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Sample records for optical pet opet

  1. Application of a network analysis in H215O-PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hee Jung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine effective connectivity among brain areas involved in a memory function using a statistical method, i.e., structural equation modeling (SEM). Eight brain areas were chosen in left hemisphere including visual, frontal, and parahippocampal areas activated (analyzed with SPM99) during an associative memory task based on a H 2 15 O-PET study. A connectivity model consisting of these brain regions, its anatomical pathways, and the functional influences of these paths was hypothesized and task effect (picture memory task vs. perceptual control task) was compared with a statistical package program for SEM (AMOS 4.0). The strongest functional linkage from fusiform to parahippocampus was found in both tasks. Linkages both from cuneus and inferior prefrontal areas to middle frontal were significantly strong in the perceptual task (p<.005), whereas linkages from cuneus to fusiform as well as from parahippocampus to middle frontal were significantly strong in the memory task (p<.005). Our results confirmed that SEM can be a useful analysis method on hypothesized neural pathways among brain areas identified in functional images

  2. Arterial spin labeling in patients with chic cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease - Correlation with 15O-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamano, Hironori; Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Abe, Koichiro; Yamashita, Koji; Honda, Hiroshi; Togao, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Background: Heterogeneity of arterial transit time due to cerebral artery steno-occlusive lesions hampers accurate regional cerebral blood flow measurement by arterial spin labeling (ASL). Purpose: To assess the feasibility of regional cerebral blood flow measurement by ASL with multiple-delay time sampling in patients with steno-occlusive diseases by comparing with positron emission tomography (PET), and to determine whether regional arterial transit time measured by this ASL technique is correlated with regional mean transit time, a PET index of perfusion pressure. Material and Methods: Sixteen patients with steno-occlusive diseases received both ASL and 15 O-PET. The mean regional cerebral blood flow measured by ASL and PET, regional arterial transit time by ASL, and regional mean transit time by PET were obtained by a region-of-interest analysis. Correlation between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET, and correlation between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET were tested using Pearson's correlation coefficient for both absolute and relative values. A multivariate regression analysis was performed to test whether regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling the effect of regional cerebral blood flow by ASL. Results: A significant positive correlation was found between regional cerebral blood flow by ASL and that by PET for both absolute (r = 0.520, P < 0.0001) and relative (r = 0.691, P < 0.0001) values. A significant positive correlation was found between regional arterial transit time by ASL and regional mean transit time by PET both for absolute (r = 0.369, P = 0.0002) and relative (r = 0.443, P < 0.0001) values. The regression analysis revealed that regional arterial transit time by ASL was a significant contributor in modeling regional mean transit time by PET after controlling regional cerebral blood flow by ASL

  3. Brain activation during dichotic presentations of consonant-vowel and musical instrument stimuli: a 15O-PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugdahl, K; Brønnick, K; Kyllingsbaek, S; Law, I; Gade, A; Paulson, O B

    1999-04-01

    Dichotic listening means that two different stimuli are presented at the same time, one in each ear. This technique is frequently used in experimental and clinical studies as a measure of hemispheric specialization. The primary aim of the present study was to record regional changes in the distribution of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with the 15O-PET technique to dichotically presented consonant-vowel (CV) and musical instrument stimuli, in order to test the basic assumption of differential hemispheric involvement when stimuli presented to one ear dominate over stimuli presented in the other ear. All stimuli were 380 ms in duration with a 1000 ms interstimulus interval, and were presented in blocks of either CV-syllable or musical instrument pairs. Twelve normal healthy subjects had to press a button whenever they detected a CV-syllable or a musical instrument target in a stream of CV- and musical instrument distractor stimuli. The targets appeared equally often in the right and left ear channel. The CV-syllable and musical instrument targets activated bilateral areas in the superior temporal gyri. However, there were significant interactions with regard to asymmetry of the magnitude of peak activation in the significant activation clusters. The CV-syllables resulted in greater neural activation in the left temporal lobe while the musical instruments resulted in greater neural activation in the right temporal lobe. Within-subjects correlations between magnitude of dichotic listening and CBF asymmetry were, however, non-significant. The changes in neural activation were closely mimicked by the performance data which showed a right ear superiority in response accuracy for the CV-syllables, and a left ear superiority for the musical instruments. In addition to the temporal lobe activations, there were activation tendencies in the left inferior frontal lobe, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left occipital lobe, and cerebellum.

  4. Sex differences in absolute myocardial perfusion. Non-invasive H2(15)O-PET in young healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Range, Felix T; Kies, Peter; Schäfers, Klaus P; Breithardt, Günter; Schober, Otmar; Wichter, Thomas; Schäfers, Michael A

    2016-09-26

    To investigate sex differences in myocardial perfusion especially in healthy individuals since former studies are rare and findings are controversial. Participants, methods: 26 subjects were enrolled: 16 healthy women (age: 34 ±7 years) were compared with 10 healthy men (age: 34 ± 3 years; p = ns). Myocardial blood flow (MBF) and coronary vascular resistance (CVR) were quantified at rest, during adenosine infusion and cold-pressor-testing, using positron emission tomography and radioactive-labelled water (H2(15)O-PET). Women showed higher MBF than men at rest (1.10 ± 0.18 vs. 0.85 ± 0.20 ml/min/ml; p = 0.003) and cold-stress (1.39 ± 0.38 vs. 1.06 ± 0.28 ml/min/ml; p = 0.026). Corrected for rate-pressure-product, baseline findings maintained significance (1.41 ± 0.33 vs. 1.16 ± 0.19 ml/min/ml; p = 0.024). CVR was lower in women at baseline (81 ± 14 vs. 107 ± 22 mmHg*ml(-1)*min*ml; p = 0.006) and during cold-pressor-testing (71 ± 17 vs. 91 ± 20 mmHg*ml(-1)*min*ml; p = 0.013). Under adenosine neither maximal MBF (4.06 ± 1.0 vs. 3.91 ± 0.88 ml/min/ml; p = ns) nor coronary flow reserve (3.07 ± 1.12 vs. 3.44 ± 0.92; p = ns) nor CVR (24 ± 8 vs. 24 ± 6 mmHg*ml(-1)*min*ml; p = ns) showed sex-related differences. Women show higher myocardial perfusion and lower coronary vascular resistance than men in physiologic states. Maximum perfusion and vasodilation under adenosine are not sex-specific.

  5. Precise localization of dysfunctional areas in vertebro-basilar infarction by FDG- and 0-15-H2O-PET using standardized image analysis and image registration to 3-D MR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengling, F.D.; Moser, E.; Nitzsche, E.U.; Kassubek, J.

    1999-01-01

    The advantages of standardized multimodal image analysis are demonstrated in a case of symptomatic tremor after basilar thrombosis. Functionally and structurally lesioned areas were mapped in Talairach space using 3-D MRI, cerebral FDG-PET and O-15-H 2 O-PET. Structural lesions were found in the left midbrain, thalamus, putamen and cerebellar areas. Voxel-based statistics in comparison to a normal data base revealed hypometabolism in the left thalamus, left red nucleus, left cerebellar hemisphere including dentate nucleus and in the left interior olivary nucleus. The O-15-H 2 O-PET investigation revealed metabolic uncoupling along the rubroolivocerebellar loop. Given the delicate anatomy of the structures involved, image registration and standardized image analysis techniques are essential for a synoptic multimodality analysis of morphological and functional pathology and should generally be used for cerebral PET investigations. (orig.) [de

  6. Evaluation of scintillator afterglow for use in a combined optical and PET imaging tomograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douraghy, Ali [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, A136, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1770 (United States)]. E-mail: adouraghy@mednet.ucla.edu; Prout, David L. [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, A136, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1770 (United States); Silverman, Robert W. [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, A136, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1770 (United States); Chatziioannou, Arion F. [Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, Crump Institute for Molecular Imaging, UCLA School of Medicine, A136, 700 Westwood Plaza, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1770 (United States)

    2006-12-20

    The design of a dual modality imaging system for small animal optical and positron emission tomography imaging (OPET) is underway. Its detector must be capable of imaging high energy {gamma}-rays from PET while also resolving optical wavelength photons from bioluminescence. GSO, high purity GSO, BGO, LSO, LYSO, and LaBr scintillators were investigated for their use in the OPET detector. Of specific interest were scintillators with low afterglow, since afterglow photons in the decay of the larger {gamma}-ray events are indistinguishable from the photons generated by bioluminescence. Samples from these crystals were coupled to a photomultiplier tube (PMT) and produced scintillation light from {gamma}-ray events originating from a positron source. The PMT output was directed to a special signal processing circuit that allowed measurement of single photons at different times in the decay of the scintillation. GSO and BGO exhibited optimal performance for use in the OPET system due to their low afterglow. LSO, LYSO, and LaBr were determined unsuitable for use with the current OPET design due to their significant afterglow components. The effect of the afterglow of GSO on the detection of the bioluminescence signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) was evaluated for the OPET system.

  7. Regional cerebral blood flow during light sleep--a H(2)(15)O-PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Troels W; Law, Ian; Wiltschiøtz, Gordon

    2002-01-01

    to other forms of altered awareness, for example, relaxation meditation than to deeper sleep stages. We are of the opinion that stage-1 sleep represents the dreaming state of wakefulness, while rapid eye movement (REM) sleep reflects the dreaming state of the unaware, sleeping brain.......This is the first report on the distribution of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) changes during stage-1 sleep or somnolence. Two hypotheses were tested: (A) that rCBF differed between the awake relaxed state and stage-1 sleep, (B) that hypnagogic hallucinations frequently experienced at sleep...... onset would be accompanied by measurable changes in rCBF using positron emission tomography (PET). Eight subjects were PET-scanned with (15)O-labeled water injection in three conditions: awake, stage-1 sleep with reportable experiences and stage-1 sleep without reportable experiences...

  8. F-18 Labeled Diabody-Luciferase Fusion Proteins for Optical-ImmunoPET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Anna M. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2013-01-18

    The goal of the proposed work is to develop novel dual-labeled molecular imaging probes for multimodality imaging. Based on small, engineered antibodies called diabodies, these probes will be radioactively tagged with Fluorine-18 for PET imaging, and fused to luciferases for optical (bioluminescence) detection. Performance will be evaluated and validated using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Multimodality probes for optical-PET imaging will be based on diabodies that are dually labeled with 18F for PET detection and fused to luciferases for optical imaging. 1) Two sets of fusion proteins will be built, targeting the cell surface markers CEA or HER2. Coelenterazine-based luciferases and variant forms will be evaluated in combination with native substrate and analogs, in order to obtain two distinct probes recognizing different targets with different spectral signatures. 2) Diabody-luciferase fusion proteins will be labeled with 18F using amine reactive [18F]-SFB produced using a novel microwave-assisted, one-pot method. 3) Sitespecific, chemoselective radiolabeling methods will be devised, to reduce the chance that radiolabeling will inactivate either the target-binding properties or the bioluminescence properties of the diabody-luciferase fusion proteins. 4) Combined optical and PET imaging of these dual modality probes will be evaluated and validated in vitro and in vivo using a prototype integrated optical-PET imaging system, OPET. Each imaging modality has its strengths and weaknesses. Development and use of dual modality probes allows optical imaging to benefit from the localization and quantitation offered by the PET mode, and enhances the PET imaging by enabling simultaneous detection of more than one probe.

  9. Difference of cerebral activation between healthy volunteers and MCI-patients during navigation in a virtual reality environment. A parametric study using O15 H2O-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drzezga, A.; Wermke, M.D.; Schwaiger, M.; Grimmer, T.; Foerstl, H.; Kurz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To assess the regional cerebral activation during navigation in a virtual reality (VR) environment in healthy volunteers and patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to identify possible differences in cerebral processing of a complex cognitive task. Materials and Methods: A computer-based VR-system has been developed that allows movements in a virtual labyrinth using a special space-mouse and 3-dimensional perception by shutter-glasses. In 11 healthy, right-handed volunteers (3 female, age 66+/-9 years) and 9 patients with MCI (3 female, 69+/-10 years, diagnosis according to criteria of the Mayo-Clinic) twelve H215O PET-scans were performed (each 370 MBq i.v.-bolus). During the scan subjects had to navigate actively from startpoint to a predefined destination point. Three difficulty levels were presented, 4 times each, in randomized order. Test performance (speed, mistakes) was co-registered. PET data were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99, Wellcome Inst., London, UK) including correlation analysis with the acquired test performance results. A significance threshold of p<0,001 uncorrected was applied. Results: In both groups a similar network of extended cerebral activation was identified during active navigation, including maxima in the cerebellum, premotor cortex (Brodmann area [BA] 6), parietal cortex (BA 7, 40) and posterior cingulate cortex (BA 31). However, in MCI-patients a significantly stronger activation of anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24), prefrontal cortex (BA 8) and parietal cortex (BA 40) was observed, as compared to healthy volunteers. Conclusion: The applied combination of PET and VR-technology allows to examine the processing of complex cognitive tasks in the brain. During active navigation significant differences have been observed between the activated cerebral networks in MCI-patients and healthy volunteers. In MCI-patients stronger activation has been identified in cerebral regions associated with attention and

  10. Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings | Opete ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stabilization/solidification of synthetic Nigerian drill cuttings. SEO Opete, IA Mangibo, ET Iyagba. Abstract. In the Nigerian oil and gas industry, large quantities of oily and synthetic drill cuttings are produced annually. These drill cuttings are heterogeneous wastes which comprises of hydrocarbons, heavy metals and ...

  11. Rational synthesis of high nuclearity Mo/Fe/S clusters: the reductive coupling approach in the convenient synthesis of (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PR(3))(6) [R = Et, (n)Pr, (n)Bu] and the new [(Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(2)S(3)O(PEt(3))(3)Cl]-1/2(Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4)) and (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(3)S(5)(PEt(3))(5) clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J; Koutmos, M; Ahmad, S A; Coucouvanis, D

    2001-11-05

    A general method for the synthesis of high nuclearity Mo/Fe/S clusters is presented and involves the reductive coupling of the (Et(4)N)(2)[(Cl(4)-cat)MoOFeS(2)Cl(2)] (I) and (Et(4)N)(2)[Fe(2)S(2)Cl(4)] (II) clusters. The reaction of I and II with Fe(PR(3))(2)Cl(2) or sodium salts of noncoordinating anions such as NaPF(6) or NaBPh(4) in the presence of PR(3) (R = Et, (n)Pr, or (n)Bu) affords (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(6)S(8)(PR(3))(6) [R = Et (IIIa), (n)Pr (IIIb), (n)Bu (IIIc)], Fe(6)S(6)(PEt(3))(4)Cl(2) (IV) and (PF(6))[Fe(6)S(8)(P(n)Pr(3))(6)] (V) as byproducts. The isolation of (Et(4)N)[Fe(PEt(3))Cl(3)] (VI), NaCl, and SPEt(3) supports a reductive coupling mechanism. Cluster IV and V also have been synthesized by the reductive self-coupling of compound II. The reductive coupling reaction between I and II by PEt(3) and NaPF(6) in a 1:1 ratio produces the (Et(4)N)(2)[(Cl(4)-cat)Mo(L)Fe(3)S(4)Cl(3)] clusters [L = MeCN (VIIa), THF (VIIb)]. The hitherto unknown [(Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(2)S(3)O(PEt(3))(3)Cl](+) cluster (VIII) has been isolated as the 2:1 salt of the (Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4))(2+) cation after the reductive self-coupling reaction of I in the presence of Fe(PEt(3))(2)Cl(2). Cluster VIII crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/c with a = 11.098(3) A, b = 22.827(6) A, c = 25.855(6) A, beta = 91.680(4) degrees, and Z = 4. The formal oxidation states of metal atoms in VIII have been assigned as Mo(III), Mo(IV), Fe(II), and Fe(III) on the basis of zero-field Mössbauer spectra. The Fe(PEt(3))(2)(MeCN)(4) cation of VIII is also synthesized independently, isolated as the BPh(4)(-) salt (IX), and has been structurally characterized. The reductive coupling of compound I also affords in low yield the new (Cl(4)-cat)(2)Mo(2)Fe(3)S(5)(PEt(3))(5) cluster (X) as a byproduct. Cluster X crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2(1)/n with a = 14.811(3) A, b = 22.188(4) A, c = 21.864(4) A, beta = 100.124(3) degrees, and Z = 4 and the structure shows very short Mo

  12. Optical and Electrical Properties of Ar+ Implanted PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Shekhawat, Nidhi; Sharma, Annu; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Kumar, Praveen; Kanjilal, D.

    2011-07-01

    In the present work, the effect of 100 keV argon ion implantation on the optical and electrical properties of PET has been studied. A continuous reduction in optical band gap (from 3.63 to 1.93 eV) with increasing implantation dose has been observed as analyzed using UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. Current-Voltage (I-V) characteristics have been studied which clearly indicate the enhancement in the conductivity of PET specimens as an effect of implantation. This increase in conductivity has been correlated with the decrease in optical band gap.

  13. Effect of 200 keV Ar+ implantation on optical and electrical properties of polyethyleneterepthalate (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Goyal, Meetika; Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 200 keV Ar + ions on the electrical and optical properties of PET samples. PET samples were implanted with 200 keV Ar + ions to various doses ranging from 1×10 15 to 1×10 17 Ar + cm 2 . The changes in the electrical and optical properties of pristine and implanted PET specimens have been studied by using Keithley electrometer and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity has found to be increased with increasing ion dose. The optical studies have revealed the drastic alterations in optical band gap from 3.63 eV to 1.48 eV and also increase in number of carbon atoms per cluster from 215 to 537. Further, the change in the electrical conductivity and optical band gap has also been correlated with the formation of conductive islands in the implanted layers of PET

  14. Effect of 200 keV Ar+ implantation on optical & electrical properties of polyethyleneterepthalate (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajiv; Goyal, Meetika; Sharma, Ambika; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Sharma, Annu; Kanjilal, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper we have discussed the effect of 200 keV Ar+ ions on the electrical and optical properties of PET samples. PET samples were implanted with 200 keV Ar+ ions to various doses ranging from 1×1015 to 1×1017 Ar+ cm2. The changes in the electrical and optical properties of pristine and implanted PET specimens have been studied by using Keithley electrometer and UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy. The electrical conductivity has found to be increased with increasing ion dose. The optical studies have revealed the drastic alterations in optical band gap from 3.63 eV to 1.48 eV and also increase in number of carbon atoms per cluster from 215 to 537. Further, the change in the electrical conductivity and optical band gap has also been correlated with the formation of conductive islands in the implanted layers of PET.

  15. Effects of attention on dichotic listening: an 15O-PET study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hugdahl, K; Law, I; Kyllingsbæk, Søren

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of attention on brain activation in a dichotic listening situation. Dichotic listening is a technique to study laterality effects in the auditory sensory modality. Two different stimuli were presented simultaneously, one in each ear. Twelve subjects...... areas of Broca and Wernicke. The musical instrument stimuli mainly activated areas in visual association cortex, cerebellum, and the hippocampus. An interpretation of the findings is that attention has a facilitating effect for auditory processing, causing reduced activation in the primary auditory...... cortex when attention is explicitly recruited. The observed activations in the parietal lobe during the focused attention conditions could be part of a modality non-specific "attentional network"....

  16. PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariager, Rasmus Mølgaard; Schmidt, Regin; Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    PET handler om den hemmelige tjenestes arbejde under den kolde krig 1945-1989. Her fortæller Regin Schmidt, Rasmus Mariager og Morten Heiberg om de mest dramatiske og interessante sager fra PET's arkiv. PET er på flere måder en udemokratisk institution, der er sat til at vogte over demokratiet....... Dens virksomhed er skjult for offentligheden, den overvåger borgernes aktiviteter, og den registrerer følsomme personoplysninger. Historien om PET rejser spørgsmålet om, hvad man skal gøre, når befolkningen i et demokrati er kritisk indstillet over for overvågningen af lovlige politiske aktiviteter......, mens myndighederne mener, at det er nødvendigt for at beskytte demokratiet. PET er på en gang en fortælling om konkrete aktioner og begivenheder i PET's arbejde og et stykke Danmarkshistorie. Det handler om overvågning, spioner, politisk ekstremisme og international terrorisme.  ...

  17. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT for discrimination of tumors of the optic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingenstein, Annemarie; Haug, Alexander R; Miller, Christina; Hintschich, Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Symptomatic tumors of the optic nerve pathway may endanger vision. They are difficult to classify by imaging alone and biopsy may damage visual function. Tumor pathology influences treatment decision and a diagnostic tool with a high sensitivity and specificity would therefore be invaluable. We hypothesized that Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT may help in discriminating optic nerve tumors as uptake of somatostatin is elevated in meningiomas. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT was used to examine 13 patients with ambiguous, symptomatic lesions of the optic pathway for treatment planning. The presence or absence of meningioma was validated by histopathology or supplementary diagnostic work-up. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT identified 10 meningiomas (en plaque = 1, optic nerve sheath = 4, sphenoidal = 5) correctly via increased SSTR (somatostatin receptor) expression (mean SUVmax (maximum standardized uptake value) = 14.3 ± 15.4). 3 tumors did not show elevated Ga-68-DOTA-TATE uptake (SUVmax = 2.1 ± 1.0). Subsumizing all clinical-radiological follow-up tools available, these lesions were classified as an intracerebral metastasis of an advanced gastric carcinoma, histologically proven inflammatory collagenous connective tissue and presumed leukemic infiltration of a newly diagnosed chronic lymphocytic leukemia. In this case series, Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT demonstrated both a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. Yet, the golden standard of histopathology was only available in a subset of patients included. Ga-68-DOTA-TATE PET/CT proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool for the correct classification of equivocal, symptomatic tumors of the anterior optic pathway requiring therapy. PET/CT results influenced therapy decision essentially in all cases.

  18. Analog electro-optical readout of SiPMs for compact, low power ToF PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bieniosek, Matthew F; Levin, Craig S

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work is to demonstrate time of flight (ToF) performance from analog electro-optical transmission of SiPM-based PET detector signals. In electro-optical readout schemes, scintillation signals are converted to near-infrared light by a laser diode and transmitted out of the MRI bore with fiber-optics [], greatly reducing the PET system's footprint, power consumption, and mutual interference with the MRI.

  19. Radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in PET/CT myocardial perfusion examination using versatile optical fibre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasiah, M.; Nordin, A. J.; Fathinul Fikri, A. S.; Hishar, H.; Tamchek, N.; Taiman, K.; Ahmad Bazli, A. K.; Abdul-Rashid, H. A.; Mahdiraji, G. A.; Mizanur, R.; Noor, Noramaliza M.

    2013-05-01

    Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) provides a precise method in order to diagnose obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), compared to single photon emission tomography (SPECT). PET is suitable for obese and patients who underwent pharmacologic stress procedures. It has the ability to evaluate multivessel coronary artery disease by recording changes in left ventricular function from rest to peak stress and quantifying myocardial perfusion (in mL/min/g of tissue). However, the radiation dose to the radiosensitive organs has become crucial issues in the Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography(PET/CT) scanning procedure. The objective of this study was to estimate radiation dose to radiosensitive organs of patients who underwent PET/CT myocardial perfusion examination at Centre for Diagnostic Nuclear Imaging, Universiti Putra Malaysia in one month period using versatile optical fibres (Ge-B-doped Flat Fibre) and LiF (TLD-100 chips). All stress and rest paired myocardial perfusion PET/CT scans will be performed with the use of Rubidium-82 (82Rb). The optic fibres were loaded into plastic capsules and attached to patient's eyes, thyroid and breasts prior to the infusion of 82Rb, to accommodate the ten cases for the rest and stress PET scans. The results were compared with established thermoluminescence material, TLD-100 chips. The result shows that radiation dose given by TLD-100 and Germanium-Boron-doped Flat Fiber (Ge-B-doped Flat Fiber) for these five organs were comparable to each other where the p>0.05. For CT scans,thyroid received the highest dose compared to other organs. Meanwhile, for PET scans, breasts received the highest dose.

  20. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Guo, Ning; Li, Quanzheng; Ma, Ying; Jacboson, Orit; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hak Soo; Mansfield, James R; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/(64)Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide. The integrin α(v)β(3) binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD) method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data. The dual-labeled probe (64)Cu-RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp) derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020) is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026). The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.

  1. Effect of gamma radiation on the structural and optical properties of Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddhartha; Aarya, Suveda; Dev, Kapil; Raghuvanshi, Suresh Kumar; Krishna, J.B.M.; Wahab, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Effect of 1.25 MeV gamma radiation on the structural and optical properties of virgin and gamma irradiated (0–2000 kGy) Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) polymer samples are analyzed using powder X-ray diffractometer and UV–vis spectrophotometer. Diffraction pattern of PET polymer indicates the semi-crystalline in nature whereas the crystallinity increases with increasing dose of irradiation. The remarkable variation in crystallite size is also observed. The absorption and activation energy increase and the optical band gap (E g ) decreases with increasing dose in UV–vis studies. The existence of the maximum absorption, their shifting and broadening due to gamma irradiation in PET polymer are also discussed. - Highlights: ► PET is the transparent polymer and semi- crystalline. ► Crystallinity increases with increasing dose of irradiation of polymer. ► The remarkable variation in crystallite sizes was also observed in polymer. ► The absorption and activation energy increase and where as the optical band gap (E g ) decrease with increasing dose.

  2. Markerless PET motion correction: tracking in narrow gantries through optical fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Olesen, Oline Vinter; Benjaminsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    be accurate while only adding minimal complexity to the workflow. We present: Tracoline 2.0, a surface scanner prototype, which allows for markerless tracking in the clinic. The system uses structured light through optical fibre bundles, which easily fit in narrow gantries. The optical fibres also makes...... the system compatible with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging since all the electronics are moved away from the scanner. We demonstrate the system in a positron emission tomography (PET) study using the Siemens high resolution research tomography (HRRT). With two Ge/Ga-68 line sources fitted in a mannequin head...... for rotations up to ±25º. Based on the tracking results the PET frames were also successfully corrected for motion by aligning 10 s frames without motion for the stepwise experiment and aligning 1 s frames for the experiment with continuous motion. We have demonstrated and evaluated a system for markerless...

  3. DMAP-BODIPY alkynes: a convenient tool for labeling biomolecules for bimodal PET-optical imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizet, Bertrand; Goncalves, Victor; Bernhard, Claire; Harvey, Pierre D; Denat, Franck; Goze, Christine

    2014-09-26

    Several new boron dipyrromethene/N,N-dimethylaminopyridine (BODIPY-DMAP) assemblies were synthesized as precursors for bimodal imaging probes (optical imaging, OI/positron emission tomography, PET). The photophysical properties of the new compounds were also studied. The first proof-of-concept was obtained with the preparation of several new BODIPY-labeled bombesins and evaluation of the affinity for bombesin receptors by using a competition binding assay. Fluorination reactions were investigated on DMAP-BODIPY precursors as well as on DMAP-BODIPY-labeled bombesins. Chemical modifications on the BODIPY core were also performed to obtain luminescent dyes emitting in the therapeutic window (650-900 nm), suitable for in vivo imaging, making these compounds promising precursors for PET/optical dual-modality imaging agents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Assessment of MR-compatibility of SiPM PET insert using short optical fiber bundles for small animal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, H.G.; Hong, S.J.; Ko, G.B.; Yoon, H.S.; Lee, J.S.; Song, I.C.; Rhee, J.T.

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide new perspectives in human disease research because of their complementary in-vivo imaging techniques. Previously, we have developed an MR-compatible PET insert based on optical fibers using silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). However when echo planar imaging (EPI) sequence was performed, signal intensity was slowly decreased by −0.9% over the 5.5 minutes and significant geometrical distortion was observed as the PET insert was installed inside an MRI bore, indicating that the PET electronics and its shielding boxes might have been too close to an MR imaging object. In this paper, optical fiber bundles with a length of 54 mm instead of 31 mm were employed to minimize PET interference on MR images. Furthermore, the LYSO crystals with a size of 1.5 × 1.5 × 7.0 mm 3 were used instead of 2.47 × 2.74 × 20.0 mm 3 for preclinical PET/MR applications. To improve the MR image quality, two receive-only loop coils were used. The effects of the PET insert on the SNR of the MR image either for morphological or advanced MR pulse sequences such as diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), functional MRI (fMRI), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) were investigated. The quantitative MR compatibility such as B 0 and B 1 field homogeneity without PET, with 'PET OFF', and with 'PET ON' was also evaluated. In conclusion, B 0 maps were not affected by the proposed PET insert whereas B 1 maps were significantly affected by the PET insert. The advanced MRI sequences such as DWI, EPI, and MRS can be performed without a significant MR image quality degradation

  5. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu, Ning Guo, Quanzheng Li, Ying Ma, Orit Jacboson, Seulki Lee, Hak Soo Choi, James R. Mansfield, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide.Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data.Results: The dual-labeled probe 64Cu-RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020 is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026.Conclusion: The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.

  6. STRUCTURAL, OPTICAL AND ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES OF PET POLYMER FILMS MODIFIED BY LOW ENERGY Ar+ ION BEAMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Y. H. A.; Abdel-Hamid, H. M.; El-Okr, M. M.; Atta, A.

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films with thickness 40μm are irradiated with 3keV argon ion beams with different fluence ranging from 0.5×1018ions.cm-2 to 2×1018ions.cm-2 using locally designed broad ion source. The changes in the PET structure are characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) techniques. The XRD patterns show that the peak intensity decreases with irradiation and the particle size decreases from 65.75 Å for the un-irradiated to 52.80 Å after irradiation. The FTIR indicates partial decrease and reduction in the intensity of the bands due to the degradation of the polymer after ion irradiation. The optical energy band gap decreases from 3.14eV to 3.05eV and the number of carbon cluster increases from 119 to 126 after ion irradiation. The results show a slight increase in the electrical conductivities and the dielectric constant (ɛ). The results indicate the effectiveness of using PET films as capacitors and resistors in industrial applications.

  7. A novel optically transparent RF shielding for fully integrated PET/MRI systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parl, C.; Kolb, A.; Schmid, A. M.; Wehrl, H. F.; Disselhorst, J. A.; Soubiran, P. D.; Stricker-Shaver, D.; Pichler, B. J.

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical imaging benefits from simultaneous acquisition of high-resolution anatomical and molecular data. Additionally, PET/MRI systems can provide functional PET and functional MRI data. To optimize PET sensitivity, we propose a system design that fully integrates the MRI coil into the PET system. This allows positioning the scintillators near the object but requires an optimized design of the MRI coil and PET detector. It further requires a new approach in realizing the radiofrequency (RF) shielding. Thus, we propose the use of an optically transparent RF shielding material between the PET scintillator and the light sensor, suppressing the interference between both systems. We evaluated two conductive foils (ITO, 9900) and a wire mesh. The PET performance was tested on a dual-layer scintillator consisting of 12  ×  12 LSO matrices, shifted by half a pitch. The pixel size was 0.9  ×  0.9 mm2 the lengths were 10.0 mm and 5.0 mm, respectively. For a light sensor, we used a 4  ×  4 SiPM array. The RF attenuation was measured from 320 kHz to 420 MHz using two pick-up coils. MRI-compatibility and shielding effect of the materials were evaluated with an MRI system. The average FWHM energy resolution at 511 keV of all 144 crystals of the layer next to the SiPM was deteriorated from 15.73  ±  0.24% to 16.32  ±  0.13%, 16.60  ±  0.25%, and 19.16  ±  0.21% by the ITO foil, 9900 foil, mesh material, respectively. The average peak-to-valley ratio of the PET detector changed from 5.77  ±  0.29 to 4.50  ±  0.39, 4.78  ±  0.48, 3.62  ±  0.16, respectively. The ITO, 9900, mesh attenuated the scintillation light by 11.3  ±  1.6%, 11.0  ±  1.8%, 54.3  ±  0.4%, respectively. To attenuate the RF from 20 MHz to 200 MHz, mesh performed better than copper. The results show that an RF shielding material that is sufficiently transparent for

  8. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lei; Guo, Ning; Li, Quanzheng; Ma, Ying; Jacboson, Orit; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hak Soo; Mansfield, James R.; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide. Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA)...

  9. Radiolabeled Peptide Scaffolds for PET/SPECT - Optical in Vivo Imaging of Carbohydrate-Lectin Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutscher, Susan

    2014-09-30

    The objective of this research is to develop phage display-selected peptides into radio- and fluoresecently- labeled scaffolds for the multimodal imaging of carbohydrate-lectin interactions. While numerous protein and receptor systems are being explored for the development of targeted imaging agents, the targeting and analysis of carbohydrate-lectin complexes in vivo remains relatively unexplored. Antibodies, nanoparticles, and peptides are being developed that target carbohydrate-lectin complexes in living systems. However, antibodies and nanoparticles often suffer from slow clearance and toxicity problems. Peptides are attractive alternative vehicles for the specific delivery of radionuclides or fluorophores to sites of interest in vivo, although, because of their size, uptake and retention may be less than antibodies. We have selected high affinity peptides that bind a specific carbohydrate-lectin complex involved in cell-cell adhesion and cross-linking using bacteriophage (phage) display technologies (1,2). These peptides have allowed us to probe the role of these antigens in cell adhesion. Fluorescent versions of the peptides have been developed for optical imaging and radiolabeled versions have been used in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and positron emission tomography (PET) in vivo imaging (3-6). A benefit in employing the radiolabeled peptides in SPECT and PET is that these imaging modalities are widely used in living systems and offer deep tissue sensitivity. Radiolabeled peptides, however, often exhibit poor stability and high kidney uptake in vivo. Conversely, optical imaging is sensitive and offers good spatial resolution, but is not useful for deep tissue penetration and is semi-quantitative. Thus, multimodality imaging that relies on the strengths of both radio- and optical- imaging is a current focus for development of new in vivo imaging agents. We propose a novel means to improve the efficacy of radiolabeled and fluorescently

  10. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-01-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  11. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kun-San; Lo, Yu-Lung

    2013-11-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target-substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target-substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target-substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target-substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target-substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  12. Effect of sputtering parameters on optical and electrical properties of ITO films on PET substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Kun-San [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Lo, Yu-Lung, E-mail: loyl@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Advanced Optoelectronic Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China)

    2013-11-15

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates using a DC magnetron sputtering technique are investigated as a function of the deposition time, the argon flow rate and the target–substrate distance. It is found that all of the ITO films contain a high fraction of amorphous phase. The volume fraction of crystallite precipitates in the amorphous host increases with an increasing deposition time or a reducing argon flow rate. The deposition time and argon flow rate have higher effects on the optical transparency of the ITO films than the target–substrate distance has. Increasing film thickness is not the only reason for the transmittance reduced. It is found that an increase of the extinction coefficient by increasing deposition time or an increase of the refractive index by decreasing argon flow rate also reduces the transmittance of thin film. For a constant deposition time, the resistivity of the ITO films reduces with a reducing argon flow rate or a reducing target–substrate distance. For a constant argon flow rate, a critical value of the deposition time exists at which both the resistivity and the effect of the target–substrate distance are minimized. Finally, it is concluded that the film resistivity has low sensitivity to the target–substrate distance if the best deposition conditions which mostly attain the lowest resistivity are matched.

  13. 64Cu radiolabeled nano-materials as bimodal contrast agent for optical imaging and Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonat, A.M.; Roux, A.; Yahia-Ammar, A.; Charbonniere, L.J.; Platas-Iglesias, C.; Camerle, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent nano-crystals made of semiconductor material, also called Quantum Dots, are ideal agents for long-term or real-time optical imaging. They have been found to outperform traditional organic fluorescent dyes in many ways (size-tunable optical properties, high quantum yields, high extinction coefficients, resistance to photo bleaching). We have developed a microwave method for the synthesis of highly luminescent water soluble CdTe x S 1-x nano-crystals (Φ= 53% at 600 nm). Their surface functionalization has been developed and controlled using a Nile-Red derivative as a fluorescent marker. The same coupling strategy will be used to incorporate 64 Cu-radiotracers for PET imaging at the surface of the Quantum Dots. A large variety of poly-aza-macrocyclic ligands, have been studied in order to optimize the in vivo stability of the 64 Cu-radiolabeled complexes and their efficiency as radiopharmaceuticals

  14. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  15. Implementation and performance of an optical motion tracking system for high resolution brain PET imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopresti, B. J.; Russo, A.; Jones, W. F.; Fisher, T.; Crouch, D. G.; Altenburger, D. E.; Townsend, D. W.

    1999-12-01

    Head motion during PET scanning is widely regarded as a source of image degradation and resolution loss. Recent improvements in the spatial resolution of state-of-the-art tomographs may be compromised by patient motion during scanning, as these high resolution data will be increasingly susceptible to smaller movements of the head. The authors have developed an opto-electronic motion tracking system based on commercially-available technology that is capable of very accurate real-time measurements of the position and orientation of the patient's head. These positions are transformed to the reference frame of the PET scanner, and could potentially be used to provide motion correction of list-mode emission data on an event-by-event basis.

  16. Electro-optical effects in porous PET films filled with liquid crystal: new possibilities for fiber optics and THZ applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopik, A; Pasechnik, S; Semerenko, D; Shmeliova, D; Dubtsov, A; Srivastava, A K; Chigrinov, V

    2014-03-15

    The results of investigation of electro-optical properties of porous polyethylene terephthalate films filled with a nematic liquid crystal (5 CB) are presented. It is established that the optical response of the samples on the applied voltage drastically depends on the frequency range. At low frequencies of applied electrical field (foptical response arises as an impulse of light intensity, which decays for the time essentially shorter than the electric pulse duration. At high frequencies (f>fc) electric field induces an overall change in the light intensity, which is typical for an electro-optical response of a liquid crystal (LC) layer in a conventional "sandwich"-like cell. The dependences of critical frequency fc, threshold voltages, and characteristic times on a pore diameter d were established. The peculiarities of electro-optical effects can be explained in the framework of the approach which connects the variations of light intensity with the corresponding changes of the effective refractive index n(eff) of a composite LC media. The unusual behavior of the electro-optical response at low frequencies is assigned to the orienting action of the specific shear flow typical for electrokinetic phenomena in polar liquids.

  17. First steps towards ultrasound-based motion compensation for imaging and therapy: calibration with an optical system and 4D PET imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eSchwaab

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Target motion, particularly in the abdomen, due to respiration or patient movement is still a challenge in many diagnostic and therapeutic processes. Hence, methods to detect and compensate this motion are required. Diagnostic ultrasound represents a non-invasive and dose-free alternative to fluoroscopy, providing more information about internal target motion than respiration belt or optical tracking.The goal of this project is to develop an ultrasound based motion tracking for real time motion correction in radiation therapy and diagnostic imaging, notably in 4D positron emission tomography (PET. In this work, a workflow is established to enable the transformation of ultrasound tracking data to the coordinates of the treatment delivery or imaging system – even if the ultrasound probe is moving due to respiration. It is shown that the ultrasound tracking signal is equally adequate for 4D PET image reconstruction as the clinically used respiration belt and provides additional opportunities in this concern. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that the ultrasound probe being within the PET field of view generally has no relevant influence on the image quality. The accuracy and precision of all the steps in the calibration workflow for ultrasound tracking based 4D PET imaging are found to be in an acceptable range for clinical implementation. Eventually, we show in vitro that an ultrasound based motion tracking in absolute room coordinates with a moving US-transducer is feasible.

  18. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [15O]H2O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Byeong-il; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8±1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0±2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6±2.5 pack years. Myocardial [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [ 15 O]H 2 O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43±0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.33 vs. 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90±24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 vs. 5.03±1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [ 15 O]H 2 O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  19. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiping Shao; Cherry, Simon R.; Meadors, Ken; Siegel, Stefan; Silverman, Robert W.; Farahani, Keyvan; Marsden, Paul K.

    1997-01-01

    We have developed a prototype PET detector which is compatible with a clinical MRI system to provide simultaneous PET and MR imaging. This single-slice PET system consists of 48 2x2x10mm 3 LSO crystals in a 38 mm diameter ring configuration that can be placed inside the receiver coil of the MRI system, coupled to three multi-channel photomultipliers housed outside the main magnetic field via 4 m long and 2 mm diameter optical fibres. The PET system exhibits 2 mm spatial resolution, 41% energy resolution at 511 keV and 20 ns timing resolution. Simultaneous PET and MR phantom images were successfully acquired. (author)

  20. Evaluation of coronary endothelial dysfunction in healthy young smokers: Cold pressor test using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Gachon University Gil Hospital of Korea, 1198, Guwol-dong, Namdong-gu, Incheon 405-760 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: forrest88@hanmail.net; Lee, Byeong-il [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Chonnam National University Hospital of Korea, 671, Jebong-no, Dong-gu, Gwangju 0-757 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: dewpapa@hanmail.net; Kim, Su Jin; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo [Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, The Seoul National University of Korea, 28, Yeongeon-dong, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction in young healthy smokers by measuring myocardial blood flow (MBF) using [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET. The study population was 18 young male volunteers consisted of 9 smokers (age: 23.8{+-}1.1 yr) and 9 non-smokers (age: 25.0{+-}2.5 yr). The smokers had been smoking cigarettes for 6.6{+-}2.5 pack years. Myocardial [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5 deg. C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular (LV) input function and tissue time-activity curves were obtained by drawing region of interest (ROI) on the LV blood pool and myocardium images obtained by non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) of dynamic [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O-PET data, and MBF was calculated using these time-activity curves and single compartmental model. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between two groups (smokers: 1.43{+-}0.41 and non-smokers: 1.37{+-}0.41 ml/g/min; P=NS). However, during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25{+-}0.33 vs. 1.59{+-}0.29 ml/g/min; P=0.019). MBF changed to 90{+-}24% of resting MBF in smokers and 122{+-}28% in non-smokers. The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to basal MBF between two groups was also significant (P=0.024). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81{+-}1.99 vs. 5.03{+-}1.27 ml/g/min; P=NS). This study shows that [{sup 15}O]H{sub 2}O PET analysis can reveal that endothelial dysfunction occurs in even young smokers of about 6 pack years.

  1. Co-registration of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) with positron emission tomography (PET) and development of multi-angle fDOT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, X.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis concerns the image processing of fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT), following two axes: fDOT image co-registration with PET (positron emission tomography) image and improvement of fDOT image reconstructions using mirrors to collect additional projections. It is presented in two parts:In the first part, an automatic method to co-register the fDOT images with PET images has been developed to correlate all the information from each modality. This co-registration method is based on automatic detection of fiducial markers (FM) present in both modalities. The particularity of this method is the use of optical surface image obtained in fDOT imaging system, which serves to identify the Z position of FM in optical images. We tested this method on a model of mice bearing tumor xenografts of MEN2A cancer cells that mimic a human medullary thyroid carcinoma, after a double injection of radiotracer [ 18 F] 2-fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) for PET imaging and optical fluorescent infrared tracer Sentidye. With the accuracy of our method, we can demonstrate that the signal of Sentidye is present both in the tumor and surrounding vessels.The fDOT reconstruction image quality is degraded along the Z axis due to a limited number of projections for reconstruction. In the second part, the work is oriented towards a new method of fDOT image reconstruction with a new multi-angle data acquisition system in placing two mirrors on each side of the animal. This work was conducted in collaboration with the CS Department of University College London (UCL), a partner of the European project FMT-XCT. TOAST software developed by this team was used as source code for the reconstruction algorithm, and was modified to adapt to the concerned problem. After several tests on the adjustment of program parameters, we applied this method on a phantom that simulating the biological tissue and on mice. The results showed an improvement in the reconstructed image of a semi

  2. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  3. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  4. GPU-based optical propagation simulator of a laser-processed crystal block for the X'tal cube PET detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Yuma; Ohnishi, Takashi; Moriya, Takahiro; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Yoshida, Eiji; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga; Haneishi, Hideaki

    2014-01-01

    The X'tal cube is a next-generation DOI detector for PET that we are developing to offer higher resolution and higher sensitivity than is available with present detectors. It is constructed from a cubic monolithic scintillation crystal and silicon photomultipliers which are coupled on various positions of the six surfaces of the cube. A laser-processing technique is applied to produce 3D optical boundaries composed of micro-cracks inside the monolithic scintillator crystal. The current configuration is based on an empirical trial of a laser-processed boundary. There is room to improve the spatial resolution by optimizing the setting of the laser-processed boundary. In fact, the laser-processing technique has high freedom in setting the parameters of the boundary such as size, pitch, and angle. Computer simulation can effectively optimize such parameters. In this study, to design optical characteristics properly for the laser-processed crystal, we developed a Monte Carlo simulator which can model arbitrary arrangements of laser-processed optical boundaries (LPBs). The optical characteristics of the LPBs were measured by use of a setup with a laser and a photo-diode, and then modeled in the simulator. The accuracy of the simulator was confirmed by comparison of position histograms obtained from the simulation and from experiments with a prototype detector composed of a cubic LYSO monolithic crystal with 6 × 6 × 6 segments and multi-pixel photon counters. Furthermore, the simulator was accelerated by parallel computing with general-purpose computing on a graphics processing unit. The calculation speed was about 400 times faster than that with a CPU.

  5. Optical response of large-area aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays on flexible PET substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohertz, Donna; Chuo, Yindar; Omrane, Badr; Landrock, Clint; Kavanagh, Karen L.

    2014-09-01

    The high-cost of fabrication of nanohole arrays for extraordinary optical transmission, surface-plasmon-resonance-based sensors, inhibits their widespread commercial adoption. Production typically involves the application of small-area patterning techniques, such as focused-ion-beam milling, and electron-beam lithography onto high-cost gold-coated substrates. Moving to lower-cost manufacturing is a critical step for applications such as the detection of environmental oil-leaks, or water quality assurance. In these applications, the sensitivity requirements are relatively low, and a bio-compatible inert surface, such as gold, is unnecessary. We report on the optical response of aluminum-coated nano-bucket arrays fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates. The arrays are fabricated using an economical roll-to-roll UV-casting process from large sheets of nickel templates generated from master quartz stamps. The nano-featured surface is subsequently coated with 50 nm of thermally-evaporated aluminum. The roll-to-roll production process has a 97% yield over a 600 m roll producing nano-buckets with 240 nm diameters, 300 nm deep, with a 70° taper. When exposed to a series of refractive index standards (glucose solutions), changes in the locations of the resonance transmission peaks result in optical sensitivities as high as 390 ± 20 nm/RIU. The peak transmission is approximately 5% of illumination, well within the sensitivity requirements of most common low-cost detectors.

  6. Pet Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... companionship and a feeling of safety to your life. Before getting a pet, think carefully about which ... Gaining or losing a lot of weight quickly Strange behavior Being sluggish and tired Trouble getting up ...

  7. Pet Allergy Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatments ▸ Allergies ▸ Pet Allergy ▸ Pet Allergy Quiz Share | Pet Allergy Quiz More than half of U.S. households ... cat family. Yet, millions of people suffer from pet allergies. Take this quiz to test your knowledge ...

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs

  9. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, M.J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET. 22 figs.

  10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, M. J.

    1990-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

  11. Evaluation of endothelium-dependent myocardial perfusion reserve in healthy smokers; cold pressor test using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Ho Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    Much evidence suggests long-term cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. In this study, we applied nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised learning algorithm, to CO-less H 2 15 O-PET to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking noninvasively. This study enrolled eighteen young male volunteers consisting of 9 smokers (23.8±1.1 yr; 6.6±2.5 pack-years) and 9 nonsmokers (23.8±2.9 yr). They do not have any cardiovascular risk factor or disease history. Myocardial H 2 15 O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5.deg.C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular blood pool and myocardium were segmented on dynamic PET data by NMF method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was calculated from input and tissue functions by a single compartmental model with correction of partial volume and spillover effects. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between the two groups (Smokers: 1.43 0.41ml/g/min and non-smokers: 1.37±0.41 ml/g/min; p = NS). during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25±0.34 ml/g/min vs 1.59±0.29 ml/g/min ; p = 0.019). The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to resting MBF between the two groups was also significant (p=0.024; 90±24% in smokers and 122±28% in non-smokers.). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81±1.99 ml/g/min vs 5.11±1.31 ml/g/min ; p=NS). In smokers, MBF during cold pressor stimulation was significantly lower compared with nonsmokers, reflecting smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, there was no significant difference in MBF during adenosine-induced hyperemia between the two groups

  12. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieu, Jean Paul

    1975-01-01

    Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p

  13. Healthy Pets and People

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... prevent the spread of germs between pets and people. Keep pets and their supplies out of the kitchen, and ... a local wildlife rehabilitation facility. More Information Healthy Pets Healthy People Clean Hands Save Lives! Stay Healthy at Animal ...

  14. uPAR-targeted optical near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging and PET for image-guided surgery in head and neck cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders; Juhl, Karina; Persson, Morten

    2017-01-01

    . Histological analysis showed co-localization of the fluorescent signal, uPAR expression and tumor deposits. In addition, the feasibility of uPARguided robotic cancer surgery was demonstrated. Also, uPAR-PET imaging showed a clear and localized signal in the tongue tumors. Conclusions: This study demonstrated...

  15. Evaluation of endothelium-dependent myocardial perfusion reserve in healthy smokers; cold pressor test using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung Hoon [School of Medicine, Gachon Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Byeong Il; Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Ho Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-01

    Much evidence suggests long-term cigarette smoking alters coronary vascular endothelial response. In this study, we applied nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), an unsupervised learning algorithm, to CO-less H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET to investigate coronary endothelial dysfunction caused by smoking noninvasively. This study enrolled eighteen young male volunteers consisting of 9 smokers (23.8{+-}1.1 yr; 6.6{+-}2.5 pack-years) and 9 nonsmokers (23.8{+-}2.9 yr). They do not have any cardiovascular risk factor or disease history. Myocardial H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET was performed at rest, during cold (5.deg.C) pressor stimulation and during adenosine infusion. Left ventricular blood pool and myocardium were segmented on dynamic PET data by NMF method. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was calculated from input and tissue functions by a single compartmental model with correction of partial volume and spillover effects. There were no significant difference in resting MBF between the two groups (Smokers: 1.43 0.41ml/g/min and non-smokers: 1.37{+-}0.41 ml/g/min; p = NS). during cold pressor stimulation, MBF in smokers was significantly lower than that in non-smokers (1.25{+-}0.34 ml/g/min vs 1.59{+-}0.29 ml/g/min ; p = 0.019). The difference in the ratio of cold pressor MBF to resting MBF between the two groups was also significant (p=0.024; 90{+-}24% in smokers and 122{+-}28% in non-smokers.). During adenosine infusion, however, hyperemic MBF did not differ significantly between smokers and non-smokers (5.81{+-}1.99 ml/g/min vs 5.11{+-}1.31 ml/g/min ; p=NS). In smokers, MBF during cold pressor stimulation was significantly lower compared with nonsmokers, reflecting smoking-induced endothelial dysfunction. However, there was no significant difference in MBF during adenosine-induced hyperemia between the two groups.

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  17. Pet Problems at Home: Pet Problems in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Discusses problems of pets in the community, examining the community's role related to disruptive pets and pet overpopulation. Also discusses pet problems at home, offering advice on selecting a pet, meeting a pet's needs, and disciplining pets. Includes a list of books, films/filmstrips, teaching materials, and various instructional strategies.…

  18. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  19. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  20. Preserved benzodiazepine receptors in Alzheimer's disease measured with C-11 flumazenil PET and I-123 iomazenil SPECT in comparison with CBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, Masashi; Kitamura, Shin; Mishina, Masahiro; Katayama, Yasuo; Senda, Michio; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ishii, Kenji; Toyama, Hinako; Oda, Keiichi

    1999-01-01

    This study evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) with H 2 15 O-PET and the distribution of central benzodiazepine receptor (BZR) with C-11 flumazenil (FMZ) by PET and I-123 iomazenil (IMZ) by SPECT in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, whereas the CBF was diminished in the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital cortex, the distribution volume of FMZ and delayed activity of IMZ were relatively preserved in these cortices, suggesting that the BZR reduction, reflecting neuronal loss, is less prominent than the CBF suppression. The mini-mental state examination score (MMS) was weakly correlated with the CBF in the parietal cortex but not with BZR. It is speculated that the neuronal density reflected by BZR is less impaired than the neuronal function assessed with blood flow in the association cortex of AD. High correlation was found between the uptake of FMZ and the delayed activity of IMZ. The delayed image of IMZ-SPECT is clinically useful to evaluate the preservation of neuronal density in the affected temoporoparietal association cortex in AD. (author)

  1. First-in-human study of PET and optical dual-modality image-guided surgery in glioblastoma using 68Ga-IRDye800CW-BBN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deling; Zhang, Jingjing; Chi, Chongwei; Xiao, Xiong; Wang, Junmei; Lang, Lixin; Ali, Iqbal; Niu, Gang; Zhang, Liwei; Tian, Jie; Ji, Nan; Zhu, Zhaohui; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2018-01-01

    Purpose : Despite the use of fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS), maximum safe resection of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains a major challenge. It has restricted surgeons between preoperative diagnosis and intraoperative treatment. Currently, an integrated approach combining preoperative assessment with intraoperative guidance would be a significant step in this direction. Experimental design : We developed a novel 68 Ga-IRDye800CW-BBN PET/near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) dual-modality imaging probe targeting gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) in GBM. The preclinical in vivo tumor imaging and FGS were first evaluated using an orthotopic U87MG glioma xenograft model. Subsequently, the first-in-human prospective cohort study (NCT 02910804) of GBM patients were conducted with preoperative PET assessment and intraoperative FGS. Results : The orthotopic tumors in mice could be precisely resected using the near-infrared intraoperative system. Translational cohort research in 14 GBM patients demonstrated an excellent correlation between preoperative positive PET uptake and intraoperative NIRF signal. The tumor fluorescence signals were significantly higher than those from adjacent brain tissue in vivo and ex vivo (p dual-modality imaging technique is feasible for integrated pre- and intraoperative targeted imaging via the same molecular receptor and improved intraoperative GBM visualization and maximum safe resection.

