit will be increased evidently.

  11. Fourier optics analysis of phase-mask-based path-length-multiplexed optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Yin, Biwei; Dwelle, Jordan; Wang, Bingqing; Wang, Tianyi; Feldman, Marc D; Rylander, Henry G; Milner, Thomas E


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an imaging technique that constructs a depth-resolved image by measuring the optical path-length difference between broadband light backscattered from a sample and a reference surface. For many OCT sample arm optical configurations, sample illumination and backscattered light detection share a common path. When a phase mask is placed in the sample path, features in the detected signal are observed, which suggests that an analysis of a generic common path OCT imaging system is warranted. In this study, we present a Fourier optics analysis using a Fresnel diffraction approximation of an OCT system with a path-length-multiplexing element (PME) inserted in the sample arm optics. The analysis may be generalized for most phase-mask-based OCT systems. A radial-angle-diverse PME is analyzed in detail, and the point spread function, coherent transfer function, sensitivity of backscattering angular diversity detection, and signal formation in terms of sample spatial frequency are simulated and discussed. The analysis reveals important imaging features and application limitations of OCT imaging systems with a phase mask in the sample path optics.

  12. Two dimensional thermo-optic beam steering using a silicon photonic optical phased array (United States)

    Mahon, Rita; Preussner, Marcel W.; Rabinovich, William S.; Goetz, Peter G.; Kozak, Dmitry A.; Ferraro, Mike S.; Murphy, James L.


    Components for free space optical communication terminals such as lasers, amplifiers, and receivers have all seen substantial reduction in both size and power consumption over the past several decades. However, pointing systems, such as fast steering mirrors and gimbals, have remained large, slow and power-hungry. Optical phased arrays provide a possible solution for non-mechanical beam steering devices that can be compact and lower in power. Silicon photonics is a promising technology for phased arrays because it has the potential to scale to many elements and may be compatible with CMOS technology thereby enabling batch fabrication. For most free space optical communication applications, two-dimensional beam steering is needed. To date, silicon photonic phased arrays have achieved two-dimensional steering by combining thermo-optic steering, in-plane, with wavelength tuning by means of an output grating to give angular tuning, out-of-plane. While this architecture might work for certain static communication links, it would be difficult to implement for moving platforms. Other approaches have required N2 controls for an NxN element phased array, which leads to complexity. Hence, in this work we demonstrate steering using the thermo-optic effect for both dimensions with a simplified steering mechanism requiring only two control signals, one for each steering dimension.

  13. Impact of phase errors at the conjugate step on the propagation of intensity and phase shaped laser beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA


    Full Text Available were calculated using β = 61 for: (a) a = 2w, (b) a = 2.25w, (c) a = 2.75w, and (d) a = 4w. 3. PROPAGATION RESULTS Having noted the differences in the phase of element C discussed above, we now turn our attention to the impact... of the beam in Figure 4 (b) after 0.1 m (first row), 0.25 m (second row) and 0.5 m (third row) propagation when: (a) Ideal phase correcting element is present, as calculated using the Fresnel diffraction equation, (b) the phase element calculated using Eq...

  14. Phase synchronization and anti-phase synchronization of chaos for degenerate optical parametric oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Xiu-Qin; Shen Ke


    We have investigated chaotic synchronization in the generalized sense for the degenerate optical parametric oscillator (DOPO). The numerical results show that two unidirectional coupling DOPOs in chaos can be completely phase synchronization or anti-phase synchronization with a suitable coupling coefficient under which the maximum condition Lyapunov exponent (MCLE) is negative. Phase synchronization and anti-phase synchronization of chaos can be realized through positive and negative coupling. On the other hand, the different synchronization states depend on the coupling types used in the DOPO systems.

  15. Optical phase-locked loop signal sources for phased-array communications antennas (United States)

    Langley, Lloyd N.; Edge, Colin; Wale, Michael J.; Gliese, Ulrik B.; Seeds, Alwyn J.; Walton, Channing; Wright, James G.; Coryell, Louis A.


    A coherent, optical heterodyne approach to signal generation and beamforming is particularly advantageous in multi-beam mobile phased arrays. Use of optical technology allows an optimum distribution of weight and power to be achieved between the antenna face and central electronics, together with an efficient implementation of the beamforming function and a modular design approach in which the basic building blocks are frequency-independent. Systems of this type employ a pair of optical carriers with a difference frequency equal to the required microwave signal. Phased- locking is necessary in order to achieve sufficiently low phase noise in the radio communication link. Optical phase locked loops (OPLLs) have been shown to be potential candidates for this application, yet work still needs to be done to bring them from the laboratory to field demonstrations. This paper describes the construction of a laser-diode OPLL subsystem for evaluation in a proof-of- concept beamforming system. This involves optimization of the loop design, development of single-frequency laser diodes with the correct linewidth, modulation and tuning characteristics and integration into a micro-optic assembly with custom wideband electronics.

  16. Metal free, “click and click–click” conjugation of ribonucleosides and 2′-OMe oligoribonucleotides on the solid phase


    Singh, Ishwar; Heaney, Frances


    A fast and practical metal free conjugation of ribonucleosides and 2¢-OMe 4-mer oligoribonucleotides has been accomplished by a nitrile oxide alkyne click cycloaddition reaction on the solid-phase, the methodology is suited to modification at either, or both, the 3¢- or the 5¢-terminus of the oligoribonucleotide substrate.

  17. Phase Noise of Optically Generated Microwave Using Sideband Injection Locking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin; SUN Chang-Zheng; SONG Yu; XIONG Bing; LUO Yi


    Optically generated 20-GHz microwave carriers with phase noise lower than -75 dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset and lower than -90 dBc/Hz at 100 kHz offset are obtained using single- and double-sideband injection locking. Within the locking range, the effect of sideband injection locking can be regarded as narrow-band amplification of the modulation sidebands. Increasing the current of slave laser will increase the power of beat signal and reduce the phase noise to a certain extent. Double-sideband injection locking can increase the power of the generated microwave carrier while keeping the phase noise at a low level. It is also revealed that partially destruction of coherence between the two beating lights in the course of sideband injection locking would impair the phase noise performance.

  18. Optimized phase gradient measurements and phase-amplitude interplay in optical coherence elastography (United States)

    Zaitsev, Vladimir Y.; Matveyev, Alexander L.; Matveev, Lev A.; Gelikonov, Grigory V.; Sovetsky, Aleksandr A.; Vitkin, Alex


    In compressional optical coherence elastography, phase-variation gradients are used for estimating quasistatic strains created in tissue. Using reference and deformed optical coherence tomography (OCT) scans, one typically compares phases from pixels with the same coordinates in both scans. Usually, this limits the allowable strains to fairly small values measurement noises. Here, we extend the OCT phase-resolved elastographic methodology by (1) showing that an order of magnitude greater strains can significantly increase the accuracy of derived phase-gradient differences, while also avoiding error-phone phase-unwrapping procedures and minimizing the influence of decorrelation noise caused by suprapixel displacements, (2) discussing the appearance of artifactual stiff inclusions in resultant OCT elastograms in the vicinity of bright scatterers due to the amplitude-phase interplay in phase-variation measurements, and (3) deriving/evaluating methods of phase-gradient estimation that can outperform conventionally used least-square gradient fitting. We present analytical arguments, numerical simulations, and experimental examples to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed optimized phase-variation methodology.

  19. Progress with multi-conjugate adaptive optics at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (United States)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Gorceix, Nicolas; Marino, Jose; Zhang, Xianyu; Berkefeld, Thomas; Rimmele, Thomas R.; Goode, Philip R.


    The MCAO system at BBSO is the pathfinder system for a future system at the 4-meter DKIST. It deploys three DMs, one in the pupil and two in higher altitudes. The design allows to move the latter independently to adapt to the turbulence profile within about 2-9 km.The optical path has been improved in 2015, and has shown satisfying solar images. The MCAO loop was able to improve the wavefront error across the field slightly compared to classical AO.We will report on the latest improvements, on-Sun results and motivate the design of the system.

  20. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques (United States)


    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0121 Ultrabroadband Phased-array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques Christopher Schuetz UNIVERSITY OF DELAWARE Final Report...NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Delaware 210 Hullihen Hall Newark, DE 19716 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std . Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7.0 Reset INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETING SF 298 1. REPORT DATE. Full publication date

  1. Comprehensive research on self phase modulation based optical delay systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Ai-Ying; Sun Yu-Nan


    This paper comprehensively investigates the properties of self phase modulation based optical delay systems consisting of dispersion compensation fibre and highly nonlinear fibres.It researches into the impacts of power level launched into highly nonlinear fibres,conversion wavelength,dispersion slope,modulation format and optical filter bandwidth on the overall performance of optical delay systems.The results reveal that,if the power launched into highly nonlinear fibres is fixed,the time delay generally varies linearly with the conversion wavelength,but jumps intermittently at some conversion wavelengths.However,the time delay varies semi-periodically with the power launched into highly nonlinear fibres.The dispersion slope of highly nonlinear fibres has significant influence on the time delay,especially for the negative dispersion slope.The time delay differs with modulation formats due to the different combined interaction of nonlinearity and dispersion in fibres.The bandwidth of the optical filters also greatly affects the time delay because it determines the bandwidth of the passed signal in the self phase modulation based time delay systems.The output signal quality of the overall time delay systems depends on the conversion wavelength and input power level.The optimisation of the power level and conversion wavelength to provide the best output signal quality is made at the end of this paper.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitz, Daniela; Tinney, C. G. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Faherty, Jacqueline K. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Sweet, Sarah [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Gelino, Christopher R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy, E-mail: [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)


    The NASA Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered almost all the known members of the new class of Y-type brown dwarfs. Most of these Y dwarfs have been identified as isolated objects in the field. It is known that binaries with L- and T-type brown dwarf primaries are less prevalent than either M-dwarf or solar-type primaries, they tend to have smaller separations and are more frequently detected in near-equal mass configurations. The binary statistics for Y-type brown dwarfs, however, are sparse, and so it is unclear if the same trends that hold for L- and T-type brown dwarfs also hold for Y-type ones. In addition, the detection of binary companions to very cool Y dwarfs may well be the best means available for discovering even colder objects. We present results for binary properties of a sample of five WISE Y dwarfs with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics System. We find no evidence for binary companions in these data, which suggests these systems are not equal-luminosity (or equal-mass) binaries with separations larger than ∼0.5–1.9 AU. For equal-mass binaries at an age of 5 Gyr, we find that the binary binding energies ruled out by our observations (i.e., 10{sup 42} erg) are consistent with those observed in previous studies of hotter ultra-cool dwarfs.

  3. "Darker-than-black" PbS quantum dots: enhancing optical absorption of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals via short conjugated ligands. (United States)

    Giansante, Carlo; Infante, Ivan; Fabiano, Eduardo; Grisorio, Roberto; Suranna, Gian Paolo; Gigli, Giuseppe


    Colloidal quantum dots (QDs) stand among the most attractive light-harvesting materials to be exploited for solution-processed optoelectronic applications. To this aim, quantitative replacement of the bulky electrically insulating ligands at the QD surface coming from the synthetic procedure is mandatory. Here we present a conceptually novel approach to design light-harvesting nanomaterials demonstrating that QD surface modification with suitable short conjugated organic molecules permits us to drastically enhance light absorption of QDs, while preserving good long-term colloidal stability. Indeed, rational design of the pendant and anchoring moieties, which constitute the replacing ligand framework leads to a broadband increase of the optical absorbance larger than 300% for colloidal PbS QDs also at high energies (>3.1 eV), which could not be predicted by using formalisms derived from effective medium theory. We attribute such a drastic absorbance increase to ground-state ligand/QD orbital mixing, as inferred by density functional theory calculations; in addition, our findings suggest that the optical band gap reduction commonly observed for PbS QD solids treated with thiol-terminating ligands can be prevalently ascribed to 3p orbitals localized on anchoring sulfur atoms, which mix with the highest occupied states of the QDs. More broadly, we provide evidence that organic ligands and inorganic cores are inherently electronically coupled materials thus yielding peculiar chemical species (the colloidal QDs themselves), which display arising (opto)electronic properties that cannot be merely described as the sum of those of the ligand and core components.

  4. Optical characterization of phase transitions in pure polymers and blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannella, Gianluca A.; Brucato, Valerio; La Carrubba, Vincenzo, E-mail: [Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospace and Materials Engineering (DICAM), University of Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, Ed. 8, 90128 Palermo (Italy)


    To study the optical properties of polymeric samples, an experimental apparatus was designed on purpose and set up. The sample is a thin film enclosed between two glass slides and a PTFE frame, with a very thin thermocouple placed on sample for direct temperature measurement. This sample holder was placed between two aluminum slabs, equipped with a narrow slit for optical measurements and with electrical resistances for temperature control. Sample was enlightened by a laser diode, whereas transmitted light was detected with a photodiode. Measurements were carried out on polyethylene-terephtalate (PET) and two different polyamides, tested as pure polymers and blends. The thermal history imposed to the sample consisted in a rapid heating from ambient temperature to a certain temperature below the melting point, a stabilization period, and then a heating at constant rate. After a second stabilization period, the sample was cooled. The data obtained were compared with DSC measurements performed with the same thermal history. In correspondence with transitions detected via DSC (e.g. melting, crystallization and cold crystallization), the optical signal showed a steep variation. In particular, crystallization resulted in a rapid decrease of transmitted light, whereas melting gave up an increase of light transmitted by the sample. Further variations in transmitted light were recorded for blends, after melting: those results may be related to other phase transitions, e.g. liquid-liquid phase separation. All things considered, the apparatus can be used to get reliable data on phase transitions in polymeric systems.

  5. Dynamical phase diagram of Gaussian wave packets in optical lattices (United States)

    Hennig, H.; Neff, T.; Fleischmann, R.


    We study the dynamics of self-trapping in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) loaded in deep optical lattices with Gaussian initial conditions, when the dynamics is well described by the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation (DNLSE). In the literature an approximate dynamical phase diagram based on a variational approach was introduced to distinguish different dynamical regimes: diffusion, self-trapping, and moving breathers. However, we find that the actual DNLSE dynamics shows a completely different diagram than the variational prediction. We calculate numerically a detailed dynamical phase diagram accurately describing the different dynamical regimes. It exhibits a complex structure that can readily be tested in current experiments in BECs in optical lattices and in optical waveguide arrays. Moreover, we derive an explicit theoretical estimate for the transition to self-trapping in excellent agreement with our numerical findings, which may be a valuable guide as well for future studies on a quantum dynamical phase diagram based on the Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian.

  6. Structural, electronic and optical properties of brookite phase titanium dioxide (United States)

    Samat, M. H.; Taib, M. F. M.; Hassan, O. H.; Yahya, M. Z. A.; Ali, A. M. M.


    Structural, electronic and optical properties of titanium dioxide (TiO2) in brookite phase were studied via first-principles calculations in the framework of density functional theory (DFT). The exchange-correlation functional from local density approximation (LDA) and generalized gradient approximation (GGA) were used to calculate the properties of brookite TiO2. The structural parameters of brookite in orthorhombic structure (Pbca space group) are in good agreement with the previous theoretical and experimental data. The obtained direct band gaps from GGA are slightly higher than LDA. Both LDA and GGA band gaps underestimate the experimental band gap due to the well-known limitation of DFT. The density of states (DOS) displays the hybridization of O 2p and Ti 3d states and Mulliken population analysis presents the net charge of Ti and O atoms in brookite. The dielectric function was also analyzed together with other optical properties such as refractive index, reflectivity, loss function and absorption coefficient. The first-principles calculations on the least studied TiO2 in brookite phase using different exchange-correlation functional from LDA and GGA provide theoretical understanding about its structural, electronic and optical properties. Besides, these results would give a better support for technological applications concerning TiO2 materials using brookite phase.

  7. Fast conjugate phase image reconstruction based on a Chebyshev approximation to correct for B0 field inhomogeneity and concomitant gradients (United States)

    Chen, Weitian; Sica, Christopher T.; Meyer, Craig H.


    Off-resonance effects can cause image blurring in spiral scanning and various forms of image degradation in other MRI methods. Off-resonance effects can be caused by both B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradient fields. Previously developed off-resonance correction methods focus on the correction of a single source of off-resonance. This work introduces a computationally efficient method of correcting for B0 inhomogeneity and concomitant gradients simultaneously. The method is a fast alternative to conjugate phase reconstruction, with the off-resonance phase term approximated by Chebyshev polynomials. The proposed algorithm is well suited for semiautomatic off-resonance correction, which works well even with an inaccurate or low-resolution field map. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated using phantom and in vivo data sets acquired by spiral scanning. Semiautomatic off-resonance correction alone is shown to provide a moderate amount of correction for concomitant gradient field effects, in addition to B0 imhomogeneity effects. However, better correction is provided by the proposed combined method. The best results were produced using the semiautomatic version of the proposed combined method. PMID:18956462

  8. Optical properties of a conjugated-polymer-sensitised solar cell: the effect of interfacial structure. (United States)

    Drumm, Daniel W; Bilic, A; Tachibana, Y; Miller, A; Russo, S P


    Dye-sensitised solar cells (DSSCs) have sparked considerable interest over two decades. Recently, a method of polymer-wire sensitisation was demonstrated; the polymer is suggested to form a hole transport pathway (wire) following initial charge separation. We predict the optical properties of this polymer in various interfacial configurations, including the effects of chain length and attachment to {100} or {101} TiO2 facets. Contrary to most DSSCs, the {100} facet model best describes the experimental spectrum, predicting a relative thickness of 5.7 ± 0.2 μm, although {101} attachment, if implemented, may improve collection efficiency. Long chains are optimal, and stable attachment sites show minimal differences to absorbance in the major solar emission (visible) band. Combinations of {100}, {101}, and pseudo-bulk TiO2 models in three-parameter fits to experiment confirm the relative importance of the {100} facet.

  9. Morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in thermally annealed films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene (United States)

    Lampert, Zach E.; Lappi, Simon E.; Papanikolas, John M.; Lewis Reynolds, C.; Osama Aboelfotoh, M.


    Aggregate formation in conjugated polymer films is one of the most important phenomena thought to influence the photophysical properties of optical devices based on these materials. In the current work, we report the results of a detailed investigation on the morphology and chain aggregation dependence of optical gain in spin-coated thin films of the conjugated polymer poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV). Extensive gain measurements are performed using the variable stripe length technique with picosecond pulse excitation. The polymer morphology and extent of aggregate formation in the films are controlled by thermal annealing, which is relevant to the fabrication and optimization of conjugated polymer-based optical devices. The aggregation state of the polymer chains increases with the annealing temperature, which results in a decrease in luminescence efficiency at low excitation density (≤1018 cm-3). However, the increase in aggregate formation with increasing annealing temperature does not significantly alter the optical gain; very large gain coefficients are still achieved in films containing a relatively large fraction of aggregates. Although the largest gain coefficients, 450 cm-1, are observed for as-cast (non-annealed) MEH-PPV films, very large gain coefficients of 315 and 365 cm-1 are also demonstrated for MEH-PPV films annealed at 60 and 80 °C, respectively, in spite of the enhanced packing morphology and conformational order of the polymer chains. These results are contrary to the commonly held view that aggregate formation has a detrimental effect on the amplified spontaneous emission behavior of polymer-based devices operating in the stimulated emission regime, as would be characteristic of lasers and optical amplifiers. Moreover, because aggregates promote favorable charge transport properties, our data have important implications for future development of electrically driven polymer lasers; improving carrier mobility

  10. Optical encryption interface (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah J. (Inventor)


    An analog optical encryption system based on phase scrambling of two-dimensional optical images and holographic transformation for achieving large encryption keys and high encryption speed. An enciphering interface uses a spatial light modulator for converting a digital data stream into a two dimensional optical image. The optical image is further transformed into a hologram with a random phase distribution. The hologram is converted into digital form for transmission over a shared information channel. A respective deciphering interface at a receiver reverses the encrypting process by using a phase conjugate reconstruction of the phase scrambled hologram.

  11. Affibody-DyLight conjugates for in vivo assessment of HER2 expression by near-infrared optical imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Zielinski

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Amplification of the HER2/neu gene and/or overexpression of the corresponding protein have been identified in approximately 20% of invasive breast carcinomas. Assessment of HER2 expression in vivo would advance development of new HER2-targeted therapeutic agents and, potentially, facilitate choice of the proper treatment strategy offered to the individual patient. We present novel HER2-specific probes for in vivo evaluation of the receptor status by near-infrared (NIR optical imaging. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Affibody molecules were expressed, purified, and labeled with NIR-fluorescent dyes. The binding affinity and specificity of the obtained probe were tested in vitro. For in vivo validation, the relationship of the measured NIR signal and HER2 expression was characterized in four breast cancer xenograft models, expressing different levels of HER2. Accumulation of Affibody molecules in tumor tissue was further confirmed by ex vivo analysis. RESULTS: Affibody-DyLight conjugates showed high affinity to HER2 (K(D = 3.66±0.26. No acute toxicity resulted from injection of the probes (up to 0.5 mg/kg into mice. Pharmacokinetic studies revealed a relatively short (37.53±2.8 min half-life of the tracer in blood. Fluorescence accumulation in HER2-positive BT-474 xenografts was evident as soon as a few minutes post injection and reached its maximum at 90 minutes. On the other hand, no signal retention was observed in HER2-negative MDA-MB-468 xenografts. Immunostaining of extracted tumor tissue confirmed penetration of the tracer into tumor tissue. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our studies suggest that Affibody-DyLight-750 conjugate is a powerful tool to monitor HER2 status in a preclinical setting. Following clinical validation, it might provide complementary means for assessment of HER2 expression in breast cancer patients (assuming availability of proper NIR scanners and/or be used to facilitate detection of HER2-positive metastatic lesions

  12. Optical Sensor for Characterizing the Phase Transition in Salted Solutions (United States)

    Claverie, Rémy; Fontana, Marc D.; Duričković, Ivana; Bourson, Patrice; Marchetti, Mario; Chassot, Jean-Marie


    We propose a new optical sensor to characterize the solid-liquid phase transition in salted solutions. The probe mainly consists of a Raman spectrometer that extracts the vibrational properties from the light scattered by the salty medium. The spectrum of the O – H stretching band was shown to be strongly affected by the introduction of NaCl and the temperature change as well. A parameter SD defined as the ratio of the integrated intensities of two parts of this band allows to study the temperature and concentration dependences of the phase transition. Then, an easy and efficient signal processing and the exploitation of a modified Boltzmann equation give information on the phase transition. Validations were done on solutions with varying concentration of NaCl. PMID:22319327

  13. 40  Gb/s DWDM Structure with Optical Phase Configuration for Long-Haul Transmission System (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Sheng; Lai, Po-Chou


    We propose the experimental transport of 48 channels with 40 Gbit/s dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) system that uses single-mode fiber (SMF) in combination with dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) which is a dispersion compensation device, in C and L band wavelength range to solve the dispersion program. The DWDM system scheme employing single Mach-Zehnder modulation (MZM) return-to-zero differential phase-shift keying (RZ-DPSK) modulation format with hybrid Raman/EDFA (Erbium-doped fiber amplifier) configuration to improve transmission signal, and employing an optical phase conjugation (OPC) configuration in the middle line. That can compensate for dispersion impairment and improve nonlinear effects to investigate transmission distance performances.

