WorldWideScience

Sample records for optical model potentials

  1. The Folding Deuteron Optical Model Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Xiaohua; Cai, Chonghai

    2008-01-01

    For 52 target nuclei with deuteron as projectile, we calculate the reaction cross sections and elastic scattering angular distributions, as well as the $\\chi^2$ values for 11 kinds of deuteron optical model potentials: our global deuteron optical potentials and 10 folding optical potentials calculated with 2 phenomenological global nucleon optical potentials given by Koning \\textit{et al}(KD) and by Varner\\textit{et al}(CH89), and 8 microscopic nucleon optical potentials with the generalized Skyrme force parameters(GS1-6) and modified Skyrme force parameters(SKa, SKb). We find that for constructing the folding deuteron optical potential, both SKa and SKb are the best Skyrme force parameters of the microscopic nucleon optical potential proposed by Q. Shen \\textit{et al}.

  2. Coupled-channel optical model potential for rare earth nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Herman, M; Palumbo, A; Dietrich, F S; Brown, D; Hoblit, S

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by the recent work by Dietrich et al., substantiating validity of the adiabatic assumption in coupled-channel calculations, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on statically deformed nuclei. The generalization consists in adding the coupling of the ground state rotational band, deforming the potential by introducing appropriate quadrupole and hexadecupole deformation and correcting the OMP radius to preserve volume integral of the spherical OMP. We choose isotopes of three rare-earth elements (W, Ho, Gd), which are known to be nearly perfect rotors, to perform a consistent test of our conjecture on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions for elastic and inelastic neutron scattering. When doing this we employ the well-established Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential and experimentally determined deformations without any adjustments. We observe a dramatically improved a...

  3. Helium-3 Microscopic Optical Model Potential Based on Skyrme Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The helium-3 microscopic optical potential is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The reaction cross

  4. Model independent optical potential for protons at 155 MeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brissaud, I.

    1981-06-01

    Using the model independent procedure, 155 MeV proton optical potentials are deduced from the elastic scattering data. The nuclear interior of these potentials are less attractative than predicted by a phenomenological potentials. A comparison is done with a self consistent meson model.

  5. Iso-spin Dependent Microscopic Optical Model Potential Based on Dirac Bruckner Haretree Fock Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic optical model is investigated in the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) framework with Bonn B meson exchange potential. Both real and imaginary parts of isospin-dependent self-energies are derived from a strict projection

  6. Visual Evoked Potential Recording in a Rat Model of Experimental Optic Nerve Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuyi; Gupta, Vivek K; Chitranshi, Nitin; Reedman, Brittany; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L

    2015-07-29

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) recording is widely used in clinical practice to assess the severity of optic neuritis in its acute phase, and to monitor the disease course in the follow-up period. Changes in the VEP parameters closely correlate with pathological damage in the optic nerve. This protocol provides a detailed description about the rodent model of optic nerve microinjection, in which a partial demyelination lesion is produced in the optic nerve. VEP recording techniques are also discussed. Using skull implanted electrodes, we are able to acquire reproducible intra-session and between-session VEP traces. VEPs can be recorded on individual animals over a period of time to assess the functional changes in the optic nerve longitudinally. The optic nerve demyelination model, in conjunction with the VEP recording protocol, provides a tool to investigate the disease processes associated with demyelination and remyelination, and can potentially be employed to evaluate the effects of new remyelinating drugs or neuroprotective therapies.

  7. Assessment of some optical model potentials in predicting neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Young, P.G.; Chadwick, M.B.

    1998-03-01

    Optical model potential parameters play an important role in the evaluation of nuclear data for applied purposes. The IAEA Coordinated Research Program on {open_quotes}Reference Input Parameter Library for Evaluation of Nuclear Data for Application in Nuclear Technology{close_quotes} aims to release a reference input file of various types of parameters for the evaluation of nuclear cross sections using nuclear model codes. Included in the parameter files are a collection of optical model potentials that are available in the literature to evaluate these cross sections. As part of this research program we assess the applicability of these potentials over a range of target mass and projectile energy.

  8. A Lane consistent optical model potential for nucleon scattering on actinide nuclei with extended coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, José Manuel; Capote, Roberto; Soukhovitski, Efrem S.; Chiba, Satoshi

    2016-03-01

    An extension for odd-A actinides of a previously derived dispersive coupledchannel optical model potential (OMP) for 238U and 232Th nuclei is presented. It is used to fit simultaneously all the available experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th, 233,235,238U and 239Pu nuclei. Quasi-elastic (p,n) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analogue states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. For even-even (odd) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry.

  9. Nuclear mean field and double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, Dao T; Loan, Doan Thi; Loc, Bui Minh

    2016-01-01

    Realistic density dependent CDM3Yn versions of the M3Y interaction have been used in an extended Hartree-Fock (HF) calculation of nuclear matter (NM), with the nucleon single-particle potential determined from the total NM energy based on the Hugenholtz-van Hove theorem that gives rise naturally to a rearrangement term (RT). Using the RT of the single-nucleon potential obtained exactly at different NM densities, the density- and energy dependence of the CDM3Yn interactions was modified to account properly for both the RT and observed energy dependence of the nucleon optical potential. Based on a local density approximation, the double-folding model of the nucleus-nucleus optical potential has been extended to take into account consistently the rearrangement effect and energy dependence of the nuclear mean-field potential, using the modified CDM3Yn interactions. The extended double-folding model was applied to study the elastic $^{12}$C+$^{12}$C and $^{16}$O+$^{12}$C scattering at the refractive energies, wher...

  10. Test of the notch technique for determining the radial sensitivity of the optical model potential

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Lei; Jia, Hui-ming; Xu, Xin-Xing; Ma, Nan-Ru; Sun, Li-Jie; Yang, Feng; Zhang, Huan-Qiao; Li, Zu-Hua; Wang, Dong-Xi

    2015-01-01

    Detailed investigations on the notch technique are performed on the ideal data generated by the optical model potential parameters extracted from the 16O+208Pb system at the laboratory energy of 129.5 MeV, to study the sensitivities of this technique on the model parameters as well as the experimental data. It is found that, for the perturbation parameters, a sufficient large reduced fraction and an appropriate small perturbation width are necessary to determine the accurate radial sensitivity; while for the potential parameters, almost no dependence was observed. For the experimental measurements, the number of data points has little influence for the heavy target system, and the relative inner information of the nuclear potential can be derived when the measurement extended to a lower cross section.

  11. Proton Spectroscopic Factors Deduced from Helium-3 Global Phenomenological and Microscopic Optical Model Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenny, Lee; Pang, Dan-Yang; Han, Yin-Lu; B. Tsang, M.

    2014-09-01

    Global phenomenological GDP08 and microscopic helium-3 optical model potentials have been recently derived. We evaluate these two potential sets by comparing the elastic scattering data of 25 MeV 3He on 16O, 18O, 19F, 23Na, 24Mg, 25Mg, 26Mg, 27Al, 28Si, 30Si, 31P, 32S, 34S, 35Cl, 37Cl, and 39K isotopes. Using the deuteron angular distributions calculated with the distorted wave Born approximation model, we extract the ground-state proton spectroscopic factors from (3He, d) reactions on the same set of nuclei. The extracted proton spectroscopic factors are compared with the large-basis shell-model calculations.

  12. Neutron penetrabilities using an optical model potential (1963); Penetrabilites des neutrons selon le modele du potentiel optique (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mani, G.S.; Melkanoff, M.A.; Iori, I. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    The neutron penetrabilities and reaction cross-sections are presented in these tables for the case of an optical model potential for the nucleus, for nuclei up to mass 230. (authors) [French] Les penetrabilites et les sections efficaces de reaction pour les neutrons sont donnees dans ces tables en utilisant le modele du potentiel optique, pour les noyaux cibles jusqu'a la masse 230. (auteurs)

  13. The optical model potential of the $\\Sigma$ hyperon in nuclear matter

    OpenAIRE

    Dabrowski, J; Rozynek, J.

    2009-01-01

    We present our attempts to determine the optical model potential $U_\\Sigma = V_\\Sigma -iW_\\Sigma$ of the $\\Sigma$ hyperon in nuclear matter. We analyze the following sources of information on $U_\\Sigma$: $\\Sigma N$ scattering, $\\Sigma^-$ atoms, and final state interaction of $\\Sigma$ hyperons in the $(\\pi,K^+)$ and $(K^-.\\pi)$ reactions on nuclear targets. We conclude that $V_\\Sigma$ is repulsive inside the nucleus and has a shallow a tractive pocket at the nuclear surface. These features of ...

  14. Optical potential from first principles

    CERN Document Server

    Rotureau, J; Hagen, G; Nunes, F; Papenbrock, T

    2016-01-01

    We develop a method to construct a microscopic optical potential from chiral interactions for nucleon-nucleus scattering at arbitrary energies. The optical potential is constructed by combining the Green's function approach with the coupled-cluster method. Using this approach, we perform a proof-of-principle calculation of the optical potential for the elastic neutron scattering on $^{16}{\\rm O}$. We verify the convergence of the optical potential and scattering phase shifts with respect to the model-space size and we also investigate the absorptive component of the optical potential. We find an almost negligible absorption at low-energies. To shed light on this result, we computed excited states of $^{16}{\\rm O}$ using equation-of-motion coupled-cluster with singles-and-doubles excitations and we found no low-lying excited states below 10~MeV. We conclude that the reduced absorption at low-energies can be attributed to a lack of correlations coming from the low-order cluster truncation in the employed couple...

  15. Diffraction model analysis of pion-12C elastic scattering at 800 MeV/c: Optical potential by inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Ahmad; M R Arafah

    2006-03-01

    Elastic scattering of 800 MeV/c pions by 12C has been studied in the diffraction model with a view to determine pion optical potential by the method of inversion. Finding an earlier diffraction model analysis to be deficient in some respects, we propose a Glauber model based parametrization for the elastic -matrix and show that it provides an exceedingly good fit to the pion-carbon data. The proposed elastic -matrix gives a closed expression for the pion-12C optical potential by the method of inversion in the high energy approximation.

  16. Non-local Optical Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Ian

    2010-11-01

    In all direct reactions to probe the structure of exotic nuclei at FRIB, optical potentials will be needed in the entrance and exit channels. At high energies Glauber approximations may be useful, but a low energies (5 to 20 MeV/nucleon) other approaches are required. Recent work of the UNEDF project [1] has shown that reaction cross sections at these energies can be accounted for by calculating all inelastic and transfer channels reachable by one particle-hole transitions from the elastic channel. In this model space, we may also calculate the two-step dynamic polarization potential (DPP) that adds to the bare folded potential to form the complex optical potential. Our calculations of the DPP, however, show that its non-localities are very significant, as well as the partial-wave dependence of both its real and imaginary components. The Perey factors (the wave function ratio to that from an equivalent local potential) are more than 20% different from unity, especially for partial waves inside grazing. These factors combine to suggest a reexamination of the validity of local and L-independent fitted optical potentials, especially for capture reactions that are dominated by low partial waves. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. [1] G.P.A. Nobre, F.S. Dietrich, J.E. Escher, I.J. Thompson, M. Dupuis, J. Terasaki and J. Engel, submitted to Phys. Rev. Letts., 2010.

  17. Perspective and potential of smart optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang H.; Duzik, Adam J.; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Park, Yeonjoon; Kim, Jaehwan; Ko, Hyun-U.; Kim, Hyun-Chan; Yun, Sungryul; Kyung, Ki-Uk

    2017-09-01

    The increasing requirements of hyperspectral imaging optics, electro/photo-chromic materials, negative refractive index metamaterial optics, and miniaturized optical components from micro-scale to quantum-scale optics have all contributed to new features and advancements in optics technology. Development of multifunctional capable optics has pushed the boundaries of optics into new fields that require new disciplines and materials to maximize the potential benefits. The purpose of this study is to understand and show the fundamental materials and fabrication technology for field-controlled spectrally active optics (referred to as smart optics) that are essential for future industrial, scientific, military, and space applications, such as membrane optics, filters, windows for sensors and probes, telescopes, spectroscopes, cameras, light valves, light switches, and flat-panel displays. The proposed smart optics are based on the Stark and Zeeman effects in materials tailored with quantum dot arrays and thin films made from readily polarizable materials via ferroelectricity or ferromagnetism. Bound excitonic states of organic crystals are also capable of optical adaptability, tunability, and reconfigurability. To show the benefits of smart optics, this paper reviews spectral characteristics of smart optical materials and device technology. Experiments testing the quantum-confined Stark effect, arising from rare earth element doping effects in semiconductors, and applied electric field effects on spectral and refractive index are discussed. Other bulk and dopant materials were also discovered to have the same aspect of shifts in spectrum and refractive index. Other efforts focus on materials for creating field-controlled spectrally smart active optics on a selected spectral range. Surface plasmon polariton transmission of light through apertures is also discussed, along with potential applications. New breakthroughs in micro scale multiple zone plate optics as a micro

  18. Pion-deuteron optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afnan, I. R.; Stelbovics, A. T.

    1981-02-01

    The three-body approach to the single-scattering optical potential proposed by Tandy, Redish, and Bollé is tested in the context of π-d scattering where the various approximations are compared with the exact solution of the Faddeev equations. For π-d scattering we find that the integral equations derived for the Kerman-McManus-Thaler form of the single-scattering optical potential are markedly superior to those of the Watson form. Our analysis includes a study of the convergence properties of the various multiple-scattering series encountered. NUCLEAR REACTIONS π-d optical potential; TRB, KMT, and Watson multiple-scattering series; Faddeev solution comparison.

  19. Pion-deuteron optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afnan, I.R.; Stelbovics, A.T.

    1981-02-01

    The three-body approach to the single-scattering optical potential proposed by Tandy, Redish, and Bolle is tested in the context of ..pi..-d scattering where the various approximations are compared with the exact solution of the Faddeev equations. For ..pi..-d scattering we find that the integral equations derived for the Kerman-McManus-Thaler form of the single-scattering optical potential are markedly superior to those of the Watson form. Our analysis includes a study of the convergence properties of the various multiple-scattering series encountered.

  20. Simulating heavy fermion physics in optical lattice: Periodic Anderson model with harmonic trapping potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Liu, Yu; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    The periodic Anderson model (PAM), where local electron orbitals interplay with itinerant electronic carriers, plays an essential role in our understanding of heavy fermion materials. Motivated by recent proposals for simulating the Kondo lattice model (KLM) in terms of alkaline-earth metal atoms, we take another step toward the simulation of PAM, which includes the crucial charge/valence fluctuation of local f-electrons beyond purely low-energy spin fluctuation in the KLM. To realize PAM, a transition induced by a suitable laser between the electronic excited and ground state of alkaline-earth metal atoms (1 S 0⇌3 P 0) is introduced. This leads to effective hybridization between local electrons and conduction electrons in PAM. Generally, the SU( N) version of PAM can be realized by our proposal, which gives a unique opportunity to detect large- N physics without complexity in realistic materials. In the present work, high-temperature physical features of standard [ SU(2)] PAM with harmonic trapping potential are analyzed by quantum Monte Carlo and dynamic mean-field theory, where the Mott/orbital-selective Mott state was found to coexist with metallic states. Indications for near-future experiments are provided. We expect our theoretical proposal and (hopefully) forthcoming experiments will deepen our understanding of heavy fermion systems. At the same time, we hope these will trigger further studies on related Mott physics, quantum criticality, and non-trivial topology in both the inhomogeneous and nonequilibrium realms.

  1. Constraints on the α + nucleus optical-model potential via α-induced reaction studies on 108Cd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, P.; Heim, F.; Mayer, J.; Münker, C.; Netterdon, L.; Wombacher, F.; Zilges, A.

    2016-10-01

    A big part in understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei is a proper description of the effective interaction between an α-particle and a target nucleus. Information about the so-called α +nucleus optical-model potential is achieved by precise cross-section measurements at sub-Coulomb energies aiming to constrain the theoretical models for the nuclear physics input-parameters. The cross sections of the 108Cd(α , γ) and 108Cd(α , n) reaction have been measured for the first time close to the astrophysically relevant energy region via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer HORUS and via the activation technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne, Germany. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical predictions calculated in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model confirm the need for a exponentially decreasing imaginary part of the potential. Moreover, it is shown that the results presented here together with already published data indicate that a systematic investigation of the real part of the potential could help to further improve the understanding of reactions involving α-particles.

  2. Constraints on the α+nucleus optical-model potential via α-induced reaction studies on 108Cd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Scholz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A big part in understanding the nucleosynthesis of heavy nuclei is a proper description of the effective interaction between an α-particle and a target nucleus. Information about the so-called α+nucleus optical-model potential is achieved by precise cross-section measurements at sub-Coulomb energies aiming to constrain the theoretical models for the nuclear physics input-parameters. The cross sections of the 108Cd(α,γ and 108Cd(α,n reaction have been measured for the first time close to the astrophysically relevant energy region via the in-beam method at the high-efficiency γ-ray spectrometer HORUS and via the activation technique at the Cologne Clover Counting Setup at the Institute for Nuclear Physics in Cologne, Germany. Comparisons between experimental results and theoretical predictions calculated in the scope of the Hauser–Feshbach statistical model confirm the need for a exponentially decreasing imaginary part of the potential. Moreover, it is shown that the results presented here together with already published data indicate that a systematic investigation of the real part of the potential could help to further improve the understanding of reactions involving α-particles.

  3. Study of Nonlocal Optical Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN; Yuan

    2013-01-01

    It is generally known that nuclear optical potentials are theoretically expected to be non-local.The non-locality arises from the exchange of particles between the projectile and target and from coupling tonon-elastic channels.This non-locality was first introduced by Frahn and Lemmer,and developed further by Perey and Buck(PB).The kernel is of the form

  4. Phenomenological dirac optical potential for neutron cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Shin-ichi; Kitsuki, Hirohiko; Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    Because of limitation on neutron-incident data, it is difficult to obtain global optical model potential for neutrons. In contrast, there are some global optical model potentials for proton in detail. It is interesting to convert the proton-incident global optical potentials into neutron-incident ones. In this study we introduce (N-Z)/A dependent symmetry potential terms into the global proton-incident optical potentials, and then obtain neutron-incident ones. The neutron potentials reproduce total cross sections in an acceptable degree. However, a comparison with potentials proposed by other authors brings about a confused situation in the sign of the symmetry terms. (author)

  5. Dispersive optical-model potential for protons in 100 ⩽ A ⩽ 132 even–even tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bespalova, O. V., E-mail: besp@sinp.msu.ru; Romanovsky, E. A.; Spasskaya, T. I.; Klimochkina, A. A. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    Data on single-particle energies, differential elastic-scattering cross sections, and total cross sections for proton-induced reactions on stable tin isotopes were analyzed on the basis of the dispersive optical model. Good agreement with experimental data was obtained by setting the parameters of the dispersive optical potential to values averaged over the tin isotopic chain and by assuming that the dependence of surface absorption on the neutron–proton asymmetry is close to a traditional dependence. Predictive calculations for single-particle proton spectra and total reaction cross sections were performed for the doubly magic isotopes {sup 100,132}Sn. The calculated values of the energy gap between the 1h{sub 11/2}–1g{sub 7/2} and 1g{sub 7/2}–2d{sub 5/2} states were found to be in good agreement with the results of calculations performed with allowance for the tensor component of the effective nucleon–nucleon interaction.

  6. Latency delay of visual evoked potential is a real measurement of demyelination in a rat model of optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuyi; Klistorner, Alexander; Thie, Johnson; Graham, Stuart L

    2011-08-29

    To investigate the relationship between size of demyelinated lesion, extent of axonal loss, and degree of latency delay of visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in a rat model of experimental demyelination. Lysolecithin 1% (0.4 or 0.8 μL) was microinjected into an optic nerve of each of 14 rats 2 mm posterior to the globe. Standard flash VEPs were recorded with skull-implanted electrodes before and 2, 4, and 6 days after the microinjection. The optic nerves were stained with Luxol-fast blue and Bielschowsky's silver to assess demyelination and axonal pathology, respectively. Demyelinated areas were measured on serial sections, and lesion volumes were deduced by three-dimensional reconstruction. Focal lesions of demyelination and variable axonal loss were observed. The mean volume of the lesion was 3.2 ± 1.1 × 10⁻² mm³. The injected eye showed a significant latency delay and amplitude decrease. Regression analysis demonstrated a strong correlation between N1 latency delay and lesion volume (r = 0.863, P < 0.0001), which remained significant after adjustment for axonal loss (r = 0.829, P < 0.001). N1 latency delay also showed a correlation with axonal loss (r = 0.552, P = 0.041), but the correlation became nonsignificant when controlling for demyelination (r = 0.387, P = 0.191). A linear association between N1-P2 amplitude decrease and axonal loss (r = 0.681, P = 0.007) was also observed. The latency of the VEP accurately reflected the amount of demyelination in the visual pathway, whereas the amplitude correlated with axonal damage. This study supports the concept that the VEP provides a highly sensitive tool with which to measure demyelination in optic neuritis.

  7. Microscopic Optical Potential of α-Nucleus Elastic Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The nucleon microscopic optical model potentials (OMP) in the nuclear medium are studied in the framework of the Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach, which are of density- and energy-dependence.

  8. Low-energy K- optical potentials: deep or shallow?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2001-12-01

    The K- optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space K-Nt matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach. The fit of model parameters gives a good description of the low-energy data plus the available K- atomic data. The resulting optical potential is relatively `shallow' in contradiction to the potentials obtained from phenomenological analysis. The calculated (Kstop-,π) hypernuclear production rates are very sensitive to the details of kaonic bound state wave function. The (Kstop-,π) reaction could thus serve as a suitable tool to distinguish between shallow and deep K- optical potentials.

  9. Optical model potential of 800 MeV/c K+ meson for 12C and 40Ca by the method of inversion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I Ahmad; M A Abdulmomen; Ghada A Hamra

    2005-09-01

    The elastic scattering differential cross-sections of 800 MeV/c K+ mesons from 12C and 40Ca have been analyzed using the Ericson's parametrization for the phase shift. It is found that the parameter values obtained by our analysis are significantly different from those obtained from the closed expression for K+ -nucleus amplitude derived by the strong absorption approximation. Next, using the phase shift obtained from the present analysis we calculate the K+ optical model potentials for 12C and 40Ca by the method of inversion. The calculated potentials are compared with the recently determined phenomenological ones.

  10. Performance modeling of optical refrigerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, G.; Mord, A. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO (United States). Cryogenic and Thermal Engineering

    2006-02-15

    Optical refrigeration using anti-Stokes fluorescence in solids has several advantages over more conventional techniques including low mass, low volume, low cost and no vibration. It also has the potential of allowing miniature cryocoolers on the scale of a few cubic centimeters. It has been the topic of analysis and experimental work by several organizations. In 2003, we demonstrated the first optical refrigerator. We have developed a comprehensive system-level performance model of optical refrigerators. Our current version models the refrigeration cycle based on the fluorescent material emission and absorption data at ambient and reduced temperature for the Ytterbium-ZBLAN glass (Yb:ZBLAN) cooling material. It also includes the heat transfer into the refrigerator cooling assembly due to radiation and conduction. In this paper, we report on modeling results which reveal the interplay between size, power input, and cooling load. This interplay results in practical size limitations using Yb:ZBLAN. (author)

  11. Correlation expansion of the optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, D.J.; Londergan, J.T.; Miller, G.A.; Thaler, R.M.

    1977-08-01

    The multiple scattering theory for the optical potential is examined. This series is arranged according to the number of target particles struck in forming the optical potential. The term which involves two target particles is summed as a three-body problem. Explicit formulas for calculating the optical potential in the fixed scatterer approximation are presented. Corrections to the fixed scatterer approximation, one a correction to closure, another a correction due to nonlocality in the two-body interaction, are presented. The relation between this work and other formal,rearrangements of the multiple scattering series is presented.

  12. Optically-induced-potential-based image encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bing-Chu; Wang, He-Zhou

    2011-11-07

    We present a technique of nonlinear image encryption by use of virtual optics. The image to be encrypted is superposed on a random intensity image. And this superposed image propagates through a nonlinear medium and a 4-f system with single phase key. The image is encrypted to a stationary white noise. The decryption process is sensitive to the parameters of the encryption system and the phase key in 4-f system. This sensitivity makes attackers hard to access the phase key. In nonlinear medium, optically-induced potentials, which depend on intensity of optical wave, make the superposition principle frustrated. This nonlinearity based on optically induced potentials highly improves the secrecy level of image encryption. Resistance against attacks based on the phase retrieval technique proves that it has the high secrecy level. This nonlinear image encryption based on optically induced potentials is proposed and demonstrated for the first time.

  13. Research of Microscopic Optical Potential for Deuteron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The microscopic optical potential for deuteron is obtained by Green function method through nuclear matter approximation and local density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The radial

  14. Microscopic optical buffering in a harmonic potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sumetsky, M

    2015-01-01

    In the early days of quantum mechanics, Schr\\"odinger noticed that oscillations of a wave packet in a one-dimensional harmonic potential well are periodic and, in contrast to those in anharmonic potential wells, do not experience distortion over time. This original idea did not find applications up to now since an exact one-dimensional harmonic resonator does not exist in nature and has not been created artificially. However, an optical pulse propagating in a bottle microresonator (a dielectric cylinder with a nanoscale-high bump of the effective radius) can exactly imitate a quantum wave packet in the harmonic potential. Here, we propose a tuneable microresonator that can trap an optical pulse completely, hold it as long as the material losses permit, and release it without distortion. This result suggests the solution of the long standing problem of creating a microscopic optical buffer, the key element of the future optical signal processing devices.

  15. Potentialities of laser systems for remote sensing of the atmosphere at a wide variability of optical and physical characteristics: dimensionless-parametric modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agishev, R. R.

    2017-02-01

    Within the framework of generalisation of different approaches to the modelling of atmospheric lidars, the methodology capabilities for dimensionless-parametric analysis are expanded. The developed approach simplifies the analysis of the signal-to-noise ratio and potential capabilities of existing and newly developed monitoring systems with a wide variability of atmospheric and optical conditions and a great variety of modern lidars. Its applicability to the problems of remote atmospheric sensing, environmental monitoring and lidar navigation in providing the eye safety, noise immunity and reliability is discussed.

  16. One-nucleon transfer reactions and the optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nunes, F M; Ross, A; Titus, L J; Charity, R J; Dickhoff, W H; Mahzoon, M H; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2015-01-01

    We provide a summary of new developments in the area of direct reaction theory with a particular focus on one-nucleon transfer reactions. We provide a status of the methods available for describing (d,p) reactions. We discuss the effects of nonlocality in the optical potential in transfer reactions. The results of a purely phenomenological potential and the optical potential obtained from the dispersive optical model are compared; both point toward the importance of including nonlocality in transfer reactions explicitly. Given the large ambiguities associated with optical potentials, we discuss some new developments toward the quantification of this uncertainty. We conclude with some general comments and a brief account of new advances that are in the pipeline.

  17. Optical potentials in algebraic scattering theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levay, Peter [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Technical University of Budapest, Budapest (Hungary)

    1999-02-12

    Using the theory of induced representations new realizations for the Lie algebras of the groups SO(2, 1), SO(2, 2), SO(3, 2) are found. The eigenvalue problem of the Casimir operators yield Schroedinger equations with non-Hermitian interaction terms (i.e. optical potentials). For the group SO(2, 2) we have a two-parameter family of (matrix-valued) potentials containing terms of Poeschl-Teller and Gendenshtein type. We calculate the S-matrices for special values of this two-parameter family. In particular we also include a derivation of the S-matrix for the two-dimensional scattering problem on a complex Gendenshtein potential. The canonically transformed realization results in a non-local optical potential. (author)

  18. Models of optical quantum computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krovi Hari

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available I review some work on models of quantum computing, optical implementations of these models, as well as the associated computational power. In particular, we discuss the circuit model and cluster state implementations using quantum optics with various encodings such as dual rail encoding, Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding, and coherent state encoding. Then we discuss intermediate models of optical computing such as boson sampling and its variants. Finally, we review some recent work in optical implementations of adiabatic quantum computing and analog optical computing. We also provide a brief description of the relevant aspects from complexity theory needed to understand the results surveyed.

  19. Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther

    We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....

  20. Analysis of 4He+40Ca and 4He+44Ti scattering using different optical model potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Awad A.

    2016-09-01

    Elastic scattering of 4He+40Ca and 4He+44Ti reactions at backward angles has been analyzed using two differentmodels, microscopic and semimicroscopic folding potentials. The derived real potentials supplemented with phenomenological Woods-Saxon imaginary potentials, provide good agreement with the experimental data at energy E c.m. = 21.8 MeV without need to renormalize the potentials. Coupledchannels calculations are used to extract the inelastic scattering cross section to the low-lying state 2+ (1.083 MeV) of 44Ti. The deformation length is obtained and compared with the electromagnetic measurement values as well as those obtained from previous studies.

  1. Dual optical recordings for action potentials and calcium handling in induced pluripotent stem cell models of cardiac arrhythmias using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, LouJin; Awari, Daniel W; Han, Elizabeth Y; Uche-Anya, Eugenia; Park, Seon-Hye E; Yabe, Yoko A; Chung, Wendy K; Yazawa, Masayuki

    2015-05-01

    Reprogramming of human somatic cells to pluripotency has been used to investigate disease mechanisms and to identify potential therapeutics. However, the methods used for reprogramming, in vitro differentiation, and phenotyping are still complicated, expensive, and time-consuming. To address the limitations, we first optimized a protocol for reprogramming of human fibroblasts and keratinocytes into pluripotency using single lipofection and the episomal vectors in a 24-well plate format. This method allowed us to generate multiple lines of integration-free and feeder-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from seven patients with cardiac diseases and three controls. Second, we differentiated human iPSCs derived from patients with Timothy syndrome into cardiomyocytes using a monolayer differentiation method. We found that Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes showed slower, irregular contractions and abnormal calcium handling compared with the controls. The results are consistent with previous reports using a retroviral method for reprogramming and an embryoid body-based method for cardiac differentiation. Third, we developed an efficient approach for recording the action potentials and calcium transients simultaneously in control and patient cardiomyocytes using genetically encoded fluorescent indicators, ArcLight and R-GECO1. The dual optical recordings enabled us to observe prolonged action potentials and abnormal calcium handling in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes. We confirmed that roscovitine rescued the phenotypes in Timothy syndrome cardiomyocytes and that these findings were consistent with previous studies using conventional electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging with dyes. The approaches using our optimized methods and dual optical recordings will improve iPSC applicability for disease modeling to investigate mechanisms underlying cardiac arrhythmias and to test potential therapeutics.

  2. The isovector/isoscalar ratio for the imaginary part of the medium-energy nucleon optical model potential studied by the quantum molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Niita, Koji; Fukahori, Tokio; Maruyama, Tomoyuki; Maruyama, Toshiki; Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Energy dependence of the ratio of the isovector and isoscalar strengths in the imaginary part of the nucleon optical model potential at the medium energy range was extracted from an analysis of proton and neutron induced total reaction cross sections on {sup 11}Li with a theoretical framework called quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). The isovector/isoscalar ratio was found to be about 0.8 at 100 MeV, and decreased almost linearly in log(E) to 0 at several hundred MeV. This result was consistent with an estimate at lower energy, and was also in good accord with the values used by Kozack and Madland for the analysis of nucleon + {sup 208}Pb reactions. (author)

  3. The Optical Potential on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Agadjanov, Dimitri; Mai, Maxim; Meißner, Ulf-G; Rusetsky, Akaki

    2016-01-01

    The extraction of hadron-hadron scattering parameters from lattice data by using the L\\"uscher approach becomes increasingly complicated in the presence of inelastic channels. We propose a method for the direct extraction of the complex hadron-hadron optical potential on the lattice, which does not require the use of the multi-channel L\\"uscher formalism. Moreover, this method is applicable without modifications if some inelastic channels contain three or more particles.

  4. Study of chirally motivated low-energy K - optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Mareš, J.

    2001-12-01

    The K - optical potential in the nuclear medium is evaluated self consistently from a free-space K -N t matrix constructed within a coupled-channel chiral approach to the low-energy K¯N data. The chiral-model parameters are fitted to a select subset of the low-energy data plus the K - atomic data throughout the periodic table. The resulting attractive K - optical potentials are relatively 'shallow', with central depth of the real part about 55 MeV, for a fairly reasonable reproduction of the atomic data with χ2/ N≈2.2. Relatively 'deep' attractive potentials of depth about 180 MeV, which result in other phenomenological approaches with χ2/ N≈1.5, are ruled out within chirally motivated models. Different physical data input is required to distinguish between shallow and deep K - optical potentials. The (K -stop, π) reaction could provide such a test, with exclusive rates differing by over a factor of three for the two classes of potentials. Finally, forward (K -,p) differential cross sections for the production of relatively narrow deeply bound K -nuclear states are evaluated for deep K - optical potentials, yielding values considerably lower than those estimated before.

  5. Potential roles of optical interconnections within broadband switching modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalk, Gail R.; Habiby, Sarry F.; Hartman, Davis H.; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Wilson, Donald K.; Young, Kenneth C., Jr.

    1991-04-01

    An investigation of potential physical design bottlenecks in future broadband telecommunication switches has led to the identification of several areas where optical interconnections may play a role in the practical realization of required system performance. In the model used the speed and interconnection densities as well as requirements for ease-of-access and efficient power utilization challenge conventional partitioning and packaging strategies. Potential areas where optical interconnections may relieve some of the physical design bottlenecks include fiber management at the customer interface to the switch routing and distribution of high-density interconnections within the fabric of the switch and backplane interconnections to increase system throughput.

  6. Optical calculation of potential fields for robotic path planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M B

    1994-02-10

    Experimental results of the optical calculation of potential-field maps suitable for mobile robot navigation are presented and described. The optical computation employs two write modes of a microchannel spatial light modulator. In one mode, written patterns expand spatially, and this characteristic is used to create an extended two-dimensional function representing the influence of the goal in a robot's workspace. Distinct obstacle patterns are written in a second, nonexpanding, mode. A model of the mechanisms determining microchannel spatial light modulator write-mode characteristics is developed and used to derive the optical calculation time for full potential-field maps. Field calculations at a few hertz are possible with current technology, and calculation time versus map size scales favorably in comparison with digital electronic computation.

  7. Multifocal visual evoked potential in optic neuritis, ischemic optic neuropathy and compressive optic neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Jayaraman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the effect of optic neuritis (ON, ischemic optic neuropathy (ION and compressive optic neuropathy (CON on multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP amplitudes and latencies, and to compare the parameters among three optic nerve disorders. Materials and Methods: mfVEP was recorded for 71 eyes of controls and 48 eyes of optic nerve disorders with subgroups of optic neuritis (ON, n = 21 eyes, ischemic optic neuropathy (ION, n = 14 eyes, and compressive optic neuropathy (CON, n = 13 eyes. The size of defect in mfVEP amplitude probability plots and relative latency plots were analyzed. The pattern of the defect in amplitude probability plot was classified according to the visual field profile of optic neuritis treatment trail (ONTT. Results: Median of mfVEP amplitude (log SNR averaged across 60 sectors were reduced in ON (0.17 (0.13-0.33, ION (0.14 (0.12-0.21 and CON (0.21 (0.14-0.30 when compared to controls. The median mfVEP relative latencies compared to controls were significantly prolonged in ON and CON group of 10.53 (2.62-15.50 ms and 5.73 (2.67-14.14 ms respectively compared to ION group (2.06 (-4.09-13.02. The common mfVEP amplitude defects observed in probability plots were diffuse pattern in ON, inferior altitudinal defect in ION and temporal hemianopia in CON eyes. Conclusions: Optic nerve disorders cause reduction in mfVEP amplitudes. The extent of delayed latency noted in ischemic optic neuropathy was significantly lesser compared to subjects with optic neuritis and compressive optic neuropathy. mfVEP amplitudes can be used to objectively assess the topography of the visual field defect.

  8. Microscopic optical potentials for $^4$He scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Egashira, Kei; Toyokawa, Masakazu; Matsumoto, Takuma; Yahiro, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    We present a reliable double-folding (DF) model for $^{4}$He-nucleus scattering, using the Melbourne $g$-matrix nucleon-nucleon interaction that explains nucleon-nucleus scattering with no adjustable parameter. In the DF model, only the target density is taken as the local density in the Melbourne $g$-matrix. For $^{4}$He elastic scattering from $^{58}$Ni and $^{208}$Pb targets in a wide range of incident energies from 20~MeV/nucleon to 200~MeV/nucleon, the DF model with the target-density approximation (TDA) yields much better agreement with the experimental data than the usual DF model with the frozen-density approximation in which the sum of projectile and target densities is taken as the local density. We also discuss the relation between the DF model with the TDA and the conventional folding model in which the nucleon-nucleus potential is folded with the $^{4}$He density.

  9. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  10. Neutron star equations of state with optical potential constraint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antić, S., E-mail: S.Antic@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstraße 2, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Typel, S., E-mail: S.Typel@gsi.de [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Planckstraße 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Nuclear matter and neutron stars are studied in the framework of an extended relativistic mean-field (RMF) model with higher-order derivative and density dependent couplings of nucleons to the meson fields. The derivative couplings lead to an energy dependence of the scalar and vector self-energies of the nucleons. It can be adjusted to be consistent with experimental results for the optical potential in nuclear matter. Several parametrization, which give identical predictions for the saturation properties of nuclear matter, are presented for different forms of the derivative coupling functions. The stellar structure of spherical, non-rotating stars is calculated for these new equations of state (EoS). A substantial softening of the EoS and a reduction of the maximum mass of neutron stars is found if the optical potential constraint is satisfied.