  2. PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, F.; Pawitan, Y.; Harrison, R.L.; Lewellen, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    In statistical terms, filtered backprojection can be viewed as smoothed Least Squares (LS). In this paper, the authors report on improvement in LS resolution by: incorporating locally adaptive smoothers, imposing positivity and using statistical methods for optimal selection of the resolution parameter. The resulting algorithm has high computational efficiency relative to more elaborate Maximum Likelihood (ML) type techniques (i.e. EM with sieves). Practical aspects of the procedure are discussed in the context of PET and illustrations with computer simulated and real tomograph data are presented. The relative recovery coefficients for a 9mm sphere in a computer simulated hot-spot phantom range from .3 to .6 when the number of counts ranges from 10,000 to 640,000 respectively. The authors will also present results illustrating the relative efficacy of ML and LS reconstruction techniques

  3. Imaging and PET - PET/CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Von Schulthess, G.K.; Hany, Th.F.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT has grown because the lack of anatomic landmarks in PET makes 'hardware-fusion' to anatomic cross-sectional data extremely useful. Addition of CT to PET improves specificity, but also sensitivity, and adding PET to CT adds sensitivity and specificity in tumor imaging. The synergistic advantage of adding CT is that the attenuation correction needed for PET data can also be derived from the CT data. This makes PET-CT 25-30% faster than PET alone, leading to higher patient throughput and a more comfortable examination for patients typically lasting 20 minutes or less. FDG-PET-CT appears to provide relevant information in the staging and therapy monitoring of many tumors, such as lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, lymphoma, gynaecological cancers, melanoma and many others, with the notable exception of prostatic cancer. for this cancer, choline derivatives may possibly become useful radiopharmaceuticals. The published literature on the applications of FDG-PET-CT in oncology is still limited but several designed studies have demonstrated the benefits of PET-CT. (authors)

  4. A study of artefacts in simultaneous PET and MR imaging using a prototype MR compatible PET scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slates, R.B.; Farahani, K.; Marsden, P.K.; Taylor, J.; Summers, P.E.; Williams, S.; Beech, J.

    1999-01-01

    We have assessed the possibility of artefacts that can arise in attempting to perform simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a small prototype MR compatible PET scanner (McPET). In these experiments, we examine MR images for any major artefacts or loss in image quality due to inhomogeneities in the magnetic field, radiofrequency interference or susceptibility effects caused by operation of the PET system inside the MR scanner. In addition, possible artefacts in the PET images caused by the static and time-varying magnetic fields or radiofrequency interference from the MR system were investigated. Biological tissue and a T 2 -weighted spin echo sequence were used to examine susceptibility artefacts due to components of the McPET scanner (scintillator, optical fibres) situated in the MR field of view. A range of commonly used MR pulse sequences was studied while acquiring PET data to look for possible artefacts in either the PET or MR images. Other than a small loss in signal-to-noise using gradient echo sequences, there was no significant interaction between the two imaging systems. Simultaneous PET and MR imaging of simple phantoms was also carried out in different MR systems with field strengths ranging from 0.2 to 4.7 T. The results of these studies demonstrate that it is possible to acquire PET and MR images simultaneously, without any significant artefacts or loss in image quality, using our prototype MR compatible PET scanner. (author)

  5. Trends in PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, William W.

    2000-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) imaging is a well established method for obtaining information on the status of certain organs within the human body or in animals. This paper presents an overview of recent trends PET instrumentation. Significant effort is being expended to develop new PET detector modules, especially those capable of measuring depth of interaction. This is aided by recent advances in scintillator and pixellated photodetector technology. The other significant area of effort is development of special purpose PET cameras (such as for imaging breast cancer or small animals) or cameras that have the ability to image in more than one modality (such as PET / SPECT or PET / X-Ray CT)

  6. Qualification test of a MPPC-based PET module for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Funamoto, H.; Tsujikawa, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-11-01

    We have developed a high-resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module for future use in MRI-PET scanners. The module consists of large-area, 4×4 ch MPPC arrays (Hamamatsu S11827-3344MG) optically coupled with Ce:LYSO scintillators fabricated into 12×12 matrices of 1×1 mm2 pixels. At this stage, a pair of module and coincidence circuits was assembled into an experimental prototype gantry arranged in a ring of 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. The PET detector ring was then positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point 22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure interference between the MPPC-based PET and the MRI. We only found a slight degradation in the spatial resolution of the PET image from 1.63 to 1.70 mm (FWHM; x-direction), or 1.48-1.55 mm (FWHM; y-direction) when operating with the MRI, while the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the MRI image was only degraded by 5%. These results encouraged us to develop a more advanced version of the MRI-PET gantry with eight MPPC-based PET modules, whose detailed design and first qualification test are also presented in this paper.

  7. PET / MRI vs. PET / CT. Indications Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva González, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Hybrid techniques in Nuclear Medicine is currently a field in full development for diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. With the recent advent of PET / MRI much it speculated about whether or not it is superior to PET / CT especially in oncology. The Conference seeks to clarify this situation by dealing issues such as: State of the art technology PET / MRI; Indications Oncology; Some clinical cases. It concludes by explaining the oncological indications of both the real and current situation of the PET / MRI. (author)

  8. Pets and Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... good news is that this rarely happens. Most pet-to-people diseases can be avoided by following a few ... your doctor Can a parasite cause death in people and pets? Can human disease from a parasite be treated ...

  9. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  10. [Principles of PET].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B

    2018-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a procedure in nuclear medicine, which is applied predominantly in oncological diagnostics. In the form of modern hybrid machines, such as PET computed tomography (PET/CT) and PET magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) it has found wide acceptance and availability. The PET procedure is more than just another imaging technique, but a functional method with the capability for quantification in addition to the distribution pattern of the radiopharmaceutical, the results of which are used for therapeutic decisions. A profound knowledge of the principles of PET including the correct indications, patient preparation, and possible artifacts is mandatory for the correct interpretation of PET results.

  11. Simultaneous acquisition of multislice PET and MR images: initial results with a MR-compatible PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Wu, Yibao; Judenhofer, Martin S; Qi, Jinyi; Pichler, Bernd J; Cherry, Simon R

    2006-12-01

    PET and MRI are powerful imaging techniques that are largely complementary in the information they provide. We have designed and built a MR-compatible PET scanner based on avalanche photodiode technology that allows simultaneous acquisition of PET and MR images in small animals. The PET scanner insert uses magnetic field-insensitive, position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) detectors coupled, via short lengths of optical fibers, to arrays of lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals. The optical fibers are used to minimize electromagnetic interference between the radiofrequency and gradient coils and the PET detector system. The PET detector module components and the complete PET insert assembly are described. PET data were acquired with and without MR sequences running, and detector flood histograms were compared with the ones generated from the data acquired outside the magnet. A uniform MR phantom was also imaged to assess the effect of the PET detector on the MR data acquisition. Simultaneous PET and MRI studies of a mouse were performed ex vivo. PSAPDs can be successfully used to read out large numbers of scintillator crystals coupled through optical fibers with acceptable performance in terms of energy and timing resolution and crystal identification. The PSAPD-LSO detector performs well in the 7-T magnet, and no visible artifacts are detected in the MR images using standard pulse sequences. The first images from the complete system have been successfully acquired and reconstructed, demonstrating that simultaneous PET and MRI studies are feasible and opening up interesting possibilities for dual-modality molecular imaging studies.

  12. Detection of misery perfusion in the cerebral hemisphere with chronic unilateral major cerebral artery steno-occlusive disease using crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion: comparison of brain SPECT and PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Yoshiyasu; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Saito, Hideo; Takahashi, Yoshihiro; Ogasawara, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Masakazu; Ogawa, Akira [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Terasaki, Kazunori [Iwate Medical University, Cyclotron Research Center, Morioka (Japan); Yoshida, Kenji; Beppu, Takaaki; Kubo, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Shunrou [Iwate Medical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Morioka (Japan); Tsushima, Eiki [Hirosaki University, Graduate School of Health Sciences, Hirosaki (Japan)

    2013-10-15

    In patients with unilateral internal carotid or middle cerebral artery (ICA or MCA) occlusive disease, the degree of crossed cerebellar hypoperfusion that is evident within a few months after the onset of stroke may reflect cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen in the affected cerebral hemisphere relative to that in the contralateral cerebral hemisphere. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the ratio of blood flow asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere to blood flow asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) correlates with oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) asymmetry in the cerebral hemisphere on PET in patients with chronic unilateral ICA or MCA occlusive disease and whether this blood flow ratio on SPECT detects misery perfusion in the affected cerebral hemisphere in such patients. Brain blood flow and OEF were assessed using {sup 15}O-PET and N-isopropyl-p-[{sup 123}I]iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP) SPECT, respectively. All images were anatomically standardized using SPM2. A region of interest (ROI) was automatically placed in the bilateral MCA territories and in the bilateral cerebellar hemispheres using a three-dimensional stereotaxic ROI template, and affected-to-contralateral asymmetry in the MCA territory or contralateral-to-affected asymmetry in the cerebellar hemisphere was calculated. Sixty-three patients with reduced blood flow in the affected cerebral hemisphere on {sup 123}I-IMP SPECT were enrolled in this study. A significant correlation was observed between MCA ROI asymmetry of PET OEF and the ratio of cerebellar hemisphere asymmetry of blood flow to MCA ROI asymmetry of blood flow on PET (r = 0.381, p = 0.0019) or SPECT (r = 0.459, p = 0.0001). The correlation coefficient was higher when reanalyzed in a subgroup of 43 patients undergoing a PET study within 3 months after the last ischemic event (r = 0.541, p = 0.0001 for PET; r = 0.609, p < 0

  13. Selecting Safe Pets (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... supplies (pet bowls, pet bed, leash, etc.) as gifts, then selecting the pet as a family. That way, everyone has time to really think about whether your family is ready for a pet. Key Questions Before adopting or purchasing any pet, talk to all family members, discuss ...

  14. Pet-Related Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-11-15

    Physicians and veterinarians have many opportunities to partner in promoting the well-being of people and their pets, especially by addressing zoonotic diseases that may be transmitted between a pet and a human family member. Common cutaneous pet-acquired zoonoses are dermatophytosis (ringworm) and sarcoptic mange (scabies), which are both readily treated. Toxoplasmosis can be acquired from exposure to cat feces, but appropriate hygienic measures can minimize the risk to pregnant women. Persons who work with animals are at increased risk of acquiring bartonellosis (e.g., cat-scratch disease); control of cat fleas is essential to minimize the risk of these infections. People and their pets share a range of tick-borne diseases, and exposure risk can be minimized with use of tick repellent, prompt tick removal, and appropriate tick control measures for pets. Pets such as reptiles, amphibians, and backyard poultry pose a risk of transmitting Salmonella species and are becoming more popular. Personal hygiene after interacting with these pets is crucial to prevent Salmonella infections. Leptospirosis is more often acquired from wildlife than infected dogs, but at-risk dogs can be protected with vaccination. The clinical history in the primary care office should routinely include questions about pets and occupational or other exposure to pet animals. Control and prevention of zoonoses are best achieved by enhancing communication between physicians and veterinarians to ensure patients know the risks of and how to prevent zoonoses in themselves, their pets, and other people.

  15. Pets and the immunocompromised person

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... marrow transplant patients and pets; Chemotherapy patients and pets ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Healthy pets healthy people. www.cdc.gov/healthypets . Updated July 19, 2016. ...

  16. Sensory analysis of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Kadri

    2014-08-01

    Pet food palatability depends first and foremost on the pet and is related to the pet food sensory properties such as aroma, texture and flavor. Sensory analysis of pet foods may be conducted by humans via descriptive or hedonic analysis, pets via acceptance or preference tests, and through a number of instrumental analysis methods. Sensory analysis of pet foods provides additional information on reasons behind palatable and unpalatable foods as pets lack linguistic capabilities. Furthermore, sensory analysis may be combined with other types of information such as personality and environment factors to increase understanding of acceptable pet foods. Most pet food flavor research is proprietary and, thus, there are a limited number of publications available. Funding opportunities for pet food studies would increase research and publications and this would help raise public awareness of pet food related issues. This mini-review addresses current pet food sensory analysis literature and discusses future challenges and possibilities. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Clinical PET application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Hong, Song W.; Choi, Chang W.; Yang, Seong Dae [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea)

    1997-12-01

    PET gives various methabolic images, and is very important, new diagnostic modality in clinical oncology. In Korea Cancer Center Hospital, PET is installed as a research tool of long-mid-term atomic research project. For the efficient use of PET for clinical and research projects, income from the patients should be managed to get the raw material, equipment, manpower, and also for the clinical PET research. 1. Support the clinical application of PET in oncology. 2. Budgetary management of income, costs for raw material, equipment, manpower, and the clinical PET research project. In this year, 250 cases of PET images were obtained, which resulted total income of 180,000,000 won. 50,000,000 won was deposited for the 1998 PET clinical research. Second year PET clinical research should be managed under unified project. Increased demand for {sup 18}FDG in and outside KCCH need more than 2 times production of {sup 18}FDG in a day purchase of HPLC pump and {sup 68}Ga pin source which was delayed due to economic crisis, should be done early in 1998. (author). 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Imaging with PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, B.K.; Noreen Norfaraheen Lee Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    PET deals with biochemistry and metabolic changes that occur at molecular level. Hence, PET differs fundamentally from other imaging modalities. CT imaging is based on tissue density, whereas MRI conveys anatomic information based on proton density and proton relaxation dynamics. CT and MRI are useful in clinical diagnosis only when disease process has caused significant anatomic alterations. However, in most disease conditions chemical changes precede anatomic changes, that can be detected by PET technology. Thus, PET can provide earliest and unique information about ongoing disease process long before anatomic or structural changes take place. There is no other modality available at present that can replace PET technology. Although PET produces cross-sectional images like that obtained in MRI or CT, they represent circulation, function and metabolism, and not anatomic structure. PET is extremely sensitive measuring quantitatively concentration of tracers in nano to pico-molar range. Thus, PET enables merger of biochemistry and biology in medicine giving birth to molecular medicine that focuses on identifying the molecular errors of disease leading to developing molecular corrections including gene therapy. Molecular imaging with PET has been playing a role in examining the biological nature of a disease condition and its characterization to guide selection and evaluation of treatment. (author)

  19. qPET - a quantitative extension of the Deauville scale to assess response in interim FDG-PET scans in lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenclever, Dirk [University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics and Epidemiology (IMISE), Leipzig (Germany); Kurch, Lars; Georgi, Thomas; Sabri, Osama; Kluge, Regine [University Hospital Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Mauz-Koerholz, Christine; Koerholz, Dieter [University Hospital Halle, Department of Pediatrics, Halle (Germany); Elsner, Andreas [Hermes Medical Solutions AB, Stockholm (Sweden); Wallace, Hamish [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh, Scotland (United Kingdom); Landman-Parker, Judith [Hopital d' Enfants Armand Trousseau, Paris (France); Moryl-Bujakowska, Angelina [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Polish-American Institute of Pediatrics, Krakow (Poland); Cepelova, Michaela [Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Prague (Czech Republic); Karlen, Jonas [Karolinska University Hospital, Pediatric Cancer Unit, Astrid Lindgrens Childrens Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Alvarez Fernandez-Teijeiro, Ana [University Hospital Virgen Macarena Avda, Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, Sevilla (Spain); Attarbaschi, Andishe [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, St. Anna Children' s Hospital, Vienna (Austria); Fossaa, Alexander [Department of Medical Oncology and Radiotherapy, Rikshospitalet - Radiumhospitalet HF, Oslo (Norway); Pears, Jane [Our Lady' s Children' s Hospital, Crumlin, Dublin (Ireland); Hraskova, Andrea [University Children' s Hospital, Clinic of Pediatric Oncology, Bratislava (Slovakia); Bergstraesser, Eva [University Children' s Hospital, Department Oncology, Zurich (Switzerland); Beishuizen, Auke [MC - Sophia Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Oncology/Hematology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Uyttebroeck, Anne [University Hospitals of Leuven, Department of Pediatric Hemato-Oncology, Leuven (Belgium); Schomerus, Eckhard [University of Odense (OUH), Department of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, H. C. Andersen Children' s Hospital, Odense (Denmark)

    2014-07-15

    Interim FDG-PET is used for treatment tailoring in lymphoma. Deauville response criteria consist of five ordinal categories based on visual comparison of residual tumor uptake to physiological reference uptakes. However, PET-response is a continuum and visual assessments can be distorted by optical illusions. With a novel semi-automatic quantification tool we eliminate optical illusions and extend the Deauville score to a continuous scale. SUV{sub peak} of residual tumors and average uptake of the liver is measured with standardized volumes of interest. The qPET value is the quotient of these measurements. Deauville scores and qPET-values were determined in 898 pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma patients after two OEPA chemotherapy cycles. Deauville categories translate to thresholds on the qPET scale: Categories 3, 4, 5 correspond to qPET values of 0.95, 1.3 and 2.0, respectively. The distribution of qPET values is unimodal with a peak representing metabolically normal responses and a tail of clearly abnormal outliers. In our patients, the peak is at qPET = 0.95 coinciding with the border between Deauville 2 and 3. qPET cut values of 1.3 or 2 (determined by fitting mixture models) select abnormal metabolic responses with high sensitivity, respectively, specificity. qPET methodology provides semi-automatic quantification for interim FDG-PET response in lymphoma extending ordinal Deauville scoring to a continuous scale. Deauville categories correspond to certain qPET cut values. Thresholds between normal and abnormal response can be derived from the qPET-distribution without need for follow-up data. In our patients, qPET < 1.3 excludes abnormal response with high sensitivity. (orig.)

  20. qPET - a quantitative extension of the Deauville scale to assess response in interim FDG-PET scans in lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenclever, Dirk; Kurch, Lars; Georgi, Thomas; Sabri, Osama; Kluge, Regine; Mauz-Koerholz, Christine; Koerholz, Dieter; Elsner, Andreas; Wallace, Hamish; Landman-Parker, Judith; Moryl-Bujakowska, Angelina; Cepelova, Michaela; Karlen, Jonas; Alvarez Fernandez-Teijeiro, Ana; Attarbaschi, Andishe; Fossaa, Alexander; Pears, Jane; Hraskova, Andrea; Bergstraesser, Eva; Beishuizen, Auke; Uyttebroeck, Anne; Schomerus, Eckhard

    2014-01-01

    Interim FDG-PET is used for treatment tailoring in lymphoma. Deauville response criteria consist of five ordinal categories based on visual comparison of residual tumor uptake to physiological reference uptakes. However, PET-response is a continuum and visual assessments can be distorted by optical illusions. With a novel semi-automatic quantification tool we eliminate optical illusions and extend the Deauville score to a continuous scale. SUV peak of residual tumors and average uptake of the liver is measured with standardized volumes of interest. The qPET value is the quotient of these measurements. Deauville scores and qPET-values were determined in 898 pediatric Hodgkin's lymphoma patients after two OEPA chemotherapy cycles. Deauville categories translate to thresholds on the qPET scale: Categories 3, 4, 5 correspond to qPET values of 0.95, 1.3 and 2.0, respectively. The distribution of qPET values is unimodal with a peak representing metabolically normal responses and a tail of clearly abnormal outliers. In our patients, the peak is at qPET = 0.95 coinciding with the border between Deauville 2 and 3. qPET cut values of 1.3 or 2 (determined by fitting mixture models) select abnormal metabolic responses with high sensitivity, respectively, specificity. qPET methodology provides semi-automatic quantification for interim FDG-PET response in lymphoma extending ordinal Deauville scoring to a continuous scale. Deauville categories correspond to certain qPET cut values. Thresholds between normal and abnormal response can be derived from the qPET-distribution without need for follow-up data. In our patients, qPET < 1.3 excludes abnormal response with high sensitivity. (orig.)

  1. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Demir; Türkay Toklu; Mohammad Abuqbeitah; Hüseyin Çetin; H. Sezer Sezgin; Nami Yeyin; Kerim Sönmezoğlu

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. Methods: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated...

  2. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Mustafa; Toklu, Türkay; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Çetin, Hüseyin; Sezgin, H. Sezer; Yeyin, Nami; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. Methods: According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated asp...

  3. Birds Kept as Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your pet’s health Visit a veterinarian who has experience with pet birds for routine check-ups to keep your bird healthy and prevent infectious diseases. If your bird becomes sick or dies within a month after purchase or adoption: Contact your veterinarian. Inform the pet ...

  4. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  5. Usage of Recycled Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ebru Tayyar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing industrialization, urbanization and the technological development have caused to increase depletion of the natural resources and environmental pollution's problem. Especially, for the countries which have not enough space recycling of the waste eliminating waste on regular basis or decreasing the amount and volume of waste have provided the important advantages. There are lots of studies and projects to develop both protect resources and prevent environmental pollution. PET bottles are commonly used in beverage industry and can be reused after physical and chemical recycling processes. Usage areas of recycled PET have been developed rapidly. Although recycled PET is used in plastic industry, composite industry also provides usage alternatives of recycled PET. Textile is a suitable sector for recycling of some plastics made of polymers too. In this study, the recycling technologies and applications of waste PET bottles have been investigated and scientific works in this area have been summarized.

  6. Oncology PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inubushi, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    At the beginning of this article, likening medical images to 'Where is Waldo?' I indicate the concept of diagnostic process of PET/CT imaging, so that medical physics specialists could understand the role of each imaging modality and infer our distress for image diagnosis. Then, I state the present situation of PET imaging and the basics (e.g. health insurance coverage, clinical significance, principle, protocol, and pitfall) of oncology FDG-PET imaging which accounts for more than 99% of all clinical PET examinations in Japan. Finally, I would like to give a wishful prospect of oncology PET that will expand to be more cancer-specific in order to assess therapeutic effects of emerging molecular targeted drugs targeting the 'hallmarks of cancer'. (author)

  7. Evaluation of PET Scanner Performance in PET/MR and PET/CT Systems: NEMA Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa; Toklu, Türkay; Abuqbeitah, Mohammad; Çetin, Hüseyin; Sezgin, H Sezer; Yeyin, Nami; Sönmezoğlu, Kerim

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the performance of positron emission tomography (PET) component of PET/computed tomography (CT) with new emerging PET/magnetic resonance (MR) of the same vendor. According to National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-07, five separate experimental tests were performed to evaluate the performance of PET scanner of General Electric GE company; SIGNATM model PET/MR and GE Discovery 710 model PET/CT. The main investigated aspects were spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, count rate performance, image quality, count loss and random events correction accuracy. The findings of this study demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 4 folds) of PET scanner in PET/MR compared to PET/CT system. Image quality test exhibited higher contrast in PET/MR (~ 9%) compared with PET/CT. The scatter fraction of PET/MR was 43.4% at noise equivalent count rate (NECR) peak of 218 kcps and the corresponding activity concentration was 17.7 kBq/cc. Whereas the scatter fraction of PET/CT was found as 39.2% at NECR peak of 72 kcps and activity concentration of 24.3 kBq/cc. The percentage error of the random event correction accuracy was 3.4% and 3.1% in PET/MR and PET/CT, respectively. It was concluded that PET/MR system is about 4 times more sensitive than PET/CT, and the contrast of hot lesions in PET/MR was ~ 9% higher than PET/CT. These outcomes also emphasize the possibility to achieve excellent clinical PET images with low administered dose and/or a short acquisition time in PET/MR.

  8. Positron Emission Tomography (PET)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rollo, F.D.; Hines, H.

    2001-01-01

    ADAC Laboratories has two main imaging strengths: PET and Gamma Cameras. PET's three-dimensional imaging of metabolic function is used in oncology, with emerging opportunties in cardiology, genetic mapping and pharmaceuticals research. In oncology, PET imaging can provide comprehensive and accurate staging information which is not available from CT or MRI. In some cases, this information can lead to modification of treatment, for example from an aggressive approach to one of palliation. The SKYLight is the world's first and only gantry-free camera. It is a dual-detector variable angle camera designed for high throughput, with unsurpassed openness and patient access. (orig.)

  9. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H215O PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H 2 15 O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period

  10. Motion compensation for fully 4D PET reconstruction using PET superset data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhaeghe, J; Gravel, P; Mio, R; Fukasawa, R; Rosa-Neto, P; Soucy, J-P; Thompson, C J; Reader, A J, E-mail: jeroen.verhaeghe@mcgill.c [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    Fully 4D PET image reconstruction is receiving increasing research interest due to its ability to significantly reduce spatiotemporal noise in dynamic PET imaging. However, thus far in the literature, the important issue of correcting for subject head motion has not been considered. Specifically, as a direct consequence of using temporally extensive basis functions, a single instance of movement propagates to impair the reconstruction of multiple time frames, even if no further movement occurs in those frames. Existing 3D motion compensation strategies have not yet been adapted to 4D reconstruction, and as such the benefits of 4D algorithms have not yet been reaped in a clinical setting where head movement undoubtedly occurs. This work addresses this need, developing a motion compensation method suitable for fully 4D reconstruction methods which exploits an optical tracking system to measure the head motion along with PET superset data to store the motion compensated data. List-mode events are histogrammed as PET superset data according to the measured motion, and a specially devised normalization scheme for motion compensated reconstruction from the superset data is required. This work proceeds to propose the corresponding time-dependent normalization modifications which are required for a major class of fully 4D image reconstruction algorithms (those which use linear combinations of temporal basis functions). Using realistically simulated as well as real high-resolution PET data from the HRRT, we demonstrate both the detrimental impact of subject head motion in fully 4D PET reconstruction and the efficacy of our proposed modifications to 4D algorithms. Benefits are shown both for the individual PET image frames as well as for parametric images of tracer uptake and volume of distribution for {sup 18}F-FDG obtained from Patlak analysis.

  11. PET studies in epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarikaya, Ismet

    2015-01-01

    Various PET studies, such as measurements of glucose, serotonin and oxygen metabolism, cerebral blood flow and receptor bindings are availabe for epilepsy. 18Fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET imaging of brain glucose metabolism is a well established and widely available technique. Studies have demonstrated that the sensitivity of interictal FDG-PET is higher than interictal SPECT and similar to ictal SPECT for the lateralization and localization of epileptogenic foci in presurgical patients refractory to medical treatments who have noncontributory EEG and MRI. In addition to localizing epileptogenic focus, FDG-PET provide additional important information on the functional status of the rest of the brain. The main limitation of interictal FDG-PET is that it cannot precisely define the surgical margin as the area of hypometabolism usually extends beyond the epileptogenic zone. Various neurotransmitters (GABA, glutamate, opiates, serotonin, dopamine, acethylcholine, and adenosine) and receptor subtypes are involved in epilepsy. PET receptor imaging studies performed in limited centers help to understand the role of neurotransmitters in epileptogenesis, identify epileptic foci and investigate new treatment approaches. PET receptor imaging studies have demonstrated reduced 11C-flumazenil (GABAA-cBDZ) and 18F-MPPF (5-HT1A serotonin) and increased 11C-cerfentanil (mu opiate) and 11C-MeNTI (delta opiate) bindings in the area of seizure. 11C-flumazenil has been reported to be more sensitive than FDG-PET for identifying epileptic foci. The area of abnormality on GABAAcBDZ and opiate receptor images is usually smaller and more circumscribed than the area of hypometabolism on FDG images. Studies have demonstrated that 11C-alpha-methyl-L-tryptophan PET (to study synthesis of serotonin) can detect the epileptic focus within malformations of cortical development and helps in differentiating epileptogenic from non-epileptogenic tubers in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex

  12. PET and Recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Funda Sevencan; Songul A. Vaizoglu

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water,...

  13. Medical application of PET technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [ 18 F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals

  14. PET in neuro-oncology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Leenders, K.L.

    This article reviews possible clinical applications of positron emission tomography (PET) in brain tumor patients. PET allows quantitative assessment of brain tumor pathophysiology and biochemistry. It therefore provides different information about tumors when compared to histological or

  15. Take Care with Pet Reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... young children. [775 KB] Animals and Health Healthy Pets Healthy People : CDC website with helpful resources and information on health benefits of pets and disease risks Safe Handling Tips for Reptiles ...

  16. Medical application of PET technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Moo; Choi, C. W.; An, S. H.; Woo, K. S.; Chung, W. S.; Yang, S. D.; Jun, G. S. and others

    1999-04-01

    We performed following studies using PET technology: 1. Clinical usefulness of [{sup 18}F]FDG whole body PET in malignant disease 2. Clinical usefulness of quantitative evaluation of F-18-FDG 3. Pilot study of C-11 methionine PET in brain tumor 4. PET study in patients with Parkinson's disease 5. A study on the clinical myocardial PET image. PET gives various metabolic information for the living human body, and is very important, new diagnostic modality. The PET study will give us the information of cancer patients such as early detection of cancer, staging, recurrence detection and characterization of cancer. The quantitative analysis using PET could be applied to evaluate the pathophysiology of various diseases and develop new drugs and develop new radiopharmaceuticals.

  17. PET applications in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulkin, B. L. [Ann Arbor, Univ. of Michigan Medical Center (United States). Pediatric Nuclear Medicine Section

    1997-12-01

    This article summarizes the major PET studies which have been performed in pediatric patients to elucidate and characterize diseases and normal development. Issues special for the application of the technique in children, such as dosimetry, patient preparation, and image acquisition are discussed. Studies of central nervous system (CNS) development and pathology, including epilepsy, intraventricular hemorrhage, neonatal asphyxia, tumors, and effects on the CNS from treatment of other tumors are reviewed. These have contributed information fundamental to their understanding of CNS development and pathology. PET investigations into the pathophysiology of congenital heart disease have begun and hold great promise to aid their understanding of these conditions. The second major area in which PET has been applied is the study of non CNS neoplasms. Neuroblastoma has been investigated with tracers which explore basic biochemical features which characterize this tumor, as well as with tracers which explore biochemical events relatively specific for this malignancy. Other common and uncommon tumors of childhood are discussed. The PET technique has been shown useful for answering questions of clinical relevance for the management of these uncommon neoplasms. PET is likely to continue to aid their understanding of many pediatric diseases and may gain more widespread clinical acceptance as the technology continues to disseminate rapidly.

  18. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D L; Pichler, B J; Gückel, B

    2018-01-01

    The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants c...... of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care.......The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants...... critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how...

  19. Role of PET in gene therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology

  20. Role of PET in gene therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Han [School of Medicine, Sungkyunkwan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-02-01

    In addition to the well-established use of positron emission tomography (PET) in clinical oncology, novel roles for PET are rapidly emerging in the field of gene therapy. Methods for controlled gene delivery to living bodies, made available through advances in molecular biology, are currently being employed in animals for reasearch purposes and in humans to treat diseases such as cancer. Although gene therapy is still in its early developmental stage, it is perceived that many serious illnesses could be treated successfully by the use of therapeutic gene delivery. A major challenge for the widespread use of human gene therapy is to achieve a controlled and effective delivery of foreign genes to target cells and subsequently, adequate levels of expression. As such, the availability of noninvasive imaging methods to accurately assess the location, duration, and level of transgene expression is critical for optimizing gene therapy strategies. Current endeavors to achieve this goal include methods that utilize magnetic resonance imaging, optical imaging, and nuclear imaging techniques. As for PET, reporter systems that utilize gene encoding enzymes that accumulate postion labeled substrates and those transcribing surface receptors that bind specific positron labeled ligands have been successfully developed. More recent advances in this area include improved reporter gene constructs and radiotracers, introduction of potential strategies to monitor endogenous gene expression, and human pilot studies evaluating the distribution and safety of reporter PET tracers. The remarkably rapid progress occuring in gene imaging technology indicates its importance and wide range of application. As such, gene imaging is likely to become a major and exciting new area for future application of PET technology.

  1. PET imaging in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faria, Daniele de Paula; Copray, Sjef; Buchpiguel, Carlos; Dierckx, Rudi; de Vries, Erik

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a non-invasive technique for quantitative imaging of biochemical and physiological processes in animals and humans. PET uses probes labeled with a radioactive isotope, called PET tracers, which can bind to or be converted by a specific biological target and thus

  2. PET imaging of inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscombe, J. R.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory diseases are common place and often chronic. Most inflammatory cells have increased uptake of glucose which is enhanced in the presence of local cytokines. Therefore, imaging glucose metabolism by the means of 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) holds significant promise in imaging focal inflammation. Most of the work published involved small series of patients with either vasculitis, sarcoid or rheumatoid arthritis. It would appear that FDG PET is a simple and effective technique to identify inflammatory tissue in these conditions. There is even some work to suggest that by comparing baseline and early post therapy scans clinical outcome can be predicted. This would appear to be true with vasculitis as well as retroperitoneal fibrosis. The number of patients in each study is small but the evidence is compelling enough to recommend FDG PET imaging in the routine care of these patients.

  3. Pet in Clinical oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunsche, A.; Grossman, G.; Santana, M.; Santana, C.; Halkar, R.; Garcia, E.

    2003-01-01

    The utility of the PET (positron emission tomography in clinical oncology has been recognized for more than two decades, locating it as a sensible technique for the diagnosis and the prognosis stratification of the oncology patients. The sensitivity and specificity of the PET in comparation to other image studies have demonstrated to be greater. For some years, there was a restriction of PET because of the high cost of the equipment and the cyclotrons. Nevertheless, the relation of cost/benefits is considered as a priority as this technique offers important clinical information. In this article the results observed when using it in diverse types of cancer, as well as the effectiveness shown in the pre-operating evaluation, the evaluation of residual disease, diagnosis of recurrences, pursuit and prognosis stratification of the patients with cancer. (The author)

  4. Metabolic imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudo, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    There is growing evidence that myocardial metabolism plays a key role not only in ischaemic heart disease but also in a variety of diseases which involve myocardium globally, such as heart failure and diabetes mellitus. Understanding myocardial metabolism in such diseases helps to elucidate the pathophysiology and assists in making therapeutic decisions. As well as providing information on regional changes, PET can deliver quantitative information about both regional and global changes in metabolism. This capability of quantitative measurement is one of the major advantages of PET along with physiological positron tracers, especially relevant in evaluating diseases which involve the whole myocardium. This review discusses major PET tracers for metabolic imaging and their clinical applications and contributions to research regarding ischaemic heart disease and other diseases such as heart failure and diabetic heart disease. Future applications of positron metabolic tracers for the detection of vulnerable plaque are also highlighted briefly. (orig.)

  5. Novel PET sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, C.R.

    2001-03-01

    This thesis describes the design, synthesis and evaluation of novel molecular sensors that utilize the phenomena of Photoinduced Electron Transfer (PET). PET design can be incorporated into molecules to allow them to selectively bind certain guest molecules. PET works by the modulation of electron potentials within a molecule. Binding events between a host and guest can, if designed suitably, change these potentials enough to cause a transfer of electronic charge within the molecular sensor. This event can be accurately and sensitively monitored by the use of ultra violet or fluorescence spectroscopy. A sensor molecule can be constructed by matching the guest to a suitable receptor site and incorporating this into a molecule containing a fluorophore with the correct electron potential characteristics. By using existing synthetic routes as well as exploiting new pathways these sensor molecules C n be constructed to contain a fluorophore separated from a guest receptor(s) by suitable spacers units. When put together these facets go to creating molecules that by design are sensitive and selective for certain guest molecules or functional groups. This methodology allows the synthetic chemist to rationally design and synthesise PET sensors, tailored to the needs of the guest. In this thesis the synthesis and evaluation of a novel PET sensors for D-glucosamine, disaccharides and fluoride is presented. It is believed that the novel sensors using the PET phenomenon presented in this thesis are a worthwhile extension of previous works undertaken by other groups around the world and shows new pathways to increasingly complex and sophisticated sensor molecular design. (author)

  6. PET and endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rigo, P.; Belhocine, T.; Hustinx, R.; Foidart-Willems, J.

    2000-01-01

    The authors review the main indications of PET examination, and specifically of 18 FDG, in the assessment of endocrine tumors: of the thyroid, of the parathyroid, of the adrenal and of the pituitary glands. Neuroendocrine tumors, gastro-entero-pancreatic or carcinoid tumors are also under the scope. Usually, the most differentiated tumors show only poor uptake of the FDG as they have a weak metabolic and proliferative activity. In the assessment of endocrine tumors, FDG-PET should be used only after most specific nuclear examinations been performed. (author)

  7. PET/MR in oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balyasnikova, Svetlana; Löfgren, Johan; de Nijs, Robin

    2012-01-01

    of the challenges inherent in this new technology, but focus on potential applications for simultaneous PET/MR in the field of oncology. Methods and tracers for use with the PET technology will be familiar to most readers of this journal; thus this paper aims to provide a short and basic introduction to a number...... be applied together with PET increasing the amount of information about the tissues of interest. The potential clinical benefit of applying PET/MR in staging, radiotherapy planning and treatment evaluation in oncology, as well as the research perspectives for the use of PET/MR in the development of new...

  8. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma; PET y PET/CT en melanoma maligno

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J R [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  9. Combined PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D. L.; Pichler, B. J.; Gückel, B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from...

  10. I Love Petting Zoos!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-23

    This Kidtastics podcast helps children learn about how to stay safe and healthy when visiting petting zoos and other animal exhibits.  Created: 3/23/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/23/2010.

  11. PET's indsats under lup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peer Henrik

    2006-01-01

    En undersøgelseskommission nedsat i 1999. Fem medlemmer skal undersøge PET's efterretningsvirksomhed i forhold til politiske partier, faglige konflikter og politisk ideologiske bevægelser i Danmark under den kolde krig. Kommissionens rapport forventes færdig næste år. Udgivelsesdato: 2. juli 2006...

  12. Choosing a Pet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    THE capital boasts countless markets of all kinds,but some of its insect,bird and pet markets immortalize Beijing culture and folkloric traditions.Don’t miss it! The Huasheng Tianqiao Market,south of the famous Panjiayuan Antique Market, was moved a few years ago and rebuilt in the

  13. PET CT and lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about Tc and lymphomas. Classification and clinical cases of various cancer such as gastro duodenal or ulcer, mama, medullary, lymph and neck, leukemia, nodular sclerosis. Metabolic information, anatomical nature of lymphoma and its clinical presentation determine the extent that PET should be used in the patient.

  14. Comparison of rCBF between patients with medial temporal lobe epilepsy and normal controls using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Jae Sung; Nam, Hyun Woo; Lee, Sang Kun; Lee, Dong Soo; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the brain areas whose regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was changed in medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) using H{sub 2}{sup 15}O-PET. 12 patients with mTLE (6 left, 6 right mTLE) and 6 normal controls were scanned during a fixation baseline period and a sensory-motor condition where subjects pressed a button to an upward arrow. A voxel-based analysis using SPM99 software was performed to compare the patient groups with the normal controls for the rCBF during fixation baseline period and for relative changes of rCBF during the sensory-motor task relative to fixation. Duirng the fixation baseline, a significant reduction of rCBF was found posterior insula bilaterally and right frontopolar regions in right mTLE patients compared to the normal controls. In left mTLE patients, the reduction was found in left frontopolar and temporal regions. During the sensory-motor task, rCBF increase over the fixation period, was reduced in left frontal and superior temporal regions in the right mTLE patients whereas in various areas of right hemisphere in left mTLE patients, relative to normal controls. However, the increased rCBF was also found in the left inferior parietal and anterior thalamic/fornix regions in both right and left mTLE patients compared to normal controls. Epilepsy induced changes were found not only in relative increase/ decrease of rCBF during a simple sensory-motor control condition relative to a fixation rest condition but also in the relative rCBF distribution during the rest period.

  15. Immuno PET/MR imaging allows specific detection of Aspergillus fumigatus lung infection in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolle, Anna-Maria; Hasenberg, Mike; Thornton, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    -infected mice allowed specific localization of lung infection when combined with PET. Optical imaging with a fluorochrome-labeled version of the mAb showed colocalization with invasive hyphae. The mAb-based newly developed PET tracer [64Cu]DOTA-JF5 distinguishedIPA from bacterial lung infections and...

  16. PET or PET-CT with cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2007-01-01

    At present, cancer screening remains a lot of debate in contemporary medical practice. Many constitutes have done a lot of experiments in cancer screening. The same version is that recommendations and decisions regarding cancer screening should be based on reliable data, not self- approbation. Now, some institutes advocate 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET-CT for cancer screening, here, discussed status quo, potential financial, radiation safety and statistical data in 18 F-FDG PET or 18 F-FDG PET- CT cancer screening. (authors)

  17. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  18. Cyclotron/PET project in Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engler, H.

    2006-01-01

    The Positron Computed Tomography (PET) is a tri dimensional image technique which shows biochemical information. PET is used in neurology and cardiology diseases. The National Center Cyclotron PET has been found to research, development and health science applications.

  19. PET studies in dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herholz, K.

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ( 18 F-F-DOPA) and for ( 11 C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs

  20. PET studies in dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik and Max-Planck-Inst. fuer neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    2003-04-01

    Measurement of local cerebral glucose metabolism (lCMRGlc) by positron emission tomography (PET) and {sup 18}F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) has become a standard technique during the past 20 years and is now available at many university hospitals in all highly developed countries. Many studies have documented a close relation between lCMRGlc and localized cognitive functions, such as language and visuoconstructive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by regional impairment of cerebral glucose metabolism in neocortical association areas (posterior cingulate, temporoparietal and frontal multimodal association cortex), whereas primary visual and sensorimotor cortex, basal ganglia, and cerebellum are relatively well preserved. In a multicenter study comprising 10 PET centers (Network for Efficiency and Standardization of Dementia Diagnosis, NEST-DD) that employed an automated voxel-based analysis of FDG PET images, the distinction between controls and AD patients was 93% sensitive and 93% specific, and even in very mild dementia (at Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) 24 or higher) sensitivity was still 84% at 93% specificity. Significantly abnormal metabolism in mild cognitive deficit (MCI) indicates a high risk to develop dementia within the next two years. Reduced neocortical glucose metabolism can probably be detected with FDG PET in AD on average one year before onset of subjective cognitive impairment. In addition to glucose metabolism, specific tracers for dopamine synthesis ({sup 18}F-F-DOPA) and for ({sup 11}C-MP4A) are of interest for differentiation among dementia subtypes. Cortical acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) activity is significantly lower in patients with AD or with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) than in age-matched normal controls. In LBD there is also impairment of dopamine synthesis, similar to Parkinson disease. (author) 115 refs.

  1. Pet Overpopulation: An Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen Coate; Brian Knight

    2009-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of pet overpopulation. It develops a tractable dynamic model whose positive predictions square well with key features of the current U.S. market for pets. The model is used to understand, from a welfare economic perspective, the sense in which there is \\overpopulation" of pets and the underlying causes of the problem. The paper also employs the model to consider what policies might be implemented to deal with the problem. A calibrated example is developed to i...

  2. Click synthesis of PET radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Mei; Kuang Chunxiang

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention has been focused on synthesis radiopharmaceuticals for positron emission tomography (PET). The recent years witnessed applications of click chemistry to PET radiopharmaceutical synthesis,because of its distinctive advantages including high speed,yield and stereospecificity under mild conditions. Synthesis of 18 F-labeled and 11 C-labeled radiopharmaceuticals and intermediates via click chemistry are reviewed. The future trend of click chemistry for the synthesis of PET radiopharmaceutical is prospected. (authors)

  3. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2007; 6(4: 307-312

  4. PET and Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Sevencan

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to clarify the need of decreasing the environmental effects caused by human and draw attention to the increasing environmental effects of plastics wastes. Plastics consist of organic molecules with high density molecules or polymers. Main resources of plastics are the residue of oil rafineries. Several advantages of plastics, have increased the usage continuously. Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most commonly used plastics. PET is used to protect food, drinking water, fruit juice, alcoholic beverage, and food packing films. By the increasing interest on the environmental effects of plastic wastes, concerns on the recyclable packing materials also grew up. Also the daily use of recyclable containers consisting PET have increased. There are five steps for recycling of plastics. These steps are; using large amounts of plastics, collecting them in a big center, classifying and sorting the plastics, reproducing the polymers and obtaining new products with melted plastics. Providing a healthy recycling of plastics, the consumers should have knowledge and responsibility. The consumer should know what he/she has to do before putting the plastics in the recycling containers. Recycling containers and bags should be placed near the sources of plastic wastes. Consequently, the plastic wastes and environmental problems they cause will be on the agenda in future. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(4.000: 307-312

  5. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm 3 GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a 22 Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that 18 F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging

  6. Extended suicide with a pet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Brian K

    2013-01-01

    The combination of the killing of a pet and a suicide is a perplexing scenario that is largely unexplored in the literature. Many forensic psychiatrists and psychologists may be unaccustomed to considering the significance of the killing of a pet. The subject is important, however, because many people regard their pets as members of their family. A case is presented of a woman who killed her pet dog and herself by carbon monoxide poisoning. The purpose of this article is to provide an initial exploration of the topic of extended suicide with a pet. Forensic mental health evaluations may have a role in understanding the etiology of this event and in opining as to the culpability of individuals who attempt to or successfully kill a pet and then commit suicide. Because the scientific literature is lacking, there is a need to understand this act from a variety of perspectives. First, a social and anthropological perspective will be presented that summarizes the history of the practice of killing of one's pet, with a focus on the ancient Egyptians. A clinical context will examine what relationship animals have to mental illness. A vast body of existing scientific data showing the relevance of human attachment to pets suggests that conclusions from the phenomena of homicide-suicide and filicide-suicide are applicable to extended suicide with a pet. Finally, recommendations will be proposed for both clinical and forensic psychiatrists faced with similar cases.

  7. PET/CT and radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messa, C.; CNR, Milano; S. Gerardo Hospital, Monza; Di Muzio, N.; Picchio, M.; Bettinardi, V.; Gilardi, M.C.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; Fazio, F.; CNR, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano; San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milano

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews the state of the art of PET/CT applications in radiotherapy, specifically its use in disease staging, patient selection, treatment planning and treatment evaluation. Diseases for which radiotherapy with radical intent is indicated will be considered, as well as those in which PET/CT may actually change the course of disease. The methodological and technological aspects of PET/CT in radiotherapy are discussed, focusing on the problem of target volume definition with CT and PET functional imaging and the problem of tumor motion with respect to imaging and dose delivery

  8. Cost-effectiveness of PET and PET/Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerke, Oke; Hermansson, Ronnie; Hess, Søren

    2015-01-01

    measure by means of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios when considering the replacement of the standard regimen by a new diagnostic procedure. This article discusses economic assessments of PET and PET/computed tomography reported until mid-July 2014. Forty-seven studies on cancer and noncancer...

  9. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K; Velan, S Sendhil; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F; Weisenberger, Andrew G; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging

  10. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Majewski, Stan [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan K [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brian [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Zorn, Carl [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, 12000 Jefferson Ave., Newport News, VA (United States); Marano, Gary D [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, Box 9236, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2006-12-21

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  11. Nondestructive Analysis of Apollo Samples by Micro-CT and Micro-XRF Analysis: A PET Style Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2014-01-01

    An integral part of any sample return mission is the initial description and classification of returned samples by the preliminary examination team (PET). The goal of a PET is to characterize and classify the returned samples, making this information available to the general research community who can then conduct more in-depth studies on the samples. A PET strives to minimize the impact their work has on the sample suite, which often limits the PET work to largely visual measurements and observations like optical microscopy. More modern techniques can also be utilized by future PET to nondestructively characterize astromaterials in a more rigorous way. Here we present our recent analyses of Apollo samples 14321 and 14305 by micro-CT and micro-XRF (respectively), assess the potential for discovery of "new" Apollo samples for scientific study, and evaluate the usefulness of these techniques in future PET efforts.

  12. Tracking accuracy evaluation of a PET-enabled glove for molecular image-guided surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruionu, L.G.; Wilson, E.; Cleary, K.; Wong, K.H.; Weinberg, I.N.

    2007-01-01

    We are developing a new type of PET scanner with a flexible geometry that can provide in situ functional imaging in environments where conventional full-body PET scanning would be difficult or impossible. Because PET reconstruction depends on localizing emissions from the radiotracer inside the patient, our system must have a means of continuously monitoring the detectors' position and orientation. We therefore evaluated the accuracy of using electromagnetic tracking for this task by comparing position measurements from the electromagnetic tracking system to a reference optical tracking system. The mean error in localization was 2.1 mm. (orig.)

  13. Tracking accuracy evaluation of a PET-enabled glove for molecular image-guided surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruionu, L.G. [Computer Aided Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR), Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Faculty of Engineering and Management of Technological Systems, Univ. of Craiova, Craiova (Romania); Wilson, E.; Cleary, K.; Wong, K.H. [Computer Aided Interventions and Medical Robotics (CAIMR), Imaging Science and Information Systems (ISIS) Center, Georgetown Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC (United States); Weinberg, I.N. [Fast Imaging Co., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2007-06-15

    We are developing a new type of PET scanner with a flexible geometry that can provide in situ functional imaging in environments where conventional full-body PET scanning would be difficult or impossible. Because PET reconstruction depends on localizing emissions from the radiotracer inside the patient, our system must have a means of continuously monitoring the detectors' position and orientation. We therefore evaluated the accuracy of using electromagnetic tracking for this task by comparing position measurements from the electromagnetic tracking system to a reference optical tracking system. The mean error in localization was 2.1 mm. (orig.)

  14. Preliminary results of a prototype C-shaped PET designed for an in-beam PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyun-Il; Chung, Yong Hyun; Lee, Kisung; Kim, Kyeong Min; Kim, Yongkwon; Joung, Jinhun

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) can be utilized in particle beam therapy to verify the dose distribution of the target volume as well as the accuracy of the treatment. We present an in-beam PET scanner that can be integrated into a particle beam therapy system. The proposed PET scanner consisted of 14 detector modules arranged in a C-shape to avoid blockage of the particle beam line by the detector modules. Each detector module was composed of a 9×9 array of 4.0 mm×4.0 mm×20.0 mm LYSO crystals optically coupled to four 29-mm-diameter PMTs using the photomultiplier-quadrant-sharing (PQS) technique. In this study, a Geant4 Application for Tomographic Emission (GATE) simulation study was conducted to design a C-shaped PET scanner and then experimental evaluation of the proposed design was performed. The spatial resolution and sensitivity were measured according to NEMA NU2-2007 standards and were 6.1 mm and 5.61 cps/kBq, respectively, which is in good agreement with our simulation, with an error rate of 12.0%. Taken together, our results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed C-shaped in-beam PET system, which we expect will be useful for measuring dose distribution in particle therapy.

  15. Development of a MPPC-based prototype gantry for future MRI-PET scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurei, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kato, T.; Fujita, T.; Ohshima, T.; Taya, T.; Yamamoto, S.

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a high spatial resolution, compact Positron Emission Tomography (PET) module designed for small animals and intended for use in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. This module consists of large-area, 4 × 4 ch MPPC arrays (S11830-3344MF; Hamamatsu Photonics K.K.) optically coupled with Ce-doped (Lu,Y)2(SiO4)O (Ce:LYSO) scintillators fabricated into 16 × 16 matrices of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2 pixels. We set the temperature sensor (LM73CIMK-0; National Semiconductor Corp.) at the rear of the MPPC acceptance surface, and apply optimum voltage to maintain the gain. The eight MPPC-based PET modules and coincidence circuits were assembled into a gantry arranged in a ring 90 mm in diameter to form the MPPC-based PET system. We have developed two types PET gantry: one made of non-magnetic metal and the other made of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) resins. The PET gantry was positioned around the RF coil of the 4.7 T MRI system. We took an image of a point }22Na source under fast spin echo (FSE) and gradient echo (GE), in order to measure the interference between the MPPC-based PET and MRI. The spatial resolution of PET imaging in a transaxial plane of about 1 mm (FWHM) was achieved in all cases. Operating with PET made of ABS has no effect on MR images, while operating with PET made of non-magnetic metal has a significant detrimental effect on MR images. This paper describes our quantitative evaluations of PET images and MR images, and presents a more advanced version of the gantry for future MRI/DOI-PET systems.