  14. Phases of d-orbital bosons in optical lattices (United States)

    Pinheiro, Fernanda; Matrikainen, Jani-Petri; Larson, Jonas


    We explore the properties of bosonic atoms loaded into the d bands of an isotropic square optical lattice. Following the recent experimental success reported in Zhai et al (2013 Phys. Rev. A 87 063638), in which populating d bands with a 99 % fidelity was demonstrated, we present a theoretical study of the possible phases that can appear in this system. Using the Gutzwiller ansatz for the three d band orbitals we map the boundaries of the Mott insulating phases. For not too large occupation, two of the orbitals are predominantly occupied, while the third, of a slightly higher energy, remains almost unpopulated. In this regime, in the superfluid phase we find the formation of a vortex lattice, where the vortices come in vortex/anti-vortex pairs with two pairs locked to every site. Due to the orientation of the vortices time-reversal symmetry is spontaneously broken. This state also breaks a discrete {{{Z}}2}-symmetry. We further derive an effective spin-1/2 model that describe the relevant physics of the lowest Mott-phase with unit filling. We argue that the corresponding two dimensional phase diagram should be rich with several different phases. We also explain how to generate anti-symmetric spin interactions that can give rise to novel effects like spin canting.

  15. Enabling Technologies for Direct Detection Optical Phase Modulation Formats (United States)

    Xu, Xian

    Phase modulation formats are believed to be one of the key enabling techniques for next generation high speed long haul fiber-optic communication systems due to the following main advantages: (1) with a balanced detection, a better receiver sensitivity over conventional intensity modulation formats, e.g., a ˜3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and a ˜1.3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK); (2) excellent robustness against fiber nonlinearities; (3) high spectrum efficiency when using multilevel phase modulation formats, such as DQPSK. As the information is encoded in the phase of the optical field, the phase modulation formats are sensitive to the phase-related impairments and the deterioration induced in the phase-intensity conversion. This consequently creates new challenging issues. The research objective of this thesis is to depict some of the challenging issues and provide possible solutions. The first challenge is the cross-phase modulation (XPM) penalty for the phase modulated channels co-propagating with the intensity modulated channels. The penalty comes from the pattern dependent intensity fluctuations of the neighboring intensity modulated channels being converted into phase noise in the phase modulation channels. We propose a model to theoretically analyze the XPM penalty dependence on the walk off effect. From this model, we suggest that using fibers with large local dispersion or intentionally introducing some residual dispersion per span would help mitigate the XPM penalty. The second challenge is the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf) induced penalty during the phase-intensity conversion. The direct detection DPSK is usually demodulated in a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer (DI). The polarization dependence of DI introduces a PDf causing a frequency offset between the laser's frequency and the transmissivity peak of DI, degrading the demodulated DPSK

  16. Optically active conjugated polymer from solvent chirality transfer polymerization in monoterpenes. (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daehoon; Lee, Seul; Suzuki, Nozomu; Fujiki, Michiya; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kwak, Giseop


    Disubstituted acetylene monomers [1,2-diphenylacetylenes (DPAs: DPA-pC1, DPA-mC1, DPA-pC8); 1-phenyl-2-hexylacetylene (PHA-pC1)] are tested for asymmetric polymerization in chiral monoterpenes used as solvents and compared with the corresponding monosubstituted acetylene monomer [1-phenylacetylene (PA-pC1)]. DPA-pC1 containing a trimethylsilyl group in the para-position of the phenyl ring produces an optically active polymer with a large Cotton effect, despite the absence of a stereogenic center. The polymer sample obtained by polymerization in 87% ee (-)-α-pinene shows the strongest CD signal (gCD value at 385 nm: ∼3.2 × 10⁻³). The Cotton bands of the polymers obtained in (-)- and (+)-α-pinenes show the opposite sign in the CD signals. Theoretical calculations show that only the cis-cisoid model adopts a helical conformation. A time-correlated single photon counting experiment shows that the emission of the chiral polymer originates from a virtually single excited species with a 98% component fraction. This polymer solution does not show any significant decrease in gCD value over a wide temperature range of 20 to 80 °C. No noticeable decrease in the gCD value is detected when the polymer solution is kept at relatively low temperatures for a prolonged period (35 d). In contrast, the other polymers show no CD signal.

  17. Breast cancer detection using phase contrast diffuse optical tomography (United States)

    Liang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qizhi; Li, Changqing; Grobmyer, Stephen R.; Fajardo, Laurie L.; Jiang, Huabei


    In this report, a phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography system, which can measure the refractive indices of human breast masses in vivo, is described. To investigate the utility of phase-contrast diffuse optical tomography (PCDOT) for differentiation of malignant and benign breast masses in humans, and to compare PCDOT with conventional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) for analysis of breast masses in humans. 35 breast masses were imaged in 33 patients (mean age = 51 years; range 22-80 years) using PCDOT. Images characterizing the tissue refractive index, absorption and scattering of breast masses were obtained with a finite element-based reconstruction algorithm. The accuracies of absorption and scattering images were compared with images of refractive index in light of the pathology results. Absorption and scattering images were unable to accurately discriminate benign from malignant lesions. Malignant lesions tended to have decreased refractive index allowing them to discriminate from benign lesions in most cases. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive value, and overall accuracy for refractive index were 81.8%, 70.8%, 29.2%, and 74.3%, respectively. Overall we show that benign and malignant breast masses in humans demonstrate different refractive index and differences in refractive index properties can be used to discriminate benign from malignant masses in patients with high accuracy. This opens up a new avenue for improved breast cancer detection using NIR diffusing light.

  18. BPSK optical mm-wave signal generation by septupling frequency via a single optical phase modulator (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Ma, Jianxin


    In this paper, we have proposed a novel and simple scheme to generate the BPSK optical millimeter wave (MMW) signal with frequency septupling by using an optical phase modulator (PM) and a wavelength selective switch (WSS). In this scheme, the PM is driven by a radio frequency (RF) BPSK signal at the optimized modulation index of 4.89 to assure the 4th and 3rd-order sidebands have equal amplitudes. An wavelength selective switch (WSS) is used to abstract the -4th and +3rd-order sidebands from the spectrum generated by RF BPSK signal modulating the lightwave to form the BPSK optical MMW signal with frequency septupling the driving RF signal. In these two tones, only the +3rd-order sideband bears the BPSK signal while the -4th-order sideband is unmodulated since the phase information is canceled by the even times multiplication of the phase of BPSK signal. The MMW signal can avoid the pulse walk-off effect and the amplitude fading effect caused by the fiber chromatic dispersion. By adjusting the modulation index to assure the two tones have equal amplitude, the generated optical MMW signal has the maximal opto-electrical conversion efficiency and good transmission performance.

  19. Electrical and Optical Excitations in Blue-emitting Π-conjugated Films and LEDs (United States)

    Wohlgenannt, Markus


    We employed a variety of spectroscopies to study electrical and optical excitations in ladder-type poly(p-phenylene) polymer (mLPPP) and polyfluorene (PFO). These spectroscopies include absorption, photoluminescence, photoinduced absorption (PA), charge-induced absorption (CIA) and PA/CIA-detected magnetic resonance (PADMR/CIADMR, respectively). We use the PA and PADMR spectra to identify the spectral features of long-lived excitations, such as photoinduced charged polarons with spin-1/2 and triplet excitons with spin-1. In addition, the dependencies of the photogeneration quantum efficiency on the excitation photon energy show that triplets and polarons in mLPPP are photogenerated independently, by different processes. We show that spin dependent magnetic resonance reduces the number of polarons, however enhances another excitation, which we assign as bipolarons. We also applied the CIA and CIADMR spectroscopies to m-LPPP sandwich device structures to probe the dynamics of injected charges. We observed a CIA band due to polarons scaling linearly with the device current. In addition, we observed two derivative bands with zero crossing at 0.85eV and 1.2eV, respectively. Their intensity increases linearly with the applied electric field and is frequency independent up to 10kHz modulation frequency. We assign these bands to a Stark-effect of transitions involving the electrodes. We also found that the CIADMR spin-1/2 resonance is about 10 times weaker than in PADMR. This demonstrates a rather low polaron pair formation from opposite electrodes in devices, consistent with the observation of rather low external electroluminescence quantum yields.

  20. Electro-optic delay oscillator with nonlocal nonlinearity: Optical phase dynamics, chaos, and synchronization. (United States)

    Lavrov, Roman; Peil, Michael; Jacquot, Maxime; Larger, Laurent; Udaltsov, Vladimir; Dudley, John


    We demonstrate experimentally how nonlinear optical phase dynamics can be generated with an electro-optic delay oscillator. The presented architecture consists of a linear phase modulator, followed by a delay line, and a differential phase-shift keying demodulator (DPSK-d). The latter represents the nonlinear element of the oscillator effecting a nonlinear transformation. This nonlinearity is considered as nonlocal in time since it is ruled by an intrinsic differential delay, which is significantly greater than the typical phase variations. To study the effect of this specific nonlinearity, we characterize the dynamics in terms of the dependence of the relevant feedback gain parameter. Our results reveal the occurrence of regular GHz oscillations (approximately half of the DPSK-d free spectral range), as well as a pronounced broadband phase-chaotic dynamics. Beyond this, the observed dynamical phenomena offer potential for applications in the field of microwave photonics and, in particular, for the realization of novel chaos communication systems. High quality and broadband phase-chaos synchronization is also reported with an emitter-receiver pair of the setup.

  1. Phase mismatched optical parametric generation in semiconductor magnetoplasma (United States)

    Dubey, Swati; Ghosh, S.; Jain, Kamal


    Optical parametric generation involves the interaction of pump, signal, and idler waves satisfying law of conservation of energy. Phase mismatch parameter plays important role for the spatial distribution of the field along the medium. In this paper instead of exactly matching wave vector, a small mismatch is admitted with a degree of phase velocity mismatch between these waves. Hence the medium must possess certain finite coherence length. This wave mixing process is well explained by coupled mode theory and one dimensional hydrodynamic model. Based on this scheme, expressions for threshold pump field and transmitted intensity have been derived. It is observed that the threshold pump intensity and transmitted intensity can be manipulated by varying doping concentration and magnetic field under phase mismatched condition. A compound semiconductor crystal of n-InSb is assumed to be shined at 77 K by a 10.6μm CO2 laser with photon energy well below band gap energy of the crystal, so that only free charge carrier influence the optical properties of the medium for the I.R. parametric generation in a semiconductor plasma medium. Favorable parameters were explored to incite the said process keeping in mind the cost effectiveness and conversion efficiency of the process.

  2. Numerical simulation of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation with the DG method in the CPR framework (United States)

    Modarreszadeh, Seyedamirreza; Timofeev, Evgeny; Merlen, Alain; Matar, Olivier Bou; Pernod, Philippe


    The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of magneto-acoustic Wave Phase Conjugation (WPC) phenomena. Since ultrasonic waves in the WPC applications have short wavelengths relative to the traveling distances, high-order numerical methods in both space and time domains are required. The numerical scheme chosen for the current research is the Runge-Kutta Discontinuous Galerkin (RKDG) method incorporated into the Correction Procedure via Reconstruction (CPR) framework. In order to avoid non-physical oscillations near high-gradient regions, a Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory (WENO) limiter is used to reconstruct the solutions in the affected cells. After being assured that the numerical scheme has appropriate accuracy and performance, the WPC process is modeled in both linear and non-linear regimes. The results in the linear regime are in acceptable agreement with the analytical solution. The only significant deviation between the linear and non-linear results is at the sensor within the passive zone, where the mean pressure starts to grow gradually in the non-linear regime due to overtaking of the low-velocity pressure waves by the high-velocity ones.

  3. Monolithically integrated heterodyne optical phase-lock loop with RF XOR phase detector. (United States)

    Steed, Robert J; Pozzi, Francesca; Fice, Martyn J; Renaud, Cyril C; Rogers, David C; Lealman, Ian F; Moodie, David G; Cannard, Paul J; Lynch, Colm; Johnston, Lilianne; Robertson, Michael J; Cronin, Richard; Pavlovic, Leon; Naglic, Luka; Vidmar, Matjaz; Seeds, Alwyn J


    We present results for an heterodyne optical phase-lock loop (OPLL), monolithically integrated on InP with external phase detector and loop filter, which phase locks the integrated laser to an external source, for offset frequencies tuneable between 0.6 GHz and 6.1 GHz. The integrated semiconductor laser emits at 1553 nm with 1.1 MHz linewidth, while the external laser has a linewidth less than 150 kHz. To achieve high quality phase locking with lasers of these linewidths, the loop delay has been made less than 1.8 ns. Monolithic integration reduces the optical path delay between the laser and photodiode to less than 20 ps. The electronic part of the OPLL was implemented using a custom-designed feedback circuit with a propagation delay of ~1 ns and an open-loop bandwidth greater than 1 GHz. The heterodyne signal between the locked slave laser and master laser has phase noise below -90 dBc/Hz for frequency offsets greater than 20 kHz and a phase error variance in 10 GHz bandwidth of 0.04 rad2.

  4. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges (United States)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Nie, Qiu-Yue; Li, He-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu


    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A-X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  5. Comparison of electrical and optical characteristics in gas-phase and gas-liquid phase discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qazi, H. I. A.; Li, He-Ping, E-mail:; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Bao, Cheng-Yu [Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Nie, Qiu-Yue [School of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang Province 150001 (China)


    This paper presents an AC-excited argon discharge generated using a gas-liquid (two-phase) hybrid plasma reactor, which mainly consists of a powered needle electrode enclosed in a conical quartz tube and grounded deionized water electrode. The discharges in the gas-phase, as well as in the two-phase, exhibit two discharge modes, i.e., the low current glow-like diffuse mode and the high current streamer-like constrict mode, with a mode transition, which exhibits a negative resistance of the discharges. The optical emission spectral analysis shows that the stronger diffusion of the water vapor into the discharge region in the two-phase discharges boosts up the generation of OH (A–X) radicals, and consequently, leads to a higher rotational temperature in the water-phase plasma plume than that of the gas-phase discharges. Both the increase of the power input and the decrease of the argon flow rate result in the increase of the rotational temperature in the plasma plume of the water-phase discharge. The stable two-phase discharges with a long plasma plume in the water-phase under a low power input and gas flow rate may show a promising prospect for the degradation of organic pollutants, e.g., printing and dyeing wastewater, in the field of environmental protection.

  6. Realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics for real-time testing of phase objects

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Aggarwal; Sushil K Kaura; D P Chhachhia; A K Sharma


    The paper describes a simple and cost effective method for the realization of an optical interferometer based on holographic optics, which use minimal bulk optical components. The optical arrangement in the proposed method involves a very simple alignment procedure and inexpensive holographic recording material is used in the formation of holographic optical elements. The proposed interferometer set-up is quite suitable for performing optical test studies on phase (transparent) objects in real-time. Recording schemes for the formation of holographic optical elements and the related technique for the realization of the interferometer set-up along with the experimental results have been presented.

  7. Optically addressed ultra-wideband phased antenna array (United States)

    Bai, Jian

    Demands for high data rate and multifunctional apertures from both civilian and military users have motivated development of ultra-wideband (UWB) electrically steered phased arrays. Meanwhile, the need for large contiguous frequency is pushing operation of radio systems into the millimeter-wave (mm-wave) range. Therefore, modern radio systems require UWB performance from VHF to mm-wave. However, traditional electronic systems suffer many challenges that make achieving these requirements difficult. Several examples includes: voltage controlled oscillators (VCO) cannot provide a tunable range of several octaves, distribution of wideband local oscillator signals undergo high loss and dispersion through RF transmission lines, and antennas have very limited bandwidth or bulky sizes. Recently, RF photonics technology has drawn considerable attention because of its advantages over traditional systems, with the capability of offering extreme power efficiency, information capacity, frequency agility, and spatial beam diversity. A hybrid RF photonic communication system utilizing optical links and an RF transducer at the antenna potentially provides ultra-wideband data transmission, i.e., over 100 GHz. A successful implementation of such an optically addressed phased array requires addressing several key challenges. Photonic generation of an RF source with over a seven-octave bandwidth has been demonstrated in the last few years. However, one challenge which still remains is how to convey phased optical signals to downconversion modules and antennas. Therefore, a feed network with phase sweeping capability and low excessive phase noise needs to be developed. Another key challenge is to develop an ultra-wideband array antenna. Modern frontends require antennas to be compact, planar, and low-profile in addition to possessing broad bandwidth, conforming to stringent space, weight, cost, and power constraints. To address these issues, I will study broadband and miniaturization

  8. Effect of acceptor strength on optical and electronic properties in conjugated polymers for solar applications. (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwasegun O; Jung, In Hwan; Orr, Meghan; Yu, Luping; Goodson, Theodore


    Four new low-bandgap electron-accepting polymers-poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(2-(2-ethylhexyl)-1,1-dioxido-3-oxo-2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-d]isothiazol-4-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H-dione) (PNSW); poly(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-2-(5-(2-ethylhexyl)-4,6-dioxo-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[3,4-c]pyrrol-1-yl)thieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione) (PNTPD); poly(5-(4,10-bis(2-butyloctyl)-5,11-dioxo-4,5,10,11-tetrahydrothieno[2',3':5,6]pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinolin-2-yl)-2,9-bis(2-decyldodecyl)anthra[2,1,9-def:6,5,10-d'e'f']diisoquinoline-1,3,8,10(2H,9H)-tetraone) (PNPDI); and poly(9,9-bis(2-butyloctyl)-9H-fluorene-bis((1,10:5,6)2-(5,6-dihydro-4H-cyclopenta[b]thiophene-4-ylidene)malonitrile)-2-(2,3-dihydrothieno[3,4-b][1,4]dioxine)) (PECN)-containing thieno[2',3':5',6']pyrido[3,4-g]thieno[3,2-c]isoquinoline-5,11(4H,10H)-dione and fluorenedicyclopentathiophene dimalononitrile, were investigated to probe their structure-function relationships for solar cell applications. PTB7 was also investigated for comparison with the new low-bandgap polymers. The steady-state, ultrafast dynamics and nonlinear optical properties of all the organic polymers were probed. All the polymers showed broad absorption in the visible region, with the absorption of PNPDI and PECN extending into the near-IR region. The polymers had HOMO levels ranging from -5.73 to -5.15 eV and low bandgaps of 1.47-2.45 eV. Fluorescence upconversion studies on the polymers showed long lifetimes of 1.6 and 2.4 ns for PNSW and PNTPD, respectively, while PNPDI and PECN showed very fast decays within 353 and 110 fs. PECN exhibited a very high two-photon absorption cross section. The electronic structure calculations of the repeating units of the polymers indicated the localization of the molecular orbitals in different co-monomers. As the difference between the electron affinities of the co-monomers in the repeating units decreases, the highest

  9. Capture into resonance and phase space dynamics in optical centrifuge

    CERN Document Server

    Armon, Tsafrir


    The process of capture of a molecular enesemble into rotational resonance in the optical centrifuge is investigated. The adiabaticity and phase space incompressibility are used to find the resonant capture probability in terms of two dimensionless parameters P1,P2 characterising the driving strength and the nonlinearity, and related to three characteristic time scales in the problem. The analysis is based on the transformation to action-angle variables and the single resonance approximation, yielding reduction of the three-dimensional rotation problem to one degree of freedom. The analytic results for capture probability are in a good agreement with simulations. The existing experiments satisfy the validity conditions of the theory.

  10. Optical resolution improvement by nanoparticle's amplitude and phase pattern (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Sun, Xiaoyaun


    Optical detection of nanoparticle with ultra-high sensitivity plays an important role in bio- / nano- and their relative research fields. In our recently developed method, each single particle exhibits unique 4-lobes pattern both in the amplitude and phase images respectively, based on which we explored the possibility of resolution improvement by a particle pair. In this paper two polystyrene beads at the diameter of 100nm were employed with the gap distance ranging from 100-400nm. The amplitude and phase images of the particle pair were simulated by FDTD solver. The images are sensitive to geometrical parameters of the two particles, such as gap distance and direction. The simulation results lead to a resolution of 100nm.

  11. Creation of advanced optical limiters based on J-type phthalocyanine dimers and their conjugates with single-walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Savelyev, Mikhail S.; Tolbin, Alexander Yu.; Polokhin, Alexander A.; Gerasimenko, Alexander Yu.


    Creation of effective means of protection from laser radiation of high power requires the development of optical materials (working substance), with their transparence being decreased sharply above a certain critical value of the laser intensity due to the appearance of non-linear optical properties (limiting threshold). Based on the threshold model, the working substance of the optical limiter was characterized. Experimental data of z-scan with open aperture are used to determine the nonlinear optical parameters of solutions of dimeric phthalocyanine complexes of Mg and Zn of J-type in tetrahydrofuran (THF) and thin films of their conjugates with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The output characteristic (output (peak) fluence vs input (peak) fluence), that describes the basic properties of optical limiters, was obtained with the fixed location of the optical limiter. Dimeric phthalocyanine complexes were found to have low limiting threshold ~ 2 MW·cm-2 and high value of the nonlinear absorption coefficient ~ 330 and 370 cm GW-1, respectively. Conjugates of these dimeric phthalocyanines with SWCNTs have been produced for the improving of the limiting parameters and increasing of the optical nonlinearity. Size of J-type dimeric phthalocyanine complexes of Mg and Zn were determined by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) allowed to determine the dimensions of nanotubes. The structure parameters, such as diameter and defects as well as the strength of aggregates were estimated with the Raman spectroscopy. For our experiments, the lens with a focal length of 20 cm was used. As the laser radiation source, the Nd:YAG laser was used to generate pulses of 16 ns duration at a wavelength of 532 nm with the linearly polarized laser beam in the horizontal plane and a shape closed to Gaussian type.