  11. Optical-Microphysical Cirrus Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichardt, J.; Reichardt, S.; Lin, R.-F.; Hess, M.; McGee, T. J.; Starr, D. O.

    2008-01-01

    A model is presented that permits the simulation of the optical properties of cirrus clouds as measured with depolarization Raman lidars. It comprises a one-dimensional cirrus model with explicit microphysics and an optical module that transforms the microphysical model output to cloud and particle optical properties. The optical model takes into account scattering by randomly oriented or horizontally aligned planar and columnar monocrystals and polycrystals. Key cloud properties such as the fraction of plate-like particles and the number of basic crystals per polycrystal are parameterized in terms of the ambient temperature, the nucleation temperature, or the mass of the particles. The optical-microphysical model is used to simulate the lidar measurement of a synoptically forced cirrostratus in a first case study. It turns out that a cirrus cloud consisting of only monocrystals in random orientation is too simple a model scenario to explain the observations. However, good agreement between simulation and observation is reached when the formation of polycrystals or the horizontal alignment of monocrystals is permitted. Moreover, the model results show that plate fraction and morphological complexity are best parameterized in terms of particle mass, or ambient temperature which indicates that the ambient conditions affect cirrus optical properties more than those during particle formation. Furthermore, the modeled profiles of particle shape and size are in excellent agreement with in situ and laboratory studies, i.e., (partly oriented) polycrystalline particles with mainly planar basic crystals in the cloud bottom layer, and monocrystals above, with the fraction of columns increasing and the shape and size of the particles changing from large thin plates and long columns to small, more isometric crystals from cloud center to top. The findings of this case study corroborate the microphysical interpretation of cirrus measurements with lidar as suggested previously.

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T.;

    2013-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single......- and multiple-scattering regimes is derived. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also derived, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images...... is developed, the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. The algorithm is verified experimentally and by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Applications of extraction of optical properties from tissue...

  13. Socio-optics: optical knowledge applied in modeling social phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisleag, Radu; Chisleag Losada, Ioana-Roxana

    2011-05-01

    The term "Socio-optics" (as a natural part of Socio-physics), is rather not found in literature or at Congresses. In Optics books, there are not made references to optical models applied to explain social phenomena, in spite of Optics relying on the duality particle-wave which seems convenient to model relationships among society and its members. The authors, who have developed a few models applied to explain social phenomena based on knowledge in Optics, along with a few other models applying, in Social Sciences, knowledge from other branches of Physics, give their own examples of such optical models, f. e., of relationships among social groups and their sub-groups, by using kowledge from partially coherent optical phenomena or to explain by tunnel effect, the apparently impossible penetration of social barriers by individuals. They consider that the term "Socio-optics" may come to life. There is mentioned the authors' expertise in stimulating Socio-optics approach by systematically asking students taken courses in Optics to find applications of the newly got Wave and Photon Optics knowledge, to model social and even everyday life phenomena, eventually engaging in such activities other possibly interested colleagues.

  14. Optics damage modeling and analysis at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z. M.; Raymond, B.; Gaylord, J.; Fallejo, R.; Bude, J.; Wegner, P.

    2014-10-01

    Comprehensive modeling of laser-induced damage in optics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) has been performed on fused silica wedge focus lenses with a metric that compares the modeled damage performance to online inspections. The results indicate that damage models are successful in tracking the performance of the fused silica final optics when properly accounting for various optical finishes and mitigation processes. This validates the consistency of the damage models and allows us to further monitor and evaluate different system parameters that potentially can affect optics performance.

  15. Digital reconstruction of optically-induced potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsi, Christopher; Fleischer, Jason W

    2009-12-01

    The holographic reconstruction of optically-induced objects typically assumes that the object is axially thin. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach that works for axially thick objects which evolve dynamically. Results are verified by reconstructing linear scattering experiments in a self-defocusing photorefractive crystal.

  16. The potential of computer vision, optical backscattering parameters and artificial neural network modelling in monitoring the shrinkage of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwude, Daniel I; Hashim, Norhashila; Abdan, Khalina; Janius, Rimfiel; Chen, Guangnan

    2017-07-30

    Drying is a method used to preserve agricultural crops. During the drying of products with high moisture content, structural changes in shape, volume, area, density and porosity occur. These changes could affect the final quality of dried product and also the effective design of drying equipment. Therefore, this study investigated a novel approach in monitoring and predicting the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. Drying experiments were conducted at temperatures of 50-70 °C and samples thicknesses of 2-6 mm. The volume and surface area obtained from camera vision, and the perimeter and illuminated area from backscattered optical images were analysed and used to evaluate the shrinkage of sweet potato during drying. The relationship between dimensionless moisture content and shrinkage of sweet potato in terms of volume, surface area, perimeter and illuminated area was found to be linearly correlated. The results also demonstrated that the shrinkage of sweet potato based on computer vision and backscattered optical parameters is affected by the product thickness, drying temperature and drying time. A multilayer perceptron (MLP) artificial neural network with input layer containing three cells, two hidden layers (18 neurons), and five cells for output layer, was used to develop a model that can monitor, control and predict the shrinkage parameters and moisture content of sweet potato slices under different drying conditions. The developed ANN model satisfactorily predicted the shrinkage and dimensionless moisture content of sweet potato with correlation coefficient greater than 0.95. Combined computer vision, laser light backscattering imaging and artificial neural network can be used as a non-destructive, rapid and easily adaptable technique for in-line monitoring, predicting and controlling the shrinkage and moisture changes of food and agricultural crops during drying. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Reactions of Proton Halo Nuclei in a Relativistic Optical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Rashdan, M

    2003-01-01

    The reaction cross section, sigma sub R; of the proton halo nuclei sup 1 sup 7 Ne and sup 1 sup 2 N on Si is calculated using an optical potential derived from the solution of the Dirac-Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equation, starting from the one-boson-exchange potential of Bonn. The nuclear densities are generated from self-consistent Hartree-Fock calculations using the recent Skyrme interaction SKRA. It is found that the enhancement in the reaction cross section found experimentally for the sup 1 sup 7 Ne + Si system in comparison to sup 1 sup 5 O + Si, where sup 1 sup 5 O has been considered as a core of sup 1 sup 7 Ne, is mainly due to the proton halo structure of sup 1 sup 7 Ne which increases the interaction, in the surface and tail regions. Glauber model calculations did not produce this enhancement in sigma sub R for proton halo nuclei

  18. Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.

    2009-10-05

    Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.

  19. Analysis of uncertainties in alpha-particle optical-potential assessment below the Coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, V

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent high-precision measurements of alpha-induced reaction data below the Coulomb barrier have pointed out questions of the alpha-particle optical-model potential (OMP) which are yet open within various mass ranges. Purpose: The applicability of a previous optical potential and eventual uncertainties and/or systematic errors of the OMP assessment at low energies can be further considered on this basis. Method: Nuclear model parameters based on the analysis of recent independent data, particularly gamma-ray strength functions, have been involved within statistical model calculation of the (alpha,x) reaction cross sections. Results: The above-mentioned potential provides a consistent description of the recent alpha-induced reaction data with no empirical rescaling factors of the and/or nucleon widths. Conclusions: A suitable assessment of alpha-particle optical potential below the Coulomb barrier should involve the statistical-model parameters beyond this potential on the basis of a former analysi...

  20. Optical label-free and model-free probe of the surface potential of nanoscale and microscopic objects in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütgebaucks, Cornelis; Gonella, Grazia; Roke, Sylvie

    2016-11-01

    The electrostatic environment of aqueous systems is an essential ingredient for the function of any living system. To understand the electrostatic properties and their molecular foundation in soft, living, and three-dimensional systems, we developed a table-top model-free method to determine the surface potential of nano- and microscopic objects in aqueous solutions. Angle-resolved nonresonant second harmonic (SH) scattering measurements contain enough information to determine the surface potential unambiguously, without making assumptions on the structure of the interfacial region. The scattered SH light that is emitted from both the particle interface and the diffuse double layer can be detected in two different polarization states that have independent scattering patterns. The angular shape and intensity are determined by the surface potential and the second-order surface susceptibility. Calibrating the response with the SH intensity of bulk water, a single, unique surface potential value can be extracted. We demonstrate the method with 80 nm bare oil droplets in water and ˜50 nm dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) and dioleoylphosphatidylserine (DOPS) liposomes at various ionic strengths.

  1. K-Nucleus Elastic Scattering and Momentum-Dependent Optical Potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Xian-Hui; LI Lei; CAI Chong-Hai; NING Ping-Zhi

    2004-01-01

    The K-nucleus differential elastic scattering cross section for 12C and 40 Ca at pκ = 800 Me V/c is calculated with three momentum-dependent optical potential models,which are density-dependent,relativistic mean field,and hybrid model,respectively.It is found that the forms of momentum-dependent optical potential models proposed by us are reasonable and gain success in the calculations and the momentum-dependent hybrid model is the best model for the K- nucleus elastic scattering.

  2. Potential for integrated optical circuits in advanced aircraft with fiber optic control and monitoring systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumbick, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The current Fiber Optic Control System Integration (FOCSI) program is reviewed and the potential role of IOCs in FOCSI applications is described. The program is intended for building, environmentally testing, and demonstrating operation in piggyback flight tests (no active control with optical sensors) of a representative sensor system for propulsion and flight control. The optical sensor systems are to be designed to fit alongside the bill-of-materials sensors for comparison. The sensors are to be connected to electrooptic architecture cards which will contain the optical sources and detectors to recover and process the modulated optical signals. The FOCSI program is to collect data on the behavior of passive optical sensor systems in a flight environment and provide valuable information on installation amd maintenance problems for this technology, as well as component survivability (light sources, connectors, optical fibers, etc.).

  3. Optical Remote Sensing Potentials for Looting Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athos Agapiou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Looting of archaeological sites is illegal and considered a major anthropogenic threat for cultural heritage, entailing undesirable and irreversible damage at several levels, such as landscape disturbance, heritage destruction, and adverse social impact. In recent years, the employment of remote sensing technologies using ground-based and/or space-based sensors has assisted in dealing with this issue. Novel remote sensing techniques have tackled heritage destruction occurring in war-conflicted areas, as well as illicit archeological activity in vast areas of archaeological interest with limited surveillance. The damage performed by illegal activities, as well as the scarcity of reliable information are some of the major concerns that local stakeholders are facing today. This study discusses the potential use of remote sensing technologies based on the results obtained for the archaeological landscape of Ayios Mnason in Politiko village, located in Nicosia district, Cyprus. In this area, more than ten looted tombs have been recorded in the last decade, indicating small-scale, but still systematic, looting. The image analysis, including vegetation indices, fusion, automatic extraction after object-oriented classification, etc., was based on high-resolution WorldView-2 multispectral satellite imagery and RGB high-resolution aerial orthorectified images. Google Earth© images were also used to map and diachronically observe the site. The current research also discusses the potential for wider application of the presented methodology, acting as an early warning system, in an effort to establish a systematic monitoring tool for archaeological areas in Cyprus facing similar threats.

  4. Separable Representation of Multichannel Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, Linda

    2016-01-01

    One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Including excitations of the nucleus in the calculation requires a multichannel optical potential. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent multichannel representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that contain excitations of the nucleus and that fulfill r...

  5. Optical models of the molecular atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuev, V. E.; Makushkin, Y. S.; Mitsel, A. A.; Ponomarev, Y. N.; Rudenko, V. P.; Firsov, K. M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of optical and laser methods for performing atmospheric investigations has stimulated the development of the optical models of the atmosphere. The principles of constructing the optical models of molecular atmosphere for radiation with different spectral composition (wideband, narrowband, and monochromatic) are considered in the case of linear and nonlinear absorptions. The example of the development of a system which provides for the modeling of the processes of optical-wave energy transfer in the atmosphere is presented. Its physical foundations, structure, programming software, and functioning were considered.

  6. Potential of OFDM for next generation optical access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Daniel; Weis, Erik; Breuer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    This paper shows the requirements for next generation optical access (NGOA) networks and analyzes the potential of OFDM (orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) for the use in such network scenarios. First, we show the motivation for NGOA systems based on the future requirements on FTTH access systems and list the advantages of OFDM in such scenarios. In the next part, the basics of OFDM and different methods to generate and detect optical OFDM signals are explained and analyzed. At the transmitter side the options include intensity modulation and the more advanced field modulation of the optical OFDM signal. At the receiver there is the choice between direct detection and coherent detection. As the result of this discussion we show our vision of the future use of OFDM in optical access networks.

  7. A Common Optical Potential for $^{4}$He+$^{12}$C at Intermediate Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Li-Yuan; Hou, Ying-Wei; Liu, Hui-Lan

    2016-01-01

    A common optical potential for $^4$He+$^{12}$C at intermediate bombarding energies, which is essential in analyzing exotic nuclei with $^4$He clusters, was obtained based on the S\\~{a}o Paulo potential (SPP). Among systematic optical potentials for $^4$He+$^{12}$C, this potential has the merit of using a fixed imaginary part of Woods-Saxon form. By optical-model calculations, this potential reproduced the experimental elastic scattering angular distributions of $^4$He+$^{12}$C well within the energy range of 26\\,$A$--60\\,$A$ MeV. It was also applied successfully in calculations of the breakup reactions of $^6$Li+$^{12}$C and $^6$He+$^{12}$C with a three-body continuum discretized coupled-channels method.

  8. Remark on: the neutron spherical optical-model absorption.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, A. B.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2007-06-30

    The energy-dependent behavior of the absorption term of the spherical neutron optical potential for doubly magic {sup 208}Pb and the neighboring {sup 209}Bi is examined. These considerations suggest a phenomenological model that results in an intuitively attractive energy dependence of the imaginary potential that provides a good description of the observed neutron cross sections and that is qualitatively consistent with theoretical concepts. At the same time it provides an alternative to some of the arbitrary assumptions involved in many conventional optical-model interpretations reported in the literature and reduces the number of the parameters of the model.

  9. Separable Representation of Energy-Dependent Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background. One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose. Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy-dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity e...

  10. Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino

    2016-08-01

    The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.

  11. Eikonal solutions to optical model coupled-channel equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Khandelwal, Govind S.; Maung, Khin M.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Wilson, John W.

    1988-01-01

    Methods of solution are presented for the Eikonal form of the nucleus-nucleus coupled-channel scattering amplitudes. Analytic solutions are obtained for the second-order optical potential for elastic scattering. A numerical comparison is made between the first and second order optical model solutions for elastic and inelastic scattering of H-1 and He-4 on C-12. The effects of bound-state excitations on total and reaction cross sections are also estimated.

  12. Separable representation of energy-dependent optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.

    2016-03-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Potential matrix elements as well as transition matrix elements calculated with them must fulfill the reciprocity theorem. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from a separable, energy-independent representation of global optical potentials based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme, a further generalization is needed to take into account the energy dependence. Applications to n +48Ca ,n +208Pb , and p +208Pb are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV with special emphasis on fulfilling reciprocity. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological optical potentials fulfills reciprocity exactly. In addition, taking into account the explicit energy dependence slightly improves the description of the S matrix elements.

  13. Model of computation for Fourier optical processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Thomas J.

    2000-05-01

    We present a novel and simple theoretical model of computation that captures what we believe are the most important characteristics of an optical Fourier transform processor. We use this abstract model to reason about the computational properties of the physical systems it describes. We define a grammar for our model's instruction language, and use it to write algorithms for well-known filtering and correlation techniques. We also suggest suitable computational complexity measures that could be used to analyze any coherent optical information processing technique, described with the language, for efficiency. Our choice of instruction language allows us to argue that algorithms describable with this model should have optical implementations that do not require a digital electronic computer to act as a master unit. Through simulation of a well known model of computation from computer theory we investigate the general-purpose capabilities of analog optical processors.

  14. Superluminal propagation and broadband omnidirectional antireflection in optical reflectionless potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Thekkekara, L V; Kasture, Sachin; Mulay, Gajendra; Gupta, S Dutta

    2013-01-01

    Reflectionless potentials (RPs) represent a class of potentials that offer total transmission in the context of one dimensional scattering. Optical realization of RPs in stratified medium can exhibit broadband omnidirectional antireflection property. In addition to the antireflection property, RPs are also expected to demonstrate negative delay. We designed refractive index profiles conforming to RPs and realize them in stratified media consisting of Al2O3 and TiO2 heterolayers. In these structures we observed < 1% reflection over the broad wavelength range of 350 nm to 2500 nm for angles of incidence 0 - 50 degrees. The observed reflection and transmission response of RPs are polarization independent. A negative delay of about 31 fsec with discernible pulse narrowing was observed in passage through two RPs. These RPs can be interesting for optical instrumentation as broadband, omni-directional antireflection coatings as well as in pulse control and transmission applications like delay lines.

  15. Testing Potential New Sites for Optical Telescopes in Australia

    CERN Document Server

    Hotan, Claire E; Glazebrook, Karl

    2012-01-01

    In coming years, Australia may find the need to build new optical telescopes to continue local programmes, contribute to global survey projects, and form a local multi-wavelength connection for the new radio telescopes being built. In this study, we refine possible locations for a new optical telescope by studying remotely sensed meteorological infrared data to ascertain expected cloud coverage rates across Australia, and combine these data with a Digital Elevation Model using a Geographic Information System. We find that the best sites within Australia for building optical telescopes are likely to be on the highest mountains in the Hamersley Range in Northwest Western Australia, while the MacDonnell Ranges in the Northern Territory may also be appropriate. We believe that similar seeing values to Siding Spring should be obtainable and with significantly more observing time at the identified sites. We expect to find twice as many clear nights as at current telescope sites. These sites are thus prime locations...

  16. Novel applications of the dispersive optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickhoff, W. H.; Charity, R. J.; Mahzoon, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    A review of recent developments of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Starting from the original work of Mahaux and Sartor, several necessary steps are developed and illustrated which increase the scope of the DOM allowing its interpretation as generating an experimentally constrained functional form of the nucleon self-energy. The method could therefore be renamed as the dispersive self-energy method. The aforementioned steps include the introduction of simultaneous fits of data for chains of isotopes or isotones allowing a data-driven extrapolation for the prediction of scattering cross sections and level properties in the direction of the respective drip lines. In addition, the energy domain for data was enlarged to include results up to 200 MeV where available. An important application of this work was implemented by employing these DOM potentials to the analysis of the (d, p) transfer reaction using the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. We review these calculations which suggest that physically meaningful results are easier to obtain by employing DOM ingredients as compared to the traditional approach which relies on a phenomenologically-adjusted bound-state wave function combined with a global (nondispersive) optical-model potential. Application to the exotic 132Sn nucleus also shows great promise for the extrapolation of DOM potentials towards the drip line with attendant relevance for the physics of FRIB. We note that the DOM method combines structure and reaction information on the same footing providing a unique approach to the analysis of exotic nuclei. We illustrate the importance of abandoning the custom of representing the non-local Hartree–Fock (HF) potential in the DOM by an energy-dependent local potential as it impedes the proper normalization of the solution of the Dyson equation. This important step allows for the interpretation of the DOM potential as representing the nucleon self-energy permitting the calculations of

  17. Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensen, Ole

    2015-06-05

    In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.

  18. Uncertainty Quantification for Optical Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Lovell, A E; Sarich, J; Wild, S M

    2016-01-01

    Although uncertainty quantification has been making its way into nuclear theory, these methods have yet to be explored in the context of reaction theory. For example, it is well known that different parameterizations of the optical potential can result in different cross sections, but these differences have not been systematically studied and quantified. The purpose of this work is to investigate the uncertainties in nuclear reactions that result from fitting a given model to elastic-scattering data, as well as to study how these uncertainties propagate to the inelastic and transfer channels. We use statistical methods to determine a best fit and create corresponding 95\\% confidence bands. A simple model of the process is fit to elastic-scattering data and used to predict either inelastic or transfer cross sections. In this initial work, we assume that our model is correct, and the only uncertainties come from the variation of the fit parameters. We study a number of reactions involving neutron and deuteron p...

  19. Vibrational mechanics in an optical lattice: controlling transport via potential renormalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickenbrock, A; Holz, P C; Wahab, N A Abdul; Phoonthong, P; Cubero, D; Renzoni, F

    2012-01-13

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally the phenomenon of vibrational resonance in a periodic potential, using cold atoms in an optical lattice as a model system. A high-frequency (HF) drive, with a frequency much larger than any characteristic frequency of the system, is applied by phase modulating one of the lattice beams. We show that the HF drive leads to the renormalization of the potential. We used transport measurements as a probe of the potential renormalization. The very same experiments also demonstrate that transport can be controlled by the HF drive via potential renormalization.

  20. Separable Representation of Proton-Nucleus Optical Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, L; Elster, Ch; Nunes, F M; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J

    2014-01-01

    Recently, a new approach for solving the three-body problem for (d,p) reactions in the Coulomb-distorted basis in momentum space was proposed. Important input quantities for such calculations are the scattering matrix elements for proton- and neutron-nucleus scattering. We present a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler scheme in which a momentum space separable representation of proton-nucleus scattering matrix elements can be calculated in the Coulomb basis. The viability of this method is demonstrated by comparing S-matrix elements obtained for p$+^{48}$Ca and p$+^{208}$Pb for a phenomenological optical potential with corresponding coordinate space calculations.

  1. Modeling and optimization of LCD optical performance

    CERN Document Server

    Yakovlev, Dmitry A; Kwok, Hoi-Sing

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this book is to present the theoretical foundations of modeling the optical characteristics of liquid crystal displays, critically reviewing modern modeling methods and examining areas of applicability. The modern matrix formalisms of optics of anisotropic stratified media, most convenient for solving problems of numerical modeling and optimization of LCD, will be considered in detail. The benefits of combined use of the matrix methods will be shown, which generally provides the best compromise between physical adequacy and accuracy with computational efficiency and optimization fac

  2. Optical Potential Parameters of Weakly Bound Nuclear System 17F+13C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>It is well known that optical potential is a basic ingredient in the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions. With the application of radioactive ion beams (RIB), extracting the optical potential parameters for the

  3. Measuring spin correlations in optical lattices using superlattice potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Georg Lind; Andersen, Brian Møller; Bruun, Georg Morten;

    2011-01-01

    We suggest two experimental methods for probing both short- and long-range spin correlations of atoms in optical lattices using superlattice potentials. The first method involves an adiabatic doubling of the periodicity of the underlying lattice to probe neighboring singlet (triplet) correlations...... for fermions (bosons) by the occupation of the resulting vibrational ground state. The second method utilizes a time-dependent superlattice potential to generate spin-dependent transport by any number of prescribed lattice sites, and probes correlations by the resulting number of doubly occupied sites....... For experimentally relevant parameters, we demonstrate how both methods yield large signatures of antiferromagnetic correlations of strongly repulsive fermionic atoms in a single shot of the experiment. Lastly, we show how this method may also be applied to probe d-wave pairing, a possible ground-state candidate...

  4. Novel applications of the dispersive optical model

    CERN Document Server

    Dickhoff, W H; Mahzoon, M H

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent developments of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Starting from the original work of Mahaux and Sartor, several necessary steps are developed and illustrated which increase the scope of the DOM allowing its interpretation as generating an experimentally constrained functional form of the nucleon self-energy. The method could therefore be renamed as the dispersive self-energy method. The aforementioned steps include the introduction of simultaneous fits of data for chains of isotopes or isotones allowing a data-driven extrapolation for the prediction of scattering cross sections and level properties in the direction of the respective drip lines. In addition, the energy domain for data was enlarged to include results up to 200 MeV where available. An important application of this work was implemented by employing these DOM potentials to the analysis of the (\\textit{d,p}) transfer reaction using the adiabatic distorted wave approximation (ADWA). We review the fully non-local DOM...

  5. Dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates in novel optical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kueber, Johannes

    2014-07-21

    Matter wave interferometry offers a novel approach for high precision measurements, such as the determination of physical constants like the local gravity constant g or the fine-structure constant. Since its early demonstration, it has become an important tool in the fields of fundamental and applied physics. The present work covers the implementation of matter wave interferometers as well as the creation of novel guiding potentials for ultra-cold ensembles of atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates for this purpose. In addition, novel techniques for the manipulation of atoms with Bragg lattices are presented, serving as elements for interferometry. The measurements in this work are performed with a Bose-Einstein condensate of 25000 {sup 87}rubidium atoms created in a crossed optical dipole trap. The crossed optical dipole trap is loaded from a magneto-optical trap and allows a measurement every 25 s. This work introduces the novel technique of double Bragg diffraction as a tool for atom optics for the first time experimentally. The creation of beamsplitters and mirrors for advanced interferometric measurements is characterized. An in depth discussion on the momentum distribution of atomic clouds and its influence on double Bragg diffraction is given. Additionally experimental results for higher-order Bragg diffraction are explained and double Bragg diffraction is used to implement a full Ramsey-type interferometer. A second central result of this work is the implementation of novel guiding structures for ultra-cold atoms. These structures are created with conical refraction, an effect that occurs when light is guided along one of the optical axis of a bi-axial crystal. The conical refraction crystal used to operate the novel trapping geometries is a KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystal that has been specifically cut orthogonal to one of the optical axis. Two regimes are discussed in detail: the creation of a toroidal matter wave guide and the implementation of a three

  6. Thioborates: potential nonlinear optical materials with rich structural chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Yu-Kun; Wu, Li-Ming; Chen, Ling

    2017-03-27

    Nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal materials with good performance are urgently needed. Various compounds have been explored to date. Metal chalcogenides and borates are common sources of potential NLO materials with desirable properties, particularly in the IR and UV regions, respectively. However, these two types of crystals have their specific drawbacks. Thioborates, as an emerging system, have unique advantages by combining the merits of borates and sulfides, i.e., the high laser damage thresholds and rich structural diversity of borates with large optical nonlinearity and the favorable transparency range of sulfides. However, only a limited number of thioborates are known. This paper summarizes the known thioborates according to structural motifs that range from zero-dimension to three-dimension, most of which are formed by sharing corners of the basic building units (BS3)(3-) and (BS4)(5-). Although nearly one-third of the known thioborates are noncentrosymmetric, most of their properties, especially their NLO behaviors, are unexplored. Further attempts and additional investigations are required with respect to design syntheses, property improvements and micro-mechanism studies.

  7. Separable Optical Potentials for (d,p) Reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Elster, Ch; Eremenko, V; Nunes, F M; Arbanas, G; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J

    2014-01-01

    An important ingredient for applications of nuclear physics to e.g. astrophysics or nuclear energy are the cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not possible, indirect methods like (d,p) reactions must be used instead. Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as effective three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. An additional challenge posed by (d,p) reactions involving heavier nuclei is the treatment of the Coulomb force. To avoid numerical complications in dealing with the screening of the Coulomb force, recently a new approach using the Coulomb distorted basis in momentum space was suggested. In order to implement this suggestion, one needs not only to derive a separable representation of neutron- and proton-nucleus optical potentials, but also compute the Coulomb distorted form factors in this basis.

  8. Spectral Singularity in confined PT symmetric optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Sinha, Anjana

    2013-01-01

    We present an analytical study for the scattering amplitudes (Reflection |R| and Transmission |T|), of the periodic PT symmetric optical potential V(x) = W_0 cos^2 x + i W_0 V_0 sin 2x confined within the region 0 0.5) scattering is found to be anomalous (|T|^2, |R|^2 not necessarily \\leq 1). Additionally, in this parameter regime of V_0, one observes infinite number of spectral singularities E_{SS} at different values of V_0. Furthermore, for L = 2n \\pi, the transition point V_0 = 0.5 shows unidirectional invisibility with zero reflection when the beam is incident from the absorptive side (Im[V(x)] 0), transmission being identically unity in both cases.

  9. Market potential for optical fiber sensors in the energy sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, T.

    2007-07-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalisation the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fibre optic sensor application.

  10. Optically induced effective mass renormalization: the case of graphite image potential states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, M.; Pagliara, S.; Galimberti, G.; Dal Conte, S.; Ferrini, G.; van Loosdrecht, P. H. M.; Parmigiani, F.

    2016-10-01

    Many-body interactions with the underlying bulk electrons determine the properties of confined electronic states at the surface of a metal. Using momentum resolved nonlinear photoelectron spectroscopy we show that one can tailor these many-body interactions in graphite, leading to a strong renormalization of the dispersion and linewidth of the image potential state. These observations are interpreted in terms of a basic self-energy model, and may be considered as exemplary for optically induced many-body interactions.

  11. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Grayness Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis suggests the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC and precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  12. Optically induced effective mass renormalization: the case of graphite image potential states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnese, M; Pagliara, S; Galimberti, G; Dal Conte, S; Ferrini, G; van Loosdrecht, P H M; Parmigiani, F

    2016-10-14

    Many-body interactions with the underlying bulk electrons determine the properties of confined electronic states at the surface of a metal. Using momentum resolved nonlinear photoelectron spectroscopy we show that one can tailor these many-body interactions in graphite, leading to a strong renormalization of the dispersion and linewidth of the image potential state. These observations are interpreted in terms of a basic self-energy model, and may be considered as exemplary for optically induced many-body interactions.

  13. Completely integrable models of nonlinear optics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrey I Maimistov

    2001-11-01

    The models of the nonlinear optics in which solitons appeared are considered. These models are of paramount importance in studies of nonlinear wave phenomena. The classical examples of phenomena of this kind are the self-focusing, self-induced transparency and parametric interaction of three waves. At present there are a number of theories based on completely integrable systems of equations, which are, both, generations of the original known models and new ones. The modified Korteweg-de Vries equation, the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the derivative nonlinear Schrödinger equation, Sine–Gordon equation, the reduced Maxwell–Bloch equation, Hirota equation, the principal chiral field equations, and the equations of massive Thirring model are some soliton equations, which are usually to be found in nonlinear optics theory.

  14. Differences Between a Single- and a Double-Folding Nucleus-^{9}Be Optical Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorso, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Charity, R. J.; Kumar, R.; Salvioni, G.

    2016-05-01

    We have recently constructed two very successful n-^9Be optical potentials (Bonaccorso and Charity in Phys Rev C89:024619, 2014). One by the Dispersive Optical Model (DOM) method and the other (AB) fully phenomenological. The two potentials have strong surface terms in common for both the real and the imaginary parts. This feature makes them particularly suitable to build a single-folded (light-) nucleus-^9Be optical potential by using ab-initio projectile densities such as those obtained with the VMC method (Wiringa http://www.phy.anl.gov/theory/research/density/). On the other hand, a VMC density together with experimental nucleon-nucleon cross-sections can be used also to obtain a neutron and/or proton-^9Be imaginary folding potential. We will use here an ab-initio VMC density (Wiringa http://www.phy.anl.gov/theory/research/density/) to obtain both a n-^9Be single-folded potential and a nucleus-nucleus double-folded potential. In this work we report on the cases of ^8B, ^8Li and ^8C projectiles. Our approach could be the basis for a systematic study of optical potentials for light exotic nuclei scattering on such light targets. Some of the projectiles studied are cores of other exotic nuclei for which neutron knockout has been used to extract spectroscopic information. For those cases, our study will serve to make a quantitative assessment of the core-target part of the reaction description, in particular its localization.

  15. Determination of the {\\eta}'-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nanova, M; Paryev, E Ya; Bayadilov, D; Bantes, B; Beck, R; Beloglazov, Y A; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K -T; Challand, Th; Crede, V; Dahlke, T; Dietz, F; Drexler, P; Eberhardt, H; Elsner, D; Ewald, R; Fornet-Ponse, K; Friedrich, S; Frommberger, F; Funke, Ch; Gottschall, M; Gridnev, A; Grüner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hammann, D; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, P; Honisch, Ch; Jaegle, I; Kaiser, D; Kalinowsky, H; Kammer, S; Keshelashvili, I; Kleber, V; Klein, F; Klempt, E; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Lopatin, I V; Maghrbi, Y; Makonyi, K; Müller, J; Odenthal, T; Piontek, D; Schaepe, S; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schmitz, R; Seifen, T; Thiel, A; Thoma, U; van Pee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Winnebeck, A; Zenke, F

    2013-01-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on $^{12}{}$C in the energy range of 1250-2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of -($37 \\pm 10(stat)\\pm10(syst)$) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus potential of -($10\\pm2.5$) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved $\\eta^\\prime$-bound states appears promising.

  16. Optical models for silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, T.; Sopori, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1995-08-01

    Light trapping is an important design feature for high-efficiency silicon solar cells. Because light trapping can considerably enhance optical absorption, a thinner substrate can be used which, in turn, can lower the bulk carrier recombination and concommitantly increase open-circuit voltage, and fill factor of the cell. The basic concepts of light trapping are similar to that of excitation of an optical waveguide, where a prism or a grating structure increases the phase velocity of the incoming optical wave such that waves propagated within the waveguide are totally reflected at the interfaces. Unfortunately, these concepts break down because the entire solar cell is covered with such a structure, making it necessary to develop new analytical approaches to deal with incomplete light trapping in solar cells. This paper describes two models that analyze light trapping in thick and thin solar cells.

  17. Spectral singularity in confined PT symmetric optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinha, Anjana [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata - 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, R. [Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata - 700 006, India and Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata - 700075 (India)

    2013-11-15

    We present an analytical study for the scattering amplitudes (Reflection ‖R‖ and Transmission ‖T‖), of the periodic PT symmetric optical potential V(x)=W{sub 0}cos{sup 2}x+iV{sub 0}sin2x confined within the region 0 ⩽x⩽L, embedded in a homogeneous medium having uniform potential W{sub 0}. The confining length L is considered to be some integral multiple of the period π. We give some new and interesting results. Scattering is observed to be normal (‖T‖{sup 2}⩽ 1, ‖R‖{sup 2}⩽ 1) for V{sub 0}⩽ 0.5, when the above potential can be mapped to a Hermitian potential by a similarity transformation. Beyond this point (V{sub 0} > 0.5) scattering is found to be anomalous (‖T‖{sup 2}, ‖R‖{sup 2} not necessarily ⩽1). Additionally, in this parameter regime of V{sub 0}, one observes infinite number of spectral singularities E{sub SS} at different values of V{sub 0}. Furthermore, for L= 2nπ, the transition point V{sub 0}= 0.5 shows unidirectional invisibility with zero reflection when the beam is incident from the absorptive side (Im[V(x)] < 0) but with finite reflection when the beam is incident from the emissive side (Im[V(x)] > 0), transmission being identically unity in both cases. Finally, the scattering coefficients ‖R‖{sup 2} and ‖T‖{sup 2} always obey the generalized unitarity relation : ‖T|{sup 2}−1|=√(|R{sub R}|{sup 2}|R{sub L}|{sup 2}), where subscripts R and L stand for right and left incidence, respectively.

  18. Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, L.; Yura, H.T.;

    2004-01-01

    Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle valid both for the single...... and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally....... From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical...

  19. RxGen General Optical Model Prescription Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigrist, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    RxGen is a prescription generator for JPL's in-house optical modeling software package called MACOS (Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems), which is an expert optical analysis software package focusing on modeling optics on dynamic structures, deformable optics, and controlled optics. The objectives of RxGen are to simplify and automate MACOS prescription generations, reducing errors associated with creating such optical prescriptions, and improving user efficiency without requiring MACOS proficiency. RxGen uses MATLAB (a high-level language and interactive environment developed by MathWorks) as the development and deployment platform, but RxGen can easily be ported to another optical modeling/analysis platform. Running RxGen within the modeling environment has the huge benefit that variations in optical models can be made an integral part of the modeling state. For instance, optical prescription parameters determined as external functional dependencies, optical variations by controlling the in-/exclusion of optical components like sub-systems, and/or controlling the state of all components. Combining the mentioned capabilities and flexibilities with RxGen's optical abstraction layer completely eliminates the hindering aspects for requiring proficiency in writing/editing MACOS prescriptions, allowing users to focus on the modeling aspects of optical systems, i.e., increasing productivity and efficiency. RxGen provides significant enhancements to MACOS and delivers a framework for fast prototyping as well as for developing very complex controlled optical systems.

  20. Potential Crash Location (PCL) Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-05

    LCA ) model provides a method for calculating how large the actual lethal area at the site of impact would be. The LCA model is described in a...helicopter failures. The crash location calculations are just one portion of the TLS tool, the other portion is LCA . Although the LCA is not

  1. Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016......)]. The first effect is the nonlinear power saturation of the plasmonic mode, and the second effect is the spectral broadening of the plasmonic mode. Both nonlinear plasmonic effects can be used for practical applications and their appropriate model will be important for further developments in communication...

  2. A Thermo-Optic Propagation Modeling Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrader, Karl; Akau, Ron

    2014-10-01

    A new theoretical basis is derived for tracing optical rays within a finite-element (FE) volume. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FE methodology (FEM) is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The method is implemented in the Matlab(TM) environment and compared to closed- form gradient index models. A software architecture is also developed for implementing the algorithms in the Zemax(TM) commercial ray-trace application. A controlled thermal environment was constructed in the laboratory, and measured data was collected to validate the structural, thermal, and optical modeling methods.

  3. Control of a Bose-Einstein condensate on a chip by external optical and magnetic potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maluckov, A. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Petrovic, J., E-mail: jovanap@vin.bg.ac.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Gligoric, G. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik Complexer Systeme, Noethnitzer St. 38, D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Hadzievski, Lj. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Lombardi, P. [Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Firenze via Sansone 1, 50019 Sesto F.no (Italy); Schaefer, F. [Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Cataliotti, F.S. [Laboratory for Nonlinear Spectroscopy, Via Nello Carrara 1, 50019 Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Energetica ' Sergio Stecco' , Universita di Firenze via S. Marta 3, 50139 Firenze (Italy)

    2012-09-15

    In this paper we explore the possibilities of control of a Bose-Einstein condensate on an atom chip by the use of potentials generated by photonic and magnetic components. We show that the fields produced by both types of components can be modelled by a generic exponential potential and derive analytic expressions that allow for an easy assessment of their impact on a trapped condensate. Using dynamical numerical simulations we study the transport of the condensate between the control structures on a chip. We study in detail different regimes of the condensate behaviour in an evanescent light potential generated by a photonic structure in the vicinity of the condensate and in magnetic potentials generated by a wire or a coil. The calculations are based on the reported parameters of atom chip setups and available photonic and magnetic components. Finally, the model is verified by an experiment with a condensate on an atom chip and a coil. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Generic potential used to describe both the optical evanescent and magnetic fields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytic closed form solution found for the impact of a generic potential on a BEC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BEC dynamics calculated for potential time sequences attainable in experiments. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conditions for BEC transfer by an external field identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Exponential-potential model validated by a BEC-on-chip experiment.