  16. Progress on dedicated animal PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Wei

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography, as the leading technology providing molecular imaging of biological processes, is widely used on living laboratory animals. High-resolution dedicated animal PET scanners have been developed. Although the dedicated animal PET faces obstacles and challenges, this advanced technology would play an important role in molecular biomedicine researches, such as diseases study, medicine development, and gene therapy

  17. Small Molecule PET-Radiopharmaceuticals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.

    This review describes several aspects required for the development of small molecule PET-tracers. Design and selection criteria are important to consider before starting to develop novel PET-tracers. Principles and latest trends in C-11 and F-18-radiochemistry are summarized. In addition an update

  18. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  19. Selected PET radiomic features remain the same.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujikawa, Tetsuya; Tsuyoshi, Hideaki; Kanno, Masafumi; Yamada, Shizuka; Kobayashi, Masato; Narita, Norihiko; Kimura, Hirohiko; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Yoshida, Yoshio; Okazawa, Hidehiko

    2018-04-17

    We investigated whether PET radiomic features are affected by differences in the scanner, scan protocol, and lesion location using 18 F-FDG PET/CT and PET/MR scans. SUV, TMR, skewness, kurtosis, entropy, and homogeneity strongly correlated between PET/CT and PET/MR images. SUVs were significantly higher on PET/MR 0-2 min and PET/MR 0-10 min than on PET/CT in gynecological cancer ( p = 0.008 and 0.008, respectively), whereas no significant difference was observed between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images in oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer. TMRs on PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min increased in this order in gynecological cancer and oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer. In contrast to conventional and histogram indices, 4 textural features (entropy, homogeneity, SRE, and LRE) were not significantly different between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images. 18 F-FDG PET radiomic features strongly correlated between PET/CT and PET/MR images. Dixon-based attenuation correction on PET/MR images underestimated tumor tracer uptake more significantly in oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer than in gynecological cancer. 18 F-FDG PET textural features were affected less by differences in the scanner and scan protocol than conventional and histogram features, possibly due to the resampling process using a medium bin width. Eight patients with gynecological cancer and 7 with oral cavity/oropharyngeal cancer underwent a whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT scan and regional PET/MR scan in one day. PET/MR scans were performed for 10 minutes in the list mode, and PET/CT and 0-2 min and 0-10 min PET/MR images were reconstructed. The standardized uptake value (SUV), tumor-to-muscle SUV ratio (TMR), skewness, kurtosis, entropy, homogeneity, short-run emphasis (SRE), and long-run emphasis (LRE) were compared between PET/CT, PET/MR 0-2 min , and PET/MR 0-10 min images.

  20. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    2001-08-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D{sub 2} receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D{sub 1} receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D{sub 2} receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [{sup 11}C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [{sup 11}C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D{sub 2} receptors. [{sup 11}C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D{sub 2} receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D{sub 2} occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D{sub 2} receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D{sub 2}, dopamine D{sub 1} receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT{sub 2A} receptors have been studied with [{sup 11}C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT{sub 1A} receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [{sup 11}C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly

  1. Neurotransmission imaging by PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Akihiro; Suhara, Tetsuya

    2001-01-01

    PET studies on neurotransmission in psychological disorders to evaluate abnormal neurotransmission and therapeutic effects are thoroughly reviewed by type of major neurotransmitters. Studies on dopaminergic neurotransmission have focused on the function of dopamine D 2 receptors, receptor subtypes, such as the D 1 receptor, and ligands, such as transporters. PET studies of dopamine D 2 receptor, which began in the early 1980s, have predominantly been performed in schizophrenia, and most have failed to detect any statistically significant differences between schizophrenia patients and controls. The studies in the early 1980s were performed by using [ 11 C]N-methyl-spiperone (NMSP) and [ 11 C]raclopride, ligands for striatal dopamine D 2 receptors. [ 11 C]FLB457, which has much higher affinity for D 2 receptors than raclopride, began to be used in the 1990s. Dopamine D 2 occupancy after drug ingestion has also been investigated to clarify the mechanisms and effects of antipsychotic drugs, and there have also been studies on the effect of aging and personality traits on dopamine D 2 receptor levels in healthy subjects. In studies on dopamine receptor subtypes other than D 2 , dopamine D 1 receptors have been studied in connection with assessments of cognitive functions. Most studies on dopamine transporters have been related to drug dependence. Serotonin 5-HT 2A receptors have been studied with [ 11 C]NMSP in schizophrenia patients, while studies of another serotonin receptor subtype, 5-HT 1A receptors, have been mainly conducted in patients with depression. [ 11 C]NMSP PET showed no difference between schizophrenia patients who had not undergone phamacotherapy and normal subjects. Because serotonin selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) affect serotonin transporters, and abnormalities in serotonin transporters detected in mood disorders, PET ligands for serotonin transporters have increasingly been developed, and serotonin transporters have recently begun to be

  2. Gamma camera based FDG PET in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. H.

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography(PET) was introduced as a research tool in the 1970s and it took about 20 years before PET became an useful clinical imaging modality. In the USA, insurance coverage for PET procedures in the 1990s was the turning point, I believe, for this progress. Initially PET was used in neurology but recently more than 80% of PET procedures are in oncological applications. I firmly believe, in the 21st century, one can not manage cancer patients properly without PET and PET is very important medical imaging modality in basic and clinical sciences. PET is grouped into 2 categories; conventional (c) and gamma camera based ( CB ) PET. CB PET is more readily available utilizing dual-head gamma cameras and commercially available FDG to many medical centers at low cost to patients. In fact there are more CB PET in operation than cPET in the USA. CB PET is inferior to cPET in its performance but clinical studies in oncology is feasible without expensive infrastructures such as staffing, rooms and equipments. At Ajou university Hospital, CBPET was installed in late 1997 for the first time in Korea as well as in Asia and the system has been used successfully and effectively in oncological applications. Our was the fourth PET operation in Korea and I believe this may have been instrumental for other institutions got interested in clinical PET. The following is a brief description of our clinical experience of FDG CBPET in oncology

  3. Neuropsychiatry: PET and SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintana F, Juan Carlos

    2002-01-01

    Functional brain imaging with PET and SPECT have a definitive and well established role in the investigation of a variety of conditions such as dementia, epilepsy and drug addiction. With these methods it is possible to detect early rCBF (regional Cerebral Blood Flow) changes seen in dementia (even before clinical symptoms) and differentiate Alzheimer's disease from other dementias by means of the rCBF pattern change. 18-F-FDG PET imaging is a useful tool in partial epilepsy because both rCBF and brain metabolism are compromised at the epileptogenic focus. During the seizure, rCBF dramatically increases locally. Using SPECT it is possible to locate such foci with 97% accuracy. In drug addiction, particularly with cocaine, functional imaging has proven to be very sensitive to detect brain flow and metabolism derangement early in the course of this condition. These findings are important in many ways: prognostic value, they are used as a powerful reinforcement tool and to monitor functional recovery with rehabilitation. There are many other conditions in which functional brain imaging is of importance such as acute stroke treatment assessment, trauma rehabilitation and in psychiatric and abnormal movement diseases specially with the development of receptor imaging (au)

  4. FDG PET imaging dementia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol [Kyungpook National University Medical School and Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia.

  5. FDG PET imaging dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol

    2007-01-01

    Dementia is a major burden for many countries including South Korea, where life expectancy is continuously growing and the proportion of aged people is rapidly growing. Neurodegenerative disorders, such as, Alzheimer disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, frontotemporal dementia. Parkinson disease, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, Huntington disease, can cause dementia, and cerebrovascular disease also can cause dementia. Depression or hypothyroidism also can cause cognitive deficits, but they are reversible by management of underlying cause unlike the forementioned dementias. Therefore these are called pseudodementia. We are entering an era of dementia care that will be based upon the identification of potentially modifiable risk factors and early disease markers, and the application of new drugs postpone progression of dementias or target specific proteins that cause dementia. Efficient pharmacologic treatment of dementia needs not only to distinguish underlying causes of dementia but also to be installed as soon as possible. Therefore, differential diagnosis and early diagnosis of dementia are utmost importance. F-18 FDG PET is useful for clarifying dementing diseases and is also useful for early detection of the disease. Purpose of this article is to review the current value of FDG PET for dementing diseases including differential diagnosis of dementia and prediction of evolving dementia

  6. Pet ownership and physical health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matchock, Robert L

    2015-09-01

    Pet ownership and brief human-animal interactions can serve as a form of social support and convey a host of beneficial psychological and physiological health benefits. This article critically examines recent relevant literature on the pet-health connection. Cross-sectional studies indicate correlations between pet ownership and numerous aspects of positive health outcomes, including improvements on cardiovascular measures and decreases in loneliness. Quasi-experimental studies and better controlled experimental studies corroborate these associations and suggest that owning and/or interacting with a pet may be causally related to some positive health outcomes. The value of pet ownership and animal-assisted therapy (AAT), as a nonpharmacological treatment modality, augmentation to traditional treatment, and healthy preventive behavior (in the case of pet ownership), is starting to be realized. However, more investigations that employ randomized controlled trials with larger sample sizes and investigations that more closely examine the underlying mechanism of the pet-health effect, such as oxytocin, are needed.

  7. New developments in PET detector technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu Lingxin; Zhao Shujun; Zhang Bin; Liu Haojia

    2010-01-01

    The researches on PET detector are always active and innovative area. The research direction of PET detector includes improving performances of scintillator-based detectors, investigating new detectors suitable for multi-modality imaging (e.g. PET/CT and PET/MRI), meeting requirements of TOF and DOI technologies and boosting the development of the technologies. In this paper, new developments in PET detector technology about scintillation crystal, photodetector and semiconductor detector is introduced. (authors)

  8. Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Optics/Optical Diagnostics Laboratory supports graduate instruction in optics, optical and laser diagnostics and electro-optics. The optics laboratory provides...

  9. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan; Velan, S. Sendhil; Kross, Brain; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Wojcik, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm 3 . Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm 3 ) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of ∼60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to ∼85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy

  10. Initial tests of a prototype MRI-compatible PET imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raylman, Raymond R. [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States)]. E-mail: rraylman@wvu.edu; Majewski, Stan [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Lemieux, Susan [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Velan, S. Sendhil [Center for Advanced Imaging, Department of Radiology, West Virginia University, HSB Box 9236, Morgantown, WV (United States); Kross, Brain [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Popov, Vladimir [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Smith, Mark F. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Weisenberger, Andrew G. [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States); Wojcik, Randy [Detector Group, Physics Division, Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2006-12-20

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI, will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group (a collaboration of West Virginia University and Jefferson Lab) is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode with an active FOV of 5x5x4 cm{sup 3}. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements (2.5x2.5x15 mm{sup 3}) coupled through a long fiber optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel PSPMT. The fiber optic light guide is made of a glued assembly of 2 mm diameter acrylic fibers with a total length of 2.5 m. The use of a light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of the 3 T General Electric MRI scanner used in the tests. Photon attenuation in the light guides resulted in an energy resolution of {approx}60% FWHM, interaction of the magnetic field with PSPMT further reduced energy resolution to {approx}85% FWHM. Despite this effect, excellent multi-plane PET and MRI images of a simple disk phantom were acquired simultaneously. Future work includes improved light guides, optimized magnetic shielding for the PSPMTs, construction of specialized coils to permit high-resolution MRI imaging, and use of the system to perform simultaneous PET and MRI or MR-spectroscopy.

  11. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  12. PET/TAC in Oncology; PET/TAC en Oncologia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez V, A M [Especialista en Medicina Nuclear, Profa. Depto. Radiologia de la Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy.

  13. Optical Imaging of Mammaglobin Expression of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Achilefu, Samuel I

    2003-01-01

    .... TO accomplish this goal, we labeled polyclonal and monoclonal anti-MMG antibodies with a near infrared fluorescent probe for optical imaging and 64Cu-DOTA for positron emission tomography (mPET...

  14. PET and PET/CT in tumour of undetermined origin; PET y PET/CT en tumor de origen indeterminado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia O, J R [Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, PET/CT, Centro Medico ABC, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2007-07-01

    In this presentation the following conclusions were obtained regarding the use of PET and PET/CT in patient with cancer of unknown primary: 1. Detection of the primary one in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 2. It detects metastases in other places in 50%. 3. It changes the initial therapy planned in 1/3 at 1/2 of patient. 4. Useful in initial phases of protocol study to limit the other procedures. After standard evaluation. Before advanced protocol. 5. PET/CT study increases the % of primary detection, although in a non significant way vs. PET. 6. They are required more studies to value their utility to a more objective manner. (Author)

  15. PET imaging for brain function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Described are the principle of PET and its characteristics, imaging of human brain function, mapping of detailed human cerebral functions and PET imaging of nerve transmission. Following compounds labeled by positron emitters are used for PET imaging of brain functions: for blood flow and oxygen metabolism, 15 O-O 2 gas, water and carbon dioxide; for energy metabolism, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose; and for nerve transmission functions in receptor binding, transporter, transmitter synthesis and enzyme, 11 C- or 18 F-dopamine, serotonin and their analogues, and acetylcholine analogues. For brain mapping, examples of cognition tasks, results and their statistics are presented with images for blood flow. Nerve transmissions in schizophrenia and Alzheimer disease are imaged with labeled analogues of dopamine and acetylcholine, respectively. PET is becoming more and more important in the field of psychiatric science particularly in the coming society of increasing aged people. (N.I.)

  16. Measuring receptor occupancy with PET

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Waarde, A

    Many physiological and biochemical measurements can be performed noninvasively in humans with modern imaging techniques like magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET) or single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). This review focuses on the monitoring of

  17. Radiation monitoring of PET staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trang, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is becoming a common diagnostic tool in hospitals, often located in and employing staff from the Nuclear Medicine or Radiology departments. Although similar in some ways, staff in PET departments are commonly found to have the highest radiation doses in the hospital environment due to unique challenges which PET tracers present in administration as well as production. The establishment of a PET centre with a dedicated cyclotron has raised concerns of radiation protection to the staff at the WA PET Centre and the Radiopharmaceutical Production and Development (RAPID) team. Since every PET centre has differing designs and practices, it was considered important to closely monitor the radiation dose to our staff so that improvements to practices and design could be made to reduce radiation dose. Electronic dosimeters (MGP DMC 2000XB), which have a facility to log time and dose at 10 second intervals, were provided to three PET technologists and three PET nurses. These were worn in the top pocket of their lab coats throughout a whole day. Each staff member was then asked to note down their duties throughout the day and also note the time they performed each duty. The duties would then correlate with the dose with which the electronic monitor recorded and an estimate of radiation dose per duty could be given. Also an estimate of the dose per day to each staff member could be made. PET nurses averaged approximately 20 μ8v per day getting their largest dose from caring for occasional problematic patients. Smaller doses of a 1-2 μ8v were recorded for injections and removing cannulas. PET technologists averaged approximately 15 μ8v per day getting their largest dose of 1-5μ8v mainly from positioning of patients and sometimes larger doses due to problematic patients. Smaller doses of 1-2 μ5v were again recorded for injections and removal of cannulas. Following a presentation given to staff, all WA PET Centre and RAPID staff

  18. PET/TAC in Oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez V, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    From this presentation of PET-TAC in oncology the following advantages on the conventional PET are obtained: 1. More short study and stadium in one session. 2. It adds the information of both techniques. 3. Better localization of leisure: affected organ, stadium change (neck, mediastinum, abdomen). 4. Reduction of false positive (muscle, brown fat, atelectasis, pneumonias, intestine, urinary vials, etc.). 5. Reduction of negative false. 6. Reduction of not conclusive. 7. More understandable for other specialists. 8. Biopsies guide. 9. Planning radiotherapy

  19. PET imaging in pediatric oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulkin, B.L.

    2004-01-01

    High-quality PET imaging of pediatric patients is challenging and requires attention to issues commonly encountered in the practice of pediatric nuclear medicine, but uncommon to the imaging of adult patients. These include intravenous access, fasting, sedation, consent, and clearance of activity from the urinary tract. This paper discusses some technical differences involved in pediatric PET to enhance the quality of scans and assure the safety and comfort of pediatric patients. (orig.)

  20. Quantitative PET of liver functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro- D -galactose ( 18 F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value ( SUV ) from a static liver 18 F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11 C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [ N -methyl- 11 C]cholylsarcosine ( 11 C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood ( K 1 ; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion , SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18 F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET.

  1. Quantitative PET of liver functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiding, Susanne; Sørensen, Michael; Frisch, Kim; Gormsen, Lars C; Munk, Ole Lajord

    2018-01-01

    Improved understanding of liver physiology and pathophysiology is urgently needed to assist the choice of new and upcoming therapeutic modalities for patients with liver diseases. In this review, we focus on functional PET of the liver: 1) Dynamic PET with 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-galactose (18F-FDGal) provides quantitative images of the hepatic metabolic clearance K met (mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Standard-uptake-value (SUV) from a static liver 18F-FDGal PET/CT scan can replace K met and is currently used clinically. 2) Dynamic liver PET/CT in humans with 11C-palmitate and with the conjugated bile acid tracer [N-methyl-11C]cholylsarcosine (11C-CSar) can distinguish between individual intrahepatic transport steps in hepatic lipid metabolism and in hepatic transport of bile acid from blood to bile, respectively, showing diagnostic potential for individual patients. 3) Standard compartment analysis of dynamic PET data can lead to physiological inconsistencies, such as a unidirectional hepatic clearance of tracer from blood (K 1; mL blood/min/mL liver tissue) greater than the hepatic blood perfusion. We developed a new microvascular compartment model with more physiology, by including tracer uptake into the hepatocytes from the blood flowing through the sinusoids, backflux from hepatocytes into the sinusoidal blood, and re-uptake along the sinusoidal path. Dynamic PET data include information on liver physiology which cannot be extracted using a standard compartment model. In conclusion, SUV of non-invasive static PET with 18F-FDGal provides a clinically useful measurement of regional and whole-liver hepatic metabolic function. Secondly, assessment of individual intrahepatic transport steps is a notable feature of dynamic liver PET. PMID:29755841

  2. Do carotid MR surface coils affect PET quantification in PET/MR imaging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemink, Martin J; Eldib, Mootaz; Leiner, Tim; Fayad, Zahi A; Mani, Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of surface coils for carotid MR imaging on PET quantification in a clinical simultaneous whole-body PET/MR scanner. A cylindrical phantom was filled with a homogeneous 2L water-FDG mixture at a starting dose of 301.2MBq. Clinical PET/MR and PET/CT systems were used to acquire PET-data without a coil (reference standard) and with two carotid MRI coils (Siemens Special Purpose 8-Channel and Machnet 4-Channel Phased Array). PET-signal attenuation was evaluated with Osirix using 51 (PET/MR) and 37 (PET/CT) circular ROIs. Mean and maximum standardized uptake values (SUVs) were quantified for each ROI. Furthermore, SUVs of PET/MR and PET/CT were compared. For validation, a patient was scanned with an injected dose of 407.7MBq on both a PET/CT and a PET/MR system without a coil and with both coils. PET/MR underestimations were -2.2% (Siemens) and -7.8% (Machnet) for SUVmean, and -1.2% (Siemens) and -3.3% (Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively. For PET/CT, underestimations were -1.3% (Siemens) and -1.4% (Machnet) for SUVmean and -0.5% (both Siemens and Machnet) for SUVmax, respectively using no coil data as reference. Except for PET/CT SUVmax values all differences were significant. SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT with SUVmean values of 0.51-0.55 for PET/MR and 0.68-0.69 for PET/CT, respectively. The patient examination showed that median SUVmean values measured in the carotid arteries decreased from 0.97 without a coil to 0.96 (Siemens) and 0.88 (Machnet). Carotid surface coils do affect attenuation correction in both PET/MR and PET/CT imaging. Furthermore, SUVs differed significantly between PET/MR and PET/CT.

  3. Clinical applications of PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Ngoc Ha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the evolution of PET, PET/CT focusing on the technical aspects, PET radiopharmaceutical developments and current clinical applications as well. The newest technologic advances have been reviewed, including improved crystal design, acquisition modes, reconstruction algorithms, etc. These advancements will continue to improve contrast, decrease noise, and increase resolution. Combined PET/CT system provides faster attenuation correction and useful anatomic correlation to PET functional information. A number of new radiopharmaceuticals used for PET imaging have been developed, however, FDG have been considered as the principal PET radiotracer. The current clinical applications of PET and PET/CT are widespread and include oncology, cardiology and neurology. (author)

  4. Are Pets in the Bedroom a Problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Lois E; Tovar, M Diane; Miller, Bernie

    2015-12-01

    The presence of pets in the bedroom can alter the sleep environment in ways that could affect sleep. Data were collected by questionnaire and interview from 150 consecutive patients seen at the Center for Sleep Medicine, Mayo Clinic in Arizona. Seventy-four people (49%) reported having pets, with 31 (41% of pet owners) having multiple pets. More than half of pet owners (56%) allowed their pets to sleep in the bedroom. Fifteen pet owners (20%) described their pets as disruptive, whereas 31 (41%) perceived their pets as unobtrusive or even beneficial to sleep. Health care professionals working with patients with sleep concerns should inquire about the presence of companion animals in the sleep environment to help them find solutions and optimize their sleep. Copyright © 2015 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Game Design to Introduce Pets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Febriyanto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction of animals from an early age can make children to love animals, especially pets. Children are the easiest group to receive stimulation, such as for example the stimulation of introducing children to the pet. Various media are used by parents to introduce pet. For examplle, by the media of books, multimedia, etc. One of the interesting media to introduce pet is with game. Of these problems then need to know how to make concept and design game to introduced pets for children age 3-6 years. In this paper, author formulate how to make pet game design include game genre, user interface design, image model selection, game characters, and game engine. The expected design of this game can be formulation of learning through proper game as a learning tool children. Game design derived from this writing by using model 2-dimensional images are funny and interesting coloring. And combines several game genres into one, or use the mini games that children do not get bored quickly. Design of GUI (Graphical User Interface is made as simple as possible so that children easily understand in playing this game, but also must use an interesting image

  6. Nutritional sustainability of pet foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S; Carter, Rebecca A; Yount, Tracy P; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R

    2013-03-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system.

  7. New DOI identification approach for high-resolution PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choghadi, Amin; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Shimazoe, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Depth-of-interaction (DOI) Identification in positron emission tomography (PET) detectors is getting importance as it improves spatial resolution in both conventional and time-of-flight (TOF) PET, and coincidence time resolution (CTR) in TOF-PET. In both prototypes, spatial resolution is affected by parallax error caused by length of scintillator crystals. This long length also contributes substantial timing uncertainty to the time resolution of TOF-PET. Through DOI identification, both parallax error and the timing uncertainty caused by the length of crystal can be resolved. In this work, a novel approach to estimate DOI was investigated, enjoying the interference of absorbance spectrum of scintillator crystals with their emission spectrum. Because the absorption length is close to zero for shorter wavelengths of crystal emission spectrum, the counts in this range of spectrum highly depend on DOI; that is, higher counts corresponds to deeper interactions. The ratio of counts in this range to the total counts is a good measure to estimate DOI. In order to extract such ratio, two photodetectors for each crystal are used and an optical filter is mounted only on top of one of them. The ratio of filtered output to non-filtered output can be utilized as DOI estimator. For a 2×2×20 mm 3 GAGG:Ce scintillator, 8-mm DOI resolution achieved in our simulations. (author)

  8. What do we measure in oncology PET?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pak, Kyoung June; Kim, Seong Jang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Biomedical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has come to the practice of oncology. It is known that {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is more sensitive for the assessment of treatment response than conventional imaging. In addition, PET has an advantage in the use of quantitative analysis of the study. Nowadays, various PET parameters are adopted in clinical settings. In addition, a wide range of factors has been known to be associated with FDG uptake. Therefore, there has been a need for standardization and harmonization of protocols and PET parameters. We will introduce PET parameters and discuss major issues in this review.

  9. The system of the designing for PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Zongliang

    2006-01-01

    PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography, a new nuclear medicine imaging device. PET detector is the key of PET. This paper introduces a system of the designing for PET detector. The system can be used to design various PET detector. A PET detector BLOCK with 8 x 8 crystals has been designed and built by this system. (authors)

  10. Comparison of PET/CT with Sequential PET/MRI Using an MR-Compatible Mobile PET System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Ryusuke; Nakamoto, Yuji; Ishimori, Takayoshi; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Kido, Aki; Togashi, Kaori

    2018-05-01

    The current study tested a newly developed flexible PET (fxPET) scanner prototype. This fxPET system involves dual arc-shaped detectors based on silicon photomultipliers that are designed to fit existing MRI devices, allowing us to obtain fused PET and MR images by sequential PET and MR scanning. This prospective study sought to evaluate the image quality, lesion detection rate, and quantitative values of fxPET in comparison with conventional whole-body (WB) PET and to assess the accuracy of registration. Methods: Seventeen patients with suspected or known malignant tumors were analyzed. Approximately 1 h after intravenous injection of 18 F-FDG, WB PET/CT was performed, followed by fxPET and MRI. For reconstruction of fxPET images, MRI-based attenuation correction was applied. The quality of fxPET images was visually assessed, and the number of detected lesions was compared between the 2 imaging methods. SUV max and maximum average SUV within a 1 cm 3 spheric volume (SUV peak ) of lesions were also compared. In addition, the magnitude of misregistration between fxPET and MR images was evaluated. Results: The image quality of fxPET was acceptable for diagnosis of malignant tumors. There was no significant difference in detectability of malignant lesions between fxPET and WB PET ( P > 0.05). However, the fxPET system did not exhibit superior performance to the WB PET system. There were strong positive correlations between the 2 imaging modalities in SUV max (ρ = 0.88) and SUV peak (ρ = 0.81). SUV max and SUV peak measured with fxPET were approximately 1.1-fold greater than measured with WB PET. The average misregistration between fxPET and MR images was 5.5 ± 3.4 mm. Conclusion: Our preliminary data indicate that running an fxPET scanner near an existing MRI system provides visually and quantitatively acceptable fused PET/MR images for diagnosis of malignant lesions. © 2018 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. Detection of Cancer with PET and PET/CT in Asymptomatic Volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Ji In; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung Han; Kim, Byung Tae; Choi, Yoon Ho; Cho, Han Byoul; Shim, Jae Yong

    2009-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the diagnostic performance of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer detection in asymptomatic health-check examinees. This study consisted of 5091 PET or PET/CT conducted as part of annual health examination at one hospital from March 1998 to February 2008. To find the incidence of cancers, medical records of the subjects were thoroughly reviewed for a follow-up period of one year. The patterns of formal readings of PET and PET/CT were analyzed to assess the sensitivity and specificity for cancer detection. The histopathology and stage of the cancers were evaluated in relation to the results of PET. Eighty-six cancers (1.7%) were diagnosed within one year after PET or PET/CT. When PET and PET/CT results were combined, the sensitivity was 48.8% and specificity was 81.1% for cancer detection. PET only had a sensitivity of 46.2% and a specificity of 81.4%, and PET/CT only had a sensitivity of 75.0% and a specificity of 78.5% respectively. There were no significant differences in cancer site, stage and histopathology between PET positive and PET negative cancers. In 19.3% of formal readings of PET and PET/CT, further evaluation to exclude malignancy or significant disease was recommended. Head and neck area and upper gastrointestinal tract were commonly recommended sites for further evaluation. PET and PET/CT showed moderate performance for detecting cancers in asymptomatic adults in this study. More experience and further investigation are needed to overcome limitations of PET and PET/CT for cancer screening

  12. FDG PET for therapy monitoring in Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrington, Sally F. [St. Thomas' Hospital, PET Imaging Centre, King' s College London and Guy' s, King' s Health Partners, London (United Kingdom); Kluge, Regine [University Hospital of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-08-15

    PET using {sup 18}F-FDG for treatment monitoring in patients with lymphoma is one of the most well-developed clinical applications. PET/CT is nowadays used during treatment to assess chemosensitivity, with response-adapted therapy given according to 'interim' PET in clinical practice to adults and children with Hodgkin lymphoma. PET is also used to assess remission from disease and to predict prognosis in the pretransplant setting. Mature data have been reported for the common subtypes of aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with more recent data also supporting the use of PET for response assessment in T-cell lymphomas. The Deauville five-point scale incorporating the Deauville criteria (DC) is recommended for response assessment in international guidelines. FDG uptake is graded in relation to the reference regions of normal mediastinum and liver. The DC have been validated in most lymphoma subtypes. The DC permit the threshold for adequate or inadequate response to be adapted according to the clinical context or research question. It is important for PET readers to understand how the DC have been applied in response-adapted trials for correct interpretation and discussion with the multidisciplinary team. Quantitative methods to perform PET in standardized ways have also been developed which may further improve response assessment including a quantitative extension to the DC (qPET). This may have advantages in providing a continuous scale to refine the threshold for adequate/inadequate response in specific clinical situations or treatment optimization in trials. qPET is also less observer-dependent and limits the problem of optical misinterpretation due to the influence of background activity. (orig.)

  13. Parasites in pet reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavri Urška

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exotic reptiles originating from the wild can be carriers of many different pathogens and some of them can infect humans. Reptiles imported into Slovenia from 2000 to 2005, specimens of native species taken from the wild and captive bred species were investigated. A total of 949 reptiles (55 snakes, 331 lizards and 563 turtles, belonging to 68 different species, were examined for the presence of endoparasites and ectoparasites. Twelve different groups (Nematoda (5, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (4 of endoparasites were determined in 26 (47.3% of 55 examined snakes. In snakes two different species of ectoparasites were also found. Among the tested lizards eighteen different groups (Nematoda (8, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1, Acanthocephala (1, Pentastomida (1 and Protozoa (6 of endoparasites in 252 (76.1% of 331 examined animals were found. One Trombiculid ectoparasite was determined. In 563 of examined turtles eight different groups (Nematoda (4, Cestoda (1, Trematoda (1 and Protozoa (2 of endoparasites were determined in 498 (88.5% animals. In examined turtles three different species of ectoparasites were seen. The established prevalence of various parasites in reptiles used as pet animals indicates the need for examination on specific pathogens prior to introduction to owners.

  14. PET and PET/CT in oncology: the key of diagnostic challenge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.; Spaepen, K.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation authors present use of positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology. This lecture is divided to the following parts: (1) Assessment of treatment response; (2) Treatment monitoring by PET: clinical examples; (3) PET for early response assessment; (4) Use of PET in Radiotherapy planning

  15. Quantitative PET imaging with the 3T MR-BrainPET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weirich, C.; Scheins, J.; Lohmann, P.; Tellmann, L.; Byars, L.; Michel, C.; Rota Kops, E.; Brenner, D.; Herzog, H.; Shah, N.J.

    2013-01-01

    The new hybrid imaging technology of MR-PET allows for simultaneous acquisition of versatile MRI contrasts and the quantitative metabolic imaging with PET. In order to achieve the quantification of PET images with minimal residual error the application of several corrections is crucial. In this work we present our results on quantification with the 3T MR BrainPET scanner

  16. Clinical usefulness of PET in the management of oral cancer. Comparison between FDG-PET and MET-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Saitoh, Masaaki; Nakamura, Mikiko

    2007-01-01

    Inductive chemoradiotherapy has played an important role in preserving organs and functions in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). To determine whether a reduced form of surgery should be performed after chemoradiotherapy, accurate evaluation of residual tumor cells is essential. We investigated the clinical value of positron emission tomography with 18 F labeled fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET) in the management of oral SCCs. Forty-five patients underwent two FDG-PET studies, one prior to and one at 6 weeks after the chemoradiotherapy. Pretreatment FDG-PET was useful in predicting the response to treatment. Posttreatment FDG-PET could evaluate residual viable cells and prognosis. Organ preservation may be feasible based on PET evaluation. Hence FDG-PET is a valuable tool in the treatment of oral cancer. 11 C-Methionine (MET) is another promising tracer for PET that can be used to assess metabolic demand for amino acids in cancer cells. A MET-PET and FDG-PET study was performed during the same period to investigate diagnostic accuracy in 40 oral malignancies. Sensitivity and positive predictive value of MET-PET were 95% and 100%, respectively, and were comparable with those of FDG-PET. Further study is required to determine the diagnostic significance of MET-PET in evaluating response to chemoradiotherapy. (author)

  17. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  18. Electrical properties of transparent CNT and ITO coatings on PET substrate including nano-structural aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Wang, Zuo-Jia; Kwon, Dong-Jun; Gu, Ga-Young; Lawrence DeVries, K.

    2013-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectra and surface resistance measurement were used to investigate optical transmittance and conductive properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) and indium tin oxide (ITO) coated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates. Conductive CNT and ITO coatings were successfully fabricated on PET by a spray-coating method. Thin coatings of both materials exhibited good conductivity and transparency. Changes in electrical and optical properties of the coatings were studied as a function of the coating suspension concentration. Interfacial durability of the coatings on PET substrates was also investigated under fatigue and bending loads. CNT coated substrates, with high aspect ratios, exhibited no detectable change in surface resistance up to 2000 cyclic loadings, whereas the ITO coated substrates exhibited a substantial increase in surface resistance at 1000 loading cycles. This change in resistance is attributed to a reduction in the number and effectiveness of the electrical contact points due to the inherent brittle nature of ITO.

  19. Magnetic Resonance-based Motion Correction for Quantitative PET in Simultaneous PET-MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakvongthai, Yothin; El Fakhri, Georges

    2017-07-01

    Motion degrades image quality and quantitation of PET images, and is an obstacle to quantitative PET imaging. Simultaneous PET-MR offers a tool that can be used for correcting the motion in PET images by using anatomic information from MR imaging acquired concurrently. Motion correction can be performed by transforming a set of reconstructed PET images into the same frame or by incorporating the transformation into the system model and reconstructing the motion-corrected image. Several phantom and patient studies have validated that MR-based motion correction strategies have great promise for quantitative PET imaging in simultaneous PET-MR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PET imaging in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bombardieri, E.; Crippa, F.

    2001-01-01

    The basis of tumour imaging with PET is a specific uptake mechanism of positron emitting radiopharmaceuticals. Among the potential tracers for breast cancer (fluorodeoxyglucose, methionine, tyrosine, fluoro-estradiol, nor-progesterone), 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose labelled with fluorine (FDG) is the most widely used radiopharmaceutical because breast cancer is particularly avid of FDG and 18 F has the advantages of the a relatively long physical half-life. Mammography is the first choice examination in studying breast masses, due to its very good performances, an excellent compliance and the best value regarding the cost/effectiveness aspects. The FDG uptake in tissue correlates with the histological grade and potential aggressiveness of breast cancer and this may have prognostic consequences. Besides the evaluation of breast lesions, FDG-PET shows a great efficacy in staging lymph node involvement prior surgery and this could have a great value in loco-regional staging. Whole body PET provides also information with regard to metastasis localizations both in soft tissue and bone, and plays an important clinical role mainly in detecting recurrent metastatic disease. In fact for its metabolic characteristics PET visualizes regions of enhanced metabolic activity and can complete other imaging modalities based on structural anatomic changes. Even though CT and MRI show superior resolution characteristics, it has been demonstrated that PET provides more accurate information in discriminating between viable tumour, fibrotic scar or necrosis. These statements are coming from the examination of more than 2000 breast cancer detection

  1. THE CHARACTERISTICS OF EEC PET INSTRUMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PAANS, AMJ

    1991-01-01

    As a result of a Guide-Questionnaire distributed among all European PET centers an inventory of the European PET instrumentation has become available in a data base. An overview and analysis of the European PET equipment, cyclotrons, scanners and software, together with some global information on

  2. Pets in the family: practical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Kate; Darling, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    Adapting family life cycle theory to include pets provides veterinarians with a framework for understanding and reinforcing the human-animal bond. The family genogram with pets is a practice tool that identifies all people and pets in the family, enhancing the practice of One Health at the community level.

  3. Pets or People: Another Research Note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldmeier, John

    1986-01-01

    Compared four samples of elderly women: living alone, with other persons, and with and without a pet. Pets only made a difference for those living alone. At best, pets only attenuate the sense of loneliness. In intervention with the elderly, the provision of human supports should remain a priority. (Author/BL)

  4. Pain Medicines for Pets: Know the Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... approved veterinary oral NSAIDs. Are OTC Meds for People Safe for Pets? McLean says that it’s not unusual for pet ... or that a dose that is safe for people may not be safe for their pets,” she notes. In fact, some over-the-counter ( ...

  5. PET/MRI. Challenges, solutions and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, Hans [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. of Neuroscience and Medicine - 4

    2012-07-01

    Already from the start of PET/CT integrating positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) in one instrument, there have been considerations how to combine PET and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) so that their complementary abilities can be utilized in a single investigation. Since classical PET electronics fail in an even weak magnetic field and PET signal processing might disturb high-frequency signals of MRI, it soon became clear that new solutions had to be found to avoid mutual interferences. During the last fifteen years a number of different approaches towards PET/MRI for small animal imaging have been developed by research groups which together with their specific features are summarized in this review. Recently, PET/MRI for human imaging became available as well - this time by industrial initiatives. First some prototypes of BrainPET/MRI were developed followed by commercial products for simultaneous and non-simultaneous whole-body PET/MRI. Although only PET/MRI integrated in one scanner offers the full diversity of complementary multiparametric imaging, there are also promising applications of non-simultaneous sequential PET/MRI. While describing the present instrumentation for human PET/MRI, this review discusses the challenges and promises related to this new imaging technology. (orig.)

  6. Application of PET in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Dong Young

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is an imaging method that employs radionuclide and tomography techniques. Since 1995, we applied PET not only to the diagnosis of breast cancer but also to the detection of abnormalities in the augmented breast and to the detection of metastasis. Until 2001, we evaluated 242 breast cases by PET at PET center of Seoul National University Hospital. Our group has reported serially at the international journals. In the firtst report, PET showed high sensitivity for detecting breast cancer, both the primary and axillary node metastasis. A total of 27 patients underwent breast operations based on PET results at Seoul National University Hospital from 1995 to 1996. The diagnostic accuracy of PET were 97% for the primary tumor mass and 96% for axillary lymph node metastasis. In case of the breast augmented, PET also showed excellent diagnostic results for primary breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis where mammography and ultrasound could not diagnose properly. PET also had outstanding results in the detection of recurrent or metastatic breast cancer(sensitivity 94%, specificity 80%, accuracy 89%). In addition, our study gave some evidence that PET could be applied further to evaluate the growth rate of tumors by measuring SUV, and finally to prognosticated the disease. PET could also be applied to evaluate the response after chemotherapy to measure its metabolic rate and size. In conclsion, PET is a highly sensitive, accurate diagnostic tool for breast cancer of primary lesion in various conditions including metastasis

  7. Understanding advertising in pet nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R G

    1994-04-01

    Advertising is part of the effort to attract attention of consumers to products, in this case, pet foods. It is generally benign in its effect, but it can be misleading, although rarely deliberately so. It uses a specialized vocabulary, which must be mastered if one is to understand what is intended. For all of the expense and effort, advertising figures directly in relatively few decisions to purchase. Its main intention is to call our attention to a particular pet food and to give that product an image. If the pet food does not perform in the consumer's hands, then all of the advertising on earth will not be persuasive. On the other hand, if a product performs well, the word-of-mouth will be positive and that mode of advertising is one of the most effective.

  8. PET and SPECT in neurology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van [Groningen University Medical Center (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Otte, Andreas (ed.) [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology

    2014-07-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  9. PET and SPECT in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Ghent Univ.; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van; Otte, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    PET and SPECT in Neurology highlights the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of neurological disorders through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. Classical neurodegenerative disorders are discussed as well as cerebrovascular disorders, brain tumors, epilepsy, head trauma, coma, sleeping disorders, and inflammatory and infectious diseases of the CNS. The latest results in nuclear brain imaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical neurologist and a nuclear medicine specialist to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state-of-the-art compendium will be valuable to anybody in the field of neuroscience, from the neurologist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and geriatrician. It is the second volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences, the other volumes covering PET and SPECT in psychiatry and in neurobiological systems.

  10. Respiratory gating in cardiac PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Martin Lyngby; Rasmussen, Thomas; Christensen, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Respiratory motion due to breathing during cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) results in spatial blurring and erroneous tracer quantification. Respiratory gating might represent a solution by dividing the PET coincidence dataset into smaller respiratory phase subsets. The aim...... of our study was to compare the resulting imaging quality by the use of a time-based respiratory gating system in two groups administered either adenosine or dipyridamole as the pharmacological stress agent. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were randomized to adenosine or dipyridamole cardiac...... stress (82)RB-PET. Respiratory rates and depths were measured by a respiratory gating system in addition to registering actual respiratory rates. Patients undergoing adenosine stress showed a decrease in measured respiratory rate from initial to later scan phase measurements [12.4 (±5.7) vs 5.6 (±4...

  11. PET Metabolic Biomarkers for Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Croteau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The body's main fuel sources are fats, carbohydrates (glucose, proteins, and ketone bodies. It is well known that an important hallmark of cancer cells is the overconsumption of glucose. Positron emission tomography (PET imaging using the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG has been a powerful cancer diagnostic tool for many decades. Apart from surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy represent the two main domains for cancer therapy, targeting tumor proliferation, cell division, and DNA replication–-all processes that require a large amount of energy. Currently, in vivo clinical imaging of metabolism is performed almost exclusively using PET radiotracers that assess oxygen consumption and mechanisms of energy substrate consumption. This paper reviews the utility of PET imaging biomarkers for the detection of cancer proliferation, vascularization, metabolism, treatment response, and follow-up after radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and chemotherapy-related side effects.

  12. Introducing the PET Centre Prague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belohlavek, O.

    2001-01-01

    The PET Centre Prague (www.homolka.cz/nm) was established in 1999 as the outcome of a joint project of the public Na Homolce Hospital and the Nuclear Research Institute Rez, plc, the Czech radiopharmaceutical producer. Technical and financial assistance was provided by the International Atomic Energy Agency, which perceived the Centre as its model project that could serve as a guide for the development of PET centres in countries sharing a comparable level of development with the Czech Republic. The article maps the history of the project, its design, workplace lay-out and equipment, radiation protection arrangements and spectrum of the first approx. 3000 investigations. (author)

  13. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jadvar, Hossein, E-mail: jadvar@usc.edu; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-15

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved.

  14. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Competitive advantage of PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jadvar, Hossein; Colletti, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Multimodality imaging has made great strides in the imaging evaluation of patients with a variety of diseases. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is now established as the imaging modality of choice in many clinical conditions, particularly in oncology. While the initial development of combined PET/magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) was in the preclinical arena, hybrid PET/MR scanners are now available for clinical use. PET/MRI combines the unique features of MRI including excellent soft tissue contrast, diffusion-weighted imaging, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging, fMRI and other specialized sequences as well as MR spectroscopy with the quantitative physiologic information that is provided by PET. Most evidence for the potential clinical utility of PET/MRI is based on studies performed with side-by-side comparison or software-fused MRI and PET images. Data on distinctive utility of hybrid PET/MRI are rapidly emerging. There are potential competitive advantages of PET/MRI over PET/CT. In general, PET/MRI may be preferred over PET/CT where the unique features of MRI provide more robust imaging evaluation in certain clinical settings. The exact role and potential utility of simultaneous data acquisition in specific research and clinical settings will need to be defined. It may be that simultaneous PET/MRI will be best suited for clinical situations that are disease-specific, organ-specific, related to diseases of the children or in those patients undergoing repeated imaging for whom cumulative radiation dose must be kept as low as reasonably achievable. PET/MRI also offers interesting opportunities for use of dual modality probes. Upon clear definition of clinical utility, other important and practical issues related to business operational model, clinical workflow and reimbursement will also be resolved

  16. PET and PET/CT in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia O, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The advantages that it has the PET/CT are: 1. It diminishes mainly positive false lesions. It identifies physiologic accumulate places. 2. It diminishes in smaller grade false negative. Small injuries. Injuries with low grade concentration. Injure on intense activity areas. 3. Precise anatomical localization of accumulate places. 4. Reduction of the acquisition time. (Author)

  17. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fan; Jørgensen, Jesper Tranekjær; Hansen, Anders E

    2014-01-01

    be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET......Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can...... analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia....

  18. Optical materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poker, D.B.; Ortiz, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book reports on: Diamond films, Synthesis of optical materials, Structure related optical properties, Radiation effects in optical materials, Characterization of optical materials, Deposition of optical thin films, and Optical fibers and waveguides

  19. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun; Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  20. Development of PET/MRI with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong, E-mail: ychoi.image@gmail.com; Jung, Jiwoong; Kim, Sangsu; Lim, Hyun Keong; Im, Ki Chun [Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, 35 Baekbeom-ro, Mapo-gu, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Chang Hyun; Park, Hyun-wook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Jong Guk [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Science, 75 Nowon-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-709 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a dual-modality positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with insertable PET for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of the human brain. Methods: The PET detector block was composed of a 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each consisting of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GAPD) array. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks, circularly mounted on a custom-made plastic base to form a ring with an inner diameter of 390 mm and axial length of 60 mm. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes with a thickness of 0.1 mm. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuit. The flat cables were shielded with a mesh-type aluminum sheet with a thickness of 0.24 mm. The position decoder circuit and field programmable gate array-embedded DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box with a thickness of 10 mm and located at the rear of the MR bore inside the MRI room. A 3-T human MRI system with a Larmor frequency of 123.7 MHz and inner bore diameter of 60 cm was used as the PET/MRI hybrid system. A custom-made radio frequency (RF) coil with an inner diameter of 25 cm was fabricated. The PET was positioned between gradient and the RF coils. PET performance was measured outside and inside the MRI scanner using echo planar imaging, spin echo, turbo spin echo, and gradient echo sequences. MRI performance was also evaluated with and without the PET insert. The stability of the newly developed PET insert was evaluated and simultaneous PET and MR images of a brain phantom were acquired. Results: No significant degradation of the PET performance caused by MR was observed when the PET was operated using various MR imaging sequences. The signal-to-noise ratio of MR images was slightly degraded due to the PET insert installed inside the MR bore while the homogeneity was

  1. Twelve automated thresholding methods for segmentation of PET images: a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto, Elena; Peñuelas, Iván; Martí-Climent, Josep M; Lecumberri, Pablo; Gómez, Marisol; Pagola, Miguel; Bilbao, Izaskun; Ecay, Margarita

    2012-01-01

    Tumor volume delineation over positron emission tomography (PET) images is of great interest for proper diagnosis and therapy planning. However, standard segmentation techniques (manual or semi-automated) are operator dependent and time consuming while fully automated procedures are cumbersome or require complex mathematical development. The aim of this study was to segment PET images in a fully automated way by implementing a set of 12 automated thresholding algorithms, classical in the fields of optical character recognition, tissue engineering or non-destructive testing images in high-tech structures. Automated thresholding algorithms select a specific threshold for each image without any a priori spatial information of the segmented object or any special calibration of the tomograph, as opposed to usual thresholding methods for PET. Spherical 18 F-filled objects of different volumes were acquired on clinical PET/CT and on a small animal PET scanner, with three different signal-to-background ratios. Images were segmented with 12 automatic thresholding algorithms and results were compared with the standard segmentation reference, a threshold at 42% of the maximum uptake. Ridler and Ramesh thresholding algorithms based on clustering and histogram-shape information, respectively, provided better results that the classical 42%-based threshold (p < 0.05). We have herein demonstrated that fully automated thresholding algorithms can provide better results than classical PET segmentation tools. (paper)

  2. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko; Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji; Nakajima, Yasunori; Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio

    2011-01-01

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with 11 C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with 18 F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  3. The MiniPET: a didactic PET system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, R; Silva, J; Maio, A; Gurriana, L; Silva, J M; Augusto, J Soares

    2013-01-01

    The MiniPET project aims to design and build a small PET system. It consists of two 4 × 4 matrices of 16 LYSO scintillator crystals and two PMTs with 16 channels resulting in a low cost system with the essential functionality of a clinical PET instrument. It is designed to illustrate the physics of the PET technique and to provide a didactic platform for the training of students and nuclear imaging professionals as well as for scientific outreach. The PET modules can be configured to test for the coincidence of 511 keV gamma rays. The model has a flexible mechanical setup [1] and can simulate 14 diferent ring geometries, from a configuration with as few as 18 detectors per ring (ring radius φ=51 mm), up to a geometry with 70 detectors per ring (φ=200 mm). A second version of the electronic system [2] allowed measurement and recording of the energy deposited in 4 detector channels by photons from a 137 Cs radioactive source and by photons resulting of the annihilation of positrons from a 22 Na radioactive source. These energy spectra are used for detector performance studies, as well as angular dependency studies. In this paper, the mechanical setup, the front-end high-speed analog electronics, the digital acquisition and control electronics implemented in a FPGA, as well as the data-transfer interface between the FPGA board and a host PC are described. Recent preliminary results obtained with the 4 active channels in the prototype are also presented.

  4. Development of a Si-PM-based high-resolution PET system for small animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Watabe, Tadashi; Shimosegawa, Eku; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi; Kanai, Yasukazu

    2010-01-01

    A Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Si-PM) is a promising photodetector for PET, especially for use in a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system, because it has high gain and is less sensitive to a static magnetic field. We developed a Si-PM-based depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET system for small animals. Hamamatsu 4 x 4 Si-PM arrays (S11065-025P) were used for its detector blocks. Two types of LGSO scintillator of 0.75 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼45 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 5 mm) and 0.025 mol% Ce (decay time: ∼31 ns; 1.1 mm x 1.2 mm x 6 mm) were optically coupled in the DOI direction to form a DOI detector, arranged in a 11 x 9 matrix, and optically coupled to the Si-PM array. Pulse shape analysis was used for the DOI detection of these two types of LGSOs. Sixteen detector blocks were arranged in a 68 mm diameter ring to form the PET system. Spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM and sensitivity was 0.6% at the center of the field of view. High-resolution mouse and rat images were successfully obtained using the PET system. We confirmed that the developed Si-PM-based PET system is promising for molecular imaging research.

  5. Epilepsy and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi

    1984-01-01

    The glucose metabolism of interictal epileptic foci in human brains were analyzed by positron emission tomography. The seizure patterns of 29 epileptic patients were as follows; complex partial 13 cases, elementary partial 9 cases, and generalized 7 cases. 11 C was produced by a JSW medical cyclotron BC105 and was randomly tagged to glucose prepared by photosynthesis. Data sampling by PET was started 15 minutes after peroral administration of 11 C-glucose to the patients. Three slices with 1.75 cm distance were obtained by a single scanning. In temporal lobe epilepsy, three slices were selected as 2.0 cm, 3.75 cm and 5.5 cm above orbitomeatal line. The basal ganglia were scanned 4.5 -- 5.0 cm and the motor and sensory strips were 5.0 -- 9.0 cm above OML. The glucose metabolic rate was expressed with color scales and qualitatively estimated. The results disclosed an obvious hypometabolic zone around a focus area in 22 cases (76%) out of the 29 subjects. This hypometabolic zone was observed in 12 cases (92%) of 13 complex partial, 9 cases (78%) of 9 elementary partial, and 3 cases (43%) of 7 generalized seizure patterns. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the location of the hypometabolic zone was different according to the clinical symptoms. The patients with automatism, pseudoabsence, autonomic, and emotional symptoms had its foci in the mesial portion of the temporal lobe. On the other hand, the patients with psychical seizure revealed its low metabolic area in the lateral temporal cortex. In the elementary partial epilepsy, the hypoactive zones were observed in the motor, sensory, and visual cortical area in accordance with the clinical symptoms. Very interestingly, an explicit cortical focus was discovered in two cases of the generalized epilepsy. In these cases the mechanism of secondary generalization was supposed to proceed in the expression of their clinical symptoms. In one Lennox-Gastaut case, a unilateral temporal lobe was involved as the seizure focus. (J.P.N.)

  6. 'PET -Compton' system. Comparative evaluation with PET system using Monte Carlo simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called 'PET-Compton' systems and includes comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation is done on a PET-Compton system consisting of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named 'Clear-PET' and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e + ) and γ quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. (Author)

  7. Recommendations for the use of PET and PET-CT for radiotherapy planning in research projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somer, E J; Pike, L C; Marsden, P K

    2012-08-01

    With the increasing use of positron emission tomography (PET) for disease staging, follow-up and therapy monitoring in a number of oncological indications there is growing interest in the use of PET and PET-CT for radiation treatment planning. In order to create a strong clinical evidence base for this, it is important to ensure that research data are clinically relevant and of a high quality. Therefore the National Cancer Research Institute PET Research Network make these recommendations to assist investigators in the development of radiotherapy clinical trials involving the use of PET and PET-CT. These recommendations provide an overview of the current literature in this rapidly evolving field, including standards for PET in clinical trials, disease staging, volume delineation, intensity modulated radiotherapy and PET-augmented planning techniques, and are targeted at a general audience. We conclude with specific recommendations for the use of PET in radiotherapy planning in research projects.