  12. Functionalization of boron diiminates with unique optical properties: multicolor tuning of crystallization-induced emission and introduction into the main chain of conjugated polymers. (United States)

    Yoshii, Ryousuke; Hirose, Amane; Tanaka, Kazuo; Chujo, Yoshiki


    In this article, we report the unique optical characteristics of boron diiminates in the solid states. We synthesized the boron diiminates exhibiting aggregation-induced emission (AIE). From the series of optical measurements, it was revealed that the optical properties in the solid state should be originated from the suppression of the molecular motions of the boron diiminate units. The emission colors were modulated by the substitution effects (λ(PL,crystal) = 448-602 nm, λ(PL,amorphous) = 478-645 nm). Strong phosphorescence was observed from some boron diiminates deriving from the effects of two imine groups. Notably, we found some of boron diiminates showed crystallization-induced emission (CIE) properties derived from the packing differences from crystalline to amorphous states. The 15-fold emission enhancement was observed by the crystallization (Φ(PL,crystal) = 0.59, Φ(PL,amorphous) = 0.04). Next, we conjugated boron diiminates with fluorene. The synthesized polymers showed good solubility in the common solvents, film formability, and thermal stability. In addition, because of the expansion of main-chain conjugation, the peak shifts to longer wavelength regions were observed in the absorption/emission spectra of the polymers comparing to those of the corresponding boron diiminate monomers (λ(abs) = 374-407 nm, λ(PL) = 509-628 nm). Furthermore, the absorption and the emission intensities were enhanced via the light-harvesting effect by the conjugation with fluorene. Finally, we also demonstrated the dynamic reversible alterations of the optical properties of the polymer thin films by exposing to acidic or basic vapors.

  13. Tunable RF photonic phase shifter based on optical DSB modulation and FBG filtering (United States)

    Wei, Yongfeng; Huang, Shanguo; Sun, Kai; Gao, Xinlu; Gu, Wanyi


    A broadband RF photonic phase shifter that can achieve the tunable phase shift with little RF amplitude variation is presented. It is based on homodyne mixing technique. The beating between phase-modulated optical carrier and the sidebands can generate RF signal with desired phase shift. Results show the RF phase shifter can achieve a continuous phase shift with low amplitude variation.

  14. Digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and virtual phase conjugation technique for reduction of dynamic range consumption in holographic medium (United States)

    Goto, Yuta; Okamoto, Atsushi; Takabayashi, Masanori; Ogawa, Kazuhisa; Tomita, Akihisa


    The recording density in holographic data storage (HDS) systems is determined by the dynamic range of the recording medium. If a hologram is recorded with a small exposure, the consumption amount of the dynamic range per hologram is reduced, and the recording density can be improved. In this report, we propose a digital image multiplexing/demultiplexing method using spatial spectral diffusion and a virtual phase conjugation technique to reduce the consumption amount of the dynamic range in a recording medium. In our method, multiple signals are simultaneously recorded in a medium by multiplexing those signals using a beam combiner before recording, unlike the general multiplexing method of HDS. Then, each original signal can be reproduced independently by utilizing the property of a random diffuser and a phase-conjugated light. In the simulation, we confirmed that our method can improve the recording density because the consumption of the dynamic range is reduced.

  15. Optical image encryption in Fresnel domain using spiral phase transform (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta


    In this study, we propose a new nonlinear optical image encryption technique using spiral phase transform (SPT). First, the primary image is phase encoded and multiplied with a random amplitude mask (RAM), and using power function, the product is then powered to m. This powered output is Fresnel propagated with distance z 1 and then modulated with a random phase mask (RPM). The modulated image is further Fresnel propagated with distance z 2. Similarly, a security image is also modulated with another RAM and then Fresnel propagated with distance z 3. Next, the two modulated images after Fresnel propagations, are interfered and further Fresnel propagated with distance z 4 to get a complex image. Finally, this complex image is SPT with particular spiral phase function (SPF), to get the final encrypted image for transmission. In the proposed technique, the security keys are Fresnel propagation distances, the security image, RPM, RAMs, power order, m, and order of SPF, q. Numerical simulation results confirm the validity and effectiveness of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is robust against noise and brutal force attacks.

  16. Cloud discrimination for ASCENDS Mission Based on Optical Phase Conjugation as a Novel Approach Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — PI at ArkLight proposes a novel scheme for making cloud discrimination in the wavelength ranges of near-IR (1-1.8 m) and mid-IR (3-4 m). This scheme is based on...

  17. 640 Gbit/s RZ-to-NRZ format conversion based on optical phase filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maram, Reza; Kong, Deming; Galili, Michael;


    We propose a novel approach for all optical RZ-to-NRZ conversion based on optical phase filtering. The proposed concept is experimentally validated through format conversion of a 640 Gbit/s coherent RZ signal to NRZ signal using a simple phase filter implemented by a commercial optical waveshaper....

  18. Synthesis by High-Efficiency Liquid-Phase (HELP Method of Oligonucleotides Conjugated with High-Molecular Weight Polyethylene Glycols (PEGs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonora GM


    Full Text Available The chemical modification of synthetic oligonucleotides has recently been investigated to improve their pharmacological utilization. In addition to chemical alterations of the backbone and of the heterocyclic bases, their conjugation with amphiphylic moieties, such as the polyethylene glycol has been proposed. The large scale production of these molecules as demanded for commercial purposes is hampered by the heterogeneity of the solid-phase processes and by the low reactivity of high-molecular weight PEGs in solution. A new synthetic procedure based on the recently developed liquid-phase method (HELP, has been set up to overcome these limitations.

  19. Organic nonlinear optical materials (United States)

    Umegaki, S.


    Recently, it became clear that organic compounds with delocalized pi electrons show a great nonlinear optical response. Especially, secondary nonlinear optical constants of more than 2 digits were often seen in the molecular level compared to the existing inorganic crystals such as LiNbO3. The crystallization was continuously tried. Organic nonlinear optical crystals have a new future as materials for use in the applied physics such as photomodulation, optical frequency transformation, opto-bistabilization, and phase conjugation optics. Organic nonlinear optical materials, e.g., urea, O2NC6H4NH2, I, II, are reviewed with 50 references.

  20. Linearized broadband optical detector: study and implementation of optical phase-locked loop (United States)

    Murakowski, Janusz; Schneider, Garrett J.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Shi, Shouyuan; Prather, Dennis W.


    Optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is used to improve the linearity of an optical link for transmission of analog signals. The finite loop delay and the presence of a low-pass filter, required for stable loop operation, lead to a nontrivial frequency response. Here, the linearity improvement in OPLL is investigated, and simple relation among the loop delay, the open-loop gain, and the loop-filter bandwidth that must be satisfied for stable operation of the OPLL is found. This relation is used to determine the fundamental limit on spur-free dynamic range (SFDR) improvement that OPLL can offer over a conventional Mach-Zehnder (MZ)-type detector.

  1. Core stress distribution of phase shifting multimode polymer optical fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Rei, E-mail:; Matsuura, Motoharu [Center for Frontier Science and Engineering, The University of Electro-Communications, Chofugaoka 1-5-1, Chofu, Tokyo 182-8585 (Japan); Nagata, Morio; Mishima, Kenji [Research Center for Advanced Science and Technology, The University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8904 (Japan); Inoue, Azusa; Tagaya, Akihiro; Koike, Yasuhiro [Keio Photonics Research Institute, Keio University, Saiwaiku Shinkawasaki 7-1, Kawasaki, Kanagawa 212-0032 (Japan)


    Poly-(methyl methacrylate-co-benzyl methacrylate) polarization-maintaining optical fibers are known for their high response to normal stress. In this report, responses to higher stress levels up to 0.45 MPa were investigated. The stress amplitude and direction in the fiber cross section were calculated and analyzed with a coincident mode-field obtained from the near-field pattern. The stress amplitude varies significantly in the horizontal direction and is considered to create multiple phases, explaining the measurement results. To investigate possible permanent deformation, the core yield point profile was analyzed. Although it largely exceeds the average applied stress, the calculated stress distribution indicates that the core could partially experience stress that exceeds the yield point.

  2. Phase-coupled optical diode based on PT symmetric system (United States)

    Gao, Yong-Pan; Cao, Cong; Zhang, Yong; Wang, Tie-Jun; Wang, Chuan


    Here we investigate a phase-coupled parity-time symmetric plasmonic system, and theoretically achieved the all optical on-chip plasmonic diode using the coupled mode theory. The proposed symmetrical system consists of one loss cavity and one gain cavity each coupled with the waveguide, and we find that the controllable amplification of the input field can be achieved by changing the power coupling fraction between the resonators and the waveguide. Moreover, this loss-gain symmetric system could work as a frequency comb filter, and the operation on the device could be controlled by tuning the coupling strength between the two plasmonic cavities by tuning the coupling distance between the cavities and the waveguide.

  3. Optical refractometry based on Fresnel diffraction from a phase wedge. (United States)

    Tavassoly, M Taghi; Saber, Ahad


    A method that utilizes the Fresnel diffraction of light from the phase step formed by a transparent wedge is introduced for measuring the refractive indices of transparent solids, liquids, and solutions. It is shown that, as a transparent wedge of small apex angle is illuminated perpendicular to its surface by a monochromatic parallel beam of light, the Fresnel fringes, caused by abrupt change in refractive index at the wedge lateral boundary, are formed on a screen held perpendicular to the beam propagation direction. The visibility of the fringes varies periodically between zero and 1 in the direction normal to the wedge apex. For a known or measured apex angle, the wedge refractive index is obtained by measuring the period length by a CCD. To measure the refractive index of a transparent liquid or solution, the wedge is installed in a transparent rectangle cell containing the sample. Then, the cell is illuminated perpendicularly and the visibility period is measured. By using modest optics, one can measure the refractive index at a relative uncertainty level of 10(-5). There is no limitation on the refractive index range. The method can be applied easily with no mechanical manipulation. The measuring apparatus can be very compact with low mechanical and optical noises.

  4. Surface plasmon sensing of gas phase contaminants using optical fiber.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornberg, Steven Michael; White, Michael I.; Rumpf, Arthur Norman; Pfeifer, Kent Bryant


    Fiber-optic gas phase surface plasmon resonance (SPR) detection of several contaminant gases of interest to state-of-health monitoring in high-consequence sealed systems has been demonstrated. These contaminant gases include H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and moisture using a single-ended optical fiber mode. Data demonstrate that results can be obtained and sensitivity is adequate in a dosimetric mode that allows periodic monitoring of system atmospheres. Modeling studies were performed to direct the design of the sensor probe for optimized dimensions and to allow simultaneous monitoring of several constituents with a single sensor fiber. Testing of the system demonstrates the ability to detect 70mTorr partial pressures of H{sub 2} using this technique and <280 {micro}Torr partial pressures of H{sub 2}S. In addition, a multiple sensor fiber has been demonstrated that allows a single fiber to measure H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2}O without changing the fiber or the analytical system.

  5. Phase-sensitive multiple reference optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Dsouza, Roshan I.; Subhash, Hrebesh; Neuhaus, Kai; Hogan, Josh; Wilson, Carol; Leahy, Martin


    Multiple reference OCT (MR-OCT) is a recently developed novel time-domain OCT platform based on a miniature reference arm optical delay, which utilizes a single miniature actuator and a partial mirror to generate recirculating optical delay for extended axial-scan range. MR-OCT technology promises to fit into a robust and cost-effective design, compatible with integration into consumer-level devices for addressing wide applications in mobile healthcare and biometry applications. Using conventional intensity based OCT processing techniques, the high-resolution structural imaging capability of MR-OCT has been recently demonstrated for various applications including in vivo human samples. In this study, we demonstrate the feasibility of implementing phase based processing with MR-OCT for various functional applications such as Doppler imaging and sensing of blood vessels, and for tissue vibrography applications. The MR-OCT system operates at 1310nm with a spatial resolution of ~26 µm and an axial scan rate of 600Hz. Initial studies show a displacement-sensitivity of ~20 nm to ~120 nm for the first 1 to 9 orders of reflections, respectively with a mirror as test-sample. The corresponding minimum resolvable velocity for these orders are ~2.3 µm/sec and ~15 µm/sec respectively. Data from a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) model will be shown to demonstrate the feasibility of MR-OCT for imaging in-vivo blood flow.

  6. PAPR Reduction in All-optical OFDM Systems Based on Phase Pre-emphasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He Zhou; Li, Wei; Shao Jing; Liang Xiaojun; Huang Dexiu [Wuhan National Lab for Optoelectronics, Department of Optoelectronics Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Tao Zhiyong [State Key Laboratory of Optical Communication Technologies and Networks, Wuhan Research Institute of Posts and Telecommunications, Wuhan 430074 (China); Deng Zhuanhua, E-mail:, E-mail: [School of Computer Science and Technology, Hubei University of Economics, Wuhan 430205 (China)


    This paper investigates the peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) theory in all-optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) optical fibre communication systems. We find out that phase pre-emphasis could effectively reduce PAPR in all-optical OFDM communication systems which employ intensity modulation-direct detection (IM-DD) method. An equation is developed and proposed to calculate suitable phasing values for pre-emphasis. Furthermore, we find out that phase pre-emphasis cannot reduce PAPR effectively in all-optical OFDM systems that employ Phase Shift Keying (PSK) or Quadracture Amplitude Modulation (QAM) method.

  7. AlGaAs phased array laser for optical communications (United States)

    Carlson, N. W.


    Phased locked arrays of multiple AlGaAs diode laser emitters were investigated both in edge emitting and surface emitting configurations. CSP edge emitter structures, coupled by either evanescent waves or Y-guides, could not achieve the required powers (greater than or similar to 500 mW) while maintaining a diffraction limited, single lobed output beam. Indeed, although the diffraction limit was achieved in this type of device, it was at low powers and in the double lobed radiation pattern characteristic of out-of-phase coupling. Grating surface emitting (GSE) arrays were, therefore, investigated with more promising results. The incorporation of second order gratings in distribute Bragg reflector (DBR) structures allows surface emission, and can be configured to allow injection locking and lateral coupling to populate 2-D arrays that should be able to reach power levels commensurate with the needs of high performance, free space optical communications levels. Also, a new amplitude modulation scheme was developed for GSE array operation.

  8. Electrochemical and optical properties of a new donor–acceptor type conjugated polymer derived from 3,4–didodecyloxythiophene

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pramod Kumar Hegde; A Vasudeva Adhikari; M G Manjunatha


    In this communication, we report the synthesis and characterization of a new donor–acceptor type conjugated polymer carrying alternate 3,4-didodecyloxythiophene and (1,3,4-oxadiazol-yl)pyridine moieties and evaluation of its optical and electrochemical properties. The polymer was synthesized through precursor polyhydrazide route. It has well defined structure, stability and it shows good solubility in common organic solvents. Optical and electrochemical properties were studied by UV-visible, fluorescence spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetric studies, respectively. It displays bluish-green fluorescence both in solution and in film state. Cyclic voltammetric studies showed that the polymer P1 possesses a HOMO energy level of −6.01 and LUMO energy level of −3.34 eV. The preliminary studies clearly reveal that the new polymer can have potential application in the fabrication of light emitting diodes. The studies on its device application are in progress.

  9. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heck Martijn J.R.


    Full Text Available Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  10. Highly integrated optical phased arrays: photonic integrated circuits for optical beam shaping and beam steering (United States)

    Heck, Martijn J. R.


    Technologies for efficient generation and fast scanning of narrow free-space laser beams find major applications in three-dimensional (3D) imaging and mapping, like Lidar for remote sensing and navigation, and secure free-space optical communications. The ultimate goal for such a system is to reduce its size, weight, and power consumption, so that it can be mounted on, e.g. drones and autonomous cars. Moreover, beam scanning should ideally be done at video frame rates, something that is beyond the capabilities of current opto-mechanical systems. Photonic integrated circuit (PIC) technology holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems. PICs integrate, for example, lasers, modulators, detectors, and filters on a single piece of semiconductor, typically silicon or indium phosphide, much like electronic integrated circuits. This technology is maturing fast, driven by high-bandwidth communications applications, and mature fabrication facilities. State-of-the-art commercial PICs integrate hundreds of elements, and the integration of thousands of elements has been shown in the laboratory. Over the last few years, there has been a considerable research effort to integrate beam steering systems on a PIC, and various beam steering demonstrators based on optical phased arrays have been realized. Arrays of up to thousands of coherent emitters, including their phase and amplitude control, have been integrated, and various applications have been explored. In this review paper, I will present an overview of the state of the art of this technology and its opportunities, illustrated by recent breakthroughs.

  11. Optical clock recovery employing an optical PLL using cross-phase modulation in a Sagnac-interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Schubert, C.; Schmidt, C.


    Clock recovery (CR) is an essential part of any transmission system. In this paper, we propose a new type of optical clock recovery based on an optical PLL, where a SLALOM (Eiselt et al., 1995) acts as an ultrafast phase comparator. The scheme has been demonstrated successfully at bit rates up...

  12. Optical True Time Delay for Phased Array Antennas Composed of 2×2 Optical MEMS Switches and Fiber Delay Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Back-Song; Lee; Jong-Dug; Shin; Boo-Gyoun; Kim


    We proposed an optical true time delay (TTD) for phased array antennas (PAAs) composed of 2×2 optical MEMS switches, single-mode fiber delay lines, and a fixed wavelength laser diode. A 3-bit TTD for 10 GHz PAAs was implemented with a time delay error less than ± 0.2 ps.

  13. Optical clock recovery employing an optical PLL using cross-phase modulation in a Sagnac-interferometer


    Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Schubert, C.; Schmidt, C.; Hilliger, E.; Berger, J.; Feiste, U; R. Ludwig; Weber, H. G.


    Clock recovery (CR) is an essential part of any transmission system. In this paper, we propose a new type of optical clock recovery based on an optical PLL, where a SLALOM (Eiselt et al., 1995) acts as an ultrafast phase comparator. The scheme has been demonstrated successfully at bit rates up to 160 Gb/s.

  14. Optical amplifier exhibiting net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation and method of operation (United States)

    Feve, Jean-Philippe; Kliner, Dahv A. V.; Farrow; Roger L.


    An optical amplifier, such as an optical waveguide amplifier (e.g., an optical fiber amplifier or a planar waveguide) or a non-guiding optical amplifier, that exhibits a net phase-mismatch selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof is disclosed. In one aspect of the invention, an optical amplifier structure includes at least one optical amplifier having a length and a gain region. The at least one optical amplifier exhibits a net phase-mismatch that varies along at least part of the length thereof selected to at least partially reduce gain-induced phase-matching during operation thereof.

  15. Reduction of Timing Jitter by Clock Recovery based on an Optical Phase-Locked Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Mørk, Jesper; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo


    We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given.......We numerically investigate the phase noise requirements for combined electrical/optical local oscillators in a PLL-based clock recovery. Suggestions for reducing the timing jitter are given....

  16. A robust optical phase modulated 60 GHz RoF WDM system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Xianbin; Kozuch, Wojciech; Turkiewicz, Jaroslaw


    robust 4-channel WDM optical phase modulated 60GHz wireless fiber system is proposed and simulated. In this system, a Fabry-Perot (FP) frequency interleaver is designed to suppress optical carriers for 60GHz signal generation. The simulated results show that this phase modulated WDM system...

  17. Study on Phase Conjugation Effect of Ce∶Eu∶KNSBN Crystal%Ce∶ Eu∶ KNSBN晶体位相共轭效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王锐; 徐悟生; 刘欣荣; 赵朝忠


    Doping CeO2 and Eu2O3 in KNSBN and using Si-Mo bar as heater, Ce∶Eu∶KN SBN was gr own by Czochralski method. The self-pump phase conjugate reflectivity and respo n se time of Ce∶Eu∶KNSBN crystals with 18°-cut and 0°-cut were measured. The sel f-pump phase conjugate reflectivity of the sample with 18°-cut is superior to t hat of the sample with 0°-cut. Ce∶Eu∶KNSBN was taken as self-pump phase con juga te mirror and In∶Fe∶LiNbO3 crystal was taken as storage material to realize the association storage.%在KNSBN晶体中掺进CeO2和Eu2O3,以硅钼棒作加热体,利用Czochralski法生长Ce∶ Eu∶KNSBN晶体。测试18°切和0°切晶体的自泵浦位相共轭反射率和响应时间,18°切的样 品自泵浦位相共轭性能优于0°切的样品。采用自泵浦位相共轭镜,In∶Fe∶LiNbO3晶体 作为存储介质,实现了关联存储。

  18. Optical transfer function analysis of circular-pupil wavefront coding systems with separable phase masks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Ting-Yu; Liu Qin-Xiao; Yu Fei-Hong


    This paper proposes a simple method to achieve the optical transfer function of a circular pupil wavefront coding system with a separable phase mask in Cartesian coordinates.Based on the stationary phase method,the optical transfer function of the circular pupil system can be easily obtained from the optical transfer function of the rectangular pupil system by modifying the cut-off frequency and the on-axial modulation transfer function.Finally,a system with a cubic phase mask is used as an example to illustrate the way to achieve the optical transfer function of the circular pupil system from the rectangular pupil system.

  19. Comprehensive study of CD compensation and carrier phase estimation in optical communication systems influenced by equalization enhanced phase noise

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Tianhua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Sergeyev, Sergey; Friberg, Ari T; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Yimo


    The performance of long-haul coherent optical fiber transmission system is significantly affected by the equalization enhanced phase noise (EEPN), due to the interaction between the electronic dispersion compensation (EDC) and the laser phase noise. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study on different chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation and carrier phase recovery (CPR) approaches, in the n-level phase shift keying (n-PSK) and the n-level quadrature amplitude modulation (n-QAM) coherent optical transmission systems, considering the impacts of EEPN. Four CD compensation methods are considered: the time-domain equalization (TDE), the frequency-domain equalization (FDE), the least mean square (LMS) adaptive equalization are applied for EDC, and the dispersion compensating fiber (DCF) is employed for optical dispersion compensation (ODC). Meanwhile, three carrier phase recovery methods are also involved: a one-tap normalized least mean square (NLMS) algorithm, a block-wise average (BWA) algorithm, and a...

  20. Extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation and the effect of conjugate fields in optical resonator frequency combs


    Loures, Cristian Redondo; Faccio, Daniele; Biancalana, Fabio


    Starting from the infinite-dimensional Ikeda map, we derive an extended temporal Lugiato-Lefever equation that may account for the effects of the conjugate electromagnetic fields (also called `negative frequency fields'). In the presence of nonlinearity in a ring cavity, these fields lead to new forms of modulational instability and resonant radiations. Numerical simulations based on the new extended Lugiato-Lefever model show that the negative-frequency resonant radiations emitted by ultrash...

  1. Optical beam forming for phased-array antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijerink, A.; Roeloffzen, C.G.H.; Zhuang, L.; Marpaung, D.A.I.; Heideman, R.G.; Borreman, A.; Etten, van W.