  4. Bioluminescence Potential Modeling and Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from simple agitation of the water with one’s hand...history of brilliant displays of bioluminescence in the wakes of ships, breaking waves, around the bodies of rapidly moving fish and mammals , and from...during the earlier stages of upwelling development. Later, the observed deep offshore BL potential maximum disappeared and became a shallower and much

  5. Optical vortices as potential indicators of biophysical dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Anindya; Kirkpatrick, Sean J.

    2017-03-01

    Laser speckle patterns are granular patterns produced as a result of random interference of light waves. Optical vortices (OVs) are phase singularities in such speckle fields, characterized by zero intensity and an undefined phase. Decorrelation of the speckle fields causes these OVs to move in both time and space. In this work, a variety of parameters of these OVs have been studied. The speckle fields were simulated to undergo three distinct decorrelation behaviors- Gaussian, Lorentzian and constant decorrelations. Different decorrelation behaviors represent different dynamics. For example, Lorentzian and Gaussian decorrelations represent Brownian and ordered motions, respectively. Typical dynamical systems in biophysics are generally argued to be a combination of these. For each of the decorrelation behaviors under study, the vortex trails were tracked while varying the rate of decorrelation. Parameters such as the decorrelation length, average trail length and the deviation of the vortices as they traversed in the speckle field, were studied. Empirical studies were also performed to define the distinction between trails arising from different speckle decorrelation behaviors. The initial studies under stationary speckle fields were followed up by similar studies on shifting fields. A new idea to employ Poincaŕe plots in speckle analysis has also been introduced. Our studies indicate that tracking OVs can be a potential method to study cell and tissue dynamics.

  6. The potential of optical coherence tomography for diagnosing meniscal pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang-Yin Ling, Carrie; Pozzi, Antonio; Thieman, Kelley M.; Tonks, Catherine A.; Guo, Shuguang; Xie, Huikai; Horodyski, MaryBeth

    2010-04-01

    Meniscal tears are often associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and may lead to pain and discomfort in humans. Maximal preservation of meniscal tissue is highly desirable to mitigate the progression of osteoarthritis. Guidelines of which meniscal tears are amenable to repair and what part of damaged tissues should be removed are elusive and lacking consensus. Images of microstructural changes in meniscus would potentially guide the surgeons to manage the meniscal tears better, but the resolution of current diagnostic techniques is limited for this application. In this study, we demonstrated the feasibility of using optical coherence tomography (OCT) for the diagnosis of meniscal pathology. Torn medial menisci were collected from dogs with ACL insufficiency. The torn meniscus was divided into three tissue samples and scanned by OCT and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). OCT and SEM images of torn menisci were compared. Each sample was evaluated for gross and microstructural abnormalities and reduction or loss of birefringence from the OCT images. The abnormalities detected with OCT were described for each type of tear. OCT holds promise in non-destructive and fast assessment of microstructural changes and tissue birefringence of meniscal tears. Future development of intraoperative OCT may help surgeons in the decision making of meniscal treatment.

  7. Derivation of an optical potential for statically deformed rare-earth nuclei from a global spherical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Dietrich, F S; Herman, M; Brown, D; Hoblit, S

    2014-01-01

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations characterized by nuclear deformations. A proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of experimental nuclear-reaction data and to the prediction of a wide variety of scattering observables. Stimulated by recent work substantiating the near validity of the adiabatic approximation in coupled-channel calculations for scattering on statically deformed nuclei, we explore the possibility of generalizing a global spherical optical model potential (OMP) to make it usable in coupled-channel calculations on this class of nuclei. To do this, we have deformed the Koning-Delaroche global spherical potential for neutrons, coupling a sufficient number of states of the ground state band to ensure convergence. We present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular dis...

  8. Towards a ^87Rb BEC apparatus with reconfigurable arbitrary optical potentials and artificial gauge fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niffenegger, Robert; Olson, Abraham; Chen, Yong P.

    2012-06-01

    We have constructed an all-optical ^87Rb BEC apparatus, which is currently creating condensates in a 1550nm cross beam optical dipole trap every 30s. We present experimental progress toward implementing reconfigurable arbitrary optical potentials and artificial gauge fields in our apparatus. Time-averaged, dynamically-reconfigurable, arbitrary-shaped optical potentials are generated using a dual-axis AOM controlled by a two-channel high-bandwidth arbitrary RF waveform generator. Using a blue-detuned 532nm laser, we have demonstrated various optical potential geometries such as a tilting wedge, checkerboard and elliptical barriers. Such arbitrary, reconfigurable optical potentials will be used to explore quantum phase transitions in superfluids. Our excellent optical access also allows the addition of Raman beams of various arrangements. Raman dressed states can be used to induce spin dependent artificial gauge fields for studying physics such as the spin Hall effect.

  9. Interrelationship of optical coherence tomography and multifocal visual-evoked potentials after optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klistorner, Alexander; Arvind, Hemamalini; Garrick, Raymond; Graham, Stuart L; Paine, Mark; Yiannikas, Con

    2010-05-01

    Acute optic neuritis (ON) is often followed by recovery of visual function. Although this recovery is mainly attributable to resolution of the acute inflammation, the redistribution of ion channels along the demyelinated membrane, and subsequent remyelination, part of it may be the result of neural plasticity. In the present study, the interrelationship was examined between structural (retinal nerve fiber layer [RNFL] thickness) and functional (amplitude of multifocal visual evoked potentials [mfVEPs]) measures of the integrity of the visual pathway in the postacute stage of ON, to determine whether there was any evidence of ongoing neural reorganization. Twenty-five subjects with acute unilateral ON underwent serial RNFL thickness measurement and mfVEP recording. The inter-eye asymmetry of both measures was analyzed. In the period between 6 and 12 months, the subjects were considered free of optic disc edema, and that period was used to analyze the structure-function relationship. Twenty control subjects were also examined. There were significant but opposite changes in RNFL thickness and mfVEP amplitude. The average asymmetry of RNFL thickness between affected and fellow eyes increased from 17.5 +/- 11.5 to 21.1 +/- 12.8 microm (P = 0.0003), indicating progressive axonal loss, whereas mfVEP amplitude asymmetry decreased from 46.6 +/- 32.4 to 38.3 +/- 31.1 nV (P = 0.0015), indicating continuous functional recovery. In comparison to the 6-month results, the mfVEP amplitude in the ON eye improved by 17.8%, whereas RNFL thickness decreased by 20.8%. The result remained unchanged regardless of the degree of optic nerve remyelination. The finding of structural-functional discrepancy at the postinflammatory stage may support the concept that neural plasticity contributes to functional recovery after acute ON.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography: Modeling and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars

    in previous theoretical models of OCT systems. It is demonstrated that the shower curtain effect is of utmost importance in the theoretical description of an OCT system. The analytical model, together with proper noise analysis of the OCT system, enables calculation of the SNR, where the optical properties...... geometry, i.e., reflection geometry, is developed. As in the new OCT model, multiple scattered photons has been taken into account together with multiple scattering effects. As an important result, a novel method of creating images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase......An analytical model is presented that is able to describe the performance of OCT systems in both the single and multiple scattering regimes simultaneously. This model inherently includes the shower curtain effect, well-known for light propagation through the atmosphere. This effect has been omitted...

  11. Green Network Planning Model for Optical Backbones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Jensen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are becoming more essential for our daily lives and critically important for industry and governments. The intense growth in the backbone traffic implies an increment of the power demands of the transmission systems. This power usage might have a significant negative effect...... on the environment in general. In network planning there are existing planning models focused on QoS provisioning, investment minimization or combinations of both and other parameters. But there is a lack of a model for designing green optical backbones. This paper presents novel ideas to be able to define...

  12. A Method to Analyze the Potential of Optical Remote Sensing for Benthic Habitat Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A. Garcia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the number and type of benthic classes that are able to be spectrally identified in shallow water remote sensing is important in understanding its potential for habitat mapping. Factors that impact the effectiveness of shallow water habitat mapping include water column turbidity, depth, sensor and environmental noise, spectral resolution of the sensor and spectral variability of the benthic classes. In this paper, we present a simple hierarchical clustering method coupled with a shallow water forward model to generate water-column specific spectral libraries. This technique requires no prior decision on the number of classes to output: the resultant classes are optically separable above the spectral noise introduced by the sensor, image based radiometric corrections, the benthos’ natural spectral variability and the attenuating properties of a variable water column at depth. The modeling reveals the effect reducing the spectral resolution has on the number and type of classes that are optically distinct. We illustrate the potential of this clustering algorithm in an analysis of the conditions, including clustering accuracy, sensor spectral resolution and water column optical properties and depth that enabled the spectral distinction of the seagrass Amphibolis antartica from benthic algae.

  13. Density dependence of microscopic nucleon optical potential in first order Brueckner theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliem, S. M.; Haider, W.

    2002-06-01

    In the present work we apply the lowest order Brueckner theory of infinite nuclear matter to obtain nucleon-nucleus optical potential for p-40Ca elastic scattering at 200 MeV using Urbana V14 soft core internucleon potential. We have investigated the effect of target density on the calculated nucleon-nucleus optical potential. We find that the calculated optical potentials depend quite sensitively on the density distribution of the target nucleus. The important feature is that the real part of calculated central optical potential for all densities shows a wine-bottle-bottom type behaviour at this energy. We also discuss the effect of our new radial dependent effective mass correction. Finally, we compare the prediction of our calculated nucleon optical potential using V14 with the prediction using older hard core Hamada-Johnston internucleon potential for p-40Ca elastic scattering at 200 MeV.

  14. Asymmetry dependence of Gogny-based optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Bernard, R.N. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France); Arellano, H.F. [University of Chile, Department of Physics - FCFM, Santiago (Chile); CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon (France)

    2017-05-15

    An analysis of neutron and proton scattering off {sup 40,48}Ca has been carried out. Real and imaginary potentials have been generated using the Nuclear Structure Method (NSM) for scattering with the Gogny D1S nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. Observables are well described by NSM for neutron and proton elastic scattering off {sup 40}Ca and for neutron scattering off {sup 48}Ca. For proton scattering off {sup 48}Ca, NSM yields a lack of absorption. This discrepancy is attributed to two-fold charge exchange (p, n, p) contribution and coupling to Gamow-Teller mode which are not included in the present version of NSM. A recipe based on a Perey-Buck fit of the NSM imaginary potential and Lane model is proposed to overcome this issue in an approximate way. (orig.)

  15. Asymmetry dependence of Gogny-based optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchon, G.; Dupuis, M.; Bernard, R. N.; Arellano, H. F.

    2017-05-01

    An analysis of neutron and proton scattering off 40,48Ca has been carried out. Real and imaginary potentials have been generated using the Nuclear Structure Method (NSM) for scattering with the Gogny D1S nucleon-nucleon effective interaction. Observables are well described by NSM for neutron and proton elastic scattering off 40Ca and for neutron scattering off 48Ca . For proton scattering off 48Ca, NSM yields a lack of absorption. This discrepancy is attributed to two-fold charge exchange ( p, n, p) contribution and coupling to Gamow-Teller mode which are not included in the present version of NSM. A recipe based on a Perey-Buck fit of the NSM imaginary potential and Lane model is proposed to overcome this issue in an approximate way.

  16. Model Potentials for a C60 Shell

    CERN Document Server

    Manson, S T; Msezane, A Z

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of electric charges forming a square well potential has been analyzed. It is shown that this potential is created by two concentric spheres with a double layer of charges. A C60 shell potential has been calculated under the assumption that it is formed by the averaged charge density of a neutral atom. It is further demonstrated that the phenomenological potentials simulating the C60 shell potential belong to a family of potentials with a non-flat bottom. Two possible types of C60 model potentials are proposed and their parameters have been calculated. AMS (MOS) Subject Classification. 62P35, 81V55

  17. Determination of the ω- and η′-nucleus optical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanova M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ω and η′-nucleus interaction has been studied in photoproduction reactions off C and Nb targets, using the CBELSA/TAPS detector system. Transparency ratio measurements provide information on the inelastic cross section and in-medium width of mesons and thereby on the imaginary part of the meson-nucleus potential. The real part of the optical potential can be deduced from measurements of the excitation function and momentum distribution which are sensitive to the sign and depth of the potential. Data taken on a C and Nb target have been analysed to determine the real and the imaginary part of the ω- and η′-nucleus optical potential. The momentum dependence of the imaginary part of both mesons is presented and discussed. The results are compared to previous experimental results and to model calculations assuming different scenarios. The data are consistent with a weakly attractive potential for both mesons. The relatively small in-medium width of the η′ meson encourages the search for η′ bound states.

  18. Field weighting model for tracking-integrated optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheelwright, Brian; Angel, Roger; Coughenour, Blake; Hammer, Kimberly; Geary, Andrew; Stalcup, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    The emergent field of tracking-integrated optics enables a potentially low cost concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) implementation, where single-axis module tracking is complemented by an additional degree of freedom within the module [1,2,3,4,5]. Gross module tracking can take on multiple configurations, the most common being rotation about a polar or horizontal North-South oriented axis. Polar-axis tracking achieves >95% sunlight collection compared to dual-axis tracking[6], leaving the tracking-integrated optics to compensate for +/-23.5° seasonal variations. The collection efficiency of N-S horizontal axis tracking is latitude-dependent, with ˜90% collection relative to dual-axis tracking at 32.2° latitude. Horizontal tracking at higher latitudes shifts an increasing burden to the tracking-integrated optics, which must operate between two incidence angle extremes: summer solstice sunrise/sunset to winter solstice noon. An important aspect of tracking-integrated lens design is choosing a suitable field weighting to appropriately account for annual DNI received at each angle of incidence. We present a field weighting model, generalized for polar or horizontal module tracking at any latitude, which shows excellent agreement with measured insolation data. This model is particularly helpful for the design of tracking-integrated optics for horizontally-tracked modules, where the correct field weighting is asymmetric and significantly biased away from the normal incidence.

  19. Some Advances in the Circuit Modeling of Extraordinary Optical Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Medina

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT through electrically small holes perforated on opaque metal screens has been a hot topic in the optics community for more than one decade. This experimentally observed frequency-selective enhanced transmission of electromagnetic power through holes, for which classical Bethe's theory predicts very poor transmission, later attracted the attention of engineers working on microwave engineering or applied electromagnetics. Extraordinary transmission was first linked to the plasma-like behavior of metals at optical frequencies. However, the primary role played by the periodicity of the distribution of holes was soon made evident, in such a way that extraordinary transmission was disconnected from the particular behavior of metals at optical frequencies. Indeed, the same phenomenon has been observed in the microwave and millimeter wave regime, for instance. Nowadays, the most commonly accepted theory explains EOT in terms of the interaction of the impinging plane wave with the surface plasmon-polariton-Bloch waves (SPP-Bloch supported by the periodically perforated plate. The authors of this paper have recently proposed an alternative model whose details will be briefly summarized here. A parametric study of the predictions of the model and some new potential extensions will be reported to provide additional insight.

  20. Smooth models for the Coulomb potential

    CERN Document Server

    González-Espinoza, Cristina E; Karwowski, Jacek; Savin, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Smooth model potentials with parameters selected to reproduce the spectrum of one-electron atoms are used to approximate the singular Coulomb potential. Even when the potentials do not mimic the Coulomb singularity, much of the spectrum is reproduced within the chemical accuracy. For the Hydrogen atom, the smooth approximations to the Coulomb potential are more accurate for higher angular momentum states. The transferability of the model potentials from an attractive interaction (Hydrogen atom) to a repulsive one (Harmonium and the uniform electron gas) is discussed.

  1. Polymer scaffolds bearing azobenzene - Potential for optical information storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvilsted, Søren; Ramanujam, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental optical storage mechanism of the laser light addressable azobenzene moiety is briefly introduced. A modular and flexible synthesis design furnishes polyester matrices covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains. Thin films of these materials are particul......The fundamental optical storage mechanism of the laser light addressable azobenzene moiety is briefly introduced. A modular and flexible synthesis design furnishes polyester matrices covalently integrating cyanoazobenzene in regularly spaced side chains. Thin films of these materials...

  2. Symbolic modeling of high energy beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Autin, Bruno

    1999-01-01

    A classical problem of computational physics consists of finding the minimum of a chi /sup 2/ like function of many variables. Powerful optimization algorithms have been developed but do not guarantee convergence towards an absolute minimum. Analytical methods can improve the insight into a physical problem but calculations quickly exceed the power of a human brain. There comes the interest of optical design of high energy particle accelerators. The physics background is sketched and emphasis is put on the methodology. In practice, algebraic models may not be precise enough but they usually provide excellent initial conditions for a final numerical optimization. (4 refs).

  3. Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Krc, Janez

    2013-01-01

    In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models

  4. Theoretical model for a Stark anomalous dispersion optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model for the first atomic Stark anomalous dispersion optical filter is reported. The results show the filter may serve as a widely tunable narrow bandwidth and high throughput optical filter for freespace laser communications and remote sensing.

  5. RECENT MATHEMATICAL STUDIES IN THE MODELING OF OPTICS AND ELECTROMAGNETICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Bao

    2004-01-01

    This work is concerned with mathematical modeling, analysis, and computation of optics and electromagnetics, motivated particularly by optical and microwave applications.The main technical focus is on Maxwell's equations in complex linear and nonlinear media.

  6. A Potential Model for Cylindrical Pores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张现仁; 汪文川

    2001-01-01

    An analytical potential for cylindrical pores has been derived by introducing a variational method into the integration for the calculation of the interaction energy between the wall molecules and a test molecule, all of which are represented by Lennard-Jones potential. The model proposed gives good fit to the results from the cylindrical surface model and the pseudoatom model. To test the potential proposed rigorously, we have carried out grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo(GCMC) simulation of nitrogen in the MCM-41 pore at 77 K, and compared the simulated adsorption isotherm with the experimental data reported in the literature. The simulated isotherm from our model is in almost qualitative agreement with experiment. Consequently, the model proposed provides an explicit and accurate description of cylindrical pores represented by the Lennard-Jones potential. Moreover, the model can be easily applied to a variety of cylindrical pores, ranging from cylindrical surface to finite thickness walls, in both theoretical studies and computer simulations.

  7. Proton-Proton On Shell Optical Potential at High Energies and the Hollowness Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arriola, Enrique Ruiz; Broniowski, Wojciech

    2016-07-01

    We analyze the usefulness of the optical potential as suggested by the double spectral Mandelstam representation at very high energies, such as in the proton-proton scattering at ISR and the LHC. Its particular meaning regarding the interpretation of the scattering data up to the maximum available measured energies is discussed. Our analysis reconstructs 3D dynamics from the effective transverse 2D impact parameter representation and suggests that besides the onset of gray nucleons at the LHC there appears an inelasticity depletion (hollowness) which precludes convolution models at the attometer scale.

  8. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, C. R.; Elster, Ch.; Thaler, R. M.

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective NN t matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free NN t matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual (A-1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from 40Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  9. Microscopic formulation of medium contributions to the first-order optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn, C.R. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Center for Computationally Intensive Physics, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)); Elster, C. (Institute of Nuclear and Particle Physics and Department of Physics, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States)); Thaler, R.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States) Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    A refinement of the first-order optical potential is introduced, consistent with multiple scattering theory and the spectator expansion. A systematic formalism is presented to treat medium contributions associated with the difference between the effective [ital NN] [ital t] matrix as required by multiple scattering theory and the free [ital NN] [ital t] matrix. A mean field potential is used to represent the action of the residual ([ital A][minus]1) nucleus upon the struck target nucleon (medium effects). We calculate elastic proton and neutron scattering from [sup 40]Ca, using the full Bonn interaction and two different mean field potentials taken from realistic and proven nuclear structure models. Results indicate that the medium contributions are insignificant at energies above 300 MeV and provide a significant improvement of the theoretical predictions for laboratory energies between 48 and 200 MeV.

  10. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic and Polymeric Thin Film Materials of Potential for Microgravity Processing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeldayem, Hossin; Frazier, Donald O.; Paley, Mark S.; Penn, Benjamin; Witherow, William K.; Bank, Curtis; Shields, Angela; Hicks, Rosline; Ashley, Paul R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we will take a closer look at the state of the art of polydiacetylene, and metal-free phthalocyanine films, in view of the microgravity impact on their optical properties, their nonlinear optical properties and their potential advantages for integrated optics. These materials have many attractive features with regard to their use in integrated optical circuits and optical switching. Thin films of these materials processed in microgravity environment show enhanced optical quality and better molecular alignment than those processed in unit gravity. Our studies of these materials indicate that microgravity can play a major role in integrated optics technology. Polydiacetylene films are produced by UV irradiation of monomer solution through an optical window. This novel technique of forming polydiacetylene thin films has been modified for constructing sophisticated micro-structure integrated optical patterns using a pre-programmed UV-Laser beam. Wave guiding through these thin films by the prism coupler technique has been demonstrated. The third order nonlinear parameters of these films have been evaluated. Metal-free phthalocyanine films of good optical quality are processed in our laboratories by vapor deposition technique. Initial studies on these films indicate that they have excellent chemical, laser, and environmental stability. They have large nonlinear optical parameters and show intrinsic optical bistability. This bistability is essential for optical logic gates and optical switching applications. Waveguiding and device making investigations of these materials are underway.

  11. Optical Performance Modeling of FUSE Telescope Mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Timo T.; Ohl, Raymond G.; Friedman, Scott D.; Moos, H. Warren

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Metrology Data Processor (METDAT), the Optical Surface Analysis Code (OSAC), and their application to the image evaluation of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mirrors. The FUSE instrument - designed and developed by the Johns Hopkins University and launched in June 1999 is an astrophysics satellite which provides high resolution spectra (lambda/Delta(lambda) = 20,000 - 25,000) in the wavelength region from 90.5 to 118.7 nm The FUSE instrument is comprised of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors, four Rowland circle spectrograph channels with holographic gratings, and delay line microchannel plate detectors. The OSAC code provides a comprehensive analysis of optical system performance, including the effects of optical surface misalignments, low spatial frequency deformations described by discrete polynomial terms, mid- and high-spatial frequency deformations (surface roughness), and diffraction due to the finite size of the aperture. Both normal incidence (traditionally infrared, visible, and near ultraviolet mirror systems) and grazing incidence (x-ray mirror systems) systems can be analyzed. The code also properly accounts for reflectance losses on the mirror surfaces. Low frequency surface errors are described in OSAC by using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence mirrors and Legendre-Fourier polynomials for grazing incidence mirrors. The scatter analysis of the mirror is based on scalar scatter theory. The program accepts simple autocovariance (ACV) function models or power spectral density (PSD) models derived from mirror surface metrology data as input to the scatter calculation. The end product of the program is a user-defined pixel array containing the system Point Spread Function (PSF). The METDAT routine is used in conjunction with the OSAC program. This code reads in laboratory metrology data in a normalized format. The code then fits the data using Zernike polynomials for normal incidence

  12. Baby Skyrme models without a potential term

    CERN Document Server

    Ashcroft, Jennifer; Krusch, Steffen

    2015-01-01

    We develop a one-parameter family of static baby Skyrme models that do not require a potential term to admit topological solitons. This is a novel property as all currently known baby Skyrme models must contain a potential term in order to have stable soliton solutions, though the Skyrme model does not require this. Our new models satisfy an energy bound that is linear in terms of the topological charge and can be saturated in an extreme limit. They also satisfy a virial theorem that is shared by the Skyrme model. We calculate the solitons of our new models numerically and observe that their form depends significantly on the choice of parameter. In one extreme, we find compactons whilst at the other there is a scale invariant model in which solitons can be obtained exactly as solutions to a Bogomolny equation. We provide an initial investigation into these solitons and compare them with the baby Skyrmions of other models.

  13. Isospin-dependent relativistic microscopic optical potential in the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG; Jian; MA; Zhongyu

    2004-01-01

    The relativistic microscopic optical potential in the asymmetric nuclear matter is studied in the framework of the Dirac Brueckner-Hartree-Fock method. A new decomposition of the Dirac structure of the nuclear self-energy in nuclear matter is adopted. The self-energy of a nucleon with E> 0 in nuclear matter is calculated with the G matrix in the Hartree-Fock approach. The optical potential of a nucleon in the nuclear medium is identified with the nucleon self-energy. The energy and asymmetric parameter dependence of the relativistic optical potentials for proton and neutron are discussed. The resulting Schroedinger equivalent potentials have reasonable behaviors of the energy dependence. The asymmetric parameter dependence of relativistic optical potentials and Schroedinger potentials are emphasized.

  14. Potential Models for Radiative Rare B Decays

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, S

    2002-01-01

    We compute the branching ratios for the radiative rare decays of B into K-Meson states and compare them to the experimentally determined branching ratio for inclusive decay b -> s gamma using non relativistic quark model, and form factor definitions consistent with HQET covariant trace formalism. Such calculations necessarily involve a potential model. In order to test the sensitivity of calculations to potential models we have used three different potentials, namely linear potential, screening confining potential and heavy quark potential as it stands in QCD.We find the branching ratios relative to the inclusive b ->s gamma decay to be (16.07\\pm 5.2)% for B -> K^* (892)gamma and (7.25\\pm 3.2)% for B -> K_2^* (1430)gamma for linear potential. In the case of the screening confining potential these values are (19.75\\pm 5.3)% and (4.74\\pm 1.2)% while those for the heavy quark potential are (11.18\\pm 4.6)% and (5.09\\pm 2.7)% respectively. All these values are consistent with the corresponding present CLEO experim...

  15. Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naulleau, Patrick P; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A

    2011-07-10

    Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.

  16. Non-rotational aspherical models of the human optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovanzana, S.; Kasprzak, H. T.; Pałucki, B.; Ţălu, Ş.

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this work was to define three-dimensional (3D) non-rotational aspherical parametric models for the human cornea and lens using computational geometry and CAD representations. The hyperbolic cosine based function is used for the cornea and a parametric model is used for lens modeling. Data analysis and visualization of 3D non-rotational models were made using the Rhinoceros CAD software and MATLAB software was used for numeric computation. We combined, implemented, and evaluated these models with a 3D ray-tracing in order to fully analyze the human eye model. It was found that 3D non-rotational aspherical models for the human eye could be more accurately modeled and rendered for analysis with finite element method. The objective of this study is to present and analyze mathematical models of the cornea and lens and to highlight the potential of optical applications of the eye models containing astigmatic surfaces, which are more close to the real eye than spherosymmetric eye models.

  17. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  18. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based mi

  19. Mineral potential mapping with mathematical geological models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porwal, A.K.

    2006-01-01

    Mathematical geological models are being increasingly used by natural resources delineation and planning agencies for mapping areas of mineral potential in order to optimize land use in accordance with socio-economic needs of the society. However, a key problem in spatial-mathematical-model-based

  20. Animal model of human disease with optic neuritis: neuropapillitis in a rat model infected with Angiostrongylus cantonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Zeng, Xin; Li, Wei-hua; Wang, Wen-cong; Ou-Yang, Li-si; Sun, Xi; Lv, Zhiyue; Wu, Zhong-Dao

    2014-11-01

    Human Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A. cantonensis) is a food-borne parasitic disease and can cause optic neuritis. Increasing clinical angiostrongyliasis cases with optic neuritis have been reported, but the pathogenesis has not been fully understood until now. Here, we applied rats with A. cantonensis infection as an animal model to study the pathogenesis of optic neuritis caused by the infection. We observed that the optic disk of experimental rats appeared hyperemic, the retina vein became thick, and the visual evoked potential (VEP) latency was prolonged. There were obvious inflammatory cell infiltration in the retina and optic nerve adventitia followed with obvious optic nerve fiber demyelination and retina ganglion swelling. We also evaluated the effect of dexamethasone combined with albendazole on optic neuritis of rats infected with A. cantonensis. The results showed it had no obvious effect to prevent progressive visual deterioration for optic neuritis caused by A. cantonensis. The studies provided evidence that the pathogenesis of optic neuritis in infected rats was correlated to optic nerve demyelination and ganglion cell damage caused by optic nerve inflammation, and the common therapy to this disease was not so effective. Based on the above results, it may be necessary to combine neuroprotective agents with common therapy to treat and protect optic nerve and ganglion cells from their secondary injury.

  1. Classical Ising Models Realised on Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirio, Mauro; Brennen, G. K.; Twamley, J.; Iblisdir, S.; Boada, O.

    2012-02-01

    We describe a simple quantum algorithm acting on a register of qubits in d spatial dimensions which computes statistical properties of d+1 dimensional classical Ising models. The algorithm works by measuring scattering matrix elements for quantum processes and Wick rotating to provide estimates for real partition functions of classical systems. This method can be implemented in a straightforward way in ensembles of qubits, e.g. three dimensional optical lattices with only nearest neighbor Ising like interactions. By measuring noise in the estimate useful information regarding location of critical points and scaling laws can be extracted for classical Ising models, possibly with inhomogeneity. Unlike the case of quantum simulation of quantum hamiltonians, this algorithm does not require Trotter expansion of the evolution operator and thus has the advantage of being amenable to fault tolerant gate design in a straightforward manner. Through this setting it is possible to study the quantum computational complexity of the estimation of a classical partition function for a 2D Ising model with non uniform couplings and magnetic fields. We provide examples for the 2 dimensional case.

  2. Deformed optical potential anomaly in {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubian, J.; Cabezas, R. [Center for Applied Studies to Nuclear Development, Havana (Cuba)

    1994-12-31

    An analysis of the low-energy neutron inelastic scattering in some {open_quotes}soft{close_quotes} nuclei is made in the region of medium atomic-weight nuclei. A combined use of the coupled channel method (CCM) and statistical Hauser-Feshbach theory is applied. As structural model of the target nucleus in the CCM calculation the Davydov-Chaban model (DCM) is used. It is observed that the lineal coefficient of the real part energy dependence of the deformed optical potential becomes unusual and increase with the {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} of the nucleus. It is shown that in the frame of the DCM it is possible to describe adequately experimental differential, integral and total cross sections in the energy range 1-5 MeV and the structure of the low-lying collective states.

  3. Numerical Green's functions in optical potential calculations for positron scattering from argon and neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartschat, K.; Mceachran, R. P.; Stauffer, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    An optical potential method was applied to the calculation of positron scattering from the noble gases in order to determine the effect of open excitation channels on the shape of differential scattering cross sections.

  4. Modeling GMPLS and Optical MPLS Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Wessing, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A consequence of migrating the existing Internet architecture to an all-optical one is that the network will consist of a mixture of equipment, ranging from electrical routers to all-optical packet switches. Hence, future networks will consist of multiple domains employing different technologies...

  5. A general numerical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model

    CERN Document Server

    Capote, R; Quesada, J M; Capote, Roberto; Molina, Alberto; Quesada, Jose Manuel

    2001-01-01

    A general numerical solution of the dispersion integral relation between the real and the imaginary parts of the nuclear optical potential is presented. Fast convergence is achieved by means of the Gauss-Legendre integration method, which offers accuracy, easiness of implementation and generality for dispersive optical model calculations. The use of this numerical integration method in the optical-model parameter search codes allows for a fast and accurate dispersive analysis. PACS number(s): 11.55.Fv, 24.10.Ht, 02.60.Jh

  6. Modeling Rotating Turbulent Flows with the Body Force Potential Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Amitabh; Perot, Blair

    2000-11-01

    Like a Reynolds Stress Transport equation model, the turbulent potential model has an explicit Coriolis acceleration term that appears in the model that accounts for rotation effects. In this work the additional secondary effects that system rotation has on the dissipation rate, return-to-isotropy, and fast pressure strain terms are also included in the model. The resulting model is tested in the context of rotating isotropic turbulence, rotating homogeneous shear flow, rotating channel flow, and swirling pipe flow. Many of the model changes are applicable to Reynolds stress transport equation models. All model modifications are frame indifferent.

  7. Quantum Modelling of Electro-Optic Modulators

    CERN Document Server

    Capmany, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Many components that are employed in quantum information and communication systems are well known photonic devices encountered in standard optical fiber communication systems, such as optical beamsplitters, waveguide couplers and junctions, electro-optic modulators and optical fiber links. The use of these photonic devices is becoming increasingly important especially in the context of their possible integration either in a specifically designed system or in an already deployed end-to-end fiber link. Whereas the behavior of these devices is well known under the classical regime, in some cases their operation under quantum conditions is less well understood. This paper reviews the salient features of the quantum scattering theory describing both the operation of the electro-optic phase and amplitude modulators in discrete and continuous-mode formalisms. This subject is timely and of importance in light of the increasing utilization of these devices in a variety of systems, including quantum key distribution an...

  8. Gulmarg, Kashmir, India: Potential Site for Optical Astronomical Observations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ajaz Ahmad Dar; Manzoor A. Malik

    2017-06-01

    The site characteristics of Gulmarg, Kashmir at an altitude of about 2743.2 m above sea level is based on analysis of meteorological conditions, cloud cover, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, etc. Analysis and characterization of meteorological conditions suggest that Gulmarg, Kashmir is a potential site for carrying out photometric as well as spectroscopic observations of celestial objects.

  9. Analytic Models of Plausible Gravitational Lens Potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune

    2007-05-04

    Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modeled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sersic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasizing that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential.We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sersic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modeled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses.

  10. Thermally Stable Heterocyclic Imines as New Potential Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, Volodymyr V.; Antipin, Mikhail Y.; Nesterov, Vladimir N.; Moore, Craig E.; Cardelino, Beatriz H.; Timofeeva, Tatiana V.

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a search for new thermostable acentric nonlinear optical crystalline materials, several heterocyclic imine derivatives were designed, with the general structure D-pi-A(D'). Introduction of a donor amino group (D') into the acceptor moiety was expected to bring H-bonds into their crystal structures, and so to elevate their melting points and assist in an acentric molecular packing. Six heterocycle-containing compounds of this type were prepared, single crystals were grown for five of them, and these crystals were characterized by X-ray analysis. A significant melting temperature elevation was found for all of the synthesized compounds. Three of the compounds were also found to crystallize in acentric space groups. One of the acentric compounds is built as a three-dimensional H-bonded molecular network. In the other two compounds, with very similar molecular structure, the molecules form one-dimensional H-bonded head-to-head associates (chains). These chains are parallel in two different crystallographic directions and form very unusual interpenetrating chain patterns in an acentric crystal. Two of the compounds crystallized with centrosymmetric molecular packing.

  11. Coulomb excitation effects on alpha-particle optical potential below the Coulomb barrier

    CERN Document Server

    Avrigeanu, V; Mănăilescu, C

    2016-01-01

    A competition of the low-energy Coulomb excitation (CE) with the compound nucleus (CN) formation in alpha-induced reactions below the Coulomb barrier has recently been assumed in order to make possible the description of the latter as well as the alpha-particle emission by the same optical model (OM) potential. On the contrary, we show in the present work that the corresponding partial waves and integration radii provide evidence for the distinct account of the CE cross section and OM total-reaction cross section $\\sigma_R$. Thus the largest contribution to CE cross section comes by far from partial waves larger than the ones contributing to the $\\sigma_R$ values.

  12. Optical Stark decelerator for molecules with a traveling potential well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lianzhong; Hou, Shunyong; Yin, Jianping

    2017-03-01

    We propose a versatile scheme to slow supersonically cooled molecules using a decelerating potential well, obtained by steering a focusing laser beam onto a pair of spinning reflective mirrors under a high-speed brake. The longitudinal motion of molecules in the moving red-detuned light field is analyzed and their corresponding phase-space stability is investigated. Trajectories of C H4 molecules under the influence of the potential well are simulated using the Monte Carlo method. For instance, with a laser beam of power 20 kW focused onto a spot of waist radius 40-100 μm, corresponding to a peak laser intensity on the order of ˜108W /c m2 , a C H4 molecule of ˜250 m /s can be decelerated to ˜10 m /s over a distance of a few centimeters on a time scale of hundreds of microseconds.

  13. Transient accelerating scalar models with exponential potentials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Ping Cui; Yang Zhang; Zheng-Wen Fu

    2013-01-01

    We study a known class of scalar dark energy models in which the potential has an exponential term and the current accelerating era is transient.We find that,although a decelerating era will return in the future,when extrapolating the model back to earlier stages (z(≥) 4),scalar dark energy becomes dominant over matter.So these models do not have the desired tracking behavior,and the predicted transient period of acceleration cannot be adopted into the standard scenario of the Big Bang cosmology.When couplings between the scalar field and matter are introduced,the models still have the same problem; only the time when deceleration returns will be varied.To achieve re-deceleration,one has to turn to alternative models that are consistent with the standard Big Bang scenario.

  14. Optical Turbulence Characterization at LAMOST Site: Observations and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, L -Y; Yao, Y -Q; Vernin, J; Chadid, M; Wang, H -S; Yin, J; Wang, Y -P

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence seriously limits the performance of high angular resolution instruments. An 8-night campaign of measurements was carried out at the LAMOST site in 2011, to characterize the optical turbulence. Two instruments were set up during the campaign: a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) used to measure the total atmospheric seeing, and a Single Star Scidar (SSS) to measure the vertical profiles of the turbulence C_n^2(h) and the horizontal wind velocity V(h). The optical turbulence parameters are also calculated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Trinquet-Vernin model, which describes optical effects of atmospheric turbulence by using the local meteorological parameters. This paper presents assessment of the optical parameters involved in high angular resolution astronomy. Its includes seeing, isoplanatic angle, coherence time, coherence etendue, vertical profiles of optical turbulence intensity _n^2(h)$ and horizontal wind speed V(h). The median...