  8. PET/MR Imaging in Gynecologic Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohliger, Michael A; Hope, Thomas A; Chapman, Jocelyn S; Chen, Lee-May; Behr, Spencer C; Poder, Liina

    2017-08-01

    MR imaging and PET using 2-Deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoroglucose (FDG) are both useful in the evaluation of gynecologic malignancies. MR imaging is superior for local staging of disease whereas fludeoxyglucose FDG PET is superior for detecting distant metastases. Integrated PET/MR imaging scanners have great promise for gynecologic malignancies by combining the advantages of each modality into a single scan. This article reviews the technology behind PET/MR imaging acquisitions and technical challenges relevant to imaging the pelvis. A dedicated PET/MR imaging protocol; the roles of PET and MR imaging in cervical, endometrial, and ovarian cancers; and future directions for PET/MR imaging are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative simultaneous PET-MR imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Jinsong; Petibon, Yoann; Huang, Chuan; Reese, Timothy G.; Kolnick, Aleksandra L.; El Fakhri, Georges

    2014-06-01

    Whole-body PET is currently limited by the degradation due to patient motion. Respiratory motion degrades imaging studies of the abdomen. Similarly, both respiratory and cardiac motions significantly hamper the assessment of myocardial ischemia and/or metabolism in perfusion and viability cardiac PET studies. Based on simultaneous PET-MR, we have developed robust and accurate MRI methods allowing the tracking and measurement of both respiratory and cardiac motions during abdominal or cardiac studies. Our list-mode iterative PET reconstruction framework incorporates the measured motion fields into PET emission system matrix as well as the time-dependent PET attenuation map and the position dependent point spread function. Our method significantly enhances the PET image quality as compared to conventional methods.

  10. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O.; Otte, Andreas; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van

    2014-01-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  11. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...

  12. Diagnostic imaging of exotic pets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, S.

    1993-01-01

    Radiographic, ultrasonographic, and computed tomographic (CT) imaging are important diagnostic modalities in exotic pets. The use of appropriate radiographic equipment, film-screen combinations, and radiographic projections enhances the information obtained from radiographs. Both normal findings and common radiographic abnormalities are discussed. The use of ultrasonography and CT scanning for exotic small mammals and reptiles is described

  13. PET and SPECT in psychiatry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierckx, Rudi A.J.O. [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging; Ghent Univ. (Belgium); Otte, Andreas [Univ. of Applied Sciences Offenburg (Germany). Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology; Vries, Erik F.J. de; Waarde, Aren van (eds.) [University Medical Center Groningen (Netherlands). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging

    2014-09-01

    Covers classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism. Emphasis on a multidisciplinary approach. Written by internationally acclaimed experts. PET and SPECT in Psychiatry showcases the combined expertise of renowned authors whose dedication to the investigation of psychiatric disease through nuclear medicine technology has achieved international recognition. The classical psychiatric disorders as well as other subjects - such as suicide, sleep, eating disorders, and autism - are discussed and the latest results in functional neuroimaging are detailed. Most chapters are written jointly by a clinical psychiatrist and a nuclear medicine expert to ensure a multidisciplinary approach. This state of the art compendium will be valuable to all who have an interest in the field of neuroscience, from the psychiatrist and the radiologist/nuclear medicine specialist to the interested general practitioner and cognitive psychologist. It is the first volume of a trilogy on PET and SPECT imaging in the neurosciences; other volumes will focus on PET and SPECT in neurology and PET and SPECT of neurobiological systems.

  14. Innovations in PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin Klausen, T; Høgild Keller, S; Vinter Olesen, O

    2012-01-01

    especially as spatial resolution improves. Software based image fusion remains a complex issue outside the brain. State of the art image quality in a modern PET/CT system includes incorporation of point spread function (PSF) and time-of-flight (TOF) information into the reconstruction leading to the high...

  15. Evaluation of the PET component of simultaneous [18F]choline PET/MRI in prostate cancer: comparison with [18F]choline PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetter, Axel; Lipponer, Christine; Nensa, Felix; Altenbernd, Jens-Christian; Schlosser, Thomas; Lauenstein, Thomas; Heusch, Philipp; Ruebben, Herbert; Bockisch, Andreas; Poeppel, Thorsten; Nagarajah, James

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the positron emission tomography (PET) component of [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI and compare it with the PET component of [ 18 F]choline PET/CT in patients with histologically proven prostate cancer and suspected recurrent prostate cancer. Thirty-six patients were examined with simultaneous [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI following combined [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Fifty-eight PET-positive lesions in PET/CT and PET/MRI were evaluated by measuring the maximum and mean standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV mean ) using volume of interest (VOI) analysis. A scoring system was applied to determine the quality of the PET images of both PET/CT and PET/MRI. Agreement between PET/CT and PET/MRI regarding SUV max and SUV mean was tested using Pearson's product-moment correlation and Bland-Altman analysis. All PET-positive lesions that were visible on PET/CT were also detectable on PET/MRI. The quality of the PET images was comparable in both groups. Median SUV max and SUV mean of all lesions were significantly lower in PET/MRI than in PET/CT (5.2 vs 6.1, p max of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.86, p mean of PET/CT and PET/MRI (R = 0.81, p max of PET/CT vs PET/MRI and -1.12 to +2.23 between SUV mean of PET/CT vs PET/MRI. PET image quality of PET/MRI was comparable to that of PET/CT. A highly significant correlation between SUV max and SUV mean was found. Both SUV max and SUV mean were significantly lower in [ 18 F]choline PET/MRI than in [ 18 F]choline PET/CT. Differences of SUV max and SUV mean might be caused by different techniques of attenuation correction. Furthermore, differences in biodistribution and biokinetics of [ 18 F]choline between the subsequent examinations and in the respective organ systems have to be taken into account. (orig.)

  16. Current status and future perspective of PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung Chul

    2002-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine imaging modality that consists of systemic administration to a subject of a radiopharmaceutical labeled with a positron-emitting radionuclide. Following administration, its distribution in the organ or structure under study can be assessed as a function of time and space by (1) detecting the annihilation radiation resulting from the interaction of the positrons with matter, and (2) reconstructing the distribution of the radioactivity from a series of that used in computed tomography (CT). The nuclides most generally exhibit chemical properties that render them particularly desirable in physiological studies. The radionuclides most widely used in PET are F-18, C-11, O-15 and N-13. Regarding to the number of the current PET Centers worldwide (based on ICP data), more than 300 PET Centers were in operation in 2000. The use of PET technology grew rapidly compared to that in 1992 and 1996, particularly in the USA, which demonstrates a three-fold rise in PET installations. In 2001, 194 PET Centers were operating in the USA. In 1994, two clinical and research-oriented PET Centers at Seoul National University Hospital and Samsung Medical Center, was established as the first dedicated PET and Cyclotron machines in Korea, followed by two more PET facilities at the Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Ajou Medical Center, Yonsei University Medical Center, National Cancer Center and established their PET Center. Catholic Medical School and Pusan National University Hospital have finalized a plan to install PET machine in 2002, which results in total of nine PET Centers in Korea. Considering annual trends of PET application in four major PET centers in Korea in Asan Medical Center recent six years (from 1995 to 2000), a total of 11,564 patients have been studied every year and the number of PET studies has shown steep growth year upon year. We had, 1,020 PET patients in 1995. This number increased to 1,196, 1,756, 2,379, 3

  17. Pet insurance--essential option?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowe, J D

    2000-08-01

    As Hawn (2) says, "insurance is about risk and peace of mind." She reports that the American Humane Society supports pet insurance because companion animals are able to be treated for disease or accidents that are life-threatening where, otherwise, they would have been euthanized. For veterinarians, she suggests that pet insurance allows them to practice veterinary medicine "as if it were free." It is inevitable that pet insurance will grow as a recourse for veterinary fees. This may be a savior to some families whose budget is stretched to the limit at a critical moment in the health care of their cherished pet. We in the veterinary profession have an advantage over other professions. We have seen the good, the bad, and the ugly of insurance, as it applies to human health and dental care. If we work hand-in-hand with our own industries, collectively we may be able to develop a system that wins for everyone, with fees that allow practice to thrive and growth strategies that accommodate new treatment and diagnostic modalities, as well as consistent and exemplary customer service. The path ahead is always fraught with bumps and potholes. We can be a passive passenger and become a victim of the times or an active driver to steer the profession to a clearer route. Pet insurance is but one of the solutions for the profession; the others are a careful assessment of our fees--charging what we are worth, not what we think the client will pay; business management; customer service; leadership of our health care team; lifelong learning; and more efficient delivery systems. Let us stop being a victim, stop shooting ourselves in the professional foot, and seize the day!

  18. A compact cost-effective beamline for a PET Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehnel, M.P.; Jackle, P.; Roeder, M.; Stewart, T.; Theroux, J.; Brasile, J.P.; Sirot, P.; Buckley, K.R.; Bedue, M.

    2007-01-01

    Most commercial PET Cyclotrons have targets mounted on or near the main cyclotron vacuum chamber. There is often little or no system capability for centering or focusing the extracted beam on target to achieve maximum production. This paper describes the ion-optics, design and development of a compact cost-effective beamline comprised of low activation and radiation resistant materials. The beamline, complete with suitable diagnostic devices, permits the extracted proton beam to be centered (X-Y steering magnet), and focused (quadrupole doublet) on target eliminating unnecessary beamspill and ensuring high production

  19. PET in cerebrovascular disease; PET bei zerebrovaskulaeren Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik der Univ. Koeln (Germany)]|[Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Tissue viability is of particular interest in acute cerebral ischemia because it may be preserved if reperfusion can be achieved rapidly, e.g. by acute thrombolysis. Measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxygen consumption by PET can assess tissue viability, and they have substantially increased our knowledge of th pathophysiology of ischemic stroke and the associated penumbra. Widerspread clinical application in acute stroke, however, is unlikely because of the large logistic and personnel resources required. In chronic cerebrovascular disease, measurement of regional CBF and glucose metabolism, which is usually coupled, provide detailed insights in disturbance of cortical function, e.g. due to deafferentiation, and contribute to differentiation of dementia types. Chronic misery perfusion, i.e. reduced perfusion that does not match the metabolic demand of the tissue, can be demonstrated by PET. It may be found in some patients with high-grade arterial stenoses. Less severe impairment of brain perfusion can be demonstrated by measurement of the cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The most frequent clinical situations can be assessed by less demanding procedures, e.g. by SPECT. In conclusion, PET has its role in cerebrovascular disease primarily within scientific studies, where high resolution and absolute quantitation of physiological variables are essential. (orig.). 65 refs. [Deutsch] Beim akuten ischaemischen Insult ist die Vitalitaet des Gewebes von besonderem Interesse, da sie durch rasche Reperfusion, z.B. durch Thrombolyse, erhalten bleiben kann. Messungen der zerebralen Durchblutung und des Sauerstoffumsatzes mittels PET geben darueber wesentliche Aufschluesse, und sie sind wichtig fuer das Verstaendnis der Pathophysiologie ischaemischer Infarkte und der Penumbra mit kritischer Perfusion beim Menschen. Ihre breitere Anwendung in der klinischen Patientenversorgung kommt allerdings wegen des hohen Aufwandes derzeit kaum in Betracht. Bei

  20. Pet Ownership by Elderly People: Two New Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined two issues of pet ownership in mail questionnaire and interview survey of 1,595 older adults over age 60, 377 of whom had a pet. Found evidence that pets were important determinant of housing choice. Many elderly pet owners had made no arrangements for pet if they predecease it or become unable to care for it. (Author/NB)

  1. Improving the utilization of detector motion in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wernick, M.N.; Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.

    1992-01-01

    The authors first proposed a superresolution concept for PET in their DOE renewal application of last year. Since then, they have implemented the technique in software and have performed several simulation studies that demonstrate the potential value of the proposed method in substantially improving the image quality obtainable by PET. The fundamentals of the approach and initial simulation results were reported in a paper to appear later this year in Journal of the Optical Society of America A. In subsequent publications and presentations they described various extensions of the method and showed that the superresolution method was robust to various misspecifications of the system spatial response functions which are inevitable in a practical implementation. In February of this year, two of them (Wernick and Chen) filed an application with the US Patent Office entitled, Method for Recovering signals in tomographic Measurement Systems, in which they describe various configurations of the superresolution approach as it applies generally to tomographic imaging systems. Various kinds of detector system motions were considered as well as various configurations of the algorithm. the methods described may be useful in a number of situations, but the preferred embodiment detailed in the application refers to the use of signal recovery to exploit the extra information reported by a wobbling PET system

  2. Towards time-of-flight PET with a semiconductor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño-Estrada, Gerard; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Kwon, Sun Il; Du, Junwei; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility of using Cerenkov light, generated by energetic electrons following 511 keV photon interactions in the semiconductor TlBr, to obtain fast timing information for positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated. Due to its high refractive index, TlBr is a relatively good Cerenkov radiator and with its wide bandgap, has good optical transparency across most of the visible spectrum. Coupling an SiPM photodetector to a slab of TlBr (TlBr-SiPM) yielded a coincidence timing resolution of 620 ps FWHM between the TlBr-SiPM detector and a LFS reference detector. This value improved to 430 ps FWHM by applying a high pulse amplitude cut based on the TlBr-SiPM and reference detector signal amplitudes. These results are the best ever achieved with a semiconductor PET detector and already approach the performance required for time-of-flight. As TlBr has higher stopping power and better energy resolution than the conventional scintillation detectors currently used in PET scanners, a hybrid TlBr-SiPM detector with fast timing capability becomes an interesting option for further development.

  3. Comparison of dosimetry between PET/CT and PET alone using 11C-ITMM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Kimiteru; Sakata, Muneyuki; Wagarsuma, Kei; Toyohara, Jun; Ishibashi, Kenji; Ishii, Kenji; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    We used a new tracer, N-[4-[6-(isopropylamino) pyrimidin-4-yl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl]-4- 11 C-methoxy-N-methylbenzamide ( 11 C-ITMM), to compare radiation doses from positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) with previously published doses from PET alone. Twelve healthy volunteers [six males (mean age ± SD, 27.7 ± 6.7 years) and six females (31.8 ± 14.5 years)] in 12 examinations were recruited. Dose estimations from PET/CT were compared with those from PET alone. Regions of interest (ROIs) in PET/CT were delineated on the basis of low-dose CT (LD-CT) images acquired during PET/CT. Internal and external radiation doses were estimated using OLINDA/EXM 1.0 and CT-Expo software. The effective dose (ED) for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT was estimated to be 4.7 ± 0.5 μSv/MBq for the male subjects and 4.1 ± 0.7 μSv/MBq for the female subjects. The mean ED for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET alone in a previous report was estimated to be 4.6 ± 0.3 μSv/MBq (males, n = 3). The ED values for 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT in the male subjects were almost identical to those from PET alone. The absorbed doses (ADs) of the gallbladder, stomach, red bone marrow, and spleen calculated from PET/CT were significantly different from those calculated from PET alone. The EDs of 11 C-ITMM calculated from PET/CT were almost identical to those calculated from PET alone. The ADs in several organs calculated from PET/CT differed from those from PET alone. LD-CT images acquired during PET/CT may facilitate organ identification.

  4. PET/MRI and PET/CT in advanced gynaecological tumours: initial experience and comparison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queiroz, Marcelo A.; Schulthess, Gustav von; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Nuclear Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); University Hospital Zurich, Department Medical Radiology, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Freiwald-Chilla, Bianka [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Radiology, Baden (Switzerland); Hauser, Nik [Kantonsspital Baden AG, Department of Gynaecology, Baden (Switzerland); Froehlich, Johannes M. [Guerbet AG, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of PET/MRI and PET/CT for staging and re-staging advanced gynaecological cancer patients as well as identify the potential benefits of each method in such a population. Twenty-six patients with suspicious or proven advanced gynaecological cancer (12 ovarian, seven cervical, one vulvar and four endometrial tumours, one uterine metastasis, and one primary peritoneal cancer) underwent whole-body imaging with a sequential trimodality PET/CT/MR system. Images were analysed regarding primary tumour detection and delineation, loco-regional lymph node staging, and abdominal/extra-abdominal distant metastasis detection (last only by PET/CT). Eighteen (69.2 %) patients underwent PET/MRI for primary staging and eight patients (30.8 %) for re-staging their gynaecological malignancies. For primary tumour delineation, PET/MRI accuracy was statistically superior to PET/CT (p < 0.001). Among the different types of cancer, PET/MRI presented better tumour delineation mainly for cervical (6/7) and endometrial (2/3) cancers. PET/MRI for local evaluation as well as PET/CT for extra-abdominal metastases had therapeutic consequences in three and one patients, respectively. PET/CT detected 12 extra-abdominal distant metastases in 26 patients. PET/MRI is superior to PET/CT for primary tumour delineation. No differences were found in detection of regional lymph node involvement and abdominal metastases detection. (orig.)

  5. Childhood Attachment to Pets: Associations between Pet Attachment, Attitudes to Animals, Compassion, and Humane Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne D. Hawkins

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Attachment to pets has an important role in children’s social, emotional, and cognitive development, mental health, well-being, and quality of life. This study examined associations between childhood attachment to pets and caring and friendship behaviour, compassion, and attitudes towards animals. This study also examined socio-demographic differences, particularly pet ownership and pet type. A self-report survey of over one thousand 7 to 12 year-olds in Scotland, UK, revealed that the majority of children are strongly attached to their pets, but attachment scores differ depending on pet type and child gender. Analysis revealed that attachment to pets is facilitated by compassion and caring and pet-directed friendship behaviours and that attachment to pets significantly predicts positive attitudes towards animals. The findings have implications for the promotion of prosocial and humane behaviour. Encouraging children to participate in pet care behaviour may promote attachment between children and their pet, which in turn may have a range of positive outcomes for both children (such as reduced aggression, better well-being, and quality of life and pets (such as humane treatment. This study enhances our understanding of childhood pet attachment and has implications for humane education and promoting secure emotional attachments in childhood.

  6. Basic study of entire whole-body PET scanners based on the OpenPET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.j [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yamaya, Taiga; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2010-09-21

    A conventional PET scanner has a 15-25 cm axial field-of-view (FOV) and images a whole body using about six bed positions. An OpenPET geometry can extend the axial FOV with a limited number of detectors. The entire whole-body PET scanner must be able to process a large amount of data effectively. In this work, we study feasibility of the fully 3D entire whole-body PET scanner using the GATE simulation. The OpenPET has 12 block detector rings with the ring diameter of 840 mm and each block detector ring consists of 48 depth-of-interaction (DOI) detectors. The OpenPET has the axial length of 895.95 mm with five parts of 58.95 mm open gaps. The OpenPET has higher single data loss than a conventional PET scanner at grouping circuits. NECR of the OpenPET decreases by single data loss. But single data loss is mitigated by separating the axially arranged detector into two parts. Also, multiple coincidences are found to be important for the entire whole-body PET scanner. The entire whole-body PET scanner with the OpenPET geometry promises to provide a large axial FOV with the open space and to have sufficient performance values. But single data loss at the grouping circuits and multiple coincidences are limited to the peak noise equivalent count rate (NECR) for the entire whole-body PET scanner.

  7. Present and future aspects of PET examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Tomio

    2003-01-01

    The PET examination gives the body distribution image of a compound labeled with the positron emitter manufactured by cyclotron. Recently, PET with F18-deoxyglucose (FDG) attracts considerable attention because the imaging is particularly useful for cancer detection. Since the technique was authorized by the United States (US) official health insurance in 1998, the number of the examination is increasing, which is also under similar situation in Japan due to the latest partial authorization for some malignant tumors. In Japan, about 30,000 examinations per year are carried out, half of which, in private hospitals. Their purpose is increasingly for cancer detection. For future PET examination, awaited are improvement of PET camera and development of a novel imaging agent. PET/CT imaging is for the former and F18-α-methyltyrosine, for the latter. Miniaturization of cyclotron, FDG delivery system, improved FDG synthetic method, popularization of PET/CT, development of PET camera for health examination, clinical trial of a novel imaging agent, and spread of PET health examination and operation of PET Center, are expected for future progress of PET technique. (N.I.)

  8. A phoswich detector design for improved spatial sampling in PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiessen, Jonathan D.; Koschan, Merry A.; Melcher, Charles L.; Meng, Fang; Schellenberg, Graham; Goertzen, Andrew L.

    2018-02-01

    Block detector designs, utilizing a pixelated scintillator array coupled to a photosensor array in a light-sharing design, are commonly used for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging applications. In practice, the spatial sampling of these designs is limited by the crystal pitch, which must be large enough for individual crystals to be resolved in the detector flood image. Replacing the conventional 2D scintillator array with an array of phoswich elements, each consisting of an optically coupled side-by-side scintillator pair, may improve spatial sampling in one direction of the array without requiring resolving smaller crystal elements. To test the feasibility of this design, a 4 × 4 phoswich array was constructed, with each phoswich element consisting of two optically coupled, 3 . 17 × 1 . 58 × 10mm3 LSO crystals co-doped with cerium and calcium. The amount of calcium doping was varied to create a 'fast' LSO crystal with decay time of 32.9 ns and a 'slow' LSO crystal with decay time of 41.2 ns. Using a Hamamatsu R8900U-00-C12 position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PS-PMT) and a CAEN V1720 250 MS/s waveform digitizer, we were able to show effective discrimination of the fast and slow LSO crystals in the phoswich array. Although a side-by-side phoswich array is feasible, reflections at the crystal boundary due to a mismatch between the refractive index of the optical adhesive (n = 1 . 5) and LSO (n = 1 . 82) caused it to behave optically as an 8 × 4 array rather than a 4 × 4 array. Direct coupling of each phoswich element to individual photodetector elements may be necessary with the current phoswich array design. Alternatively, in order to implement this phoswich design with a conventional light sharing PET block detector, a high refractive index optical adhesive is necessary to closely match the refractive index of LSO.

  9. PET Performance Evaluation of an MR-Compatible PET Insert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yibao; Catana, Ciprian; Farrell, Richard; Dokhale, Purushottam A.; Shah, Kanai S.; Qi, Jinyi; Cherry, Simon R.

    2010-01-01

    A magnetic resonance (MR) compatible positron emission tomography (PET) insert has been developed in our laboratory for simultaneous small animal PET/MR imaging. This system is based on lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator arrays with position-sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) photodetectors. The PET performance of this insert has been measured. The average reconstructed image spatial resolution was 1.51 mm. The sensitivity at the center of the field of view (CFOV) was 0.35%, which is comparable to the simulation predictions of 0.40%. The average photopeak energy resolution was 25%. The scatter fraction inside the MRI scanner with a line source was 12% (with a mouse-sized phantom and standard 35 mm Bruker 1H RF coil), 7% (with RF coil only) and 5% (without phantom or RF coil) for an energy window of 350–650 keV. The front-end electronics had a dead time of 390 ns, and a trigger extension dead time of 7.32 μs that degraded counting rate performance for injected doses above ~0.75 mCi (28 MBq). The peak noise-equivalent count rate (NECR) of 1.27 kcps was achieved at 290 μCi (10.7 MBq). The system showed good imaging performance inside a 7-T animal MRI system; however improvements in data acquisition electronics and reduction of the coincidence timing window are needed to realize improved NECR performance. PMID:21072320

  10. PET/CT-guided Interventions: Personnel Radiation Dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, E. Ronan; Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Erinjeri, Joseph P.; Hsu, Meier; Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Solomon, Stephen B.

    2013-01-01

    PurposeTo quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures.MethodsIn this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound).ResultsThe median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0–0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0–0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0–0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0–0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06).ConclusionThe operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient

  11. PET/CT-guided Interventions: Personnel Radiation Dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, E. Ronan, E-mail: ronan@ronanryan.com; Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (United States); Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Solomon, Stephen B. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures.MethodsIn this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound).ResultsThe median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0-0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0-0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06).ConclusionThe operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient.

  12. Philips Gemini TF64 PET/CT Acceptance Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Gonzalez, Joaquín J.; Calderón Marin, Carlos F.; Varela Corona, Consuelo; Machado Tejeda, Adalberto; González Correa, Héctor J.

    2016-01-01

    The Philips Gemini TF64 is the first PET/CT scanner installed in Cuba at the Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology in 2014. It is a third generation fully tridimensional whole body PET scanner with time-of-flight (TOF) technology combined with a 64-slice Brilliance CT scanner. The CT detector module contains 672x64 solid state detector, incorporating GOS scintillators, optical diodes and electronic signal channels arranged in 64 side by side arcs, with 672 detectors in each arc. There are sixteen 0.75 mm individual detector elements around the center and four 1.5 mm elements at each end, resulting in a 24 mm total detection length. The PET detector consists of 28 pixelar modules of a 23x44 array of 4x4x22 mm3 of LYSO crystals arranged in an Anger-logic detector design. The hardware coincidence-timing window for this scanner is set at 4 ns and delayed coincidence window technique is used to estimate the random coincidences in collected data. In this study the performance characteristics of PET/CT scanner were measured as part of the program tests of acceptance for clinical use.Methodology. The performance characteristics of CT scanner were evaluated by manufacturer protocol using Philips system performance phantom. Some additional geometrical tests were performed by the user. The intrinsic measurements of energy resolution as well as timing resolution, which define the TOF performance of PET scanner, were performed following the recommendations of manufacturer using 18 F. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction, counting rate performance, image quality and accuracy were measured according to the NEMA NU-2 2007 procedures. Additionally, to characterize the effect of TOF reconstruction on lesion contrast and noise, the standard NEMA torso phantom was reconstructed with and without TOF capability. The accuracy of PET/CT image registration was tested according to the manufacturer protocol using an image alignment calibration holder with 6 point sources of 22

  13. Clinical Application of F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) in Malignancy of Unknown Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of primary origin site in the management of malignancy of unknown origin (MUO) is the most important issue. According to the histopathologic subtype of primary lesion, specialized treatment can be given and survival gain is expected. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) has been estimated as useful in detection of primary lesion with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) study before conventional studies is also recommended because it has high diagnostic performance compared to conventional studies. Although there has few data, F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) is expected to be useful in diagnosis of recurrence, restaging, evaluation of treatment effect, considering that PET (PET/CT) has been reported as useful in other malignancies

  14. Optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retro-bulbar neuritis; Multiple sclerosis - optic neuritis; Optic nerve - optic neuritis ... The exact cause of optic neuritis is unknown. The optic nerve carries visual information from your eye to the brain. The nerve can swell when ...

  15. Comparison between PET/MR and PET/CT in evaluation of oncological patients%PET/MR与PET/CT的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐白萱; 富丽萍; 关志伟; 尹大一; 刘家金; 杨晖; 张锦明; 陈英茂; 安宁豫

    2014-01-01

    Objective To verify the feasibility of the integrated PET/MR for oncological applications by comparing PET/MR with PET/CT in terms of lesion detection and quantitative measurement.Methods A total of 277 patients (165 males,112 females,average age (52.9± 12.6) years) voluntarily participated in this same-day PET/CT and PET/MR comparative study.The time interval between the two studies was 15-35 min.PET/CT images were acquired and reconstructed following standard protocols.PET/MR covered the body trunk with a sequence combination of transverse T1 weighted imaging (WI) 3D-volumetric interpolated breath-hold,T2WI turbo spin echo with fat saturation,diffusion-weighted imaging,and simultaneous PET acquisition.PET images were reconstructed by vender-provided attenuation correction methods.The results of PET/CT and PET/MR were regarded as positive if any modality (CT,PET or MRI) was positive.SUVmax was obtained by the manually drawn ROI.Detection rates were compared with x2 test and SUVmax from the two modalities was analyzed with Spearman correlation analysis.Results A total of 353 lesions were detected in 220 patients.Compared to PET/CT,PET/MR revealed 30 additional true-positive lesions,while missed 6.The detection rates between PET/CT and PET/MR were significantly different (P<0.05).The lesion-based and patient-based consistency was 89.8% (317/353) and 85.9% (189/220),respectively.There were significant correlations of SUVmax between PET/MR and PET/CT for lesions(rs =0.91,P<0.01) and for normal tissues(rs =0.62-0.76,all P<0.01).Conclusions With reference to PET/CT,integrated PET/MR may provide comparable semi-quantitative measurements of pathological lesions as well as normal tissues.Integrated PET/MR may be more effective to detect lesions in abdomen and pelvis.%目的 通过与PET/CT在病灶检测及定量分析方面的比较,论证PET/MR一体机应用于临床的可行性.方法 2012年5月至2013年2月共300例患者同天间隔15 ~ 35 min行PET

  16. National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU-4 performance evaluation of the PET component of the NanoPET/CT preclinical PET/CT scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szanda, Istvan; Mackewn, Jane; Patay, Gergely; Major, Peter; Sunassee, Kavitha; Mullen, Gregory E; Nemeth, Gabor; Haemisch, York; Blower, Philip J; Marsden, Paul K

    2011-11-01

    The NanoPET/CT represents the latest generation of commercial preclinical PET/CT systems. This article presents a performance evaluation of the PET component of the system according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-4 2008 standard. The NanoPET/CT consists of 12 lutetium yttrium orthosilicate:cerium modular detectors forming 1 ring, with 9.5-cm axial coverage and a 16-cm animal port. Each detector crystal is 1.12 × 1.12 × 13 mm, and 1 module contains 81 × 39 of these crystals. An optical light guide transmits the scintillation light to the flat-panel multianode position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. Analog-to-digital converter cards and a field-programmable gate array-based data-collecting card provide the readout. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality were evaluated in accordance with the NEMA NU-4 standard. Energy and temporal resolution measurements and a mouse imaging study were performed in addition to the standard. Energy resolution was 19% at 511 keV. The spatial resolution, measured as full width at half maximum on single-slice rebinning/filtered backprojection-reconstructed images, approached 1 mm on the axis and remained below 2.5 mm in the central 5-cm transaxial region both in the axial center and at one-quarter field of view. The maximum absolute sensitivity for a point source at the center of the field of view was 7.7%. The maximum noise equivalent counting rates were 430 kcps at 36 MBq and 130 kcps at 27 MBq for the mouse- and rat-sized phantoms, respectively. The uniformity and recovery coefficients were measured with the image-quality phantom, giving good-quality images. In a mouse study with an (18)F-labeled thyroid-specific tracer, the 2 lobes of the thyroid were clearly distinguishable, despite the small size of this organ. The flexible readout system allowed experiments to be performed in an efficient manner, and the system remained stable throughout. The large number

  17. Laboratory and cyclotron requirements for PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlyer, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for carrying out PET research can vary widely depending on the type of basic research being carried out and the extent of a clinical program at a particular center. The type of accelerator and laboratory facilities will, of course, depend on the exact mix. These centers have been divided into four categories. 1. Clinical PET with no radionuclide production facilities, 2. clinical PET with some radionuclide production facilities, 3. clinical PET with research support, and 4. a PET research facility developing new tracers and exploring clinical applications. Guidelines for the choice of an accelerator based on these categories and the practical yields of the common nuclear reactions for production of PET isotopes have been developed and are detailed. Guidelines as to the size and physical layout of the laboratory space necessary for the synthesis of various radiopharmaceuticals have also been developed and are presented. Important utility and air flow considerations are explored

  18. Utility of PET in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon

    2002-01-01

    Clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly increasing for the detection and staging of cancer at whole-body studies performed with 2-[fluorine-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG). Although many cancers can be detected by FDG-PET, there has been limited clinical experience with FDG-PET for the detection of gynecological cancers including malignancies in uterus and ovary. FDG-PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can aid in the characterization of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Most gynecological cancers need to surgical management. FDG-PET can improve the selection of patients for surgical treatment and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery. FDG-PET is also useful for the early detection of recurrence and the monitoring of therapeutic effect. In this review, I discuss the clinical feasibility and imitations of this imaging modality in patients with gynecological cancers

  19. Application of PET in brain tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, June Key

    2002-01-01

    The annual incidence of primary brain tumors is 7-19 cases per 100,000 people. The unique capacity of visualizing biochemical processes allows PET to determine functional metabolic activities of the brain tumors. Like other malignant tumors, F-18 FDG has been used commonly in the imaging of brain tumors. FDG PET is valuable in grading malignancy, predicting prognosis, monitoring treatment, differentiating tumor recurrence from radiation nucrosis, and detecting primary lesion in metastatric brain tumors. Among amino acids labeled with positron emitters, C-11 methionine is used clinically.Tumor delineation is much better with methionine PET than with FDG PET. Low grade gliomas, in particular, are better evaluated with methionine than with FDG. PET opens another dimension in brain tumor imaging. PET imaging has clearly entered the clinical area with a profound impact on patient care in many indications

  20. Towards enhanced PET quantification in clinical oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Habib; Karakatsanis, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    is still a matter of debate. Quantitative PET has advanced elegantly during the last two decades and is now reaching the maturity required for clinical exploitation, particularly in oncology where it has the capability to open many avenues for clinical diagnosis, assessment of response to treatment...... and therapy planning. Therefore, the preservation and further enhancement of the quantitative features of PET imaging is crucial to ensure that the full clinical value of PET imaging modality is utilized in clinical oncology. Recent advancements in PET technology and methodology have paved the way for faster...... PET acquisitions of enhanced sensitivity to support the clinical translation of highly quantitative 4D parametric imaging methods in clinical oncology. In this report, we provide an overview of recent advances and future trends in quantitative PET imaging in the context of clinical oncology. The pros...

  1. PET/MRI in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Loft, Annika; Law, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Combined PET/MRI systems are now commercially available and are expected to change the medical imaging field by providing combined anato-metabolic image information. We believe this will be of particular relevance in imaging of cancer patients. At the Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear...... described include brain tumors, pediatric oncology as well as lung, abdominal and pelvic cancer. In general the cases show that PET/MRI performs well in all these types of cancer when compared to PET/CT. However, future large-scale clinical studies are needed to establish when to use PET/MRI. We envision...... that PET/MRI in oncology will prove to become a valuable addition to PET/CT in diagnosing, tailoring and monitoring cancer therapy in selected patient populations....

  2. Pet Store Loyalty in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Leong, Yuen Yee

    2010-01-01

    Loyalty is open studied topic within the retailing and marketing discipline. A strong and profitable base of loyal customers is an asset to any organization, and is one of the epitomes of success for a company. The flourishing of large, specialty niche retailers like Starbucks, Victoria Secret and Barnes & Noble are stellar success stories that thrive on their troop of staunch followers. Pet retailing is a niche market which has its own interesting market characteristics. The emergence of ...

  3. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  4. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semah, F.

    2007-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging are very useful for the management of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy. Presurgical evaluation of patients with medically refractory partial epilepsy often included PET imaging using FDG. The use of SPECT in these patients adds some more information and gives the clinicians the possibility of having ictal imaging. Furthermore, PET and SPECT imaging are performed to better understand the pathophysiology of epilepsy. (authors)

  5. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-01-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosi...

  6. Effect of Attenuation Correction on Regional Quantification Between PET/MR and PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teuho, Jarmo; Johansson, Jarkko; Linden, Jani

    2016-01-01

    UNLABELLED: A spatial bias in brain PET/MR exists compared with PET/CT, because of MR-based attenuation correction. We performed an evaluation among 4 institutions, 3 PET/MR systems, and 4 PET/CT systems using an anthropomorphic brain phantom, hypothesizing that the spatial bias would be minimized....../MR systems, CTAC was applied as the reference method for attenuation correction. RESULTS: With CTAC, visual and quantitative differences between PET/MR and PET/CT systems were minimized. Intersystem variation between institutions was +3.42% to -3.29% in all VOIs for PET/CT and +2.15% to -4.50% in all VOIs...... for PET/MR. PET/MR systems differed by +2.34% to -2.21%, +2.04% to -2.08%, and -1.77% to -5.37% when compared with a PET/CT system at each institution, and these differences were not significant (P ≥ 0.05). CONCLUSION: Visual and quantitative differences between PET/MR and PET/CT systems can be minimized...

  7. The application of PET and PET-CT in cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianmin; Pan Liping; Li Dongxue

    2007-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the common malignancies in woman, 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET is a well-established method for detecting, staging, cancer recurrence, therapeutic response and prognosis of cervical cancer. PET-CT can accurately locate the anatomical sites of tracer uptake and improve the diagnostic accuraccy of PET. (authors)

  8. Evacuating People and Their Pets: Older Floridians' Need for and Proximity to Pet-Friendly Shelters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Rachel; Kocatepe, Ayberk; Barrett, Anne E; Ozguven, Eren Erman; Gumber, Clayton

    2017-10-04

    Pets influence evacuation decisions, but little is known about pet-friendly emergency shelters' availability or older adults' need for them. Our study addresses this issue, focusing on the most densely populated area of Florida (Miami-Dade)-the state with the oldest population and greatest hurricane susceptibility. We use Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based methodology to identify the shortest paths to pet-friendly shelters, based on distance and congested and uncongested travel times-taking into account the older population's spatial distribution. Logistic regression models using the 2013 American Housing Survey's Disaster Planning Module examine anticipated shelter use as a function of pet ownership and requiring pet evacuation assistance. Thirty-four percent of older adults in the Miami-Dade area have pets-35% of whom report needing pet evacuation assistance. However, GIS accessibility measures show that travel time factors are likely to impede older adults' use of the area's few pet-friendly shelters. Logistic regression results reveal that pet owners are less likely to report anticipating shelter use; however, the opposite holds for pet owners reporting they would need help evacuating their pets-they anticipate using shelters. High pet shelter need coupled with low availability exacerbates older adults' heightened vulnerability during Florida's hurricane season. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. PET-COMPTON System. Comparative evaluation with PET System using Monte Carlo Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Garcia, Angelina; Arista Romeu, Eduardo; Abreu Alfonso, Yamiel; Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera HernAndez, Ibrahin; Bolannos Perez, Lourdes; Rubio Rodriguez, Juan A.; Perez Morales, Jose M.; Arce Dubois, Pedro; Vela Morales, Oscar; Willmott Zappacosta, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in small animals has actually achieved spatial resolution round about 1 mm and currently there are under study different approaches to improve this spatial resolution. One of them combines PET technology with Compton Cameras. This paper presents the idea of the so called PET-Compton systems and has included comparative evaluation of spatial resolution and global efficiency in both PET and PET-Compton system by means of Monte Carlo simulations using Geant4 code. Simulation was done on a PET-Compton system made-up of LYSO-LuYAP scintillating detectors of particular small animal PET scanner named Clear-PET and for Compton detectors based on CdZnTe semiconductor. A group of radionuclides that emits a positron (e+) and quantum almost simultaneously and fulfills some selection criteria for their possible use in PET-Compton systems for medical and biological applications were studied under simulation conditions. By means of analytical reconstruction using SSRB (Single Slide Rebinning) method were obtained superior spatial resolution in PET-Compton system for all tested radionuclides (reaching sub-millimeter values of for 22Na source). However this analysis done by simulation have shown limited global efficiency values in PET-Compton system (in the order of 10 -5 -10 -6 %) instead of values around 5*10 -1 % that have been achieved in PET system. (author)

  10. Processing and characterization of extruded PET and its r-PET and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of r-PET and r-PET+ MWCNT fillers was obtained by the precipitation method using TFA as a solvent and acetone ... crystallinity in r-PET and decrease in chain entanglements. ..... insufficient to supply the complete information of the surface.

  11. Particle Accelerators for PET radionuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost-effectively achie......The requirements set for particle accelerators for production of radioactive isotopes for PET can easily be derived from first principles. The simple general need is for proton beams with energy in the region 10–20 MeV and current 20–100 microAmps. This is most reliably and cost......-effectively achieved by the well proven technology of the compact medical cyclotron, presently available from several companies. The main features of these cyclotrons are essential similar: resistive, sector focused iron magnets, internal negative ion sources and stripping extraction. The remaining differences between...... different manufacturers will be discussed the light of what is actually needed for a given PET site operation. Alternatives to the conventional cyclotron have been proposed and tested but have at present very limited use. These alternatives will be discussed, as well as the future possibilities of supplying...

  12. PET in cancer screening: a controversial imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Minggang; Tan Tianzhi

    2012-01-01

    Malignancy has been one of the most dangerous threats to human health. Early diagnosis and treatment are key factors for improving prognosis. Cancer screening is an important way to detect early stage cancer and precancerous lesion. PET has been used increasingly in cancer screening in accordance with the requirement of the public. Though a great number of data show that PET can find some subclinical malignancy, yet as a cancer screening modality, PET is still controversial in contemporary medical practice. The aim of this article is to review the application status and existing problem of PET in cancer screening, and to offer some recognition and view about cancer srceening. (authors)

  13. Cancer screening with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, M.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: This study is based on medical health check-up and cancer screening on of a medical health club using PET, MRI, spiral CT and other conventional examinations. Methods: Between October 1994 and June 2005, 9357 asymptomatic members of the health club participated in 24772 screening session (5693 men and 3664 women, mean age 52.2±10.4 years). Results: Malignant tumors were discovered in 296 of the 9357 participants (3.16%) and 24772 screening sessions (1.19%). The detection rate of our program is much higher than that of mass screening in Japan. The thyroid, lung, colon and breast cancers were PET positive, but the prostate, renal and bladder cancers were generally PET negative. Conclusion: FDG-PET has the potential to detect a wide variety of cancers at curable stages in asymptomatic individuals. To reduce false-positive and false-negative results of PET examination, there is a need of experienced radiologist and/or oncologists who had training in the wide aspect of FDG-PET. FDG-PET has limitations in the detection of urological cancers, cancers of low cell density, small cancers and hypo metabolic or FDG non-avid cancers. Therefore, conventional examinations and/or PET/CT are also needed for cancer screening in association with FDG-PET

  14. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  15. Progress of PET imaging in Schizophrenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Li; Gao Shuo

    2011-01-01

    PET is an important functional neuroimaging technique that can be used to assessment of cerebral metabolic activity and blood flow and identifies the distribution of important neurotransmitters in the human brain. Compared with other conventional imaging techniques, PET enables regional cerebral glucose metabolism, blood flow, dopaminergic and serotonergic receptor function to be assessed qualitatively and quantitatively. In recent years, PET increasingly being used greatly to advance our understanding of the neurobiology and pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This review focuses on the use of PET tracers in identifying regional brain abnormalities and regions associated with cognitive functioning in schizophrenia. (authors)

  16. PET-MRI and multimodal cancer imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Taisong; Zhao Jinhua; Song Jianhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging, specifically PET-CT, brought a new perspective into the fields of clinical imaging. Clinical cases have shown that PET-CT has great value in clinical diagnosis and experimental research. But PET-CT still bears some limitations. A major drawback is that CT provides only limited soft tissue contrast and exposes the patient to a significant radiation dose. MRI overcome these limitations, it has excellent soft tissue contrast, high temporal and spatial resolution and no radiation damage. Additionally, since MRI provides also functional information, PET-MRI will show a new direction of multimodality imaging in the future. (authors)

  17. Investigation progress of PET reporter gene imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yumei; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Molecular imaging for gene therapy and gene expression has been more and more attractive, while the use of gene therapy has been widely investigated and intense research have allowed it to the clinical setting in the last two-decade years. In vivo imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) by combination of appropriate PET reporter gene and PET reporter probe could provide qualitative and quantitative information for gene therapy. PET imaging could also obtain some valuable parameters not available by other techniques. This technology is useful to understand the process and development of gene therapy and how to apply it into clinical practice in the future. (authors)

  18. Dynamic observation by PET in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Ishijima, Buichi; Iio, Masaaki.

    1990-01-01

    Before the era when positron emission tomography (PET) has emerged, much controversy has existed concerning regional cerebral blood flow in partial epilepsy. In 1979, PET revealed that cerebral blood flow is decreased during the interictal period, but is remarkably increased in the intraictal phase. In this paper, historical process of dynamic observation in epilepsy is reviewed. Potential use and limitations of PET in the clinical setting are discussed in view of the scanning methods and the relationships between PET and electroencephalograms, magnetic resonance imaging, and surgical treatment. (N.K.) 106 refs

  19. Decay correction methods in dynamic PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.; Reiman, E.; Lawson, M.

    1995-01-01

    In order to reconstruct positron emission tomography (PET) images in quantitative dynamic studies, the data must be corrected for radioactive decay. One of the two commonly used methods ignores physiological processes including blood flow that occur at the same time as radioactive decay; the other makes incorrect use of time-accumulated PET counts. In simulated dynamic PET studies using 11 C-acetate and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), these methods are shown to result in biased estimates of the time-activity curve (TAC) and model parameters. New methods described in this article provide significantly improved parameter estimates in dynamic PET studies

  20. Blind source separation analysis of PET dynamic data: a simple method with exciting MR-PET applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oros-Peusquens, Ana-Maria; Silva, Nuno da [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Weiss, Carolin [Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Cologne, 50924 Cologne (Germany); Stoffels, Gabrielle; Herzog, Hans; Langen, Karl J [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Jülich-Aachen Research Alliance (JARA) - Section JARA-Brain RWTH Aachen University, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Denoising of dynamic PET data improves parameter imaging by PET and is gaining momentum. This contribution describes an analysis of dynamic PET data by blind source separation methods and comparison of the results with MR-based brain properties.

  1. Additional value of PET-CT in the staging of lung cancer: comparison with CT alone, PET alone and visual correlation of PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, W. de; Marchal, G.; Bogaert, J.; Verschakelen, J.A.; Ceyssens, S.; Mortelmans, L.; Stroobants, S.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) is a new imaging modality offering anatomic and metabolic information. The purpose was to evaluate retrospectively the accuracy of integrated PET-CT in the staging of a suggestive lung lesion, comparing this with the accuracy of CT alone, PET alone and visually correlated PET-CT. Fifty patients undergoing integrated PET-CT for staging of a suggestive lung lesion were studied. Their tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) statuses were determined with CT, PET, visually correlated PET-CT and integrated PET-CT. These TNM stages were compared with the surgical TNM status. Integrated PET-CT was the most accurate imaging technique in the assessment of the TNM status. Integrated PET-CT predicted correctly the T status, N status, M status and TNM status in, respectively, 86%, 80%, 98%, 70% versus 68%, 66%,88%, 46% with CT, 46%, 70%, 96%, 30% with PET and 72%, 68%, 96%, 54% with visually correlated PET-CT. T status and N status were overstaged, respectively, in 8% and 16% with integrated PET-CT, in 20% and 28% with CT, in 16% and 20% with PET, in 12% and 20% with visually correlated PET-CT and understaged in 6% and 4% with integrated PET-CT, versus 12% and 6% with CT, 38% and 10% with PET and 12% with visually correlated PET-CT. Integrated PET-CT improves the staging of lung cancer through a better anatomic localization and characterization of lesions and is superior to CT alone and PET alone. If this technique is not available, visual correlation of PET and CT can be a valuable alternative. (orig.)

  2. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET/CT in Burkitt's lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karantanis, Dimitrios, E-mail: dkarantanis@nuclmed.ne [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Durski, Jolanta M.; Lowe, Val J.; Nathan, Mark A.; Mullan, Brian P. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Georgiou, Evangelos [Medical Physics Department, Medical School, University of Athens (Greece); Johnston, Patrick B. [Division of Hematology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Wiseman, Gregory A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Objective: To explore the value of {sup 18}F fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: All Burkitt's lymphoma patients referred for FDG PET or FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) exams at our institution from June 2003 to June 2006 were included. Selected patients were followed and clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Results from FDG PET-PET/CT, as blindly reviewed by a consensus of two experienced readers, were compared with the status of the disease as determined by other laboratory, clinical and imaging exams and clinical follow-up. FDG PET-PET/CT results were classified as true positive or negative and false positive or negative. The degree of FDG uptake in the positive lesions was semiquantified as maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results: Fifty-seven FDG PET-PET/CT exams were done in 15 patients. Seven exams were done for initial staging, 8 during and 14 after the completion of therapy, and 28 for disease surveillance. For nodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 8, true negative in 47 and false positive in 2 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%). For extranodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 6, true negative in 48 and false positive in 3 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%). The mean SUVmax for the positive nodal lesions was 15.7 (range 6.9-21.7, median 18.5) and for extranodal lesions was 14.2 (range 6.2-24.3, median 12.4). Conclusions: FDG PET-PET/CT is sensitive for the detection of viable disease in Burkitt's lymphoma. Affected areas demonstrated high degree of uptake that was reversible upon successful implementation of treatment.

  3. 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in Burkitt's lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karantanis, Dimitrios; Durski, Jolanta M.; Lowe, Val J.; Nathan, Mark A.; Mullan, Brian P.; Georgiou, Evangelos; Johnston, Patrick B.; Wiseman, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of 18 F fluorodeoxy-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in Burkitt's lymphoma. Methods: All Burkitt's lymphoma patients referred for FDG PET or FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) exams at our institution from June 2003 to June 2006 were included. Selected patients were followed and clinical information was reviewed retrospectively. Results from FDG PET-PET/CT, as blindly reviewed by a consensus of two experienced readers, were compared with the status of the disease as determined by other laboratory, clinical and imaging exams and clinical follow-up. FDG PET-PET/CT results were classified as true positive or negative and false positive or negative. The degree of FDG uptake in the positive lesions was semiquantified as maximum standard uptake value (SUVmax). Results: Fifty-seven FDG PET-PET/CT exams were done in 15 patients. Seven exams were done for initial staging, 8 during and 14 after the completion of therapy, and 28 for disease surveillance. For nodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 8, true negative in 47 and false positive in 2 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 96%). For extranodal disease FDG PET-PET/CT was true positive in 6, true negative in 48 and false positive in 3 exams (sensitivity 100%, specificity 94%). The mean SUVmax for the positive nodal lesions was 15.7 (range 6.9-21.7, median 18.5) and for extranodal lesions was 14.2 (range 6.2-24.3, median 12.4). Conclusions: FDG PET-PET/CT is sensitive for the detection of viable disease in Burkitt's lymphoma. Affected areas demonstrated high degree of uptake that was reversible upon successful implementation of treatment.

  4. Colorectal cancer staging: comparison of whole-body PET/CT and PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalano, Onofrio A; Coutinho, Artur M; Sahani, Dushyant V; Vangel, Mark G; Gee, Michael S; Hahn, Peter F; Witzel, Thomas; Soricelli, Andrea; Salvatore, Marco; Catana, Ciprian; Mahmood, Umar; Rosen, Bruce R; Gervais, Debra

    2017-04-01

    Correct staging is imperative for colorectal cancer (CRC) since it influences both prognosis and management. Several imaging methods are used for this purpose, with variable performance. Positron emission tomography-magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is an innovative imaging technique recently employed for clinical application. The present study was undertaken to compare the staging accuracy of whole-body positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) with whole-body PET/MR in patients with both newly diagnosed and treated colorectal cancer. Twenty-six patients, who underwent same day whole-body (WB) PET/CT and WB-PET/MR, were evaluated. PET/CT and PET/MR studies were interpreted by consensus by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Correlations with prior imaging and follow-up studies were used as the reference standard. Correct staging was compared between methods using McNemar's Chi square test. The two methods were in agreement and correct for 18/26 (69%) patients, and in agreement and incorrect for one patient (3.8%). PET/MR and PET/CT stages for the remaining 7/26 patients (27%) were discordant, with PET/MR staging being correct in all seven cases. PET/MR significantly outperformed PET/CT overall for accurate staging (P = 0.02). PET/MR outperformed PET/CT in CRC staging. PET/MR might allow accurate local and distant staging of CRC patients during both at the time of diagnosis and during follow-up.

  5. Standardised uptake values from PET/CT images: comparison with conventional attenuation-corrected PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souvatzoglou, M.; Ziegler, S.I.; Martinez, M.J.; Dzewas, G.; Schwaiger, M.; Bengel, F.; Busch, R.

    2007-01-01

    In PET/CT, CT-derived attenuation factors may influence standardised uptake values (SUVs) in tumour lesions and organs when compared with stand-alone PET. Therefore, we compared PET/CT-derived SUVs intra-individually in various organs and tumour lesions with stand-alone PET-derived SUVs. Thirty-five patients with known or suspected cancer were prospectively included. Sixteen patients underwent FDG PET using an ECAT HR+scanner, and subsequently a second scan using a Biograph Sensation 16PET/CT scanner. Nineteen patients were scanned in the reverse order. All images were reconstructed with an iterative algorithm (OSEM). Suspected lesions were grouped as paradiaphragmatic versus distant from the diaphragm. Mean and maximum SUVs were also calculated for brain, lung, liver, spleen and vertebral bone. The attenuation coefficients (μ values) used for correction of emission data (bone, soft tissue, lung) in the two data sets were determined. A body phantom containing six hot spheres and one cold cylinder was measured using the same protocol as in patients. Forty-six lesions were identified. There was a significant correlation of maximum and mean SUVs derived from PET and PET/CT for 14 paradiaphragmatic lesions (r=0.97 respectively; p<0.001 respectively) and for 32 lesions located distant from the diaphragm (r=0.87 and r=0.89 respectively; p<0.001 respectively). No significant differences were observed in the SUVs calculated with PET and PET/CT in the lesions or in the organs. In the phantom, radioactivity concentration in spheres calculated from PET and from PET/CT correlated significantly (r=0.99; p<0.001). SUVs of cancer lesions and normal organs were comparable between PET and PET/CT, supporting the usefulness of PET/CT-derived SUVs for quantification of tumour metabolism. (orig.)