    The activities of the Telecommunication Engineering (TE) group span the communications spectrum from copper cables, optical fibres, microwaves, radio and electromagnetic compatibility. Our research concentrates on optical signal processing and networks, mobile communications, microwave techniques an

  2. Numerical analysis of relative phase and amplitude at the interaction two solitons in optical fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakšić Branimir


    Full Text Available In this paper presented the analysis propagation solitons pair in optical fiber from the standpoint of relative amplitude and relative phase. Consider the influence of changes relative phase and amplitude in the interaction of two solitons in optical fibers. Shows the simulation (in the space-time domain of movement solitons pairs in optical fiber with the change of these two parameters.

  3. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads


    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude......We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  4. Alternative approach of conducting phase-modulated all-optical logic gates (United States)

    Chakraborty, Bikash; Mukhopadhyay, Sourangshu


    It is well established that optical devices and components are more advantageous than their electronic counterparts because of inherent parallelism in optics. Basically electronics are found to be very unsuitable in high speed (above gigahertz) data processing systems whereas tremendous operational speed (in the range of terahertz) can be achieved with the help of optics. The parallelism of optics and the properties of low loss transmission make optics a powerful technology for digital computing and processing and in long-range communications. Again it is well established that logic gates are the basic building blocks of any computing or data processing system. Therefore, any optical data processor needs suitable optically run logic gates. A method of conducting phase-modulated all-optical logic gates is proposed. Here we will exploit the advantages of phase modulation not only in processing but also in encoding as well decoding also.

  5. Genetic Algorithm Phase Retrieval for the Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment Testbed (United States)

    Taylor, Jaime; Rakoczy, John; Steincamp, James


    Phase retrieval requires calculation of the real-valued phase of the pupil fimction from the image intensity distribution and characteristics of an optical system. Genetic 'algorithms were used to solve two one-dimensional phase retrieval problem. A GA successfully estimated the coefficients of a polynomial expansion of the phase when the number of coefficients was correctly specified. A GA also successfully estimated the multiple p h e s of a segmented optical system analogous to the seven-mirror Systematic Image-Based Optical Alignment (SIBOA) testbed located at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center. The SIBOA testbed was developed to investigate phase retrieval techniques. Tiphilt and piston motions of the mirrors accomplish phase corrections. A constant phase over each mirror can be achieved by an independent tip/tilt correction: the phase Conection term can then be factored out of the Discrete Fourier Tranform (DFT), greatly reducing computations.

  6. A phase insensitive all-optical router based on nonlinear lenslike planar waveguides. (United States)

    Mateo, Eduardo; Liñares, Jesús


    We present the design of an all-optical router based on the properties of both propagation and interaction of Gaussian beams in lenslike planar guides. Variational results of single co- and counterpropagation are derived and used to design three integrated optical devices, that is, a header extraction device, an optical bistable device and a data routing device, which perform an ultrafast, phase-insensitive and fiber compatible routing operation in the optical domain.

  7. Influence of the nonlinear phase and ASE noise on DPSK balanced optical receiver in optical fiber communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李蔚; 梅君瑶; 韩庆生; 王腾


    The analytical expression of bit error probability in a balanced differential phase-shift keying(DPSK) optical receiver considering nonlinear phase noise and EDFA ASE noise is given,which is very useful to estimate the performance of DPSK balanced and unbalanced receiver in optical communication system.Through analysis,if only nonlinear phase noise is considered,both the balance and unbalanced receivers have the same performances.But if adding the ASE noise of EDFA,the balanced receiver is better.

  8. Design of a fiber-optic transmitter for microwave analog transmission with high phase stability (United States)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Primas, L. E.; Maleki, L.


    The principal considerations in the design of fiber-optic transmitters for highly phase-stable radio frequency and microwave analog transmission are discussed. Criteria for a fiber-optic transmitter design with improved amplitude and phase-noise performance are developed through consideration of factors affecting the phase noise, including low-frequency laser-bias supply noise, the magnitude and proximity of external reflections into the laser, and temperature excursions of the laser-transmitter package.

  9. Intrachannel cross-phase modulation-induced phase shift in high-speed dispersion-managed optical fiber transmission system (United States)

    Syed, Nitu; Faisal, Mohammad


    We investigate the intrachannel cross-phase modulation (IXPM)-induced phase shift in optical return-to-zero pulse propagating in a periodically dispersion-managed long-haul optical fiber transmission line. Necessary dynamical equations for various pulse parameters have been derived using variational analysis to estimate the phase shift. These equations are solved by the Runge-Kutta method. The analytical result is verified by numerical simulation based on split-step Fourier method. We therefore explore the effects of various parameters, such as transmission distance, input power, duty cycle, dispersion map strength, and residual dispersion, on phase shift for a 40 Gb/s single-channel transmission system. We also check the impact of variation of bit rate on phase shift. We find that IXPM-induced phase shift can be mitigated by proper adjustment of dispersion management and different pulse parameters like duty cycle, dispersion map strength, and peak power.

  10. Phame: a novel phase metrology tool of Carl Zeiss for in-die phase measurements under scanner relevant optical settings (United States)

    Perlitz, Sascha; Buttgereit, Ute; Scherübl, Thomas


    Meeting the demands of the lithography mask manufacturing industry moving toward 45nm and 32nm node for in-die phase metrology on phase shifting masks, Zeiss is currently developing an optical phase measurement tool (Phame TM), providing the capability of extending process control from large CD test features to in-die phase shifting features with high spatial resolution. In collaboration with Intel, the necessity of designing this optical metrology tool according to the optical setup of a lithographic exposure tool (scanner) has been researched to be fundamental for the acquisition of phase information generated from features the size of the used wavelength. Main cause is the dependence of the image phase of a scanner on polarization and the angle of incidence of the illumination light due to rigorous effects, and on the imaging NA of the scanner due to the loss of phase information in the imaging pupil. The resulting scanner phase in the image plane only coincides with the etch-depth equivalent phase for large test features, exceeding the size of the in-die feature by an order of magnitude. In this paper we introduce the Phame TM phase metrology tool, using a 193nm light source with the optical capability of phase measurement at scanner NA up to the equivalent of a NA1.6 immersion scanner, under varying, scanner relevant angle of incidence for EAPSMs and CPLs, and with the possibility of polarizing the illuminating light. New options for phase shifting mask process control on in-die features will be outlined with first measurement results.

  11. Frequency transfer via a two-way optical phase comparison on a multiplexed fiber network. (United States)

    Calosso, C E; Bertacco, E; Calonico, D; Clivati, C; Costanzo, G A; Frittelli, M; Levi, F; Mura, A; Godone, A


    We performed a two-way remote optical phase comparison on optical fiber. Two optical frequency signals were launched in opposite directions in an optical fiber and their phases were simultaneously measured at the other end. In this technique, the fiber noise is passively canceled, and we compared two optical frequencies at the ultimate 10(-21) stability level. The experiment was performed on a 47 km fiber that is part of the metropolitan network for Internet traffic. The technique relies on the synchronous measurement of the optical phases at the two ends of the link, which is here performed by digital electronics. This scheme offers some advantages with respect to active noise cancellation schemes, as the light travels only once in the fiber.

  12. Experimental study on optical image encryption with asymmetric double random phase and computer-generated hologram. (United States)

    Xi, Sixing; Wang, Xiaolei; Song, Lipei; Zhu, Zhuqing; Zhu, Bowen; Huang, Shuai; Yu, Nana; Wang, Huaying


    Optical image encryption, especially double-random-phase-based, is of great interest in information security. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the security and feasibility of optical image encryption with asymmetric double random phase and computer-generated hologram (CGH) by using spatial light modulator. First of all, the encrypted image modulated by asymmetric double random phase is numerically encoded into real-value CGH. Then, the encoded real-value CGH is loaded on the spatial light modulator and optically decrypted in self-designed experimental system. Experimental decryption results are in agreement with numerical calculations under the prober/mistaken phase keys condition. This optical decryption technology opens a window of optical encryption practical application and shows great potential for digital multimedia product copyright protection and holographic false trademark.

  13. All-optical short pulse translation through cross-phase modulation in a VO₂ thin film. (United States)

    Fardad, Shima; Das, Susobhan; Salandrino, Alessandro; Breckenfeld, Eric; Kim, Heungsoo; Wu, Judy; Hui, Rongqing


    VO2 is a promising material for reconfigurable photonic devices due to the ultrafast changes in electronic and optical properties associated with its dielectric-to-metal phase transition. Based on a fiber-optic, pump-probe setup at 1550 nm wavelength window, and by varying the pump-pulse duration, we show that the material phase transition is primarily caused by the pump-pulse energy. For the first time, we demonstrate that the instantaneous optical phase modulation of probe during pump leading edge can be utilized to create short optical pulses at probe wavelength, through optical frequency discrimination. This circumvents the impact of long recovery time well known for the phase transition of VO2.

  14. Distinguishing the Effects of Bond-Length Alternation versus Bond-Order Alternation on the Nonlinear Optical Properties of π-Conjugated Chromophores

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.


    Understanding the relationships between the molecular nonlinear optical (NLO) properties and the bond-length alternation (BLA) or π-bond-order alternation (BOA) along the molecular backbone of linear π-conjugated systems has proven widely useful in the development of NLO organic chromophores and materials. Here, we examine model polymethines to elucidate the reliability of these relationships. While BLA is solely a measure of molecular geometric structure, BOA includes information pertaining to the electronic structure. As a result, BLA is found to be a good predictor of NLO properties only when optimized geometries are considered, whereas BOA is more broadly applicable. Proper understanding of the distinction between BLA and BOA is critical when designing computational studies of NLO properties, especially for molecules in complex environments or in nonequilibrium geometries. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  15. Phase-locking and coherent power combining of broadband linearly chirped optical waves. (United States)

    Satyan, Naresh; Vasilyev, Arseny; Rakuljic, George; White, Jeffrey O; Yariv, Amnon


    We propose, analyze and demonstrate the optoelectronic phase-locking of optical waves whose frequencies are chirped continuously and rapidly with time. The optical waves are derived from a common optoelectronic swept-frequency laser based on a semiconductor laser in a negative feedback loop, with a precisely linear frequency chirp of 400 GHz in 2 ms. In contrast to monochromatic waves, a differential delay between two linearly chirped optical waves results in a mutual frequency difference, and an acoustooptic frequency shifter is therefore used to phase-lock the two waves. We demonstrate and characterize homodyne and heterodyne optical phase-locked loops with rapidly chirped waves, and show the ability to precisely control the phase of the chirped optical waveform using a digital electronic oscillator. A loop bandwidth of ~ 60 kHz, and a residual phase error variance of locking of two optical paths to a common master waveform, and the ability to electronically control the resultant two-element optical phased array. The results of this work enable coherent power combining of high-power fiber amplifiers-where a rapidly chirping seed laser reduces stimulated Brillouin scattering-and electronic beam steering of chirped optical waves.

  16. Bright conjugated polymer nanoparticles containing a biodegradable shell produced at high yields and with tuneable optical properties by a scalable microfluidic device. (United States)

    Abelha, T F; Phillips, T W; Bannock, J H; Nightingale, A M; Dreiss, C A; Kemal, E; Urbano, L; deMello, J C; Green, M; Dailey, L A


    This study compares the performance of a microfluidic technique and a conventional bulk method to manufacture conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) embedded within a biodegradable poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether-block-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PEG5K-PLGA55K) matrix. The influence of PEG5K-PLGA55K and conjugated polymers cyano-substituted poly(p-phenylene vinylene) (CN-PPV) and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT) on the physicochemical properties of the CPNs was also evaluated. Both techniques enabled CPN production with high end product yields (∼70-95%). However, while the bulk technique (solvent displacement) under optimal conditions generated small nanoparticles (∼70-100 nm) with similar optical properties (quantum yields ∼35%), the microfluidic approach produced larger CPNs (140-260 nm) with significantly superior quantum yields (49-55%) and tailored emission spectra. CPNs containing CN-PPV showed smaller size distributions and tuneable emission spectra compared to F8BT systems prepared under the same conditions. The presence of PEG5K-PLGA55K did not affect the size or optical properties of the CPNs and provided a neutral net electric charge as is often required for biomedical applications. The microfluidics flow-based device was successfully used for the continuous preparation of CPNs over a 24 hour period. On the basis of the results presented here, it can be concluded that the microfluidic device used in this study can be used to optimize the production of bright CPNs with tailored properties with good reproducibility.

  17. Packaged semiconductor laser optical phase locked loop for photonic generation, processing and transmission of microwave signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langley, L.N.; Elkin, M.D.; Edege, C.


    In this paper, we present the first fully packaged semiconductor laser optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) microwave photonic transmitter. The transmitter is based on semiconductor lasers that are directly phase locked without the use of any other phase noise-reduction mechanisms. In this transmitter...

  18. 16 channel WDM regeneration in a single phase-sensitive amplifier through optical Fourier transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guan, Pengyu; Da Ros, Francesco; Lillieholm, Mads


    We demonstrate simultaneous phase regeneration of 16-WDM DPSK channels using optical Fourier transformation and a single phase-sensitive amplifier. The BERs of 16-WDM×10-Gbit/s phase noise degraded DPSK signals are improved by 0.4-1.3 orders of magnitude...

  19. High phase noise tolerant pilot-tone-aided DP-QPSK optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Xu; Pang, Xiaodan; Deng, Lei


    In this paper we experimentally demonstrate a novel, high phase-noise tolerant, optical dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) communication system based on pilot-tone-aided phase noise cancellation (PNC) algorithm. Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs...

  20. Fabrication of optical multilayer for two-color phase plate in super-resolution microscope. (United States)

    Iketaki, Yoshinori; Kitagawa, Katsuichi; Hidaka, Kohjiro; Kato, Naoki; Hirabayashi, Akira; Bokor, Nandor


    In super-resolution microscopy based on fluorescence depletion, the two-color phase plate (TPP) is an indispensable optical element, which can independently control the phase shifts for two beams of different color, i.e., the pump and erase beams. By controlling a phase shift of the erase beam through the TPP, the erase beam can be modulated into a doughnut shape, while the pump beam maintains the initial Gaussian shape. To obtain a reliable optical multiplayer (ML) for the TPP, we designed a ML with only two optical layers by performing numerical optimization. The measured phase shifts generated by the fabricated ML using interferometry correspond to the design values. The beam profiles in the focal plane are also consistent with theoretical results. Although the fabricated ML consists of only two optical layers, the ML can provide a suitable phase modulation function for the TPP in a practical super-resolution microscope.

  1. Design-oriented analytic model of phase and frequency modulated optical links (United States)

    Monsurrò, Pietro; Saitto, Antonio; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro; Vannucci, Antonello; Cimmino, Rosario F.


    An analytic design-oriented model of phase and frequency modulated microwave optical links has been developed. The models are suitable for design of broadband high dynamic range optical links for antenna remoting and optical beamforming, where noise and linearity of the subsystems are a concern Digital filter design techniques have been applied to the design of optical filters working as frequency discriminator, that are the bottleneck in terms of linearity for these systems. The models of frequency modulated, phase modulated, and coherent I/Q link have been used to compare performance of the different architectures in terms of linearity and SFDR.

  2. Modified geometrical optics of a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium: the anisotropy, Berry phase, and the optical Magnus effect. (United States)

    Bliokh, K Yu; Bliokh, Yu P


    We present a modification of the geometrical optics method, which allows one to properly separate the complex amplitude and the phase of the wave solution. Appling this modification to a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic medium, we show that in the first geometrical optics approximation the medium is weakly anisotropic. The refractive index, being dependent on the direction of the wave vector, contains the correction, which is proportional to the Berry geometric phase. Two independent eigenmodes of right-hand and left-hand circular polarizations exist in the medium. Their group velocities and phase velocities differ. The difference in the group velocities results in the shift of the rays of different polarizations (the optical Magnus effect). The difference in the phase velocities causes an increase of the Berry phase along with the interference of two modes leading to the familiar Rytov law about the rotation of the polarization plane of a wave. The theory developed suggests that both the optical Magnus effect and the Berry phase are accompanying nonlocal topological effects. In this paper the Hamilton ray equations giving a unified description for both of these phenomena have been derived and also a novel splitting effect for a ray of noncircular polarization has been predicted. Specific examples are also discussed.

  3. Optical Emission Spectroscopy Study of Competing Phases of Electrons in the Second Landau Level. (United States)

    Levy, A L; Wurstbauer, U; Kuznetsova, Y Y; Pinczuk, A; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Manfra, M J; Gardner, G C; Watson, J D


    Quantum phases of electrons in the filling factor range 2≤ν≤3 are probed by the weak optical emission from the partially populated second Landau level and spin wave measurements. Observations of optical emission include a multiplet of sharp peaks that exhibit a strong filling factor dependence. Spin wave measurements by resonant inelastic light scattering probe breaking of spin rotational invariance and are used to link this optical emission with collective phases of electrons. A remarkably rapid interplay between emission peak intensities manifests phase competition in the second Landau level.

  4. A novel modulation and direct detection scheme of optical phase shift keying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongcai Yang(杨永才); Wolfgang Vogel


    This paper introduces a new modulation and direct detection scheme of optical phase shift keying (PSK)which is simple and practical in fiber optical communication. A phase modulator is used to modulate a continuous wave (CW) laser source and return-to-zero (RZ) signal that is changed from the initial transmitting information is used to control a phase modulator to form a optical PSK signal. In the receiver terminal, just add a signal delayed a half of one bit to itself so that the initial information can be restored.

  5. Optical double-image cryptography based on diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating. (United States)

    Chen, Wen; Chen, Xudong; Sheppard, Colin J R


    In this paper, we propose a method using structured-illumination-based diffractive imaging with a laterally-translated phase grating for optical double-image cryptography. An optical cryptosystem is designed, and multiple random phase-only masks are placed in the optical path. When a phase grating is laterally translated just before the plaintexts, several diffraction intensity patterns (i.e., ciphertexts) can be correspondingly obtained. During image decryption, an iterative retrieval algorithm is developed to extract plaintexts from the ciphertexts. In addition, security and advantages of the proposed method are analyzed. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are demonstrated by numerical simulation results.

  6. Parallel optical sorting of biological cells using the generalized phase contrast method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Lars; Bu, Minqiang; Glückstad, Jesper


    of biological cells in microfluidic systems exclusively using light. We demonstrate an optical cell sorter that uses simultaneous manipulation by multiple laser beams using the Generalized Phase Contrast method (GPC). The basic principle in an optical sorter is that the radiation force of the optical beam can...... push the biological cell from one microfluidic sheath flow to another. By incorporating a spatial light modulator the manipulation can be made parallel with multiple laser beams. We claim advantages over the serial optical sorters with only a single laser beam that has been demonstrated by others.......Optical forces are used to fixate biological cells with optical tweezers where numerous biological parameters and phenomena can be studied. Optical beams carry a small momentum which generates a weak optical force, but on a cellular level this force is strong enough to allow for manipulation...

  7. Closed-loop phase stabilizing and phase stepping methods for fiber-optic projected-fringe digital interferometry. (United States)

    Chao, Zhang; Fa-Jie, Duan


    Closed-loop active homodyne control can be used to make an interferometer steady against phase fluctuating followed by, for example, temperature gradients. This technology is introduced to stabilize π/2 -rad phase steps in a full-field interferometer. Two beams emitted from a fiber-optic coupler are combined to form an interference fringe pattern on a diffusely reflecting object. Fresnel reflections from the distal fiber ends undergo a double pass in the fibers and interference at the fourth port of the coupler which formed a Michelson interferometer. We suggested two means of ac phase tracking (PTAC) and dc phase tracking (PTDC) to maintain the interference intensity at quadrature by feedback control. Stepping between quadrature positions forces a π/2 -rad phase step. A method based on the ratio of harmonic of the interference signal was proposed to estimate phase step accuracy. A root-mean-square phase stability of 1.5 mrad and phase step accuracy of 2.6 mrad were measured with PTAC and a root-mean-square phase stability of 2 mrad and phase step accuracy of 13.8 mrad were measured with PTDC for the fiber-optic projected-fringe digital interferometry following the same condition. It worked well in two hours without resetting the integrator.





    In communication system, the noise process must be known, in order to compute the system performance. The nonlinear effects act as strong perturbation in long- haul system. This perturbation effects the signal, when interact with amplitude noise, and results in random motion of the phase of the signal. Based on the perturbation theory, the variance of nonlinear phase noise contaminated by both self- and cross-phase modulation, is derived analytically for phase-shift- keying system. Through th...

  9. Phase II metabolism in human skin: skin explants show full coverage for glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, catechol methylation, and glutathione conjugation. (United States)

    Manevski, Nenad; Swart, Piet; Balavenkatraman, Kamal Kumar; Bertschi, Barbara; Camenisch, Gian; Kretz, Olivier; Schiller, Hilmar; Walles, Markus; Ling, Barbara; Wettstein, Reto; Schaefer, Dirk J; Itin, Peter; Ashton-Chess, Joanna; Pognan, Francois; Wolf, Armin; Litherland, Karine


    Although skin is the largest organ of the human body, cutaneous drug metabolism is often overlooked, and existing experimental models are insufficiently validated. This proof-of-concept study investigated phase II biotransformation of 11 test substrates in fresh full-thickness human skin explants, a model containing all skin cell types. Results show that skin explants have significant capacity for glucuronidation, sulfation, N-acetylation, catechol methylation, and glutathione conjugation. Novel skin metabolites were identified, including acyl glucuronides of indomethacin and diclofenac, glucuronides of 17β-estradiol, N-acetylprocainamide, and methoxy derivatives of 4-nitrocatechol and 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene. Measured activities for 10 μM substrate incubations spanned a 1000-fold: from the highest 4.758 pmol·mg skin(-1)·h(-1) for p-toluidine N-acetylation to the lowest 0.006 pmol·mg skin(-1)·h(-1) for 17β-estradiol 17-glucuronidation. Interindividual variability was 1.4- to 13.0-fold, the highest being 4-methylumbelliferone and diclofenac glucuronidation. Reaction rates were generally linear up to 4 hours, although 24-hour incubations enabled detection of metabolites in trace amounts. All reactions were unaffected by the inclusion of cosubstrates, and freezing of the fresh skin led to loss of glucuronidation activity. The predicted whole-skin intrinsic metabolic clearances were significantly lower compared with corresponding whole-liver intrinsic clearances, suggesting a relatively limited contribution of the skin to the body's total systemic phase II enzyme-mediated metabolic clearance. Nevertheless, the fresh full-thickness skin explants represent a suitable model to study cutaneous phase II metabolism not only in drug elimination but also in toxicity, as formation of acyl glucuronides and sulfate conjugates could play a role in skin adverse reactions.