  15. A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in optical networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Yong; RAO Min; LI Lei; CHEN Yu; JIANG Jianfeng; ZHANG Mingde; SUN Xiaohan

    2005-01-01

    A novel model on dynamic resource allocation in the WDM optical networks is proposed, basing on the integrated considerations of the impacts of transmission impairments and service classification on dynamic resource allocation in the optical layer.In this model, the priorities of optical connection requests are mapped into different thresholds of transmission impairments, and a uniform method which is adopted to evaluate the virtual wavelength path (VWP) candidates is defined. The Advanced Preferred Wavelength Sets Algorithm (A-PWS) and the heuristic Dynamic Min-Cost & Optical Virtual Wavelength Path Algorithm (DMC-OVWP) are presented addressing the routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem based on dynamic traffic and multi priorities in wavelength-routed optical networks. For a received optical connection request,DMC-OVWP is employed to calculate a list of the VWP candidates, and an appropriate VWP which matches the request's priority is picked up to establish the lightpath by analyzing the transmission qualities of the VWP candidates.

  16. On a Decomposition Model for Optical Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abhau, Jochen; Belhachmi, Zakaria; Scherzer, Otmar

    In this paper we present a variational method for determining cartoon and texture components of the optical flow of a noisy image sequence. The method is realized by reformulating the optical flow problem first as a variational denoising problem for multi-channel data and then by applying decomposition methods. Thanks to the general formulation, several norms can be used for the decomposition. We study a decomposition for the optical flow into bounded variation and oscillating component in greater detail. Numerical examples demonstrate the capabilities of the proposed approach.

  17. Model GC1312S Multifunction Integrated Optical Circuit Devices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Model GC1312S multifunction integrated optical circuit device (MIOC) used in inertial-grade interferometric fiber optics gyroscopes (IFOGs) is fabricated by annealing and proton exchange process (APE). The unique feature of the device is the incorporation of the beat detection circuit besides all the features the conventional single Y-branch multifunction integrated optical circuit devices have. The device structure, operation principle and typical characteristics, etc., are briefly presented in this paper.

  18. Measuring optical properties of a blood vessel model using optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi; Vartanian, Keri; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.

    2006-02-01

    In this paper we develop the concept of a tissue-engineered optical phantom that uses engineered tissue as a phantom for calibration and optimization of biomedical optics instrumentation. With this method, the effects of biological processes on measured signals can be studied in a well controlled manner. To demonstrate this concept, we attempted to investigate how the cellular remodeling of a collagen matrix affected the optical properties extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the samples. Tissue-engineered optical phantoms of the vascular system were created by seeding smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Four different optical properties were evaluated by fitting the OCT signal to 2 different models: the sample reflectivity ρ and attenuation parameter μ were extracted from the single scattering model, and the scattering coefficient μ s and root-mean-square scattering angle θ rms were extracted from the extended Huygens-Fresnel model. We found that while contraction of the smooth muscle cells was clearly evident macroscopically, on the microscopic scale very few cells were actually embedded in the collagen. Consequently, no significant difference between the cellular and acellular samples in either set of measured optical properties was observed. We believe that further optimization of our tissue-engineering methods is needed in order to make the histology and biochemistry of the cellular samples sufficiently different from the acellular samples on the microscopic level. Once these methods are optimized, we can better verify whether the optical properties of the cellular and acellular collagen samples differ.

  19. Synthesis of optical spring potentials in optomechanical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Slatyer, Harry J; Cho, Young-Wook; Buchler, Ben C; Lam, Ping Koy

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method to tailor the potential experienced by a moveable end mirror in a cavity optomechanical system by specifying the spectral properties of the input field. We show that by engineering the power spectral density of the cavity input field a desired force function can be approximated, with the accuracy of the approximation limited only by the linewidth of the cavity. The very general technique presented here could have applications in many kinds of optomechanical systems, particularly those used for sensing and metrology. We demonstrate the method by applying it to improve the sensitivity of a particular gravity measurement.

  20. Developmental impairment of compound action potential in the optic nerve of myelin mutant taiep rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncagliolo, Manuel; Schlageter, Carol; León, Claudia; Couve, Eduardo; Bonansco, Christian; Eguibar, José R

    2006-01-05

    The taiep rat is a myelin mutant with an initial hypomyelination, followed by a progressive demyelination of the CNS. The neurological correlates start with tremor, followed by ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy and paralysis. The optic nerve, an easily-isolable central tract fully myelinated by oligodendrocytes, is a suitable preparation to evaluate the developmental impairment of central myelin. We examined the ontogenic development of optic nerve compound action potentials (CAP) throughout the first 6 months of life of control and taiep rats. Control optic nerves (ON) develop CAPs characterized by three waves. Along the first month, the CAPs of taiep rats showed a delayed maturation, with lower amplitudes and longer latencies than controls; at P30, the conduction velocity has only a third of the normal value. Later, as demyelination proceeds, the conduction velocity of taiep ONs begins to decrease and CAPs undergo a gradual temporal dispersion. CAPs of control and taiep showed differences in their pharmacological sensitivity to TEA and 4-AP, two voltage dependent K+ channel-blockers. As compared with TEA, 4-AP induced a significant increase of the amplitudes and a remarkable broadening of CAPs. After P20, unlike controls, the greater sensitivity to 4-AP exhibited by taiep ONs correlates with the detachment and retraction of paranodal loops suggesting that potassium conductances could regulate the excitability as demyelination of CNS axons progresses. It is concluded that the taiep rat, a long-lived mutant, provides a useful model to study the consequences of partial demyelination and the mechanisms by which glial cells regulate the molecular organization and excitability of axonal membranes during development and disease.

  1. Modeling auditory evoked potentials to complex stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Filip Munch

    The auditory evoked potential (AEP) is an electrical signal that can be recorded from electrodes attached to the scalp of a human subject when a sound is presented. The signal is considered to reflect neural activity in response to the acoustic stimulation and is a well established clinical...... clinically and in research towards using realistic and complex stimuli, such as speech, to electrophysiologically assess the human hearing. However, to interpret the AEP generation to complex sounds, the potential patterns in response to simple stimuli needs to be understood. Therefore, the model was used...... to simulate auditory brainstem responses (ABRs) evoked by classic stimuli like clicks, tone bursts and chirps. The ABRs to these simple stimuli were compared to literature data and the model was shown to predict the frequency dependence of tone-burst ABR wave-V latency and the level-dependence of ABR wave...

  2. Mathematical Model of Fiber Optic Temperature Sensor Based on Optic Absorption and Experiment Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on the temperature monitoring methods for high voltage devices, a new type of fiber optic sensor structure with reference channel is given. And the operation principle of fiber optic sensor is analysed at large based on the absorption of semiconductor chip. The mathematical model of both devices and the whole system are also given. It is proved by the experiment that this mathematical model is reliable.

  3. The Maxwell-Lorentz Model for optical Pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Brio, Moysey

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics of optical pulses, especially of ultra short femtosecond pulses, are of great technological and theoretical interest. The dynamics of optical pulses is usually studied using the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation model. While such approach works surprisingly well for description of pulse...

  4. HCMT models of optical microring-resonator circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Circuits of dielectric integrated optical microring resonators are addressed through a two-dimensional hybrid analytical/numerical coupled mode theory (HCMT) model. Analytical modes of all straight and curved cores form templates for the optical fields of the entire circuits. Our variational techniq

  5. Chemical potential of water from measurements of optic axial angle of zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Eberlein G.; Christ, C.L.

    1968-01-01

    Values of the uncorrected optic axial angle (2H??) of a crystal of the calcium zeolite stellerite (CaAl2Si7O 18 ?? 7H2O) immersed in calcium chloride solutions of known activity of water (aw) are directly proportional to log aw. A general relationship between the chemical potential of water in the crystal and the optic axial angle is obeyed.

  6. Activities at Los Alamos for the optical model segment of the RIPL CRP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, P.G.

    1997-05-10

    This report discusses activity at Los Alamos on the nuclear optical model. In particular, the following topics are discussed: format of the optical model parameter library; contents of the library; validation of the optical model library; and conclusions and recommendations.

  7. BeamOptics : a Symbolic Platform for Modeling and the Solution of Beam Optics System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu-Chiu Chao

    2000-11-01

    BeamOptics [1] is a Mathematica-based computing platform devoted to the following objectives: (1) Structured representation and manipulation of particle beam optics systems with symbolic capabilities, (2) Analytical and numerical modeling of beam optics system behaviors, (3) Solution to specific beam optical or general accelerator system problems, in algebraic form in certain cases, through customized algorithms. Taking advantage of and conforming to the highly formal and self-contained structure of Mathematica, BeamOptics provides a unique platform for developing accelerator design and analysis programs. The feature of symbolic computation and the ability to manipulate the beam optics system at the programming language level enable the user to solve or optimize his system with considerably more efficiency, rigour and insight than can be easily achieved with passive modeling or numerical simulation methods. BeamOptics is developed with continuous evolution in mind. New features and algorithms from diverse sources can be incorporated without major modification, due to its formal and generic structure. In this report, a survey is given of the basic structure and methodology of BeamOptics, as well as a demonstration of some of its more specialized applications, and possible direction of evolution.

  8. Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Thomas Garm, E-mail: tgp@nano.aau.dk

    2015-09-04

    The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron–hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed. - Highlights: • Optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors including excitons. • Analytical model of excitonic Franz–Keldysh effect. • Computation of optical response of impurity-localized excitons.

  9. K- nuclear potentials from in-medium chirally motivated models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cieplý, A.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.; Gazda, D.; Mareš, J.

    2011-10-01

    A self-consistent scheme for constructing K- nuclear optical potentials from subthreshold in-medium K¯N s-wave scattering amplitudes is presented and applied to analysis of kaonic atoms data and to calculations of K- quasibound nuclear states. The amplitudes are taken from a chirally motivated meson-baryon coupled-channel model, both at the Tomozawa-Weinberg leading order and at the next to leading order. Typical kaonic atoms potentials are characterized by a real part -ReVK-chiral=85±5 MeV at nuclear matter density, in contrast to half this depth obtained in some derivations based on in-medium K¯N threshold amplitudes. The moderate agreement with data is much improved by adding complex ρ- and ρ2-dependent phenomenological terms, found to be dominated by ρ2 contributions that could represent K¯NN→YN absorption and dispersion, outside the scope of meson-baryon chiral models. Depths of the real potentials are then near 180 MeV. The effects of p-wave interactions are studied and found secondary to those of the dominant s-wave contributions. The in-medium dynamics of the coupled-channel model is discussed and systematic studies of K- quasibound nuclear states are presented.

  10. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  11. Separable Representation of Phenomenological Optical Potentials of Woods-Saxon Type

    CERN Document Server

    Hlophe, L; Johnson, R C; Upadhyay, N J; Nunes, F M; Arbanas, G; Eremenko, V; Escher, J E; Thompson, I J

    2013-01-01

    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship are cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g. (d,p) reactions, should be used.} Those (d,p) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. While there exist several separable representations for the nucleon-nucleon interaction, the optical potential between a neutron (proton) and a nucleus is not readily available in separable form. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable representation for complex phenomenological optical potentials of Woods-Saxon type. Results: Starting from a global optical potential, a separable representation thereof is introduced based...

  12. Stochastic resonance in periodic potentials realization in a dissipative optical lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Schiavoni, M; Sánchez-Palencia, L; Renzoni, F; Grynberg, G; Schiavoni, Michele; Carminati, Francois-Regis; Sanchez-Palencia, Laurent; Renzoni, Ferruccio; Proxy, Gilbert Grynberg; ccsd-00000107, ccsd

    2002-01-01

    We have observed the phenomenon of stochastic resonance on the Brillouin propagation modes of a dissipative optical lattice. Such a mode has been excited by applying a moving potential modulation with phase velocity equal to the velocity of the mode. Its amplitude has been characterized by the center-of-mass (CM) velocity of the atomic cloud. At Brillouin resonance, we studied the CM-velocity as a function of the optical pumping rate at a given depth of the potential wells. We have observed a resonant dependence of the CM velocity on the optical pumping rate, corresponding to the noise strength. This corresponds to the experimental observation of stochastic resonance in a periodic potential in the low-damping regime.

  13. Optical vortices: the concept of topological potential and analogies with two-dimensional electrostatics

    CERN Document Server

    Amaral, Anderson M; de Araújo, Cid B

    2015-01-01

    We show how the phase profile of a distribution of topological charges (TC) of an optical vortex (OV) can be described by a potential analogous to the Coulomb's potential for a distribution of electric charges in two-dimensional electrostatics. From what we call the Topological Potential (TP), the properties of TC multipoles and a 2D radial distribution were analyzed. The TC multipoles have a transverse profile that is topologically stable under propagation and may be exploited in optical communications; on the other hand, the 2D distributions can be used to tune the transverse forces in optical tweezers. Considering the analogies with the electrostatics formalism, it is also expected that the TP allows the tailoring of OV for specific applications.

  14. Mark formation model for optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Optically rewritable discs contain one or more so-called recording stacks. These stacks consist of various grooved layers. At least one of these layers contains a so-called phase-change material. In the recording layer, amorphous regions are formed on a crystalline background by means of high power

  15. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation

  16. Mark formation modeling in optical rewritable recording

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brusche, J.H.; Segal, A.; Vuik, C.; Urbach, H.P.

    2006-01-01

    In optical rewritable recording media, such as the Blu-ray Disc, amorphous marks are formed on a crystalline background of a phase-change layer, by means of short, high power laser pulses. In order to improve this data storage concept, it is of great importance to understand the mark formation proce

  17. DISSYMMETRY MODEL OF MOLECULAR POLARIZABILITY AND OPTICAL ACTIVITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周志华; 汤杰

    1991-01-01

    Dissymmetry model of molecular polarizability divided into some layers within a sphere,some rules and sequence according to the magnitude of polarizability replaced by bond refraction for many groups have been suggested.The relationship between the dissymmetry of molecular polarizability arrounding the dissymmetric carbon atom and the direction of optical activity has been discussed .The accuracy is above 95 persent to use our model and rules to determine over 6000 compounds of optical activity.

  18. Soliton models in resonant and nonresonant optical fibers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Porsezian

    2001-11-01

    In this review, considering the important linear and nonlinear optical effects like group velocity dispersion, higher order dispersion, Kerr nonlinearity, self-steepening, stimulated Raman scattering, birefringence, self-induced transparency and various inhomogeneous effects in fibers, the completely integrable concept and bright, dark and self-induced transparency soliton models in nonlinear fiber optics are discussed. Considering the above important optical effects, the different completely integrable soliton models in the form of nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS), NLS-MaxwellBloch (MB) type equations reported in the literature are discussed. Finally, solitons in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) system is briefly discussed.

  19. Rate equations model and optical external efficiency of optically pumped electrically driven terahertz quantum cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamadou, A.; Thobel, J.-L.; Lamari, S.

    2016-10-01

    A four level rate equations model for a terahertz optically pumped electrically driven quantum cascade laser is here introduced and used to model the system both analytically and numerically. In the steady state, both in the presence and absence of the terahertz optical field, we solve the resulting nonlinear system of equations and obtain closed form expressions for the levels occupation, population inversion as well as the mid-infrared pump threshold intensity in terms of the device parameters. We also derive, for the first time for this system, an analytical formula for the optical external efficiency and analyze the simultaneous effects of the cavity length and pump intensity on it. At moderate to high pump intensities, we find that the optical external efficiency scales roughly as the reciprocal of the cavity length.

  20. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloney, J.A., E-mail: maloneyja@triumf.ca; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY’s existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  1. Electrostatic potential map modelling with COSY Infinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, J. A.; Baartman, R.; Planche, T.; Saminathan, S.

    2016-06-01

    COSY Infinity (Makino and Berz, 2005) is a differential-algebra based simulation code which allows accurate calculation of transfer maps to arbitrary order. COSY's existing internal procedures were modified to allow electrostatic elements to be specified using an array of field potential data from the midplane. Additionally, a new procedure was created allowing electrostatic elements and their fringe fields to be specified by an analytic function. This allows greater flexibility in accurately modelling electrostatic elements and their fringe fields. Applied examples of these new procedures are presented including the modelling of a shunted electrostatic multipole designed with OPERA, a spherical electrostatic bender, and the effects of different shaped apertures in an electrostatic beam line.

  2. Study of Optical Models Regarding the Human Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Abolmasoomi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Until now, many models have been presented for optical study of the human eye. In recent years, surgery on the anterior section of the eye (such as cataract and photo-refractive surgery has increased, so a study on the optics of the eye and evaluation of vision quality has become more important. Material and Methods: In this article, some of these models are considered. They include models with spherical and conic-section surfaces (for cornea and lens, simple models and new models with complex surfaces. Results: Evaluation of the optical models of the eye provides the possibility of enhancing the representation of human vision and also increasing the accuracy of surgery on the anterior section of the eye to enable higher quality vision.

  3. Concurrent Application of TMS and Near-infrared Optical Imaging: Methodological Considerations and Potential Artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan A Parks

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS with non-invasive neuroimaging provides a powerful method for investigating functional connectivity in the human brain and the causal relationships between areas in distributed brain networks. TMS has been combined with numerous neuroimaging techniques including, electroencephalography (EEG, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, and positron emission tomography (PET. Recent work has also demonstrated the feasibility and utility of combining TMS with non-invasive near-infrared optical imaging techniques, functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS and the event-related optical signal (EROS. Simultaneous TMS and optical imaging affords a number of advantages over other neuroimaging methods but also involves a unique set of methodological challenges and considerations. This paper describes the methodology of concurrently performing optical imaging during the administration of TMS, focusing on experimental design, potential artifacts, and approaches to controlling for these artifacts.

  4. Theoretical model for a Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1991-01-01

    A model for the Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter is presented. The model predicts a bandwidth of 0.6 GHz and a transmission peak of 0.98 for a filter operating on the Cs (D2) line. The model includes hyperfine effects and is valid for arbitrary magnetic fields.

  5. Modeling plasmonic scattering combined with thin-film optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, M; Klenk, R; Lux-Steiner, M Ch; Topic, M; Krc, J

    2011-01-14

    Plasmonic scattering from metal nanostructures presents a promising concept for improving the conversion efficiency of solar cells. The determination of optimal nanostructures and their position within the solar cell is crucial to boost the efficiency. Therefore we established a one-dimensional optical model combining plasmonic scattering and thin-film optics to simulate optical properties of thin-film solar cells including metal nanoparticles. Scattering models based on dipole oscillations and Mie theory are presented and their integration in thin-film semi-coherent optical descriptions is explained. A plasmonic layer is introduced in the thin-film structure to simulate scattering properties as well as parasitic absorption in the metal nanoparticles. A proof of modeling concept is given for the case of metal-island grown silver nanoparticles on glass and ZnO:Al/glass substrates. Using simulations a promising application of the nanoparticle integration is shown for the case of CuGaSe(2) solar cells.

  6. Optical Propagation Modeling for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, W H; Auerbach, J M; Henesian, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Manes, K R; Mehta, N C; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A; Shaw, M J; Widmayer, C C

    2004-01-12

    Optical propagation modeling of the National Ignition Facility has been utilized extensively from conceptual design several years ago through to early operations today. In practice we routinely (for every shot) model beam propagation starting from the waveform generator through to the target. This includes the regenerative amplifier, the 4-pass rod amplifier, and the large slab amplifiers. Such models have been improved over time to include details such as distances between components, gain profiles in the laser slabs and rods, transient optical distortions due to the flashlamp heating of laser slabs, measured transmitted and reflected wavefronts for all large optics, the adaptive optic feedback loop, and the frequency converter. These calculations allow nearfield and farfield predictions in good agreement with measurements.

  7. Computer Modeling for Optical Waveguide Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-15

    COSATI CODES 18 SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessary and cleritify by DIock numnerl FIEL GRUP SB-GOUP Optical waveguide sensors Computer...reflection. The resultant probe beam transmission may be plotted as a function of changes in the refractive index of the surrounding fluid medium. BASIC...all angles of incidence about the critical angle ecr. It should be noted that N in equation (3) is a function of e, since = sin - l sin 8 , see

  8. Optical Turbulence Characterization by WRF model above Ali, Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongshuai; Yao, Yongqiang; Liu, Liyong; Qian, Xuan; Yin, Jia

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important roles in site survey, optimization of large telescope observing tables, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique. The numerical approach, by using of meteorological parameters and parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters related, such as C2n profile, coherent length, wavefront coherent time, seeing, isoplanatic angle, and so on. This is particularly interesting for searching new sites without the long and expensive site testing campaigns with instruments. Earlier site survey results by the site survey team of National Astronomical Observatories of China imply that the south-west Tibet, Ali, is one of the world best IR and sub-mm site. For searching the best site in Ali area, numerical approach by Weather and Research Forecasting (WRF) model had been used to evaluate the climatology of the optical turbulence. The WRF model is configured over a domain 200km×200km with 1km horizontal resolution and 65 vertical levels from ground to the model top(10millibars) in 2010. The initial and boundary conditions for the model are provided by the 1° × 1° Global Final Analysis data from NCEP. The distribution and seasonal variation of optical turbulence parameters over this area are presented.

  9. An electrical model of VCSEL as optical transmitter for optical printed circuit board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do-Kyoon; Yoon, Young-Seol; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Kyung-Min; Choi, Young-Wan; Lee, Seok

    2005-03-01

    Optical interconnection is recent issue for high-speed data transmission. The limitation of high-speed electrical data transmission is caused by impedance mismatching, electric field coupling, microwave loss, and different length of the electrical signal lines. To overcome these limitations, the electrical signal in the current electrical system has to be changed by the optical signal. The most suitable optical source in the OPCB (Optical Printed Circuit Board) is VCSEL (Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers) that is low-priced and has the characteristic of vertical surface emitting. In this paper, we propose an electrical model of the VCSEL as E/O converting devices for the OPCB. The equivalent circuit of the VCSEL based on the rate equations includes carrier dynamics and material properties. The rate equation parameters are obtained by full analysis based on rate equation and experiment results. The electrical model of the VCSEL has the series resistance determined by I-V characteristic curve, and the parallel capacitance by the parasitic response of the VCSEL chip. The bandwidth of the optical interconnection is analyzed considering those parameters. We design and fabricate the optical transmitter for OPCB considering proposed electrical model of VCSEL.

  10. Fourier synthesis of asymmetrical optical potentials for atoms; Fourier-Synthese von asymmetrischen optischen Potentialen fuer Atome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritt, G.

    2007-07-13

    In this work a dissipationless asymmetrical optical potential for cold atoms was produced. In a first step a new type of optical lattice was generated, whose spatial periodicity only corresponds to a quarter of the wavelength of the light used for the generation. This corresponds to the half of the periodicity of a conventional optical lattice, which is formed by the light of the same wavelength. The generation of this new type of optical lattice was reached by the use of two degenerated raman transitions. Virtual processes occur, in which four photons are involved. In conventional optical lattices however virtual two-photon processes occur. By spatially superimposing this optical lattice with a conventional optical lattice an asymmetrical optical potential could be formed. By diffraction of a Bose Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms at the transient activated asymmetrical potential the asymmetrical structure was proven. (orig.)

  11. Analysis of proton scattering of stable and exotic light nuclei using an energy-dependent microscopic optical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maridi H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The proton elastic scattering off the 9,10,11,12Be isotopes at a wide energy range from 3 to 200 MeV/nucleon is analyzed using the optical model with the partial-wave expansion method. The microscopic optical potential (OP is taken within the single-folding model. The density- and isospin-dependent M3YParis nucleon-nucleon (NN interaction is used for the real part and the NN-scattering amplitude of the highenergy approximation for the imaginary one. The cross-section data are reproduced well at energies up to 100 MeV/nucleon by use of the partial-wave expansion. For higher energies, the eikonal approximation is successfully used. The volume integrals of the OP parts have systematic energy dependencies and they can be parameterized as functions of energy. From these parametrization, an energy-dependent OP can be obtained.

  12. Modeling of Nonlinear Signal Distortion in Fiber-Optical Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Johannisson, Pontus

    2013-01-01

    A low-complexity model for signal quality prediction in a nonlinear fiber-optical network is developed. The model, which builds on the Gaussian noise model, takes into account the signal degradation caused by a combination of chromatic dispersion, nonlinear signal distortion, and amplifier noise. The center frequencies, bandwidths, and transmit powers can be chosen independently for each channel, which makes the model suitable for analysis and optimization of resource allocation, routing, and scheduling in large-scale optical networks applying flexible-grid wavelength-division multiplexing.

  13. Electron optics

    CERN Document Server

    Grivet, Pierre; Bertein, F; Castaing, R; Gauzit, M; Septier, Albert L

    1972-01-01

    Electron Optics, Second English Edition, Part I: Optics is a 10-chapter book that begins by elucidating the fundamental features and basic techniques of electron optics, as well as the distribution of potential and field in electrostatic lenses. This book then explains the field distribution in magnetic lenses; the optical properties of electrostatic and magnetic lenses; and the similarities and differences between glass optics and electron optics. Subsequent chapters focus on lens defects; some electrostatic lenses and triode guns; and magnetic lens models. The strong focusing lenses and pris

  14. Photonic encryption : modeling and functional analysis of all optical logic.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Jason D.; Schroeppel, Richard Crabtree; Robertson, Perry J.

    2004-10-01

    With the build-out of large transport networks utilizing optical technologies, more and more capacity is being made available. Innovations in Dense Wave Division Multiplexing (DWDM) and the elimination of optical-electrical-optical conversions have brought on advances in communication speeds as we move into 10 Gigabit Ethernet and above. Of course, there is a need to encrypt data on these optical links as the data traverses public and private network backbones. Unfortunately, as the communications infrastructure becomes increasingly optical, advances in encryption (done electronically) have failed to keep up. This project examines the use of optical logic for implementing encryption in the photonic domain to achieve the requisite encryption rates. This paper documents the innovations and advances of work first detailed in 'Photonic Encryption using All Optical Logic,' [1]. A discussion of underlying concepts can be found in SAND2003-4474. In order to realize photonic encryption designs, technology developed for electrical logic circuits must be translated to the photonic regime. This paper examines S-SEED devices and how discrete logic elements can be interconnected and cascaded to form an optical circuit. Because there is no known software that can model these devices at a circuit level, the functionality of S-SEED devices in an optical circuit was modeled in PSpice. PSpice allows modeling of the macro characteristics of the devices in context of a logic element as opposed to device level computational modeling. By representing light intensity as voltage, 'black box' models are generated that accurately represent the intensity response and logic levels in both technologies. By modeling the behavior at the systems level, one can incorporate systems design tools and a simulation environment to aid in the overall functional design. Each black box model takes certain parameters (reflectance, intensity, input response), and models the optical ripple

  15. GEOMETRIC OPTICS FOR 3D-HARTREE-TYPE EQUATION WITH COULOMB POTENTIAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This article considers a family of 3D-Hartree-type equation with Coulomb potential |x|-1, whose initial data oscillates so that a caustic appears. In the linear geometric optics case, by using the Lagrangian integrals, a uniform description of the solution outside the caustic, and near the caustic are obtained.

  16. Optical potential approach to the slow positron scattering from helium atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tančić Aleksandar R.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We have extended our previous calculations to include the contribution of the random-phase approximation (RPA (improved optical potential to the low energy elastic scattering in the electron+He system. Our improved RPA calculations are shown to be in better agreement with the experimental values than other theoretical results.

  17. Potential of electric quadrupole transitions in radium isotopes for single-ion optical frequency standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versolato, O. O.; Wansbeek, L. W.; Jungmann, K.; Timmermans, R. G. E.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2011-01-01

    We explore the potential of the electric quadrupole transitions 7s (2)S(1/2)-(6)d (2)D(3/2), 6d (2)D(5/2) in radium isotopes as single-ion optical frequency standards. The frequency shifts of the clock transitions due to external fields and the corresponding uncertainties are calculated. Several

  18. Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Litovko Irina V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.

  19. Modeling Coastal Ocean Optical Properties for Coupled Circulation and Ecosystem Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Modeling Coastal Ocean Optical Properties for Coupled Circulation and Ecosystem Models Curtis D. Mobley Sequoia Scientific , Inc. 2700 Richards...N00014D01610002 http://www.onr.navy.mil/sci_tech/32/322/ocean_optics_biology.asp LONG-TERM GOAL The overall goal of this work , now completed, was to...wrong by orders of magnitude in Case 2 or optically shallow waters. The objective of this work was develop a radiative transfer model that can be

  20. Ray-tracing optical modeling of negative dysphotopsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Xin; Liu, Yueai; Karakelle, Mutlu; Masket, Samuel; Fram, Nicole R.

    2011-12-01

    Negative dysphotopsia is a relatively common photic phenomenon that may occur after implantation of an intraocular lens. The etiology of negative dysphotopsia is not fully understood. In this investigation, optical modeling was developed using nonsequential-component Zemax ray-tracing technology to simulate photic phenomena experienced by the human eye. The simulation investigated the effects of pupil size, capsulorrhexis size, and bag diffusiveness. Results demonstrated the optical basis of negative dysphotopsia. We found that photic structures were mainly influenced by critical factors such as the capsulorrhexis size and the optical diffusiveness of the capsular bag. The simulations suggested the hypothesis that the anterior capsulorrhexis interacting with intraocular lens could induce negative dysphotopsia.

  1. Optical modelling data for room temperature optical properties of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajie Jiang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of perovskites at ambient temperatures are important both to the design of optimised solar cells as well as in other areas such as the refinement of electronic band structure calculations. Limited previous information on the optical modelling has been published. The experimental fitting parameters for optical constants of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx and CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films are reported at 297 K as determined by detailed analysis of reflectance and transmittance data. The data in this study is related to the research article “Room temperature optical properties of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites” in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells [1].

  2. Optical characterisation of nanostructures using a discretised forward model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Poul-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Optical diffraction microscopy (ODM) is a non-destructive and relatively inexpensive means of characterisation of nanostructures. It is an essential tool in the design, production and quality control of functional nanomaterials. In ODM, the target is reconstructed from the measured optical power...... problem. Finally, the size of the measured nanostructure is typically comparable to the wavelength of the illuminating light, so the scattering needs to be described using the full Maxwellian electromagnetic model, rather than (numerically inexpensive) asymptotic formulations. We here describe...

  3. Piecewise polynomial dielectric function model and its application for the retrieval of optical functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Domingos De Sousa; Rousseau, Benoit; Echegut, Patrick; Matzen, Guy

    2007-06-01

    A new expression of dielectric function model based on piecewise polynomials is introduced. Its association with spline and more recent shape preserving interpolation algorithms allows easy reproduction of every kind of experimental spectra and thus retrieval of all the linear optical functions of a material. Based on a pure mathematical framework, the expression of the model is always applicable and does not necessitate any knowledge of the microscopic mechanisms of absorption responsible for the optical response. The potential of piecewise polynomial dielectric functions is shown through synthetic examples and the analysis of experimental spectra.

  4. Particle-Hole Optical Model: Fantasy or Reality?

    CERN Document Server

    Urin, M H

    2010-01-01

    An attempt to formulate the optical model of particle-hole-type excitations (including giant resonances) is undertaken. The model is based on the Bethe--Goldstone equation for the particle-hole Green function. This equation involves a specific energy-dependent particle-hole interaction that is due to virtual excitation of many-quasiparticle configurations and responsible for the spreading effect. After energy averaging, this interaction involves an imaginary part. The analogy between the single-quasiparticle and particle-hole optical models is outlined.

  5. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulama, Mohannad M. [University of Jordan; Natsheh, Asem M. [University of Jordan; Abandah, Gheith A. [University of Jordan; Olama, Mohammed M [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  6. Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.

    2011-04-01

    The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.

  7. Event-Based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Raedt, H. De

    2011-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a u

  8. Event-Based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Raedt, H. De

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a

  9. Event-based Simulation Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Schlosshauer, M; Weihs, G

    2011-01-01

    We present a corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified

  10. Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D; Ghosh, A

    1985-06-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  11. Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.

    1985-01-01

    The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.

  12. Integrating Environmental Optics into Multidisciplinary, Predictive Models of Ocean Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    development has been based on decades of published research, our depth-integrated, spectral model of photosynthesis and the absorption -based model of...color, chlorophyll fluorescence, or spectral absorption coefficients. We extend the approach to include additional biological properties such as...of laboratory experiments in which photosynthesis , fluorescence and optical properties of phytoplankton are measured under a range of conditions

  13. Modeling and model-aware signal processing methods for enhancement of optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoylar, Aydan

    Theoretical and numerical modeling of optical systems are increasingly being utilized in a wide range of areas in physics and engineering for characterizing and improving existing systems or developing new methods. This dissertation focuses on determining and improving the performance of imaging and non-imaging optical systems through modeling and developing model-aware enhancement methods. We evaluate the performance, demonstrate enhancements in terms of resolution and light collection efficiency, and improve the capabilities of the systems through changes to the system design and through post-processing techniques. We consider application areas in integrated circuit (IC) imaging for fault analysis and malicious circuitry detection, and free-form lens design for creating prescribed illumination patterns. The first part of this dissertation focuses on sub-surface imaging of ICs for fault analysis using a solid immersion lens (SIL) microscope. We first derive the Green's function of the microscope and use it to determine its resolution limits for bulk silicon and silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chips. We then propose an optimization framework for designing super-resolving apodization masks that utilizes the developed model and demonstrate the trade-offs in designing such masks. Finally, we derive the full electromagnetic model of the SIL microscope that models the image of an arbitrary sub-surface structure. With the rapidly shrinking dimensions of ICs, we are increasingly limited in resolving the features and identifying potential modifications despite the resolution improvements provided by the state-of-the-art microscopy techniques and enhancement methods described here. In the second part of this dissertation, we shift our focus away from improving the resolution and consider an optical framework that does not require high resolution imaging for detecting malicious circuitry. We develop a classification-based high-throughput gate identification method that utilizes

  14. Nonlocal dispersive optical model ingredients for ${}^{40}$Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Mahzoon, M H; Dickhoff, W H; Dussan, H; Waldecker, S J

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive description of all single-particle properties associated with the nucleus ${}^{40}$Ca has been generated by employing a nonlocal dispersive optical potential capable of simultaneously reproducing all relevant data above and below the Fermi energy. We gather all relevant functional forms and the numerical values of the parameters in this contribution.

  15. Artificial topological models based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Pu, Han; Zou, Xubo; Guo, Guangcan

    2017-01-01

    Topological matter is a popular topic in both condensed matter and cold-atom research. In the past decades, a variety of models have been identified with fascinating topological features. Some, but not all, of the models can be found in materials. As a fully controllable system, cold atoms trapped in optical lattices provide an ideal platform to simulate and realize these topological models. Here we present a proposal for synthesizing topological models in cold atoms based on a one-dimensional spin-dependent optical lattice potential. In our system, features such as staggered tunneling, staggered Zeeman field, nearest-neighbor interaction, beyond-near-neighbor tunneling, etc. can be readily realized. They underlie the emergence of various topological phases. Our proposal can be realized with current technology and hence has potential applications in quantum simulation of topological matter.

  16. Modeling an Electrically Driven Graphene-Nanoribbon Laser for Optical Interconnects

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Guangcun

    2012-01-01

    Graphene has two very important optical properties of population inversion of electrons, and broadband optical gain. As a result, graphene has potential for use in lasers and amplifiers. In this work, we presented a quantum master model and analyzed the properties for the electrically pumped single-AGNR vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) to investigate the lasing action and laser properties for realistic experimental parameters. A semiclassical approximation for the output power and laser linewidth is also derived. The laser threshold power was several orders of magnitude lower than that currently achievable with semiconductor microlasers. Our results have demonstrated that a single-AGNR VCSEL can serve as a nanolaser with ultralow lasing threshold. Implementation of such a GNR-based VCSEL is especially promising for optical interconnection systems since VCSELs emit low optical power and single longitudinal mode over a wide wavelength spectral range through tailoring GNRs.

  17. Numerical model for thermal parameters in optical materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori

    2016-04-01

    Thermal parameters of optical materials, such as thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, temperature coefficient of refractive index play a decisive role for the thermal design inside laser cavities. Therefore, numerical value of them with temperature dependence is quite important in order to develop the high intense laser oscillator in which optical materials generate excessive heat across mode volumes both of lasing output and optical pumping. We already proposed a novel model of thermal conductivity in various optical materials. Thermal conductivity is a product of isovolumic specific heat and thermal diffusivity, and independent modeling of these two figures should be required from the viewpoint of a clarification of physical meaning. Our numerical model for thermal conductivity requires one material parameter for specific heat and two parameters for thermal diffusivity in the calculation of each optical material. In this work we report thermal conductivities of various optical materials as Y3Al5O12 (YAG), YVO4 (YVO), GdVO4 (GVO), stoichiometric and congruent LiTaO3, synthetic quartz, YAG ceramics and Y2O3 ceramics. The dependence on Nd3+-doping in laser gain media in YAG, YVO and GVO is also studied. This dependence can be described by only additional three parameters. Temperature dependence of thermal expansion and temperature coefficient of refractive index for YAG, YVO, and GVO: these are also included in this work for convenience. We think our numerical model is quite useful for not only thermal analysis in laser cavities or optical waveguides but also the evaluation of physical properties in various transparent materials.