  6. Comparison of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake between PET from a simultaneously acquiring whole-body PET/MR hybrid scanner and PET from PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesmueller, Marco; Schmidt, Daniela; Beck, Michael; Kuwert, Torsten; Gall, Carl C. von; Quick, Harald H.; Navalpakkam, Bharath; Lell, Michael M.; Uder, Michael; Ritt, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    PET/MR hybrid scanners have recently been introduced, but not yet validated. The aim of this study was to compare the PET components of a PET/CT hybrid system and of a simultaneous whole-body PET/MR hybrid system with regard to reproducibility of lesion detection and quantitation of tracer uptake. A total of 46 patients underwent a whole-body PET/CT scan 1 h after injection and an average of 88 min later a second scan using a hybrid PET/MR system. The radioactive tracers used were 18 F-deoxyglucose (FDG), 18 F-ethylcholine (FEC) and 68 Ga-DOTATATE (Ga-DOTATATE). The PET images from PET/CT (PET CT ) and from PET/MR (PET MR ) were analysed for tracer-positive lesions. Regional tracer uptake in these foci was quantified using volumes of interest, and maximal and average standardized uptake values (SUV max and SUV avg , respectively) were calculated. Of the 46 patients, 43 were eligible for comparison and statistical analysis. All lesions except one identified by PET CT were identified by PET MR (99.2 %). In 38 patients (88.4 %), the same number of foci were identified by PET CT and by PET MR . In four patients, more lesions were identified by PET MR than by PET CT , in one patient PET CT revealed an additional focus compared to PET MR . The mean SUV max and SUV avg of all lesions determined by PET MR were by 21 % and 11 % lower, respectively, than the values determined by PET CT (p CT and PET MR were minor, but statistically significant. Nevertheless, a more detailed study of the quantitative accuracy of PET MR and the factors governing it is needed to ultimately assess its accuracy in measuring tissue tracer concentrations. (orig.)

  7. Head and neck imaging with PET and PET/CT: artefacts from dental metallic implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, Gerhard W.; Hany, Thomas F.; Kamel, Ehab; Schulthess von, Gustav K.; Buck, Alfred

    2002-01-01

    Germanium-68 based attenuation correction (PET Ge68 ) is performed in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging for quantitative measurements. With the recent introduction of combined in-line PET/CT scanners, CT data can be used for attenuation correction. Since dental implants can cause artefacts in CT images, CT-based attenuation correction (PET CT ) may induce artefacts in PET images. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of dental metallic artwork on the quality of PET images by comparing non-corrected images and images attenuation corrected by PET Ge68 and PET CT . Imaging was performed on a novel in-line PET/CT system using a 40-mAs scan for PET CT in 41 consecutive patients with high suspicion of malignant or inflammatory disease. In 17 patients, additional PET Ge68 images were acquired in the same imaging session. Visual analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) distribution in several regions of the head and neck was scored on a 4-point scale in comparison with normal grey matter of the brain in the corresponding PET images. In addition, artefacts adjacent to dental metallic artwork were evaluated. A significant difference in image quality scoring was found only for the lips and the tip of the nose, which appeared darker on non-corrected than on corrected PET images. In 33 patients, artefacts were seen on CT, and in 28 of these patients, artefacts were also seen on PET imaging. In eight patients without implants, artefacts were seen neither on CT nor on PET images. Direct comparison of PET Ge68 and PET CT images showed a different appearance of artefacts in 3 of 17 patients. Malignant lesions were equally well visible using both transmission correction methods. Dental implants, non-removable bridgework etc. can cause artefacts in attenuation-corrected images using either a conventional 68 Ge transmission source or the CT scan obtained with a combined PET/CT camera. We recommend that the non-attenuation-corrected PET images also be

  8. A new cubic phantom for PET/CT dosimetry: Experimental and Monte Carlo characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belinato, Walmir; Silva, Rogerio M.V.; Souza, Divanizia N.; Santos, William S.; Caldas, Linda V.E.; Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, positron emission tomography (PET) associated with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become a diagnostic technique widely disseminated to evaluate various malignant tumors and other diseases. However, during PET/CT examinations, the doses of ionizing radiation experienced by the internal organs of patients may be substantial. To study the doses involved in PET/CT procedures, a new cubic phantom of overlapping acrylic plates was developed and characterized. This phantom has a deposit for the placement of the fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) solution. There are also small holes near the faces for the insertion of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD). The holes for OSLD are positioned at different distances from the 18 F-FDG deposit. The experimental results were obtained in two PET/CT devices operating with different parameters. Differences in the absorbed doses were observed in OSLD measurements due to the non-orthogonal positioning of the detectors inside the phantom. This phantom was also evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, with the MCNPX code. The phantom and the geometrical characteristics of the equipment were carefully modeled in the MCNPX code, in order to develop a new methodology form comparison of experimental and simulated results, as well as to allow the characterization of PET/CT equipments in Monte Carlo simulations. All results showed good agreement, proving that this new phantom may be applied for these experiments. (authors)

  9. A new cubic phantom for PET/CT dosimetry: Experimental and Monte Carlo characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belinato, Walmir [Departamento de Ensino, Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Bahia, Campus Vitoria da Conquista, Zabele, Av. Amazonas 3150, 45030-220 Vitoria da Conquista, BA (Brazil); Silva, Rogerio M.V.; Souza, Divanizia N. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe-UFS, Sao Cristovao, Sergipe (Brazil); Santos, William S.; Caldas, Linda V.E. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Perini, Ana P.; Neves, Lucio P. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2242, Cidade Universitaria, 05508-000 Sao Paulo SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Uberlandia, Caixa Postal 593, 38400-902, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    In recent years, positron emission tomography (PET) associated with multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) has become a diagnostic technique widely disseminated to evaluate various malignant tumors and other diseases. However, during PET/CT examinations, the doses of ionizing radiation experienced by the internal organs of patients may be substantial. To study the doses involved in PET/CT procedures, a new cubic phantom of overlapping acrylic plates was developed and characterized. This phantom has a deposit for the placement of the fluorine-18 fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) solution. There are also small holes near the faces for the insertion of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLD). The holes for OSLD are positioned at different distances from the {sup 18}F-FDG deposit. The experimental results were obtained in two PET/CT devices operating with different parameters. Differences in the absorbed doses were observed in OSLD measurements due to the non-orthogonal positioning of the detectors inside the phantom. This phantom was also evaluated using Monte Carlo simulations, with the MCNPX code. The phantom and the geometrical characteristics of the equipment were carefully modeled in the MCNPX code, in order to develop a new methodology form comparison of experimental and simulated results, as well as to allow the characterization of PET/CT equipments in Monte Carlo simulations. All results showed good agreement, proving that this new phantom may be applied for these experiments. (authors)

  10. Feasibility of quantitative PET/CT dosimetry for proton therapy using polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeidan, O A; Hsi, W C; Lopatiuk-Tirpak, O; Sriprisan, S I; Meeks, S L; Kupelian, P A; Li, Z; Palta, J R, E-mail: lenatirpak@gmail.co

    2010-11-01

    A feasibility study of proton beam PET/CT off-line quantitative dosimetry using polymer gels is presented. A newly developed proton-sensitive polymer gel dosimeter (BANG( (registered)) 3-Pro2) is used as a dosimeter and a tissue-equivalent phantom medium for this study. We explore a new approach to correlating measured proton 3-dimensional (3D) dose distributions directly to measured positron emission from in the gel medium using PET/CT imaging. A large cylindrical volume (2.2 Litres) of the gel was irradiated with a clinical modulated proton beam using irregular-shaped aperture geometry. The gel was imaged in a nearby PET/CT unit immediately (<3 min) after irradiation. Dose distribution in the gel was generated using an optical tomography scanning system. Direct 3D spatial comparison of dose and positron emission distributions was then performed. Profiles along the beam path show that the distal fall-off of the dose is nearly 2 cm deeper than the activity profile which is comparable to previous studies with plastic phantoms and Monte Carlo simulations of activity distributions. Planar PET and dose distributions at depth and perpendicular to beam axis show a strong one-to-one spatial correlation. This phantom study demonstrates that the gel medium could be potentially useful for quantifying various physical factors that can influence the PET activity range verification method in patients.

  11. A new PET detector concept for compact preclinical high-resolution hybrid MR-PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneking, Arne; Gola, Alberto; Ferri, Alessandro; Finster, Felix; Rucatti, Daniele; Paternoster, Giovanni; Jon Shah, N.; Piemonte, Claudio; Lerche, Christoph

    2018-04-01

    This work presents a new PET detector concept for compact preclinical hybrid MR-PET. The detector concept is based on Linearly-Graded SiPM produced with current FBK RGB-HD technology. One 7.75 mm x 7.75 mm large sensor chip is coupled with optical grease to a black coated 8 mm x 8 mm large and 3 mm thick monolithic LYSO crystal. The readout is obtained from four readout channels with the linear encoding based on integrated resistors and the Center of Gravity approach. To characterize the new detector concept, the spatial and energy resolutions were measured. Therefore, the measurement setup was prepared to radiate a collimated beam to 25 different points perpendicular to the monolithic scintillator crystal. Starting in the center point of the crystal at 0 mm / 0 mm and sampling a grid with a pitch of 1.75 mm, all significant points of the detector were covered by the collimator beam. The measured intrinsic spatial resolution (FWHM) was 0.74 +/- 0.01 mm in x- and 0.69 +/- 0.01 mm in the y-direction at the center of the detector. At the same point, the measured energy resolution (FWHM) was 13.01 +/- 0.05 %. The mean intrinsic spatial resolution (FWHM) over the whole detector was 0.80 +/- 0.28 mm in x- and 0.72 +/- 0.19 mm in y-direction. The energy resolution (FWHM) of the detector was between 13 and 17.3 % with an average energy resolution of 15.7 +/- 1.0 %. Due to the reduced thickness, the sensitivity of this gamma detector is low but still higher than pixelated designs with the same thickness due to the monolithic crystals. Combining compact design, high spatial resolution, and high sensitivity, the detector concept is particularly suitable for applications where the scanner bore size is limited and high resolution is required - as is the case in small animal hybrid MR-PET.

  12. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boellaard, Ronald; O'Doherty, Mike J; Weber, Wolfgang A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomogr...

  13. FDG PET and PET/CT : EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, Ronald; O'Doherty, Mike J.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Lonsdale, Markus N.; Stroobants, Sigrid G.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Kotzerke, Joerg; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Pruim, Jan; Marsden, Paul K.; Tatsch, Klaus; Hoekstra, Corneline J.; Visser, Eric P.; Arends, Bertjan; Verzijlbergen, Fred J.; Zijlstra, Josee M.; Comans, Emile F. I.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Paans, Anne M.; Willemsen, Antoon T.; Beyer, Thomas; Bockisch, Andreas; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Delbeke, Dominique; Baum, Richard P.; Chiti, Arturo; Krause, Bernd J.

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed

  14. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, Ronald; O'Doherty, Mike J.; Weber, Wolfgang A.; Mottaghy, Felix M.; Lonsdale, Markus N.; Stroobants, Sigrid G.; Oyen, Wim J. G.; Kotzerke, Joerg; Hoekstra, Otto S.; Pruim, Jan; Marsden, Paul K.; Tatsch, Klaus; Hoekstra, Corneline J.; Visser, Eric P.; Arends, Bertjan; Verzijlbergen, Fred J.; Zijlstra, Josee M.; Comans, Emile F. I.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A.; Paans, Anne M.; Willemsen, Antoon T.; Beyer, Thomas; Bockisch, Andreas; Schaefer-Prokop, Cornelia; Delbeke, Dominique; Baum, Richard P.; Chiti, Arturo; Krause, Bernd J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about[18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed

  15. Adapting MR-BrainPET scans for comparison with conventional PET: experiences with dynamic FET-PET in brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohmann, Philipp; Herzog, Hans; Kops, Elena Rota; Stoffels, Gabriele; Filss, Christian [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Galldiks, Norbert [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Department of Neurology, University of Cologne, Cologne (Germany); Coenen, Heinrich H; Shah, N Jon; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-3,-4,-5), Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    Imaging results from subsequent measurements (preclinical 3T MR-BrainPET, HR+) are compared. O-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) may exhibit non-uniform tracer uptake in gliomas. The aim was to analyse and adapt the physical properties of the scanners and study variations of biological tumour volume (BTV) in early and late FET-PET.

  16. FDG PET and PET/CT: EANM procedure guidelines for tumour PET imaging: version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, R.; O'Doherty, M.J.; Weber, W.A.; Mottaghy, F.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Stroobants, S.G.; Oyen, W.J.G.; Kotzerke, J.; Hoekstra, O.S.; Pruim, J.; Marsden, P.K.; Tatsch, K.; Hoekstra, C.J.; Visser, E.P.; Arends, B.; Verzijlbergen, F.J.; Zijlstra, J.M.; Comans, E.F.I.; Lammertsma, A.A.; Paans, A.M.; Willemsen, A.T.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.; Schaefer-Prokop, C.; Delbeke, D.; Baum, R.P.; Chiti, A.; Krause, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this guideline is to provide a minimum standard for the acquisition and interpretation of PET and PET/CT scans with [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). This guideline will therefore address general information about [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography-computed

  17. A proposal of an open PET geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Minohara, Shinichi [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Eiji [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Inadama, Naoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Nishikido, Fumihiko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Shibuya, Kengo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Lam, Chih Fung [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan); Murayama, Hideo [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, 263-8555 (Japan)

    2008-02-07

    The long patient port of a PET scanner tends to put stress on patients, especially patients with claustrophobia. It also prevents doctors and technicians from taking care of patients during scanning. In this paper, we proposed an 'open PET' geometry, which consists of two axially separated detector rings. A long and continuous field-of-view (FOV) including a 360 deg. opened gap between two detector rings can be imaged enabling a fully 3D image reconstruction of all the possible lines-of-response. The open PET will become practical if iterative image reconstruction methods are applied even though image reconstruction of the open PET is analytically an incomplete problem. First we implemented a 'masked' 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM) in which the system matrix was obtained from a long 'gapless' scanner by applying a mask to detectors corresponding to the open space. Next, in order to evaluate imaging performance of the proposed open PET geometry, we simulated a dual HR+ scanner (ring diameter of D = 827 mm, axial length of W = 154 mm x 2) separated by a variable gap. The gap W was the maximum limit to have axially continuous FOV of 3W though the maximum diameter of FOV at the central slice was limited to D/2. Artifacts, observed on both sides of the open space when the gap exceeded W, were effectively reduced by inserting detectors partially into unnecessary open spaces. We also tested the open PET geometry using experimental data obtained by the jPET-D4. The jPET-D4 is a prototype brain scanner, which has 5 rings of 24 detector blocks. We simulated the open jPET-D4 with a gap of 66 mm by eliminating 1 block-ring from experimental data. Although some artifacts were seen at both ends of the opened gap, very similar images were obtained with and without the gap. The proposed open PET geometry is expected to lead to realization of in-beam PET, which is a method for an in situ monitoring of charged particle therapy, by

  18. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of prolonged febrile states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaruskova, M.; Belohlavek, O.

    2006-01-01

    The role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in patients whose main symptom is prolonged fever has not yet been defined. We addressed this topic in a retrospective study. A total of 124 patients (referred between May 2001 and December 2004) with fever of unknown origin or prolonged fever due to a suspected infection of a joint or vascular prosthesis were included in the study. The patients underwent either FDG-PET or FDG-PET/CT scanning. Sixty-seven patients had a negative focal FDG-PET finding; in this group the method was regarded as unhelpful in determining a diagnosis, and no further investigation was pursued. We tried to obtain clinical confirmation for all patients with positive PET findings. Fifty-seven (46%) patients had positive FDG-PET findings. In six of them no further clinical information was available. Fifty-one patients with positive PET findings and 118 patients in total were subsequently evaluated. Systemic connective tissue disease was confirmed in 17 patients, lymphoma in three patients, inflammatory bowel disease in two patients, vascular prosthesis infection in seven patients, infection of a hip or knee replacement in seven patients, mycotic aneurysm in two patients, abscess in four patients and AIDS in one patient. In eight (16%) patients the finding was falsely positive. FDG-PET or PET/CT contributed to establishing a final diagnosis in 84% of the 51 patients with positive PET findings and in 36% of all 118 evaluated patients with prolonged fever. (orig.)

  19. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany)

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  20. Positron emission tomography (PET) in psychiatry. PET in der Psychiatrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herholz, K. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung und Neurologische Klinik der Universitaet Koeln (Germany))

    1993-08-13

    Currently, clinical PET is mainly useful in psychiatry and related areas for differential diagnosis of dementia. In dementia of Alzheimer type reductions of glucose metabolism are found mainly in the temporoparietal assocaiton cortex, in Pick's disease mainly in the frontal cortex, and in Huntington's disease in the striatum. Other demential diseases usually show less toposelective metabolic impairment. In the future, new diagnostic possibilities may arise from analysis of functional stimulation of specific brain areas and from the use of ligands for specific neurotransmitter systems. (orig.)

  1. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh [Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis (United States)

    2016-12-15

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases

  2. Indeterminate findings on oncologic PET/CT: What difference dose PET/MRI make?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraum, Tyler J.; Fowler, Kathryn J.; McConathy, Jonathan; Dehdashti, Farokh

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 2-deoxy-2-["1"8F]fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) has become the standard of care for the initial staging and subsequent treatment response assessment of many different malignancies. Despite this success, PET/CT is often supplemented by MRI to improve assessment of local tumor invasion and to facilitate detection of lesions in organs with high background FDG uptake. Consequently, PET/MRI has the potential to expand the clinical value of PET examinations by increasing reader certainty and reducing the need for subsequent imaging. This study evaluates the ability of FDG-PET/MRI to clarify findings initially deemed indeterminate on clinical FDG-PET/CT studies. A total of 190 oncology patients underwent whole-body PET/CT, immediately followed by PET/MRI utilizing the same FDG administration. Each PET/CT was interpreted by our institution's nuclear medicine service as a standard-of-care clinical examination. Review of these PET/CT reports identified 31 patients (16 %) with indeterminate findings. Two readers evaluated all 31 PET/CT studies, followed by the corresponding PET/MRI studies. A consensus was reached for each case, and changes in interpretation directly resulting from PET/MRI review were recorded. Interpretations were then correlated with follow-up imaging, pathology results, and other diagnostic studies. In 18 of 31 cases with indeterminate findings on PET/CT, PET/MRI resulted in a more definitive interpretation by facilitating the differentiation of infection/inflammation from malignancy (15/18), the accurate localization of FDG-avid lesions (2/18), and the characterization of incidental non-FDG-avid solid organ lesions (1/18). Explanations for improved reader certainty with PET/MRI included the superior soft tissue contrast of MRI and the ability to assess cellular density with diffusion-weighted imaging. The majority (12/18) of such cases had an appropriate standard of reference; in all 12 cases, the

  3. Choline-PET/CT for imaging prostate cancer; Cholin-PET/CT zur Bildgebung des Prostatakarzinoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, Bernd Joachim [Klinik- und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Treiber, U.; Schwarzenboeck, S.; Souvatzoglou, M. [Klinik fuer Urologie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives are increasingly being used for imaging of prostate cancer. The value of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer has been examined in many studies and demonstrates an increasing importance. Primary prostate cancer can be detected with moderate sensitivity using PET and PET/CT using [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivatives - the differentiation between benign prostatic hyperplasia, prostatitis or high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is not always possible. At the present time [{sup 11}C]choline PET/CT is not recommended in the primary setting but may be utilized in clinically suspected prostate cancer with repeatedly negative prostate biopsies, in preparation of a focused re-biopsy. Promising results have been obtained for the use of PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]-labelled choline derivates in patients with biochemical recurrence. The detection rate of choline PET and PET/CT for local, regional, and distant recurrence in patients with a biochemical recurrence shows a linear correlation with PSA values at the time of imaging and reaches about 75% in patients with PSA > 3 ng/mL. At PSA values below 1 ng/mL, the recurrence can be diagnosed with choline PET/CT in approximately 1/3 of the patients. PET and PET/CT with [{sup 11}C]- and [{sup 18}F]choline derivates can be helpful for choosing a therapeutic strategy in the sense of an individualized treatment: since an early diagnosis of recurrence is crucial to the choice of optimal treatment. The localization of the site of recurrence - local recurrence, lymph node metastasis or systemic dissemination - has important influence on the therapy regimen. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of attenuation correction in cardiac PET using PET/MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Jeffrey M C; Laforest, R; Sotoudeh, H; Nie, X; Sharma, S; McConathy, J; Novak, E; Priatna, A; Gropler, R J; Woodard, P K

    2017-06-01

    Simultaneous acquisition Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) is a new technology that has potential as a tool both in research and clinical diagnosis. However, cardiac PET acquisition has not yet been validated using MR imaging for attenuation correction (AC). The goal of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of PET imaging using a standard 2-point Dixon volume interpolated breathhold examination (VIBE) MR sequence for AC. Evaluation was performed in both phantom and patient data. A chest phantom containing heart, lungs, and a lesion insert was scanned by both PET/MR and PET/CT. In addition, 30 patients underwent whole-body 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT followed by simultaneous cardiac PET/MR. Phantom study showed 3% reduction of activity values in the myocardium due to the non-inclusion of the phased array coil in the AC. In patient scans, average standardized uptake values (SUVs) obtained by PET/CT and PET/MR showed no significant difference (n = 30, 4.6 ± 3.5 vs 4.7 ± 2.8, P = 0.47). There was excellent per patient correlation between the values acquired by PET/CT and PET/MR (R 2  = 0.97). Myocardial SUVs PET imaging using MR for AC shows excellent correlation with myocardial SUVs obtained by standard PET/CT imaging. The 2-point Dixon VIBE MR technique can be used for AC in simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition.

  5. Application of PET and PET/CT imaging for cancer screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yenkung; Hu Fenglan; Shen Yehyou; Liao, A.C.; Hung, T.Z.; Su, Chentau; Chen Liangkuang

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential application of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) and PET/CT for cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals. Methods: The subjects consisted of 3631 physical check up examinees (1947 men, 1684 women; mean age ±SD, 52.1±8.2 y) with non-specific medical histories. Whole-body FDG PET (or PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers were performed on all patients. Focal hypermetabolic areas with intensities equal to or exceeding the level of FDG uptake in the brain and bladder were considered abnormal and interpreted as neoplasia. Follow-up periods were longer than one year. Results: Among the 3631 FDG PET (including 1687 PET/CT), ultrasound and tumor markers examinations, malignant tumors were discovered in 47 examinees (1.29%). PET findings were true-positive in 38 of the 47 cancers (80.9%). In addition, 32 of the 47 cancers were performed with the PET-CT scan. PET detected cancer lesions in 28 of the 32 examinees. However, the CT detected cancer lesions in only 15 of 32 examinees. Conclusion: The sensitivity of FDG PET in the detection of a wide variety of cancers is high. Most cancer can be detected with FDG PET in a resectable stage. CT of the PET/CT for localization and characteristics of the lesion shows an increased specificity of the PET scan. Using ultrasound and tumor markers may complement the PET scan in cancer screening for hepatic and urologic neoplasms. (authors)

  6. Development of PET insert for simultaneous PET/MR imaging of human brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jiwoong; Choi, Yong; Jung, Jin Ho; Kim, Sangsu; Im, Ki Chun; Lim, Hyun Keong [Molecular Imaging Research & Education (MiRe) Laboratory, Department of Electronic Engineering, Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Changheun; Park, HyunWook; Cho, Gyuseong [Departments of Electrical Engineering and Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-29

    Recently, there has been great interest on the development of combined PET/MR, which is a useful tool for both functional and anatomic imaging. The purpose of this study was to develop a MR compatible PET insert for simultaneous PET and MR imaging of human brain and to evaluate the performance of the hybrid PET-MRI. The PET insert consisted of 18 detector blocks arranged in a ring of 390 mm diameter with 60 mm axial FOV. Each detector block was composed of 4 × 4 matrix of detector modules, each of which consisted of a 4 × 4 array LYSO coupled to a 4 × 4 GAPD array. The PET gantry was shielded with gold-plated conductive fabric tapes. The charge signals of PET detector transferred via 4 m long flat cables were fed into the position decoder circuits (PDCs) and then transferred to FPGA-embedded DAQ modules. The PDCs and DAQ modules were enclosed in an aluminum box and located at the rear of the MR bore inside MRI room. 3-T human MRIs of two different vendors were used to evaluate the MR compatibility of developed PET insert. No significant changes of the PET performance and the homogeneity of MR images caused by the non-compatibility of PET-MRI were observed with the 2 different MRIs. The signal intensities of MR images were slightly degraded (<3.6%) with the both MRI systems. The difference between independently and simultaneously acquired PET images of brain phantom was negligibly small (<4.3%). High quality simultaneous brain PET and MRI of 3 normal volunteers were successfully acquired. Experimental results indicate that the high performance compact and lightweight PET insert for hybrid PET/MRI, which could be utilized with the MRI from various manufactures, can be developed using GAPD arrays and charge signal transmission method proposed in this study.

  7. Utilization of Pets in a Hospice Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Kathleen; Kukowski, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    The therapeutic use of animals with specific populations has gained increased attention and interest. Pet placement in special settings such as prisons, mental institutions and hospices have shown beneficial results. Development of a pet visitation program requires specific planning and organization. (JD)

  8. Developing simplified Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Regional Potential Evapotranspiration (PET) estimation method was developed to estimate the potential evapotranspiration (reference evapotranspiration) over Abbay Basin as a function of basin maximum and minimum temperature, and modulated by site specific elevation data. The method is intended to estimate PET in ...

  9. Integrating Pet Therapy into Daily School Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brous, Miriam T.

    2010-01-01

    Stories abound in literature of the ways that people and their pets have fostered and created valuable relationships. More recently, research has shown a strong impact from the pet relationship in health-related settings. Positive changes have been seen in people developing resilience, self-reliance, and in making progress in treatment. Children…

  10. Infections That Pets Carry (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... how to protect your family from infections. How Pets Spread Infections Like people, all animals carry germs . Illnesses common among housepets — ... get an infection that can be passed to people. Safely Caring for Your Pet Here are some tips to help your family ...

  11. Other PET tracers for neuroendocrine tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, Klaas Pieter; Glaudemans, Andor W J M

    In this article the applicability of (124)I-MIBG and (11)C-5-HTP PET for the detection of abdominal gastro-enteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors is discussed. (124)I-MIBG is a positron-emitting variant of (123)I-MIBG and therefore suited for PET imaging. Due to the better intrinsic characteristics

  12. PET/MR Imaging in Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Pedersen, Sune Folke; Kjær, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    For imaging of atherosclerotic disease, lumenography using computed tomography, ultrasonography, or invasive angiography is still the backbone of evaluation. However, these methods are less effective to predict the likelihood of future thromboembolic events caused by vulnerability of plaques. PET...... through data and arguments that support increased use of PET/MR imaging in atherosclerotic imaging....

  13. 7 CFR 501.10 - Pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pets. 501.10 Section 501.10 Agriculture Regulations of... CONDUCT ON U.S. MEAT ANIMAL RESEARCH CENTER, CLAY CENTER, NEBRASKA § 501.10 Pets. Animals shall be brought... Director, Research Center, except seeing eye dogs may be brought to the reception area serving the offices...

  14. The application of PET in endocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhibin

    2003-01-01

    There are wide application of PET in endocrine tumors, including thyroid cancer, parathyroid adenoma, pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. Many papers concluded that in diagnosing endocrine tumors, PET does not show apparent advantages comparing with traditional radionuclide imaging methods. But as a useful complementary method, its clinical value has been recognized

  15. Radiation Protection in PET-CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-10-01

    The presentation is based on the following areas: radiological monitoring installations in the production of PET radiopharmaceuticals, personal dose, dosage advertising, nuclear medicine, PET, radiation protection of patients, requirements for medical practice, regulatory aspects, dose calculation, shields, quantities, center Cudim, cyclotron and synthesis of radiopharmaceuticals, biological effects of radiation protection practices.

  16. Current opinion on PET for gastrointestinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diederichs, C.G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Staib, L.

    2000-01-01

    The benefit of FDG-PET for restaging of colorectal carcinoma and for the differentiation of indeterminate hepatic lesions is well-documented. Accuracies of FDG-PET for recurrence, lymph node status and the detection of distant metastases are higher compared with computed tomography, for example. For other epithelial gastrointestinal tumors similar results have also been demonstrated in smaller trials or case presentations. The differentiation of recurrent rectal carcinoma from scar and PET for endocrine tumors are described elsewhere (Der Nuklearmediziner PET II, in preparation). Almost no data exist for rare tumors like anal carcinoma or tumors of the small intestines. For hepatocellular carcinoma, FDG-PET has a high positive predictive value, and the intensity of the uptake correlates well with grading. However, FDG-PET is not suitable for the exclusion of hepatocellular carcinoma due to insufficient sensitivity. The differentiation of benign and malignant pancreatic masses works well for selected patients. FDG-PET for lymph node staging is at least as accurate as conventional staging, and for the detection of distant metastases FDG-PET is superior compared with conventional staging. Few data exist on therapy control of gastrointestinal tumors. (orig.) [de

  17. Analisis Gameplay Game Genre Virtual Pet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abi Senoprabowo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Game adalah struktur interaktif yang membuat pemain berjuang menuju sebuah tujuan. Game dapat memberikan emosi dan mood, menghubungkan dengan orang latihan, sarana latihan, serta dapat memberikan edukasi. Salah satu game yang berkembang saat ini adalah game bergenre Virtual pet. Game virtual pet merupakan game simulasi memelihara sesuatu. Virtual pet memiliki gameplay yang menarik dan menyenangkan yang membuat pemain seolah-olah benar-benar memiliki binatang peliharaan mereka sendiri. Virtual pet dianggap oleh sebagian besar penggunanya dapat memberikan kegembiraan serta rasa kasih sayang karena tingkat interaksinya yang baik. Banyak pengembang game pemula yang mengembangkan genre ini sebagai game yang mereka buat karena kemudahaan dan tingkat penggunanya yang banyak. Akan tetapi banyak dari pengembang game pemula tidak memperhatikan tingkat keberlanjutan game virtual pet yang mereka buat sehingga membuat pemain cepat bosan. Pada penelitian ini, analisis game bergenre virtual pet yang sudah sukses dibuat seperti Zombigotchi, Tamagotchi Unicorn, dan Bird Land, diharapkan dapat membantu para pengembang game pemula agar mengetahui cara merancang dan mengembangkan game virtual pet dengan baik. Kata Kunci: game, gameplay, virtual pet

  18. Clinical PET/MR Imaging in Oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Andreas; Torigian, Drew A.

    2016-01-01

    . The question, therefore, arises regarding what the future clinical applications of PET/MR imaging will be. In this article, the authors discuss ways in which PET/MR imaging may be used in future applications that justify the added cost, predominantly focusing on oncologic applications. The authors suggest...

  19. Salmonella infection acquired from reptilian pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyal, D; Douglas, T; Roberts, R

    1997-10-01

    Two children presented with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis. Salmonella chameleon was isolated from the stool of one child and also from an iguana kept in the home as a pet. Salmonella arizonae was isolated from the stool of the other child and also from four snakes sharing the same household. Exotic reptiles are unsuitable pets to share the home environment with infants.

  20. Development of scintillation materials for PET scanners

    CERN Document Server

    Korzhik, Mikhail; Annenkov, Alexander N; Borissevitch, Andrei; Dossovitski, Alexei; Missevitch, Oleg; Lecoq, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The growing demand on PET methodology for a variety of applications ranging from clinical use to fundamental studies triggers research and development of PET scanners providing better spatial resolution and sensitivity. These efforts are primarily focused on the development of advanced PET detector solutions and on the developments of new scintillation materials as well. However Lu containing scintillation materials introduced in the last century such as LSO, LYSO, LuAP, LuYAP crystals still remain the best PET species in spite of the recent developments of bright, fast but relatively low density lanthanum bromide scintillators. At the same time Lu based materials have several drawbacks which are high temperature of crystallization and relatively high cost compared to alkali-halide scintillation materials. Here we describe recent results in the development of new scintillation materials for PET application.

  1. FDG-PET in Follicular Lymphoma Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bodet-Milin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available 18-Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computerised tomography (FDG PET/CT is commonly used in the management of patients with lymphomas and is recommended for both initial staging and response assessment after treatment in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite the FDG avidity of follicular lymphoma (FL, FDG PET/CT is not yet applied in standard clinical practice for patients with FL. However, FDG PET/CT is more accurate than conventional imaging for initial staging, often prompting significant management change, and allows noninvasive characterization to guide assessment of high-grade transformation. For restaging, FDG PET/CT assists in distinguishing between scar tissue and viable tumors in residual masses and a positive PET after induction treatment would seem to predict a shorter progression-free survival.

  2. PET after use. From problem to opportunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiacchio, G.; Malinconico, M.; Santacesaria, E.; Di Sero, M.

    1999-01-01

    Due to collection, separation and legislation problems, the only type of PET suitable for recycling, is, at moment, the polymer employed in liquid containers or, more precisely, PET from drink bottles. The paper refer to the most up-to-date strategies to overcomes typical problems occurring during physical recycling of PET (hydrolytic and thermal degradation). Among others, a recent procedure is cited, that utilizes p-hydroxybenzoic acid and titanium tetraisopropylate. As far as chemical recycling is concerned, alternative methodologies to PET glycolysis (normally employing ethyleneglycol to obtain monomers) using unsaturated diols to obtain polyesters suitable for production of thermosetting resins, are reported. Finally, chemical recycling of PET to produce alkyl-phthalates (well know plasticizers for thermoplastic polymers) is described [it

  3. PET/MRI for Neurological Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R.

    2013-01-01

    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MR data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, opening up opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodological improvements and potential neurological and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MR data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MR side, we present how improved PET quantification could be used to validate a number of MR techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational and clinical applications that could benefit from these advanced tools. PMID:23143086

  4. PET/MRI for neurologic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Drzezga, Alexander; Heiss, Wolf-Dieter; Rosen, Bruce R

    2012-12-01

    PET and MRI provide complementary information in the study of the human brain. Simultaneous PET/MRI data acquisition allows the spatial and temporal correlation of the measured signals, creating opportunities impossible to realize using stand-alone instruments. This paper reviews the methodologic improvements and potential neurologic and psychiatric applications of this novel technology. We first present methods for improving the performance and information content of each modality by using the information provided by the other technique. On the PET side, we discuss methods that use the simultaneously acquired MRI data to improve the PET data quantification. On the MRI side, we present how improved PET quantification can be used to validate several MRI techniques. Finally, we describe promising research, translational, and clinical applications that can benefit from these advanced tools.

  5. Kinetic modeling in PET imaging of hypoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fan; Joergensen, Jesper T; Hansen, Anders E; Kjaer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is associated with increased therapeutic resistance leading to poor treatment outcome. Therefore the ability to detect and quantify intratumoral oxygenation could play an important role in future individual personalized treatment strategies. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) can be used for non-invasive mapping of tissue oxygenation in vivo and several hypoxia specific PET tracers have been developed. Evaluation of PET data in the clinic is commonly based on visual assessment together with semiquantitative measurements e.g. standard uptake value (SUV). However, dynamic PET contains additional valuable information on the temporal changes in tracer distribution. Kinetic modeling can be used to extract relevant pharmacokinetic parameters of tracer behavior in vivo that reflects relevant physiological processes. In this paper, we review the potential contribution of kinetic analysis for PET imaging of hypoxia. PMID:25250200

  6. SPECT og PET i neurobiologien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, O.B.; Lassen, N.A.

    1997-01-01

    PET (positron emission tomography) and SPECT (single photon emission computed tomography) are isotopic methods in which the distribution is registered of radiolabelled tracers given in such small amounts that they are without effect on the organism or the organism's disposal of them. Thus, a series...... of important biological processes in the intact organism can be studied. The methods have been used in many disciplines but in particular for neurobiological research on the brain--e.g., the brain's regional blood circulation and mapping of the brain's functional structure. The methods have also been used...

  7. PET-CT in endocrinology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parysow, O.; Jager, V.; Racioppi, S.; Mollerach, A.M.; Collaud, C.; Arma, I.

    2008-01-01

    PET/CT scans have reached an important place in the evaluation of endocrine tumors. The metabolic marker 18F-FDG is the most widespread over the world, and, for the time being, it is the only one available in our country. The limitations of this technique in Endocrinology include high differentiation and low aggressiveness of most endocrine tumors, and low detection rate for low cellularity and/or small lesions. Indications for PET/CT scan in these tumors should be precise, due to the fact that not all of these lesions are significantly glucose-avid and to extract the maximum diagnostic efficacy of this modality to achieve the optimum diagnostic accuracy. The most important indication is DTC with high Tg levels and negative 131-Iodine scans. It is advisable to indicate a PET/CT scan in patients with Tg > 10 ng/ml and stimulated TSH (endogenous or exogenous). The aim is to locate recurrences and metastases in order to remove them, either surgically or by any other therapy alternative to 131 I. Due to higher uptake in more aggressive lesions, this study has a high prognostic value. In patients with high Tg levels, negative 131 I scan, and abnormal FDG uptake, the practitioner must act more aggressively in order to remove the pathologic foci, while with a negative FDG -PET scan, the conduct can be expectant, with periodic follow-up. The introduction of other positron-emitting tracers like 124-Iodine, is likely to yield superior quality images and provide better diagnoses. FDG has a limited efficiency in neuroendocrine tumors, unless they show a significant level of dedifferentiation. The scan is indicated in MTC, when calcitonin levels are above 1000 pg/ml, in order to locate the tumor sites. With the introduction of more specific positron-emitting radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-DOPA, 68Ga DOTA, 11C methomidate, 11C-hydroxytryptophan and others, it will be possible to study the metabolic-molecular behavior of these tumors with a more accurate approach. (author) [es

  8. PET scan and radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoya, F.; Lahmi, A.; Rousseau, A.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose was the optimization of the radiation protection during examinations with 18 F-FDG, The immediate validation by the D.G.S.N.R., the results of dosimetry (h.p.10 = 12 μ sievert (average value/ technician / day for 6 patients) demonstrate the efficiency of the implemented means. From the very beginning, the installation of a PET-scanner requires a multidisciplinary conception. This essential thought contributes to an optimal radiation protection of the entire personnel of the service. (N.C.)

  9. The petit rat (pet/pet), a new semilethal mutant dwarf rat with thymic and testicular anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Junko; Suzuki, Katsushi; Suzuki, Hiroetsu

    2008-12-01

    The petit rat (pet/pet) is a recently discovered semilethal mutant dwarf. The neonatal pet/pet rats had a low body weight and small thymus and testis. During the first 3 d after birth, 50% of the male and 80% of the female pet/pet pups were lost or found dead. Surviving pet/pet rats showed marked retardation of postnatal growth, and their body weights were 41% (female rats) and 32% (male rats) of those of normal rats at the adult stage. The pet/pet rats exhibited proportional dwarfism, and their longitudinal bones were shorter than those of controls without skeletal malformations. Most organs of male pet/pet rats, especially the thymus, testis, adipose tissue surrounding the kidney, and accessory sex organs, weighed markedly less at 140 d of age than did those of their normal counterparts. The thymus of pet/pet rats was small with abnormal thymic follicles. Testes from pet/pet rats exhibited 2 patterns of abnormal histology. Spermatogenesis was present in testes that were only slightly anomalous, but the seminiferous tubules were reduced in diameter. In severely affected testes, most of the seminiferous tubules showed degeneration, and interstitial tissue was increased. Plasma growth hormone concentrations did not differ between pet/pet and normal male rats. The dwarf phenotype of pet/pet rats was inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. These results indicate that the pet/pet rat has a semilethal growth-hormone-independent dwarf phenotype that is accompanied by thymic and testicular anomalies and low birth weight.

  10. Design and development of 1 mm resolution PET detectors with position-sensitive PMTs

    CERN Document Server

    Shao, Y; Chatziioannou, A F

    2002-01-01

    We report our investigation of a positron emission tomography (PET) detector with 1 m spatial resolution. The prototype detector consists of a 9x9 array of 1x1x10 mm sup 3 lutetium oxyorthosilicate (LSO) scintillator crystals coupled to Hamamatsu R5900-M64 or R5900-C12 position sensitive PMT by either optical fibers or an optical fiber bundle. With a 511 eV gamma source, the intrinsic spatial resolution of this detector was measured to be 0.92 mm. All crystals were well resolved in the flood source histogram. The measured energy and coincidence timing resolutions were around 26% and 4 ns, respectively, demonstrating that sufficient light can be extracted from these small crystals for PET applications.

  11. Clinical Applications of FDG PET and PET/CT in Head and Neck Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Al-Ibraheem

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available 18F-FDG PET plays an increasing role in diagnosis and management planning of head and neck cancer. Hybrid PET/CT has promoted the field of molecular imaging in head and neck cancer. This modality is particular relevant in the head and neck region, given the complex anatomy and variable physiologic FDG uptake patterns. The vast majority of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT applications in head and neck cancer related to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Clinical applications of 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT in head and neck cancer include diagnosis of distant metastases, identification of synchronous 2nd primaries, detection of carcinoma of unknown primary and detection of residual or recurrent disease. Emerging applications are precise delineation of the tumor volume for radiation treatment planning, monitoring treatment, and providing prognostic information. The clinical role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in N0 disease is limited which is in line with findings of other imaging modalities. MRI is usually used for T staging with an intense discussion concerning the preferable imaging modality for regional lymph node staging as PET/CT, MRI, and multi-slice spiral CT are all improving rapidly. Is this review, we summarize recent literature on 18F-FDG PET and PET/CT imaging of head and neck cancer.

  12. The spatial distribution of pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Simon J

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable international research regarding the link between human demographics and pet ownership. In several international studies, pet ownership was associated with household demographics including: the presence of children in the household, urban/rural location, level of education and age/family structure. What is lacking across all these studies, however, is an understanding of how these pets are spatially distributed throughout the regions under study. This paper describes the spatial distribution of pet dog and pet cat owning households on the island of Ireland. Results In 2006, there were an estimated 640,620 pet dog owning households and 215,542 pet cat owning households in Ireland. These estimates are derived from logistic regression modelling, based on household composition to determine pet dog ownership and the type of house to determine pet cat ownership. Results are presented using chloropleth maps. There is a higher density of pet dog owning households in the east of Ireland and in the cities than the west of Ireland and rural areas. However, in urban districts there are a lower proportion of households owning pet dogs than in rural districts. There are more households with cats in the urban areas, but the proportion of households with cats is greater in rural areas. Conclusions The difference in spatial distribution of dog ownership is a reflection of a generally higher density of households in the east of Ireland and in major cities. The higher proportion of ownership in the west is understandable given the higher proportion of farmers and rural dwellings in this area. Spatial representation allows us to visualise the impact of human household distribution on the density of both pet dogs and pet cats on the island of Ireland. This information can be used when analysing risk of disease spread, for market research and for instigating veterinary care.

  13. Microfluidic technology for PET radiochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillies, J.M.; Prenant, C.; Chimon, G.N.; Smethurst, G.J.; Dekker, B.A.; Zweit, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of a microfabricated reaction system to positron emission tomography (PET) radiochemistry. We have applied microfluidic technology to synthesise PET radiopharmaceuticals using 18 F and 124 I as labels for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and Annexin-V, respectively. These reactions involved established methods of nucleophilic substitution on a mannose triflate precursor and direct iodination of the protein using iodogen as an oxidant. This has demonstrated a proof of principle of using microfluidic technology to radiochemical reactions involving low and high molecular weight compounds. Using microfluidic reactions, [ 18 F]FDG was synthesised with a 50% incorporation of the available F-18 radioactivity in a very short time of 4 s. The radiolabelling efficiency of 124 I Annexin-V was 40% after 1 min reaction time. Chromatographic analysis showed that such reaction yields are comparable to conventional methods, but in a much shorter time. The yields can be further improved with more optimisation of the microfluidic device itself and its fluid mixing profiles. This demonstrates the potential for this technology to have an impact on rapid and simpler radiopharmaceutical synthesis using short and medium half-life radionuclides

  14. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Salerno Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132 - 84084 Fisciano (Italy)

    2016-05-18

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  15. Study of oxygen scavenging PET-based films activated by water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Gabriella; Scarfato, Paola; Incarnato, Loredana

    2016-05-01

    In this work an active barrier system consisting of a thin and transparent film based on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) was studied. Dynamic oxygen absorption measurements were performed at different values of relative humidity and temperature, pointing out that humidity is a key factor in activating the oxidation of the polymer sample. Moreover, the thermal and optical properties of the films were investigated and a good correlation was found between the crystallinity increase and the consequent transparency reduction occurring after the oxygen absorption.

  16. Modern imaging methods: positron emission tomography (PET) and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Votrubova, J.; Belohlavek, O.

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the title topic is presented. Attention is paid to the technical principles of PET and CT, indications for PET and PET/CT examination, and achievements of the PET Centre of the Na Homolce hospital. (P.A.)

  17. Comparing life cycle energy and GHG emissions of bio-based PET, recycled PET, PLA and man-made cellulosics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the environmental profiles of petrochemical PET, (partially) bio-based PET, recycled PET, and recycled (partially) bio-based PET, and compare them with other bio-based materials, namely PLA (polylactic acid, a bio-based polyester) and man-made cellulose

  18. PET in management of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Myung-Chul

    2004-01-01

    Full text: PET provides useful information about tumor metabolism enabling accurate visualization of malignant lesions. Approximately 60-80% suspicious lesions on mammography have benign histology and about 10% of breast cancers with palpable mass are not identified in mammography. The key roles of PET technology in breast cancer are in: primary diagnosis, staging, recurrent diseases monitoring and prediction of therapy response. The sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET for the diagnosis of breast cancer has been reported to be 68-100% and 83-100%, respectively. Considering the increasing number of small breast tumors detected by mammography and false negative results, the clinical relevance of FDG-PET for the primary diagnosis is limited. In selected patients, however, for example with dense breasts, breasts implants, augmented breast or after breast surgery, which can affect the accuracy of mammography, and in cases with equivocal mammography, FDG-PET can provide clinically relevant information. PET accurately determines the extent of disease, including the loco-regional lymph node status. Furthermore, whole-body PET imaging promises a high diagnostic accuracy for detecting recurrent or metastatic breast carcinoma with a high positive predictive value. We studied the usefulness of the FDG-PET in 42 preoperative patients with suspected breast cancer in differentiation of lesions. The diagnostic value of FDG-PET in terms of sensitivity and specificity was 95% and 77% respectively in primary mass while it was 73% and 100% for axillary lymph nodes. PET is much more accurate than other conventional modalities. The sensitivity of FDG-PET for correct staging of axillary nodal status is 84-100%. It has the potential to replace conventional procedures for the staging of distant metastases. We observed the sensitivity and the specificity of FDG-PET to be 96% and 85% to detect distant metastases. FDG-PET may become the method of choice for the early assessment of

  19. Compensation for photon attenuation in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintu Chen; Ordonez, C.E.; Xiaolin Yu.

    1992-01-01

    CT/MR and PET images usually are not in registration spatially because of differences in the imaging setup. CT, MR and PET imaging parameters that are used regularly for brain studies in their institution are compared, in addition, because the patient orientations in CT/MR and PET scanners are not the same, slice centers are positioned differently relative to the patients anatomy. For application of the new idea of using structural information from CT or MR images in PET image reconstruction for attenuation correction, image registration is required as a first step so that one can obtain a corresponding anatomic map for any selected PET image plane. The authors chose to use the surface-matching technique developed in their laboratories for image registration because this method is retrospective and accurate. After the PET and CT/MR scans are registered, they reslice the CT/MR images along the planes of the PET images. The differences in slice thickness and slice separation, as well as in image resolution between various image modalities are to be considered

  20. How much can a negative FDG-PET be trusted?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shuxia

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: False-negative FDG-PET constituted 22.7% of all clinically identified negative PET in a ten year retrospective review about FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumour. Uncovering possible influencing factors of false-negative FDG-PET may have significant value. Material and methods: 10 patients with a first negative and then a second positive PET during very short time separation and 6 patients with surgically confirmed false-negative PET were traced. Histological type, irradiation parameter, steroids effect were discussed. To define temporary irradiation effect on FDG uptake, interval between radiation treatment to PET examination of these two groups were compared with 24 surgically confirmed true-positive PET, 5 surgically confirmed true-negative PET Results: 80% negative-positive PET transformation happened within 31 weeks. No statistically significant difference with regard to time from irradiation could be found between groups. Steroids medication closely before PET examination was about the same before the first negative and second positive PET scan. 5/6 surgically confirmed false-negative PET patients did not take steroids before PET examination. Conclusion: Tumour histology type, temporary irradiation effect and steroids medication did not constitute the reasons for false negative PET in our patient series. PET could not identify tumour relapse in the very early stage. Therefore, if clinically indicated, second FDG-PET might be a better selection to pick up tumour relapse instead of exploratory surgery or biopsy. In that case, the suitable time point for the second PET could be within 31 weeks after the first PET examination. Keywords: false-negative, FDG-PET, influencing factor, irradiation effect, steroids. (author)

  1. The impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Shaun W.; Chesney, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on issues of interaction with a particular type of mobile information system – virtual pets. It examines the impact of owner age on companionship with virtual pets, and tests the hypothesis that younger virtual pet owners will experience closer companionship with their virtual pet than older owners. This is in response to the marketing stance adopted by virtual pet manufacturers who clearly target younger people as the main consumers of their products. The hypothesis was te...

  2. Highly improved operation of monolithic BGO-PET blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Montoro, A.; Sanchez, F.; Majewski, S.; Zanettini, S.; Benlloch, J. M.; Gonzalez, A. J.

    2017-11-01

    In PET scanners both scintillation crystals and photosensors are key components defining the system's performance and cost. Original PET systems used BGO or NaI(Tl) scintillators but achieved limited performance due to its slow decay and relatively low light output. Moreover, NaI(Tl) has low stopping power for 511 keV annihilation photons. In this study we report the possibility to reintroduce BGO crystals, and in particular in the form of monolithic blocks, especially suitable for low-dose large-size PET scanners, offering significantly improved sensitivity at a highly reduced cost compared to LYSO type fast scintillators. We have studied the performance of a monolithic BGO block as large as 50 × 50 × 15 mm3 with black-painted lateral walls to reduce lights spread, enabling accurate photon depth of interaction (DOI) measurements. A directional optical layer, called retro-reflector, was coupled to the entrance face bouncing back the scintillation light in the direction of the emission source and, therefore, adding to the light signal while preserving the narrow light cone distribution. Four configurations namely 12 × 12 and 16 × 16 SiPM arrays (3 mm × 3 mm each) as photosensors, with or without a nanopattern treatment at the crystal exit face, have been studied. This structure consisted of a thin layer of a specific high refractive index material shaped with a periodic nanopattern, increasing the scintillation light extraction. The readout returned information for each SiPM row and column, characterizing the X-Y light distribution projections. We have studied the detector spatial resolution using collimated 22Na sources at normal incidence. The DOI resolution was evaluated using collimated gamma beams with lateral incidence. The overall best detector performance was obtained for the 16× 16 SiPM array offering higher readout granularity. We have determined the spatial resolution for 3 separated DOI layers, obtaining the best results for the DOI region near to

  3. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate

    2003-01-01

    Children are not just small adults-they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use...... and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments......, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine....

  4. PET/CT with intravenous contrast can be used for PET attenuation correction in cancer patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, A K; Holm, S; Loft, A

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: If the CT scan of a combined PET/CT study is performed as a full diagnostic quality CT scan including intravenous (IV) contrast agent, the quality of the joint PET/CT procedure is improved and a separate diagnostic CT scan can be avoided. CT with IV contrast can be used for PET attenuation...... correction, but this may result in a bias in the attenuation factors. The clinical significance of this bias has not been established. Our aim was to perform a prospective clinical study where each patient had CT performed with and without IV contrast agent to establish whether PET/CT with IV contrast can...... scans without, and then with contrast agent, followed by an 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body PET scan. The CT examinations were performed with identical parameters on a GE Discovery LS scanner. The PET data were reconstructed with attenuation correction based on the two CT data sets. A global...

  5. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate; Hoejgaard, Liselotte

    2003-01-01

    Children are not just small adults - they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine. (orig.)

  6. Molecular Imaging in Breast Cancer: From Whole-Body PET/CT to Dedicated Breast PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. B. Koolen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Positron emission tomography (PET, with or without integrated computed tomography (CT, using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG is based on the principle of elevated glucose metabolism in malignant tumors, and its use in breast cancer patients is frequently being investigated. It has been shown useful for classification, staging, and response monitoring, both in primary and recurrent disease. However, because of the partial volume effect and limited resolution of most whole-body PET scanners, sensitivity for the visualization of small tumors is generally low. To improve the detection and quantification of primary breast tumors with FDG PET, several dedicated breast PET devices have been developed. In this nonsystematic review, we shortly summarize the value of whole-body PET/CT in breast cancer and provide an overview of currently available dedicated breast PETs.

  7. Practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borgwardt, Lise; Larsen, Helle Jung; Pedersen, Kate; Hoejgaard, Liselotte [Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2003-10-01

    Children are not just small adults - they differ in their psychology, normal physiology and pathophysiology, and various aspects should be considered when planning a positron emission tomography (PET) scan in a child. PET in children is a growing area, and this article describes the practical use and implementation of PET in children in a hospital PET centre. It is intended to be of use to nuclear medicine departments implementing or starting to implement PET scans in children. Topics covered are: dealing with children, dosimetry, organisation within the department and relations with other departments, preparation of the child (provision of information to the child and parents and the fasting procedure), the imaging procedure (resting, tracer injection, positioning, sedation and bladder emptying) and pitfalls in the interpretation of PET scans in children, including experiences with telemedicine. (orig.)