  10. Controlling molecular ordering in solution-state conjugated polymers. (United States)

    Zhu, J; Han, Y; Kumar, R; He, Y; Hong, K; Bonnesen, P V; Sumpter, B G; Smith, S C; Smith, G S; Ivanov, I N; Do, C


    Rationally encoding molecular interactions that can control the assembly structure and functional expression in a solution of conjugated polymers hold great potential for enabling optimal organic optoelectronic and sensory materials. In this work, we show that thermally-controlled and surfactant-guided assembly of water-soluble conjugated polymers in aqueous solution is a simple and effective strategy to generate optoelectronic materials with the desired molecular ordering. We have studied a conjugated polymer consisting of a hydrophobic thiophene backbone and hydrophilic, thermo-responsive ethylene oxide side groups, which shows a step-wise, multi-dimensional assembly in water. By incorporating the polymer into phase-segregated domains of an amphiphilic surfactant in solution, we demonstrate that both chain conformation and degree of molecular ordering of the conjugated polymer can be tuned in hexagonal, micellar and lamellar phases of the surfactant solution. The controlled molecular ordering in conjugated polymer assembly is demonstrated as a key factor determining the electronic interaction and optical function.

  11. Generation and Analysis of Hidden Optical-Polarization States

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Ravi S


    A hybrid Optical-Device (Phase-Conjugating Mirror Michelson Interferometer), made up of Phase-conjugate mirror along with ordinary mirror and Polarization Beam-splitter, is formally designed and investigated for the generation of an unusual Optical-Polarization States. This weird yet 'essentially single-mode' optical-polarization state has non-random 'ratio of amplitudes' and non-random 'sum of phases' in orthogonal bases-modes contrary to usual 'truly single-mode' optical-polarization states of which non-random 'ratio of amplitudes' and non-random 'difference of phases' serves as optical-polarization characteristic parameters. Since it is seen not to be characterized by Stokes parameters, one may, therefore, assign the name 'Hidden Optical-Polarization States (HOPS)'. HOPS are characterized by a set of parameters, namely, Hidden Optical-Polarization parameters. Formal experimental schemes are presented to experimentally measure these parameters and, thus, offering characterization of HOPS.

  12. Fiber Optic Microcantilever Sensor Coupled with Reactive Polymers for Vapor Phase Detection of Ammonia Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations proposes to adapt its current aqueous-based, fiber-optic microcantilever sensor technology for real-time, monitoring of ammonia in air. Phase I...

  13. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Vishwa; Ghosh, R


    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, $\\alpha$. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through $\\alpha$ in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as $\\alpha$ varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to $\\alpha$.

  14. Optical phase dynamics in mutually coupled diode laser systems exhibiting power synchronization (United States)

    Pal, Vishwa; Prasad, Awadhesh; Ghosh, R.


    We probe the physical mechanism behind the known phenomenon of power synchronization of two diode lasers that are mutually coupled via their delayed optical fields. In a diode laser, the amplitude and the phase of the optical field are coupled by the so-called linewidth enhancement factor, α. In this work, we explore the role of optical phases of the electric fields in amplitude (and hence power) synchronization through α in such mutually delay-coupled diode laser systems. Our numerical results show that the synchronization of optical phases drives the powers of lasers to synchronized death regimes. We also find that as α varies for different diode lasers, the system goes through a sequence of in-phase amplitude-death states. Within the windows between successive amplitude-death regions, the cross-correlation between the field amplitudes exhibits a universal power-law behaviour with respect to α.

  15. Reducing the phase sensitivity of laser-based optical reservoir computing systems. (United States)

    Nguimdo, Romain Modeste; Verschaffelt, Guy; Danckaert, Jan; Van der Sande, Guy


    Optical implementations of reservoir computing systems are very promising because of their high processing speeds and the possibility to process several tasks in parallel. These systems can be implemented using semiconductor lasers subject to optical delayed feedback and optical injection. While the amount of the feedback/injection can be easily controlled, it is much more difficult to control the optical feedback/injection phase. We present extensive numerical investigations of the influence of the feedback/injection phases on laser-based reservoir computing systems with feedback. We show that a change in the phase can lead to a strong reduction in the reservoir computing system performance. We introduce a new readout layer design that -at least for some tasks- reduces this sensitivity to changes in the phase. It consists in optimizing the readout weights from a coherent combination of the reservoir's readout signal and its delayed version rather than only from the reservoir's readout signal as is usually done.

  16. Long-term optical phase locking between femtosecond Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yohei; Yoshitomi, Dai; Kakehata, Masayuki; Takada, Hideyuki; Torizuka, Kenji


    Long-term optical phase-coherent two-color femtosecond pulses were generated by use of passively timing-synchronized Ti:sapphire and Cr:forsterite lasers. The relative carrier-envelope phase relation was fixed by an active feedback loop. The accumulated phase noise from 10 mHz to 1 MHz of the locked beat note was 0.43 rad, showing tight phase locking. The optical frequency fluctuation between two femtosecond combs was submillihertz, with a 1 s averaged counter measurement over 3400 s, leading to a long-term femtosecond frequency-comb connection.

  17. Optical Fourier techniques for medical image processing and phase contrast imaging. (United States)

    Yelleswarapu, Chandra S; Kothapalli, Sri-Rajasekhar; Rao, D V G L N


    This paper briefly reviews the basics of optical Fourier techniques (OFT) and applications for medical image processing as well as phase contrast imaging of live biological specimens. Enhancement of microcalcifications in a mammogram for early diagnosis of breast cancer is the main focus. Various spatial filtering techniques such as conventional 4f filtering using a spatial mask, photoinduced polarization rotation in photosensitive materials, Fourier holography, and nonlinear transmission characteristics of optical materials are discussed for processing mammograms. We also reviewed how the intensity dependent refractive index can be exploited as a phase filter for phase contrast imaging with a coherent source. This novel approach represents a significant advance in phase contrast microscopy.

  18. Stability aspects of a fiber optic sensor for CO2 phase monitoring (United States)

    Prada, Dario; Martelli, Cicero; Gouvêa, Paula M. P.; Kato, Carla C.; Braga, Arthur M. B.; Gomes, Marcos S. P.


    In this paper we discuss the stability and effectiveness of an optical fiber sensor for CO2 phase monitoring that could be used inside pipelines, rock caverns and steel tanks for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) systems; in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes; and in mapping of natural reservoirs. The sensor is an optical fiber refractometer and is shown to be capable of identifying phase changes and when two-phase systems co-exist, even near the phase transition line. When properly calibrated, the sensor can be used to obtain the refractive index and density (calculated with the Lorentz-Lorentz formula) of CO2.

  19. DSP based coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Peucheret, Christophe


    A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated.......A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated....

  20. Distributed MIMO Antenna Architecture for Wireless-over- Fiber Backhaul with Multicarrier Optical Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Wong, Shing-Wa; Zibar, Darko


    A novel optical phase-modulated wireless-over-fiber backhaul architecture for next generation cellular network is presented and experimentally demonstrated for high capacity wireless multicarrier uplink transmission on a single wavelength.......A novel optical phase-modulated wireless-over-fiber backhaul architecture for next generation cellular network is presented and experimentally demonstrated for high capacity wireless multicarrier uplink transmission on a single wavelength....

  1. Brillouin suppression in a fiber optical parametric amplifier by combining temperature distribution and phase modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorenzen, Michael Rodas; Noordegraaf, Danny; Nielsen, Carsten Vandel


    We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation.......We demonstrate an increased gain in optical parametric amplier through suppression of stimulated Brillouin scattering by applying a temperature distribution along the fiber resulting in a reduction of the required phase modulation....

  2. Frequency-resolved noise figure measurements of phase (in)sensitive fiber optical parametric amplifiers. (United States)

    Malik, R; Kumpera, A; Lorences-Riesgo, A; Andrekson, P A; Karlsson, M


    We measure the frequency-resolved noise figure of fiber optical parametric amplifiers both in phase-insensitive and phase-sensitive modes in the frequency range from 0.03 to 3 GHz. We also measure the variation in noise figure due to the degradation in pump optical signal to noise ratio and also as a function of the input signal powers. Noise figure degradation due to stimulated Brillouin scattering is observed.

  3. 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) in direct detection optical communication systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sambaraju, R.; Tokle, Torger; Jensen, J.B.;


    Optical 16-level differential phase shift keying (D16PSK) carrying four bits for every symbol is proposed for direct detection optical communication systems. Transmitter and receiver schematics are presented, and the receiver sensitivity is discussed. We numerically investigate the impact...

  4. Experimental demonstration of heterodyne phase-locked loop for optical homodyne PSK receivers in PONs


    Fàbrega Sánchez, Josep Maria; Vilabrú, Lluís; Prat Gomà, Josep Joan


    Experimental demonstration of heterodyne optical Phase-Locked Loop (oPLL), using simplest optics, is carried out. For the first time, the effect of loop delay has been experimentally characterized and compared directly to the most significant oPLL configurations. It demonstrates a linewidth tolerance of 6.5 MHz if FEC codes are used. Peer Reviewed

  5. CdTe quantum dots: aqueous phase synthesis, stability studies and protein conjugation for development of biosensors (United States)

    Borse, Vivek; Sadawana, Mayur; Srivastava, Rohit


    Synthesis of quantum dots (QDs) in aqueous medium is advantageous as compared to the organic solvent mediated synthesis, as the aqueous synthesis is less toxic, reagent effective, easily reproducible and importantly, synthesized QDs have biological compatibility. The QDs should be aqueous in nature for use in cell imaging, drug labeling, tracking and delivery. Structural modifications are necessary to enable their use in biosensing application. In this work, mercaptopropionic acid capped cadmium telluride QDs (MPA-CdTe QDs) were synthesized by hydrothermal method and characterized by various techniques. Water and various biochemical buffers were used to study the fluorescence intensity stability of the QDs at different physicochemical conditions. QDs stored in 4° C showed excellent stability of fluorescence intensity values as compared to the samples stored at room temperature. Staphylococcal protein A (SPA) was conjugated with the QDs (SPA-QDs) and characterized using UV and fluorescence spectroscopy, zeta potential, HRTEM, FTIR, and AFM. Blue shift was observed in the fluorescence emission spectra that may be due to reduction in the surface charge as carboxyl groups on QDs were replaced by amino groups of SPA. This SPA conjugated to QDs enables binding of the C-terminal of antibodies on its surface allowing N-terminal binding site remain free to bind with antigenic biomarkers. Thus, the biosensor i.e. antibody bound on SPA-QDs would bind to the antigenic biomarkers in sample and the detection system could be developed. As QDs have better fluorescence properties than organic dyes, this biosensor will provide high sensitivity and quantitative capability in diagnostics.

  6. Nonlinear phase noise in coherent optical OFDM transmission systems. (United States)

    Zhu, Xianming; Kumar, Shiva


    We derive an analytical formula to estimate the variance of nonlinear phase noise caused by the interaction of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise with fiber nonlinearity such as self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), and four-wave mixing (FWM) in coherent orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems. The analytical results agree very well with numerical simulations, enabling the study of the nonlinear penalties in long-haul coherent OFDM systems without extensive numerical simulation. Our results show that the nonlinear phase noise induced by FWM is significantly larger than that induced by SPM and XPM, which is in contrast to traditional WDM systems where ASE-FWM interaction is negligible in quasi-linear systems. We also found that fiber chromatic dispersion can reduce the nonlinear phase noise. The variance of the total phase noise increases linearly with the bit rate, and does not depend significantly on the number of subcarriers for systems with moderate fiber chromatic dispersion.

  7. APE: the Active Phasing Experiment to test new control system and phasing technology for a European Extremely Large Optical Telescope (United States)

    Gonte, F.; Yaitskova, N.; Derie, F.; Constanza, A.; Brast, R.; Buzzoni, B.; Delabre, B.; Dierickx, P.; Dupuy, C.; Esteves, R.; Frank, C.; Guisard, S.; Karban, R.; Koenig, E.; Kolb, J.; Nylund, M.; Noethe, L.; Surdej, I.; Courteville, A.; Wilhelm, R.; Montoya, L.; Reyes, M.; Esposito, S.; Pinna, E.; Dohlen, K.; Ferrari, M.; Langlois, M.


    The future European Extremely Large Telescope will be composed of one or two giant segmented mirrors (up to 100 m of diameter) and of several large monolithic mirrors (up to 8 m in diameter). To limit the aberrations due to misalignments and defective surface quality it is necessary to have a proper active optics system. This active optics system must include a phasing system to limit the degradation of the PSF due to misphasing of the segmented mirrors. We will present the lastest design and development of the Active Phasing Experiment that will be tested in laboratory and on-sky connected to a VLT at Paranal in Chile. It includes an active segmented mirror, a static piston plate to simulate a secondary segmented mirror and of four phasing wavefront sensors to measure the piston, tip and tilt of the segments and the aberrations of the VLT. The four phasing sensors are the Diffraction Image Phase Sensing Instrument developed by Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, the Pyramid Phasing Sensor developed by Arcetri Astrophysical Observatory, the Shack-Hartmann Phasing Sensor developed by the European Southern Observatory and the Zernike Unit for Segment phasing developed by Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille. A reference measurement of the segmented mirror is made by an internal metrology developed by Fogale Nanotech. The control system of Active Phasing Experiment will perform the phasing of the segments, the guiding of the VLT and the active optics of the VLT. These activities are included in the Framework Programme 6 of the European Union.

  8. Numerical modeling of the phase-conjugate laser with an intra-cavity stimulated Brillouin scattering mirror: Q-switching mode (United States)

    Yashkir, Yuri


    We present a new computer numerical model of the phase-conjugate laser, utilizing an intra-cavity Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) element. The modelled laser system includes the active laser crystal which is placed between the output coupler mirror and a stimulated Brillouin scattering cell. The numerical model includes a set of rate equations for the active crystal inverse population, and for the photon density inside the laser cavity. The SBS backscattering model is based on a reduced set of coupled equations for electromagnetic fields for two waves (a pump wave and an SBS wave) propagating in opposite directions. The numerical integration of the set of equations simulates in detail the temporal dynamics of the laser. A wide range of realistic system parameters was numerically investigated. Different laser regimes (from a quasi -CW mode to a Q-switched mode) were numerically tested. The method of numerical modelling of such laser system can be efficiently used for an optimal laser design.

  9. Resolving phase information of the optical local density of state with scattering near-field probes (United States)

    Prasad, R.; Vincent, R.


    We theoretically discuss the link between the phase measured using a scattering optical scanning near-field microscopy (s-SNOM) and the local density of optical states (LDOS). A remarkable result is that the LDOS information is directly included in the phase of the probe. Therefore by monitoring the spatial variation of the trans-scattering phase, we locally measure the phase modulation associated with the probe and the optical paths. We demonstrate numerically that a technique involving two-phase imaging of a sample with two different sized tips should allow to obtain the image the pLDOS. For this imaging method, numerical comparison with extinction probe measurement shows crucial qualitative and quantitative improvement.

  10. A Finite Temperature Phase Diagram in Rotating Bosonic Optical Lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Bei-Bing; WAN Shao-Long


    A finite temperature phase diagram of the rotating Bose-Hubbard model, including the crossover between Mott insulator and the normal state, is derived on the frame of the Gutzwiller mean-field theory. In addition, we calculate the critical temperature of superBuid-normal phase transition.%@@ A finite temperature phase diagram of the rotating Bose-Hubbard model, including the crossover between Mort insulator and the normal state, is derived on the frame of the Gutzwiller mean-field theory.In addition, we calculate the critical temperature of superfluid-normal phase transition.

  11. Phase Transition and Optical Properties of Solid Oxygen under High Pressure: A Density Functional Theory Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Hui; TIAN Fu-Bo; MA Yan-Ming; HE Zhi; CUI Tian; LIU Bing-Bing; ZOU Guang-Tian


    Crystal structures and optical properties of the δ-O,2 phase and the ε-O,8 phase have been investigated by using the ab initio pseudopotential plane-wave method. It is found that the phase transition is of the first order with a discontinuous volumetric change from the antiferromagnetic δ-O,2 phase to the nonmagnetic ε-O8 phase, consistent with the experimental findings. The energy band calculations show that the direct band gap changes into an indirect band gap after the phase transition. The apparent change in the optical properties can be used for identifying the phase transition from δ-O2 to ε-O,8.

  12. Optical second harmonic generation phase measurement at interfaces of some organic layers with indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngah Demon, Siti Zulaikha [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Department of Physics, Centre of Defence Foundation Studies, National Defence University of Malaysia, 53 000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Miyauchi, Yoshihiro [Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Sciences, National Defense Academy of Japan, 239-8686 Kanagawa (Japan); Mizutani, Goro, E-mail: [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Murata, Hideyuki [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 923-1292 Ishikawa (Japan)


    Highlights: • SHG phase from the interfaces of ITO/CuPc and ITO/pentacene was observed. • Optical dispersion of the organic thin film was taken into account. • Phase shift from bare ITO was 140° for ITO/CuPc and 160° for ITO/pentacene. - Abstract: We observed phase shift in optical second harmonic generation (SHG) from interfaces of indium tin oxide (ITO)/copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and ITO/pentacene. Phase correction due to Fresnel factors of the sample was taken into account. The phase of SHG electric field at the ITO/pentacene interface, ϕ{sub interface} with respect to the phase of SHG of bare substrate ITO was 160°, while the interface of ITO/CuPc had a phase of 140°.

  13. Graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas. (United States)

    Tatoli, Teresa; Conteduca, Donato; Dell'Olio, Francesco; Ciminelli, Caterina; Armenise, Mario N


    The design of an integrated graphene-based fine-tunable optical delay line on silicon nitride for optical beamforming in phased-array antennas is reported. A high value of the optical delay time (τg=920  ps) together with a compact footprint (4.15  mm2) and optical loss antennas. The delay line includes two graphene-based Mach-Zehnder interferometer switches and two vertically stacked microring resonators between which a graphene capacitor is placed. The tuning range is obtained by varying the value of the voltage applied to the graphene electrodes, which controls the optical path of the light propagation and therefore the delay time. The graphene provides a faster reconfigurable time and low values of energy dissipation. Such significant advantages, together with a negligible beam-squint effect, allow us to overcome the limitations of conventional RF beamformers. A highly efficient fine-tunable optical delay line for the beamsteering of 20 radiating elements up to ±20° in the azimuth direction of a tile in a phased-array antenna of an X-band synthetic aperture radar has been designed.

  14. Fundamental Noise-Limited Optical Phase Locking at Femtowatt Light Levels (United States)

    Dick, John; Tu, Meirong; Birnbaum, Kevin; Strekalov, Dmitry; Yu, Nan


    We describe an optical phase lock loop (PLL) designed to recover an optical carrier at powers below one picowatt in a Deep Space optical transponder. Previous low power optical phase lock has been reported with powers down to about 1 pW. We report the demonstration and characterization of the optical phase locking at femtowatt levels. We achieved a phase slip rate below one cycle-slip/second at powers down to 60 femtowatts. This phase slip rate corresponds to a frequency stability of 1 10(exp -14) at 1 s, a value better than any frequency standard available today for measuring times equal to a typical two-way delay between Earth and Mars. The PLL shows very robust stability at these power levels. We developed simulation software to optimize parameters of the second order PLL loop in the presence of laser flicker frequency noise and white phase (photon) noise, and verified the software with a white phase noise model by Viterbi. We also demonstrated precise Doppler tracking at femtowatt levels.

  15. Two-dimensional phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier domain optical coherence tomography. (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Huang, David; Su, Ya; Yao, X Steve


    For phase-related imaging modalities using interferometric techniques, it is important to develop effective method to recover phase information that is mathematically wrapped. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a two-dimensional (2D) method to achieve effective phase unwrapping in Doppler Fourier-domain (FD) optical coherence tomography (OCT), and recover the discontinuous phase distribution in retinal blood flow successfully for the first time in Doppler OCT studies. The proposed method is based on phase gradient approach in the axial dimension, with phase denoising performed through 2D window moving average in the sampled phase image using complex Doppler OCT data. The 2D unwrapping is carried out to correct phase discontinuities in the wrapped Doppler phase map, and the abrupt phase changes can be identified and corrected accurately. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient and easy to be implemented.

  16. A method for phase reconstruction in optical three-dimensional shape measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Nao-Sheng; He Zhi


    In optical three-dimensional shape measurement,a method of improving the measurement precision for phase reconstruction without phase unwrapping is analyzed in detail.Intensities of any five consecutive pixels that lie in the x-axis direction of the phase domain are given.Partial derivatives of the phase function in the x- and y-axis directions are obtained with a phase-shifting mechanism,the origin of which is analysed.Furthermore,to avoid phase unwrapping in the phase reconstruction,we derive the gradient of the phase function and perform a two-dimensional integral along the x- and y-axis directions.The reconstructed phase can be obtained directly by performing numerical integration,and thus it is of great convenience for phase reconstruction.Finally,the results of numerical simulations and practical experiments verify the correctness of the proposed method.

  17. Folic acid-conjugated GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2 Nanoprobe for folate receptor-targeted optical and magnetic resonance bi-modal imaging (United States)

    Xu, Xianzhu; Zhang, Xiaoying; Wu, Yanli


    Both fluorescent and magnetic nanoprobes have great potential applications for diagnostics and therapy. In the present work, a folic acid-conjugated and silica-modified GdPO4:Tb3+ (GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2-FA) dual nanoprobe was strategically designed and synthesized for the targeted dual-modality optical and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging via a facile aqueous method. Their structural, optical, and magnetic properties were determined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectra (UV-Vis), photoluminescence (PL), and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID). These results indicated that GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2-FA were uniform monodisperse core-shell structured nanorods (NRs) with an average length of 200 nm and an average width of 25 nm. The paramagnetic property of the synthesized GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2-FA NRs was confirmed with its linear hysteresis plot (M-H). In addition, the NRs displayed an obvious T1-weighted effect and thus it could potentially serve as a T1-positive contrast agent. The NRs emitted green lights due to the 5D4 → 7F5 transition of the Tb3+. The in vitro assays with NCI-H460 lung cancer cells and human embryonic kidney cell line 293T cells indicated that the GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2-FA nanoprobe could specifically bind the cells bearing folate receptors (FR). The MTT assay of the NRs revealed that its cytotoxicity was very low. Further in vivo MRI experiments distinctively depict enhanced anatomical features in a xenograft tumor. These results suggest that the GdPO4:Tb3+@SiO2-FA NPs have excellent imaging and cell-targeting abilities for the folate receptor-targeted dual-modality optical and MR imaging and can be potentially used as the nanoprobe for bioimaging.

  18. Phase Sensitive Amplification using Parametric Processes in Optical Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kang, Ning

    , in specific, the design and optimization of such phase sensitive amplifiers (PSAs). For phase sensitive amplification in highly nonlinear fibers, optima points of operation have been identified for both the standard and the novel high stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold highly nonlinear fiber....... Finally, preliminary simulations were carried out to investigate the inline amplification properties of such PSAs, and their pulse shaping capabilities....