  18. Assimilation of Bio-Optical Properties into Coupled Physical, Bio-Optical Coastal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    analysis (updated) fields for the bio-optical model state variables are derived from: Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8724 87240E-3 Downloaded From: http...proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/ on 07/11/2013 Terms of Use: http://spiedl.org/terms ),XY(XX fofa HK −+= aX fX oY (1) where is vector of the

  19. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wubs, M

    2015-11-30

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response, the transverse response, or both. In phenomenological scalar models the nonlocal response is described as a smearing out of the commonly assumed infinitely localized response, as characterized by a distribution with a finite width. Here we calculate explicitly whether and how tensorial models, such as the hydrodynamic Drude model and generalized nonlocal optical response theory, follow this phenomenological description. We find considerable differences, for example that nonlocal response functions, in contrast to simple distributions, assume negative and complex values. Moreover, nonlocal response regularizes some but not all diverging optical near fields. We identify the scalar model that comes closest to the hydrodynamic model. Interestingly, for the hydrodynamic Drude model we find that actually only one third (1/3) of the free-electron response is smeared out nonlocally. In that sense, nonlocal response is stronger for transverse and scalar nonlocal response models, where the smeared-out fractions are 2/3 and 3/3, respectively. The latter two models seem to predict novel plasmonic resonances also below the plasma frequency, in contrast to the hydrodynamic model that predicts standing pressure waves only above the plasma frequency.

  20. Polarization Drift Channel Model for Coherent Fibre-Optic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Czegledi, Cristian B; Agrell, Erik; Johannisson, Pontus

    2015-01-01

    A theoretical framework is introduced to model the dynamical changes of the state of polarization during transmission in coherent fibre-optic systems. The model generalizes the one-dimensional phase noise random walk to higher dimensions, accounting for random polarization drifts. The model is described in the Jones, Stokes and real 4-dimensional formalisms, and the mapping between them is derived. Such a model will be increasingly important in simulating and optimizing future optical systems, which to a higher and higher degree rely on transmission and detection on both polarizations jointly using sophisticated digital signal processing. Such analysis cannot be carried out using the more rudimentary polarization drift models in use today, which only account for deterministic effects. The proposed polarization drift model is the first of its kind and will likely be useful in a wide-range of photonics applications where stochastic polarization fluctuation is an issue.

  1. Modeling light–tissue interaction in optical coherence tomography systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) performs high-resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging of the internal tissue microstructure by measuring backscattered or backreflected light. The scope of this chapter is to present analytical and numerical models that are able to describe light......-tissue interactions and its influence on the performance of OCT systems including multiple scattering effects in heterogeneous media. In general, these models, analytical as well as numerical, may serve as important tools for improving interpretation of OCT images and also serve as prerequisites for extraction...... of tissue optical scattering parameters....

  2. Artificial Neural Network Model for Optical Fiber Direction Coupler Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李九生; 鲍振武

    2004-01-01

    A new approach to the design of the optical fiber direction coupler by using neural network is proposed. To train the artificial neural network,the coupling length is defined as the input sample, and the coupling ratio is defined as the output sample. Compared with the numerical value calculation of the theoretical formula, the error of the neural network model output is 1% less.Then, through the model, to design a broadband or a single wavelength optical fiber direction coupler becomes easy. The method is proved to be reliable, accurate and time-saving. So it is promising in the field of both investigation and application.

  3. A Fourier Optical Model for the Laser Doppler Velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lading, Lars

    1972-01-01

    The treatment is based on a fourier optical model. It is shown how the various configurations (i.e. ldquodifferential moderdquo and reference beam mode with both one and two incident beams) are incorporated in the model, and how it can be extended to three dimensions. The particles are represented...... filtering ability vanishes as the aperture size converges towards zero. The results based on fourier optics are compared with the rough estimates obtainable by using the "antenna formular" for heterodyning (ArΩr≈λ2)....

  4. Computer modelling of the optical properties of transition-metal ions in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartram, R.H. [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Computational methods for modeling the optical properties of substitutional transition-metal impurities in insulating solids, potentially applicable to some scintillator and phosphor materials, are reviewed. Methods considered include crystal-field and semiempirical ligand-field models; SCF-X{alpha}-SW, SCF-RHF-LCAO, SCF-UHF-LCAO and CI ab initio methods; and ICECAP and HADESR embedded-cluster methods with lattice relaxation. A detailed example of the application of the HADESR method to crystal-field spectra of Cr{sup 3+} in halide elpasolites is described. In this method, ab initio molecular-orbital calculations with effective core potentials are performed for selected ionic configurations. Simultaneous relaxation of the cluster and surrounding lattice, with mutual pair-potential interactions, is accomplished by a modified lattice statics program. properties include pressure-dependent optical transition energies, vibration frequencies and radiationless transition rates.

  5. Optical tweezers as a new biomedical tool to measure zeta potential of stored red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego C N Silva

    Full Text Available During storage, red blood cells (RBCs for transfusion purposes suffer progressive deterioration. Sialylated glycoproteins of the RBC membrane are responsible for a negatively charged surface which creates a repulsive electrical zeta potential. These charges help prevent the interaction between RBCs and other cells, and especially among each RBCs. Reports in the literature have stated that RBCs sialylated glycoproteins can be sensitive to enzymes released by leukocyte degranulation. Thus, the aim of this study was, by using an optical tweezers as a biomedical tool, to measure the zeta potential in standard RBCs units and in leukocyte reduced RBC units (collected in CPD-SAGM during storage. Optical tweezers is a sensitive tool that uses light for measuring cell biophysical properties which are important for clinical and research purposes. This is the first study to analyze RBCs membrane charges during storage. In addition, we herein also measured the elasticity of RBCs also collected in CPD-SAGM. In conclusion, the zeta potential decreased 42% and cells were 134% less deformable at the end of storage. The zeta potential from leukodepleted units had a similar profile when compared to units stored without leukoreduction, indicating that leukocyte lyses were not responsible for the zeta potential decay. Flow cytometry measurements of reactive oxygen species suggested that this decay is due to membrane oxidative damages. These results show that measurements of zeta potentials provide new insights about RBCs storage lesion for transfusion purposes.

  6. A microscopic T-violating optical potential implications for neutron-transmission experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Engel, J; Hnizdo, V

    1994-01-01

    We derive a T-violating P-conserving optical potential for neutron-nucleus scattering, starting from a uniquely determined two-body \\rho-exchange interaction with the same symmetry. We then obtain limits on the T-violating \\rho-nucleon coupling \\overline{g}_{\\rho} from neutron-transmission experiments in ^{165}Ho. The limits may soon compete with those from measurements of atomic electric-dipole moments.

  7. A Realization of a Quasi-Random Walk for Atoms in Time-Dependent Optical Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Hinkel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We consider the time dependent dynamics of an atom in a two-color pumped cavity, longitudinally through a side mirror and transversally via direct driving of the atomic dipole. The beating of the two driving frequencies leads to a time dependent effective optical potential that forces the atom into a non-trivial motion, strongly resembling a discrete random walk behavior between lattice sites. We provide both numerical and analytical analysis of such a quasi-random walk behavior.

  8. Optical-based spectral modeling of infrared focal plane arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouzali, Salima; Lefebvre, Sidonie; Rommeluère, Sylvain; Ferrec, Yann; Primot, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    We adopt an optical approach in order to model and predict the spectral signature of an infrared focal plane array. The modeling is based on a multilayer description of the structure and considers a one-dimensional propagation. It provides a better understanding of the physical phenomena occurring within the pixels, which is useful to perform radiometric measurements, as well as to reliably predict the spectral sensitivity of the detector. An exhaustive model is presented, covering the total spectral range of the pixel response. A heuristic model is also described, depicting a complementary approach that separates the different optical phenomena inside the pixel structure. Promising results are presented, validating the models through comparison with experimental results. Finally, advantages and limitations of this approach are discussed.

  9. Elevation of AQP4 and selective cytokines in experimental autoimmune encephalitis mice provides some potential biomarkers in optic neuritis and demyelinating diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Weng, Huan; Li, Zhenxin

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic optic neuritis (ION) is an inflammation of the optic nerve that may result in a complete or partial loss of vision. ION is usually due to the immune attack of the myelin sheath covering the optic nerve. ION acts frequently as the first symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica (NMO), or other inflammatory demyelinating disorders. The pathogenic progression of ION remains unclear. Experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) is a commonly used model of idiopathic inflammatory demyelinating disorders (IIDDs); the optic nerve is affected in EAE as well. The specific mediators of demyelination in optic neuritis are unknown. Recent studies have indicated what T-cell activation in peripheral blood is associated with optic neuritis pathogenesis. The object of the present study was to determine whether certain cytokines (IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-23) and AQP4 contribute to the demyelinating process using EAE model. We have found that IL-6R, AQP4 and IL-23R are significantly increased in mRNA and protein levels in optic nerves in EAE mice compared to control mice; serum AQP4, IL-6, IL-17A, IL-23 are increased whereas transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is decreased in EAE mice. These results suggest that AQP4 and selective cytokines in serum are associated with ION pathogenesis in the animal model, and these results shine light for future clinical diagnosis as potential biomarkers in ION patients.

  10. Three-dimensional fuse deposition modeling of tissue-simulating phantom for biomedical optical imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Erbao; Zhao, Zuhua; Wang, Minjie; Xie, Yanjun; Li, Shidi; Shao, Pengfei; Cheng, Liuquan; Xu, Ronald X.

    2015-12-01

    Biomedical optical devices are widely used for clinical detection of various tissue anomalies. However, optical measurements have limited accuracy and traceability, partially owing to the lack of effective calibration methods that simulate the actual tissue conditions. To facilitate standardized calibration and performance evaluation of medical optical devices, we develop a three-dimensional fuse deposition modeling (FDM) technique for freeform fabrication of tissue-simulating phantoms. The FDM system uses transparent gel wax as the base material, titanium dioxide (TiO2) powder as the scattering ingredient, and graphite powder as the absorption ingredient. The ingredients are preheated, mixed, and deposited at the designated ratios layer-by-layer to simulate tissue structural and optical heterogeneities. By printing the sections of human brain model based on magnetic resonance images, we demonstrate the capability for simulating tissue structural heterogeneities. By measuring optical properties of multilayered phantoms and comparing with numerical simulation, we demonstrate the feasibility for simulating tissue optical properties. By creating a rat head phantom with embedded vasculature, we demonstrate the potential for mimicking physiologic processes of a living system.

  11. Electron Correlation Models for Optical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höhn, E. G.; O. E. Weigang, Jr.

    1968-01-01

    A two-system no-overlap model for rotatory strength is developed for electric-dipole forbidden as well as allowed transitions. General equations which allow for full utilization of symmetry in the chromophore and in the environment are obtained. The electron correlation terms are developed in full...

  12. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 1...

  13. Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2015-01-01

    Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...

  14. Fast Cherenkov model of optical photons generation and transportation

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    This note describes the technical details of Fast Cherenkov model of optical photons generation and transportation: in particular, the mechanism of Cherenkov photons transportation through the straight bar geometry. As an example of usage, the implemetation of the method inside Quartic detector simulation in GEANT4 will be presented and compared to the nominal results.

  15. Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara

    2016-01-01

    We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...

  16. Three dimensional rigorous model for optical scattering problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wei, X.

    2006-01-01

    We present a three-dimensional model based on the finite element method for solving the time-harmonic Maxwell equation in optics. It applies to isotropic or anisotropic dielectrics and metals, and to many configurations such as an isolated scatterer in a multilayer, bi-gratings and crystals. We shal

  17. Development of Optically Active Nanostructures for Potential Applications in Sensing, Therapeutics and Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Padmanabh

    Materials at nanoscale are finding manifold applications in the various fields like sensing, plasmonics, therapeutics, to mention a few. Large amount of development has taken place regarding synthesis and exploring the novel applications of the various types of nanomaterials like organic, inorganic and hybrid of both. Yet, it is believed that the full potential of different nanomaterials is yet to be fully established stimulating researchers to explore more in the field of nanotechnology. Building on the same premise, in the following studies we have developed the nanomaterials in the class of optically active nanoparticles. First part of the study we have successfully designed, synthesized, and characterized Ag-Fe3O4 nanocomposite substrate for potential applications in quantitative Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) measurements. Quantitative SERS-based detection of dopamine was performed successfully. In subsequent study, facile, single-step synthesis of polyethyleneimine (PEI) coated lanthanide based NaYF4 (Yb, Er) nanoparticles was developed and their application as potential photodynamic therapy agent was studied using excitations by light in near infra-red and visible region. In the following and last study, synthesis and characterization of the conjugated polymer nanoparticles was attempted successfully. Functionalization of the conjugated nanoparticles, which is a bottleneck for their potential applications, was successfully performed by encapsulating them in the silica nanoparticles, surface of which was then functionalized by amine group. Three types of optically active nanoparticles were developed for potential applications in sensing, therapeutics and imaging.

  18. Complexification of three potential models – II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanjib Meyur; S Dednath

    2009-10-01

    A new kind of $\\mathcal{PT}$ and non-$\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric complex potentials are constructed from a group theoretical viewpoint of the sl(2, ) potential algebras. The real eigenvalues and the corresponding regular eigenfunctions are also obtained. The results are compared with the ones obtained before.

  19. Quantum Electrostatic Model for Optical Properties of Nanoscale Gold Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Haoliang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The optical properties of thin gold films with thickness varying from 2.5 nm to 30 nm are investigated. Due to the quantum size effect, the optical constants of the thin gold film deviate from the Drude model for bulk material as film thickness decreases, especially around 2.5 nm, where the electron energy level becomes discrete. A theory based on the self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation is proposed and its predictions agree well with experimental results.

  20. Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...

  1. Trapped ions in optical lattices for probing oscillator chain models

    CERN Document Server

    Pruttivarasin, Thaned; Talukdar, Ishan; Kreuter, Axel; Haeffner, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    We show that a chain of trapped ions embedded in microtraps generated by an optical lattice can be used to study oscillator models related to dry friction and energy transport. Numerical calculations with realistic experimental parameters demonstrate that both static and dynamic properties of the ion chain change significantly as the optical lattice power is varied. Finally, we lay out an experimental scheme to use the spin degree of freedom to probe the phase space structure and quantum critical behavior of the ion chain.

  2. Three-body recombination at finite energy within an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peder Klokmose; V. Fedorov, D.; S. Jensen, A.;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate three-boson recombination of equal mass systems as function of (negative) scattering length, mass, finite energy, and finite temperature. An optical model with an imaginary potential at short distance reproduces experimental recombination data and allows us to provide a simple...... parametrization of the recombination rate as function of scattering length and energy. Using the two-body van der Waals length as unit we find that the imaginary potential range and also the potential depth agree to within thirty percent for Lithium and Cesium atoms. As opposed to recent studies suggesting...

  3. Optical-Model Description of Time-Reversal Violation

    CERN Document Server

    Hnizdo, V

    1994-01-01

    A time-reversal-violating spin-correlation coefficient in the total cross section for polarized neutrons incident on a tensor rank-2 polarized target is calculated by assuming a time-reversal-noninvariant, parity-conserving ``five-fold" interaction in the neutron-nucleus optical potential. Results are presented for the system $n + {^{165}{\\rm Ho}}$ for neutron incident energies covering the range 1--20 MeV. From existing experimental bounds, a strength of $2 \\pm 10$ keV is deduced for the real and imaginary parts of the five-fold term, which implies an upper bound of order $10^{-4}$ on the relative $T$-odd strength when compared to the central real optical potential.

  4. Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.

  5. The role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Visual Evoked Potential in management of optic neuritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Eajailat, Suha Mikail; Al-Madani Senior, Mousa Victor

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To report our experience in management of patients with optic neuritis. The effects of brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potential on management were investigated Methods This is a four years clinical trial that included patients presenting with first attack of optic neuritis older than 16 years with visual acuity of less than 6/60 and presentation within first week of illness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and visual evoked potentials were done for all patients. Patients were classified into three groups. First group received placebo, second received oral steroids and third received intravenous and oral steroids. Primary outcome measure was improvement in visual acuity. Results A total number of 150 patients were enrolled in the study. Ocular pain was seen 127 patients Relative afferent pupillary defect in 142 patients and color vision impairment in 131 patients. Abnormal MRI findings were seen in 84 patients. Pattern reversal VEP was abnormal in all patients. Using oral or intravenous steroid resulted in faster recovery but did not affect the final visual outcome. Recurrence rate was higher in patients with multiple MRI lesions and diminished VEP amplitude. Using intravenous steroids decreased recurrence rate in patients with three and more MRI lesions and non recordable VEP response. Conclusion MRI and pattern reversal VEP are recommended to be done in all patients presenting with optic neuritis. We advise to give intravenous methyl prednisolone in patients with multiple MRI white matter lesions and non recordable VEP at presentation. PMID:25018804

  6. Minimal model for optical transmission through holey metal films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartIn-Moreno, L [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada-ICMA, Universidad de Zaragoza-CSIC, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); GarcIa-Vidal, F J [Departamento de Fisica Teorica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: lmm@unizar.es

    2008-07-30

    This paper presents a tutorial on the computation of both extraordinary optical transmission and surface electromagnetic modes in holey metal films. Our model consists of a square array of square holes in a perfect conductor. It is shown that considering just the fundamental waveguide mode inside the holes captures the main features of the optical transmission, which allows us to obtain quasi-analytical results. Extraordinary optical transmission is unambiguously linked to the presence of surface electromagnetic modes in the corrugated structure. The particular case of surface electromagnetic modes in a perfect conductor is analyzed, paying attention to different strategies for increasing their confinement to the surface. The use of the energy loss of a charged particle passing close to the surface as a spectroscopic tool for these surface modes is also discussed.

  7. Influence of different deposition potential on the structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Harmanmeet; Kaur, Jaskiran; Singh, Lakhwant

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, nanowires were successfully fabricated from the aqueous solution containing 0.2 M/l CuSO4.5H2O, 0.1 M/l SeO2, 1 g/l PVP and a few drops of H2SO4 in Milli-Q water using electrodeposition technique at room temperature. Influence of different deposition potential on structural and optical properties of copper selenide nanowires has been investigated here. Morphological, structural and optical properties were monitored through field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-visible 1800 spectrophotometer. From the XRD analysis, it was found that the stoichiometric (CuSe) nanowires are formed at deposition potential (-0.6 V) and (+0.6 V). Band gap of nanowires were found to be maximum around 3.13 eV for deposition potential (-0.8 V) and minimum of 2.81 eV for deposition potential (-0.6 V).

  8. Constraints on Disks Models of The Big Blue Bump from UV/Optical/IR Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Antonucci, R

    1998-01-01

    Optical/UV observations provide many constraints on accretion disk models of AGN which aren't always appreciated by modelers of the X-ray emission (or sometimes even of the optical/UV emission). The spectral behavior at the Ly edge, the polarization, the continuum slopes and breaks, and the variability timescales and phasing all conflict with simple models and strongly constrain the more Baroque ones. Partial-covering absorbers and microlensing data suggest that the radiation is not released simply according to where the potential drop (modified by standard viscous transport) takes place. On the other hand, the orientation-based unified model is in accord with the K-\\alpha inclination distributions for the AGN spectral classes, basing the latter on the limited existing data and theoretical understanding.

  9. Contrasting optical properties of surface waters across the Fram Strait and its potential biological implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Alexey K.; Granskog, Mats A.; Stedmon, Colin A.

    2015-01-01

    radiation (PAR, 400-700nm), but does result in notable differences in ultraviolet (UV) light penetration, with higher attenuation in the EGC. Future changes in the Arctic Ocean system will likely affect EGC through diminishing sea-ice cover and potentially increasing CDOM export due to increase in river......Underwater light regime is controlled by distribution and optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and particulate matter. The Fram Strait is a region where two contrasting water masses are found. Polar water in the East Greenland Current (EGC) and Atlantic water in the West...... Spitsbergen Current (WSC) differ with regards to temperature, salinity and optical properties. We present data on absorption properties of CDOM and particles across the Fram Strait (along 79° N), comparing Polar and Atlantic surface waters in September 2009 and 2010. CDOM absorption of Polar water in the EGC...

  10. Comprehensive analytical model to characterize randomness in optical waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junhe; Gallion, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the coupled mode theory (CMT) is used to derive the corresponding stochastic differential equations (SDEs) for the modal amplitude evolution inside optical waveguides with random refractive index variations. Based on the SDEs, the ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are derived to analyze the statistics of the modal amplitudes, such as the optical power and power variations as well as the power correlation coefficients between the different modal powers. These ODEs can be solved analytically and therefore, it greatly simplifies the analysis. It is demonstrated that the ODEs for the power evolution of the modes are in excellent agreement with the Marcuse' coupled power model. The higher order statistics, such as the power variations and power correlation coefficients, which are not exactly analyzed in the Marcuse' model, are discussed afterwards. Monte-Carlo simulations are performed to demonstrate the validity of the analytical model.

  11. Analysing regenerative potential in zebrafish models of congenital muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, A J; Currie, P D

    2014-11-01

    The congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of muscle disorders. Clinically hypotonia is present from birth, with progressive muscle weakness and wasting through development. For the most part, CMDs can mechanistically be attributed to failure of basement membrane protein laminin-α2 sufficiently binding with correctly glycosylated α-dystroglycan. The majority of CMDs therefore arise as the result of either a deficiency of laminin-α2 (MDC1A) or hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (dystroglycanopathy). Here we consider whether by filling a regenerative medicine niche, the zebrafish model can address the present challenge of delivering novel therapeutic solutions for CMD. In the first instance the readiness and appropriateness of the zebrafish as a model organism for pioneering regenerative medicine therapies in CMD is analysed, in particular for MDC1A and the dystroglycanopathies. Despite the recent rapid progress made in gene editing technology, these approaches have yet to yield any novel zebrafish models of CMD. Currently the most genetically relevant zebrafish models to the field of CMD, have all been created by N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis. Once genetically relevant models have been established the zebrafish has several important facets for investigating the mechanistic cause of CMD, including rapid ex vivo development, optical transparency up to the larval stages of development and relative ease in creating transgenic reporter lines. Together, these tools are well suited for use in live-imaging studies such as in vivo modelling of muscle fibre detachment. Secondly, the zebrafish's contribution to progress in effective treatment of CMD was analysed. Two approaches were identified in which zebrafish could potentially contribute to effective therapies. The first hinges on the augmentation of functional redundancy within the system, such as upregulating alternative laminin chains in the candyfloss

  12. A new interaction potential for swarming models

    CERN Document Server

    Carrillo, J A; Panferov, V

    2012-01-01

    We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare thus obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.

  13. A new interaction potential for swarming models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J. A.; Martin, S.; Panferov, V.

    2013-10-01

    We consider a self-propelled particle system which has been used to describe certain types of collective motion of animals, such as fish schools and bird flocks. Interactions between particles are specified by means of a pairwise potential, repulsive at short ranges and attractive at longer ranges. The exponentially decaying Morse potential is a typical choice, and is known to reproduce certain types of collective motion observed in nature, particularly aligned flocks and rotating mills. We introduce a class of interaction potentials, that we call Quasi-Morse, for which flock and rotating mills states are also observed numerically, however in that case the corresponding macroscopic equations allow for explicit solutions in terms of special functions, with coefficients that can be obtained numerically without solving the particle evolution. We compare the obtained solutions with long-time dynamics of the particle systems and find a close agreement for several types of flock and mill solutions.

  14. Modeling the Clarification Potential of Instructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benotti, Luciana; Blackburn, Patrick Rowan

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesize that conversational implicatures are a rich source of clarification requests, and in this paper we do two things. First, we motivate the hypothesis in theoretical, practical and empirical terms and formulate it as a concrete Clarification Potential Principle: implicatures may become...

  15. Glueball Masses in Relativistic Potential Model

    CERN Document Server

    Shpenik, A; Kis, J; Fekete, Yu

    2000-01-01

    The problem of glueball mass spectra using the relativistic Dirac equation is studied. Also the Breit-Fermi approach used to obtaining hyperfine splitting in glueballs. Our approach is based on the assumption, that the nature and the forces between two gluons are the short-range. We were to calculate the glueball masses with used screened potential.

  16. Time-domain model of quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers for wideband optical signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puris, D; Schmidt-Langhorst, C; Lüdge, K; Majer, N; Schöll, E; Petermann, K

    2012-11-19

    We present a novel theoretical time-domain model for a quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier, that allows to simulate subpicosecond pulse propagation including power-based and phase-based effects. Static results including amplified spontaneous emission spectra, continuous wave amplification, and four-wave mixing experiments in addition to dynamic pump-probe simulations are presented for different injection currents. The model uses digital filters to describe the frequency dependent gain and microscopically calculated carrier-carrier scattering rates for the interband carrier dynamics. It can be used to calculate the propagation of multiple signals with different wavelengths or one wideband signal with high bitrate.

  17. Multiple Fan-Beam Optical Tomography: Modelling Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Jon Fea

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains in detail the solution to the forward and inverse problem faced in this research. In the forward problem section, the projection geometry and the sensor modelling are discussed. The dimensions, distributions and arrangements of the optical fibre sensors are determined based on the real hardware constructed and these are explained in the projection geometry section. The general idea in sensor modelling is to simulate an artificial environment, but with similar system properties, to predict the actual sensor values for various flow models in the hardware system. The sensitivity maps produced from the solution of the forward problems are important in reconstructing the tomographic image.

  18. Fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuhe; Guan, Kaisen; Hu, Zhaohui

    2016-10-01

    We present a fiber optic displacement measurement model based on finite reflective plate. The theoretical model was derived, and simulation analysis of light intensity distribution, reflective plate width, and the distance between fiber probe and reflective plate were conducted in details. The three dimensional received light intensity distribution and the characteristic curve of light intensity were studied as functions of displacement of finite reflective plate. Experiments were carried out to verify the established model. The physical fundamentals and the effect of operating parameters on measuring system performance were revealed in the end.

  19. Time-variable gravity potential components for optical clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, C.; Denker, H.; Timmen, L.

    2016-12-01

    The latest generation of optical atomic clocks is approaching the level of one part in 1018 in terms of frequency stability and uncertainty. For clock comparisons and the definition of international time scales, a relativistic redshift effect of the clock frequencies has to be taken into account at a corresponding uncertainty level of about 0.1 m2 s-2 and 0.01 m in terms of gravity potential and height, respectively. Besides the predominant static part of the gravity potential, temporal variations must be considered in order to avoid systematic frequency shifts. Time-variable gravity potential components induced by tides and non-tidal mass redistributions are investigated with regard to the level of one part in 1018. The magnitudes and dominant time periods of the individual gravity potential contributions are investigated globally and for specific laboratory sites together with the related uncertainty estimates. The basics of the computation methods are presented along with the applied models, data sets and software. Solid Earth tides contribute by far the most dominant signal with a global maximum amplitude of 4.2 m2 s-2 for the potential and a range (maximum-to-minimum) of up to 1.3 and 10.0 m2 s-2 in terms of potential differences between specific laboratories over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. Amplitudes of the ocean tidal loading potential can amount up to 1.25 m2 s-2, while the range of the potential between specific laboratories is 0.3 and 1.1 m2 s-2 over continental and intercontinental scales, respectively. These are the only two contributors being relevant at a 10-17 level. However, several other time-variable potential effects can particularly affect clock comparisons at the 10-18 level. Besides solid Earth pole tides, these are non-tidal mass redistributions in the atmosphere, the oceans and the continental water storage.

  20. Stability of trapped Bose-Einstein condensates in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jian-Shu; Liao Xiang-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Using the direct perturbation technique, this paper obtains a general perturbed solution of the Bose-Einstein condensates trapped in one-dimensional tilted optical lattice potential. We also gave out two necessary and sufficient conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution. Theoretical analytical results and the corresponding numerical results show that the perturbed solution of the Bose-Einstein condensate system is unbounded in general and indicate that the Bose-Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-unstable. However, when the conditions for boundedness of the perturbed solution are satisfied, then the Bose-Einstein condensates are Lyapunov-stable.

  1. Optical probing of MgZnO/ZnO heterointerface confinement potential energy levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyev, V. V.; Van' kov, A. B.; Kukushkin, I. V. [Institute of Solid State Physics, RAS, Chernogolovka 142432 (Russian Federation); Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Falson, J.; Kozuka, Y. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Zhang, D.; Smet, J. H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Festkörperforschung, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Maryenko, D. [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan); Tsukazaki, A. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); PRESTO, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), Tokyo 102-0075 (Japan); Kawasaki, M. [Department of Applied Physics and Quantum-Phase Electronics Center (QPEC), University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), Wako 351-0198 (Japan)

    2015-02-23

    Low-temperature photoluminescence and reflectance measurements were employed to study the optical transitions present in two-dimensional electron systems confined at Mg{sub x}Zn{sub 1–x}O/ZnO heterojunctions. Transitions involving A- and B-holes and electrons from the two lowest subbands formed within the confinement potential are detected. In the studied density range of 2.0–6.5 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}, the inter-subband splitting is measured and the first excited electron subband is shown to be empty of electrons.

  2. Visual evoked potentials in optic nerve injury--does it merit to be mentioned?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahapatra A

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP in the management of indirect optic nerve injury was prospectively studied in 78 patients. The initial VEPs were normal in 10, abnormal in 29 and absent in 39 patients. All 10 patients with normal VEP showed visual recovery. Amongst 29 patients with abnormal VEP, 26 (86.6% showed improvement. In 39 patients initial VEPs showed no wave, however, subsequent VEP recordings demonstrated wave formation. Thus in 31 patients repeated VEP recordings failed to demonstrate wave formation, and none of them improved. This study, thus brings out the high predictive value of both positive and negative VEPs.

  3. Stark-potential evaporative cooling of polar molecules in a novel optical-access opened electrostatic trap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙慧; 王振霞; 王琴; 李兴佳; 刘建平; 印建平

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel optical-access opened electrostatic trap to study the Stark-potential evaporative cooling of polar molecules by using two charged disk electrodes with a central hole of radius r0=1.5 mm, and derive a set of new analytical equations to calculate the spatial distributions of the electrostatic field in the above charged-disk layout. Afterwards, we calculate the electric-field distributions of our electrostatic trap and the Stark potential for cold ND3 molecules, and analyze the dependences of both the electric field and the Stark potential on the geometric parameters of our charged-disk scheme, and find an optimal condition to form a desirable trap with the same trap depth in the x, y, and z directions. Also, we propose a desirable scheme to realize an efficient loading of cold polar molecules in the weak-field-seeking states, and investigate the dependences of the loading efficiency on both the initial forward velocity of the incident molecular beam and the loading time by Monte Carlo simulations. Our study shows that the maximal loading efficiency of our trap scheme can reach about 95%, and the corresponding temperature of the trapped cold molecules is about 28.8 mK. Finally, we study the Stark-potential evaporative cooling for cold polar molecules in our trap by the Monte Carlo method, and find that our simulated evaporative cooling results are consistent with our developed analytical model based on trapping-potential evaporative cooling.

  4. Optical model for light distribution during transscleral cyclophotocoagulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemati, B.; Dunn, A.; Welch, A.J.; Rylander, H.G. III [Medical Optics Laboratory, Biomedical Engineering Program, ENS 610, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) is currently performed clinically as an effective treatment for end-stage glaucoma. We develop a theoretical model for the analysis of optical attenuation phenomena during TSCPC as a basis for selection of an optimal wavelength. A multilayered Monte Carlo model was developed to calculate the fluence and the rate of heat generation in each tissue layer for the wavelengths of Nd:YAG, diode, ruby, krypton yellow, and argon lasers. Of the five wavelengths under study, our theoretical results suggest that the diode laser wavelength offers the best penetration through the conjunctiva, sclera, and ciliary muscle and highest absorption within the ciliary pigment epithelium. {copyright} 1998 Optical Society of America.

  5. Nucleon scattering on actinides using a dispersive optical model with extended couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhovitskiĩ, E. Sh.; Capote, R.; Quesada, J. M.; Chiba, S.; Martyanov, D. S.

    2016-12-01

    The Tamura coupling model [Rev. Mod. Phys. 37, 679 (1965), 10.1103/RevModPhys.37.679] has been extended to consider the coupling of additional low-lying rotational bands to the ground-state band. Rotational bands are built on vibrational bandheads (even-even targets) or single-particle bandheads (odd-A targets) including both axial and nonaxial deformations. These additional excitations are introduced as a perturbation to the underlying axially symmetric rigid-rotor structure of the ground-state rotational band. Coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model are derived for extended multiband transitions in even-even and odd-A nuclei. Isospin symmetric formulation of the optical model is employed. A coupled-channels optical-model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive contribution is used to fit simultaneously all available optical experimental databases including neutron strength functions for nucleon scattering on 232Th,233,235,238U, and 239Pu nuclei. Quasielastic (p ,n ) scattering data on 232Th and 238U to the isobaric analog states of the target nucleus are also used to constrain the isovector part of the optical potential. Lane consistent OMP is derived for all actinides if corresponding multiband coupling schemes are defined. For even-even (odd-A ) actinides almost all low-lying collective levels below 1 MeV (0.5 MeV) of excitation energy are coupled. OMP parameters show a smooth energy dependence and energy-independent geometry. A phenomenological optical-model potential that couples multiple bands in odd-A actinides is published for a first time. Calculations using the derived OMP potential reproduce measured total cross-section differences between several actinide pairs within experimental uncertainty for incident neutron energies from 50 keV up to 150 MeV. The importance of extended coupling is studied. Multiband coupling is stronger in even-even targets owing to the collective nature of the coupling; the impact of extended coupling on

  6. Displacement of optical centers in over-the-counter readers: a potential cause of diplopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Constance E; Hunter, David G

    2014-06-01

    Induced prism in spectacle lenses, which may result from inadvertent displacement of optical centers, may worsen an existing heterophoria or even cause diplopia, yet over-the-counter reading glasses (OTC readers) are not always assessed by clinicians when evaluating patients with diplopia or asthenopia. To gauge the magnitude of this potential problem, we used a focimeter and prescription aligner to assess the frequency and extent of clinically significant manufacturing variations in a random selection of 160 OTC readers. The optical centers were vertically displaced by ≥3 mm in 11%, with a maximum displacement of 7 mm in 1 pair. Average interpupillary distance was 64 mm (range, 58-74.5 mm), with interpupillary distance outside the normal range of 60-70 mm in 5%. Monocular pupillary distance was asymmetric by ≥5 mm in 4%. A 0.75 D power difference between lenses was measured in one pair of OTC readers. Some OTC readers have misaligned optical centers and other manufacturing defects that are of a magnitude sufficient to exacerbate a heterophoria and cause asthenopia or diplopia.

  7. Structural, thermal, optical and gravitational modelling for LISA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkowitz, Stephen M [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Conkey, Shelly [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Rd, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Haile, William B [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Rd, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); KellyIII, William R [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Rd, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Peabody, Hume [Swales Aerospace, 5050 Powder Mill Rd, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Dumont, Philip J [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2004-03-07

    The laser interferometer space antenna (LISA) mission uses laser interferometry to detect and observe gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. Modelling of LISA ultimately needs to forecast and interrelate the behaviour of the science input, structure, optics, control systems and many other factors that affect the performance of the flight hardware. These models include high precision STOP (structural-thermal-optical) analyses. In addition, self-gravity analyses of the spacecraft, based on the structural-thermal modelling results, are required for each analysis cycle to understand the gravitational interaction between the spacecraft components. The complete analysis cycle is called STOP-G. Several aspects of this analysis require unprecedented precision due to LISA's challenging design requirements. We present here a modelling approach designed to minimize analysis errors, particularly those that enter when mapping results from one modelling step to the next. Central to the approach is the use of a single model topology for all phases of the STOP-G analysis cycle. The feasibility of this approach was verified using a simplified model of the LISA spacecraft.

  8. A hybridizable discontinuous Galerkin method for solving nonlocal optical response models

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Liang; Mortensen, N Asger; Wubs, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    We propose Hybridizable Discontinuous Galerkin (HDG) methods for solving the frequency-domain Maxwell's equations coupled to the Nonlocal Hydrodynamic Drude (NHD) and Generalized Nonlocal Optical Response (GNOR) models, which are employed to describe the optical properties of nano-plasmonic scatterers and waveguides. Brief derivations for both the NHD model and the GNOR model are presented. The formulations of the HDG method are given, in which we introduce two hybrid variables living only on the skeleton of the mesh. The local field solutions are expressed in terms of the hybrid variables in each element. Two conservativity conditions are globally enforced to make the problem solvable and to guarantee the continuity of the tangential component of the electric field and the normal component of the current density. Numerical results show that the proposed HDG methods converge at optimal rate. We benchmark our implementation and demonstrate that the HDG method has the potential to solve complex nanophotonic pro...

  9. Simulation of complex glazing products; from optical data measurements to model based predictive controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohler, Christian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Complex glazing systems such as venetian blinds, fritted glass and woven shades require more detailed optical and thermal input data for their components than specular non light-redirecting glazing systems. Various methods for measuring these data sets are described in this paper. These data sets are used in multiple simulation tools to model the thermal and optical properties of complex glazing systems. The output from these tools can be used to generate simplified rating values or as an input to other simulation tools such as whole building annual energy programs, or lighting analysis tools. I also describe some of the challenges of creating a rating system for these products and which factors affect this rating. A potential future direction of simulation and building operations is model based predictive controls, where detailed computer models are run in real-time, receiving data for an actual building and providing control input to building elements such as shades.

  10. Optical Thin Film Modeling: Using FTG's FilmStar Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Every material has basic optical properties that define its interaction with light: The index of refraction (n) and extinction coefficient (k) vary for the material as a function of the wavelength of the incident light. Also significant are the phase velocity and polarization of the incident light These inherent properties allow for the accurate modeling of light s behavior upon contact with a surface: Reflectance, Transmittance, Absorptance.