  8. Clinical Application of F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) in Colo-rectal and Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    In the management of colo-retal and anal cancer, accurate staging, treatment evaluation, early detection of recurrence are main clinical problems. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) has been reported as useful in the management of colo-rectal and anal cancer because that PET has high diagnostic performance comparing to conventional studies. In case of liver metastases, for confirmation of no extrahepatic metastases, in case of high risk of metastasis, for avoiding unnecessary operation, PET (PET/CT) is expected more useful. In anal cancer, PET is expected useful in lymph node staging. For the early prediction of chemotherapy or radiation therapy effect PET has been reported as useful, also. In early detection of recurrence by PET, cost-benefit advantages has been suggested, also. PET/CT is expected to have higher diagnostic performance than PET alone

  9. Development of a small prototype for a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaya, Taiga; Yoshida, Eiji; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Kokuryo, Daisuke; Tsuji, Atsushi; Mitsuhashi, Takayuki; Tashima, Hideaki; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Inadama, Naoko; Murayama, Hideo; Kinouchi, Shoko [Molecular Imaging Center, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Inaniwa, Taku; Sato, Shinji [Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Nakajima, Yasunori [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8503 (Japan); Kawai, Hideyuki; Haneishi, Hideaki; Suga, Mikio, E-mail: taiga@nirs.go.jp [Chiba University, 1-33 Yayoicho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2011-02-21

    The OpenPET geometry is our new idea to visualize a physically opened space between two detector rings. In this paper, we developed the first small prototype to show a proof-of-concept of OpenPET imaging. Two detector rings of 110 mm diameter and 42 mm axial length were placed with a gap of 42 mm. The basic imaging performance was confirmed through phantom studies; the open imaging was realized at the cost of slight loss of axial resolution and 24% loss of sensitivity. For a proof-of-concept of PET image-guided radiation therapy, we carried out the in-beam tests with {sup 11}C radioactive beam irradiation in the heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba to visualize in situ distribution of primary particles stopped in a phantom. We showed that PET images corresponding to dose distribution were obtained. For an initial proof-of-concept of real-time multimodal imaging, we measured a tumor-inoculated mouse with {sup 18}F-FDG, and an optical image of the mouse body surface was taken during the PET measurement by inserting a digital camera in the ring gap. We confirmed that the tumor in the gap was clearly visualized. The result also showed the extension effect of an axial field-of-view (FOV); a large axial FOV of 126 mm was obtained with the detectors that originally covered only an 84 mm axial FOV. In conclusion, our initial imaging studies showed promising performance of the OpenPET.

  10. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landvogt, C.

    2007-01-01

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, 11 C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed

  11. Properties of tribology for Si implanted PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yuguang; Zhang Tonghe; Zhang Xu; Liu Andong; Xie Mengxia; Zhang Aimin; Chen Jianmin

    2002-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) has been modified with Si ions from a metal vapor arc source (MEVVA). After implantation, the surface structure has been greatly changed. The experimental results of infrared absorption indicated that the particles are referred to rich carbon and SiC particles. The PET has been strengthened by these dispersed particles. The measurement results using nanometer hardness tester reveal that both surface hardness and modulus increase obviously. Therefore the surface wear resistance improved extremely. Finally the modification mechanism of Si implanted PET was discussed

  12. Uncertainces in tumor target definition using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirov, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: PET entered into the clinics for radiation therapy as a means of displaying the metabolically active part of the tumor. However this advantage, PET has a number of shortcomings that prevent its use for precise determination of the tumor boundaries. What you will learn: The aim of the lecture is to present: the requirements for the accuracy of the determination of tumor boundaries in radiation therapy; the main phenomena which bring uncertainty using PET and a brief overview of methods for segmentation of tumors and their problems

  13. The heritage of radiotracers for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The history of PET research clearly demonstrates that it is advances in chemistry coupled with a detailed examination of the biochemistry of new radiotracers which has allowed the PET method to be applied to new areas of biology and medicine. Radiotracers whose regional distribution reflects glucose metabolism, neutrotransmitter activity and enzyme activity have all required the development of rapid synthetic methods for the radiotracers themselves and the characterization of their biochemical behavior. This article traces some of the advances in the production of labeled precursors and in radiotracer synthesis and evaluation which have shaped the rapidly expanding application of PET to problems in the neurosciences, in cardiology and in oncology. 54 refs

  14. PET and PET-CT. State of the art and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanti, Stefano; Franchi, Roberto; Battista, Giuseppe; Monetti, Nino; Canini, Romeo

    2005-01-01

    Fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) enables the in vivo study of tissue metabolism, and thus is able to identify malignant tumours as hypermetabolic lesions by an increase in tracer uptake. Many papers have demonstrated both the relevant impact of FDG PET on staging of many cancers and the superior accuracy of the technique compared with conventional diagnostic methods for pre-treatment evaluation, therapy response evaluation and relapse identification. In particular PET was found useful in identifying lymph nodal and metastatic spread. thus altering patient management in more than 30% of cases. PET images, however, provide limited anatomical data, which in regions such as the head and neck, mediastinum and pelvic cavity is a significant drawback. The exact localization of lesions may also be difficult in some cases, on the basis of PET images alone. The introduction of combined PET-computed tomography (PET-CT) scanners enables the almost simultaneous acquisition of transmission and emission images, thus obtaining optimal fusion images in a very short time. PET-CT fusion images enable lesions to be located, reducing false positive studies and increasing accuracy; the overall duration of examination may also be reduced. On the basis of both literature data and our experience we established the clinical indications when PET-CT may be particularly useful, in comparison with PET alone. It should also be underlined that the use of PET-CT is almost mandatory for new traces such as C-choline and C-methionine; these new tracers may be applied for studying tumours not assessable with FDG, such as prostate cancer. In conclusion PET-CT is at present the most advanced method for metabolic imaging, and is capable of precisely localizing and assessing tumours; fusion images reduce false positive and inconclusive studies, thus increasing diagnostic accuracy [it

  15. Comparative analysis of PET/CT and PET/MR image characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma%对比分析头颈部鳞状细胞癌PET/CT与PET/MR特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白乐; 程勇; 唐勇进; 凌雪英

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate PET/CT and PET/MR characteristics of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).Methods Totally 40 patients with HNSCC underwent whole body 18F-FDG PET/CT and MR scans of head and neck before anti-tumor treatment.PET positive lesions of HNSCC,including primary lesions and lymph nodes were evaluated by 2 radiologists independently.Then the imaging quality,fusion quality,lesion conspicuity and lesion characteristics were assessed based on PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI.Results Ninety PET positive lesions in all 40patients were evaluated,including 40 primary lesions and 50 lymph nodes.Similar imaging quality and fusion quality of PET/CT,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI were obtained without statistical difference (both P>0.05).For the lesion conspicuity,PET/MR T1WI and PET/MR T2WI demonstrated significantly better than PET/CT in positive primary lesions and lymph nodes (all P<0.05).For the characteristics of positive primary lesions,PET/MR T2WI provided more information than PET/CT in 29 lesions,equal to PET/CT in 4 lesions,and less than PET/CT in 7 lesions.Conclusion The application of PET/MR in HNSCC is feasible,being superior to PET/CT in indication of lesions in head and neck area.%目的 探讨头颈部鳞状细胞癌(HNSCC)的PET/CT及PET/MR特征.方法 纳入未经抗肿瘤治疗的头颈部鳞状细胞癌患者40例,所有患者均接受PET/CT及头颈部MR检查.由2名观察者独立观察PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结;并对PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI的图像质量、融合准确度、病灶清晰度、病灶特征等进行评分.分析2名观察者间的一致性.结果 40例患者共90个PET阳性病灶,包括阳性原发灶40个、阳性淋巴结50个.PET/CT、PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI在图像质量及融合准确度方面差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05);在显示阳性原发灶及阳性淋巴结的清晰度方面,PET/MR T1WI及PET/MR T2WI均优于PET/CT(P均<0.05).40个阳性原发灶中,PET

  16. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng

    2015-01-01

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  17. Value of PET and PET-CT for monitoring tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) PET or PET-CT is an accurate test for differentiating residual viable tumor tissue from therapy-induced changes in tumor. Furthermore, quantitative assessment of therapy-induced changes in tumor 18 F-FDG uptake may allow the prediction of tumor response. Treatment may be adjusted according to tumor response. So it is increasingly used to monitor tumor response in patients undergoing chemotherapy and chemoradiotherapy. Here we focused on practical aspects of 18 F-FDG PET or PET-CT for treatment monitoring and on the existing advantages and challenges. (authors)

  18. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET and PET-CT in early detection of cancer recurrent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Yan; Zhao Jinhua

    2007-01-01

    Early detection of recurrent can improve prognosis and survival of patients with cancer. 18 F- fluorodeoxyglucose( 18 F-FDG) PET can detect metabolic changes before structural changes. The fused imaging provided by PET-CT can precisely localize the foci and demonstrate the complementary roles of functional and anatomic assessments in the diagnosis of cancer recurrence. In addition to the accurate diagnosis and definition of the whole extent of recurrent cancer, 18 F-FDG PET and PET-CT can impact patients management. (authors)

  19. Initial evaluation of a practical PET respiratory motion correction method in clinical simultaneous PET/MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manber, Richard; Thielemans, Kris; Hutton, Brian; Barnes, Anna; Ourselin, Sebastien; Arridge, Simon; O’Meara, Celia; Atkinson, David

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory motion during PET acquisitions can cause image artefacts, with sharpness and tracer quantification adversely affected due to count ‘smearing’. Motion correction by registration of PET gates becomes increasingly difficult with shorter scan times and less counts. The advent of simultaneous PET/MRI scanners allows the use of high spatial resolution MRI to capture motion states during respiration [1, 2]. In this work, we use a respiratory signal derived from the PET list-mode data [3, ], with no requirement for an external device or MR sequence modifications.

  20. Dedicated brain PET system of PET/MR for brain research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Li; Liu, Yaqiang; Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Shi; Wei, Qingyang; Xu, Tianpeng [Institute of Medical Physics, Department of Engineering Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing (China)

    2015-05-18

    This work is to replace PET ring in human brain PET/MR system with a dedicated wearable PET insert, aimed at improving both patient feasibility and system performance for brain imaging. The designed PET/MR system includes two parts: the inside parts, including a radio frequency (RF) coil and PET ring, are mounted on patient’s head, and the outside part, a MR imager, is dependent of patient. The RF coil is the innermost layer, surrounded by an outer PET-ring layer. They are supported by a MRcompatible structure. And both RF coil and PET detectors are placed inside a standard clinical 3-T MR imager. From the design of the system we can infer that some advantages can be achieved. First, high sensitivity will be achieved with the same amount crystals as the PET ring is more close to region-of-interest area, at a reduced cost. Second, by using a 2-layer depth of interaction (DOI) detector, the parallax effect can be minimized. The resolution will benefit from short positron range caused by magnetic field and smaller ring diameter will also reduce the effect of non-collinearity. Thirdly, as the PET ring is mounted on head, impact of patient motion will be reduced.

  1. Molecular Imaging Challenges With PET

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2010-01-01

    The future trends in molecular imaging and associated challenges for in-vivo functional imaging are illustrated on the basis of a few examples, such as atherosclerosis vulnerable plaques imaging or stem cells tracking. A set of parameters are derived to define the specifications of a new generation of in-vivo imaging devices in terms of sensitivity, spatial resolution and signal-to-noise ratio. The limitations of strategies used in present PET scanners are discussed and new approaches are proposed taking advantage of recent progress on materials, photodetectors and readout electronics. A special focus is put on metamaterials, as a new approach to bring more functionality to detection devices. It is shown that the route is now open towards a fully digital detector head with very high photon counting capability over a large energy range, excellent timing precision and possibility of imaging the energy deposition process.

  2. Business administration of PET facilities. A nationwide survey for prices of PET screening and a cost analysis of three facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, Naohiro; Fujii, Ryo; Oku, Shinya; Furui, Yuji; Yasunaga, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the business administration of positron emission tomography (PET) facilities based on the survey of the price of PET cancer screening and cost analysis of PET examination. The questionnaire survey of the price of PET cancer screening was implemented for all PET facilities in Japan. Cost data of PET examination, including fixed costs and variable costs, were obtained from three different medical institutions. The marked price of the PET cancer screening was yen111,499 in average, and the most popular range of prices was between yen80,000 and yen90,000. Costs of PET per examination were accounted for yen110,675, yen79,158 and yen111,644 in facility A, B and C, respectively. The results suggested that facilities with two or more PET/CT per a cyclotron could only secure profits. In Japan, the boom in PET facility construction could not continue in accordance with increasing number of PET facilities. It would become more essential to analyze the appropriate distribution of PET facilities and the adequate amount of PET procedures from the perspective of efficient utilization of the PET equipments and supply of PET-related healthcare. (author)

  3. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  4. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six...... zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact...... with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...

  5. FDG PET/CT in cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The Region of Southern Denmark (RSD), covering 1.2 of Denmark's 5.6 million inhabitants, established a task force to (1) retrieve literature evidence for the clinical use of positron emission tomography (PET)/CT and provide consequent recommendations and further to (2) compare the actual...... use of PET/CT in the RSD with these recommendations. This article summarizes the results. METHODS: A Work Group appointed a professional Subgroup which made Clinician Groups conduct literature reviews on six selected cancers responsible for 5,768 (62.6 %) of 9,213 PET/CT scans in the RSD in 2012...... use of PET/CT and literature-based recommendations was high in the first five mentioned cancers in that 96.2 % of scans were made for grade A or B indications versus only 22.2 % in gynaecological cancers. CONCLUSION: Evidence-based usefulness was reported in five of six selected cancers; evidence...

  6. Therapy assessment in multiple myeloma with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanni, Cristina [Medicina Nucleare Metropolitana di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Zamagni, Elena [Bologna University School of Medicine, Seragnoli Institute of Hematology, Bologna (Italy)

    2017-08-15

    Multiple myeloma is a plasma cell dyscrasia producing bone lytic lesions. In recent years, a wide spectrum of therapeutic approaches are available to treat the disease: an accurate therapy assessment has, therefore, become of utmost importance. In this field, imaging is becoming a cornerstone, especially in association with clinical parameters. Among imaging procedures, FDG PET/CT is recognized to provide reliable information, achieved in a very safe and fast procedure. The literature has produced very concordant results from different groups assessing the value of FDG PET/CT as a prognostic factor in general and in therapy assessment, but some issues remain regarding a standardization of image interpretation especially in borderline cases. So far, no data regarding nor other imaging compounds and the use of hybrid tomographs PET/MR are available to define therapy assessment in PET. (orig.)

  7. PET/CT applications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva González, Juan Perfecto; Martínez Ramírez, Aldo; Baum, Richard Paul

    2017-01-01

    PET means Positron Emission Tomography, it is a nuclear medicine technique in which radiopharmaceuticals labeled with positron emitters are used to obtain biochemical-metabolic images of the human body. The use of PET / CT contributes to obtain multimodal images that combine anatomical and metabolic information, allowing a more reliable diagnosis of a tumor or local or distant metastases in an organ or tissue. Other multimodal devices combine metabolic imaging with nuclear magnetic resonance. PET/CT is mainly used in Oncology (85-90%), Neurology, Cardiology, Inflammation and Infection although it is currently also used in different medical and surgical pathologies. The present work is aimed at showing what PET/CT is and how useful it is in Oncology. (author)

  8. Don't Just Pet Your Chia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershey, David R.

    1995-01-01

    Presents ways to use ChiaPets to link biology-related topics such as taxonomy, morphology, ethnobotany, economic botany, hydroponics, salinity, photomorphogenesis, and phototropism with food and fertilizer chemistry, mathematics, art, and history. (MKR)

  9. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  10. Dynamic neurotransmitter interactions measured with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, W.K.; Dewey, S.L.

    2001-04-02

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a valuable interdisciplinary tool for understanding physiological, biochemical and pharmacological functions at a molecular level in living humans, whether in a healthy or diseased state. The utility of tracing chemical activity through the body transcends the fields of cardiology, oncology, neurology and psychiatry. In this, PET techniques span radiochemistry and radiopharmaceutical development to instrumentation, image analysis, anatomy and modeling. PET has made substantial contributions in each of these fields by providing a,venue for mapping dynamic functions of healthy and unhealthy human anatomy. As diverse as the disciplines it bridges, PET has provided insight into an equally significant variety of psychiatric disorders. Using the unique quantitative ability of PET, researchers are now better able to non-invasively characterize normally occurring neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. With the knowledge that these interactions provide the fundamental basis for brain response, many investigators have recently focused their efforts on an examination of the communication between these chemicals in both healthy volunteers and individuals suffering from diseases classically defined as neurotransmitter specific in nature. In addition, PET can measure the biochemical dynamics of acute and sustained drug abuse. Thus, PET studies of neurotransmitter interactions enable investigators to describe a multitude of specific functional interactions in the human brain. This information can then be applied to understanding side effects that occur in response to acute and chronic drug therapy, and to designing new drugs that target multiple systems as opposed to single receptor types. Knowledge derived from PET studies can be applied to drug discovery, research and development (for review, see (Fowler et al., 1999) and (Burns et al., 1999)). Here, we will cover the most substantial contributions of PET to understanding

  11. Pilot tests of a PET detector using the TOF-PET ASIC based on monolithic crystals and SiPMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar, A.; González-Montoro, A.; González, A.J.; Hernández, L.; Monzó, J.M.; Benlloch, J.M.; Bugalho, R.; Ferramacho, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we show pilot tests of PET detector blocks using the TOF-PET ASIC, coupled to SiPM detector arrays and different crystal configurations. We have characterized the main ASIC features running calibration processes to compensate the time dispersion among the different ASIC/SiPM paths as well as for the time walk on the arrival of optical photons. The aim of this work is to use of LYSO monolithic crystals and explore their photon Depth of Interaction (DOI) capabilities, keeping good energy and spatial resolutions. First tests have been carried out with crystal arrays. Here we made it possible to reach a coincidence resolving times (CRT) of 370 ps FWHM, with energy resolutions better than 20% and resolving well 2 mm sized crystal elements. When using monolithic crystals, a single-pixel LYSO reference crystal helped to explore the CRT performance. We studied different strategies to provide the best timestamp determination in the monolithic scintillator. Times around 1 ns FWHM have been achieved in these pilot studies. In terms of spatial and energy resolution, values of about 3 mm and better than 30% were found, respectively. We have also demonstrated the capability of this system (monolithic and ASIC) to return accurate DOI information.

  12. The establishment of the Rossendorf PET Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, B.; Steinbach, J.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of the newly established Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Center at the Institut of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry in Rossendorf are described, referring to medical research, development of tracers and radiochemicals developments, biochemistry and future prospects of PET in Rossendorf. The layout of the center is also described considering the cyclotron and targetry, the transport system, the radiopharmaceutical laboratories and the tomograph. A schedule for project development is going. (BBR)

  13. PET tracer for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    There is provided a radiolabelled peptide-based compound for diagnostic imaging using positron emission tomography (PET). The compound may thus be used for diagnosis of malignant diseases. The compound is particularly useful for imaging of somatostatin overexpression in tumors, wherein the compound...... is capable of being imaged by PET when administered with a target dose in the range of 150-350 MBq, such as 150-250 MBq, preferable in the range of 191-210 MBq....

  14. PET/MRI. Methodology and clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrio, Ignasi [Autonomous Univ. of Barcelona, Hospital Sant Pau (Spain). Dept. Medicina Nuclear; Ros, Pablo (ed.) [Univ. Hospitals Case, Medical Center, Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    2014-04-01

    Provides detailed information on the methodology and equipment of MRI-PET. Covers a wide range of clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Written by an international group of experts in MRI and PET. PET/MRI is an exciting novel diagnostic imaging modality that combines the precise anatomic and physiologic information provided by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with the molecular data obtained with positron emission tomography (PET). PET/MRI offers the promise of a simplified work flow, reduced radiation, whole-body imaging with superior soft tissue contrast, and time of flight physiologic information. It has been described as the pathway to molecular imaging in medicine. In compiling this textbook, the editors have brought together a truly international group of experts in MRI and PET. The book is divided into two parts. The first part covers methodology and equipment and comprises chapters on basic molecular medicine, development of specific contrast agents, MR attenuation and validation, quantitative MRI and PET motion correction, and technical implications for both MRI and PET. The second part of the book focuses on clinical applications in oncology, cardiology, and neurology. Imaging of major neoplasms, including lymphomas and tumors of the breast, prostate, and head and neck, is covered in individual chapters. Further chapters address functional and metabolic cardiovascular examinations and major central nervous system applications such as brain tumors and dementias. Risks, safety aspects, and healthcare costs and impacts are also discussed. This book will be of interest to all radiologists and nuclear medicine physicians who wish to learn more about the latest developments in this important emerging imaging modality and its applications.

  15. Bringing Physiology into PET of the Liver

    OpenAIRE

    Keiding, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    Several physiologic features make interpretation of PET studies of liver physiology an exciting challenge. As with other organs, hepatic tracer kinetics using PET is quantified by dynamic recording of the liver after the administration of a radioactive tracer, with measurements of time–activity curves in the blood supply. However, the liver receives blood from both the portal vein and the hepatic artery, with the peak of the portal vein time–activity curve being delayed and dispersed compared...

  16. The KFA TierPET: Performance characteristics and measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, S.; Herzog, H.; Mueller-Gaertner, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    We will present first results of the KFA Tier-PET, a positron emission tomograph with flexible geometry dedicated to in vivo studies of small animals. The flexible geometry allows us to change between measurements with high spatial resolution and measurements with increased sensitivity at the cost of resolution. The detectors consist of yttrium aluminum perovskit scintillator arrays which are glued together from 20 x 20 optically isolated crystals, coupled to position sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The fundamental design features concerning crystal dimensions and detector arrangement have been simulated. Based on this data, the definite dimensional outline of the crystals was determined. The YAP:Ce matrix in combination with a position sensitive photomultiplier leads to a detector block with a high spatial resolution. In first measurements a system sensitivity of 1.8 kcps/μCi/ml has been evaluated for a detector-to-detector distance of 16 cm

  17. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  18. Clinical evaluation of PET image quality as a function of acquisition time in a new TOF-PET/MR compared to TOF-PET/CT - initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos; Huellner, Martin; De Galiza Barbosa, Felipe; Ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Delso, Gaspar; Veit-Haibach, Patrick [Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-05-18

    The recently available integrated PET/MR imaging can offer significant additional advances in clinical imaging. The purpose of this study was to compare the PET performance between a PET/CT scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MR scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of SUV as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). Five brain and five whole body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MR acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed good correlation between PET/CT and PET/MR brain SUVs. Liver correlation was lower, with uptake underestimation in PET/MR, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MR offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artefacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole body scans, while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The PET-component of the TOF-PET/MR showed higher image quality compared to PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, these results account mainly for body imaging, while no significant difference were found in brain imaging. This overall higher image quality suggests that the acquisition time or injected activity can be reduced by at least 37% on the PET/MR scanner.

  19. TOF-PET/MR和TOF-PET/CT在体部恶性肿瘤SUVmax值的比较%Comparision of SUVmax of TOF-PET/MR and TOF-PET/CT in body malignant tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋天彬; 卢洁; 崔碧霄; 马杰; 杨宏伟; 马蕾; 梁志刚

    2017-01-01

    目的 探讨时间飞行(TOF)技术PET/CT和PET/MR检查体部恶性病变SUVmax值的一致性.方法 回顾性分析接受TOF-PET/CT和TOF-PET/MR检查的体部恶性肿瘤患者20例,分为先PET/CT后PET/MR组和先PET/MR后PET/CT组,每组10例.采用Bland-Altma图评价两次检查病灶SUVmax值的一致性,采用多因素方差分析评价扫描顺序和机器类型对病灶的SUVmax测量值的影响.结果 TOF-PET/CT与TOF-PET/MR检查病灶的SUVmax值有较好的一致性[先PET/CT后PET/MR组:均值差为3.06,95%CI(-7.5,13.6),先PET/MR后PET/CT组:均值差3.0,95%CI(-2.4,8.3)].扫描顺序对于恶性病灶的SUVmax有影响(F=46.00,P<0.001),而机器类型对恶性病灶的SUVmax值无影响(F=0.005,P=0.95).结论 TOF-PET/MR和TOF-PET/CT在体部恶性病变SUVmax值测量方面具有相当的诊断价值,且延迟显像SUVmax的增加与采集时间有关,而与检查机器类型无关.%Objective To explore the consistency of time-of-flight (TOF) technology of PET/MRI and PET/CT for max standardized uptake value (SUVmax) of body malignant tumors.Methods A retrospective analysis of TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR imaging data about twenty patients with body malignant tumors was performed.Patients were divided into two groups (each n=10),including PET/CT first and sequentially PET/MR group and PET/MR first and sequentially PET/CT group.Bland-Altman figure was used to evaluate consistency of SUVmax of malignant lesions between TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR.Multi-way ANOVA was used to analysis effect of machine type and exam order on SUVmaxof malignant lesions in TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR.Results SUVmax of malignant lesions in TOF-PET/CT and TOF-PET/MR had good consistency in two groups (PET/CT first and sequentially PET/MR group:Mean difference was 3.06,95%CI was [-7.5,13.6];PET/MR first and sequentially PET/CT group:Mean difference was 3.0,95%CI was [-2.4,8.3]).SUVmax was not influenced by machine type (F=0.005,P=0.95),but exam order (F=46.00,P<0

  20. FDG-PET and FDG-PET/CT for therapy monitoring and restaging in malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghy, F.M.; Krause, B.J.

    2003-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET allows to assess residual masses in patients with malignant lymphoma differentiating vital tumor from scar tissue. This approach is not applicable with conventional imaging methods (CDM) such as CT or MRI. On the other hand circumscribed results often cannot be definitely allocated in PET, therefore the combined morphological-biochemical approach using the now available PET/CT systems promises to be a pathbreaking technical progress. There is no doubt that stand alone PET is superior to CDM differentiating residual scar tissue from vital tumor as has been shown in 15 recently published studies. The median sensitivity for detecting active disease with FDG PET across the studies was 91%; the corresponding specificity was 89%. As a result FDG PET had a high negative predictive value of 94%. In contrast, specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) of CDM in the 9 studies were a direct comparison was available were low (31% and 46%, one study 82%). PET positive residual masses were associated with a progression-free survival of 0 - 55%. Only a few studies have included FDG-PET in therapy response monitoring studies, however also these results are promising. At the moment FDG-PET seems to be the best possibility to characterize and qualitatively visualize vitality of tumor masses and also hold promises for efficient therapy response monitoring in patients with malignant lymphoma. Therefore it should be included in standard diagnostic protocols in lymphoma patients. The combined PET/CT has to be ranked superior to conventional PET studies as in many cases the combined structural and functional imaging brings a clearer diagnostic statement. (orig.) [de

  1. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento de Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J J; Desco, M [Unidad de Medicina y CirugIa Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2009-03-21

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  2. PeneloPET, a Monte Carlo PET simulation tool based on PENELOPE: features and validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espana, S; Herraiz, J L; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Vaquero, J J; Desco, M

    2009-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations play an important role in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging, as an essential tool for the research and development of new scanners and for advanced image reconstruction. PeneloPET, a PET-dedicated Monte Carlo tool, is presented and validated in this work. PeneloPET is based on PENELOPE, a Monte Carlo code for the simulation of the transport in matter of electrons, positrons and photons, with energies from a few hundred eV to 1 GeV. PENELOPE is robust, fast and very accurate, but it may be unfriendly to people not acquainted with the FORTRAN programming language. PeneloPET is an easy-to-use application which allows comprehensive simulations of PET systems within PENELOPE. Complex and realistic simulations can be set by modifying a few simple input text files. Different levels of output data are available for analysis, from sinogram and lines-of-response (LORs) histogramming to fully detailed list mode. These data can be further exploited with the preferred programming language, including ROOT. PeneloPET simulates PET systems based on crystal array blocks coupled to photodetectors and allows the user to define radioactive sources, detectors, shielding and other parts of the scanner. The acquisition chain is simulated in high level detail; for instance, the electronic processing can include pile-up rejection mechanisms and time stamping of events, if desired. This paper describes PeneloPET and shows the results of extensive validations and comparisons of simulations against real measurements from commercial acquisition systems. PeneloPET is being extensively employed to improve the image quality of commercial PET systems and for the development of new ones.

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) and pancreatic tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montravers, F.; Kerrou, K.; Grahek, D.; Gutman, F.; Beco, V. de; Talbot, J.N.

    2005-01-01

    Neoplasms of the pancreas may originate front both exocrine and endocrine cells but in 90% of the cases, they correspond to ductal adenocarcinomas. For adenocarcinomas, the major indication of FDG-PET corresponds to the pre-operative staging because unexpected distant metastases can be detected by FDG-PET in about 20 to 40% of the cases, which results in avoidance of unnecessary surgical procedures. FDG PET is also useful in evaluation of the treatment effect, monitoring after the operation and detection of recurrent pancreatic cancers. For the characterisation of the pancreatic tumour, the performance of FDG-PET is sometimes limited due to poor cellularity, hyperglycemia or inflammatory processes. especially for large tumours and is indicated only in cases of doubtful results of CT or MRI. For endocrine pancreatic tumours, FDG-PET is useful only in case of poorly-differentiated and aggressive tumours. F-DOPA PET can he useful, complementary to pentetreotide scintigraphy, in well-differentiated endocrine tumours. (authors)

  4. Effect of PET functionalization in composites of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Cazan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The functionalization of polyethylene terephthalate (PET from tire rubber–PET–high density polyethylene (HDPE composites represents a key strategy for improving the composite properties. This is a practical and effective method to improve the interface between matrix (waste tire rubber and fillers (waste PET and HDPE. By PET functionalization, adherence and surface properties of composite materials can be controlled. PET functionalization was performed with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400, 1% and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS 1%. The characterization of the components and composite are discussed in terms of surface energy values (evaluated from water contact angle measurements and surface morphology by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The structural and conformational changes were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR Spectroscopy while the crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD. The improved interfacial adhesion, thermal stability and mechanical properties (stress–strain, compression and impact resistance of the composites are correlated with the PET functionalization, with non-ionic (PEG and an anionic surfactant (SDS. The results proved that the interface properties are improved by functionalization of PET. The best mechanical properties were recorded at 30 min moulding. The samples with 45% PET–SDS showed the best combination of mechanical properties: tensile strength (1.56 N/mm2, impact strength (43.72 kJ/m2 and compression (158.78 N/mm2.

  5. Clinical application of PET in abdominal cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon

    2002-01-01

    Clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is rapidly increasing for the detection and staging of cancer at whole-body studies performed with the glucose analogue tracer 2-[fluorine-18]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FG). Although FDG PET cannot match the anatomic resolution of conventional imaging techniques in the liver and the other abdominal organs, it is particularly useful for identification and characterization of the entire body simultaneously. FDG PET can show foci of metastatic disease that may not be apparent at conventional anatomic imaging and can aid in the characterizing of indeterminate soft-tissue masses. Most abdominal cancer requires surgical management. FGD PET can improve the selection of patients for surgical treatment and thereby reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with inappropriate surgery. FDG PET is also useful for the early detection of recurrence and the monitoring of therapeutic effect. The abdominal cancers, such as gastroesophageal cancer, colorectal cancer, liver cancer and pancreatic cancer, are common malignancies in Korea, and PET is one of the most promising and useful methodologies for the management of abdominal cancers

  6. Who wants cancer screening with PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasunaga, Hideo

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Cancer screening using whole-body fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) has gradually become popular in Japan. Although some studies have reported high cancer detection rates with PET screening, the justification for such an approach is still unclear, and no evidence has been provided to indicate that PET screening reduces cancer mortality. We measured the general public's willingness to pay (WTP) for this service using a contingent valuation method, after providing them with sufficient information regarding the efficacy and limitations of the service. Methods: A computer-assisted questionnaire survey was conducted on males and females in Japan aged between 40 and 59 years. The study participants (n = 390) were provided with sufficient information about the PET procedure, the high cancer detection rate, false-negatives/false-positives and the fact that the mortality-reducing effect of PET screening has not yet been demonstrated. The participants' WTP was ascertained by a double-bound dichotomous choice approach. Results: The average WTP among all the participants was $68.0 (95% confidence interval: $56.9-79.2). A Weibull regression analysis showed that income, degree of concern about health, and family history of cancer were significant factors affecting WTP. Conclusions: The actual charge for PET screening in Japan is approximately $1000 on average, which is significantly higher than the participants' WTP for the actual benefit obtained from the service. If the Japanese healthcare consumers are well-informed, most of them would avoid purchasing such a costly service.

  7. Health Examination by PET. (1) Cancer Examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uno, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    Cancer examination by positron emission tomography (PET) started in Japan in 1994 and has been rapidly popularized. This paper describes author's experience of the examination in his hospital along the recent Japanese guideline for the PET cancer examination. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is intravenously injected at 3.7 (or 4.6, for diabetic patients) MBq/kg after 4-5 hr fasting and 40 min later, imaging is conducted with additional delayed scan at 2 hr to reduce the possible false positive. Image is taken by the equipment with PET-specific camera, of which quality assurance (QA) is maintained according to the guideline, and 3D image is constructed by the ordered subset expectation maximization method. Number of examinees during 4.5 years are 18,210 (M/F=9,735/8,475), and 236 (1.3%), together with use of other test measures like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), biochemical marker and occult blood as well, are found to have cancer of thyroid, large bowel, lung, breast and others. The false negative rate by PET alone is 78/236 (33%) for cancer. PET examination has problems of image reading and specificity of organs, and tasks of informed consent, test cost, increased exchange of information and radiation exposure. However, PET cancer examination will be established as a routine diagnostic tool when the accumulated evidence of early cancer detection is shown useful for improving the survival rate and for reducing the medicare cost. (T.I.)

  8. Nutritional Sustainability of Pet Foods12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Kelly S.; Carter, Rebecca A.; Yount, Tracy P.; Aretz, Jan; Buff, Preston R.

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable practices meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Applying these concepts to food and feed production, nutritional sustainability is the ability of a food system to provide sufficient energy and essential nutrients required to maintain good health in a population without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their nutritional needs. Ecological, social, and economic aspects must be balanced to support the sustainability of the overall food system. The nutritional sustainability of a food system can be influenced by several factors, including the ingredient selection, nutrient composition, digestibility, and consumption rates of a diet. Carbon and water footprints vary greatly among plant- and animal-based ingredients, production strategy, and geographical location. Because the pet food industry is based largely on by-products and is tightly interlinked with livestock production and the human food system, however, it is quite unique with regard to sustainability. Often based on consumer demand rather than nutritional requirements, many commercial pet foods are formulated to provide nutrients in excess of current minimum recommendations, use ingredients that compete directly with the human food system, or are overconsumed by pets, resulting in food wastage and obesity. Pet food professionals have the opportunity to address these challenges and influence the sustainability of pet ownership through product design, manufacturing processes, public education, and policy change. A coordinated effort across the industry that includes ingredient buyers, formulators, and nutritionists may result in a more sustainable pet food system. PMID:23493530

  9. Covalent Binding of Heparin to Functionalized PET Materials for Improved Haemocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metod Kolar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The hemocompatibility of vascular grafts made from poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET is insufficient due to the rapid adhesion and activation of blood platelets that occur upon incubation with whole blood. PET polymer was treated with NHx radicals created by passing ammonia through gaseous plasma formed by a microwave discharge, which allowed for functionalization with amino groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization using derivatization with 4-chlorobenzaldehyde indicated that approximately 4% of the –NH2 groups were associated with the PET surface after treatment with the gaseous radicals. The functionalized polymers were coated with an ultra-thin layer of heparin and incubated with fresh blood. The free-hemoglobin technique, which is based on the haemolysis of erythrocytes, indicated improved hemocompatibility, which was confirmed by imaging the samples using confocal optical microscopy. A significant decrease in number of adhered platelets was observed on such samples. Proliferation of both human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human microvascular endothelial cells was enhanced on treated polymers, especially after a few hours of cell seeding. Thus, the technique represents a promising substitute for wet-chemical modification of PET materials prior to coating with heparin.

  10. Evaluation glioma for C-11-methyl-L-methionine PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenji Torii; Joji Kawabe; Takehiro hayashi; Jin Kotani; Ai Oe; Etsushi Kawamura; Hirotaka Ishizu; Hiroyuki Tsushima; Mitsuhiro Hara; Susumu Shiomi; Naohiro Tsuyuguchi

    2004-01-01

    invasion) and to explore a relationship between the degree of Met accumulation and Ki-67 (a known indicator of tumor malignancy level). I investigated 67 patients (man 36, woman 31) with gliomas, from 3 to 69 years old. All gliomas according to WHO classification. (Diffusedly Astrocytoma 10 cases, Anaplastic astrocytoma 12 cases, Glioblastoma 21 cases, Ependymoma 5 cases, Oligodendroglioma 4 cases, Medulloblastoma 3 cases, DNT 2 cases, Choroid plexus papilloma 2 cases, Central neurocytoma 2 cases, Optic glioma 2 cases, Gliomatosis cerebri 2 cases, PXA 1 cases, Ganglioglioma 1 cases). The DAKO EPS(enhanced polymer one-step staining) method was applied to detect Ki67. After deparaffinization, hydrated autoclave pretreatment(121 degree C 10 min) was done. Then the section were included with anti-Ki-67 polyclonal antibody (DAKO; A047) for over night at 4 degree C. The slides were examined by light microscopy. At least 1000 cells on each specimen were counted to determin Ki-67 labeling index (abbreviated as Ki-67 LI hereinafter), the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells, in five to eight viable areas. Gliomas were respectively classified into a high Ki-67 LI group (high prolififeration group), which has high recurrence potential, showing Ki-67 LI values of not less than 2% and a low Ki-67 LI group(low prolififeration group) showing Ki-67 LI values of less than 2%. A HEADTOME IV (Shimazu Co.,Japan), a four-ring fourteen-slice positron emission tomography, was employed with the transaxial resoluton of 4.5 mm in full width at half maximum (FWHM) and clice thickness of 6.5 mm in FWHM. Patients were injected intravenously with 0.2 mCi/kg C-11 Methionin (Met) in a fastig state. Following injection, the PET scanning was started after 20 min later. The viable tumor tissue was determined using MRI accurately equivalent in scanning level with PET. A tumor of the region of' interest(ROI) was set in the circular region that was drown with the borders of the tumor region on one slice of the

  11. Nonlinear optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Nonlinear optics is the study of the interaction of intense laser light with matter. This book is a textbook on nonlinear optics at the level of a beginning graduate student. The intent of the book is to provide an introduction to the field of nonlinear optics that stresses fundamental concepts and that enables the student to go on to perform independent research in this field. This book covers the areas of nonlinear optics, quantum optics, quantum electronics, laser physics, electrooptics, and modern optics

  12. Physical optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-01

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  13. Physical optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Il Gon; Lee, Seong Su; Jang, Gi Wan

    2012-07-15

    This book indicates physical optics with properties and transmission of light, mathematical expression of wave like harmonic wave and cylindrical wave, electromagnetic theory and light, transmission of light with Fermat principle and Fresnel equation, geometrical optics I, geometrical optics II, optical instrument such as stops, glasses and camera, polarized light like double refraction by polarized light, interference, interference by multiple reflections, diffraction, solid optics, crystal optics such as Faraday rotation and Kerr effect and measurement of light. Each chapter has an exercise.

  14. Quantum optics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Agarwal, G. S

    2013-01-01

    .... Focusing on applications of quantum optics, the textbook covers recent developments such as engineering of quantum states, quantum optics on a chip, nano-mechanical mirrors, quantum entanglement...

  15. Imaging with 124I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.; Umutlu, L.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using 124 I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT 2 ) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after 124 I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT 2 acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI 2 ) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI 30 ). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI 2 detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT 2 (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI 30 tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI 2 (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine-positive lesions as either metastasis or thyroid remnant

  16. Imaging with {sup 124}I in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: is PET/MRI superior to PET/CT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binse, I.; Poeppel, T.D.; Ruhlmann, M.; Gomez, B.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Umutlu, L. [University of Duisburg-Essen, Medical Faculty, Department of Radiology, Essen (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The aim of this study was to compare integrated PET/CT and PET/MRI for their usefulness in detecting and categorizing cervical iodine-positive lesions in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer using {sup 124}I as tracer. The study group comprised 65 patients at high risk of iodine-positive metastasis who underwent PET/CT (low-dose CT scan, PET acquisition time 2 min; PET/CT{sub 2}) followed by PET/MRI of the neck 24 h after {sup 124}I administration. PET images from both modalities were analysed for the numbers of tracer-positive lesions. Two different acquisition times were used for the comparisons, one matching the PET/CT{sub 2} acquisition time (2 min, PET/MRI{sub 2}) and the other covering the whole MRI scan time (30 min, PET/MRI{sub 30}). Iodine-positive lesions were categorized as metastasis, thyroid remnant or inconclusive according to their location on the PET/CT images. Morphological information provided by MRI was considered for evaluation of lesions on PET/MRI and for volume information. PET/MRI{sub 2} detected significantly more iodine-positive metastases and thyroid remnants than PET/CT{sub 2} (72 vs. 60, p = 0.002, and 100 vs. 80, p = 0.001, respectively), but the numbers of patients with at least one tumour lesion identified were not significantly different (21/65 vs. 17/65 patients). PET/MRI{sub 30} tended to detect more PET-positive metastases than PET/MRI{sub 2} (88 vs. 72), but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07). Of 21 lesions classified as inconclusive on PET/CT, 5 were assigned to metastasis or thyroid remnant when evaluated by PET/MRI. Volume information was available in 34 % of iodine-positive metastases and 2 % of thyroid remnants on PET/MRI. PET/MRI of the neck was found to be superior to PET/CT in detecting iodine-positive lesions. This was attributed to the higher sensitivity of the PET component, Although helpful in some cases, we found no substantial advantage of PET/MRI over PET/CT in categorizing iodine

  17. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis and management of vasculitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zerizer, Imene; Tan, Kathryn; Khan, Sameer; Barwick, Tara [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imperial College Healthcare, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom); Marzola, Maria Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Radiology and Medical Physics, ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Rovigo (Italy); Rubello, Domenico [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET/CT Centre, Radiology and Medical Physics, ' Santa Maria della Misericordia' Hospital, Rovigo (Italy)], E-mail: domenico.rubello@libero.it; Al-Nahhas, Adil [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Imperial College Healthcare, Hammersmith Hospital, Du Cane Road, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: to investigate the role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of vasculitis. Materials and methods: a systematic revision of the papers published in PubMed/Medline until December 2009 was done. Results: FDG-PET and PET/CT have been proven to be valuable in the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis, especially giant cells arteritis with sensitivity values ranging 77% to 92%, and specificity values ranging 89% to 100%. In particular, FDG-PET/CT has demonstrated the potential to non-invasively diagnose the onset of the vasculitis earlier than traditional anatomical imaging techniques, thus enabling prompt treatment. False positive results mainly occur in the differential diagnosis between vasculitis and atherosclerotic vessels in elderly patients. Another area where FDG-PET/CT is gaining wider acceptance is in monitoring response to therapy; it can reliably detect the earliest changes of disease improvement post-therapy, and persistent activity is an indicator of non-responders to therapy. A few data have been reported about medium/small vessel vasculitis. Discussion: FDG-PET and PET/CT have proven utility: (a) in the initial diagnosis of patients suspected of having vasculitis particularly in those who present with non-specific symptoms; (b) in the identification of areas of increased FDG uptake in which a biopsy should be done for obtaining a diagnosis; (c) in evaluating the extent of the disease; (d) in assessing response to treatment.

  18. Role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis and management of vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerizer, Imene; Tan, Kathryn; Khan, Sameer; Barwick, Tara; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Rubello, Domenico; Al-Nahhas, Adil

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: to investigate the role of FDG-PET and PET/CT in the evaluation of vasculitis. Materials and methods: a systematic revision of the papers published in PubMed/Medline until December 2009 was done. Results: FDG-PET and PET/CT have been proven to be valuable in the diagnosis of large-vessel vasculitis, especially giant cells arteritis with sensitivity values ranging 77% to 92%, and specificity values ranging 89% to 100%. In particular, FDG-PET/CT has demonstrated the potential to non-invasively diagnose the onset of the vasculitis earlier than traditional anatomical imaging techniques, thus enabling prompt treatment. False positive results mainly occur in the differential diagnosis between vasculitis and atherosclerotic vessels in elderly patients. Another area where FDG-PET/CT is gaining wider acceptance is in monitoring response to therapy; it can reliably detect the earliest changes of disease improvement post-therapy, and persistent activity is an indicator of non-responders to therapy. A few data have been reported about medium/small vessel vasculitis. Discussion: FDG-PET and PET/CT have proven utility: (a) in the initial diagnosis of patients suspected of having vasculitis particularly in those who present with non-specific symptoms; (b) in the identification of areas of increased FDG uptake in which a biopsy should be done for obtaining a diagnosis; (c) in evaluating the extent of the disease; (d) in assessing response to treatment.

  19. An update on the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khiewvan, Benjapa; Torigian, Drew A.; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Salavati, Ali; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J.; Alavi, Abass

    2017-01-01

    This review article summarizes the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer. With regard to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the presence of FDG uptake within the ovary of a postmenopausal woman raises the concern for ovarian cancer. Multiple studies show that FDG PET/CT can detect lymph node and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer with high accuracy and may, therefore, alter the management to obtain better clinical outcomes. Although PET/CT staging is superior for N and M staging of ovarian cancer, its role is limited for T staging. Additionally, FDG PET/CT is of great benefit in evaluating treatment response and has prognostic value in patients with ovarian cancer. FDG PET/CT also has value to detect recurrent disease, particularly in patients with elevated serum CA-125 levels and negative or inconclusive conventional imaging test results. PET/MRI may beneficial for tumor staging because MRI has higher soft tissue contrast and no ionizing radiation exposure compared to CT. Some non-FDG PET radiotracers such as 18 F-fluorothymidine (FLT) or 11 C-methionine (MET) have been studied in preclinical and clinical studies as well and may play a role in the evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  20. Imaging corn plants with PhytoPET, a modular PET system for plant biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.; Kross, B.; McKisson, J.; McKisson, J. E.; Weisenberger, A. G.; Xi, W.; Zorn, C.; Bonito, G.; Howell, C. R.; Reid, C. D.; Crowell, A.; Cumberbatch, L. C.; Topp, C.; Smith, M. F.

    2013-11-01

    PhytoPET is a modular positron emission tomography (PET) system designed specifically for plant imaging. The PhytoPET design allows flexible arrangements of PET detectors based on individual standalone detector modules built from single Hamamatsu H8500 position sensitive photomultiplier tubes and pixelated LYSO arrays. We have used the PhytoPET system to perform preliminary corn plant imaging studies at the Duke University Biology Department Phytotron. Initial evaluation of the PhytoPET system to image the biodistribution of the positron emitting tracer {sup 11}C in corn plants is presented. {sup 11}CO{sub 2} is loaded into corn seedlings by a leaf-labeling cuvette and translocation of {sup 11}C-sugars is imaged by a flexible arrangement of PhytoPET modules on each side. The PhytoPET system successfully images {sup 11}C within corn plants and allows for the dynamic measurement of {sup 11}C-sugar translocation from the leaf to the roots.

  1. PET motion correction in context of integrated PET/MR: Current techniques, limitations, and future projections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Ashley; Smith, Jye; Thomas, Paul; Rose, Stephen; Dowson, Nicholas

    2017-12-01

    Patient motion is an important consideration in modern PET image reconstruction. Advances in PET technology mean motion has an increasingly important influence on resulting image quality. Motion-induced artifacts can have adverse effects on clinical outcomes, including missed diagnoses and oversized radiotherapy treatment volumes. This review aims to summarize the wide variety of motion correction techniques available in PET and combined PET/CT and PET/MR, with a focus on the latter. A general framework for the motion correction of PET images is presented, consisting of acquisition, modeling, and correction stages. Methods for measuring, modeling, and correcting motion and associated artifacts, both in literature and commercially available, are presented, and their relative merits are contrasted. Identified limitations of current methods include modeling of aperiodic and/or unpredictable motion, attaining adequate temporal resolution for motion correction in dynamic kinetic modeling acquisitions, and maintaining availability of the MR in PET/MR scans for diagnostic acquisitions. Finally, avenues for future investigation are discussed, with a focus on improvements that could improve PET image quality, and that are practical in the clinical environment. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  2. PET/CT and dedicated PET in breast cancer: Implications for classification, staging, and response monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolen, B.B.

    2013-01-01

    De PET-CT, een scan die gebruik maakt van radioactiviteit om tumoren in beeld te brengen, is een zinvol instrument voor beeldvorming van patiënten met borstkanker, met name van patiënten met een tumor groter dan drie centimeter of tumor-positieve lymfeklieren. De PET-CT is vooral van waarde voor de

  3. An update on the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khiewvan, Benjapa [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mahidol University, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Bangkok (Thailand); Torigian, Drew A.; Emamzadehfard, Sahra; Paydary, Koosha; Salavati, Ali; Houshmand, Sina; Werner, Thomas J.; Alavi, Abass [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-06-15

    This review article summarizes the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in ovarian cancer. With regard to the diagnosis of ovarian cancer, the presence of FDG uptake within the ovary of a postmenopausal woman raises the concern for ovarian cancer. Multiple studies show that FDG PET/CT can detect lymph node and distant metastasis in ovarian cancer with high accuracy and may, therefore, alter the management to obtain better clinical outcomes. Although PET/CT staging is superior for N and M staging of ovarian cancer, its role is limited for T staging. Additionally, FDG PET/CT is of great benefit in evaluating treatment response and has prognostic value in patients with ovarian cancer. FDG PET/CT also has value to detect recurrent disease, particularly in patients with elevated serum CA-125 levels and negative or inconclusive conventional imaging test results. PET/MRI may beneficial for tumor staging because MRI has higher soft tissue contrast and no ionizing radiation exposure compared to CT. Some non-FDG PET radiotracers such as {sup 18}F-fluorothymidine (FLT) or {sup 11}C-methionine (MET) have been studied in preclinical and clinical studies as well and may play a role in the evaluation of patients with ovarian cancer. (orig.)

  4. Assess PET/MR in diagnosis of disease in comparison with PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Jianhua; Lim, Jason Chu-Chern; Loi, Hoi Yin; Totoman, John; Sinha, Arvind Kumar; Quek, Swee Titan; Townsend, David

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the performance of 18F-FDG whole body PET/MRI in comparison with PET/CT based on SUV. Anatomical location of lesion with Dixon MRI and additional value of advanced MRI technology such as diffusion weighted MR imaging in diagnosis of malignant disease will also be investigated.

  5. Guidelines for 18F-FDG PET and PET-CT imaging in paediatric oncology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stauss, J.; Franzius, C.; Pfluger, T.

    2008-01-01

    tomography ((18)F-FDG PET) in paediatric oncology. The Oncology Committee of the European Association of Nuclear Medicine (EANM) has published excellent procedure guidelines on tumour imaging with (18)F-FDG PET (Bombardieri et al., Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 30:BP115-24, 2003). These guidelines, published...