  19. Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael


    , such as body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic, can be suppressed by a proper choice of the potential depth and periodicity. Furthermore, by varying the harmonic trap parameters and/or the optical potential in time, controlled transitions between crystal structures can be obtained with close to unit......We investigate numerically the structural dynamics of ion Coulomb crystals confined in a three-dimensional harmonic trap when influenced by an additional one-dimensional optically induced periodical potential. We demonstrate that transitions between thermally excited crystal structures...

  20. Nonequilibrium optical conductivity: General theory and application to transient phases (United States)

    Kennes, D. M.; Wilner, E. Y.; Reichman, D. R.; Millis, A. J.


    A nonequilibrium theory of optical conductivity of dirty-limit superconductors and commensurate charge density wave is presented. We discuss the current response to different experimentally relevant light-field probe pulses and show that a single frequency definition of the optical conductivity σ (ω )≡j (ω )/E (ω ) is difficult to interpret out of the adiabatic limit. We identify characteristic time-domain signatures distinguishing between superconducting, normal-metal, and charge density wave states. We also suggest a route to directly address the instantaneous superfluid stiffness of a superconductor by shaping the probe light field.

  1. The Berry phase and the Aharonov-Bohm effect on optical activity. (United States)

    Tan, C Z


    The helical crystal structure in optically active media acts as the natural micro-solenoids for the electromagnetic waves passing through them, producing the longitudinal magnetic field in the direction of the axis of helices. Magnetic flux through the helical structure is quantized. The Berry phase is induced by rotation of the electrons around the helical structure. Optical rotation is related to the difference in the accumulative Berry phase between the right-, and the left-circularly polarized waves, which is proportional to the magnetic flux through the helical structure, according to the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The optical activity is the natural Faraday effect and the natural Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  2. Phase-sensitive optical pulse characterization on a chip via Spectral Phase Interferometry for Direct Electric-Field Reconstruction (SPIDER)

    CERN Document Server

    Pasquazi, Alessia; Park, Yongwoo; Little, Brent E; Chu, Sai T; Morandotti, Roberto; Azana, Jose; Moss, David J


    The recent introduction of coherent optical communications has created a compelling need for ultra-fast phase-sensitive measurement techniques operating at milliwatt peak power levels and in time scales ranging from sub-picoseconds to nanoseconds. Previous reports of ultrafast optical signal measurements in integrated platforms[8-10] include time-lens temporal imaging on a silicon chip[8,9] and waveguide-based Frequency-Resolved Optical Gating (FROG). Time-lens imaging is phase insensitive while waveguide-based FROG methods require the integration of long tuneable delay lines - still an unsolved challenge. Here, we report a device capable of characterizing both the amplitude and phase of ultrafast optical pulses with the aid of a synchronized incoherently-related clock pulse. It is based on a novel variation of Spectral Phase Interferometry for Direct Electric-Field Reconstruction (SPIDER)that exploits degenerate four-wave-mixing (FWM) in a CMOS compatible chip. We measure pulses with 1THz, and up to 100ps pu...

  3. Optical differential phase-shift keyed signal generation, transmission and detection (United States)

    Lize, Yannick Keith

    When encoding information on an electromagnetic wave such as infrared light, to be transmitted through an optical fibre in telecommunication networks, any of the physical properties of light can be modulated. Light has a frequency, intensity, polarization and a phase. Until recently, optical communication systems strictly employed conventional intensity (IM) modulation signals in either non return-to-zero (NRZ) or return-to-zero (RZ) format. But a number of advanced optical modulation formats have attracted increasing attention in the last few years. One prime example is the phase-shift-keyed (PSK) family of formats which carry the information on the optical phase. Since absolute phase is not easily detected through coherent demodulation, differential encoding in which the phase of the preceding bit is used as a relative phase reference for demodulation has become a method of choice for phase modulated signals. The result in the differential-phase-shift-keyed (DPSK) formats, which carry the information in the difference in optical phase between successive bits. In this thesis by article, composed of six papers, we investigate the generation, transmission and demodulation of DPSK in optical fibre transmission systems. We propose a novel way to encode optical packets using DPSK in our investigation of the generation. We also investigate transmission effects monitoring using a novel partial-bit delay interferometer-assisted clock tone monitoring method for sensitive optical-signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion monitoring. Then we look at the demodulation of DPSK, first investigating the reduced tolerances and power penalties of DPSK demodulation when more than one bit delay is used in the interferometer. We also propose an optical error correction method combining DPSK optical logic gates with electronic logic gates to improve receiver sensitivity and transmission impairment tolerances. Finally we redefine the previously

  4. Preparation and characterization of silica monolith modified with bovine serum albumin-gold nanoparticles conjugates and its use as chiral stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography. (United States)

    Lu, Junyu; Ye, Fanggui; Zhang, Aizhu; Wei, Zong; Peng, Yan; Zhao, Shulin


    This paper describes the development of silica monolith modified with bovine serum albumin-gold nanoparticles (BSA-GNPs) conjugates as chiral stationary phases for capillary electrochromatography (CEC). The bare monolithic silica column was prepared by a sol-gel process and has been modified chemically with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane to provide thiol groups, followed by immobilization of gold nanoparticles via the formation of an Au-S bond and modification with BSA as the chiral selector via the nitrogen lone pair of electrons. It has been demonstrated that the monolithic chiral stationary phases can be used for the enantioseparation of a number of phenylthiocarbamyl amino acids (PTC-D/L-AAs) by CEC. Ten pairs of tested amino acids enantiomers were successfully resolved within 18 min under optimized conditions, and the resolution values were in the range of 1.486-2.083. With PTC-D/L-tryptophan used as the probe solute, the influences of applied voltage, organic modifier and buffer pH in mobile phase on apparent retention factor, enantioselectivity and resolution factor were also investigated.

  5. Adaptive Optics for EUV Lithography: Phase Retrieval for Wavefront Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.


    In the semiconductor industry, optical lithography is presently the most widespread technology used to print a geometrical pattern on a semiconductor wafer. Because of the plans imposed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for more powerful and smaller chips, new printin

  6. Electro-Optical Aerosol Phase Function Database PFNDAT2005 (United States)


    Pollack, J.B.; Khare, B.N. Optical Constants of Several Atmospheric Aerosol Species, Ammonium Sulphate , Aluminum Oxide and Sodium Chloride. J. of...16 Table 12. Precipitation rates, number...rain at three precipitation rates (drizzle, moderate, and heavy); and two classes of snow, “dry” and “wet”. Dusts are treated under four categories

  7. Adaptive Optics for EUV Lithography: Phase Retrieval for Wavefront Metrology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polo, A.


    In the semiconductor industry, optical lithography is presently the most widespread technology used to print a geometrical pattern on a semiconductor wafer. Because of the plans imposed by the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) for more powerful and smaller chips, new printin

  8. Optically induced structural phase transitions in ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horak, Peter; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael


    , such as body-centered cubic and face-centered cubic, can be suppressed by a proper choice of the potential depth and periodicity. Furthermore, by varying the harmonic trap parameters and/or the optical potential in time, controlled transitions between crystal structures can be obtained with close to unit...

  9. Ultrafast optical phase modulation with metallic nanoparticles in ion-implanted bilayer silica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres-Torres, C [Seccion de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, ESIME-Z, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, DF, 07738 (Mexico); Tamayo-Rivera, L; Silva-Pereyra, H G; Reyes-Esqueda, J A; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L; Crespo-Sosa, A; Cheang-Wong, J C; Oliver, A [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04510, Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rangel-Rojo, R [Departamento de Optica, Centro de Investigacion Cientifica y de Educacion Superior de Ensenada Apartado Postal 360, Ensenada, BC, 22860 (Mexico); Torres-Martinez, R, E-mail: [Centro de Investigacion en Ciencia Aplicada y TecnologIa Avanzada Unidad Queretaro, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Santiago de Queretaro, Queretaro, 76090 (Mexico)


    The nonlinear optical response of metallic-nanoparticle-containing composites was studied with picosecond and femtosecond pulses. Two different types of nanocomposites were prepared by an ion-implantation process, one containing Au nanoparticles (NPs) and the other Ag NPs. In order to measure the optical nonlinearities, we used a picosecond self-diffraction experiment and the femtosecond time-resolved optical Kerr gate technique. In both cases, electronic polarization and saturated absorption were identified as the physical mechanisms responsible for the picosecond third-order nonlinear response for a near-resonant 532 nm excitation. In contrast, a purely electronic nonlinearity was detected at 830 nm with non-resonant 80 fs pulses. Regarding the nonlinear optical refractive behavior, the Au nanocomposite presented a self-defocusing effect, while the Ag one presented the opposite, that is, a self-focusing response. But, when evaluating the simultaneous contributions when the samples are tested as a multilayer sample (silica-Au NPs-silica-Ag NPs-silica), we were able to obtain optical phase modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, as a result of a significant optical Kerr effect present in these nanocomposites. This allowed us to implement an ultrafast all-optical phase modulator device by using a combination of two different metallic ion-implanted silica samples. This control of the optical phase is a consequence of the separate excitation of the nonlinear refracting phenomena exhibited by the separate Au and Ag nanocomposites.

  10. Low-Complexity Tracking of Laser and Nonlinear Phase Noise in WDM Optical Fiber Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yankov, Metodi Plamenov; Fehenberger, Tobias; Barletta, Luca;


    In this paper, the wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) fiber optic channel is considered. It is shown that for ideal distributed Raman amplification (IDRA), the Wiener process model is suitable for the non-linear phase noise due to cross phase modulation from neighboring channels. Based...

  11. Ultrafast broadband tuning of resonant optical nanostructures using phase change materials

    CERN Document Server

    Rudé, Miquel; Cetin, Arif E; Miller, Timothy A; Carrilero, Albert; Wall, Simon; de Abajo, F Javier García; Altug, Hatice; Pruneri, Valerio


    The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission {EOT} through arrays of nanoholes patterned in a metallic film has emerged as a promising tool for a wide range of applications, including photovoltaics, nonlinear optics, and sensing. Designs and methods enabling the dynamic tuning of the optical resonances of these structures are essential to build efficient optical devices, including modulators, switches, filters, and biosensors. However, the efficient combination of EOT and dynamic tuning remains a challenge, mainly because of the lack of materials that can induce modulation over a broad spectral range at high speeds. Here, we demonstrate tuneable resonance wavelength shifts as large as 385 nm - an order of magnitude higher than previously reported - through the combination of phase change materials {PCMs}, which exhibit dramatic variations in optical properties upon transitions between amorphous and crystalline phases, with properly designed subwavelength nanohole metallic arrays. We further find throu...

  12. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for RF/Optical Phased Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optoelectronic integrated holds the key to higher performance, reduced mass and radiation-hard space systems. A special need is increased flexibility of phased...

  13. Optoelectronic Infrastructure for RF/Optical Phased Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Optoelectronic integrated circuits offer radiation-hard solutions for satellite systems with much improved SWPB (size, weight, power and bandwidth). The phased array...

  14. All-optical $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric amplitude to phase modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Gutiérrez, Oscar Ignacio Zaragoza; Rodríguez-Lara, B M


    We study electromagnetic field propagation through a planar three-waveguide coupler with linear gain and loss, in a configuration that is the optical analog of a quantum $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric system, and provide its closed-form analytic propagator. At an specific propagation length, we show that the device provides all-optical amplitude to phase modulation with a $\\pi$ modulation range, if an extra binary phase is allowed in the reference signal, as well as phase to amplitude modulation, with an amplitude modulation range that depends linearly on the gain-to-coupling ratio of the system.

  15. Interferometric distributed sensing system with phase optical time-domain reflectometry (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Shang, Ying; Liu, Xiaohui; Wang, Chang; Wang, Hongzhong; Peng, Gangding


    We demonstrate a distributed optical fiber sensing system based on the Michelson interferometer of the phase sensitive optical time domain reflectometer (φ-OTDR) for acoustic measurement. Phase, amplitude, frequency response, and location information can be directly obtained at the same time by using the passive 3×3 coupler demodulation. We also set an experiment and successfully restore the acoustic information. Meanwhile, our system has preliminary realized acoustic-phase sensitivity around -150 dB (re rad/μPa) in the experiment.

  16. Hyperresolving phase-only filters with an optically addressable liquid crystal spatial light modulator. (United States)

    McOrist, J; Sharma, M D; Sheppard, C J R; West, E; Matsuda, K


    Hyperresolving (sometimes called 'superresolving' or 'ultraresolving') phase-only filters can be generated using an optically addressable liquid crystal spatial light modulator. This approach avoids the problems of low efficiency, and coupling between amplitude and phase modulation, that arise when using conventional liquid crystal modulators. When addressed by a programmed light intensity distribution, it allows filters to be changed rapidly to modify the response of a system or permit the investigation of different filter designs. In this paper we present experimental hyperresolved images obtained using an optically addressable parallel-aligned nematic LCD with two zone Toraldo type phase-only filters. The images are compared with theoretical predictions.

  17. Extracting optical scattering properties on the basis of phase contrast images for diagnosing stomach cancer (United States)

    Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Zhang, Hui; Lin, Xiaona; Chen, Wei R.


    We combine morphological granulometry with Mie theory in order to analyze phase contrast images of biomedical tissue for cancer diagnosis. This method correlates microscopic phase distributions of the tissue image and macroscopic optical scattering properties of the tissue. Our results show that the particle size density distribution can be used to quantitatively identify morphological changes of cancerous stomach tissues. Our method can distinguish normal tissue from cancerous tissues, using the significant differences in scattering coefficient, reduced scattering coefficient and phase function. Therefore, this method can provide not only quantitative information for the diagnosis of cancer, but also accurate optical scattering parameters for photothermal therapy for cancer.

  18. Bias phase and light power dependence of the random walk coefficient of fiber optic gyroscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Mi; Chunxi Zhang; Zheng Li; Zhanjun Wu


    @@ Taking account of shot noise, thermal noise, dark current noise, and intensity noise that come from broad band light source, the dependence of the random walk coefficient of fiber optic gyroscope (FOG) on bias phase and light power is studied theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that with different optical and electronic parameters, the optimal bias phase is different and should be adjusted accordingly to improve the FOG precision. By choosing appropriate bias phase, the random walk coefficient of the aim FOG is reduced from 0.0026 to 0.0019 deg./h1/2.

  19. Incoherent optical correlators and phase encoding of identification codes for access control or authentication (United States)

    Brasher, James D.; Johnson, Eric G.


    We show how phase-only filters can be used in incoherent optical correlators for security applications such as access control, identification, or authentication. As a specific example, a biometric signature, a fingerprint, is encoded in a phase-only representation. The phase encoding is accomplished with the method of generalized projections onto constraint sets implemented by an iterated Fourier transform algorithm. The operation of an incoherent optical security system using both a phase-only filter generated with the generalized projections algorithm and a phase-only matched filter is simulated. The results demonstrate that the selected access pattern was accepted while a false pattern was rejected by the security system and that better recognition and discrimination performance was attained with the phase-only filter produced by the generalized projections algorithm.

  20. Optically induced phase transition of excitons in coupled quantum dots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Zi-Dong


    The weak classical light excitations in many semiconductor quantum dots have been chosen as important solidstate quantum systems for processing quantum information and implementing quantum computing. For strong classical light we predict theoretically a novel phase transition as a function of magnitude of this classical light from the deformed to the normal phases in resonance case, and the essential features of criticality such as the scaling behaviour, critical exponent and universality are also present in this paper.

  1. Phase-referenced Doppler optical coherence tomography in scattering media. (United States)

    Pedersen, Cameron J; Yazdanfar, Siavash; Westphal, Volker; Rollins, Andrew M


    We present a fiber-based, low-coherence interferometer that significantly reduces phase noise by incorporating a second, narrowband, continuous-wave light source as a phase reference. By incorporating this interferometer into a Doppler OCT system, we demonstrate significant velocity noise reduction in reflective and scattering samples using processing techniques amenable to real-time implementation. We also demonstrate 90% suppression of velocity noise in a flow phantom.

  2. Quantitative security evaluation of optical encryption using hybrid phase- and amplitude-modulated keys. (United States)

    Sarkadi, Tamás; Koppa, Pál


    In the increasing number of system approaches published in the field of optical encryption, the security level of the system is evaluated by qualitative and empirical methods. To quantify the security of the optical system, we propose to use the equivalent of the key length routinely used in algorithmic encryption. We provide a calculation method of the number of independent keys and deduce the binary key length for optical data encryption. We then investigate and optimize the key length of the combined phase- and amplitude-modulated key encryption in the holographic storage environment, which is one of the promising solutions for the security enhancement of single- and double-random phase-encoding encryption and storage systems. We show that a substantial growth of the key length can be achieved by optimized phase and amplitude modulation compared to phase-only encryption. We also provide experimental confirmation of the model results.

  3. Phase Noise Influence in Optical OFDM Systems employing RF Pilot Tone for Phase Noise Cancellation


    Jacobsen, Gunnar; Kazovsky, Leonid G.; Xu, TianHua; Popov, Sergei; Li, Jie; Zhang, Yimo; Friberg, Ari T.


    For coherent and direct-detection Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexed (OFDM) systems employing radio frequency (RF) pilot tone phase noise cancellation the influence of laser phase noise is evaluated. Novel analytical results for the common phase error and for the (modulation dependent) inter carrier interference are evaluated based upon Gaussian statistics for the laser phase noise. In the evaluation it is accounted for that the laser phase noise is filtered in the correlation signal d...

  4. Superfluid-Mott-Insulator Phase Transition and Collective Fluctuations in both Phases of Bosons in an Optical Lattice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Rui


    The Bose Hubbard model describing interacting bosons in an optical lattice is reduced to a simple spin-1 XY model with single-ion anisotropy in the vicinity of the Mott phase. In the strong coupling Mott insulating regime,we propose a mean field theory based on a constraint SU(3) pseudo-boson representation on the effective model and discuss the excitation spectra and the phase transition to the superfluid state. Further to the superfluid phase, we use the coherent-state approach to derive the collective excitation modes. It is found that the Mott phase has two degenerate gapped quadratic excitation spectra which graduate into two degenerate gapless linear ones at the transition point, and one gapless linear mode with one gapped quadratic mode in the superfluid phase.

  5. Optical phase extraction algorithm based on the continuous wavelet and the Hilbert transforms

    CERN Document Server

    Bahich, Mustapha; Barj, Elmostafa


    In this paper we present an algorithm for optical phase evaluation based on the wavelet transform technique. The main advantage of this method is that it requires only one fringe pattern. This algorithm is based on the use of a second {\\pi}/2 phase shifted fringe pattern where it is calculated via the Hilbert transform. To test its validity, the algorithm was used to demodulate a simulated fringe pattern giving the phase distribution with a good accuracy.

  6. Optical phase modulator utilizing a transparent piezofilm for use with the extrinsic fiber interferometer (United States)

    Sudarshanam, V. S.; Claus, Richard O.


    A piezoelectnc polyvinylidene flouride (PVF2) film with transparent indium tin oxide electrode metallization is placed directly in the path of a single mode fiber output, to form an extrinsic optical interferometer. This device can be used concurrently with another extrinsic inteferometer on a fiber directional coupler to generate a carrier phase modulation on which the signal phase shift is superimposed. Experimental results of the induced phase shifting coefficient are presented for two arrangements of the piezofilm differing in their boundary clamping conditions.

  7. A 2-10 GHz GaAs MMIC opto-electronic phase detector for optical microwave signal generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Marlene; Gliese, Ulrik Bo; Petersen, Anders Kongstad;


    Optical transmission of microwave signals becomes increasingly important. Techniques using beat between optical carriers of semiconductor lasers are promising if efficient optical phase locked loops are realized. A highly efficient GaAs MMIC optoelectronic phase detector for a 2-10 GHz OPLL...

  8. Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt


    as demonstrated in a variety of different optical systems(3-8). Most of these accounts, however, deal with the measurement of a very small shift of an already known phase, which is in stark contrast to ab initio phase estimation where the initial phase is unknown(9-12). Here, we report on the realization...... of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...

  9. Ultralow-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal generator assisted with an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb. (United States)

    Ishizawa, A; Nishikawa, T; Goto, T; Hitachi, K; Sogawa, T; Gotoh, H


    Low-noise millimetre-wave signals are valuable for digital sampling systems, arbitrary waveform generation for ultra-wideband communications, and coherent radar systems. However, the phase noise of widely used conventional signal generators (SGs) will increase as the millimetre-wave frequency increases. Our goal has been to improve commercially available SGs so that they provide a low-phase-noise millimetre-wave signal with assistance from an electro-optics-modulator-based optical frequency comb (EOM-OFC). Here, we show that the phase noise can be greatly reduced by bridging the vast frequency difference between the gigahertz and terahertz ranges with an EOM-OFC. The EOM-OFC serves as a liaison that magnifies the phase noise of the SG. With the EOM-OFC used as a phase noise "booster" for a millimetre-wave signal, the phase noise of widely used SGs can be reduced at an arbitrary frequency f (6 ≦ f ≦ 72 GHz).

  10. Investigation on the Optical and Surface Morphology of Conjugated Polymer MEH-PPV:ZnO Nanocomposite Thin Films


    Nurul Zayana Yahya; Mohamad Rusop


    Thin films of red color poly(2-methoxy-5(2′-ethylhexyloxy)-phenylene vinylene) (MEH-PPV) containing different weight percent of ZnO nanoparticles were obtained by spin-coating techniques. The MEH-PPV:ZnO solutions were spin coated onto silicon and glass substrates. The spun MEH-PPV:ZnO thin films were then used to investigate optical properties by using ultraviolet-visible spectrometer (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence spectrophotometer (PL). The morphologies were investigated by using field emi...

  11. Application of Quantum-Dot Conjugates for Detection and Subspecies Differentiation of Vibrio cholerae by Optical Methods (United States)

    Erohin, P. S.; Utkin, D. V.; Kouklev, V. E.; Ossina, N. A.; Miheeva, E. A.; Alenkina, T. V.


    The application of bioconjugates of specific antibodies and CdSe quantum dots to identify two serovariants of Vibrio cholerae using fluorescence microscopy and optical spectroscopy is considered. It is found that a mixture of different bioconjugates with different emission maxima can be used without affecting the specificity of the method. Different V. cholerae serovariants are colored differently in fl uorescence microscopy (bright green and bright yellow), thereby allowing subspecies differentiation. The absorption spectrum of the bacterial suspension changed with homologous antigens in the sample and did not change with heterologous antigens. It is shown that the quantum-dot bioconjugates can serve as an alternative to the traditional fluorescence and agglutination diagnostics.