  11. Quantum-dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers in State Space Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hussein Taleb; Kambiz Abedi; Saeed Golmohammadi

    2013-01-01

    A state space model (SSM) is derived for quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifiers (QD-SOAs).Rate equations of QD-SOA are formulated in the form of state update equations,where average occupation probabilities along QD-SOA cavity are considered as state variables of the system.Simulations show that SSM calculates QD-SOA's static and dynamic characteristics with high accuracy.

  12. Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.

  13. MRI of optic nerve and postchiasmal visual pathways and visual evoked potentials in secondary progressive multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, M.B.; Hawkins, C.P. [School of Postgraduate Medicine, Keele Univ. (United Kingdom)]|[Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Williams, R. [MRI Unit Cornwall House, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Haq, N. [Department of Neurology, North Staffordshire Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom); Pelosi, L. [Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-01

    We studied the relationship between abnormalities shown by MRI and functional disturbances in the visual pathway as assessed by the visual evoked potential (VEP) in 25 patients with established multiple sclerosis (MS); only 4 of whom had a history of acute optic neuritis. Optic nerve MRI was abnormal in 19 (76 %) and is thus useful in detecting subclinical disease. Optic nerve total lesion length and area on the STIR sequence was found to correlate significantly with prolongation of the VEP latency. This may reflect a predominantly demyelinating rather than inflammatory origin for the signal change in the optic nerve. (orig.) With 5 figs., 1 tab., 25 refs.

  14. Evaluating the Pedagogical Potential of Hybrid Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Tzur; Levin, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    The paper examines how the use of hybrid models--that consist of the interacting continuous and discrete processes--may assist in teaching system thinking. We report an experiment in which undergraduate students were asked to choose between a hybrid and a continuous solution for a number of control problems. A correlation has been found between…

  15. Potential of mathematical modeling in fruit quality

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... estimate seasonal changes in quality traits as fruit size, dry matter, water content and the concentration of sugars and ... The global goodness-of-fit of a model is computed by averaging the ... into account climate variables such as radiation, salinity, .... and on exponential light extinction (Beer-Lambert Law).

  16. Modeling magneto-optical trapping of CaF molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarbutt, M. R.; Steimle, T. C.

    2015-11-01

    Magneto-optical trapping forces for molecules are far weaker than for alkali-metal atoms because the photon scattering rate is reduced when there are multiple ground states, and because of optical pumping into dark states. The force is further reduced when the upper state has a much smaller Zeeman splitting than the lower state. We use a rate model to estimate the strength of the trapping and damping forces in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of CaF molecules, using either the A 2Π1 /2-X 2Σ+ transition or the B 2Σ+-X 2Σ+ transition. We identify a mechanism of magneto-optical trapping that arises when, in each beam of the MOT, two laser components with opposite polarizations and different detunings address the same transition. This mechanism produces a strong trapping force even when the upper state has little or no Zeeman splitting. It is the main mechanism responsible for the trapping force when the A 2Π1 /2-X 2Σ+ transition is used.

  17. Modeling magneto-optical trapping of CaF molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Tarbutt, M R

    2015-01-01

    Magneto-optical trapping forces for molecules are far weaker than for alkali atoms because the photon scattering rate is reduced when there are multiple ground states, and because of optical pumping into dark states. The force is further reduced when the upper state has a much smaller Zeeman splitting than the lower state. We use a rate model to estimate the strength of the trapping and damping forces in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of CaF molecules, using either the A$^{2}\\Pi_{1/2}$ - X$^{2}\\Sigma^{+}$ transition or the B$^{2}\\Sigma^{+}$ - X$^{2}\\Sigma^{+}$ transition. We identify a new mechanism of magneto-optical trapping that arises when, in each beam of the MOT, two laser components with opposite polarizations and different detunings address the same transition. This mechanism produces a strong trapping force even when the upper state has little or no Zeeman splitting. It is the main mechanism responsible for the trapping force when the A$^{2}\\Pi_{1/2}$ - X$^{2}\\Sigma^{+}$ transition is used.

  18. Modeling of optical losses in perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, M. Javad; Houshmand, Mohammad; Zandi, M. Hossein; Gorji, Nima E.

    2016-09-01

    The optical losses within the structure of hybrid perovskite solar cells are investigated using only the optical properties of each layer e.g. refractive index and extinction coefficient. This model allows calculating the transmission/reflection rates at the interfaces and absorption loss within any layer. Then, the short circuit current density and loss percentage are calculated versus the perovskite and TiO2 thicknesses from 50 nm to 150 nm. To make our calculations closer to reality, we extracted the optical properties of each device component from the literature reports on glass/TCO/TiO2/perovskite/metal. The simulations were fitted with the experimental results of some relevant references. Our simulations show that ITO transmits the light better than SnO2 as the TCO front electrode, and the light reflection at both sides of the perovskite layer, e.g. at TiO2/perovskite and perovskite/Spiro-OMeTAD, is lower than 25%. The light interference and multiple reflections have been accounted in our calculations and finally we showed that a thicker TiO2 and perovskite cause more optical loss in current density due to stronger absorption.

  19. Modelling the inherent optical properties and estimating the constituents' concentrations in turbid and eutrophic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokul, Elamurugu Alias; Shanmugam, Palanisamy; Sundarabalan, Balasubramanian; Sahay, Arvind; Chauhan, Prakash

    2014-08-01

    Retrieval of the inherent optical properties and estimation of the constituents' concentrations from satellite ocean colour data in turbid and eutrophic waters are important as these products provide innovative opportunities for the study of biological and biogeochemical properties in such optically complex waters. This paper intends to develop models to retrieve absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, suspended sediments and coloured dissolved organic matter and describe vertical profiles of chlorophyll and suspended sediments from satellite ocean colour data. These models make use of the relationships between remote sensing reflectance ratios Rrs (555)/Rrs (443) and Rrs (620)/Rrs (490) versus aph (443) and aph (555), and acdom (443), and ad (443) to derive the model parameters. Validation with the in-situ data obtained from coastal waters around India and other regional waters (e.g., NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data-Set, NOMAD) shows that the new models are more accurate in terms of producing the spectral absorption coefficients (aph, ad, acdom across the entire visible wavelengths 400-700 nm) in a wide variety of waters. Further comparison with existing models shows advantage of the new models that have important implications for remote sensing of turbid coastal and eutrophic waters. The retrieved absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and suspended sediments (non-algal matter) are also found to relate better to chlorophyll and total suspended sediments. Taking advantages of this, we derive models to determine and describe the vertical profiles of chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations along the depth. The model parameters are derived empirically. These new parameterizations show potential in estimating the vertical profiles of chlorophyll and suspended sediments with good accuracy. These results suggest robustness and suitability of the new models for studying the ecologically important components of optically complex turbid and eutrophic

  20. Numerical Simulations of Optical Turbulence Using an Advanced Atmospheric Prediction Model: Implications for Adaptive Optics Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.

    2014-09-01

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from astronomical telescopes and reducing the data quality of optical imaging and communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so numerical simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using a multi-node linux cluster using the Intel chip architecture. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution and centered on the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) of the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) TKE scheme has been modified to diagnose the turbulent Prandtl number as a function of the Richardson number, following observations by Kondo and others. This modification

  1. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, Bekir; Yakar, Yusuf; Özmen, Ayhan

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s2, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree-Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  2. Linear and nonlinear optical absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot with parabolic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Çakır, Bekir, E-mail: bcakir@selcuk.edu.tr [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey); Yakar, Yusuf, E-mail: yuyakar@yahoo.com [Physics Department, Faculty of Arts and Science, Aksaray University, Campus 68100, Aksaray (Turkey); Özmen, Ayhan [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Selcuk University, Campus 42075, Konya (Turkey)

    2015-02-01

    Linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients of two-electron spherical quantum dot (QD) with parabolic potential are investigated in this paper. Wave functions and energy eigenvalues of the 1s{sup 2}, 1s1p, 1s1d and 1s1f electronic states have been computed by using an optimization approach, which is a combination of Quantum Genetic Algorithm (QGA) and Hartree–Fock Roothaan (HFR) method. It is found that the strength of S→P transition is stronger than P→D and D→F transitions. Also the peak positions and amplitudes of the absorption coefficients are sensitive to the electron spin. It should be noted that the peak positions and amplitudes of absorption coefficients are strongly dependent on the parabolic potential. Additionally, dot radius, impurity charge, incident optical intensity and relaxation time have a great influence on the linear and nonlinear absorption coefficients.

  3. Modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis from Chang'E-2 optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang-Yu; Qiao, Dong

    2014-06-01

    Shape modeling is fundamental to the analysis of dynamic environment and motion around asteroid. Chang'E-2 successfully made a flyby of Asteroid 4179 Toutatis and obtained plenty of high-resolution images during the mission. In this paper, the modeling method and preliminary model of Asteroid Toutatis are discussed. First, the optical images obtained by Chang'E-2 are analyzed. Terrain and silhouette features in images are described. Then, the modeling method based on previous radar model and preliminary information from optical images is proposed. A preliminary polyhedron model of Asteroid Toutatis is established. Finally, the spherical harmonic coefficients of Asteroid Toutatis based on the polyhedron model are obtained. Some parameters of model are analyzed and compared. Although the model proposed in this paper is only a preliminary model, this work offers a valuable reference for future high-resolution models.

  4. Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bondo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases – abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays – by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation and condensation model, according to changes in ionization by the Forbush decrease. From the resulting size distribution we then calculate the aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent, for the wavelength pairs 350, 450 nm and 550, 900 nm. In the cases where the output parameters from the model seem to compare best with atmospheric observations we observe, for the shorter wavelength pair, a change in Angstrom exponent, following the Forbush Decrease, of −6 to +3%. In some cases we also observe a delay in the change of Angstrom exponent, compared to the maximum of the Forbush decrease, which is caused by different sensitivities of the probing wavelengths to changes in aerosol number concentration and size. For the long wavelengths these changes are generally smaller. The types and magnitude of change is investigated for a suite of nucleation rates, condensable gas production rates, and aerosol loss rates. Furthermore we compare the model output with observations of 5 of the largest Forbush decreases after year 2000. For the 350, 450 nm pair we use AERONET data and find a comparable change in signal while the Angstrom Exponent is lower in the model than in the data, due to AERONET being mainly sampled over land. For 550, 900 nm we compare with both AERONET and MODIS and find little to no response in both model and observations. In summary our study shows that the optical properties of aerosols show a distinct response to Forbush Decreases, assuming that the nucleation of fresh aerosols is driven by ions. Shorter wavelengths seem more favorable for observing these effects and great care should be taken when analyzing observations, in order to avoid

  5. Bragg diffraction of fermions at optical potentials; Braggbeugung von Fermionen an optischen Potentialen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deh, Benjamin

    2008-10-27

    This thesis describes the Bragg diffraction of ultracold fermions at an optical potential. A moving optical lattice was created, by overlaying two slightly detuned lasers. Atoms can be diffracted at this lattice if the detuning fulfills the Bragg condition for resting atoms. This Bragg diffraction is analyzed systematically in this thesis. To this end Rabi oscillations between the diffraction states were driven, as well in the weakly interacting Bragg regime, as in the strongly interacting Kapitza-Dirac regime. Simulations, based on a driven two-, respectively multilevel-system describe the observed effects rather well. Furthermore, the temporal evolution of the diffracted states in the magnetic trapping potential was studied. The anharmonicity of the trap in use and the scattering cross section for p-wave collisions in a {sup 6}Li system was determined from the movement of these states. Moreover the momentum distribution of the fermions was measured with Bragg spectroscopy and first signs of Fermi degeneracy were found. Finally an interferometer with fermions was build, exhibiting a coherence time of more than 100 {mu}s. With this, the possibility for measurement and manipulation of ultracold fermions with Bragg diffraction could bee shown. (orig.)

  6. Optical modeling of graphene contacted CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldosari, Marouf; Sohrabpoor, Hamed; Gorji, Nima E.

    2016-04-01

    For the first time, an optical model is applied on CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells with graphene front or back contact. Graphene is highly conductive and is as thin as a single atom which reduces the light reflection and absorption, and thus enhances the light transmission to CdTe layer for a wide range of wavelengths including IR. Graphene as front electrode of CdTe devices led to loss in short circuit current density of 10% ΔJsc ≤ 15% compared to the conventional electrodes of TCO and ITO at CdS thickness of dCdS = 100 nm. In addition, all the multilayer graphene electrodes with 2, 4, and 7 graphene layers led to Jsc ≤ 20 mA/cm2. Therefore, we conclude that a single monolayer graphene with hexagonal carbon network reduces optical losses and enhances the carrier collection measured as Jsc. In another structure design, we applied the optical model to graphene back contacted CdS/CdTe device. This scheme allows double side irradiation of the cell which is expected to enhance the Jsc. We obtained 1 ∼ 6 , 23, and 38 mA/cm2 for back, front and bifacial illumination of graphene contacted CdTe cell with CdS = 100 nm. The bifacial irradiated cell, to be efficient, requires an ultrathin CdTe film with dCdTe ≤ 1 μm. In this case, the junction electric field extends to the back region and collects out the generated carriers efficiently. This was modelled by absorptivity rather than transmission rate and optical losses. Since the literature suggest that ZnO can increase the graphene conductivity and enhance the Jsc, we performed our simulations for a graphene/ZnO electrode (ZnO = 100 nm) instead of a single graphene layer.

  7. On the Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links under Generalized Turbulence and Misalignment Models

    KAUST Repository

    AlQuwaiee, Hessa

    2016-11-01

    One of the potential solutions to the radio frequency (RF) spectrum scarcity problem is optical wireless communications (OWC), which utilizes the unlicensed optical spectrum. Long-range outdoor OWC are usually referred to in the literature as free-space optical (FSO) communications. Unlike RF systems, FSO is immune to interference and multi-path fading. Also, the deployment of FSO systems is flexible and much faster than optical fibers. These attractive features make FSO applicable for broadband wireless transmission such as optical fiber backup, metropolitan area network, and last mile access. Although FSO communication is a promising technology, it is negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. These two critical issues have prompted intensive research in the last decade. To quantify the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need effective mathematical models. In this work, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. Then, we aim to generalize the FSO channel model to span all turbulence conditions from weak to strong while taking pointing errors into consideration. Since scintillation in FSO is analogous to the fading phenomena in RF, diversity has been proposed too to overcome the effect of irradiance fluctuations. Thus, several combining techniques of not necessarily independent dual-branch free-space optical links were investigated over both weak and strong turbulence channels in the presence of pointing errors. On another front, improving the performance, enhancing the capacity and reducing the delay of the communication link has been the motivation of any newly developed schemes, especially for backhauling. Recently, there has been a growing interest in practical systems to integrate RF and FSO technologies to solve the last mile bottleneck. As such, we also study in this thesis asymmetric an RF-FSO dual-hop relay

  8. An improved transfer-matrix model for optical superlenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Ciaran P; Blaikie, Richard J; Arnold, Matthew D

    2009-08-01

    The use of transfer-matrix analyses for characterizing planar optical superlensing systems is studied here, and the simple model of the planar superlens as an isolated imaging element is shown to be defective in certain situations. These defects arise due to neglected interactions between the superlens and the spatially varying shadow masks that are normally used as scattering objects for imaging, and which are held in near-field proximity to the superlenses. An extended model is proposed that improves the accuracy of the transfer-matrix analysis, without adding significant complexity, by approximating the reflections from the shadow mask by those from a uniform metal layer. Results obtained using both forms of the transfer matrix model are compared to finite element models and two example superlenses, one with a silver monolayer and the other with three silver sublayers, are characterized. The modified transfer matrix model gives much better agreement in both cases.

  9. Adiabatic Floquet model for the optical response in femtosecond filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The standard model of femtosecond filamentation is based on phenomenological assumptions which suggest that the ionization-induced carriers can be treated as free according to the Drude model, while the nonlinear response of the bound carriers follows the all-optical Kerr effect. Here, we demonstrate that the additional plasma generated at a multiphoton resonance dominates the saturation of the nonlinear refractive index. Since resonances are not captured by the standard model, we propose a modification of the latter in which ionization enhancements can be accounted for by an ionization rate obtained from non-Hermitian Floquet theory. In the adiabatic regime of long pulse envelopes, this augmented standard model is in excellent agreement with direct quantum mechanical simulations. Since our proposal maintains the structure of the standard model, it can be easily incorporated into existing codes of filament simulation.

  10. Combinatorial mutagenesis of the voltage-sensing domain enables the optical resolution of action potentials firing at 60 Hz by a genetically encoded fluorescent sensor of membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piao, Hong Hua; Rajakumar, Dhanarajan; Kang, Bok Eum; Kim, Eun Ha; Baker, Bradley J

    2015-01-07

    ArcLight is a genetically encoded fluorescent voltage sensor using the voltage-sensing domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis that gives a large but slow-responding optical signal in response to changes in membrane potential (Jin et al., 2012). Fluorescent voltage sensors using the voltage-sensing domain from other species give faster yet weaker optical signals (Baker et al., 2012; Han et al., 2013). Sequence alignment of voltage-sensing phosphatases from different species revealed conserved polar and charged residues at 7 aa intervals in the S1-S3 transmembrane segments of the voltage-sensing domain, suggesting potential coil-coil interactions. The contribution of these residues to the voltage-induced optical signal was tested using a cassette mutagenesis screen by flanking each transmembrane segment with unique restriction sites to allow for the testing of individual mutations in each transmembrane segment, as well as combinations in all four transmembrane segments. Addition of a counter charge in S2 improved the kinetics of the optical response. A double mutation in the S4 domain dramatically reduced the slow component of the optical signal seen in ArcLight. Combining that double S4 mutant with the mutation in the S2 domain yielded a probe with kinetics voltage-sensing domain could potentially lead to fluorescent sensors capable of optically resolving neuronal inhibition and subthreshold synaptic activity.

  11. Event-based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H

    2010-01-01

    A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a unified description of multiple-beam fringes of a plane parallel plate, single-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer, Wheeler's delayed choice, photon tunneling, quantum erasers, two-beam interference, double-slit, and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm and Hanbury Brown-Twiss experiments.

  12. Computational Model Of Fiber Optic, Arc Fusion Splicing; Experimental Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffin, Paul; Frost, Walter; Long, Wayne

    1989-02-01

    Acknowledgement: The assistance and support of the MICOM Army Missile Command is gratefully appreciated. An analytical tool to investigate the arc fusion splicing of optical fibers is developed. The physical model incorporates heat transfer and thermal, visco elastic strain. The heat transfer equations governing radiation, conduction and convection during arc heating are formulated. The radiation heat flux impinging on the fiber optics is modeled based on reported experimental analysis of a generic type arc discharge. The fusion process considers deformation of the fiber due to thermal, viscous and elastic strain. A Maxwell stress-strain relationship is assumed. The model assumes an initial gap at the beginning of the arc which is closed by a press-stroke during the heating cycle. All physical properties of the fused silica glass fibers are considered as functions of temperature based on available experimental data. A computer algorithm has been developed to solve the system of governing equations and parametric studies carried out. An experiment using a FSM-20 arc fusion splicer manufactured by Fujikura Ltd. was carried out to provide experimental verification of the analytical model. In the experiment a continuous fiber was positioned in the arc and cyclic heating and cooling was carried out. One end of the fiber was clamped and the other was free to move. The fiber was heated for 6 seconds and cooled for 3 minutes for several cycles. At the end of each cooling process, photographs of the deformation of the fiber were taken. The results showed that the fiber necked down on the free end and buldged up on the fixed end. With repeated heating and cooling cycles, the optical fiber eventually necked down to the point that it melted in two. The analytical model was run for the conditions of the experiment. Comparisons of the predicted deformation of the optical fiber with those measured is given. The analytical model displays all of the physical phenomenon of fiber

  13. Enterprise marketing potential modeling taking into account optimizing and dynamic essence of the potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Potrashkova Lyudmyla Vladimirovna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of the research is to develop models system concerning b2b-enterprise marketing potential result-based estimation, which will consider enterprise potential optimizing essence, its hierarchic structure (i.e. strategic, tactic and operative potential levels and marketing resources dynamics. The results of the analysis. The simulation and optimization models system of the b2b-enterprise marketing potential estimation is suggested. The suggested models system is based on the following theoretical grounds: 1 enterprise marketing potential is interpreted as enterprise ability to satisfy consumers’ needs and to get maximum economic benefits from it; 2 the result-based estimation of the enterprise marketing potential is set of the best results (profit from sales, which sales and marketing enterprise subsystem may achieve in the prognosticative period in the view of environmental conditions variants. The suggested system unites models to estimate three managerial levels of the marketing potential (operative, tactic and strategic, which are different from each other by: the set of the given managerial decisions; the set of the changeable managerial decisions; descriptions of the environment parameters; specification of the resources featured describing. Model of each marketing potential level has the following constituents: - objective function, which is the sum of profit from production realization during the whole prognosticative period; - model of the constrained optimization, oriented to define maximum possible profit value from production realization in each elementary period with given marketing resources features values, environmental parameters and marketing complex parameters; - model of the enterprise marketing resources dynamics. Developed models system belongs to the simulation class, because search of the optimal decisions there is conducted with method concerning controllable parameters alternative variants

  14. APPROXIMATING INNOVATION POTENTIAL WITH NEUROFUZZY ROBUST MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasa, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In a remarkably short time, economic globalisation has changed the world’s economic order, bringing new challenges and opportunities to SMEs. These processes pushed the need to measure innovation capability, which has become a crucial issue for today’s economic and political decision makers. Companies cannot compete in this new environment unless they become more innovative and respond more effectively to consumers’ needs and preferences – as mentioned in the EU’s innovation strategy. Decision makers cannot make accurate and efficient decisions without knowing the capability for innovation of companies in a sector or a region. This need is forcing economists to develop an integrated, unified and complete method of measuring, approximating and even forecasting the innovation performance not only on a macro but also a micro level. In this recent article a critical analysis of the literature on innovation potential approximation and prediction is given, showing their weaknesses and a possible alternative that eliminates the limitations and disadvantages of classical measuring and predictive methods.

  15. Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Muxingzi

    2017-04-24

    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.

  16. Optical modeling of volcanic ash particles using ellipsoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merikallio, Sini; Muñoz, Olga; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Virtanen, Timo H.; Horttanainen, Matti; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Nousiainen, Timo

    2015-05-01

    The single-scattering properties of volcanic ash particles are modeled here by using ellipsoidal shapes. Ellipsoids are expected to improve the accuracy of the retrieval of aerosol properties using remote sensing techniques, which are currently often based on oversimplified assumptions of spherical ash particles. Measurements of the single-scattering optical properties of ash particles from several volcanoes across the globe, including previously unpublished measurements from the Eyjafjallajökull and Puyehue volcanoes, are used to assess the performance of the ellipsoidal particle models. These comparisons between the measurements and the ellipsoidal particle model include consideration of the whole scattering matrix, as well as sensitivity studies on the point of view of the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) instrument. AATSR, which flew on the ENVISAT satellite, offers two viewing directions but no information on polarization, so usually only the phase function is relevant for interpreting its measurements. As expected, ensembles of ellipsoids are able to reproduce the observed scattering matrix more faithfully than spheres. Performance of ellipsoid ensembles depends on the distribution of particle shapes, which we tried to optimize. No single specific shape distribution could be found that would perform superiorly in all situations, but all of the best-fit ellipsoidal distributions, as well as the additionally tested equiprobable distribution, improved greatly over the performance of spheres. We conclude that an equiprobable shape distribution of ellipsoidal model particles is a relatively good, yet enticingly simple, approach for modeling volcanic ash single-scattering optical properties.

  17. Adaptive optics sky coverage modeling for extremely large telescopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Richard M; Ellerbroek, Brent L; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2006-12-10

    A Monte Carlo sky coverage model for laser guide star adaptive optics systems was proposed by Clare and Ellerbroek [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 418 (2006)]. We refine the model to include (i) natural guide star (NGS) statistics using published star count models, (ii) noise on the NGS measurements, (iii) the effect of telescope wind shake, (iv) a model for how the Strehl and hence NGS wavefront sensor measurement noise varies across the field, (v) the focus error due to imperfectly tracking the range to the sodium layer, (vi) the mechanical bandwidths of the tip-tilt (TT) stage and deformable mirror actuators, and (vii) temporal filtering of the NGS measurements to balance errors due to noise and servo lag. From this model, we are able to generate a TT error budget for the Thirty Meter Telescope facility narrow-field infrared adaptive optics system (NFIRAOS) and perform several design trade studies. With the current NFIRAOS design, the median TT error at the galactic pole with median seeing is calculated to be 65 nm or 1.8 mas rms.

  18. Wavefront Sensing for WFIRST with a Linear Optical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  19. Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bondo

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases – abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays – by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation and condensation model, according to changes in ionization by the Forbush decrease. From the resulting size distribution we then calculate the aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent, for the wavelength pairs 350, 450 nm and 550, 900 nm. For the shorter wavelength pair we observe a change in Angstrom exponent, following the Forbush Decrease, of −6 to +3% in the cases with atmospherically realistic output parameters. For some parameters we also observe a delay in the change of Angstrom exponent, compared to the maximum of the Forbush decrease, which is caused by different sensitivities of the probing wavelengths to changes in aerosol number concentration and size. For the long wavelengths these changes are generally smaller. The types and magnitude of change is investigated for a suite of nucleation rates, condensable gas production rates, and aerosol loss rates. Furthermore we compare the model output with observations of 5 of the largest Forbush decreases after year 2000. For the 350, 450 nm pair we use AERONET data and find a comparable change in signal while the Angstrom Exponent is lower in the model than in the data, due to AERONET being mainly sampled over land. For 550, 900 nm we compare with both AERONET and MODIS and find little to no response in both model and observations. In summary our study shows that the optical properties of aerosols show a distinct response to Forbush Decreases, assuming that the nucleation of fresh aerosols is driven by ions. Shorter wavelengths seem more favorable for observing these effects and great care should be taken when analyzing observations, in order to avoid the signal being drowned out by noise.

  20. Wavefront sensing for WFIRST with a linear optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.

  1. Local and global nucleon optical models from 1 keV to 200 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Köning, A J

    2003-01-01

    We present new phenomenological optical model potentials (OMPs) for neutrons and protons with incident energies from 1 keV up to 200 MeV, for (near-)spherical nuclides in the mass range 24<=A<=209. They are based on a smooth, unique functional form for the energy dependence of the potential depths, and on physically constrained geometry parameters. For the first time, this enables one to predict basic scattering observables over a broad mass range and over an energy range that covers several orders of magnitude in MeV. Thereby, the necessity of using different OMPs in different energy regions has been removed. Using extensive grid searches and a new computational steering technique, we have obtained optical model parameters for many isotopes separately. We recommend that the resulting, so-called local, optical models be used in theoretical analyses of nuclear data. From these parameterizations, we have also constructed asymmetry-dependent neutron and proton global OMPs that are superior to all other exi...

  2. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sygletos, S; Ferreira, F [Aston University, England, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2016-01-31

    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)

  3. Analysis of the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials on the $^{40}$Ca($^6$Li, d)$^{44}$ Ti reaction

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MAZUMDER UTTAM K; SOMADDER ANOCK; HOQUE ENAMUL; HAQUE YASMEEN; DAS SUSANTA K; SEN GUPTA H M

    2016-06-01

    Full finite-range (FFR) distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA) method has been applied to analyse the angular distributions of cross-sections of the $^{40}$Ca($^{6}$Li, d)$^{44}$Ti reaction at 28 MeV incident energy for the 22 transitions involving both the bound and unbound states of $^{44}$Ti byusing the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials. The extracted spectroscopic factors for the three optical potentials are compared with those of some previous studies of zero-range (ZR) calculations of the$^{40}$Ca($^{6}$Li, d)$^{44}$Ti reaction using the normal optical potential. The $\\chi^{2}$ values of all the levels are obtained for the three optical potentials to estimate the quality of the fits. Molecular and Michel potentials have been used for the first time to analyse the four-nucleon transfer reaction and it seems that the molecular potential fits the experimental data more satisfactorily for some of the states than the normal optical and Michel potentials.

  4. Multifocal visual evoked potential analysis of inflammatory or demyelinating optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, Clare L; Klistorner, Alexander; Graham, Stuart L; Garrick, Raymond; Billson, Francis A; Grigg, John R

    2006-02-01

    To determine the sensitivity of multifocal visual evoked potentials (mVEP) in optic neuritis of an inflammatory or demyelinating nature. Cross-sectional study. Sixty-four patients participated who had a confirmed diagnosis of optic neuritis (ON) (past and acute). Based on the McDonald multiple sclerosis (MS) criteria, 25 patients (27 eyes with ON) were deemed to have isolated optic neuritis and thus not have MS (i.e., the not-MS group), and 19 patients (24 eyes with ON) had a diagnosis of MS (i.e., the MS group). The remaining 20 patients (25 eyes with ON) were at a high risk of MS, but diagnostic evaluation was equivocal, and thus were classified as the possible MS group. A control group of 20 normal patients was enrolled. The mVEP test was performed using the Accumap. All ON patients had recent magnetic resonance imaging scans of the brain and spinal cord. Multifocal visual evoked potentials amplitude and latency values were analyzed within each group and were compared with the normal controls. No abnormality was recorded on mVEP in the control group. Of all the ON eyes, 74 (97.3%) were abnormal on mVEP testing. Amplitude values were abnormal in 92.6% of not-MS eyes, 92.0% of possible MS eyes, and 100% of those with MS, and latency was abnormal in 33.3%, 76.0%, and 100%, respectively. There was a significant difference in the mVEP latency z-scores among all ON groups (P<0.01; Kruskal-Wallis test). Although distribution graphs of latency z-scores in the not-MS and MS groups had single peaks and were clearly separate from each other, the latency z-score distribution within the possible MS group in postacute patients was bimodal, with each peak corresponding to the distribution of the not-MS and MS group, respectively. The mVEP latency z-scores had a sensitivity and specificity of 100% in detecting patients with ON due to MS when compared with normal patients. The mVEP test is a sensitive and specific tool for detecting optic neuritis. There was a significant

  5. Modeling and interpreting speckle pattern formation in swept-source optical coherence tomography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidov, Valentin; Vitkin, I. Alex; Doronin, Alexander; Meglinski, Igor

    2017-03-01

    We report on the development of a unified Monte-Carlo based computational model for exploring speckle pattern formation in swept-source optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT is a well-established optical imaging modality capable of acquiring cross-sectional images of turbid media, including biological tissues, utilizing back scattered low coherence light. The obtained OCT images include characteristic features known as speckles. Currently, there is a growing interest to the OCT speckle patterns due to their potential application for quantitative analysis of medium's optical properties. Here we consider the mechanisms of OCT speckle patterns formation for swept-source OCT approaches and introduce further developments of a Monte-Carlo based model for simulation of OCT signals and images. The model takes into account polarization and coherent properties of light, mutual interference of back-scattering waves, and their interference with the reference waves. We present a corresponding detailed description of the algorithm for modeling these light-medium interactions. The developed model is employed for generation of swept-source OCT images, analysis of OCT speckle formation and interpretation of the experimental results. The obtained simulation results are compared with selected analytical solutions and experimental studies utilizing various sizes / concentrations of scattering microspheres.

  6. Flash visual evoked potential monitoring of optic tract function during macroelectrode-based pallidotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaroti, E A; Rose, R D; Kondziolka, D; Baser, S; Lunsford, L D

    1997-03-15

    Posteroventral pallidotomy (PVP) has received renewed interest as an ablative procedure for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease. In previous reports, the proximity of the optic tract to the lesion target in the globus pallidus internus has resulted in the occurrence of visual field deficits in as much as 14% of patients. The authors have used intraoperative visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during PVP to reduce this risk. All procedures were performed in awake patients. Flash stimuli were delivered to each eye via fiberoptic sources. Baseline flash VEPs were recorded at O1/Cz (left visual cortex to vertex), Oz/Cz (midline visual cortex to vertex), and O2/Cz (right visual cortex to vertex) for OS, OU, and OD stimulation. Epochs were acquired before and after localization, after macroelectrode stimulation, after temporary thermal lesioning, and after permanent thermal lesioning. Forty-seven patients underwent a total of 59 procedures. Visual evoked potentials were recorded reproducibly in all patients. In 11 procedures, VEP changes were reported, including six amplitude changes (10-80%), six latency shifts (3-10 msec), and one report of "variability." In four procedures, VEP changes prompted a change in target coordinates. One false-positive and one false-negative VEP change were encountered. The only confirmed visual deficit was a superior quadrantanopsia, present on formal fields, but clinically asymptomatic. The authors conclude that VEPs may be useful for procedures performed in the awake patient because of the lack of anesthetic-induced variability. The 1.7% visual morbidity reported here (one in 59 patients) compares favorably with other series using microelectrodes. Visual evoked potentials may be a useful monitoring technique to reduce the incidence of clinically significant visual morbidity during pallidotomy, especially during formal lesioning of the ventral pallidum adjacent to the optic tract.

  7. Optical properties of CdTe: Experiment and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Sadao; Kimura, Toshifumi; Suzuki, Norihiro

    1993-09-01

    The real epsilon(sub 1) and imaginary epsilon(sub 2) portions of the dielectric function of CdTe were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) in the 1.1-5.6 eV photon-energy range at room temperature. The data obtained were analyzed using different theoretical models, namely the harmonic-oscillator approximation, the standard critical point, and the model dielectric function. These models include the E(sub 0), E(sub 0) + Delta(sub 0), E(sub 1), E(sub 1) + Delta(sub 1), and E(sub 2) gaps as the main dispersion mechanisms. The consequences were reported and of particular interest was the difference in the analyzed results between these theoretical models. Dielectric-related optical constants of CdTe, such as the complex refractive index, the absorption coefficient, and normal-incidence reflectivity, were also investigated.

  8. Synthetic Modeling of Astronomical Closed Loop Adaptive Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Jolissaint, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    We present an analytical model of a single natural guide star astronomical adaptive optics system, in closed loop mode. The model is used to simulate the long exposure system point spread function, using the spatial frequency (or Fourier) approach, and complement an initial open loop model. Applications range from system design, science case analysis and AO data reduction. All the classical phase errors have been included: deformable mirror fitting error, wavefront sensor spatial aliasing, wavefront sensor noise, and the correlated anisoplanatic and servo-lag error. The model includes the deformable mirror spatial transfer function, and the actuator array geometry can be different from the wavefront sensor lenslet array geometry. We also include the dispersion between the sensing and the correction wavelengths. Illustrative examples are given at the end of the paper.

  9. Global analysis of isospin dependent microscopic nucleon-nucleus optical potentials in a Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruirui; Ma, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yue; Tian, Yuan; van Dalen, E. N. E.; Müther, H.

    2016-09-01

    Background: For the study of exotic nuclei it is important to have an optical model potential that is reliable not only for stable nuclei but can also be extrapolated to nuclear systems with exotic numbers of protons and neutrons. An efficient way to obtain such a potential is to develop a microscopic optical potential (MOP) based on a fundamental theory with a minimal number of free parameters, which are adjusted to describe stable nuclei all over the nuclide chart. Purpose: The choice adopted in the present work is to develop the MOP within a relativistic scheme which provides a natural and consistent relation between the spin-orbit part and the central part of the potential. The Dirac-Brueckner-Hartree-Fock (DBHF) approach provides such a microscopic relativistic scheme, which is based on a realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction and reproduces the saturation properties of symmetric nuclear matter without any adjustable parameter. Its solution using the projection technique within the subtracted T -matrix representation provides a reliable extension to asymmetric nuclear matter, which is important to describe the features of isospin asymmetric nuclei. The present work performs a global analysis of the isospin dependent nucleon-nucleus MOP based on the DBHF calculation in symmetric and asymmetric nuclear matter. Methods: The DBHF approach is used to evaluate the relativistic structure of the nucleon self-energies in nuclear matter at various densities and asymmetries. The Schrödinger equivalent potentials of finite nuclei are derived from these Dirac components by a local density approximation (LDA). The density distributions of finite nuclei are taken from the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with Gogny D1S force. An improved LDA approach (ILDA) is employed to get a better prediction of the scattering observables. A χ2 assessment system based on the global simulated annealing algorithm is developed to optimize the very few free components in this study. Results

  10. AN EFFECTIVE MODEL TO EVALUATE BLOCKING PROBABILITY OF TIME-SLOTTED OPTICAL BURST SWITCHED NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Zongkai; Ou Liang; Tan Xiansi

    2006-01-01

    Time-slotted optical burst switched network is a potential technique to support IP over Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) by introduce Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) channel to Optical Burst Switching (OBS) technology. This paper presents a framework to evaluate blocking performance of time-slotted OBS networks with multi-fiber wavelength channels. The proposed model is efficient for not only single class traffic such as individual circuit switch traffics or best-effort traffics but also mixed multi-class traffics.The effectiveness of the proposed model is validated by simulation results. The study shows that blocking performance of multi-fiber TS-OBS network is acceptable for future Internet services.

  11. Current and future potential of retinal optical coherence tomography in multiple sclerosis with and without optic neuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Lisanne J; Petzold, Axel

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disorder characterized by inflammation and neuroaxonal degeneration. The latter is held responsible for the irreversible disability in patients with MS. The eye is a unique window into the brain. With the advent of optical coherence tomography, accurate quantification of retinal layer thickness has become feasible. Neuroaxonal degeneration affecting the retinal layers is structurally and functionally related to pathology in the visual pathways, which is most severe following MS optic neuritis. This is relevant to recognize because MS optic neuritis may mask the subtle thinning of retinal layers associated with global CNS atrophy, which is also related to more global loss of neurological function. Taken together, optical coherence tomography stands at the brink of becoming a validated imaging biomarker for monitoring neurodegeneration in MS and to provide end points for clinical trials.