  6. FDG-PET identification of intraperitoneal metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamez, C.; Jimenez-Hoyuelam, J.M.; Rebollo, A.C.; Gonzalez, P.; Rico, J.M.; Alba, E.; Sacchetti, A.; Lopez-Rueda, B.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Peritoneal metastases (PM) are usually from intra-abdominal primary neoplasms, such as carcinoma of the stomach, colon, ovary, and pancreas, or from intra-abdominal lymphoma. Metastases disseminate throughout the peritoneum in four ways: 1) direct spread along peritoneal ligaments, mesenteries and omenta; 2) via the flow of ascitis fluid. 3) lymphatic extension, and 4) embolic hematogenous spread. Although CT is quite specific in identifying PM it is not very sensitive, and peritoneal lavage or biopsy can be very useful but have sampling errors. This study assessed the clinical value of FDG-PET for the detection of PM of malignant diseases. Materials and Methods: 15 FDG-PET scans of patients referred for recurrence (mean age = 54 y/o, sex = 6M, 9F), with metabolic abnormalities suspicious findings of PM from carcinoma of the colon (7), ovary (3), lymphoma (2), pancreas (1), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (1) and melanoma (1) were reviewed. The whole-body studies were performed 50 min following the intravenous administration of 370 MBq of 18F-FDG, in a high resolution dedicated PET scanner (Advance, GEMS), with images reconstructed using a iterative algorithm with segmented attenuation correction. Visual interpretation and SUV values were correlated with CT/MRI findings and biopsy/follow-up. Results: Of the 15 patients, 7 showed <3 sites of focal uptake and 8 presented multiple foci or a diffuse hypermetabolism in the abdomen (SUVmax3.04-18.83 g/ml). 6 patients had biopsy confirmation by PET-directed surgery (6 proven PM, 0 negative biopsies). 11 FDG-PET scans had correspondence with the CT/MRI findings and 4 showed discrepancies (PET positive-CT/MRI negative in patients with isolated raising tumor markers levels or unsuspected PM). FDG-PET influenced the therapeutic management in 2 patients as presented multiple metastases leading them from surgery to chemotherapy. Conclusion: When used as a complementary imaging tool to the conventional work up, FDG-PET is

  7. PET/CT in lymphoma patients; PET-CT bei Lymphompatienten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinert, H.C. [Universitaetsspital Zuerich, Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin (Switzerland)

    2004-11-01

    First results of PET/CT in Hodgkin's disease (HD) and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) are reported. From March 2001 to August 2004 822 PET/CT were performed at our clinic in lymphoma patients for primary staging, restaging after therapy, and diagnosis of recurrence. For coregistration non contrast-enhanced low-dose CT were used. Due to the exact anatomic localization of {sup 18}F-FDG accumulating lesions equivocal or false positive PET findings are avoided. In comparison to contrast enhanced CT, PET/CT has a higher sensitivity and specificity in patients with HD and aggressive NHL. Integration of PET/CT in treatment planning of radiation therapy optimizes the field volume. Even in the initial phase of clinical evaluation, PET/CT has proven useful in staging and restaging of lymphoma. The exact anatomic localization of the PET findings is essential for a precise report, for treatment planning of radiation therapy, and for planning surgical biopsy. (orig.) [German] Erste Ergebnisse der PET-CT bei Morbus Hodgkin (HD) und den aggressiven Non-Hodgkin-Lymphomen (NHL) werden beschrieben. Von Maerz 2001 bis August 2004 wurden 822 PET-CT bei Lymphompatienten zum primaeren Staging, zum Restaging nach Therapie und zur Rezidivdiagnostik an unserer Klinik durchgefuehrt. Fuer die Koregistration wurde ein Low-dose-CT ohne i.v.-Kontrastmittel verwendet. Durch die exakte anatomische Zuordnung der {sup 18}F-FDG aufnehmenden Laesionen wurden unklare oder falsch-positive PET-Befunde vermieden. Die PET-CT erzielte im Vergleich zur KM-verstaerkten CT eine hoehere Sensitivitaet und Spezifitaet bei Patienten mit HD und aggressiven NHL. Die Integration der PET-CT in die Planung der Strahlentherapie fuehrte zu einer Optimierung der Feldgrenzen. Die PET-CT hat sich bereits in der Phase der initialen klinischen Evaluation als wertvoll beim Staging und Restaging von Lymphomen erwiesen. Die exakte anatomische Zuordnung der PET-Informationen ist fuer eine sichere Befundung

  8. PET/CT with intravenous contrast can be used for PET attenuation correction in cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthelsen, A.K.; Holm, S.; Loft, A.; Klausen, T.L.; Andersen, F.; Hoejgaard, L.

    2005-01-01

    If the CT scan of a combined PET/CT study is performed as a full diagnostic quality CT scan including intravenous (IV) contrast agent, the quality of the joint PET/CT procedure is improved and a separate diagnostic CT scan can be avoided. CT with IV contrast can be used for PET attenuation correction, but this may result in a bias in the attenuation factors. The clinical significance of this bias has not been established. Our aim was to perform a prospective clinical study where each patient had CT performed with and without IV contrast agent to establish whether PET/CT with IV contrast can be used for PET attenuation without reducing the clinical value of the PET scan. A uniform phantom study was used to document that the PET acquisition itself is not significantly influenced by the presence of IV contrast medium. Then, 19 patients referred to PET/CT with IV contrast underwent CT scans without, and then with contrast agent, followed by an 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose whole-body PET scan. The CT examinations were performed with identical parameters on a GE Discovery LS scanner. The PET data were reconstructed with attenuation correction based on the two CT data sets. A global comparison of standard uptake value (SUV) was performed, and SUVs in tumour, in non-tumour tissue and in the subclavian vein were calculated. Clinical evaluation of the number and location of lesions on all PET/CT scans was performed twice, blinded and in a different random order, by two independent nuclear medicine specialists. In all patients, the measured global SUV of PET images based on CT with IV contrast agent was higher than the global activity using non-contrast correction. The overall increase in the mean SUV (for two different conversion tables tested) was 4.5±2.3% and 1.6±0.5%, respectively. In 11/19 patients, focal uptake was identified corresponding to malignant tumours. Eight out of 11 tumours showed an increased SUV max (2.9±3.1%) on the PET images reconstructed using IV contrast

  9. Clinical Evaluation of PET Image Quality as a Function of Acquisition Time in a New TOF-PET/MRI Compared to TOF-PET/CT--Initial Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeimpekis, Konstantinos G; Barbosa, Felipe; Hüllner, Martin; ter Voert, Edwin; Davison, Helen; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Delso, Gaspar

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare only the performance of the PET component between a TOF-PET/CT (henceforth noted as PET/CT) scanner and an integrated TOF-PET/MRI (henceforth noted as PET/MRI) scanner concerning image quality parameters and quantification in terms of standardized uptake value (SUV) as a function of acquisition time (a surrogate of dose). The CT and MR image quality were not assessed, and that is beyond the scope of this study. Five brain and five whole-body patients were included in the study. The PET/CT scan was used as a reference and the PET/MRI acquisition time was consecutively adjusted, taking into account the decay between the scans in order to expose both systems to the same amount of the emitted signal. The acquisition times were then retrospectively reduced to assess the performance of the PET/MRI for lower count rates. Image quality, image sharpness, artifacts, and noise were evaluated. SUV measurements were taken in the liver and in the white matter to compare quantification. Quantitative evaluation showed strong correlation between PET/CT and PET/MRI brain SUVs. Liver correlation was good, however, with lower uptake estimation in PET/MRI, partially justified by bio-redistribution. The clinical evaluation showed that PET/MRI offers higher image quality and sharpness with lower levels of noise and artifacts compared to PET/CT with reduced acquisition times for whole-body scans while for brain scans there is no significant difference. The TOF-PET/MRI showed higher image quality compared to TOF-PET/CT as tested with reduced imaging times. However, this result accounts mainly for body imaging, while no significant differences were found in brain imaging.

  10. Validating PET segmentation of thoracic lesions-is 4D PET necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M. S.; Carl, J.

    2017-01-01

    Respiratory-induced motions are prone to degrade the positron emission tomography (PET) signal with the consequent loss of image information and unreliable segmentations. This phantom study aims to assess the discrepancies relative to stationary PET segmentations, of widely used semiautomatic PET...... segmentation methods on heterogeneous target lesions influenced by motion during image acquisition. Three target lesions included dual F-18 Fluoro-deoxy-glucose (FDG) tracer concentrations as high-and low tracer activities relative to the background. Four different tracer concentration arrangements were...... segmented using three SUV threshold methods (Max40%, SUV40% and 2.5SUV) and a gradient based method (GradientSeg). Segmentations in static 3D-PET scans (PETsta) specified the reference conditions for the individual segmentation methods, target lesions and tracer concentrations. The motion included PET...

  11. Positron emission tomography and optical tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falen, Steven W [Carmichael, CA; Hoefer, Richard A [Newport News, VA; Majewski, Stanislaw [Yorktown, VA; McKisson, John [Hampton, VA; Kross, Brian [Yorktown, VA; Proffitt, James [Newport News, VA; Stolin, Alexander [Newport News, VA; Weisenberger, Andrew G [Yorktown, VA

    2012-05-22

    A mobile compact imaging system that combines both PET imaging and optical imaging into a single system which can be located in the operating room (OR) and provides faster feedback to determine if a tumor has been fully resected and if there are adequate surgical margins. While final confirmation is obtained from the pathology lab, such a device can reduce the total time necessary for the procedure and the number of iterations required to achieve satisfactory resection of a tumor with good margins.

  12. Clinical Nononcologic Applications of PET/CT and PET/MRI in Musculoskeletal, Orthopedic, and Rheumatologic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Basques, Kyle; Batouli, Ali; Matcuk, George; Alavi, Abass; Jadvar, Hossein

    2018-06-01

    With improvements in PET/CT and PET/MRI over the last decade, as well as increased understanding of the pathophysiology of musculoskeletal diseases, there is an emerging potential for PET as a primary or complementary modality in the management of rheumatologic and orthopedic conditions. We discuss the role of PET/CT and PET/MRI in nononcologic musculoskeletal disorders, including inflammatory and infectious conditions and postoperative complications. There is great potential for an increased role for PET to serve as a primary or complementary modality in the management of orthopedic and rheumatologic disorders.

  13. Bacteriophages safely reduce Salmonella contamination in pet food and raw pet food ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soffer, Nitzan; Abuladze, Tamar; Woolston, Joelle; Li, Manrong; Hanna, Leigh Farris; Heyse, Serena; Charbonneau, Duane; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of pet food with Salmonella is a serious public health concern, and several disease outbreaks have recently occurred due to human exposure to Salmonella tainted pet food. The problem is especially challenging for raw pet foods (which include raw meats, seafood, fruits, and vegetables). These foods are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional qualities, but they are also more difficult to maintain Salmonella -free because they lack heat-treatment. Among various methods examined to improve the safety of pet foods (including raw pet food), one intriguing approach is to use bacteriophages to specifically kill Salmonella serotypes. At least 2 phage preparations (SalmoFresh® and Salmonelex™) targeting Salmonella are already FDA cleared for commercial applications to improve the safety of human foods. However, similar preparations are not yet available for pet food applications. Here, we report the results of evaluating one such preparation (SalmoLyse®) in reducing Salmonella levels in various raw pet food ingredients (chicken, tuna, turkey, cantaloupe, and lettuce). Application of SalmoLyse® in low (ca. 2-4×10 6 PFU/g) and standard (ca. 9×10 6 PFU/g) concentrations significantly ( P contamination in all raw foods examined compared to control treatments. When SalmoLyse®-treated (ca. 2×10 7 PFU/g) dry pet food was fed to cats and dogs, it did not trigger any deleterious side effects in the pets. Our data suggest that the bacteriophage cocktail lytic for Salmonella can significantly and safely reduce Salmonella contamination in various raw pet food ingredients.

  14. Present and future of PET and PET/CT in gynaecologic malignancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musto, Alessandra; Rampin, Lucia; Nanni, Cristina; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Fanti, Stefano; Rubello, Domenico

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To review the published data in literature on patients affected by gynaecological malignancies to establish the role of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in comparison to conventional imaging (CI). Materials and methods: All papers specifically addressed to the role of 18 F-FDG PET and PET/CT in gynaecological malignancies published on PubMed/Medline, in abstracts from the principal international congresses, in the guidelines from national Societies that had appeared in literature until November 2009 were considered for the purpose of the present study. Results and conclusions: The use of 18 F-FDG PET, and even more of 18 F-FDG PET/CT, is increasing in the follow up of patients with gynaecologic malignancies and suspected recurrent disease: there is evidence in the literature that 18 F-FDG PET/CT has a higher sensitivity than CI in depicting occult metastatic spread. An interesting issue is represented by patients with ovarian cancer with an increase of the specific biomarker, CA-125, and negative/inconclusive findings at CI. The use of 18 F-FDG PET in differential diagnosis and staging is more controversial, but there is some evidence that a baseline PET examination performed before commencing therapy, for staging purpose, is also useful to evaluate the response to chemoradiation treatment. In several papers it has been suggested a relevant role of 18 F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating the entity of response to treatment and therefore to plan the subsequent therapeutic strategy.

  15. Present and future of PET and PET/CT in gynaecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musto, Alessandra [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Rampin, Lucia [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Nanni, Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Marzola, Maria Cristina [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy); Fanti, Stefano [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Policlinico Sant' Orsola Malpighi, Bologna University, Bologna (Italy); Rubello, Domenico, E-mail: domenico.rubello@libero.it [Department of Nuclear Medicine, PET Center, Radiology, Medical Physics, Santa Maria della Misericordia Hospital, viale tre martiri 140, 45100 Rovigo (Italy)

    2011-04-15

    Objectives: To review the published data in literature on patients affected by gynaecological malignancies to establish the role of {sup 18}F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/CT in comparison to conventional imaging (CI). Materials and methods: All papers specifically addressed to the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET and PET/CT in gynaecological malignancies published on PubMed/Medline, in abstracts from the principal international congresses, in the guidelines from national Societies that had appeared in literature until November 2009 were considered for the purpose of the present study. Results and conclusions: The use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET, and even more of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, is increasing in the follow up of patients with gynaecologic malignancies and suspected recurrent disease: there is evidence in the literature that {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT has a higher sensitivity than CI in depicting occult metastatic spread. An interesting issue is represented by patients with ovarian cancer with an increase of the specific biomarker, CA-125, and negative/inconclusive findings at CI. The use of {sup 18}F-FDG PET in differential diagnosis and staging is more controversial, but there is some evidence that a baseline PET examination performed before commencing therapy, for staging purpose, is also useful to evaluate the response to chemoradiation treatment. In several papers it has been suggested a relevant role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating the entity of response to treatment and therefore to plan the subsequent therapeutic strategy.

  16. PET/MRI in head and neck cancer: initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzek, Ivan; Laniado, Michael [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dresden (Germany); Beuthien-Baumann, Bettina [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Schneider, Matthias [Dresden University Hospital, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Gudziol, Volker [Dresden University Hospital, Department of Otolaryngology, Dresden (Germany); Langner, Jens; Schramm, Georg; Hoff, Joerg van den [Institute of Bioinorganic and Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Kotzerke, Joerg [Dresden University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    To evaluate the feasibility of PET/MRI (positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging) with FDG ({sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose) for initial staging of head and neck cancer. The study group comprised 20 patients (16 men, 4 women) aged between 52 and 81 years (median 64 years) with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region. The patients underwent a PET scan on a conventional scanner and a subsequent PET/MRI examination on a whole-body hybrid system. FDG was administered intravenously prior to the conventional PET scan (267-395 MBq FDG, 348 MBq on average). The maximum standardized uptake values (SUV{sub max}) of the tumour and of both cerebellar hemispheres were determined for both PET datasets. The numbers of lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake were compared between the two PET datasets. No MRI-induced artefacts where observed in the PET images. The tumour was detected by PET/MRI in 17 of the 20 patients, by PET in 16 and by MRI in 14. The PET/MRI examination yielded significantly higher SUV{sub max} than the conventional PET scanner for both the tumour (p < 0.0001) and the cerebellum (p = 0.0009). The number of lymph nodes with increased FDG uptake detected using the PET dataset from the PET/MRI system was significantly higher the number detected by the stand-alone PET system (64 vs. 39, p = 0.001). The current study demonstrated that PET/MRI of the whole head and neck region is feasible with a whole-body PET/MRI system without impairment of PET or MR image quality. (orig.)

  17. Peritoneal carcinomatosis - the role of FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turlakow, A.; Yeung, H.W.; Macapinlac, H.A.; Sanchez, A.F.; Larson, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Peritoneal carcinomatosis can be difficult to diagnose, as CT is insensitive, with peritoneal biopsy and lavage often subject to problems of sampling error. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of FDG PET in detecting peritoneal carcinomatosis in patients with biopsy-proven metastases from stomach, ovarian and adrenal cancer and mesothelioma. 92 FDG-PET scans of patients with stomach (49), ovarian (14) adrenal cancer (7) and mesothelioma (22) were reviewed. Studies were performed 45 minutes following IV injection of 10 mCi of 18 F-FDG. Of this group 15 patients had biopsy-proven findings of peritoneal disease while 14 had PET studies reported as suspicious for peritoneal metastasis. Of the 15 biopsy-positive patients, FDG PET was positive in 7, CT in 6 and either PET or CT in 10 (sensitivities 46.6,40.0 and 66.6% respectively). In a further 4 patients without biopsies, where other imaging studies confirmed peritoneal disease, PET was also positive. 2 distinct abnormal scintigraphic patterns of focal and uniform FDG uptake were identified corresponding to nodular and diffuse peritoneal disease at pathology. Our study demonstrates that FDG PET adds to conventional imaging in the staging of peritoneal carcinomatosis. It is also a useful diagnostic tool when peritoneal biopsy is either unavailable or inappropriate. We have identified 2 distinct scintigraphic patterns which appear to predict the presence of either nodular or diffuse peritoneal pathology.Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  18. Direct comparison of [18F]FDG PET/CT with PET alone and with side-by-side PET and CT in patients with malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottaghy, Felix M.; Wohlfart, Petra; Blumstein, Norbert M.; Neumaier, Bernd; Glatting, Gerhard; Buck, Andreas K.; Reske, Sven N.; Sunderkoetter, Cord; Schubert, Roland; Oezdemir, Cueneyt; Scharfetter-Kochanek, Karin

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective, blinded study was to evaluate the additional value of [ 18 F]FDG PET/CT in comparison with PET alone and with side-by-side PET and CT in patients with malignant melanoma (MM). A total of 127 consecutive studies of patients with known MM referred for a whole-body PET/CT examination were included in this study. PET alone, side-by-side PET and CT and integrated PET/CT study were independently and separately interpreted without awareness of the clinical information. One score each was applied for certainty of lesion localisation and for certainty of lesion characterisation. Verification of the findings was subsequently performed using all available clinical, pathological (n = 30) and follow-up information. The number of lesions with an uncertain localisation was significantly (p 18 F]FDG. (orig.)

  19. MRI-assisted PET motion correction for neurologic studies in an integrated MR-PET scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Benner, Thomas; van der Kouwe, Andre; Byars, Larry; Hamm, Michael; Chonde, Daniel B; Michel, Christian J; El Fakhri, Georges; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Head motion is difficult to avoid in long PET studies, degrading the image quality and offsetting the benefit of using a high-resolution scanner. As a potential solution in an integrated MR-PET scanner, the simultaneously acquired MRI data can be used for motion tracking. In this work, a novel algorithm for data processing and rigid-body motion correction (MC) for the MRI-compatible BrainPET prototype scanner is described, and proof-of-principle phantom and human studies are presented. To account for motion, the PET prompt and random coincidences and sensitivity data for postnormalization were processed in the line-of-response (LOR) space according to the MRI-derived motion estimates. The processing time on the standard BrainPET workstation is approximately 16 s for each motion estimate. After rebinning in the sinogram space, the motion corrected data were summed, and the PET volume was reconstructed using the attenuation and scatter sinograms in the reference position. The accuracy of the MC algorithm was first tested using a Hoffman phantom. Next, human volunteer studies were performed, and motion estimates were obtained using 2 high-temporal-resolution MRI-based motion-tracking techniques. After accounting for the misalignment between the 2 scanners, perfectly coregistered MRI and PET volumes were reproducibly obtained. The MRI output gates inserted into the PET list-mode allow the temporal correlation of the 2 datasets within 0.2 ms. The Hoffman phantom volume reconstructed by processing the PET data in the LOR space was similar to the one obtained by processing the data using the standard methods and applying the MC in the image space, demonstrating the quantitative accuracy of the procedure. In human volunteer studies, motion estimates were obtained from echo planar imaging and cloverleaf navigator sequences every 3 s and 20 ms, respectively. Motion-deblurred PET images, with excellent delineation of specific brain structures, were obtained using these 2 MRI

  20. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, H.; Yuan, L.; Li, C.; Kan, Y.; Yang, J.; Hao, R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  1. Diagnostic performance of FDG PET or PET/CT in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H; Yuan, L; Li, C; Kan, Y; Hao, R; Yang, J

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of published data regarding the diagnostic performance of positron emission tomography (PET) or PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) in prosthetic infection after arthroplasty. A comprehensive computer literature search of studies published through May 31, 2012 regarding PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection was performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of PET or PET/CT in patients suspicious of prosthetic infection on a per prosthesis-based analysis were calculated. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to measure the accuracy of PET or PET/CT in patients with suspicious of prosthetic infection. Fourteen studies comprising 838 prosthesis with suspicious of prosthetic infection after arthroplasty were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% confidence interval [CI] 82-90%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The pooled specificity of PET or PET/CT in detecting prosthetic infection was 86% (95% CI 83-89%) on a per prosthesis-based analysis. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93 on a per prosthesis-based analysis. In patients suspicious of prosthetic infection, FDG PET or PET/CT demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity. FDG PET or PET/CT are accurate methods in this setting. Nevertheless, possible sources of false positive results and influcing factors should kept in mind.

  2. Simultaneous PET-MR acquisition and MR-derived motion fields for correction of non-rigid motion in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsoumpas, C.; Mackewn, J.E.; Halsted, P.; King, A.P.; Buerger, C.; Totman, J.J.; Schaeffter, T.; Marsden, P.K.

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) provides an accurate measurement of radiotracer concentration in vivo, but performance can be limited by subject motion which degrades spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy. This effect may become a limiting factor for PET studies in the body as PET scanner technology improves. In this work, we propose a new approach to address this problem by employing motion information from images measured simultaneously using a magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. The approach is demonstrated using an MR-compatible PET scanner and PET-MR acquisition with a purpose-designed phantom capable of non-rigid deformations. Measured, simultaneously acquired MR data were used to correct for motion in PET, and results were compared with those obtained using motion information from PET images alone. Motion artefacts were significantly reduced and the PET image quality and quantification was significantly improved by the use of MR motion fields, whilst the use of PET-only motion information was less successful. Combined PET-MR acquisitions potentially allow PET motion compensation in whole-body acquisitions without prolonging PET acquisition time or increasing radiation dose. This, to the best of our knowledge, is the first study to demonstrate that simultaneously acquired MR data can be used to estimate and correct for the effects of non-rigid motion in PET. (author)

  3. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus S; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette F

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of (18)F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131......) indicating that the luminal (18)F-FDG content had minimal influence on the values. The study shows for the first time that simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid arteries is feasible in patients with increased risk of atherosclerosis. Quantification of (18)F-FDG uptake correlated well between PET/MR and PET...

  4. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sunhee; Salamon, Noriko; Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2010-01-01

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  5. PET imaging in pediatric neuroradiology: current and future applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sunhee [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Salamon, Noriko [UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Department of Radiology, Ronald Reagan UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Jackson, Hollie A.; Blueml, Stefan [Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of UPMC, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Keck School of Medicine of USC, Department of Radiology, Childrens Hospital Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Molecular imaging with positron emitting tomography (PET) is widely accepted as an essential part of the diagnosis and evaluation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease processes. PET has expanded its role from the research domain into clinical application for oncology, cardiology and neuropsychiatry. More recently, PET is being used as a clinical molecular imaging tool in pediatric neuroimaging. PET is considered an accurate and noninvasive method to study brain activity and to understand pediatric neurological disease processes. In this review, specific examples of the clinical use of PET are given with respect to pediatric neuroimaging. The current use of co-registration of PET with MR imaging is exemplified in regard to pediatric epilepsy. The current use of PET/CT in the evaluation of head and neck lymphoma and pediatric brain tumors is also reviewed. Emerging technologies including PET/MRI and neuroreceptor imaging are discussed. (orig.)

  6. Positron emission tomography (PET) for oncologic applications in oral region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shozushima, Masanori; Terasaki, Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    A rapidly emerging clinical application of positron emission tomography (PET) is the detection of cancer with radionuclide tracer, because it provides information unavailable by ultrasound, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The most commonly used radiotracer for PET oncologic imaging is fluorine-18-labeled fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). Early studies show PET has potential value in viewing the region of the tumor, detecting, staging, grading, monitoring response to anticancer therapy, and differentiating recurrent or residual disease from post treatment changes. However, limitations of FDG-PET in the head and neck region, namely, physiological FDG uptake in the salivary glands and palatine tonsils, have been reported, increasing the false-positive rates in image interpretation. This review was designed to address these distinctions of oral cancer PET imaging: specialization of PET equipment, cancer cell metabolism, proliferation and tracers, clinical diagnosis of oral cancer with PET, pitfalls in oncologic diagnosis with FDG-PET imaging. (author)

  7. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhara, Tetsuya [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [{sup 3}H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with {sup 11}C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [{sup 11}C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [{sup 11}C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high

  8. PET application in psychiatry and psychopharmacology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhara, Tetsuya

    1999-01-01

    In the last few decades diagnostic and research tools in the medical field have made great advances, yet psychiatry has lacked sufficiently sensitive tools to measure the aberration of brain functions. Recently however, the development of Positron emission tomography (PET) techniques has made it possible to measure changes in neurochemical components in mental disorders and the effect of psychoactive drugs in living human brain. Most of the advancement in the psychiatric field has came from the development psychoactive drugs. Brain research involving identification of neurotransmission is largely based on compounds developed in psychopharmacology. Some of these compounds have been radiolabelled and used as radioligands for quantitative examination of neuroreceptors and other aspects of neurotransmission. Using PET, radioligand binding can now be examined in the human brain in vivo. PET techniques also allow examination of an unlabelled drug by examination of its interaction with a radioligand. So one potential of PET in psychiatry is to investigate the mechanism of psychoactive drugs. Antidepressants modulate serotonin transmission by inhibiting serotonin reuptake from the synaptic cleft. High affinity [ 3 H]imipramine binding sites in mammalian brain have been labelled to investigate serotonin transporters in living human brain by PET. Cyanoimipramine which is described as a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor, was labelled with 11 C. In a PET experiment with 6 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation of [ 11 C]cyanoimipramine was found in the thalamus and striatum and lowest accumulation was observed in the cerebellum, a region relatively void of serotonin transporters. The thalamus to cerebellum ratio was about 2 at 90 min after the injection of the tracer. Recently, [ 11 C]McN5652-X has been introduced as a better tracer for serotonin transporter imaging. Employing [ 11 C]McN5652-X in a PET study of 7 healthy human subjects, a high accumulation was observed

  9. [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors: comparison of hybrid PET, dedicated PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Poepperl, G.; Hahn, K.; Szeimies, U.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors using a Hybrid-PET device of the 2nd or 3rd generation. Examinations were compared to dedicated PET and Spiral-CT. Methods: 54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors were examined using dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [F-18]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first followed by a scan on the Hybrid-PET. Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, Hybrid-PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique. All finding have been verified by the goldstandard histology or in case of negative histology by follow up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using Hybrid-PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with Hybrid-PET and in 15/18 with CT. False positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastastic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with Hybrid-PET elsewhere in the body. Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. Conclusion: Using Hybrid-PET for [F-18]FDG imaging reveals a loss of sensitivity and specificity of about 1-5% as compared to dedicated PET in head and neck tumors. [F-18]FDG PET with both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET is superior to CT in the diagnosis of primary or recurrent lesions as well as in the assessment of lymph node involvement. (orig.) [de

  10. Optical Computing

    OpenAIRE

    Woods, Damien; Naughton, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    We consider optical computers that encode data using images and compute by transforming such images. We give an overview of a number of such optical computing architectures, including descriptions of the type of hardware commonly used in optical computing, as well as some of the computational efficiencies of optical devices. We go on to discuss optical computing from the point of view of computational complexity theory, with the aim of putting some old, and some very recent, re...

  11. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases.

  12. Can body volume be determined by PET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hentschel, Michael; Paul, Dominik; Mix, Michael; Moser, Ernst; Brink, Ingo; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike; Mueller, Frank; Merk, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    To avoid dependence on body weight, the standardised uptake value (SUV) in positron emission tomography (PET) can instead be normalised to the lean body mass (LBM), which can be determined from body volume and mass. This study was designed to answer the following questions: Firstly, can the total body volume in principle be determined using PET? Secondly, is the precision of this measurement comparable to that achieved using an established standard method. Ten patients were examined during oncological whole-body PET examinations. The whole-body volume of the patients was determined from the transmission scan in PET. Air displacement plethysmography with BOD POD was used for comparison as the standard method of volume determination. In all patients, the whole-body volumes could be determined using PET and the standard method. Bland and Altman [23] analysis for agreement between the volumes determined by the two methods (presentation of differences vs means) revealed a very small difference of -0.14 l. With a mean patient volume of 71.81±15.93 l, the relative systematic error is only LBM ). (orig.)

  13. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L., E-mail: joaquin@nuclear.fis.ucm.es [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Espana, S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Cal-Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain); Vaquero, J.J. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Desco, M. [Departmento de Bioingenieria e Ingenieria Espacial, Universidad Carlos III, Madrid (Spain); Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital General Universitario Gregorio Maranon, Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Grupo de Fisica Nuclear, Departmento Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain)

    2011-08-21

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  14. Fully 3D GPU PET reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Cal-Gonzalez, J.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fully 3D iterative tomographic image reconstruction is computationally very demanding. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) has been proposed for many years as potential accelerators in complex scientific problems, but it has not been used until the recent advances in the programmability of GPUs that the best available reconstruction codes have started to be implemented to be run on GPUs. This work presents a GPU-based fully 3D PET iterative reconstruction software. This new code may reconstruct sinogram data from several commercially available PET scanners. The most important and time-consuming parts of the code, the forward and backward projection operations, are based on an accurate model of the scanner obtained with the Monte Carlo code PeneloPET and they have been massively parallelized on the GPU. For the PET scanners considered, the GPU-based code is more than 70 times faster than a similar code running on a single core of a fast CPU, obtaining in both cases the same images. The code has been designed to be easily adapted to reconstruct sinograms from any other PET scanner, including scanner prototypes.

  15. Evaluation of various hepatic lesions with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chul Ju

    2000-12-01

    When a liver lesion is found in a PET image, differential diagnosis and analysis of the lesion is very important. We tried to analyze hepatic lesions found in PET. 53 patients with focal liver lesions (13 patients with HCC, 8 patients with cholangiocarcinoma (CC), 20 patients with liver metastasis, 5 patients with hemangioma, 7 patients with liver abscess, including 1 patient with liver candidiasis) were examined. Definitely high FDG uptake pattern were observed in 54% (7/13) of HCC, 100% (8/8) of CC, 95% (19/20) of metastatic liver cancer and 100% (7/7) of liver abscess. Therefore, PET was partially useful in the diagnosis of HCC, but it was very useful in the diagnosis of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess. The contrast between lesions and surrounding liver background was very conspicuous in PET images of CC or liver metastasis or liver abscess, which suggests that PET might be used for the follow up and assessment of treatment response of these diseases

  16. Centrifugally Spun Recycled PET: Processing and Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phu Phong Vo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Centrifugal spinning, which is a high-productivity fiber fabrication technique, was used to produce a value-added product from recycled poly(ethylene terephthalate (rPET. In the present study, rPET fibers, with fiber diameters ranging from submicron to micrometer in scale, were fabricated by spinning a solution of rPET in a mixture of dichloromethane and trifluoroacetic acid. The influence of the polymer solution concentration (the viscosity, the rotational speed of the spinneret, and the inner diameter of the needles on the formation and morphology and mechanical properties of the fibers were examined through scanning electron microscopy and using a tensile testing machine. The thermal behaviors of fibrous mats with various average diameters were also investigated through differential scanning calorimetry. The smoothest and smallest fibers, with an average diameter of 619 nm, were generated using an rPET solution of 10 wt % under a rotation speed of 15,000 rpm using needles having an inner diameter of 160 μm. The fibrous mats have an average tensile strength and modulus of 4.3 MPa and 34.4 MPa, respectively. The productivity and the mechanical properties indicate that centrifugal spinning is an effective technique to fabricate high-value product from rPET.

  17. WE-G-209-03: PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemp, B. [Mayo Clinic (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Digital radiography, CT, PET, and MR are complicated imaging modalities which are composed of many hardware and software components. These components work together in a highly coordinated chain of events with the intent to produce high quality images. Acquisition, processing and reconstruction of data must occur in a precise way for optimum image quality to be achieved. Any error or unexpected event in the entire process can produce unwanted pixel intensities in the final images which may contribute to visible image artifacts. The diagnostic imaging physicist is uniquely qualified to investigate and contribute to resolution of image artifacts. This course will teach the participant to identify common artifacts found clinically in digital radiography, CT, PET, and MR, to determine the causes of artifacts, and to make recommendations for how to resolve artifacts. Learning Objectives: Identify common artifacts found clinically in digital radiography, CT, PET and MR. Determine causes of various clinical artifacts from digital radiography, CT, PET and MR. Describe how to resolve various clinical artifacts from digital radiography, CT, PET and MR.

  18. WE-G-209-03: PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemp, B.

    2016-01-01

    Digital radiography, CT, PET, and MR are complicated imaging modalities which are composed of many hardware and software components. These components work together in a highly coordinated chain of events with the intent to produce high quality images. Acquisition, processing and reconstruction of data must occur in a precise way for optimum image quality to be achieved. Any error or unexpected event in the entire process can produce unwanted pixel intensities in the final images which may contribute to visible image artifacts. The diagnostic imaging physicist is uniquely qualified to investigate and contribute to resolution of image artifacts. This course will teach the participant to identify common artifacts found clinically in digital radiography, CT, PET, and MR, to determine the causes of artifacts, and to make recommendations for how to resolve artifacts. Learning Objectives: Identify common artifacts found clinically in digital radiography, CT, PET and MR. Determine causes of various clinical artifacts from digital radiography, CT, PET and MR. Describe how to resolve various clinical artifacts from digital radiography, CT, PET and MR.

  19. Positron Emission Tomography (PET in Oncology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gallamini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG. FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  20. Development of HM12 cyclotron for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Takuzo; Kawama, Tetsuo; Fujii, Kazuo

    2000-01-01

    In Japan, there are at present more than 30 PET (Positron Emission Tomography) facilities. The movements of medical insurance application to the PET diagnosis using [ 18 F] FDG (2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-glucose) by the Ministry of Health and Welfare are being enhanced by PET related people. Therefore, more clinical centers using PET system are expected to be built in the near future. HM12 cyclotron was developed to meet such market demands for PET, and the prototype machine has been rent to Cyclotron Radio Isotope Center (CYRIC) of Tohoku University since Oct. 1998 for their use of clinical research with positron emitters like 11 C, 13 N, 15 O and 18 F. We got many technical data of HM12 Cyclotron on the clinical base. The data was enough to establish the reliability of HM12 system operation under the clinical condition. The first commercial product of HM12 Cyclotron was delivered to National Cancer Center in March 2000. The final performance test will be finished by the end of June 2000. (author)

  1. Current status and prospects of cardiac PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Katuya

    1999-01-01

    With positron emission tomography (PET), noninvasive measurements of myocardial blood flow and metabolism have now become possible. 1) Myocardial blood flow: We developed a high-resolution PET system for rabbits and showed that myocardial N-13 ammonnia uptake correlated well with flow measure with microspheres. We also demonstrated that a simplified PET protocol using N-13 ammonia or Rb-82 provide noninvasive measurement of coronary flow reserve in dog experiments. This protocol enables to produce estimates of myocardial blood flow in man and that are well correlated with the complex compartment model. 2) Myocardial glucose metabolism: We validated experimentally a simple method to quantify tissue glucose utilization with the brain reference index (BRI) using C-14 deoxyglucose and assessed its clinical feasibility for myocardial PET. 3) Membrane integrity: Loss of cell membrane integrity for trapping the potassium or it's analog is a market of myocardial necrosis/viability. We recently synthetized potassium-38 as a PET tracer and started an experimental study. (author)

  2. Properties of PET/PLA Electrospun Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kevin; Cebe, Peggy

    2012-02-01

    Electrospun membranes were fabricated from poly(ethylene terephthalate), PET, co-spun with poly(lactic acid), PLA. The PLA contained 2% of the D-isomer, which served to limit the overall degree of crystallinity. Membranes were deposited from blended solutions of PET/PLA in hexafluoroisopropanol. The PET/PLA composition ranged from 0/100, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 100/0. Electrospun membranes were made using either a static flat plate or a rotating wheel as the counter electrode, yielding unoriented mats or highly oriented tapes, respectively. We report on our investigation of the crystallinity, crystal perfection, and mechanical properties of these materials using differential scanning calorimetry, wide and small angle X-ray scattering, and dynamic mechanical analysis. In particular, we study the ability of one blend component (PET) to crystallize in the presence of existing crystals of the second blend component (PLA) which crystallizes first and at a lower temperature than PET.

  3. Anatomy and function: PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Sami; Saraste, Antti; Ukkonen, Heikki; Knuuti, Juhani

    2010-05-01

    CT coronary angiography and perfusion PET form an attractive combination to study coronary artery lesions and their consequences in patients with coronary artery disease. Whereas CT provides non-invasive assessment of coronary lumen and wall, PET perfusion is a reliable method for the evaluation of myocardial flow. CT, although very capable of ruling out significant coronary artery disease, is less than satisfactory in assessing the actual significance of the detected lesions. PET imaging, despite its excellent sensitivity, fails to describe the exact anatomy of the epicardial vessels. By fusing image data from these two modalities, lesions can be accurately correlated with their physiological or anatomical counterparts. Hybrid PET-CT devices, now in wide clinical use, allow such fusion in a one-stop-shop study. Although still seeking its place in clinical scenarios, growing evidence suggests that hybrid PET-CT imaging of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion can accurately - and non-invasively - assess the existence and degree of coronary artery disease.

  4. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in Oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallamini, Andrea, E-mail: gallamini.a@ospedale.cuneo.it [Department of Research and Medical Innovation, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Zwarthoed, Colette [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Antoine Lacassagne Cancer Center, Nice University, Nice Cedex 2-06189 Nice (France); Borra, Anna [Hematology Department S. Croce Hospital, Via M. Coppino 26, Cuneo 12100 (Italy)

    2014-09-29

    Since its introduction in the early nineties as a promising functional imaging technique in the management of neoplastic disorders, FDG-PET, and subsequently FDG-PET/CT, has become a cornerstone in several oncologic procedures such as tumor staging and restaging, treatment efficacy assessment during or after treatment end and radiotherapy planning. Moreover, the continuous technological progress of image generation and the introduction of sophisticated software to use PET scan as a biomarker paved the way to calculate new prognostic markers such as the metabolic tumor volume (MTV) and the total amount of tumor glycolysis (TLG). FDG-PET/CT proved more sensitive than contrast-enhanced CT scan in staging of several type of lymphoma or in detecting widespread tumor dissemination in several solid cancers, such as breast, lung, colon, ovary and head and neck carcinoma. As a consequence the stage of patients was upgraded, with a change of treatment in 10%–15% of them. One of the most evident advantages of FDG-PET was its ability to detect, very early during treatment, significant changes in glucose metabolism or even complete shutoff of the neoplastic cell metabolism as a surrogate of tumor chemosensitivity assessment. This could enable clinicians to detect much earlier the effectiveness of a given antineoplastic treatment, as compared to the traditional radiological detection of tumor shrinkage, which usually takes time and occurs much later.

  5. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, Clifford; Steedman, Catrina

    2012-07-01

    A variety of exotic vertebrate and invertebrate species are kept as 'pets' including fishes, amphibians (for example, frogs and toads), reptiles (turtles, crocodiles, lizards and snakes), birds, mammals (for example, primates, civets, and lions), and invertebrates (for example spiders, scorpions, and centipedes), and ownership of some of these animals is rising. Data for 2009-2011 suggest that the number of homes with reptiles rose by approximately 12.5%. Recent surveys, including only some of these animals, indicated that they might be present in around 18.6% of homes (equal to approximately 42 million animals of which around 40 million are indoor or outdoor fish). Many exotic 'pets' are capable of causing injury or poisoning to their keepers and some contacts prove fatal. We examined NHS Health Episode Statistics for England using selected formal categories for hospital admissions and bed days for 2004-2010 using the following categories of injury, envenomation or sting; bitten or struck by crocodile or alligator; bitten or crushed by other reptiles: contact with venomous snakes and lizards; contact with scorpions. Between 2004 and 2010 these data conservatively show a total of 760 full consultation episodes, 709 admissions and 2,121 hospital bed days were associated with injuries probably from exotic pets. Injuries, envenomations and stings from exotic pets constitute a small but important component of emerging medical problems. Greater awareness of relevant injuries and medical sequelae from exotic pet keeping may help medics formulate their clinical assessment and advice to patients.

  6. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  7. Human salmonellosis associated with exotic pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, D L; Khakhria, R; Johnson, W M

    1997-11-01

    During the period from 1994 to 1996, an increase in the number of laboratory-confirmed cases of human salmonellosis associated with exposure to exotic pets including iguanas, pet turtles, sugar gliders, and hedgehogs was observed in Canada. Pet turtle-associated salmonellosis was recognized as a serious public health problem in the 1960s and 1970s, and in February 1975 legislation banning the importation of turtles into Canada was enacted by Agriculture Canada. Reptile-associated salmonellosis is once again being recognized as a resurgent disease. From 1993 to 1995, there were more than 20,000 laboratory-confirmed human cases of salmonellosis in Canada. The major source of Salmonella infection is food; however, an estimated 3 to 5% of all cases of salmonellosis in humans are associated with exposure to exotic pets. Among the isolates from these patients with salmonellosis, a variety of Salmonella serotypes were also associated with exotic pets and included the following: S. java, S. stanley, S. poona, S. jangwani, S. tilene, S. litchfield, S. manhattan, S. pomona, S. miami, S. rubislaw, S. marina subsp. IV, and S. wassenaar subsp. IV.

  8. Infectious threats from exotic pets: dermatological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Ted; Jablon, Jennifer

    2003-04-01

    Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. More than 250 distinct zoonoses have been described in the literature. It is estimated that 56% of United States households contain at least one pet, and although considerable research has been performed regarding the more common household animals including dogs, cats, small birds, and rodents, surprisingly little is known about the zoonotic hazards of owning the more exotic pets. According to the 1997 USPHS/IDSA Report on the Prevention of Opportunistic Infections in Persons Infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus, the immunocompromised patient should avoid contact with feces-laden soil, litter boxes, reptiles, most pet birds, and any animal less than 6 months old . It has also been documented that because of their inquisitive nature, children are at even higher risk for infection from animals than adolescents or immunocompetent adults. In this article the authors have reviewed the available data regarding hazards associated with the hedgehog, flying squirrel, iguana, chinchilla, and cockatoo. With the growing popularity of such exotic pets, further observation and research is warranted. Physicians need to be aware of the possibility of zoonotic disease related to exotic pet ownership, and they should address this issue when obtaining a history and formulating a differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions suggestive of such illnesses.

  9. Extension of a data-driven gating technique to 3D, whole body PET studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleyer, Paul J; O'Doherty, Michael J; Marsden, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory gating can be used to separate a PET acquisition into a series of near motion-free bins. This is typically done using additional gating hardware; however, software-based methods can derive the respiratory signal from the acquired data itself. The aim of this work was to extend a data-driven respiratory gating method to acquire gated, 3D, whole body PET images of clinical patients. The existing method, previously demonstrated with 2D, single bed-position data, uses a spectral analysis to find regions in raw PET data which are subject to respiratory motion. The change in counts over time within these regions is then used to estimate the respiratory signal of the patient. In this work, the gating method was adapted to only accept lines of response from a reduced set of axial angles, and the respiratory frequency derived from the lung bed position was used to help identify the respiratory frequency in all other bed positions. As the respiratory signal does not identify the direction of motion, a registration-based technique was developed to align the direction for all bed positions. Data from 11 clinical FDG PET patients were acquired, and an optical respiratory monitor was used to provide a hardware-based signal for comparison. All data were gated using both the data-driven and hardware methods, and reconstructed. The centre of mass of manually defined regions on gated images was calculated, and the overall displacement was defined as the change in the centre of mass between the first and last gates. The mean displacement was 10.3 mm for the data-driven gated images and 9.1 mm for the hardware gated images. No significant difference was found between the two gating methods when comparing the displacement values. The adapted data-driven gating method was demonstrated to successfully produce respiratory gated, 3D, whole body, clinical PET acquisitions.

  10. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-10-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10-3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  11. High performance ZnO:Al films deposited on PET substrates using facing target sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Tingting; Dong, Guobo; Gao, Fangyuan; Xiao, Yu; Chen, Qiang; Diao, Xungang

    2013-01-01

    ZnO:Al (ZAO) thin films have been deposited on flexible PET substrates using a plasma damage-free facing target sputtering system at room temperature. The structure, surface morphology, electrical and optical properties were investigated as a function of working power. All the samples have a highly preferred orientation of the c-axis perpendicular to the PET substrate and have a high quality surface. With increased working power, the carrier concentration changes slightly, the mobility increases at the beginning and decreases after it reaches a maximum value, in line with electrical conductivity. The figure of merit has been significantly improved with increasing of the working power. Under the optimized condition, the lowest resistivity of 1.3 × 10 −3 Ω cm with a sheet resistance of 29 Ω/□ and the relative visible transmittance above 93% in the visible region were obtained.

  12. 9 CFR 130.10 - User fees for pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false User fees for pet birds. 130.10... AGRICULTURE USER FEES USER FEES § 130.10 User fees for pet birds. (a) User fees for pet birds of U.S. origin returning to the United States, except pet birds of U.S. origin returning from Canada, are as follows...

  13. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Melissa [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Matela, Nuno [Institute of Biophysics and Biomedical Engineering, Science Faculty of University of Lisbon (Portugal); Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-4), Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)

    2014-07-29

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  14. PET motion correction using PRESTO with ITK motion estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Melissa; Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Matela, Nuno; Kops, Elena Rota; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    The Siemens BrainPET scanner is a hybrid MRI/PET system. PET images are prone to motion artefacts which degrade the image quality. Therefore, motion correction is essential. The library PRESTO converts motion-corrected LORs into highly accurate generic projection data [1], providing high-resolution PET images. ITK is an open-source software used for registering multidimensional data []. ITK provides motion estimation necessary to PRESTO.

  15. Temporal lobe deficits in murderers: EEG findings undetected by PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke-Kopp, L M; Raine, A; Buchsbaum, M; LaCasse, L

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluates electroencephalography (EEG) and positron emission tomography (PET) in the same subjects. Fourteen murderers were assessed by using both PET (while they were performing the continuous performance task) and EEG during a resting state. EEG revealed significant increases in slow-wave activity in the temporal, but not frontal, lobe in murderers, in contrast to prior PET findings that showed reduced prefrontal, but not temporal, glucose metabolism. Results suggest that resting EEG shows empirical utility distinct from PET activation findings.

  16. Breast cancer detection using high-resolution breast PET compared to whole-body PET or PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinyak, Judith E. [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); Berg, Wendie A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Magee-Womens Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Schilling, Kathy [Boca Raton Regional Hospital, Boca Raton, FL (United States); Madsen, Kathleen S. [Certus International, Inc., St. Louis, MO (United States); Narayanan, Deepa [Naviscan Inc., San Diego, CA (United States); National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Tartar, Marie [Scripps Clinic, Scripps Green Hospital, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    To compare the performance characteristics of positron emission mammography (PEM) with those of whole-body PET (WBPET) and PET/CT in women with newly diagnosed breast cancer. A total of 178 women consented to PEM for presurgical planning in an IRB-approved protocol and also underwent either WBPET (n = 69) or PET/CT (n = 109) imaging, as per usual care at three centers. Tumor detection sensitivity, positive predictive values, and {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake were compared between the modalities. The effects of tumor size, type, and grade on detection were examined. The chi-squared or Fisher's exact tests were used to compare distributions between groups, and McNemar's test was used to compare distributions for paired data within subject groups, i.e. PEM versus WBPET or PEM versus PET/CT. The mean age of the women was 59 ± 12 years (median 60 years, range 26-89 years), with a mean invasive index tumor size of 1.6 ± 0.8 cm (median 1.5 cm, range 0.5-4.0 cm). PEM detected more index tumors (61/66, 92 %) than WBPET (37/66, 56 %; p < 0.001) or PET/CT (95/109, 87 % vs. 104/109, 95 % for PEM; p < 0.029). Sensitivity for the detection of additional ipsilateral malignancies was also greater with PEM (7/15, 47 %) than with WBPET (1/15, 6.7 %; p = 0.014) or PET/CT (3/23, 13 % vs. 13/23, 57 % for PEM; p = 0.003). Index tumor detection decreased with decreasing invasive tumor size for both WBPET (p = 0.002) and PET/CT (p < 0.001); PEM was not significantly affected (p = 0.20). FDG uptake, quantified in terms of maximum PEM uptake value, was lowest in ductal carcinoma in situ (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.0) and invasive lobular carcinoma (median 1.5, range 0.7-3.4), and highest in grade III invasive ductal carcinoma (median 3.1, range 1.4-12.9). PEM was more sensitive than either WBPET or PET/CT in showing index and additional ipsilateral breast tumors and remained highly sensitive for tumors smaller than 1 cm. (orig.)

  17. Feasibility of simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid artery: first clinical experience and comparison to PET/CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ripa, Rasmus Sejersten; Knudsen, Andreas; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed at comparing PET/MR to PET/CT for imaging the carotid arteries in patients with known increased risk of atherosclerosis. Six HIV-positive men underwent sequential PET/MR and PET/CT of the carotid arteries after injection of 400 MBq of 18F-FDG. PET/MR was performed a median of 131......) indicating that the luminal 18F-FDG content had minimal influence on the values. The study shows for the first time that simultaneous PET/MR of the carotid arteries is feasible in patients with increased risk of atherosclerosis. Quantification of 18F-FDG uptake correlated well between PET/MR and PET...

  18. 50 CFR 36.36 - Sled dogs and household pets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sled dogs and household pets. 36.36... Sled dogs and household pets. The general trespass provisions of 50 CFR 26.21 shall not apply to household pets and sled, work, or pack dogs under the direct control of their owners or handlers, but such...

  19. Pet Care Teaching Unit: 1st-3rd Grades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peninsula Humane Society, San Mateo, CA.

    Activities in this unit are designed to familiarize primary grade students with the responsibilities involved in pet ownership. Teaching plans are provided for a total of 12 lessons involving social studies, language arts, math, and health sciences. Activities adaptable for readers and non-readers focus on pet overpopulation, care of pets when…

  20. 50 CFR 14.17 - Personally owned pet birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personally owned pet birds. 14.17 Section 14.17 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... Ports § 14.17 Personally owned pet birds. Any person may import a personally owned pet bird at any port...

  1. 77 FR 40355 - Workshop on Pet Medications Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... veterinarians. Over the last ten years, brick-and-mortar and online retail and pharmacy entities (hereinafter... and therapeutic treatments for pets; pet medications have become available at some online and brick- and-mortar retail outlets; and veterinarians and others have increasingly emphasized preventative pet...

  2. Effects of regularisation priors on dynamic PET Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldeira, Liliana; Scheins, Juergen; Silva, Nuno da; Gaens, Michaela; Shah, N Jon

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic PET provides temporal information about tracer uptake. However, each PET frame has usually low statistics, resulting in noisy images. The goal is to study effects of prior regularisation on dynamic PET data. Quantification and noise in image-domain and time-domain as well as impact on parametric images is assessed.

  3. Surveillance System for Infectious Diseases of Pets, Santiago, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Javier; Abarca, Katia; Valenzuela, Berta; Lorca, Lilia; Olea, Andrea; Aguilera, Ximena

    2009-01-01

    Pet diseases may pose risks to human health but are rarely included in surveillance systems. A pilot surveillance system of pet infectious diseases in Santiago, Chile, found that 4 canine and 3 feline diseases accounted for 90.1% and 98.4% of notifications, respectively. Data also suggested association between poverty and pet diseases. PMID:19861073

  4. Opportunities for chemists in PET research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    Advances in chemistry have played a key role in the evolution of positron emission tomography (PET) as a scientific and clinical research tool. For example, development in hot atom chemistry and in rapid synthetic organic chemistry over the past three decades has laid the foundation for the incorporation the short lived cyclotron-produced positron emitters such as flourine-18 (t 1/2 :110 minutes), carbon-11 (t 1/2 :20.4 minutes) and nitrogen-13 (t 1/2 :10 minutes) into several hundred different organic molecules. A number of these have proven to be exquisitely sensitive as probes for various metabolic processes and drug binding sites in normal and disease states. As a consequence, PET has recently been introduced into clinical medicine and the number of cyclotron-PET centers has grown from 4 in 1976 to several dozen worldwide in 1990. This rapid growth has created a demand for the synthetic chemists with advanced training in radiochemistry

  5. PET in malformations of cortical development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouilleret, V.; O'Brien, T.J.; Bouilleret, V.; Bouilleret, V.; Chiron, C.; Chiron, C.

    2009-01-01

    Within the group of malformations of cortical development, focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) are an increasingly recognized cause of intractable epilepsy that can be cured by surgery. The success of cortical resection for intractable epilepsy is highly dependent on the accurate pre-surgical delineation of the regions responsible for generating seizures. [ 18 F]-FDG PET, which images cerebral metabolism studying brain glucose uptake, is the most established functional imaging modality in the evaluation of patients with epilepsy. The aim of this article is to review [ 18 F]-FDG PET usefulness as a pre-surgical tool in the evaluation of medically refractory partial epilepsy. It has an established place in assisting in the localisation and definition of FCD in patients with no lesion, or only a subtle abnormality, on MRI. The role of FDG-PET in defining the extent of the surgical resection is still uncertain and needs to be the focus of future research. (authors)

  6. Remote transfer of PET images by internet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Chuantao; Lin Xiangtong; Guan Yihui; Zhao Jun

    2003-01-01

    The methodology of PET image remote transfer by Internet has been explored. The original images were got with ECAT EXACT HR + PET, and then converted to Dicom format by Mview software. The Dicom images were transferred via Internet. Thus the PET images were transferred via Internet successfully. The ideal images were obtained away from 8 km. The transfer time of brain and whole body image was (37±3)s and (245±10)s respectively, while the transfer rate was (34.7±2.8) kbyte/s and (34.4±1.5)kbyte/s, respectively. The results showed that the remote transfer via Internet was feasible and practical

  7. High value carbon materials from PET recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.B.; Ania, C.O.; Arenillas, A.; Rubiera, F.; Pis, J.J.