  12. Quadrivalent meningococcal vaccination of adults: phase III comparison of an investigational conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, with the licensed vaccine, Menactra. (United States)

    Reisinger, Keith S; Baxter, Roger; Block, Stanley L; Shah, Jina; Bedell, Lisa; Dull, Peter M


    Neisseria meningitidis is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis in the United States, with the highest case fatality rates reported for individuals > or = 15 years of age. This study compares the safety and immunogenicity of the Novartis Vaccines investigational quadrivalent meningococcal CRM(197) conjugate vaccine, MenACWY-CRM, to those of the licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccine, Menactra, when administered to healthy adults. In this phase III multicenter study, 1,359 adults 19 to 55 years of age were randomly assigned to one of four groups (1:1:1:1 ratio) to receive a single dose of one of three lots of MenACWY-CRM or a single dose of Menactra. Serum samples obtained at baseline and 1 month postvaccination were tested for serogroup-specific serum bactericidal activity using human complement (hSBA). The hSBA titers following vaccination with MenACWY-CRM and Menactra were compared in noninferiority and prespecified superiority analyses. Reactogenicity was similar in the MenACWY-CRM and Menactra groups, and neither vaccine was associated with a serious adverse event. When compared with Menactra, MenACWY-CRM met the superiority criteria for the proportions of recipients achieving a seroresponse against serogroups C, W-135, and Y and the proportion of subjects achieving postvaccination titers of > or = 1:8 for serogroups C and Y. MenACWY-CRM's immunogenicity was statistically noninferior (the lower limit of the two-sided 95% confidence interval was more than -10%) to that of Menactra for all four serogroups, with the postvaccination hSBA geometric mean titers being consistently higher for MenACWY-CRM than for Menactra. MenACWY-CRM is well tolerated in adults 19 to 55 years of age, with immune responses to each of the serogroups noninferior and, in some cases, statistically superior to those to Menactra.

  13. Phase I/II Trial of Labetuzumab Govitecan (Anti-CEACAM5/SN-38 Antibody-Drug Conjugate) in Patients With Refractory or Relapsing Metastatic Colorectal Cancer. (United States)

    Dotan, Efrat; Cohen, Steven J; Starodub, Alexander N; Lieu, Christopher H; Messersmith, Wells A; Simpson, Pamela S; Guarino, Michael J; Marshall, John L; Goldberg, Richard M; Hecht, J Randolph; Wegener, William A; Sharkey, Robert M; Govindan, Serengulam V; Goldenberg, David M; Berlin, Jordan D


    Purpose The objectives were to evaluate dosing schedules of labetuzumab govitecan, an antibody-drug conjugate targeting carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 5 (CEACAM5) for tumor delivery of 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin (SN-38), in an expanded phase II trial of patients with relapsed or refractory metastatic colorectal cancer. Patients and Methods Eligible patients with at least one prior irinotecan-containing therapy received labetuzumab govitecan once weekly at 8 and 10 mg/kg, or two times per week at 4 and 6 mg/km on weeks 1 and 2 of 3-week repeated cycles. End points were safety, response, pharmacokinetics, and immunogenicity. Results Eighty-six patients who had undergone a median of five prior therapies (range, one to 13) were each enrolled into one of the four cohorts. On the basis of Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1, 38% of these patients had a tumor as well as plasma carcinoembryonic antigen reduction from baseline after labetuzumab govitecan treatment; one patient achieved a partial response with a sustained response spanning > 2 years, whereas 42 patients had stable disease as the best overall response. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 3.6 and 6.9 months, respectively. The major toxicities (grade ≥ 3) among all cohorts were neutropenia (16%), leukopenia (11%), anemia (9%), and diarrhea (7%). The antibody-drug conjugate's mean half-life was 16.5 hours for the four cohorts. Anti-drug/anti-antibody antibodies were not detected. The two once-weekly dose schedules, showing comparable toxicity and efficacy, were chosen for further study. Conclusion Monotherapy with labetuzumab govitecan demonstrated a manageable safety profile and therapeutic activity in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, all with prior irinotecan therapy. Further studies of labetuzumab govitecan treatment alone or in combination with other therapies in earlier settings are indicated.

  14. High-Power Amplifier Compatible Internally Sensed Optical Phased Array for Space Debris Tracking and Maneuvering (United States)

    Roberts, L.; Francis, S.; Sibley, P.; Ward, R.; Smith, C.; McClelland, D.; Shaddock, D.


    Optical phased arrays (OPAs) provide a way to scale optical power beyond the capabilities of conventional CW lasers via coherent beam combination. By stabilising the relative output phase of multiple spatially separate lasers, OPAs form a coherent optical wavefront in the far field. Since the phase of each laser can be controlled independently, OPAs also have the ability to manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far field, and therefore may provide the capability to compensate for atmospheric turbulence. Combined with their inherent scalability and high power handling capabilities, OPAs are a promising technology for CW space debris ranging and manoeuvring. The OPA presented here is unique in its ability to sense the phase of each laser internally, without requiring any external sampling optics between it and the telescope. This allows the internally sensed OPA to be constructed entirely within fibre, utilising high-power fiber amplifiers to scale optical power beyond the limits of any conventional single lasers. The total power that can be delivered by each emitter in the OPA is limited only by the onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering, a non-linear effect that clamps the amount of power that can be delivered through a fiber waveguide. A three element internally sensed OPA developed at the Australian National University has been demonstrated to coherently combine three commercial 15 Watt fiber amplifiers with an output phase stability of one 200th of a wavelength. We have also demonstrated the ability to dynamically manipulate the distribution of optical power in the far-field at a bandwidth of up to 10 kHz. Since the OPA's control system is implemented using field-programmable gate-array technology, the system may be scaled beyond 100 emitters, potentially reaching the kilowatt level optical powers required to perturb the orbit of space debris.

  15. Composite structures for the enhancement of nonlinear optical materials. (United States)

    Neeves, A E; Birnboim, M H


    Calculations of the nonlinear optical behavior are developed for model composites consisting of nanospheres with a metallic core and a nonlinear shell suspended in a nonlinear medium. The concept for the enhancement of optical phase conjugation from all these nonlinear regions is that the optical field can be concentrated both inside and in the neighborhood of the metallic core, aided by surface-mediated plasmon resonance. Calculations for gold cores and aluminum cores indicate that phase-conjugate reflectivity enhancements of 10(8) may be possible.

  16. Superhard Semiconducting Optically Transparent High Pressure Phase of Boron (United States)

    Zarechnaya, E. Yu.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Dmitriev, V.; Miyajima, N.; El Goresy, A.; Braun, H. F.; van Smaalen, S.; Kantor, I.; Kantor, A.; Prakapenka, V.; Hanfland, M.; Mikhaylushkin, A. S.; Abrikosov, I. A.; Simak, S. I.


    An orthorhombic (space group Pnnm) boron phase was synthesized at pressures above 9 GPa and high temperature, and it was demonstrated to be stable at least up to 30 GPa. The structure, determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction, consists of B12 icosahedra and B2 dumbbells. The charge density distribution obtained from experimental data and ab initio calculations suggests covalent chemical bonding in this phase. Strong covalent interatomic interactions explain the low compressibility value (bulk modulus is K300=227GPa) and high hardness of high-pressure boron (Vickers hardness HV=58GPa), after diamond the second hardest elemental material.

  17. How does the increment of hetero-cyclic conjugated moieties affect electro-optical and charge transport properties of novel naphtha-difuran derivatives? A computational approach. (United States)

    Chaudhry, Aijaz Rasool; Ahmed, R; Irfan, Ahmad; Muhammad, Shabbir; Shaari, A; Al-Sehemi, Abdullah G


    We have investigated computationally the effects of π-conjugation extension on naphtha[2,1-b:6,5-b'] difuran (DPNDF); where we increase the number of fused NDF (central core) and furan rings in the parent molecule. The molecular structures of all analogues have been optimized at the ground (S0) and first excited (S1) states using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT), respectively. Then highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMOs), the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMOs), photophysical properties, adiabatic/vertical electron affinities (EAa)/(EAv), adiabatic/vertical ionization potentials (IPa)/(IPv), and hole/electron reorganization energies λh/λe have been investigated. The effect of NDF and furan rings on structural and electro-optical properties has also been studied. Our calculated reorganization energies of 1a, 1b, and 2c reveal them, materials with balanced hole/electron charge transport, whereas 2a and 2b are good hole-transport materials. By increasing the number of furan rings; the photostability was augmented in 2a, 2b, and 2c.

  18. Monitoring Tumor Targeting and Treatment Effects of IRDye 800CW and GX1-Conjugated Polylactic Acid Nanoparticles Encapsulating Endostar on Glioma by Optical Molecular Imaging. (United States)

    Li, Yaqian; Du, Yang; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Qian; Jing, Lijia; Liang, Xiaolong; Chi, Chongwei; Dai, Zhifei; Tian, Jie


    Molecular imaging used in cancer diagnosis and therapeutic response monitoring is important for glioblastoma (GBM) research. Antiangiogenic therapy currently is one of the emerging approaches for GBM treatment. In this study, a multifunctional nanoparticle was fabricated that can facilitate the fluorescence imaging of tumor and deliver a therapeutic agent to the tumor region in vivo and therefore possesses broad application in cancer diagnosis and treatment. This particle was polylactic acid (PLA) nanoparticles encapsulating Endostar, which was further conjugated with GX1 peptide and the near-infrared (NIR) dye IRDye 800CW (IGPNE). We demonstrated noninvasive angiogenesis targeting and therapy of IGPNE on U87MG xenografts in vivo using dual-modality optical molecular imaging including NIR fluorescence molecular imaging (FMI) and bioluminescence imaging (BLI). The NIR FMI results demonstrated that IGPNE had more accumulation to the tumor site compared to free IRDye 800CW. To further evaluate the antitumor treatment efficacy of IGPNE, BLI and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed on tumor-bearing mice. With the aid of molecular imaging, the results confirmed that IGPNE enhanced antitumor treatment efficacy compared to free Endostar. In conclusion, IGPNE realizes real-time imaging of U87MG tumors and improves the antiangiogenic therapeutic efficacy in vivo.

  19. The stellar mass - size relation for cluster galaxies at z=1 with high angular resolution from the Gemini/GeMS multi-conjugate adaptive optics system

    CERN Document Server

    Sweet, Sarah M; Glazebrook, Karl; Rigaut, Francois; Carrasco, Eleazar R; Brodwin, Mark; Baylliss, Matthew; Stalder, Brian; Abraham, Roberto; McGregor, Peter


    We present the stellar mass - size relation for 49 galaxies within the $z$ = 1.067 cluster SPT-CL J0546$-$5345, with FWHM $\\sim$80-120 mas $K_{\\mathrm s}$-band data from the Gemini multi-conjugate adaptive optics system (GeMS/GSAOI). This is the first such measurement in a cluster environment, performed at sub-kpc resolution at rest-frame wavelengths dominated by the light of the underlying old stellar populations. The observed stellar mass - size relation is offset from the local relation by 0.21 dex, corresponding to a size evolution proportional to $(1+z)^{-1.25}$, consistent with the literature. The slope of the stellar mass - size relation $\\beta$ = 0.74 $\\pm$ 0.06, consistent with the local relation. The absence of slope evolution indicates that the amount of size growth is constant with stellar mass. This suggests that galaxies in massive clusters such as SPT-CL J0546$-$5345 grow via processes that increase the size without significant morphological interference, such as minor mergers and/or adiabatic ...

  20. Integrated optical phased array based large angle beam steering system fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (United States)

    Kwong, David N.; Zhang, Yang; Hosseini, Amir; Chen, Ray T.


    In this paper, we present a highly compact silicon nano-membrane based optical phased array fabricated using conventional CMOS processing on silicon-on-insulator that provides for over 10 degrees of beam steering in a silicon slab at λ=1.55μm using transverse-electrical polarized light. A low loss 1-to-12 multi-mode interference (MMI) optical beam splitter with high uniformity is used to provide inputs to the optical phased array. Using an unequally spaced waveguide array permits us to relax the half-wavelength spacing requirement for large angle beam steering, thereby avoiding the optical coupling between adjacent waveguides and reducing the side-lobe-level of the array radiation pattern. S-bend waveguides convert the equally spaced MMI output to the unequally spaced wave guide array, while passively equalizing the phases of each array element to compensate for the MMI output phase profile. Independently controllable thin film metal heaters are used to achieve phase shifting using the strong thermo-optic response of silicon. Heat-insulating air grooves minimize thermal crosstalk, while also achieving and low power consumption.

  1. Phase-Stable Free-Space Optical Lattices for Trapped Ions. (United States)

    Schmiegelow, C T; Kaufmann, H; Ruster, T; Schulz, J; Kaushal, V; Hettrich, M; Schmidt-Kaler, F; Poschinger, U G


    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, and we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over the 157  μm range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6 nm.

  2. Effects of laser phase noise on the performance of optical coherent receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-hong; LI Zhao-lin; LIANG Meng


    Laser phase noise (LPN) plays an important role in optical coherent systems.Based on the algorithm of Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase estimation (CPE),the effects of LPN imposed on the coherent receivers are investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK),8 phase shift keying (8PSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical coherent systems,respectively.The simulation results show that the optimal block length in the phase estimation algorithm is a tradeoff between LPN and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),and depends on the level of modulation formats.The resolution requirements of analog to digital converter (ADC) in the coherent receivers are independent of LPN or the level of modulation formats.For the bit error rate (BER) of 10-3,the required bit number of ADC is 6,and the gain is marginal for the higher resolution.

  3. Photolithography by a tunable electro-optical lithium niobate phase array

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Photolithography experiments are performed by means of an optical phase mask with electrooptically tunable phase step.The phase mask consists of a 2-dimensional hexagonal lattice of inverted ferroelectric domains fabricated on a z-cut lithium niobate substrate. The electro-optically tunable phase step, between inverted domain, is obtained by the application of an external electric field along the z axis of the crystal via transparent electrodes. The collimated beam of an argon laser passes through the phase mask and the near field intensity patterns, at different planes of the Talbot length and for different values of the applied voltage, are used for photolithographic experiments. Preliminary results are shown and further applications are discussed.

  4. Phase-stable free-space optical lattices for trapped ions

    CERN Document Server

    Schmiegelow, Christian Tomas; Ruster, Thomas; Schulz, Jonas; Kaushal, Vidyut; Hettrich, Max; Schmidt-Kaler, Ferdinand; Poschinger, Ulrich G


    We demonstrate control of the absolute phase of an optical lattice with respect to a single trapped ion. The lattice is generated by off-resonant free-space laser beams, we actively stabilize its phase by measuring its ac-Stark shift on a trapped ion. The ion is localized within the standing wave to better than 2\\% of its period. The locked lattice allows us to apply displacement operations via resonant optical forces with a controlled direction in phase space. Moreover, we observe the lattice-induced phase evolution of spin superposition states in order to analyze the relevant decoherence mechanisms. Finally, we employ lattice-induced phase shifts for inferring the variation of the ion position over 157~$\\mu$m range along the trap axis at accuracies of better than 6~nm.

  5. Phase noise estimation and mitigation for DCT-based coherent optical OFDM systems. (United States)

    Yang, Chuanchuan; Yang, Feng; Wang, Ziyu


    In this paper, as an attractive alternative to the conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT) based orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), discrete cosine transform (DCT) based OFDM which has certain advantages over its counterpart is studied for optical fiber communications. As is known, laser phase noise is a major impairment to the performance of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) systems. However, to our knowledge, detailed analysis of phase noise and the corresponding mitigation methods for DCT-based CO-OFDM systems have not been reported yet. To address these issues, we analyze the laser phase noise in the DCT-based CO-OFDM systems, and propose phase noise estimation and mitigation schemes. Numerical results show that the proposal is very effective in suppressing phase noise and could significantly improve the performance of DCT-based CO-OFDM systems.

  6. Laser Trimming for Adjustment of Grating Offset in Phase-Shifted Fiber Grating Coupler for All-Optical Switching Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirohisa; Yokota; Yutaka; Sasaki


    We theoretically investigated laser trimming to adjust grating offset in phase-shifted fiber grating coupler (FGC) for all-optical switching application. It was clarified that the trimming made the extinction ratio higher in all-optical FGC switch.

  7. Phase-Change Optical Disk Having a Nitride Interface Layer (United States)

    Yamada, Noboru; Otoba, Mayumi; Kawahara, Katsumi; Miyagawa, Naoyasu; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Akahira, Nobuo; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki


    A thin nitride layer formed at the interface of a Ge Sb Te recording layer and a ZnS SiO2 protective layer successfully suppresses the phenomenon that reflectivity or signal amplitude becomes markedly small due to repeated overwrites. Based on secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) observations, the 5-nm-thick interface layer was found to restrain sulfur atoms in the ZnS SiO2 layer from diffusing into the Ge Sb Te layer and from changing the optical characteristics of the layer. Among several nitride materials, germanium nitride (Ge N) sputtered film is found to have the most suitable properties as an interface layer: high barrier effect and good adhesiveness with Ge Sb Te and ZnS SiO2 layers. The optical disk having the Ge N interface layer achieves more than 5×105 cycles of overwrites with almost no changes in signal amplitude, reflectivity and jitter based on DVD-RAM specifications. The disk shows no degradation such as cracking, peeling, and corrosion after exposure to accelerated environmental conditions of 90°C and 80% RH for 200 h.

  8. Long-term stabilization of the optical fiber phase control using dual PID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Yue; CHEN; Guozhu; SHEN; Yong; ZOU; Hongxin


    We propose an approach of long-term stabilization of optical fiber phase by controlling a piezo-based phase modulator and a Peltier component attached to the fiber via a phase-locked loop( PLL) circuit w ith dual proportional-integral- derivative( PID) adjustment. With this approach,we can suppress the fast disturbance and slow drifting of optical fiber to satisfy the requirements of optical phase long-term locking. In theory,a mathematical model of an optical fiber phase control system is established. The disturbance term induced by environment influence is considered into the PLL model. The monotonous and continuous changing environment disturbance w ill cause a steady-state error in this theory model. The experimental results accords w ell w ith the theory. The steady-state performance,adjusting time,and overshoot can be improved by using the dual PID control. As a result,the long-term,highly stable and low noise fiber phase locking is realized experimentally.

  9. Identification of combined conjugation of nabumetone phase I metabolites with glucuronic acid and glycine in minipig biotransformation using coupling high-performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Česlová, Lenka; Holčapek, Michal; Nobilis, Milan


    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was applied for the analysis of nabumetone metabolites during the biotransformation in minipigs. In addition to known phase I metabolites, the identification of phase II metabolites was achieved on the basis of their full-scan mass spectra and subsequent MS(n) analysis using both positive-ion and negative-ion ESI mode. Some phase I metabolites are conjugated with both glucuronide acid and glycine, which is quite unusual type of phase II metabolite not presented so far for nabumetone. These metabolites were found in small intestine content, but they were absent in minipigs urine.

  10. Design and Realization of Phased Array Radar Optical Fiber Transmission System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Shan-qing; LIU Feng; LONG Teng


    One optical fiber transmission system is designed.The modularization optical fiber transmission adapters were utilized in the system,so the system structure could be flexibly scalable.The sub-array adapter and signal processor adapter were designed and realized utilizing the new field programmable gate array (FPGA) which could drive the optical transceiver.The transmission agreement was designed based on the data stream.In order to solve the signal synchronization problem of the optical fiber transmitted phased array radar,a method named synchronous clock was designed.The fiber transmission error code rate of the system was zero with an experimental transmission velocity of 800 Mbit/s.The phased array radar system has detected the airplane target,thus validated the feasibility of the design method.

  11. Beyond Quantum interference and Optical pumping: invoking a Closed-loop phase

    CERN Document Server

    Kani, A


    Atomic coherence effects arising from coherent light-atom interaction are conventionally known to be governed by quantum interference and optical pumping mechanisms. However, anisotropic nonlinear response driven by optical field involves another fundamental effect arising from closed-loop multiphoton transitions. This closed-loop phase dictates the tensorial structure of the nonlinear susceptibility as it governs the principal coordinate system in determining, whether the light field will either compete or cooperate with the external magnetic field stimulus. Such a treatment provides deeper understanding of all magneto-optical anisotropic response. The magneto-optical response in all atomic systems is classified using closed-loop phase. The role of quantum interference in obtaining electromagnetically induced transparency or electromagnetically induced absorption in multi-level systems is identified.

  12. Sub-Cycle Optical Response Caused by Dressed State with Phase-Locked Wavefunctions

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, K; Mochizuki, T; Kim, C; Yoshita, M; Akiyama, H; Pfeiffer, L N; West, K W; Tanaka, K; Hirori, H


    The coherent interaction of light with matter imprints the phase information of the light field on the wavefunction of the photon-dressed electronic state. Driving electric field, together with a stable phase that is associated with the optical probe pulses, enables the role of the dressed state in the optical response to be investigated. We observed optical absorption strengths modulated on a sub-cycle timescale in a GaAs quantum well in the presence of a multi-cycle terahertz driving pulse using a near-infrared probe pulse. The measurements were in good agreement with the analytical formula that accounts for the optical susceptibilities caused by the dressed state of excitons, which indicates that the output probe intensity was coherently reshaped by the excitonic sideband emissions.

  13. Superhard Semiconducting Optically Transparent High Pressure Phase of Boron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarechnaya, E.Yu.; Dubrovinsky, L.; Dubrovinskaia, N.; Filinchuk, Y.; Chernyshov, D.; Dmitriev, V.; Miyajima, N.; Goresy, A. El; Braun, H.F.; Van Smaalen, S.; Kantor, I.; Kantor, A.; Prakapenka, V.; Hanfland, M.; Mikhaylushkin, A.S.; Abrikosov, I.A.; Simak, S.I.; (Link); (Heidelberg); (Bayreuth); (ESRF); (UC)


    An orthorhombic (space group Pnnm) boron phase was synthesized at pressures above 9 GPa and high temperature, and it was demonstrated to be stable at least up to 30 GPa. The structure, determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction, consists of B{sub 12} icosahedra and B{sub 2} dumbbells. The charge density distribution obtained from experimental data and ab initio calculations suggests covalent chemical bonding in this phase. Strong covalent interatomic interactions explain the low compressibility value (bulk modulus is K{sub 300} = 227 GPa) and high hardness of high-pressure boron (Vickers hardness H{sub v} = 58 GPa), after diamond the second hardest elemental material.