  12. Determination of the real part of the {\\eta}'-Nb optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Nanova, M; Metag, V; Paryev, E Ya; Afzal, F N; Bayadilov, D; Beck, R; Becker, M; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K -T; Crede, V; Elsner, D; Frommberger, F; Grtuner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, P; Honisch, Ch; Jude, T; Kalischewski, F; Keshelashvili, I; Klein, F; Koop, K; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Makonyi, K; Messi, F; Müller, J; Müllers, J; Piontek, D M; Rostomyan, T; Schaab, D; Schmidt, C; Schmieden, H; Schmitz, R; Seifen, T; Sowa, C; Spieker, K; Thiel, A; Thoma, U; Tristerer, T; Urban, M; van Pee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, C; Werthmüller, D; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Witthauer, L; Wunderlich, Y; Zaunick, H -G

    2016-01-01

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of {\\eta}' mesons have been measured in photoproduction off 93^Nb in the energy range of 1.2-2.9 GeV. The experiment has been performed with the combined Crystal Barrel and MiniTAPS detector system, using tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator. Information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the {\\eta}'-Nb potential has been extracted from a comparison of the data with model calculations. An attractive potential of -(41 \\pm 10(stat) \\pm 15(syst)) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density is deduced within model uncertainties. This value is consistent with the potential depth of -(37 \\pm 10(stat) \\pm 10(syst)) MeV obtained in an earlier measurement for a light nucleus (carbon). This relatively shallow {\\eta}'-nucleus potential will make the search for {\\eta}'-nucleus bound states more difficult.

  13. Dissolved Organic Carbon and Optical Properties as Indicators of Trihalomethane Formation Potential in an Agricultural Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerin, B. A.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Spencer, R. G.

    2006-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta waters may result in the formation of high levels of carcinogenic disinfection byproducts such as trihalomethane during drinking water treatment. The importance of Central Valley agricultural lands as sources of DOC and THM- precursors upstream of the Delta is presently unknown. We are quantifying contributions of DOC and THM- precursors from the Willow Slough watershed, a 425 km2 agriculturally-dominated catchment. During 2006, water samples were collected weekly at the mouth of the watershed and analyzed for DOC concentrations, optical properties (UV absorbance and fluorescence), and trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP). Additional synoptic samples were collected seasonally (winter, spring, summer) from 16 watershed locations and analyzed for optical properties, DOC concentrations, and THMFP. DOC concentrations generally ranged from approximately 2 to 4 mg/L at the watershed outlet during winter and spring, but increased weekly to 8 mg/L following the onset of irrigation. The THMFP at the mouth of the water was correlated with DOC concentration (r2 = 0.87), with higher concentrations during high discharge events and lower concentrations during summer and prolonged rain-free periods. In addition, the species of THM varied between high and low-flow periods, with THM formation dominated by brominated species during low- flow periods and chlorinated species during rainfall-runoff events. Optical characterization of DOC via UV absorbance and fluorescence suggests changes in DOC composition between high- and low-flow periods, likely reflective of changing sources and flowpaths of runoff.

  14. Theoretical modeling of the dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to double-reflector optical feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakry, A.; Abdulrhmann, S.; Ahmed, M.

    2016-06-01

    We theoretically model the dynamics of semiconductor lasers subject to the double-reflector feedback. The proposed model is a new modification of the time-delay rate equations of semiconductor lasers under the optical feedback to account for this type of the double-reflector feedback. We examine the influence of adding the second reflector to dynamical states induced by the single-reflector feedback: periodic oscillations, period doubling, and chaos. Regimes of both short and long external cavities are considered. The present analyses are done using the bifurcation diagram, temporal trajectory, phase portrait, and fast Fourier transform of the laser intensity. We show that adding the second reflector attracts the periodic and perioddoubling oscillations, and chaos induced by the first reflector to a route-to-continuous-wave operation. During this operation, the periodic-oscillation frequency increases with strengthening the optical feedback. We show that the chaos induced by the double-reflector feedback is more irregular than that induced by the single-reflector feedback. The power spectrum of this chaos state does not reflect information on the geometry of the optical system, which then has potential for use in chaotic (secure) optical data encryption.

  15. Theoretical modeling of the dynamics of a semiconductor laser subject to double-reflector optical feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakry, A. [King Abdulaziz University, 80203, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia); Abdulrhmann, S. [Jazan University, 114, Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences (Saudi Arabia); Ahmed, M., E-mail: mostafa.farghal@mu.edu.eg [King Abdulaziz University, 80203, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science (Saudi Arabia)

    2016-06-15

    We theoretically model the dynamics of semiconductor lasers subject to the double-reflector feedback. The proposed model is a new modification of the time-delay rate equations of semiconductor lasers under the optical feedback to account for this type of the double-reflector feedback. We examine the influence of adding the second reflector to dynamical states induced by the single-reflector feedback: periodic oscillations, period doubling, and chaos. Regimes of both short and long external cavities are considered. The present analyses are done using the bifurcation diagram, temporal trajectory, phase portrait, and fast Fourier transform of the laser intensity. We show that adding the second reflector attracts the periodic and perioddoubling oscillations, and chaos induced by the first reflector to a route-to-continuous-wave operation. During this operation, the periodic-oscillation frequency increases with strengthening the optical feedback. We show that the chaos induced by the double-reflector feedback is more irregular than that induced by the single-reflector feedback. The power spectrum of this chaos state does not reflect information on the geometry of the optical system, which then has potential for use in chaotic (secure) optical data encryption.

  16. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen

  17. Towards an optical potential for rare-earths through coupled channels

    CERN Document Server

    Nobre, G P A; Herman, M; Palumbo, A; Hoblit, S; Brown, D

    2013-01-01

    The coupled-channel theory is a natural way of treating nonelastic channels, in particular those arising from collective excitations, defined by nuclear deformations. Proper treatment of such excitations is often essential to the accurate description of reaction experimental data. Previous works have applied different models to specific nuclei with the purpose of determining angular-integrated cross sections. In this work, we present an extensive study of the effects of collective couplings and nuclear deformations on integrated cross sections as well as on angular distributions in a consistent manner for neutron-induced reactions on nuclei in the rare-earth region. This specific subset of the nuclide chart was chosen precisely because of a clear static deformation pattern. We analyze the convergence of the coupled-channel calculations regarding the number of states being explicitly coupled. Inspired by the work done by Dietrich \\emph{et al.}, a model for deforming the spherical Koning-Delaroche optical poten...

  18. A variational approach to the modulational-oscillatory instability of Bose–Einstein condensates in an optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabari, S. [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India); Wamba, E. [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon); Porsezian, K., E-mail: ponzsol@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014 (India); Mohamadou, A. [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); The Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 586, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Kofané, T.C. [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I, P.O. Box 812, Yaoundé (Cameroon)

    2013-11-08

    We use the time-dependent variational approach to demonstrate how the modulational and oscillatory instabilities can be generated in Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) trapped in a periodic optical lattice with weak driving harmonic potential. We derive and analyze the ordinary differential equations for the time evolution of the amplitude and phase of the modulational perturbation, and obtain the instability condition of the condensates through the effective potential. The effect of the optical potential on the dynamics of the BECs is shown. We perform direct numerical simulations to support our theoretical findings, and good agreement is found.

  19. Integrated modeling of the GMT laser tomography adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatrou, Piotr

    2014-08-01

    Laser Tomography Adaptive Optics (LTAO) is one of adaptive optics systems planned for the Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT). End-to-end simulation tools that are able to cope with the complexity and computational burden of the AO systems to be installed on the extremely large telescopes such as GMT prove to be an integral part of the GMT LTAO system development endeavors. SL95, the Fortran 95 Simulation Library, is one of the software tools successfully used for the LTAO system end-to-end simulations. The goal of SL95 project is to provide a complete set of generic, richly parameterized mathematical models for key elements of the segmented telescope wavefront control systems including both active and adaptive optics as well as the models for atmospheric turbulence, extended light sources like Laser Guide Stars (LGS), light propagation engines and closed-loop controllers. The library is implemented as a hierarchical collection of classes capable of mutual interaction, which allows one to assemble complex wavefront control system configurations with multiple interacting control channels. In this paper we demonstrate the SL95 capabilities by building an integrated end-to-end model of the GMT LTAO system with 7 control channels: LGS tomography with Adaptive Secondary and on-instrument deformable mirrors, tip-tilt and vibration control, LGS stabilization, LGS focus control, truth sensor-based dynamic noncommon path aberration rejection, pupil position control, SLODAR-like embedded turbulence profiler. The rich parameterization of the SL95 classes allows to build detailed error budgets propagating through the system multiple errors and perturbations such as turbulence-, telescope-, telescope misalignment-, segment phasing error-, non-common path-induced aberrations, sensor noises, deformable mirror-to-sensor mis-registration, vibration, temporal errors, etc. We will present a short description of the SL95 architecture, as well as the sample GMT LTAO system simulation

  20. The rising demand for energy: a potential for optical fiber sensors in the monitoring sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosselmann, Thomas; Willsch, Michael; Ecke, Wolfgang

    2008-03-01

    For a long time electric power was taken as a natural unlimited resource. With globalization the demand for energy has risen. This has brought rising prices for fossil fuels, as well as a diversification of power generation. Besides conventional fossil, nuclear plants are coming up again. Renewable energy sources are gaining importance resulting in recent boom of wind energy plants. In the past reliability and availability and an extremely long lifetime were of paramount importance. Today this has been added by cost, due to the global competition and the high fuel costs. New designs of power components have increased efficiency using lesser material. Higher efficiency causes inevitably higher stress on the materials, of which the machines are built. As a reduction of lifetime is not acceptable and maintenance costs are expected to be at a minimum, condition monitoring systems are going to being used now. This offers potentials for fiber optic sensor applications.

  1. The microscopic (optical and SEM) examination of putrefaction fluid deposits (PFD). Potential interest in forensic anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, P; Georges, P; Bouchet, F; Huynh-Charlier, I; Carlier, R; Mazel, V; Richardin, P; Brun, L; Blondiaux, J; Lorin de la Grandmaison, G

    2008-10-01

    This article describes the potential interest in physical and forensic anthropology of the microscopic analysis of residues of putrefaction fluid, a calcified deposit frequently found associated with bone rests. Its sampling and analysis seem straightforward and relatively reproducible. Samples came from archeological material (Monterenzio Vecchia, an Etruscan necropolis from the north of Italy dated between the fifth and third century B.C.; body rests of Agnès Sorel, royal mistress died in 1450 A.D.; skull and grave of French King Louis the XI and Charlotte of Savoy dated from 1483 A.D.). All samples were studied by direct optical microscope and scanning electron microscopy. Many cytological, histological, and elemental analysis were possible, producing precious data for the identification of these remains and, in some cases, the cause of death.

  2. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using quantum defects in diamond

    CERN Document Server

    Barry, J F; Schloss, J M; Glenn, D R; Song, Y; Lukin, M D; Park, H; Walsworth, R L

    2016-01-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential (AP) dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we present a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) quantum defects in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron APs. Our technique has a unique combination of features: (i) it is noninvasive, as the light that probes the NV sensors stays within the biocompatible diamond chip and does not enter the organism, enabling activity monitoring over extended periods; (ii) it is label-free and should be widely applicable to most organisms; (iii) it provides high spatial and temporal resolution, allowing precise measurement of the AP waveforms and conduction velocities of individual neurons; (iv) it directly determines AP propagation direction through the inherent sensitivity of NVs to the associated AP magnetic field vector; (v) it is applicable to neurons located within optically opaque tissue or whole org...

  3. Multi-Rare-Earth Ions Codoped Tellurite Glasses for Potential Dual Wavelength Fibre-Optic Amplifiers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Shi-Xun; YANG Jian-Hu; XU Shi-Qing; DAI Neng-Li; WEN Lei; HU Li-Li; JIANG Zhong-Hong

    2003-01-01

    A novel co-doping method of multi-rare-earth (RE) ions was demonstrated in tellurite glasses for fibre amplifiers. Fluorescence emissions at both 1.53 and 1.63 fj,m communication windows were Brstly observed from Er3+ /Yb3+ /Tm3+ -codoped tellurite glasses under a single wavelength pumping at 980 nm. The full width at half maximum of Suorescence at 1.53 and 1.63 [im are 55 nm and 50 urn, respectively. Tm's codoping method of three RE ions could be applied to other low photon energy glasses, which would be possibly used for potential dual wavelength fibre-optic amplifiers to broaden the communication windows.

  4. Advanced optical position sensors for magnetically suspended wind tunnel models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafleur, S.

    1985-01-01

    A major concern to aerodynamicists has been the corruption of wind tunnel test data by model support structures, such as stings or struts. A technique for magnetically suspending wind tunnel models was considered by Tournier and Laurenceau (1957) in order to overcome this problem. This technique is now implemented with the aid of a Large Magnetic Suspension and Balance System (LMSBS) and advanced position sensors for measuring model attitude and position within the test section. Two different optical position sensors are discussed, taking into account a device based on the use of linear CCD arrays, and a device utilizing area CID cameras. Current techniques in image processing have been employed to develop target tracking algorithms capable of subpixel resolution for the sensors. The algorithms are discussed in detail, and some preliminary test results are reported.

  5. Mathematical model of an optically pumped molecular laser

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Botha, LR

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available pumped molecular laser Dr L R Botha, Dr C Bollig, D Esser, C Jacobs, D Preussler SAIP 2009 Durban Page 2 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Structure of talk • Introduction • Overview of HBr laser • Numerical Model • Comparison... µm laser ring oscillator & pre-amplifier 1.9 µm Optically Pumped Molecular laser @ 4 µm 95:5 HBr Absorption cell Fast detector 2.064 µm ± 1 nm Feedback control box Feedback loop 1 P ie zo m o u nt Fast detector Feedback loop 2 Gas...

  6. Modeling of Self-Pumped Singly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Chengxian

    2016-01-01

    A model of the steady-state operating, self-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SPSRO) has been developed. The characteristics of quasi three-level laser gain medium pumped longitudinally have been taken into account. The characteristics of standing wave cavity, reabsorption losses, focusing Gaussian beams of the pump laser, fundamental laser and signal wave have been considered in the analyses. Furthermore, The power characteristics of threshold and efficiency have been analyzed, employing a Yb3+-doped periodically poled lithium niobate co-doped with MgO (Yb3+:MgO:PPLN) as the medium of laser gain and second-order nonlinear crystal.

  7. Fluctuations and entropy in models of quantum optical resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. J. D.; Knight, P. L.

    1988-09-01

    We use variances, entropy, and the Shannon entropy to analyse the fluctuations and quantum evolution of various simple models of quantum optical resonance. We discuss at length the properties of the single-mode radiation field coupled to a single two-level atom, and then extend our analysis to describe the micromaser in which a cavity mode is repeatedly pumped by a succession of atoms passing through the cavity. We also discuss the fluctuations in the single-mode laser theory of Scully and Lamb.

  8. Purely optical navigation with model-based state prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendobry, Alexander; Graber, Thorsten; Klingauf, Uwe

    2010-10-01

    State-of-the-art Inertial Navigation Systems (INS) based on Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) have a lack of precision especially in GPS denied environments like urban canyons or in pure indoor missions. The proposed Optical Navigation System (ONS) provides bias free ego-motion estimates using triple redundant sensor information. In combination with a model based state prediction our system is able to estimate velocity, position and attitude of an arbitrary aircraft. Simulating a high performance flow-field estimator the algorithm can compete with conventional low-cost INS. By using measured velocities instead of accelerations the system states drift behavior is not as distinctive as for an INS.

  9. Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidelnikov, O. S.; Sygletos, S.; Ferreira, F.; Fedoruk, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one.

  10. Modeling of laser-induced damage and optic usage at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Zhi M.; Nostrand, Mike; Carr, Wren; Bude, Jeff; Suratwala, Tayyab I.

    2016-07-01

    Modeling of laser-induced optics damage has been introduced to benchmark existing optic usage at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which includes the number of optics exchanged for damage repair. NIF has pioneered an optics recycle strategy to allow it to run the laser at capacity since fully commissioned in 2009 while keeping the cost of optics usage manageable. We will show how the damage model is being used to evaluate strategies to streamline our optics loop efficiency, as we strive to increase the laser shot rate without increasing operating costs.

  11. Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome L.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-05-01

    The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n(ῦ)and k(ῦ), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.

  12. Measurement of infrared refractive indices of organic and organophosphorous compounds for optical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.

    2017-05-03

    The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n($\\tilde{u}$)and k($\\tilde{u}$), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.

  13. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, S.; Hickman, A. E.; Jahn, O.; Gregg, W. W.; Mouw, C. B.; Follows, M. J.

    2015-02-01

    We present a numerical model of the ocean that couples a three-stream radiative transfer component with a marine biogeochemical-ecosystem in a dynamic three-dimensional physical framework. The radiative transfer component resolves spectral irradiance as it is absorbed and scattered within the water column. We explicitly include the effect of several optically important water constituents (the phytoplankton community, detrital particles, and coloured dissolved organic matter, CDOM). The model is evaluated against in situ observed and satellite derived products. In particular we compare to concurrently measured biogeochemical, ecosystem and optical data along a north-south transect of the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation captures the patterns and magnitudes of these data, and estimates surface upwelling irradiance analogous to that observed by ocean colour satellite instruments. We conduct a series of sensitivity experiments to demonstrate, globally, the relative importance of each of the water constituents, and the crucial feedbacks between the light field and the relative fitness of phytoplankton types, and the biogeochemistry of the ocean. CDOM has proportionally more importance at short wavelengths and in more productive waters, phytoplankton absorption is especially important at the deep chlorophyll a (Chl a) maximum, and absorption by water molecules is relatively most important in the highly oligotrophic gyres. Sensitivity experiments in which absorption by any of the optical constituents was increased led to a decrease in the size of the oligotrophic regions of the subtropical gyres: lateral nutrient supplies were enhanced as a result of decreasing high latitude productivity. Scattering does not as strongly affect the ecosystem and biogeochemistry fields within the water column but is important for setting the surface upwelling irradiance, and hence sea surface reflectance. Having a model capable of capturing bio-optical feedbacks will be important for

  14. Combining Satellite Ocean Color Imagery and Circulation Modeling to Forecast Bio-Optical Properties: Comparison of Models and Advection Schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    Remote sensing of ocean color provides synoptic surface ocean bio -optical properties but is limited to real-time or climatological applications. Many...this, we couple satellite imagery with numerical circulation models to provide short-term (24-48 hr) forecasts of bio -optical properties. These are...physical processes control the bio -optical distribution patterns. We compare optical forecast results from three Navy models and two advection

  15. Potts Flux Tube Model at Nonzero Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Condella, J; Condella, Jac; Tar, Carleton De

    2000-01-01

    We model the deconfinement phase transition in quantum chromodynamics at nonzero baryon number density and large quark mass by extending the flux tube model (three-state, three-dimensional Potts model) to nonzero chemical potential. In a direct numerical simulation we confirm mean-field-theory predictions that the deconfinement transition does not occur in a baryon-rich environment.

  16. Optical imaging as a link between cellular neurophysiology and circuit modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walther Akemann

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The relatively simple and highly modular circuitry of the cerebellum raised expectations decades ago that a realistic computational model of cerebellar circuit operations would be feasible, and prove insightful for unraveling cerebellar information processing. To this end, the biophysical properties of most cerebellar cell types and their synaptic connections have been well characterized and integrated into realistic single cell models. Furthermore, large scale models of cerebellar circuits that extrapolate from single cell properties to circuit dynamics have been constructed. While the development of single cell models have been constrained by microelectrode recordings, guidance and validation as these models are scaled up to study network interactions requires an experimental methodology capable of monitoring cerebellar dynamics at the population level. Here we review the potential of optical imaging techniques to serve this purpose.

  17. Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tzu-Lun; Huang, Sun-Ping; Chang, Chung-Hsing; Lin, Kung-Hung; Sheu, Min-Muh; Tsai, Rong-Kung

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl) on optic nerves (ON) and retinal ganglion cells (RGC) in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20), intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20), intraperitoneal injection (IPI) of Cbl (n = 20), or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20) every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm(2)) and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm(2)) were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm(2)). The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively) than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms). However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes). Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model.

  18. Protective effects of cerebrolysin in a rat model of optic nerve crush

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Lun Huang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of cerebrolysin (Cbl on optic nerves (ON and retinal ganglion cells (RGC in a rat model of ON crush. Rats received intravitreal injection of Cbl (n = 20, intra-ON injection of Cbl (n = 20, intraperitoneal injection (IPI of Cbl (n = 20, or phosphate buffered saline (PBS; n = 20 every day for 2 weeks after ON crush injury. At 3 weeks post-trauma, RGC density was counted by retrograde labeling with FluoroGold and visual function was assessed by flash visual-evoked potentials. Activities of microglia after insults were quantified by immunohistochemical analysis of the presence of ED1 in the optic nerve. At 3 weeks postcrush, the densities of RGCs in the Cbl-IVI group (1125 ± 166/mm2 and in the Cbl-IPI treatment group (1328 ± 119/mm2 were significantly higher than those in the PBS group (641 ± 214/mm2. The flash visual-evoked potential measurements showed that latency of the P1 wave was significantly shorter in the Cbl-IVI- and Cbl-IPI-treated groups (105 ± 4 ms and 118 ± 26 ms, respectively than in the PBS-treated group (170 ± 20 ms. However, only Cbl IPI treatment resulted in a significant decrease in the number of ED1-positive cells at the lesion sites of the ON (5 ± 2 cells/vs. 30 ± 4 cells/high-power field in control eyes. Treatment with intra-ON injection of Cbl was harmful to the optic nerve in the crush model. Systemic administration of Cbl had neuroprotective effects on RGC survival and visual function in the optic nerve crush model.

  19. Optical properties of soot particles: measurement - model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forestieri, S.; Lambe, A. T.; Lack, D.; Massoli, P.; Cross, E. S.; Dubey, M.; Mazzoleni, C.; Olfert, J.; Freedman, A.; Davidovits, P.; Onasch, T. B.; Cappa, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Soot, a product of incomplete combustion, plays an important role in the earth's climate system through the absorption and scattering of solar radiation. In order to accurately model the direct radiative impact of black carbon (BC), the refractive index and shape dependent scattering and absorption characteristics must be known. At present, the assumed shape remains highly uncertain because BC particles are fractal-like, being agglomerates of smaller (20-40 nm) spherules, yet traditional optical models such as Mie theory typically assume a spherical particle morphology. To investigate the ability of various optical models to reproduce observed BC optical properties, we measured light absorption and extinction coefficients of methane and ethylene flame soot particles. Optical properties were measured by multiple instruments: absorption by a dual cavity ringdown photoacoustic spectrometer (CRD-PAS), absorption and scattering by a 3-wavelength photoacoustic/nephelometer spectrometer (PASS-3) and extinction and scattering by a cavity attenuated phase shift spectrometer (CAPS). Soot particle mass was quantified using a centrifugal particle mass analyzer (CPMA) and mobility size was measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Measurements were made for nascent soot particles and for collapsed soot particles following coating with dioctyl sebacate or sulfuric acid and thermal denuding to remove the coating. Wavelength-dependent refractive indices for the sampled particles were derived by fitting the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections to spherical particle Mie theory and Rayleigh-Debye-Gans theory. The Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation assumes that the absorption properties of soot are dictated by the individual spherules and neglects interaction between them. In general, Mie theory reproduces the observed absorption and extinction cross-sections for particles with volume equivalent diameters (VED) VED > ~160 nm. The discrepancy is most

  20. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  1. Determination of the optical properties of vascular tissues: potential applications in vascular-targeting photodynamic therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongbin; Chen, Ping; Lin, Lie; Huang, Zheng; Tang, Guoqing; Xu, Heping

    2007-11-01

    It has been proven that photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective in treating various malignant and non-malignant diseases. In the treatment of certain non-malignant vascular diseases, such as wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and port wine stains (PWS), unlike in the treatment of malignant solid tumors, light irradiation usually starts immediately after the intravenous (IV) injection of photosensitizers while the photosensitizers is mainly circulating inside blood vessels. Under such vascular-targeting action mode, photoreactions between photosensitizers and light can selectively destruct the vascular tissues. Light distribution is complex so that it is important to understand the optical properties of targeted vessels and surrounding tissues. To better determine the optical properties of vascular tissues, we developed a tissue-simulating phantom and adopted frequency-domain measurement of phase difference. Absorption and reduced scattering coefficients in blood vessels were estimated and light distribution was simulated by the Monte Carlo method. These determinations are essential for the implication of better light dosimetry models in clinical photodynamic therapy and vascular-targeting PDT, in particular.

  2. Determination of the η{sup ′}-nucleus optical potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanova, M., E-mail: mariana.nanova@exp2.physik.uni-giessen.de [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Gießen (Germany); Metag, V. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Gießen (Germany); Paryev, E.Ya. [Institut of Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bayadilov, D. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universität Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Bantes, B. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bonn (Germany); Beck, R. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universität Bonn (Germany); Beloglazov, Y.A. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universität Bonn (Germany); Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina (Russian Federation); Böse, S. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universität Bonn (Germany); Brinkmann, K.-T. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Gießen (Germany); Challand, Th. [Physikalisches Institut, Universität Basel (Switzerland); Crede, V. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL (United States); Dahlke, T. [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik der Universität Bonn (Germany); Dietz, F.; Drexler, P. [II. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Gießen (Germany); and others

    2013-12-18

    The excitation function and momentum distribution of η{sup ′} mesons have been measured in photon induced reactions on {sup 12}C in the energy range of 1250–2600 MeV. The experiment was performed with tagged photon beams from the ELSA electron accelerator using the Crystal Barrel and TAPS detectors. The data are compared to model calculations to extract information on the sign and magnitude of the real part of the η{sup ′}-nucleus potential. Within the model, the comparison indicates an attractive potential of −(37±10(stat)±10(syst)) MeV depth at normal nuclear matter density. Since the modulus of this depth is larger than the modulus of the imaginary part of the η{sup ′}-nucleus potential of −(10±2.5) MeV, determined by transparency ratio measurements, a search for resolved η{sup ′}-bound states appears promising.

  3. Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Fincham, W H A

    2013-01-01

    Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st

  4. Dynamic PET and Optical Imaging and Compartment Modeling using a Dual-labeled Cyclic RGD Peptide Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhu, Ning Guo, Quanzheng Li, Ying Ma, Orit Jacboson, Seulki Lee, Hak Soo Choi, James R. Mansfield, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide.Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data.Results: The dual-labeled probe 64Cu-RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020 is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026.Conclusion: The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.

  5. Multiscale modeling and computation of optically manipulated nano devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gang; Liu, Di; Luo, Songting

    2016-07-01

    We present a multiscale modeling and computational scheme for optical-mechanical responses of nanostructures. The multi-physical nature of the problem is a result of the interaction between the electromagnetic (EM) field, the molecular motion, and the electronic excitation. To balance accuracy and complexity, we adopt the semi-classical approach that the EM field is described classically by the Maxwell equations, and the charged particles follow the Schrödinger equations quantum mechanically. To overcome the numerical challenge of solving the high dimensional multi-component many-body Schrödinger equations, we further simplify the model with the Ehrenfest molecular dynamics to determine the motion of the nuclei, and use the Time-Dependent Current Density Functional Theory (TD-CDFT) to calculate the excitation of the electrons. This leads to a system of coupled equations that computes the electromagnetic field, the nuclear positions, and the electronic current and charge densities simultaneously. In the regime of linear responses, the resonant frequencies initiating the out-of-equilibrium optical-mechanical responses can be formulated as an eigenvalue problem. A self-consistent multiscale method is designed to deal with the well separated space scales. The isomerization of azobenzene is presented as a numerical example.

  6. Simulations of Keratoconus Patient Vision with Optical Eye Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ming

    2007-11-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is an eye condition that involves progressive corneal thinning. Pushed by the intraocular pressure, the weakened cornea bulges outward and creates an irregular surface shape. The result is degraded vision that is difficult to correct with regular eye glasses or contact lens. In this study we use the optical lens design software, ZeMax, and patient data including cornea topography and refraction prescription to construct KC eye models. The variation of KC ``cone height'' on the cornea is used to simulate KC progression. The consequent patients' night vision and Snellen letter chart vision at 20 feet are simulated using these anatomically accurate 3-dimensional models. 100 million rays are traced for each image simulation. Animated results illustrate the change of KC visual acuity with the progression of disease. This simulation technique provides a comprehensive tool for medical training and patient consultation/education.

  7. Protein folding: the optically induced electronic excitations model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeknic-Dugic, J [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nis (Serbia)], E-mail: jjeknic@pmf.ni.ac.yu

    2009-07-15

    The large-molecules conformational transitions problem (the 'protein folding problem') is an open issue of vivid current science research work of fundamental importance for a number of modern science disciplines as well as for nanotechnology. Here, we elaborate the recently proposed quantum-decoherence-based approach to the issue. First, we emphasize a need for detecting the elementary quantum mechanical processes (whose combinations may give a proper description of the realistic experimental situations) and then we design such a model. As distinct from the standard approach that deals with the conformation system, we investigate the optically induced transitions in the molecule electrons system that, in effect, may give rise to a conformation change in the molecule. Our conclusion is that such a model may describe the comparatively slow conformational transitions.

  8. Structural model constructing for optical handwritten character recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaustov, P. A.; Spitsyn, V. G.; Maksimova, E. I.

    2017-02-01

    The article is devoted to the development of the algorithms for optical handwritten character recognition based on the structural models constructing. The main advantage of these algorithms is the low requirement regarding the number of reference images. The one-pass approach to a thinning of the binary character representation has been proposed. This approach is based on the joint use of Zhang-Suen and Wu-Tsai algorithms. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by the results of the experiments. The article includes the detailed description of the structural model constructing algorithm’s steps. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in character processing application and has been approved on MNIST handwriting characters database. Algorithms that could be used in case of limited reference images number were used for the comparison.

  9. Calculation of three-body nuclear reactions with angular-momentum and parity-dependent optical potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Deltuva, A

    2016-01-01

    Angular-momentum or parity-dependent nonlocal optical potentials for nucleon-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering able to fit differential cross section data over the whole angular regime are developed and applied to the description of deuteron-${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}$ scattering in the framework of three-body Faddeev-type equations for transition operators. Differential cross sections and deuteron analyzing powers for elastic scattering and ${}^{16}\\mathrm{O}(d,p){}^{17}\\mathrm{O}$ transfer reactions are calculated using a number of local and nonlocal optical potentials and compared with experimental data. Angular-momentum or parity-dependence of the optical potential turns out to be quite irrelevant in the considered three-body reactions while nonlocality is essential for a successful description of the differential cross section data, especially in transfer reactions.

  10. Optical imaging for the diagnosis of oral cancer and oral potentially malignant disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, K.

    2016-03-01

    Optical Imaging is being conducted as a therapeutic non-invasive. Many kinds of the light source are selected for this purpose. Recently the oral cancer screening is conducted by using light-induced tissue autofluorescence examination such as several kinds of handheld devices. However, the mechanism of its action is still not clear. Therefore basic experimental research was conducted. One of auto fluorescence Imaging (AFI) device, VELscopeTM and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using ICG-labeled antibody as a probe were compared using oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) mouse models. The experiments revealed that intracutaneous tumor was successfully visualized as low density image by VELscopeTM and high density image by NIR image. In addition, VELscopeTM showed higher sensitivity and lower specificity than that of NIR fluorescence imaging and the sensitivity of identification of carcinoma areas with the VELscopeTM was good results. However, further more studies were needed to enhance the screening and diagnostic uses, sensitivity and specificity for detecting malignant lesions and differentiation from premalignant or benign lesions. Therefore, additional studies were conducted using a new developed near infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging method targeting podoplanine (PDPN) which consists of indocyanine green (ICG)-labeled anti-human podoplanin antibody as a probe and IVIS imaging system or a handy realtime ICG imaging device that is overexpressed in oral malignant neoplasm to improve imaging for detection of early oral malignant neoplasm. Then evaluated for its sensitivity and specificity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm in xenografted mice model and compared with VELscopeTM. The results revealed that ICG fluorescence imaging method and VELscopeTM had the almost the same sensitivity for detection of oral malignant neoplasm. The current topics of optical imaging about oral malignant neoplasm were reviewed.

  11. On the potential of a singlet scalar enhanced Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Swagata; Ray, Shamayita

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the parameter space of the Standard Model enhanced by a gauge singlet real scalar $S$. Taking into account all the theoretical and experimental constraints, we show the allowed parameter space for two different types of such singlet-enhanced Standard Model. For the first case, the scalar potential has an explicit $Z_2$-symmetry, and may lead to a dark matter candidate under certain conditions. For the second case, the scalar potential does not respect any $Z_2$. This is again divided into two subcategories: one where the Standard Model vacuum is stable, and one where it is unstable and can decay into a deeper minimum. We show how the parameters in the scalar potential control the range of validity of all these models. Finally, we show the effect of one-loop correction on the positions and depths of the minima of the potential.

  12. A Functional Inspection Model for the Immeasurable Potential Failure State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Wen-ge; LI Shi-qi; ZHAO Di

    2008-01-01

    Functional inspection is a type of preventive maintenance of Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM). We, in this paper, establish a functional inspection model(FIM)--the cost model and the availability model for the immeasurable potential failure state based on the delay time concept. This model can be used to determine the appropriate Functional Inspection Interval(FII) to achieve the goal of specific cost and availability and to assist in maintenance decision making.

  13. Optical model calculation for the unresolved/resolved resonance region of Fe-56

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Toshihiko [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Froehner, F.H.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied optical model fits to total neutron cross sections of structural materials using the accurate data base for {sup 56}Fe existing in the resolved and unresolved resonance region. Averages over resolved resonances were calculated with Lorentzian weighting in Reich-Moore (reduced R matrix) approximation. Starting from the best available optical potentials we found that adjustment of the real and imaginary well depths does not work satisfactorily with the conventional weak linear energy dependence of the well depths. If, however, the linear dependences are modified towards low energies, the average total cross sections can be fitted quite well, from the resolved resonance region up to 20 MeV and higher. (author)

  14. The model of evaluation of innovative potential of enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ганна Ігорівна Заднєпровська

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The basic components of the enterprise’s innovative potential evaluation process are investigated. It is offered the conceptual model of evaluation of the innovative potential that includes: subjects, objects, purpose, provision of information, principles, methods, criteria, indicators. It is noted that the innovative capacity characterizes the transition from the current to the strategic level of innovation potential and, thus, characterizes the composition of objects from position of user

  15. Confining diffuse potential versus square-well-potential in modeling A@C60 atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Dolmatov, V K; Oglesby, J C

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that discontinuity, inherit to a square-well potential which is often used for mimicking the C60 cage potential, results neither in qualitative nor, what is even more important, quantitative artifacts in problems of endohedral A@C60 atoms, such as their photoionization. Moreover, it is demonstrated that, upon mimicking a square-well potential by a potential with diffuse boarders, calculated photoionization spectra are largely insensitive to the degree {\\eta} of diffuseness of the potential boarders, in a reasonably broad range of {\\eta}'s. The proof is based on results of comparison between calculated data for H@C60 and Xe@C60 photoionization cross sections and photoelectron angular asymmetries obtained by modeling the C$_{60}$ cage by confining square-well and diffuse potentials. Thus, it matters little which of these potentials to use in A@C60 problems. The diffuse potential is modeled by a combination of two Woods-Saxon potentials. Calculated data for the photoionization of Xe@C60 are separatel...

  16. Extended Quark Potential Model From Random Phase Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENGWei-Zhen; CHENXiao-Lin; 等

    2002-01-01

    The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approximation.The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties-chiral symmetry and confinement simultaneously.A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson and the other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quark potential model.

  17. Crossing symmetric potential model of pion-nucleon scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Blankleider, B; Skawronski, T

    2010-01-01

    A crossing symmetric $\\pi N$ scattering amplitude is constructed through a complete attachment of two external pions to the dressed nucleon propagator of an underlying $\\pi N$ potential model. Our formulation automatically provides expressions also for the crossing symmetric and gauge invariant pion photoproduction and Compton scattering amplitudes. We show that our amplitudes are unitary if they coincide on-shell with the amplitudes obtained by attaching one pion to the dressed $\\pi NN$ vertex of the same potential model.

  18. Nucleon Spin Content in a Relativistic Quark Potential Model Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG YuBing; FENG QingGuo

    2002-01-01

    Based on a relativistic quark model approach with an effective potential U(r) = (ac/2)(1 + γ0)r2, the spin content of the nucleon is investigated. Pseudo-scalar interaction between quarks and Goldstone bosons is employed to calculate the couplings between the Goldstone bosons and the nucleon. Different approaches to deal with the center of mass correction in the relativistic quark potential model approach are discussed.