    2004-01-01

    Poly(ethylene) terephthalate (PET), has become one of the major post-consumer plastic waste. In this work special attention was paid to minimising PET residues and to obtain a high value carbon material. Pyrolysis and subsequent activation of PET from post-consumer soft-drink bottles was performed. Activation was carried out at 925 deg. C under CO 2 atmosphere to different burn-off degrees. Textural characterisation of the samples was carried out by performing N 2 adsorption isotherms at -196 deg. C. The obtained carbons materials were mainly microporous, presenting low meso and macroporosity, and apparent BET surface areas of upto 2500 m 2 g -1 . The capacity of these materials for phenol adsorption and PAHs removal from aqueous solutions was measured and compared with that attained with commercial active carbons. Preliminary tests also showed high hydrogen uptake values, as good as the results obtained with high-tech carbon materials

  8. A versatile scalable PET processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, H.; Weisenberger, A.; McKisson, J.; Wenze, Xi; Cuevas, C.; Wilson, J.; Zukerman, L.

    2011-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) historically has major clinical and preclinical applications in cancerous oncology, neurology, and cardiovascular diseases. Recently, in a new direction, an application specific PET system is being developed at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Lab) in collaboration with Duke University, University of Maryland at Baltimore (UMAB), and West Virginia University (WVU) targeted for plant eco-physiology research. The new plant imaging PET system is versatile and scalable such that it could adapt to several plant imaging needs - imaging many important plant organs including leaves, roots, and stems. The mechanical arrangement of the detectors is designed to accommodate the unpredictable and random distribution in space of the plant organs without requiring the plant be disturbed. Prototyping such a system requires a new data acquisition system (DAQ) and data processing system which are adaptable to the requirements of these unique and versatile detectors.

  9. Advances in PET-MRI technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiang; Zhao Jinhua

    2011-01-01

    Multimodality imaging is the general trend of clinical imaging. PET-CT is one of the most classic and mature multimodality imaging methods and is widely used today. MRI is another kind of conventional imaging method, in contrast to CT, MRI can not only yield images with higher soft-tissue contrast and better spatial resolution resolution but also provide some functional information by special imaging techniques such as MRS. The combination of PET and MRI for simultaneous data acquisition should have far-reaching consequences for clinical and scientific study. This review describes the progress to date and talks about the problems met in the development of PET-MRI and look forward to its potential application. (authors)

  10. High Efficiency, Low Cost Scintillators for PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai Shah

    2007-01-01

    Inorganic scintillation detectors coupled to PMTs are an important element of medical imaging applications such as positron emission tomography (PET). Performance as well as cost of these systems is limited by the properties of the scintillation detectors available at present. The Phase I project was aimed at demonstrating the feasibility of producing high performance scintillators using a low cost fabrication approach. Samples of these scintillators were produced and their performance was evaluated. Overall, the Phase I effort was very successful. The Phase II project will be aimed at advancing the new scintillation technology for PET. Large samples of the new scintillators will be produced and their performance will be evaluated. PET modules based on the new scintillators will also be built and characterized

  11. Positron kinetics in an idealized PET environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, R. E.; Brunger, M. J.; Buckman, S. J.; Garcia, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj.; White, R. D.

    2015-08-01

    The kinetic theory of non-relativistic positrons in an idealized positron emission tomography PET environment is developed by solving the Boltzmann equation, allowing for coherent and incoherent elastic, inelastic, ionizing and annihilating collisions through positronium formation. An analytic expression is obtained for the positronium formation rate, as a function of distance from a spherical source, in terms of the solutions of the general kinetic eigenvalue problem. Numerical estimates of the positron range - a fundamental limitation on the accuracy of PET, are given for positrons in a model of liquid water, a surrogate for human tissue. Comparisons are made with the ‘gas-phase’ assumption used in current models in which coherent scattering is suppressed. Our results show that this assumption leads to an error of the order of a factor of approximately 2, emphasizing the need to accurately account for the structure of the medium in PET simulations.

  12. Radiological assessment of the PET facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Discacciatti, Adrian; Cruzate, Juan A.; Bomben, Ana M.; Carelli, Jorge; Namias, Mario

    2008-01-01

    The radiological assessment of a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) facility consists of the evaluation of the annual effective dose to workers exposed occupationally and to members of the public. This evaluation takes into account the radionuclide involved, the characteristics of the facility, the working procedure and the expected number of patients per year. This paper details the methodology used by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (in Spanish ARN) to independently assess the design of PET facilities considering only radioprotection aspects. The results of the evaluation are compared with the design requirements established in the ARN regulations to determine whether or not, the facility complies with those requirements, both for workers and for members of the public. As an example of the above mentioned methodology, this paper presents the assessment of a PET facility located in Buenos Aires called Fundacion Centro Diagnostico Nuclear (FCDN). (author)

  13. Imaging Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology with PET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Porcello Schilling

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Alzheimer's disease (AD has been reconceptualised as a dynamic pathophysiological process characterized by preclinical, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia stages. Positron emission tomography (PET associated with various molecular imaging agents reveals numerous aspects of dementia pathophysiology, such as brain amyloidosis, tau accumulation, neuroreceptor changes, metabolism abnormalities and neuroinflammation in dementia patients. In the context of a growing shift toward presymptomatic early diagnosis and disease-modifying interventions, PET molecular imaging agents provide an unprecedented means of quantifying the AD pathophysiological process, monitoring disease progression, ascertaining whether therapies engage their respective brain molecular targets, as well as quantifying pharmacological responses. In the present study, we highlight the most important contributions of PET in describing brain molecular abnormalities in AD.

  14. Cardiac sympathetic neuronal imaging using PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautamaeki, Riikka; Tipre, Dnyanesh; Bengel, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Balance of the autonomic nervous system is essential for adequate cardiac performance, and alterations seem to play a key role in the development and progression of various cardiac diseases. PET imaging of the cardiac autonomic nervous system has advanced extensively in recent years, and multiple pre- and postsynaptic tracers have been introduced. The high spatial and temporal resolution of PET enables noninvasive quantification of neurophysiologic processes at the tissue level. Ligands for catecholamine receptors, along with radiolabeled catecholamines and catecholamine analogs, have been applied to determine involvement of sympathetic dysinnervation at different stages of heart diseases such as ischemia, heart failure, and arrhythmia. This review summarizes the recent findings in neurocardiological PET imaging. Experimental studies with several radioligands and clinical findings in cardiac dysautonomias are discussed. (orig.)

  15. Technology challenges in small animal PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecomte, Roger

    2004-01-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a non-invasive nuclear imaging modality allowing biochemical processes to be investigated in vivo with sensitivity in the picomolar range. For this reason, PET has the potential to play a major role in the emerging field of molecular imaging by enabling the study of molecular pathways and genetic processes in living animals non-invasively. The challenge is to obtain a spatial resolution that is appropriate for rat and mouse imaging, the preferred animal models for research in biology, while achieving a sensitivity adequate for real-time measurement of rapid dynamic processes in vivo without violating tracer kinetic principles. An overview of the current state of development of dedicated small animal PET scanners is given, and selected applications are reported and discussed with respect to performance and significance to research in biology

  16. A comparative study of via drilling and scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic applications using excimer and Nd:YAG laser sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandamparambil, R.; Fledderus, H.; Brand, J. van den; Saalmink, M.; Kusters, R.; Podprocky, T.; Steenberge, G. van; Baets, J. de; Dietzel, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    A study on via drilling and channel scribing on PEN and PET substrates for flexible electronic application is discussed in this paper. For the experiments, both KIF excimer laser (248 nm) and frequency tripled Nd:YAG (355 nm) laser are used. Different measurement techniques like optical microscopy,

  17. Engineering Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Iizuka, Keigo

    2008-01-01

    Engineering Optics is a book for students who want to apply their knowledge of optics to engineering problems, as well as for engineering students who want to acquire the basic principles of optics. It covers such important topics as optical signal processing, holography, tomography, holographic radars, fiber optical communication, electro- and acousto-optic devices, and integrated optics (including optical bistability). As a basis for understanding these topics, the first few chapters give easy-to-follow explanations of diffraction theory, Fourier transforms, and geometrical optics. Practical examples, such as the video disk, the Fresnel zone plate, and many more, appear throughout the text, together with numerous solved exercises. There is an entirely new section in this updated edition on 3-D imaging.

  18. SPECT and PET imaging in epilepsia; SPECT und PET in der Diagnostik von Epilepsien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landvogt, C. [Mainz Univ. (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2007-09-15

    In preoperative localisation of epileptogenic foci, nuclear medicine diagnostics plays a crucial role. FDG-PET is used as first line diagnostics. In case of inconsistent MRI, EEG and FDG-PET findings, {sup 11}C-Flumazenil-PET or ictal and interictal perfusion-SPECT should be performed. Other than FDG, Flumazenil can help to identify the extend of the region, which should be resected. To enhance sensitivity and specificity, further data analysis using voxelbased statistical analyses or SISCOM (substraction ictal SPECT coregistered MRI) should be performed.

  19. MR-assisted PET Motion Correction for eurological Studies in an Integrated MR-PET Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Ciprian; Benner, Thomas; van der Kouwe, Andre; Byars, Larry; Hamm, Michael; Chonde, Daniel B.; Michel, Christian J.; El Fakhri, Georges; Schmand, Matthias; Sorensen, A. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Head motion is difficult to avoid in long PET studies, degrading the image quality and offsetting the benefit of using a high-resolution scanner. As a potential solution in an integrated MR-PET scanner, the simultaneously acquired MR data can be used for motion tracking. In this work, a novel data processing and rigid-body motion correction (MC) algorithm for the MR-compatible BrainPET prototype scanner is described and proof-of-principle phantom and human studies are presented. Methods To account for motion, the PET prompts and randoms coincidences as well as the sensitivity data are processed in the line or response (LOR) space according to the MR-derived motion estimates. After sinogram space rebinning, the corrected data are summed and the motion corrected PET volume is reconstructed from these sinograms and the attenuation and scatter sinograms in the reference position. The accuracy of the MC algorithm was first tested using a Hoffman phantom. Next, human volunteer studies were performed and motion estimates were obtained using two high temporal resolution MR-based motion tracking techniques. Results After accounting for the physical mismatch between the two scanners, perfectly co-registered MR and PET volumes are reproducibly obtained. The MR output gates inserted in to the PET list-mode allow the temporal correlation of the two data sets within 0.2 s. The Hoffman phantom volume reconstructed processing the PET data in the LOR space was similar to the one obtained processing the data using the standard methods and applying the MC in the image space, demonstrating the quantitative accuracy of the novel MC algorithm. In human volunteer studies, motion estimates were obtained from echo planar imaging and cloverleaf navigator sequences every 3 seconds and 20 ms, respectively. Substantially improved PET images with excellent delineation of specific brain structures were obtained after applying the MC using these MR-based estimates. Conclusion A novel MR-based MC

  20. Hybrid FDG-PET/MR compared to FDG-PET/CT in adult lymphoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Wendy; Catana, Ciprian; Abramson, Jeremy S; Arabasz, Grae; McDermott, Shanaugh; Catalano, Onofrio; Muse, Victorine; Blake, Michael A; Barnes, Jeffrey; Shelly, Martin; Hochberg, Ephraim; Rosen, Bruce R; Guimaraes, Alexander R

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic performance of simultaneous FDG-PET/MR including diffusion compared to FDG-PET/CT in patients with lymphoma. Eighteen patients with a confirmed diagnosis of non-Hodgkin's (NHL) or Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL) underwent an IRB-approved, single-injection/dual-imaging protocol consisting of a clinical FDG-PET/CT and subsequent FDG-PET/MR scan. PET images from both modalities were reconstructed iteratively. Attenuation correction was performed using low-dose CT data for PET/CT and Dixon-MR sequences for PET/MR. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed. SUVmax was measured and compared between modalities and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using ROI analysis by an experienced radiologist using OsiriX. Strength of correlation between variables was measured using the Pearson correlation coefficient (r p). Of the 18 patients included in this study, 5 had HL and 13 had NHL. The median age was 51 ± 14.8 years. Sixty-five FDG-avid lesions were identified. All FDG-avid lesions were visible with comparable contrast, and therefore initial and follow-up staging was identical between both examinations. SUVmax from FDG-PET/MR [(mean ± sem) (21.3 ± 2.07)] vs. FDG-PET/CT (mean 23.2 ± 2.8) demonstrated a strongly positive correlation [r s = 0.95 (0.94, 0.99); p < 0.0001]. There was no correlation found between ADCmin and SUVmax from FDG-PET/MR [r = 0.17(-0.07, 0.66); p = 0.09]. FDG-PET/MR offers an equivalent whole-body staging examination as compared with PET/CT with an improved radiation safety profile in lymphoma patients. Correlation of ADC to SUVmax was weak, understating their lack of equivalence, but not undermining their potential synergy and differing importance.

  1. Readout and characterisation of new silicon pixel photodiode array for use in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, P.; Ward, G.; Lerch, R.; Rozenfeld, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging tool, which is able to quantify physiological, and biochemical processes in vivo using short-lived cyclotron-produced radiotracers. The main physical principle of PET is the simultaneous measurement of two 511 keV photons which are emitted in opposite directions following the annihilation of a positron in tissue. The accuracy of tracking these photons determines the accuracy of localising the radiotracer in the body, which is referred to as the spatial resolution of the system. Compared with conventional single photon imaging with gamma cameras, PET provides superior spatial resolution and sensitivity. However, compared with anatomical imaging techniques, the spatial resolution remains relatively poor at approximately 4-6 mm full width at half maximum (FWHM), compared with 1 mm FWHM for MRI. The Centre for Medical Radiation Physics at the University of Wollongong is developing a new Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detection sub-module that will significantly improve the spatial resolution of PET. The new sub-module design is simple and robust to minimise module assembly complications and is completely independent of photomultiplier tubes. The new sub-module has also been designed to maximise its flexibility for easy sub-module coupling so as to form a complete, customised, detection module to be used in PET scanners dedicated to human brain and breast, and small animal studies. A new computer controlled gantry allows the system to be used for PET and SPECT applications. Silicon 8x8 detector arrays have been developed by CMRP and will be optically coupled scintillation crystals and readout using the VIKING tM hybrid preamplifier chip to form the basis of the new module Characterisation of the pixel photodiode array has been performed to check the uniformity of the response of the array. This characterisation has been done using a pulsed, near infra-red laser diode system and alpha particles

  2. BGO as a hybrid scintillator / Cherenkov radiator for cost-effective time-of-flight PET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S. E.; Schaart, D. R.

    2017-06-01

    Due to detector developments in the last decade, the time-of-flight (TOF) method is now commonly used to improve the quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Clinical TOF-PET systems based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with coincidence resolving times (CRT) between 325 ps and 400 ps FWHM have recently been developed. Before the introduction of L(Y)SO:Ce, BGO was used in many PET systems. In addition to a lower price, BGO offers a superior attenuation coefficient and a higher photoelectric fraction than L(Y)SO:Ce. However, BGO is generally considered an inferior TOF-PET scintillator. In recent years, TOF-PET detectors based on the Cherenkov effect have been proposed. However, the low Cherenkov photon yield in the order of  ˜10 photons per event complicates energy discrimination-a severe disadvantage in clinical PET. The optical characteristics of BGO, in particular its high transparency down to 310 nm and its high refractive index of  ˜2.15, are expected to make it a good Cherenkov radiator. Here, we study the feasibility of combining event timing based on Cherenkov emission with energy discrimination based on scintillation in BGO, as a potential approach towards a cost-effective TOF-PET detector. Rise time measurements were performed using a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup implemented on a digital photon counter (DPC) array, revealing a prompt luminescent component likely to be due to Cherenkov emission. Coincidence timing measurements were performed using BGO crystals with a cross-section of 3 mm  ×  3 mm and five different lengths between 3 mm and 20 mm, coupled to DPC arrays. Non-Gaussian coincidence spectra with a FWHM of 200 ps were obtained with the 27 mm3 BGO cubes, while FWHM values as good as 330 ps were achieved with the 20 mm long crystals. The FWHM value was found to improve with decreasing temperature, while the FWTM value showed the opposite trend.

  3. BGO as a hybrid scintillator / Cherenkov radiator for cost-effective time-of-flight PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, S E; Schaart, D R

    2017-06-07

    Due to detector developments in the last decade, the time-of-flight (TOF) method is now commonly used to improve the quality of positron emission tomography (PET) images. Clinical TOF-PET systems based on L(Y)SO:Ce crystals and silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) with coincidence resolving times (CRT) between 325 ps and 400 ps FWHM have recently been developed. Before the introduction of L(Y)SO:Ce, BGO was used in many PET systems. In addition to a lower price, BGO offers a superior attenuation coefficient and a higher photoelectric fraction than L(Y)SO:Ce. However, BGO is generally considered an inferior TOF-PET scintillator. In recent years, TOF-PET detectors based on the Cherenkov effect have been proposed. However, the low Cherenkov photon yield in the order of  ∼10 photons per event complicates energy discrimination-a severe disadvantage in clinical PET. The optical characteristics of BGO, in particular its high transparency down to 310 nm and its high refractive index of  ∼2.15, are expected to make it a good Cherenkov radiator. Here, we study the feasibility of combining event timing based on Cherenkov emission with energy discrimination based on scintillation in BGO, as a potential approach towards a cost-effective TOF-PET detector. Rise time measurements were performed using a time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup implemented on a digital photon counter (DPC) array, revealing a prompt luminescent component likely to be due to Cherenkov emission. Coincidence timing measurements were performed using BGO crystals with a cross-section of 3 mm  ×  3 mm and five different lengths between 3 mm and 20 mm, coupled to DPC arrays. Non-Gaussian coincidence spectra with a FWHM of 200 ps were obtained with the 27 mm 3 BGO cubes, while FWHM values as good as 330 ps were achieved with the 20 mm long crystals. The FWHM value was found to improve with decreasing temperature, while the FWTM value showed the opposite

  4. Influence of PET/CT-introduction on PET scanning frequency and indications. Results of a multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stergar, H.; Bockisch, A.; Eschmann, S.M.; Krause, B.J.; Roedel, R.; Tiling, R.; Weckesser, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: to evaluate the influence of the introduction of combined PET/CT scanners into clinical routine. This investigation addresses the quantitative changes between PET/CT and stand alone PET. Methods: the study included all examinations performed on stand alone PET- or PET/CT-scanners within 12 month prior to and after implementation of PET/CT. The final data analysis included five university hospitals and a total number of 15 497 exams. We distinguished exams on stand alone tomographs prior to and after installation of the combined device as well as PET/CT scans particularly with regard to disease entities. Various further parameters were investigated. Results: the overall number of PET scans (PET and PET/CT) rose by 146% while the number of scans performed on stand alone scanners declined by 22%. Only one site registered an increase in stand alone PET. The number of exams for staging in oncology increased by 196% while that of cardiac scans decreased by 35% and the number of scans in neurology rose by 47%. The use of scans for radiotherapy planning increased to 7% of all PET/CT studies. The increase of procedures for so-called classic PET oncology indications was moderate compared to the more common tumors. An even greater increase was observed in some rare entities. Conclusions: the introduction of PET/CT led to more than a doubling of overall PET procedures with a main focus on oncology. Some of the observed changes in scanning frequency may be caused by a rising availability of new radiotracers and advancements of competing imaging methods. Nevertheless the evident increase in the use of PET/CT for the most common tumour types demonstrates its expanding role in cancer staging. The combination of molecular and morphologic imaging has not only found its place but is still gaining greater importance with new developments in technology and radiochemistry. (orig.)

  5. Amyloid PET in neurodegenerative diseases with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, V; Gómez-Grande, A; Sopena, P; García-Solís, D; Gómez Río, M; Lorenzo, C; Rubí, S; Arbizu, J

    2018-05-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive decline and memory loss, and is the most common form of dementia. Amyloid plaques with neurofibrillary tangles are a neuropathological hallmark of AD that produces synaptic dysfunction and culminates later in neuronal loss. Amyloid PET is a useful, available and non-invasive technique that provides in vivo information about the cortical amyloid burden. In the latest revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD biomarkers were defined and integrated: pathological and diagnostic biomarkers (increased retention on fibrillar amyloid PET or decreased Aβ 1-42 and increased T-Tau or P-Tau in CSF) and neurodegeneration or topographical biomarkers (temporoparietal hypometabolism on 18 F-FDG PET and temporal atrophy on MRI). Recently specific recommendations have been created as a consensus statement on the appropriate use of the imaging biomarkers, including amyloid PET: early-onset cognitive impairment/dementia, atypical forms of AD, mild cognitive impairment with early age of onset, and to differentiate between AD and other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia. Amyloid PET is also contributing to the development of new therapies for AD, as well as in research studies for the study of other neurodegenerative diseases that occur with dementia where the deposition of Aβ amyloid is involved in its pathogenesis. In this paper, we review some general concepts and study the use of amyloid PET in depth and its relationship with neurodegenerative diseases and other diagnostic techniques. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Medicina Nuclear e Imagen Molecular. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. PET imaging in patients with Modic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albert, H.B.; Manniche, C.; Petersen, H.; Hoeilund-Carlsen, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was via PET imaging to reveal if any highly metabolic processes were occurring in Modic changes type 1 and/or in the adjacent discs. Modic changes (MC) are signal changes in the vertebral endplate and body visualised by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MC are strongly associated with low back pain (LBP). MC type 1 appear to be inflammation on MRI, and histological and biochemical findings make it highly likely that an inflammation is present. Though MC is painful no known treatment is available, and it is unknown which entities affect the progress or regress of MC. The changes observed on MRI are slow and take months to develop, but faster changes in the metabolism might provide a platform for monitoring patients. Patients from The Back Centre Funen, with low back pain in the area of L1 to S1, MC type 1 in L1 to L5, and a previous herniated lumbar disc. All patients had a PET scan using FDG ( 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose) as tracer. Included in the study were 11 patients, 4 women and 7 men, mean age 48.1 year (range 20-65). All MC were situated in the vertebrae both above and below the previously herniated disc/discs. Ten patients had MC at 1 level, and 1 had MC at 2 levels. The affected levels were 1 at L2/L3, 6 at L4 /L5, and 5 at L5/S1. All had a previous disc herniation and MC larger than 4 mm in diameter. Technically satisfactory PET scans were obtained. However, PET imaging showed no increases in metabolism in any vertebra or disc of any patient. Modic type 1 changes do not reveal themselves by showing increased metabolism with ordinary FDG PET imaging. PET tracers illuminating inflammation are being developed and hopefully may become more successful. (orig.)

  7. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FINN,R.; SCHLYER,D.

    2001-06-25

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical.

  8. PRODUCTION CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE CLASSICAL PET NUCLIDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FINN, R.; SCHLYER, D.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine is the specialty of medical imaging, which utilizes a variety of radionuclides incorporated into specific compounds for diagnostic imaging and therapeutic applications. During recent years, research efforts associated with this discipline have concentrated on the decay characteristics of particular radionuclides and the design of unique radiolabeled tracers necessary to achieve time-dependent molecular images. The specialty is expanding with specific Positron emission tomography (PET) and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals allowing for an extension from functional process imaging in tissue to pathologic processes and nuclide directed treatments. PET is an example of a technique that has been shown to yield the physiologic information necessary for clinical oncology diagnoses based upon altered tissue metabolism. Most PET drugs are currently produced using a cyclotron at locations that are in close proximity to the hospital or academic center at which the radiopharmaceutical will be administered. In November 1997, a law was enacted called the Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act of 1997 which directed the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to establish appropriate procedures for the approval of PET drugs in accordance with section 505 of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act and to establish current good manufacturing practice requirements for such drugs. At this time the FDA is considering adopting special approval procedures and cGMP requirements for PET drugs. The evolution of PET radiopharmaceuticals has introduced a new class of ''drugs'' requiring production facilities and product formulations that must be closely aligned with the scheduled clinical utilization. The production of the radionuclide in the appropriate synthetic form is but one critical component in the manufacture of the finished radiopharmaceutical

  9. Deep-inspiration breath-hold PET/CT versus free breathing PET/CT and respiratory gating PET for reference. Evaluation in 95 patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Ohtake, Eiji; Inoue, Tomio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to define the factors that correlate with differences in maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max ) in deep-inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) and free breathing (FB) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT admixed with respiratory gating (RG) PET for reference. Patients (n=95) with pulmonary lesions were evaluated at one facility over 33 months. After undergoing whole-body PET/CT, a RG PET and FB PET/CT scans were obtained, followed by a DIBH PET/CT scan. All scans were recorded using a list-mode dynamic collection method with respiratory gating. The RG PET was reconstructed using phase gating without attenuation correction; the FB PET was reconstructed from the RG PET sinogram datasets with attenuation correction. Respiratory motion distance, breathing cycle speed, and waveform of RG PET were recorded. The SUV max of FB PET/CT and DIBH PET/CT were recorded: the percent difference in SUV max between the FB and DIBH scans was defined as the %BH-index. The %BH-index was significantly higher for lesions in the lower lung area than in the upper lung area. Respiratory motion distance was significantly higher in the lower lung area than in the upper lung area. A significant relationship was observed between the %BH-index and respiratory motion distance. Waveforms without steady end-expiration tended to show a high %BH-index. Significant inverse relationships were observed between %BH-index and cycle speed, and between respiratory motion distance and cycle speed. Decrease in SUV max of FB PET/CT was due to tumor size, distribution of lower lung, long respiratory movement at slow breathing cycle speeds, and respiratory waveforms without steady end-expiration. (author)

  10. Pharmacological studies of the lung with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.

    1986-10-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET), known to be used for lung ventilation and perfusion studies, can also be used in pharmacology to obtain information that is otherwise not available. The lung takes up biologically active substances which can be inactivated or activated, and synthesises and releases others. Such information in man has been obtained from samples of human lungs, or from in vivo first-pass studies, invasive or not, as well as from in vivo kinetic studies using external detection methods with scintillation cameras. PET provides now quantitative regional data in the human lung

  11. Simulation of triple coincidences in PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cal-González, J; Herranz, E; Vicente, E; Udias, J M; Lage, E; Dave, S R; Parot, V; Herraiz, J L; Moore, S C; Park, M-A

    2015-01-01

    Although current PET scanners are designed and optimized to detect double coincidence events, there is a significant amount of triple coincidences in any PET acquisition. Triple coincidences may arise from causes such as: inter-detector scatter (IDS), random triple interactions (R T ), or the detection of prompt gamma rays in coincidence with annihilation photons when non-pure positron-emitting radionuclides are used (β + γ events). Depending on the data acquisition settings of the PET scanner, these triple events are discarded or processed as a set of double coincidences if the energy of the three detected events is within the scanner’s energy window. This latter option introduces noise in the data, as at most, only one of the possible lines-of-response defined by triple interactions corresponds to the line along which the decay occurred. Several novel works have pointed out the possibility of using triple events to increase the sensitivity of PET scanners or to expand PET imaging capabilities by allowing differentiation between radiotracers labeled with non-pure and pure positron-emitting radionuclides. In this work, we extended the Monte Carlo simulator PeneloPET to assess the proportion of triple coincidences in PET acquisitions and to evaluate their possible applications. We validated the results of the simulator against experimental data acquired with a modified version of a commercial preclinical PET/CT scanner, which was enabled to acquire and process triple-coincidence events. We used as figures of merit the energy spectra for double and triple coincidences and the triples-to-doubles ratio for different energy windows and radionuclides. After validation, the simulator was used to predict the relative quantity of triple-coincidence events in two clinical scanners assuming different acquisition settings. Good agreement between simulations and preclinical experiments was found, with differences below 10% for most of the observables considered. For

  12. PET-Studies in parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, J.

    2002-01-01

    Positron-emission-tomography (PET) has enabled to study the metabolism and blood flow in specific brain areas. Besides, there is a variety of radiotracers that allow quantification of the function of distinct molecules. In respect to Parkinson's disease, PET allowed for the first time to assess the number of dopaminergic neurons in vivo. Thus, helping confirming a dopaminergic deficit, measuring disease progression and also help to determine the function of dopaminergic grafts. Current research has shifted to determine the role of related neurotransmitter systems in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease. (orig.) [de

  13. Modular strategies for PET imaging agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooker, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, modular and simplified chemical and biological strategies have been developed for the synthesis and implementation of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers. New developments in bioconjugation and synthetic methodologies, in combination with advances in macromolecular delivery systems and gene-expression imaging, reflect a need to reduce radiosynthesis burden in order to accelerate imaging agent development. These new approaches, which are often mindful of existing infrastructure and available resources, are anticipated to provide a more approachable entry point for researchers interested in using PET to translate in vitro research to in vivo imaging.

  14. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  15. Similarities between obesity in pets and children: the addiction model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretlow, Robert A; Corbee, Ronald J

    2016-09-01

    Obesity in pets is a frustrating, major health problem. Obesity in human children is similar. Prevailing theories accounting for the rising obesity rates - for example, poor nutrition and sedentary activity - are being challenged. Obesity interventions in both pets and children have produced modest short-term but poor long-term results. New strategies are needed. A novel theory posits that obesity in pets and children is due to 'treats' and excessive meal amounts given by the 'pet-parent' and child-parent to obtain affection from the pet/child, which enables 'eating addiction' in the pet/child and results in parental 'co-dependence'. Pet-parents and child-parents may even become hostage to the treats/food to avoid the ire of the pet/child. Eating addiction in the pet/child also may be brought about by emotional factors such as stress, independent of parental co-dependence. An applicable treatment for child obesity has been trialled using classic addiction withdrawal/abstinence techniques, as well as behavioural addiction methods, with significant results. Both the child and the parent progress through withdrawal from specific 'problem foods', next from snacking (non-specific foods) and finally from excessive portions at meals (gradual reductions). This approach should adapt well for pets and pet-parents. Pet obesity is more 'pure' than child obesity, in that contributing factors and treatment points are essentially under the control of the pet-parent. Pet obesity might thus serve as an ideal test bed for the treatment and prevention of child obesity, with focus primarily on parental behaviours. Sharing information between the fields of pet and child obesity would be mutually beneficial.

  16. How PET is changing the management of cancer with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mac Manus, M.

    2005-01-01

    Information from PET scanning is transforming the management of many malignancies and the impact of PET is likely to increase further as new indications are recognised. PET is of particular value in patients treated with radiotherapy (RT) with curative intent. These patients rarely undergo invasive surgical staging and therefore imaging is crucial in determining the extent of disease before treatment. More accurate staging with PET means that futile aggressive RT or chcmoRT can be avoided in patients with incurable extensive disease. FDG-PET is of proven value in the staging of common metabolically-active malignancies treated with radiotherapy. These include lung cancer, head and neck cancer, lymphomas and oesophageal carcinoma. It has been shown that PET can improve the selection of patients for radical surgery or radiotherapy in lung cancer and that PET-based staging more accurately predicts survival than conventional staging. For those patients that remain eligible for definitive RT after PET. treatment can be more accurately targeted at the tumour and involved regional nodes. The value of PET for treatment planning is enhanced significantly when PET and CT scans are acquired on a combined PET/CT scanner. Fused PET-CT images can be imported into the radiotherapy planning computer and used to accurately target tumour with the best beam arrangement. After treatment, response may be hard to assess with structural imaging. PET-rcsponse to chemotherapy or radiotherapy in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) predicts survival in NSCLC more accurately than CT response. However, PET has much more potential than imaging with FDG alone can realise. Markers such as FLT can be used to image proliferation in tumours, misonidazole or FAZA can be used to image hypoxia and labeled metabolites of anti-cancer drugs such as 5-FU can be used to study pharmacokinetics. New combinations of radiation and drugs may emerge that can be selected based on biological characteristics of

  17. Improving the Spatial Alignment in PET/CT Using Amplitude-Based Respiration-Gated PET and Respiration-Triggered CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.S. van der; Grootjans, W.; Osborne, D.R.; Meeuwis, A.P.; Hamill, J.J.; Acuff, S.; Geus-Oei, L.F. de; Visser, E.P.

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory motion during PET can cause inaccuracies in the quantification of radiotracer uptake, which negatively affects PET-guided radiotherapy planning. Quantitative accuracy can be improved by respiratory gating. However, additional miscalculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) in PET

  18. Development of ''Eminence STARGATE'' PET/CT system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Masato; Inoue, Yoshihiro; Amano, Masaharu

    2009-01-01

    A PET/CT system, the combination of a PET (Positron Emission Tomography) system with an X-ray CT system, has been widely used in recent years. Our newly developed ''Eminence STARGATE'' PET/CT system allows the PET gantry and the X-ray CT gantry to move independently. This advantage provides high flexibility for PET examination and X-ray CT examination and also eases a patient's psychological anxiety about closed spaces. The system has a 16-slice X-ray CT scanner. (author)

  19. Oral cancer diagnosed using PET/CT: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Hee; Yang, Byoung Eun; Cho, Young Min [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seong Gon [Sam Anyang General Hospital, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    PET/CT is a new imaging technology that combines high-quality Position Emission Tomography (PET) and Computed Tomography (CT). This imaging provides simultaneous anatomical and metabolic information. Therefore PET/CT is useful diagnostic modality for early detection og malignant tumor, accurate at aging, decision on therapeutic plan, monitoring response to therapy and rapid detection of recurrence. We report oral and maxillofacial cancers diagnosed by using PET/CT and the usefulness of PET/CT in the evaluation of postoperative recurrence.

  20. [¹⁸F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET imaging of atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomberg, Björn Alexander; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2015-01-01

    [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose PET ((18)FDG PET) imaging has emerged as a promising tool for assessment of atherosclerosis. By targeting atherosclerotic plaque glycolysis, a marker for plaque inflammation and hypoxia, (18)FDG PET can assess plaque vulnerability and potentially predict risk...... of atherosclerosis-related disease, such as stroke and myocardial infarction. With excellent reproducibility, (18)FDG PET can be a surrogate end point in clinical drug trials, improving trial efficiency. This article summarizes key findings in the literature, discusses limitations of (18)FDG PET imaging...

  1. Clinical PET/CT imaging. Promises and misconceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czernin, J.; Auerbach, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    PET/CT is now established as the most important imaging tool in oncology. PET/CT stages and restages cancer with a higher accuracy than PET or CT alone. The sometimes irrational approach to combine state of the art PET with the highest end CT devices should give way to a more reasonable equipment design tailored towards the specific clinical indications in well-defined patient populations. The continuing success of molecular PET/CT now depends more upon advances in molecular imaging with the introduction of targeted imaging probes for individualized therapy approaches in cancer patients and less upon technological advances of imaging equipment. (orig.)

  2. TH-E-202-00: PET for Radiation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  3. TH-E-202-00: PET for Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2016-06-15

    PET/CT is a very important imaging tool in the management of oncology patients. PET/CT has been applied for treatment planning and response evaluation in radiation therapy. This educational session will discuss: Pitfalls and remedies in PET/CT imaging for RT planning The use of hypoxia PET imaging for radiotherapy PET for tumor response evaluation The first presentation will address the issue of mis-registration between the CT and PET images in the thorax and the abdomen. We will discuss the challenges of respiratory gating and introduce an average CT technique to improve the registration for dose calculation and image-guidance in radiation therapy. The second presentation will discuss the use of hypoxia PET Imaging for radiation therapy. We will discuss various hypoxia radiotracers, the choice of clinical acquisition protocol (in particular a single late static acquisition versus a dynamic acquisition), and the compartmental modeling with different transfer rate constants explained. We will demonstrate applications of hypoxia imaging for dose escalation/de-escalation in clinical trials. The last presentation will discuss the use of PET/CT for tumor response evaluation. We will discuss anatomic response assessment vs. metabolic response assessment, visual evaluation and semi-quantitative evaluation, and limitations of current PET/CT assessment. We will summarize clinical trials using PET response in guiding adaptive radiotherapy. Finally, we will summarize recent advancements in PET/CT radiomics and non-FDG PET tracers for response assessment. Learning Objectives: Identify the causes of mis-registration of CT and PET images in PET/CT, and review the strategies to remedy the issue. Understand the basics of PET imaging of tumor hypoxia (radiotracers, how PET measures the hypoxia selective uptake, imaging protocols, applications in chemo-radiation therapy). Understand the basics of dynamic PET imaging, compartmental modeling and parametric images. Understand the

  4. MR Imaging-Guided Attenuation Correction of PET Data in PET/MR Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Catana, Ciprian

    2016-04-01

    Attenuation correction (AC) is one of the most important challenges in the recently introduced combined PET/magnetic resonance (MR) scanners. PET/MR AC (MR-AC) approaches aim to develop methods that allow accurate estimation of the linear attenuation coefficients of the tissues and other components located in the PET field of view. MR-AC methods can be divided into 3 categories: segmentation, atlas, and PET based. This review provides a comprehensive list of the state-of-the-art MR-AC approaches and their pros and cons. The main sources of artifacts are presented. Finally, this review discusses the current status of MR-AC approaches for clinical applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of a SiO2 buffer layer on the characteristics of In2O3-ZnO-SnO2 films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, B.-J.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, S.-T.; Kim, H.-M.; Park, S.-H.; Kim, J.-J.; Ahn, J.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Transparent and conducting In 2 O 3 -ZnO-SnO 2 (IZTO) thin films were prepared on flexible PET substrates at room temperature by using an ion-gun-assisted sputtering technique. We mainly investigated the effect of a SiO 2 buffer layer, deposited in-between the film and the PET substrate, on the electrical stability of the film under various external stresses caused by moist-heat or violent temperature variations. The insertion of the SiO 2 layer improves structural, optical and electrical properties of the films: The IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film with a buffer shows a change (∼4 %) in the sheet resistance much smaller than that of the IZTO/PET film without a buffer (∼22 %), against a severe thermal stress of the repeated processes between quenching at -25 .deg. C and annealing at 100 .deg. C for 5 min at each process. Under a moist-heat stress at 90 % relative humidity at 80 .deg. C, the IZTO/SiO 2 /PET film responds with only a slight change (∼8.5 %) in the sheet resistance from 30.2 to 33.0 Ω/□ after being exposed for 240 h. The enhanced stability is understood to be the result of the buffer layers acting as a blocking barrier to water vapor or organic solvents diffusing from the PET substrate during deposition or annealing.

  6. MR-assisted PET motion correction in simultaneous PET/MRI studies of dementia subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kevin T; Salcedo, Stephanie; Chonde, Daniel B; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Levine, Michael A; Price, Julie C; Dickerson, Bradford C; Catana, Ciprian

    2018-03-08

    Subject motion in positron emission tomography (PET) studies leads to image blurring and artifacts; simultaneously acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data provides a means for motion correction (MC) in integrated PET/MRI scanners. To assess the effect of realistic head motion and MR-based MC on static [ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images in dementia patients. Observational study. Thirty dementia subjects were recruited. 3T hybrid PET/MR scanner where EPI-based and T 1 -weighted sequences were acquired simultaneously with the PET data. Head motion parameters estimated from high temporal resolution MR volumes were used for PET MC. The MR-based MC method was compared to PET frame-based MC methods in which motion parameters were estimated by coregistering 5-minute frames before and after accounting for the attenuation-emission mismatch. The relative changes in standardized uptake value ratios (SUVRs) between the PET volumes processed with the various MC methods, without MC, and the PET volumes with simulated motion were compared in relevant brain regions. The absolute value of the regional SUVR relative change was assessed with pairwise paired t-tests testing at the P = 0.05 level, comparing the values obtained through different MR-based MC processing methods as well as across different motion groups. The intraregion voxelwise variability of regional SUVRs obtained through different MR-based MC processing methods was also assessed with pairwise paired t-tests testing at the P = 0.05 level. MC had a greater impact on PET data quantification in subjects with larger amplitude motion (higher than 18% in the medial orbitofrontal cortex) and greater changes were generally observed for the MR-based MC method compared to the frame-based methods. Furthermore, a mean relative change of ∼4% was observed after MC even at the group level, suggesting the importance of routinely applying this correction. The intraregion voxelwise variability of regional SUVRs

  7. CyberPET: a PET service distributed over a wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilloy, W.J.; Hellwig, D.; Schaeffer, A.; Hoffmann, P.; Lens, V.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Demonstration of bi-directional PET data transmission, interactive display and co-registration, for the purpose of correlative imaging, treatment planning and teaching. Material and Method: In the year 2000, the initial problem to attend was to provide an effective PET service to a hospital (in Luxemburg) which lies 150 km away from a PET center (in another country). Once this solved, the procedure was expanded (in 2001) to co-registration with CT/MRI scans performed locally, and with radiotherapy simulation CT performed in another center 25 km away (in 2002). Equipment from various vendors was used (Siemens, Adac, GE, Hermes). With preliminary agreement of the national medical aid, patients are sent from the Nuclear Medicine Dept of the Centre Hospitalier in Luxemburg (CHL) to the Dept NM of the Saarland University Medical Center for PET examination. The digital data are then sent from the Siemens PET camera to a PC connected to the LAN, and then to a FTP server (Healthnet). The data are similarly collected by a PC of the hospital network in Luxemburg, and transferred to a Hermes NM station. The Dicom PET data are converted on the fly to Interfile, displayed interactively as any other tomographic data, printed and available on the NM image server. Since 2001, the PET data are co-registered with whole-body CT data recorded at CHL according to a specific protocol (see other paper of this group). Now in 2002, we are busy implementing the co-registration of PET data and simulation CT data obtained from the Centre Baclesse (CFB, 25 km from CHL) for the treatment planning of brain tumours (input into an ADAC system). Furthermore, we plan to send the data (after deletion of their digital ID) to a (South African) university which does not yet dispose of a PET camera, to allow the training of their registrars. Results: For the end-user clinician at CHL and CFB , the PET data have the quality of 'live data', which can be examined interactively, along with other imaging

  8. Evaluation of PeneloPET Simulations of Biograph PET/CT Scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abushab, K. M.; Herraiz, J. L.; Vicente, E.; Cal-González, J.; España, S.; Vaquero, J. J.; Jakoby, B. W.; Udías, J. M.

    2016-06-01

    Monte Carlo (MC) simulations are widely used in positron emission tomography (PET) for optimizing detector design, acquisition protocols, and evaluating corrections and reconstruction methods. PeneloPET is a MC code based on PENELOPE, for PET simulations which considers detector geometry, acquisition electronics and materials, and source definitions. While PeneloPET has been successfully employed and validated with small animal PET scanners, it required a proper validation with clinical PET scanners including time-of-flight (TOF) information. For this purpose, we chose the family of Biograph PET/CT scanners: the Biograph True-Point (B-TP), Biograph True-Point with TrueV (B-TPTV) and the Biograph mCT. They have similar block detectors and electronics, but a different number of rings and configuration. Some effective parameters of the simulations, such as the dead-time and the size of the reflectors in the detectors, were adjusted to reproduce the sensitivity and noise equivalent count (NEC) rate of the B-TPTV scanner. These parameters were then used to make predictions of experimental results such as sensitivity, NEC rate, spatial resolution, and scatter fraction (SF), from all the Biograph scanners and some variations of them (energy windows and additional rings of detectors). Predictions agree with the measured values for the three scanners, within 7% (sensitivity and NEC rate) and 5% (SF). The resolution obtained for the B-TPTV is slightly better (10%) than the experimental values. In conclusion, we have shown that PeneloPET is suitable for simulating and investigating clinical systems with good accuracy and short computational time, though some effort tuning of a few parameters of the scanners modeled may be needed in case that the full details of the scanners studied are not available.

  9. Oncologic PET/CT: current status and controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, B.A.; Dehdashti, F.

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of integrated PET/CT has dramatically increased the worldwide rate of growth for PET, predominantly for oncologic imaging with the glucose analog 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). A rapidly expanding body of literature demonstrates that the use FDG-PET/CT and the resultant ability to interpret coregistered and fused PET and CT images lead to improved observer confidence and improved diagnostic performance by comparison with PET alone, CT alone, and visually correlated PET and CT. The value of PET/CT is likely to be even greater with new PET radiopharmaceuticals under development, many of which produce PET images with even fewer anatomical landmarks than FDG images. PET/CT is also likely to lead to the resurrection of 18 F-fluoride as a principal agent for radionuclide bone imaging. There are a number of controversies related to PET/CT, including minimum training and experience requirements for interpreting physicians and defining new models for technical and professional reimbursement. (orig.)

  10. Clinical PET activities in European and Asia-Oceanian Countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Manabu; Ito, Masatoshi; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kubota, Kazuo; Fujimoto, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Hidetada; Moser, E.

    2001-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis using positron emission tomography (PET) requires high costs. Therefore, sociomedical evaluation is very important for spread of clinical PET. In this report, sociomedical situation in European and Asia-Oceanian countries, especially concerning transportation of 18 F-FDG and reimbursement of medical costs for clinical PET indications, is reported. It seems that UK, Germany and Belgium are the most advanced in clinical PET in Europe. In these countries, many PET investigations are reimbursed though systems are different among the countries. In UK, both public and private insurance gives authorization for clinical PET to some extent. In Germany, private health insurance companies give authorization but public insurance has not. In Belgium, private health insurance does not exist and public insurance gives authorization for clinical PET. Other European countries seem to be in transitional stages. Transportation of 18 F-FDG has been already started in almost every country in Europe and Asia-Oceania. In Japan, neither transportation of FDG nor full reimbursement of clinical PET has not started yet and this situation seems to be exceptional. To promote clinical PET in Japan, there is the need of at least establishing a list of clinical indications for PET investigations and establishing commercial-based 18 F-FDG supplying system. They could be regarded as a kind of infrastructure for spread of clinical PET. (author)

  11. Applied optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orszag, A.; Antonetti, A.

    1988-01-01

    The 1988 progress report, of the Applied Optics laboratory, of the (Polytechnic School, France), is presented. The optical fiber activities are focused on the development of an optical gyrometer, containing a resonance cavity. The following domains are included, in the research program: the infrared laser physics, the laser sources, the semiconductor physics, the multiple-photon ionization and the nonlinear optics. Investigations on the biomedical, the biological and biophysical domains are carried out. The published papers and the congress communications are listed [fr

  12. Cost-effective analysis of PET application in NSCLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Aichun; Liu Jianjun; Sun Xiaoguang; Shi Yiping; Huang Gang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of PET and CT application for diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in China. Methods: Using decision analysis method the diagnostic efficiency of PET and CT for diagnosis of NSCLC in china was analysed. And also the value of cost for accurate diagnosis (CAD), cost for accurate staging (CAS) and cost for effective therapy (CAT) was calculated. Results: (1) For the accurate diagnosis, CT was much more cost-effective than PET. (2) For the accurate staging, CT was still more cost-effective than PET. (3) For the all over diagnostic and therapeutic cost, PET was more cost-effective than CT. (4) The priority of PET to CT was for the diagnosis of stage I NSCLC. Conclusion: For the management of NSCLC patient in China, CT is more cost-effective for screening, whereas PET for clinical staging and monitoring therapeutic effect. (authors)

  13. PET/MRI: Technical challenges and recent advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Ho; Choi, Yong; Im, Ki Chun

    2016-01-01

    Integrated positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can provide complementary functional and anatomical information about a specific organ or body system at the molecular level, has become a powerful imaging modality to understand the molecular biology details, disease mechanisms, and pharmacokinetics in animals and humans. Although the first experiment on the PET/MRI was performed in the early 1990s, its clinical application was accomplished in recent years because there were various technical challenges in integrating PET and MRI in a single system with minimum mutual interference between PET and MRI. This paper presents the technical challenges and recent advances in combining PET and MRI along with several approaches for improving PET image quality of the PET/MRI hybrid imaging system

  14. FDG-PET/CT in oncology. German guideline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, B.J.; Beyer, T.; Bockisch, A.; Delbeke, D.; Kotzerke, J.; Minkov, V.; Reiser, M.; Willich, N.

    2007-01-01

    FDG-PET/CT examinations combine metabolic and morphologic imaging within an integrated procedure. Over the past decade PET/CT imaging has gained wide clinical acceptance in the field of oncology. This FDG-PET/CT guideline focuses on indications, data acquisition and processing as well as documentation of FDG-PET/CT examinations in oncologic patients within a clinical and social context specific to Germany. Background information and definitions are followed by examples of clinical and research applications of FDG-PET/CT. Furthermore, protocols for CT scanning (low dose and contrast-enhanced CT) and PET emission imaging are discussed. Documentation and reporting of examinations are specified. Image interpretation criteria and sources of errors are discussed. Quality control for FDG and PET/CT-systems, qualification requirements of personnel as well as legal aspects are presented. (orig.)

  15. Indium zinc oxide films deposited on PET by LF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Lyoung; Jung, Sang Kooun; Sohn, Sang Ho; Park, Duck Kyu

    2007-01-01

    Indium zinc oxide (IZO) has attracted much attention recently for use in transparent oxide films compared with the ITO film. We carried out the deposition of IZO on a polyethylene terapthalate (PET) substrate at room temperature by a low-frequency (LF) magnetron sputtering system. These films have amorphous structures with excellent electrical stability, surface uniformity and high optical transmittance. The effects of LF applied voltage and O 2 flow rate were investigated. The electrical and optical properties were studied. At optimal deposition conditions, thin films of IZO with a sheet resistance of 32 Ω/sq and an optical transmittance of over 80% in the visible spectrum range were achieved. The IZO thin films fabricated by this method do not require substrate heating during the film preparation of any additional post-deposition annealing treatment. The experimental results show that films with good qualities of surface morphology, transmittance and electrical conduction can be grown by the LF magnetron sputtering method on PET which is recommendable

  16. Dynamic comparison of PET imaging performance between state-of-the-art ToF-PET/CT and ToF-PET/MR scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delso, Gaspar; Deller, Tim; Khalighi, Mehdi; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Schulthess, Gustav von

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the present work was to determine the potential for dose reduction in a new clinical ToF-PET/MR scanner. This was achieved by means of long dynamic phantom acquisitions designed to provide a fair comparison of image quality and lesion detectability, as a function of activity, between the new PET/MR system and a state-of-the art PET/CT.

  17. Maillard reaction products in pet foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooijen, van C.

    2015-01-01

    Pet dogs and cats around the world are commonly fed processed commercial foods throughout their lives. Often heat treatments are used during the processing of these foods to improve nutrient digestibility, shelf life, and food safety. Processing is known to induce the Maillard reaction, in which

  18. Captive Conditions of Pet Lemurs in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Kim E; Schaefer, Melissa S

    2016-01-01

    Live extraction of wildlife is a threat to biodiversity and can compromise animal welfare standards. Studies of the captive environments and welfare of pet primates are known, but none has focused on Madagascar. We aimed to expand knowledge about the captive conditions of pet lemurs in Madagascar. We hypothesized that captive lemurs would often be kept in restrictive settings, including small cages, would be fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets and, as a result, would be in bad physical or psychological health. Data were collected via a web-based survey (n = 253 reports) and from the websites and social media pages of 25 hotels. Most lemurs seen by respondents were either kept on a rope/leash/chain or in a cage (67%), though some lemurs were habituated and were not restrained (28%). Most of the time (72%) cages were considered small, and lemurs were rarely kept in captivity together with other lemurs (81% of lemurs were caged alone). Pet lemurs were often fed foods inconsistent with their natural diets, and most (53%) were described as being in bad health. These findings point to a need to undertake outreach to pet lemur owners in Madagascar about the captivity requirements of primates. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, A; Mueller, R S; Werckenthin, C; Straubinger, R K; Hein, J

    2012-05-25

    The frequency of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. To determine the frequency and types of dermatophytes in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits. First, 2153 samples collected from pet Guinea pigs (n=1132) and rabbits (n=1021) with suspected dermatophytosis and submitted to three different laboratories for fungal culture were analysed. Subsequently, healthy Guinea pigs and rabbits, animals with skin lesions and with noncutaneous diseases were examined prospectively for dermatophytes. Trichophyton (T.) mentagrophytes was the most common fungal species isolated (91.6% and 72.3% of positive cultures from Guinea pigs (n=431) and rabbits (n=83), respectively). Animals with positive fungal culture did not show any gender predisposition, but affected animals were younger than those with negative fungal culture (PGuinea pigs and 0/140 healthy rabbits. In addition, fungal cultures of Guinea pigs with skin lesions (n=26) and other diseases (n=25) were positive in 7.7% and 8.0% respectively. Samples collected from 17 rabbits with skin lesions and 32 rabbits with noncutaneous disease were all negative in culture. T. mentagrophytes is the most common dermatophyte in pet Guinea pigs and rabbits, asymptomatic carriers are regularly seen in Guinea pigs, but not in rabbits. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. PET in Benign Bone Marrow Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Bruggen, Wouter; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Vellenga, Edo; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.

    This review aims to describe the current status of benign bone marrow (BM) imaging using PET. BM imaging is important as the BM is not only involved in poiesis of different vital cell lines and. can be affected by primary BM disorders, but it is also frequently affected by several extramedullary