  14. Correction of Phase Distortion by Nonlinear Optical Techniques (United States)


    switch (such as a thyratron ) transfers a fixed voltage (and charge) onto the electrooptical electrodes via a capacitor precharged to a voltage...maximum gain, valid for any distri- bution of incident-wave amplitudes and phases. We apply this theory to several models in a rectangular waveguide...We next use (41) to calculate r for a fairly general da» of pump beams. VIII. MODEL CALCULATION OP NONCONJUGATEO POWER FRACTION We calculate

  15. Information verification and encryption based on phase retrieval with sparsity constraints and optical inference (United States)

    Zhong, Shenlu; Li, Mengjiao; Tang, Xiajie; He, Weiqing; Wang, Xiaogang


    A novel optical information verification and encryption method is proposed based on inference principle and phase retrieval with sparsity constraints. In this method, a target image is encrypted into two phase-only masks (POMs), which comprise sparse phase data used for verification. Both of the two POMs need to be authenticated before being applied for decrypting. The target image can be optically reconstructed when the two authenticated POMs are Fourier transformed and convolved by the correct decryption key, which is also generated in encryption process. No holographic scheme is involved in the proposed optical verification and encryption system and there is also no problem of information disclosure in the two authenticable POMs. Numerical simulation results demonstrate the validity and good performance of this new proposed method.

  16. Phase stabilization of Kerr frequency comb internally without nonlinear optical interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, S -W; Yang, J; Yu, M; Kwong, D -L; Wong, C W


    Optical frequency comb (OFC) technology has been the cornerstone for scientific breakthroughs such as precision frequency metrology, redefinition of time, extreme light-matter interaction, and attosecond sciences. While the current mode-locked laser-based OFC has had great success in extending the scientific frontier, its use in real-world applications beyond the laboratory setting remains an unsolved challenge. Microresonator-based OFCs, or Kerr frequency comb, have recently emerged as a candidate solution to the challenge because of their preferable size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP). On the other hand, the current phase stabilization technology requires either external optical references or power-demanding nonlinear processes, overturning the SWaP benefit of Kerr frequency combs. Introducing a new concept in phase control, here we report an internally phase stabilized Kerr frequency comb without the need of any optical references or nonlinear processes. We describe the comb generation analytically ...

  17. Optical Design of the WFIRST Phase-A Integral Field Channel (United States)

    Gao, Guangjun; Pasquale, Bert A.; Marx, Catherine T.; Chambers, Victor


    WFIRST is one of NASA's Decadal Survey Missions and is currently in Phase-A development. The optical design of the WFIRST Integral Field Channel (IFC), one of three main optical channels of WFIRST, is presented, and the evolution of the IFC channel since Mission Concept Review (MCR, end of Pre-Phase A) is discussed. The IFC has two sub-channels: Supernova (IFC-S) and Galaxy (IFC-G) channels, with Fields of View of 3"x4.5" and 4.2"x9" respectively, and approximately R 75 spectral analysis over waveband 0.42 approximately 2.0 micrometers. The Phase-A IFC optical design meets image quality requirements over the FOV areas while balancing cost and volume constraints.

  18. Analysis of an effective optical filtering technique to enhance microwave phase shifts based on slow and fast light effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yaohui; Öhman, Filip; Xue, Weiqi


    We theoretically analyze and interpret an effective mechanism, which employs optical filtering to enhance the microwave phase shift that can be achieved in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on slow and fast light effects.......We theoretically analyze and interpret an effective mechanism, which employs optical filtering to enhance the microwave phase shift that can be achieved in semiconductor optical amplifiers based on slow and fast light effects....

  19. Second-Harmonic Generation in Optical Fibres Induced by a Cross-Phase Modulation Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Wei-Na; HUANG Guo-Xiang


    @@ When two optical pulses copropagate inside a single-modefibre, intensity-dependent refractive index couples the pulses through a cross-phase modulation (XPM). We show that a second-harmonic generation (SHG) on a continuous-wave background is possible in the optical fibre induced by the XPM effect. By means of a multiscale method the nonlinearly coupled envelope equations for the SHG are derived and their explicit solutions are provided and discussed.

  20. Long-Distance Frequency Transfer Over an Urban Fiber Link Using Optical Phase Stabilization (United States)


    measurement frequency andwidth is 10 Hz. ig. 6. (Color online) Scheme of the 172 km link ( EDFA , see ext; AOM, PD, see Fig. 2).nd an acousto-optic...amplifier (EDFA2) was added t the remote end to amplify the return signal. Tempera- ure variations in EDFAs induce phase fluctuations, hich degrade...the long-term frequency stability. In order o correctly compensate for this effect, the output optical ignal should pass once through the EDFAs , whereas

  1. Optical trapping via guided resonance modes in a Slot-Suzuki-phase photonic crystal lattice. (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Martínez, Luis Javier; Povinelli, Michelle L


    A novel photonic crystal lattice is proposed for trapping a two-dimensional array of particles. The lattice is created by introducing a rectangular slot in each unit cell of the Suzuki-Phase lattice to enhance the light confinement of guided resonance modes. Large quality factors on the order of 10⁵ are predicted in the lattice. A significant decrease of the optical power required for optical trapping can be achieved compared to our previous design.

  2. Modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced absorption from conjugated polymers (United States)

    Furukawa, Yukio


    The modulation-frequency dependencies of the intensity and the phase delay of photoinduced infrared absorption from poly(p-phenylene) have been observed and simulated numerically on the basis of a model based on second-order kinetics involving a neutralization recombination process between the positive and negative charge carriers (polarons) that are formed from a photogenerated polaron pair (interchain charge-transfer exciton). The rate constant of the bimolecular recombination has been obtained.

  3. Eu3+ doped K-Lu-F system optical materials:controlling synthesis, phase evolution, and optical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢安; 刘小磊; 熊禹诚


    Using a hydrothermal method, by adjusting the reactant ratios, the hydrothermal temperatures, the hydrothermal time, and the pH values of prepared solutions, 1 mol.% Eu3+ doped K-Lu-F system optical materials were synthesized under control. For com-parison, the sample was also synthesized by a co-precipitation method. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results suggested that the final crystalline phases had great relations with the hydrothermal synthesis conditions. The field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images and the energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) patterns indicated that the morphologies and the components of some representative samples also varied with the synthesis conditions. Eu3+, acting as a probe, exhibited different optical proper-ties in the K-Lu-F system optical materials, which also indirectly proved the phase evolution of the final products. The results sug-gested that there were many crystalline phases with different symmetry in the K-Lu-F system. They would be good host matrices for the emitters.

  4. Inflationary perturbation theory is geometrical optics in phase space

    CERN Document Server

    Seery, David; Frazer, Jonathan; Ribeiro, Raquel H


    A pressing problem in comparing inflationary models with observation is the accurate calculation of correlation functions. One approach is to evolve them using ordinary differential equations ("transport equations"), analogous to the Schwinger-Dyson hierarchy of in-out quantum field theory. We extend this approach to the complete set of momentum space correlation functions. A formal solution can be obtained using raytracing techniques adapted from geometrical optics. We reformulate inflationary perturbation theory in this language, and show that raytracing reproduces the familiar "delta N" Taylor expansion. Our method produces ordinary differential equations which allow the Taylor coefficients to be computed efficiently. We use raytracing methods to express the gauge transformation between field fluctuations and the curvature perturbation, zeta, in geometrical terms. Using these results we give a compact expression for the nonlinear gauge-transform part of fNL in terms of the principal curvatures of uniform e...

  5. First-Principles Investigations of the Phase Transition and Optical Properties of Solid Oxygen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-Hui; DUAN De-Fang; WANG Lian-Cheng; ZHU Chun-Ye; CUI Tian


    @@ Using density-functional-theory calculations,a monoclinic metallic post-ζ phase(space group C2/c)is predicted at 215 GPa.The calculated phonon dispersion curves suggest that this structure is stable at least up to 310 GPa.Oxygen rema/ns a molecular crystal and there is no dissociation in the related pressure range.Moreover,it is found that the phase transition from ζ to post-ζ phase is attributed to phonon softening.The significant change in the optical properties can be used to identify the phase transition.

  6. Alleviation of additional phase noise in fiber optical parametric amplifier based signal regenerator. (United States)

    Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Yamashita, Shinji


    We theoretically and numerically explain the power saturation and the additional phase noise brought by the fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA). An equation to calculate an approximation to the saturated signal output power is presented. We also propose a scheme for alleviating the phase noise brought by the FOPA at the saturated state. In simulation, by controlling the decisive factor dispersion difference term Δk of the FOPA, amplitude-noise and additional phase noise reduction of quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) based on the saturated FOPA is studied, which can provide promising performance to deal with PSK signals.

  7. Ultrabroadband phased-array radio frequency (RF) receivers based on optical techniques (United States)

    Overmiller, Brock M.; Schuetz, Christopher A.; Schneider, Garrett; Murakowski, Janusz; Prather, Dennis W.


    Military operations require the ability to locate and identify electronic emissions in the battlefield environment. However, recent developments in radio detection and ranging (RADAR) and communications technology are making it harder to effectively identify such emissions. Phased array systems aid in discriminating emitters in the scene by virtue of their relatively high-gain beam steering and nulling capabilities. For the purpose of locating emitters, we present an approach realize a broadband receiver based on optical processing techniques applied to the response of detectors in conformal antenna arrays. This approach utilizes photonic techniques that enable us to capture, route, and process the incoming signals. Optical modulators convert the incoming signals up to and exceeding 110 GHz with appreciable conversion efficiency and route these signals via fiber optics to a central processing location. This central processor consists of a closed loop phase control system which compensates for phase fluctuations induced on the fibers due to thermal or acoustic vibrations as well as an optical heterodyne approach for signal conversion down to baseband. Our optical heterodyne approach uses injection-locked paired optical sources to perform heterodyne downconversion/frequency identification of the detected emission. Preliminary geolocation and frequency identification testing of electronic emissions has been performed demonstrating the capabilities of our RF receiver.

  8. Magneto-optical response in the arbitrary-Chern number topological phase on square lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi-Xiang, E-mail:


    In this work, we investigate the magneto-optical response in the arbitrary-Chern number topological phase. Based on the Dirac theory, we derive the analytic expressions for the magneto-optical response. More importantly, we construct the model on the possible square lattice and make the numerical calculations with the exact diagonalization method. We find the analytical and numerical results are in good agreement with each other. For the optical absorption spectrum, the low-energy absorptive peaks and the corresponding hopping processes are distinct in different Chern number phases, heavily depending on the filling factor of the system. While for the optical Hall conductivities, the physical mechanisms are revealed for the dichroism of the absorption peaks in response to the right- and left-circularly polarized light. We discuss the feasibility of these results in experiment. - Highlights: • The arbitrary-Chern number topological phase is constructed on square lattice. • The optical absorption spectra are distinct in different Chern number phases. • The physical mechanisms are revealed for the dichroism of the absorption peaks.

  9. Phase-sensitive microwave optical double resonance in an N system (United States)

    Preethi, T. M.; Manukumara, M.; Asha, K.; Vijay, J.; Roshi, D. A.; Narayanan, A.


    An experimental investigation of a Microwave Optical Double Resonance (MODR) phenomenon is carried out in a four level N system of 85Rb atoms, at room temperature. This N system consists of a closed three level Λ subsystem irradiated with two optical fields and one microwave field. The MODR response is investigated in a separate probe field which drives a resonant transition from one of the ground states of the Λ system to a fourth level. We find that, under two-photon resonance condition for the optical fields, the MODR becomes a function of the relative phase between the beat frequency envelop of the optical fields and the microwave field. The variation in MODR is shown to be correlated with the phase-sensitive variation of the EIT phenomenon seen in such microwave-connected closed Λ systems. We envisage that this phase-sensitive variation in the MODR, can be utilized for a phase-sensitive manipulation of non-linear optical phenomena in N systems.

  10. Optical manipulation of Berry phase in a solid-state spin qubit

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Christopher G; Zhou, Brian B; Auer, Adrian; Burkard, Guido; Awschalom, David D


    The phase relation between quantum states represents an essential resource for the storage and processing of quantum information. While quantum phases are commonly controlled dynamically by tuning energetic interactions, utilizing geometric phases that accumulate during cyclic evolution may offer superior robustness to noise. To date, demonstrations of geometric phase control in solid-state systems rely on microwave fields that have limited spatial resolution. Here, we demonstrate an all-optical method based on stimulated Raman adiabatic passage to accumulate a geometric phase, the Berry phase, in an individual nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond. Using diffraction-limited laser light, we guide the NV center's spin along loops on the Bloch sphere to enclose arbitrary Berry phase and characterize these trajectories through time-resolved state tomography. We investigate the limits of this control due to loss of adiabiaticity and decoherence, as well as its robustness to noise intentionally introduced into t...

  11. Multiband Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation for High Capacity Optical Data Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Zuo, Tianjian; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee


    packaging. Therefore, increasing effort is now put into the possibility of exploiting higher order modulation formats with increased spectral efficiency and reduced optical transceiver complexity. As these type of links are based on intensity modulation and direct detection, modulation formats relying...... on optical coherent detection can not be straight forwardly employed. As an alternative and more viable solution, this paper proposes the use of carrierless amplitude phase (CAP) in a novel multiband approach (MultiCAP) that achieves record spectral efficiency, increases tolerance towards dispersion......Short range optical data links are experiencing bandwidth limitations making it very challenging to cope with the growing data transmission capacity demands. Parallel optics appears as a valid short-term solution. It is, however, not a viable solution in the long-term because of its complex optical...

  12. High-accuracy calibration of an adaptive optics system using a phase shifting diffraction interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, B J; Campbell, E W; Olivier, S S; Sweider, D R


    A phase-shifting diffraction interferometer (PSDI) has been integrated into an adaptive optics (AO) system developed by LLNL for use on the three meter Shane telescope at Lick Observatory. The interferometer is an all fiber optic design, which is extremely compact. It is useful for calibrating the control sensors, measuring the aberrations of the entire AO optical train, and measuring the influence functions of the individual actuators on the deformable mirror. The PSDI is particularly well suited for this application because it measures converging, quasi-spherical wavefronts, such as are produced by an AO imaging system. Thus, a PSDI can be used to measure the aberrations of the entire AO system, in-situ and without errors introduced by auxiliary optics. This provides an extremely accurate measurement ({approximately} 5 nm RMS) of the optical properties of the AO system.

  13. All-Optical Quantum Random Bit Generation from Intrinsically Binary Phase of Parametric Oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Marandi, Alireza; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L


    True random number generators (RNGs) are desirable for applications ranging from cryptogra- phy to computer simulations. Quantum phenomena prove to be attractive for physical RNGs due to their fundamental randomness and immunity to attack [1]- [5]. Optical parametric down conversion is an essential element in most quantum optical experiments including optical squeezing [9], and generation of entangled photons [10]. In an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), photons generated through spontaneous down conversion of the pump initiate the oscillation in the absence of other inputs [11, 12]. This quantum process is the dominant effect during the oscillation build-up, leading to selection of one of the two possible phase states above threshold in a degenerate OPO [13]. Building on this, we demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum RNG in which the photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We implement a synchronously pumped twin degenerate O...

  14. Association between activation of phase 2 enzymes and down-regulation of dendritic cell maturation by c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid. (United States)

    Bergamo, Paolo; Maurano, Francesco; D'Arienzo, Rossana; David, Chella; Rossi, Mauro


    Antioxidant and cytoprotective enzymes (phase 2) exert protective activity against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced injury. We have recently shown how the beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in a mouse model of an autoimmune disease are parallel with the activation of phase 2 enzymes. In the present study we found that c9,t11-CLA isomer activates cytoprotective enzymes and down-regulates LPS- or gliadin-induced maturation in dendritic cells (DCs) obtained from a murine model of celiac disease. As expected, the enhancement of LPS-induced maturation (increased NFkappaB p65 nuclear translocation, CD86 expression and decreased CD11c+ cell number) was exacerbated by specific glutathione (GSH) inhibitor (buthionine sulphoximine; BSO). Conversely, the down-regulation of DC maturation by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was associated with the marked increase of intracellular thiol concentration. c9,t11-CLA activation of phase 2 enzymes in mouse DCs was observed first. Next, we found that the significant reduction of LPS- and gliadin-induced DC maturation in cultures pre-treated with c9,t11-CLA improved cellular redox status (decreased ROS and higher antioxidant defenses). Finally, the process of DC maturation triggered by gliadin, in contrast with that exhibited by LPS, was not associated with enhanced NFkappaB nuclear translocation and pro-inflammatory cytokines synthesis. These results demonstrate that c9,t11-CLA renders DCs more resistant to gliadin- or LPS-induced maturation, thus indicating that a cytoprotective mechanism elicited by c9,t11-CLA may modulate DC responsiveness.

  15. Are carboxyl groups the most acidic sites in amino acids? Gas-phase acidities, photoelectron spectra, and computations on tyrosine, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and their conjugate bases. (United States)

    Tian, Zhixin; Wang, Xue-Bin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Kass, Steven R


    Deprotonation of tyrosine in the gas phase was found to occur preferentially at the phenolic site, and the conjugate base consists of a 70:30 mixture of phenoxide and carboxylate anions at equilibrium. This result was established by developing a chemical probe for differentiating these two isomers, and the presence of both ions was confirmed by photoelectron spectroscopy. Equilibrium acidity measurements on tyrosine indicated that deltaG(acid)(o) = 332.5 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1) and deltaH(acid)(o) = 340.7 +/- 1.5 kcal mol(-1). Photoelectron spectra yielded adiabatic electron detachment energies of 2.70 +/- 0.05 and 3.55 +/- 0.10 eV for the phenoxide and carboxylate anions, respectively. The H/D exchange behavior of deprotonated tyrosine was examined using three different alcohols (CF3CH2OD, C6H5CH2OD, and CH3CH2OD), and incorporation of up to three deuterium atoms was observed. Two pathways are proposed to account for these results, and all of the experimental findings are supplemented with B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ and G3B3 calculations. In addition, it was found that electrospray ionization of tyrosine from a 3:1 (v/v) CH3OH/H2O solution using a commercial source produces a deprotonated [M-H]- anion with the gas-phase equilibrium composition rather than the structure of the ion that exists in aqueous media. Electrospray ionization from acetonitrile, however, leads largely to the liquid-phase (carboxylate) structure. A control molecule, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, was found to behave in a similar manner. Thus, the electrospray conditions that are employed for the analysis of a compound can alter the isomeric composition of the resulting anion.

  16. Bit error rate testing of fiber optic data links for MMIC-based phased array antennas (United States)

    Shalkhauser, K. A.; Kunath, R. R.; Daryoush, A. S.


    The measured bit-error-rate (BER) performance of a fiber optic data link to be used in satellite communications systems is presented and discussed. In the testing, the link was measured for its ability to carry high burst rate, serial-minimum shift keyed (SMSK) digital data similar to those used in actual space communications systems. The fiber optic data link, as part of a dual-segment injection-locked RF fiber optic link system, offers a means to distribute these signals to the many radiating elements of a phased array antenna. Test procedures, experimental arrangements, and test results are presented.

  17. Dual random phase encoding: a temporal approach for fiber optic applications. (United States)

    Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian; Duchowicz, Ricardo; Torroba, Roberto; Sicre, Enrique E


    We analyze the dual random phase encoding technique in the temporal domain to evaluate its potential application for secure data transmission in fiber optic links. To take into account the optical fiber multiplexing capabilities, the noise content of the signal is restricted when multiple channels are transmitted over a single fiber optic link. We also discuss some mechanisms for producing encoded time-limited as well as bandwidth-limited signals and a comparison with another recently proposed technique is made. Numerical simulations have been carried out to analyze the system performance. The results indicate that this multiplexing encryption method could be a good alternative compared with other well-established methods.

  18. Detection of neural activity using phase-sensitive optical low-coherence reflectometry (United States)

    Akkin, Taner; Davã©, Digant P.; Milner, Thomas E.; Rylander, H. Grady, III


    We demonstrate non-contact sub-nanometer optical measurement of neural surface displacement associated with action potential propagation. Experimental results are recorded from nerve bundles dissected from crayfish walking leg using a phase-sensitive optical low coherence reflectometer. No exogenous chemicals or reflection coatings are applied. Transient neural surface displacement is less than 1 nm in amplitude, 1 ms in duration and is coincident with action potential arrival to the optical measurement site. Because the technique uses back-reflected light, noninvasive detection of various neuropathies may be possible.

  19. A linear coherent integrated receiver based on a broadband optical phase-locked loop (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Anand

    Optical Phase-Locked Loops (OPLL) have diverse applications in future communication systems. They can be used in high sensitivity homodyne phase-shift keying receivers for phase noise reduction, provided sufficient loop bandwidth is maintained. Alternative phase-locked loop applications include coherent synchronization of laser arrays and frequency synthesis by offset locking. In this work, a broadband OPLL based coherent receiver is used for linear phase demodulation. Phase modulated (PM) analog optical links have the potential to outperform conventional direct detection links. However, their progress has been stymied by the lack of a linear phase demodulator. We describe how feedback can be used to suppress non-linearities arising from the phase demodulation process. The receiver concept is demonstrated at low frequencies and is found to improve the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of an experimental analog link by over 20dB. In order to extend the operation of the receiver to microwave frequencies, latencies arising from physical delays in the feedback path need to be dramatically reduced. To facilitate this, monolithic and hybrid versions of the receiver based on compact integration of InP photonic integrated circuits (PIC) with InP and SiGe electronic integrated circuits (EIC) have been developed at UCSB. In this work, we develop novel measurement techniques to characterize the linearity of the individual components of the PIC, namely, the semiconductor photodiodes and optical phase modulators. We then demonstrate the operation of the receiver in a high power analog link. The OPLL based receiver has a bandwidth of 1.5GHz. The link gain and shot-noise limited SFDR at 300MHz are -2dB and 125dB-Hz2/3, respectively. Further, optical sampling downconversion is demonstrated as a viable technique to increase the operating frequency of the receiver beyond the baseband range.

  20. Measuring the Gouy Phase of Matter Waves using Singular Atom Optics with Spinor BECs (United States)

    Schultz, Justin T.; Hansen, Azure; Murphree, Joseph D.; Jayaseelan, Maitreyi; Bigelow, Nicholas P.


    The Gouy phase is a propagation-dependent geometric phase found in confined waves as they propagate through a focus. Although it has been observed and studied extensively both in scalar and vector optical beams as well as in electron vortex beams, it has not yet been directly observed in ultracold matter waves. The Schrödinger equation has the same form as the paraxial wave equation from electromagnetism; expansion of a BEC upon release from a trap has the same mathematical form as a beam propagating away from a focus. We employ and extend this analogy between coherent optical beams and coherent matter waves to include spin angular momentum (polarization), which enables us measure the matter wave Gouy phase using coreless vortex spin textures in spinor BECs. Because the Gouy phase is dependent on the orbital angular momentum of the wave, the vortex and core states acquire different Gouy phase shifts. Parameters that are sensitive to the relative phase such as two-dimensional maps of the Stokes parameters rotate during evolution due to this phase difference. Using atom-optic polarimetry we can access the evolution of the atomic Stokes parameters and observe this rotation.