  19. Dual permeability FEM models for distributed fiber optic sensors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Juan Pablo; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic cables are commonly known for being robust and reliable mediums for transferring information at the speed of light in glass. Billions of kilometers of cable have been installed around the world for internet connection and real time information sharing. Yet, fiber optic cable is not only a mean for information transfer but also a way to sense and measure physical properties of the medium in which is installed. For dike monitoring, it has been used in the past for detecting inner core and foundation temperature changes which allow to estimate water infiltration during high water events. The DOMINO research project, aims to develop a fiber optic based dike monitoring system which allows to directly sense and measure any pore pressure change inside the dike structure. For this purpose, questions like which location, how many sensors, which measuring frequency and which accuracy are required for the sensor development. All these questions may be initially answered with a finite element model which allows to estimate the effects of pore pressure change in different locations along the cross section while having a time dependent estimation of a stability factor. The sensor aims to monitor two main failure mechanisms at the same time; The piping erosion failure mechanism and the macro-stability failure mechanism. Both mechanisms are going to be modeled and assessed in detail with a finite element based dual permeability Darcy-Richards numerical solution. In that manner, it is possible to assess different sensing configurations with different loading scenarios (e.g. High water levels, rainfall events and initial soil moisture and permeability conditions). The results obtained for the different configurations are later evaluated based on an entropy based performance evaluation. The added value of this kind of modelling approach for the sensor development is that it allows to simultaneously model the piping erosion and macro-stability failure mechanisms in a time

  20. A physical model eye with 3D resolution test targets for optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhixiong; Liu, Wenli; Hong, Baoyu; Hao, Bingtao; Wang, Lele; Li, Jiao

    2014-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been widely employed as non-invasive 3D imaging diagnostic instrument, particularly in the field of ophthalmology. Although OCT has been approved for use in clinic in USA, Europe and Asia, international standardization of this technology is still in progress. Validation of OCT imaging capabilities is considered extremely important to ensure its effective use in clinical diagnoses. Phantom with appropriate test targets can assist evaluate and calibrate imaging performance of OCT at both installation and throughout lifetime of the instrument. In this paper, we design and fabricate a physical model eye with 3D resolution test targets to characterize OCT imaging performance. The model eye was fabricated with transparent resin to simulate realistic ophthalmic testing environment, and most key optical elements including cornea, lens and vitreous body were realized. The test targets which mimic USAF 1951 test chart were fabricated on the fundus of the model eye by 3D printing technology. Differing from traditional two dimensional USAF 1951 test chart, a group of patterns which have different thickness in depth were fabricated. By measuring the 3D test targets, axial resolution as well as lateral resolution of an OCT system can be evaluated at the same time with this model eye. To investigate this specialized model eye, it was measured by a scientific spectral domain OCT instrument and a clinical OCT system respectively. The results demonstrate that the model eye with 3D resolution test targets have the potential of qualitatively and quantitatively validating the performance of OCT systems.

  1. Examination of a Theoretical Model of Streaming Potential Coupling Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. T. Luong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seismoelectric effects and streaming potentials play an important role in geophysical applications. The key parameter for those phenomena is the streaming potential coupling coefficient, which is, for example, dependent on the zeta potential of the interface of the porous rocks. Comparison of an existing theoretical model to experimental data sets from available published data for streaming potentials has been performed. However, the existing experimental data sets are based on samples with dissimilar fluid conductivity, pH of pore fluid, temperature, and sample compositions. All those dissimilarities may cause the observed deviations. To critically assess the models, we have carried out streaming potential measurement as a function of electrolyte concentration and temperature for a set of well-defined consolidated samples. The results show that the existing theoretical model is not in good agreement with the experimental observations when varying the electrolyte concentration, especially at low electrolyte concentration. However, if we use a modified model in which the zeta potential is considered to be constant over the electrolyte concentration, the model fits the experimental data well in a whole range of concentration. Also, for temperature dependence, the comparison shows that the theoretical model is not fully adequate to describe the experimental data but does describe correctly the increasing trend of the coupling coefficient as function of temperature.

  2. Overlapping double potential wells in a single optical microtube cavity with vernier-scale-like tuning effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madani, A.; Bolaños Quiñones, V. A.; Ma, L. B.; Miao, S. D.; Jorgensen, M. R.; Schmidt, O. G.

    2016-04-01

    Spatially and temporally overlapping double potential wells are realized in a hybrid optical microtube cavity due to the coexistence of an aggregate of luminescent quantum dots embedded in the tube wall and the cone-shaped tube's geometry. The double potential wells produce two independent sets of optical modes with different sets of mode numbers, indicating phase velocity separation for the modes overlapping at the same frequency. The overlapping mode position can be tuned by modifying the tube cavity, where these mode sets shift with different magnitudes, allowing for a vernier-scale-like tuning effect.

  3. First application of the n - 9Be optical potential to the study of the 10Be continuum via the (18O,17O ) neutron-transfer reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, D.; Bondı, M.; Bonaccorso, A.; Agodi, C.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cavallaro, M.; Charity, R. J.; Cunsolo, A.; De Napoli, M.; Foti, A.

    2014-12-01

    The 9Be(18O,17O ) 10Be reaction has been studied at an incident energy of 84 MeV, and the ejectiles have been detected at forward angles. The 10Be excitation energy spectrum has been obtained up to about 18 MeV, and several known bound and resonant states of 10Be have been identified. Calculations that describe the interaction of the neutron removed from the 18O projectile with the 9Be target by means of an optical potential with a semiclassical approximation for the relative motion account for a significant part of the 10Be continuum. Two parametrizations of the optical-model potential for the system n - 9Be have been used and compared.

  4. Quadratic adaptive algorithm for solving cardiac action potential models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min-Hung; Chen, Po-Yuan; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2016-10-01

    An adaptive integration method is proposed for computing cardiac action potential models accurately and efficiently. Time steps are adaptively chosen by solving a quadratic formula involving the first and second derivatives of the membrane action potential. To improve the numerical accuracy, we devise an extremum-locator (el) function to predict the local extremum when approaching the peak amplitude of the action potential. In addition, the time step restriction (tsr) technique is designed to limit the increase in time steps, and thus prevent the membrane potential from changing abruptly. The performance of the proposed method is tested using the Luo-Rudy phase 1 (LR1), dynamic (LR2), and human O'Hara-Rudy dynamic (ORd) ventricular action potential models, and the Courtemanche atrial model incorporating a Markov sodium channel model. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the action potential generated using the proposed method is more accurate than that using the traditional Hybrid method, especially near the peak region. The traditional Hybrid method may choose large time steps near to the peak region, and sometimes causes the action potential to become distorted. In contrast, the proposed new method chooses very fine time steps in the peak region, but large time steps in the smooth region, and the profiles are smoother and closer to the reference solution. In the test on the stiff Markov ionic channel model, the Hybrid blows up if the allowable time step is set to be greater than 0.1ms. In contrast, our method can adjust the time step size automatically, and is stable. Overall, the proposed method is more accurate than and as efficient as the traditional Hybrid method, especially for the human ORd model. The proposed method shows improvement for action potentials with a non-smooth morphology, and it needs further investigation to determine whether the method is helpful during propagation of the action potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  5. Three-body recombination at finite energy within an optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, P. K.; Fedorov, D. V.; Jensen, A. S.; Zinner, N. T.

    2013-10-01

    We investigate three-boson recombination of equal mass systems as function of (negative) scattering length, mass, finite energy, and finite temperature. An optical model with an imaginary potential at short distance reproduces experimental recombination data and allows us to provide a simple parametrization of the recombination rate as function of scattering length and energy. Using the two-body van der Waals length as unit we find that the imaginary potential range and also the potential depth agree to within 30% for lithium and cesium atoms. As opposed to recent studies suggesting universality of the threshold for bound-state formation, our results suggest that the recombination process itself could have universal features.

  6. Towards Quantitative Optical Cross Sections in Entomological Laser Radar - Potential of Temporal and Spherical Parameterizations for Identifying Atmospheric Fauna.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brydegaard

    Full Text Available In recent years, the field of remote sensing of birds and insects in the atmosphere (the aerial fauna has advanced considerably, and modern electro-optic methods now allow the assessment of the abundance and fluxes of pests and beneficials on a landscape scale. These techniques have the potential to significantly increase our understanding of, and ability to quantify and manage, the ecological environment. This paper presents a concept whereby laser radar observations of atmospheric fauna can be parameterized and table values for absolute cross sections can be catalogued to allow for the study of focal species such as disease vectors and pests. Wing-beat oscillations are parameterized with a discrete set of harmonics and the spherical scatter function is parameterized by a reduced set of symmetrical spherical harmonics. A first order spherical model for insect scatter is presented and supported experimentally, showing angular dependence of wing beat harmonic content. The presented method promises to give insights into the flight heading directions of species in the atmosphere and has the potential to shed light onto the km-range spread of pests and disease vectors.

  7. ModelE2-TOMAS development and evaluation using aerosol optical depths, mass and number concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Lee

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional microphysics model (TOMAS has been integrated into the state-of-the-art general circulation model, GISS ModelE2. TOMAS has the flexibility to select a size resolution as well as the lower size cutoff. A computationally efficient version of TOMAS is used here, which has 15 size bins covering 3 nm to 10 μm aerosol dry diameter. For each bin, it simulates the total aerosol number concentration and mass concentrations of sulphate, pure elementary carbon (hydrophobic, mixed elemental carbon (hydrophilic, hydrophobic organic matter, hydrophilic organic matter, sea salt, mineral dust, ammonium, and aerosol-associated water. This paper provides a detailed description of the ModelE2-TOMAS model and evaluates the model against various observations including aerosol precursor gas concentrations, aerosol mass and number concentrations, and aerosol optical depths. Additionally, global budgets in ModelE2-TOMAS are compared with those of other global aerosol models, and the TOMAS model is compared to the default aerosol model in ModelE2, which is a bulk aerosol model. Overall, the ModelE2-TOMAS predictions are within the range of other global aerosol model predictions, and the model has a reasonable agreement with observations of sulphur species and other aerosol components as well as aerosol optical depth. However, ModelE2-TOMAS (as well as the bulk aerosol model cannot capture the observed vertical distribution of sulphur dioxide over the Pacific Ocean possibly due to overly strong convective transport. The TOMAS model successfully captures observed aerosol number concentrations and cloud condensation nuclei concentrations. Anthropogenic aerosol burdens in the bulk aerosol model running in the same host model as TOMAS (ModelE2 differ by a few percent to a factor of 2 regionally, mainly due to differences in aerosol processes including deposition, cloud processing, and emission parameterizations. Larger differences are found

  8. Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Zhao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM. Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation. To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE. The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel’s microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.

  9. Fine Tuning in Quintessence Models with Exponential Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, R; Jr., Urbano Lopes Franca; Rosenfeld, Rogerio

    2002-01-01

    We show that there still are reasonable regions of the parameter space of the simple exponential potential model for quintessence that are allowed by observational constraints. We find that the level of fine tuning that is required in this model is not too stringent.

  10. Modelling the optical properties of aerosols in a chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, E.; Kahnert, M.

    2015-12-01

    According to the IPCC fifth assessment report (2013), clouds and aerosols still contribute to the largest uncertainty when estimating and interpreting changes to the Earth's energy budget. Therefore, understanding the interaction between radiation and aerosols is both crucial for remote sensing observations and modelling the climate forcing arising from aerosols. Carbon particles are the largest contributor to the aerosol absorption of solar radiation, thereby enhancing the warming of the planet. Modelling the radiative properties of carbon particles is a hard task and involves many uncertainties arising from the difficulties of accounting for the morphologies and heterogeneous chemical composition of the particles. This study aims to compare two ways of modelling the optical properties of aerosols simulated by a chemical transport model. The first method models particle optical properties as homogeneous spheres and are externally mixed. This is a simple model that is particularly easy to use in data assimilation methods, since the optics model is linear. The second method involves a core-shell internal mixture of soot, where sulphate, nitrate, ammonia, organic carbon, sea salt, and water are contained in the shell. However, by contrast to previously used core-shell models, only part of the carbon is concentrated in the core, while the remaining part is homogeneously mixed with the shell. The chemical transport model (CTM) simulations are done regionally over Europe with the Multiple-scale Atmospheric Transport and CHemistry (MATCH) model, developed by the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI). The MATCH model was run with both an aerosol dynamics module, called SALSA, and with a regular "bulk" approach, i.e., a mass transport model without aerosol dynamics. Two events from 2007 are used in the analysis, one with high (22/12-2007) and one with low (22/6-2007) levels of elemental carbon (EC) over Europe. The results of the study help to assess the

  11. On the hydrologic adjustment of climate-model projections: The potential pitfall of potential evapotranspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.; Dunne, K.A.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrologic models often are applied to adjust projections of hydroclimatic change that come from climate models. Such adjustment includes climate-bias correction, spatial refinement ("downscaling"), and consideration of the roles of hydrologic processes that were neglected in the climate model. Described herein is a quantitative analysis of the effects of hydrologic adjustment on the projections of runoff change associated with projected twenty-first-century climate change. In a case study including three climate models and 10 river basins in the contiguous United States, the authors find that relative (i.e., fractional or percentage) runoff change computed with hydrologic adjustment more often than not was less positive (or, equivalently, more negative) than what was projected by the climate models. The dominant contributor to this decrease in runoff was a ubiquitous change in runoff (median 211%) caused by the hydrologic model's apparent amplification of the climate-model-implied growth in potential evapotranspiration. Analysis suggests that the hydrologic model, on the basis of the empirical, temperature-based modified Jensen-Haise formula, calculates a change in potential evapotranspiration that is typically 3 times the change implied by the climate models, which explicitly track surface energy budgets. In comparison with the amplification of potential evapotranspiration, central tendencies of other contributions from hydrologic adjustment (spatial refinement, climate-bias adjustment, and process refinement) were relatively small. The authors' findings highlight the need for caution when projecting changes in potential evapotranspiration for use in hydrologic models or drought indices to evaluate climatechange impacts on water. Copyright ?? 2011, Paper 15-001; 35,952 words, 3 Figures, 0 Animations, 1 Tables.

  12. Optimal schooling formations using a potential flow model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchieu, Andrew; Gazzola, Mattia; de Brauer, Alexia; Koumoutsakos, Petros

    2012-11-01

    A self-propelled, two-dimensional, potential flow model for agent-based swimmers is used to examine how fluid coupling affects schooling formation. The potential flow model accounts for fluid-mediated interactions between swimmers. The model is extended to include individual agent actions by means of modifying the circulation of each swimmer. A reinforcement algorithm is applied to allow the swimmers to learn how to school in specified lattice formations. Lastly, schooling lattice configurations are optimized by combining reinforcement learning and evolutionary optimization to minimize total control effort and energy expenditure.

  13. Optical model predictions for total cross sections for scattering of neutrons from {sup 40}Ca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chinn C.R.; Elster, C.; Thaler, R.M.

    1993-10-01

    Measurements of neutron total cross sections are both extensive and extremely accurate. Although they should place a strong constraint on theoretically constructed optical models, there are relatively few comparisons of optical model predictions with those experiments. We have calculated total cross sections for neutron scattering from {sup 40}Ca as a function of energy from 100 - 600 MeV laboratory energy with a microscopic first order optical potential derived within the framework of the Watson expansion. Although the results are already in qualitative agreement with the data, the inclusion of medium corrections to the propagator using a recently derived microscopic mean field approach, is essential for correctly predicting the energy dependence given by the experiment. In the region below 200 MeV, where our off-shell tp calculations over predict the experiment, the modification due to the nuclear medium reduces the calculated values, whereas above 200 MeV, these corrections tend to compensate for the under prediction of the off-shell t{rho} results.

  14. An optical model for deriving the spectral particulate backscattering coefficients in clear and turbid coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Tiwari

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An optical model is developed based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd to estimate particulate backscattering coefficients bbp(λ in clear and turbid coastal waters. A large in-situ data set is used to establish robust relationships between bbp(530 and bbp(555 and Kd(490 using an efficient nonlinear least square method which uses the Trust-Region algorithm with Bisquare weights scheme to adjust the coefficients. These relationships are obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.786 and 0.790, low Root Mean Square Error (RMSE = 0.00076 and 0.00072 and 95% confidence bounds. The new model is tested with two independent data sets such as the NOMAD SeaWiFS Match-ups and OOXIX IOP algorithm workshop evaluation data set (Version 2.0w APLHA. Results show that the new model makes good retrievals of bbp at all key wavelengths (from 412–683 nm, with statistically significant improvements over other inversion models. Thus, the new model has the potential to improve our knowledge of particulate matters and their optical variability in both clear and turbid coastal waters.

  15. An optical model for deriving the spectral particulate backscattering coefficients in oceanic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, S. P.; Shanmugam, P.

    2013-11-01

    An optical model is developed based on the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd) to estimate particulate backscattering coefficients bbp(λ) in oceanic waters. A large in situ data set is used to establish robust relationships between bbp(530) and bbp(555) and Kd(490) using an efficient nonlinear least-square method which uses the trust region algorithm with Bisquare weights scheme to adjust the coefficients. These relationships are obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.786 and 0.790), low root mean square error (RMSE = 0.00076 and 0.00072) and 95% confidence bounds. The new model is tested with three independent data sets: the NOMAD SeaWiFS Match ups, OOXIX IOP algorithm workshop evaluation data set (Version 2.0w APLHA), and IOCCG simulated data set. Results show that the new model makes good retrievals of bbp at all key wavelengths (from 412-683 nm), with statistically significant improvements over other inversion models. Thus, the new model has the potential to improve our present knowledge of particulate matter and their optical variability in oceanic waters.

  16. Novel mixture model for the representation of potential energy surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tien Lam; Kino, Hiori; Terakura, Kiyoyuki; Miyake, Takashi; Dam, Hieu Chi

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate that knowledge of chemical physics on a materials system can be automatically extracted from first-principles calculations using a data mining technique; this information can then be utilized to construct a simple empirical atomic potential model. By using unsupervised learning of the generative Gaussian mixture model, physically meaningful patterns of atomic local chemical environments can be detected automatically. Based on the obtained information regarding these atomic patterns, we propose a chemical-structure-dependent linear mixture model for estimating the atomic potential energy. Our experiments show that the proposed mixture model significantly improves the accuracy of the prediction of the potential energy surface for complex systems that possess a large diversity in their local structures.

  17. Experimentation and modeling of organic photocontamination on lithographic optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Roderick R.; Liberman, Vladimir; Downs, Deanna K.

    2000-07-01

    Photodeposition of organic films on transparent substrates irradiated in the presence of trace levels of hydrocarbons has been experimentally investigated and a model is presented that describes the film growth behavior. The efficacy of a given organic precursor at forming a deposit is proportional to the product of its surface coverage and by its photon absorption cross section. These measurement are important in predicting the transmission characteristics of lithographic optics operating at 157-, 193-, and 248-nm wavelength. For example, a lens element irradiated continuously for one year in the presence of 1 part per billion of t-butyl benzene would exhibit a transmission of approximately 87 percent at 193 nm. The effects of oxygen- containing ambients are also documented, and methods for elimination and/or prevention of organic contamination are suggested.

  18. Model of a thin film optical fiber fluorosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egalon, Claudio O.; Rogowski, Robert S.

    1991-03-01

    The efficiency of core-light injection from sources in the cladding of an optical fiber is modeled analytically by means of the exact field solution of a step-profile fiber. The analysis is based on the techniques by Marcuse (1988) in which the sources are treated as infinitesimal electric currents with random phase and orientation that excite radiation fields and bound modes. Expressions are developed based on an infinite cladding approximation which yield the power efficiency for a fiber coated with fluorescent sources in the core/cladding interface. Marcuse's results are confirmed for the case of a weakly guiding cylindrical fiber with fluorescent sources uniformly distributed in the cladding, and the power efficiency is shown to be practically constant for variable wavelengths and core radii. The most efficient fibers have the thin film located at the core/cladding boundary, and fibers with larger differences in the indices of refraction are shown to be the most efficient.

  19. Microscopic model for all optical switching in ferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, T. D.; Córdoba, R.; Koopmans, B.

    2016-04-01

    The microscopic mechanism behind the all optical switching (AOS) in ferromagnets has triggered intense scientific debate. Here, the microscopic three-temperature model is utilized to describe AOS in a perpendicularly magnetized ferromagnetic Co/Pt system. We demonstrate that AOS in such a ferromagnet can be explained with the Inverse Faraday Effect (IFE). The influence of the strength and lifetime of the IFE induced field pulse on the switching process are investigated. We found that because of strong spin-orbit coupling, the minimal lifetime of the IFE needed to obtain switching is of the order of 0.1 ps, which is shorter than previously assumed. Moreover, spatial images of the domain pattern after AOS in Co/Pt, as well as their dependence on applying an opposite magnetic field, are qualitatively reproduced.

  20. Ionization Modeling Astrophysical Gaseous Structures. I. The Optically Thin Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, Christopher W; Medina, Amber; Vliet, Jacob R Vander

    2014-01-01

    We present a code for modelling the ionization conditions of optically thin astrophysical gas structures. Given the gas hydrogen density, equilibrium temperature, elemental abundances, and the ionizing spectrum, the code solves the equilibrium ionization fractions and number densities for all ions from hydrogen to zinc. The included processes are photoionization, Auger ionization, direct collisional ionization, excitation auto-ionization, charge exchange ionization, two-body radiative recombination, dielectronic recombination, and charge exchange recombination. The ionizing spectrum can be generalized to include the ultraviolet background (UVB) and/or Starburst99 stellar populations of various masses, ages, metallicities, and distances. The ultimate goal with the code is to provide fast computation of the ionization conditions of gas in N-body + hydrodynamics cosmological simulations, in particular adaptive mesh refinement codes, in order to facilitate absorption line analysis of the simulated gas for compari...

  1. Some optical and dynamical phenomena in the Rindler model

    CERN Document Server

    Birsin, E

    2014-01-01

    In Rindler's model of a uniformly accelerated reference frame we analyze the apparent shape of rods and marked light rays for the case that the observers as well as the rods and the sources of light are at rest with respect to the Rindler observers. Contrary to the expectation suggested by the strong principle of equivalence, there is no apparent "bending down" of a light ray with direction transversal to the direction of acceleration, but a straight rod oriented orthogonal to the direction of acceleration appears bended "upwards". These optical phenomena are in accordance with the dynamical experience of observers guided by a straight track or a track curved in the same way as the marked light ray, respectively: While the former observer feels a centrifugal force directed "downwards", the centrifugal force for the latter vanishes. The properties of gyroscope transport along such tracks are correspondingly.

  2. MILES extended : Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rock, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcon-Barroso, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical wi

  3. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  4. Imaging of normal and pathologic joint synovium using nonlinear optical microscopy as a potential diagnostic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Nivedan; Chabra, Sanjay; Mehdi, Sheherbano; Sweet, Paula; Krasieva, Tatiana B.; Pool, Roy; Andrews, Brian; Peavy, George M.

    2010-09-01

    An estimated 1.3 million people in the United States suffer from rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA causes profound changes in the synovial membrane of joints, and without early diagnosis and intervention, progresses to permanent alterations in joint structure and function. The purpose of this study is to determine if nonlinear optical microscopy (NLOM) can utilize the natural intrinsic fluorescence properties of tissue to generate images that would allow visualization of the structural and cellular composition of fresh, unfixed normal and pathologic synovial tissue. NLOM is performed on rabbit knee joint synovial samples using 730- and 800-nm excitation wavelengths. Less than 30 mW of excitation power delivered with a 40×, 0.8-NA water immersion objective is sufficient for the visualization of synovial structures to a maximum depth of 70 μm without tissue damage. NLOM imaging of normal and pathologic synovial tissue reveals the cellular structure, synoviocytes, adipocytes, collagen, vascular structures, and differential characteristics of inflammatory infiltrates without requiring tissue processing or staining. Further study to evaluate the ability of NLOM to assess the characteristics of pathologic synovial tissue and its potential role for the management of disease is warranted.

  5. Momentum dependence of the imaginary part of the $\\omega$- and $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, S; Metag, V; Afzal, F N; Bayadilov, D; Bantes, B; Beck, R; Becker, M; Böse, S; Brinkmann, K -T; Crede, V; Drexler, P; Eberhardt, H; Elsner, D; Frommberger, F; Funke, Ch; Gottschall, M; Grüner, M; Gutz, E; Hammann, Ch; Hannappel, J; Hartmann, J; Hillert, W; Hoffmeister, Ph; Honisch, Ch; Jude, T; Kaiser, D; Kalischewski, F; Keshelashvili, I; Klein, F; Koop, K; Krusche, B; Lang, M; Makonyi, K; Messi, F; Müller, J; Müllers, J; Piontek, D -M; Rostomyan, T; Schaab, D; Schmidt, Ch; Schmieden, H; Schmitz, R; Seifen, T; Sokhoyan, V; Sowa, C; Spieker, K; Thiel, A; Thoma, U; Triffterer, T; Urban, M; van Pee, H; Walther, D; Wendel, Ch; Werthmüller, D; Wiedner, U; Wilson, A; Witthauer, L; Wunderlich, Y; Zaunick, H -G

    2016-01-01

    The photoproduction of $\\omega$ and $\\eta^\\prime$ mesons off carbon and niobium nuclei has been measured as a function of the meson momentum for incident photon energies of 1.2-2.9 GeV at the electron accelerator ELSA. The mesons have been identified via the $\\omega \\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\gamma \\rightarrow 3 \\gamma$ and $\\eta^\\prime\\rightarrow \\pi^0 \\pi^0\\eta \\rightarrow 6 \\gamma$ decays, respectively, registered with the CBELSA/TAPS detector system. From the measured meson momentum distributions the momentum dependence of the transparency ratio has been determined for both mesons. Within a Glauber analysis the in-medium $\\omega$ and $\\eta^\\prime$ widths and the corresponding absorption cross sections have been deduced as a function of the meson momentum. The results are compared to recent theoretical predictions for the in-medium $\\omega$ width and $\\eta^\\prime$-N absorption cross sections. The energy dependence of the imaginary part of the $\\omega$- and $\\eta^\\prime$-nucleus optical potential has been extracted...

  6. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  7. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchens, Thomas C; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N; Ying, Howard S; Astratov, Vasily N; Fried, Nathaniel M

    2012-06-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser's short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fiber probe may provide more precise tissue removal. One-, three-, and five-microsphere chain structures were characterized, resulting in FWHM diameters of 67, 32, and 30 μm in air, respectively, with beam profiles comparable to simulations. Single Er:YAG pulses of 0.1 mJ and 75-μs duration produced ablation craters with average diameters of 44, 30, and 17 μm and depths of 26, 10, and 8 μm, for one-, three-, and five-sphere structures, respectively. Microsphere chains produced spatial filtering of the multimode Er:YAG laser beam and fiber, providing spot diameters not otherwise available with conventional fiber systems. Because of the extremely shallow treatment depth, compact focused beam, and contact mode operation, this probe may have potential for use in dissecting epiretinal membranes and other ophthalmic tissues without damaging adjacent retinal tissue.

  8. A computer simulation of a potential derived from the gay-berne potential for lattice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habtamu Zewdie

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The lattice model of elongated molecules interacting via a potential derived from the Gay-Berne pair potential is proposed. We made a systematic study of the effect of varying the molecular elongation and intermolecular vector orientation dependence of the pair potential on the thermodynamic as well as the structural properties of liquid crystals. A Monte Carlo simulations of molecules placed at the site of a simple cubic lattice and interacting via the modified Gay-Berne potential with its nearest neighbours is performed. The internal energy, heat capacity, angular pair correlation function and scalar order parameter are obtained. The results are compared against predictions of molecular field theory, experimental results and that of other related simulations wherever possible. It is shown that for more elongated molecules the nematic-isotropic transition becomes stronger first order transition. For a given molecular elongation as the intermolecular vector orientation dependence becomes larger the nematic-isotropic transition becomes a stronger first order transition as measured by the rate of change of the order parameter and the divergence of the heat capacity. Scaling the potential well seems to have dramatic change on the effect of the potential well anisotropy on trends of nematic-isotropic transition temperature and divergence of the heat capacity. It is shown that the behaviour of many nematics can be described by proposed model with the elongation ratio of molecules and potential well anisotropy ranging from 3 to 5.

  9. Some methods for determining the limit of potential image quality of optical systems of various complexities using the database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezdidko, S.

    2016-09-01

    In the article some methods for processing the information contained in a database are offered with the purpose of extraction of the knowledge, the experience and the intuition of the designers, coded in the database. It gives much attention to the methods for determinating limit potential image quality of optical systems of various complexities.

  10. Modeling the reverberation of optical polarization in AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Lobos, P Andrea Rojas; Marin, Frederic

    2016-01-01

    According to the standard paradigm, the strong and compact luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is due to multi-temperature black body emission originating from an accretion disk formed around a supermassive black hole. This central engine is thought to be surrounded by a dusty region along the equatorial plane and by ionized winds along the poles. The innermost regions cannot yet be resolved neither in the optical nor in the infrared and it is fair to say that we still lack a satisfactory understanding of the physical processes, geometry and composition of the central (sub-parsec) components of AGN. Like spectral or polarimetric observations, the reverberation data needs to be modeled in order to infer constraints on the AGN geometry (such as the inner radius or the half-opening angle of the dusty torus). In this research note, we present preliminary modeling results using a time-dependent Monte Carlo method to solve the radiative transfer in a simplified AGN set up. We investigate different model conf...

  11. Modeling transient streaming potentials in falling-head permeameter tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malama, Bwalya; Revil, André

    2014-01-01

    We present transient streaming potential data collected during falling-head permeameter tests performed on samples of two sands with different physical and chemical properties. The objective of the work is to estimate hydraulic conductivity (K) and the electrokinetic coupling coefficient (Cl ) of the sand samples. A semi-empirical model based on the falling-head permeameter flow model and electrokinetic coupling is used to analyze the streaming potential data and to estimate K and Cl . The values of K estimated from head data are used to validate the streaming potential method. Estimates of K from streaming potential data closely match those obtained from the associated head data, with less than 10% deviation. The electrokinetic coupling coefficient was estimated from streaming potential vs. (1) time and (2) head data for both sands. The results indicate that, within limits of experimental error, the values of Cl estimated by the two methods are essentially the same. The results of this work demonstrate that a temporal record of the streaming potential response in falling-head permeameter tests can be used to estimate both K and Cl . They further indicate the potential for using transient streaming potential data as a proxy for hydraulic head in hydrogeology applications.

  12. Error Probability Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Different Channel Model under Turbulent Condition

    CERN Document Server

    Barua, Bobby; Islam, Md Rezwan

    2012-01-01

    Free space optics (FSO) is a promising solution for the need to very high data rate point-to point communication. FSO communication technology became popular due to its large bandwidth potential, unlicensed spectrum, excellent security and quick and inexpensive setup. Unfortunately, atmospheric turbulence-induced fading is one of the main impairments affecting FSO communications. To design a high performance communication link for the atmospheric FSO channel, it is of great importance to characterize the channel with proper model. In this paper, the modulation format is Q-ary PPM across lasers, with intensity modulation and ideal photodetectors are assumed to investigate the most efficient PDF models for FSO communication under turbulent condition. The performance results are evaluated in terms of symbol error probability (SEP) for different type of channel model and the simulation results confirm the analytical findings.

  13. The potential for optical beam shaping of UV laser sources for mass scale quarantine disinfection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizotte, Todd

    2010-08-01

    Recent events concerning H1N1 "swine flu", have demonstrated to the world the significant potential of rapid increases in death and illness among all age groups and even among the healthy population [1] when a highly infectious influenza virus is introduced. In terms of mass casualties due to a pandemic, preparedness and response planning must be done. One course of action to prevent a pandemic outbreak or reduce the impact of a bioterrorist event is the use of isolation or quarantine facilities. The first level of isolation or quarantine is within the personal residence of the person exposed or infected. In the case where, the specific virus is extremely contagious and its onset of symptoms is rapid and severe, there will be a need for the deployment and setup of larger self contained quarantine facilities. Such facilities are used to house infectious individuals to minimize the exposure of susceptible individuals to contagious individuals, especially when specialized care or treatment is required and during the viral shedding period (5 to 7 days). These types of facilities require non-shared air conditioning, heating and ventilating systems where 100% of air is vented to the outside through a series of disinfection systems and staged filters. Although chemical disinfection is possible, there is a desire to incorporate intense UV radiation as a means to deactivate and disinfect airborne virus within hospital settings and isolated mass scale quarantine facilities. UV radiation is also being considered for disinfection of contaminated surfaces, such as table tops, walls and floors in hospitals and temporary quarantine facilities. In such applications the use of UV bulb technology can create many problems, for instance bulb technology requires numerous bulbs to treat a large volume of air, generates significant heat, uses significant power and does not produce large fluxes of UV light efficiently. This paper provides several methods of creating quarantine level

  14. A Model of Magneto-mechano-optical Transfer in Fibre-optic Magnetic Sensors with Magnetostrictive Films

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Ji-yan; SI Yong-min

    2004-01-01

    Fibre-optic magnetic sensors with magnetostrictive films are used as all-fibre Mach-Zehnder interferometer to detect the optical phase shift, which is caused by the magnetostriction-induced strains transferred from the msgnetostrictive film to the fibre. A theoretical model based on the plane strain approximation and uniform axial strain is developed to determine the magneto-mechano-optical transfer relations in this kind of sensors. The expression for the model is presented as well as relation of the phase shift in the fibre to the magnetic and elastic properties of the magnetostrictive film coated on the fibre. And from the model, the thickness of the film has significant influence on the phase shift.

  15. The parabolic Anderson model random walk in random potential

    CERN Document Server

    König, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    This is a comprehensive survey on the research on the parabolic Anderson model – the heat equation with random potential or the random walk in random potential – of the years 1990 – 2015. The investigation of this model requires a combination of tools from probability (large deviations, extreme-value theory, e.g.) and analysis (spectral theory for the Laplace operator with potential, variational analysis, e.g.). We explain the background, the applications, the questions and the connections with other models and formulate the most relevant results on the long-time behavior of the solution, like quenched and annealed asymptotics for the total mass, intermittency, confinement and concentration properties and mass flow. Furthermore, we explain the most successful proof methods and give a list of open research problems. Proofs are not detailed, but concisely outlined and commented; the formulations of some theorems are slightly simplified for better comprehension.

  16. Evaluating Damage Potential in Security Risk Scoring Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Weintraub

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A Continuous Monitoring System (CMS model is presented, having new improved capabilities. The system is based on the actual real-time configuration of the system. Existing risk scoring models assume damage potential is estimated by systems' owner, thus rejecting the information relying in the technological configuration. The assumption underlying this research is based on users' ability to estimate business impacts relating to systems' external interfaces which they use regularly in their business activities, but are unable to assess business impacts relating to internal technological components. According to the proposed model systems' damage potential is calculated using technical information on systems' components using a directed graph. The graph is incorporated into the Common Vulnerability Scoring Systems' (CVSS algorithm to produce risk scoring measures. Framework presentation includes system design, damage potential scoring algorithm design and an illustration of scoring computations.

  17. Compactification of gauge models and the effective potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shtykov, N.N. (Leningrad State University, Leningrad (SU))

    1989-07-01

    The one-loop potential for bosons and massive fermions in an Abelian model is obtained on the {ital M}{sup 2}{times}{ital S1}{times}{ital S1} manifold. Stability of the total potential against arbitrary homogeneous deformations of {ital S}{sup 1}{times}{ital S1} is studied. It is shown that attraction or repulsion depends on the relations connecting the radii of the spheres, the fermion masses, and the coupling constant.

  18. Evaluation of six potential evapotranspiration models for estimating crop potential and actual evapotranspiration in arid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sien; Kang, Shaozhong; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Jianhua; Du, Taisheng; Tong, Ling; Ding, Risheng

    2016-12-01

    Using potential evapotranspiration (PET) to estimate crop actual evapotranspiration (AET) is a critical approach in hydrological models. However, which PET model performs best and can be used to predict crop AET over the entire growth season in arid regions still remains unclear. The six frequently-used PET models, i.e. Blaney-Criddle (BC), Hargreaves (HA), Priestley-Taylor (PT), Dalton (DA), Penman (PE) and Shuttleworth (SW) models were considered and evaluated in the study. Five-year eddy covariance data over the maize field and vineyard in arid northwest China were used to examine the accuracy of PET models in estimating daily crop AET. Results indicate that the PE, SW and PT models underestimated daily ET by less than 6% with RMSE lower than 35 W m-2 during the four years, while the BC, HA and DA models under-predicted daily ET approximately by 10% with RMSE higher than 40 W m-2. Compared to BC, HA and DA models, PE, SW and PT models were more reliable and accurate for estimating crop PET and AET in arid regions. Thus the PE, SW and PT models were recommended for predicting crop evapotranspiration in hydrological models in arid regions.

  19. Modelling the Electro-Optic Properties of Liquid Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, Alastair R.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Liquid crystals (LCs) have been recognised as a phase of matter intermediate between solid and liquid for about 100 years. During this time a large variety of mesophases have been discovered but it is only recently that their physics have begun to be understood. However if LCs are to continue to compete successfully in the displays market an improved understanding of their electro-optic properties must be gained. This thesis describes work carried out on two different types of LC: nematic and ferroelectric chiral smectic C (SmC^{*} ). In the former the molecules are orientationally ordered and randomly positioned while in the latter they are orientationally ordered and arranged in layers. The local mean molecular orientation is called the director and defines the uniaxial optic axis in both types of LC. In a nematic guest-host (NGH) LC an anisotropically absorbing dye is dissolved in the LC and the dye molecules align so that their maximum absorption axis is parallel to the director. When an electric field is applied to a cell containing NGHLC the molecules tend to rotate, because of their dielectric anisotropy, and alter the cell's transmittance. Previous attempts to model the change in optical transmittance with voltage have assumed that the LC and dye molecules are perfectly aligned with the director. In this work the disorder of the molecules about the director is taken into account and the overall agreement between theory and experiment is improved considerably. A method of calculating how the SmC^ {*} director configuration and layer orientation vary with voltage is presented. This method is tested by calculating the transmittance of a 7 mu m thick SmC^{* } LC cell for different azimuthal orientations of the cell between crossed polarisers. It is shown that the theoretical and measured orientations which give minimum transmittance are in good agreement. It is also shown that the

  20. Fisher information and quantum potential well model for finance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nastasiuk, V.A., E-mail: nasa@i.ua

    2015-09-25

    The probability distribution function (PDF) for prices on financial markets is derived by extremization of Fisher information. It is shown how on that basis the quantum-like description for financial markets arises and different financial market models are mapped by quantum mechanical ones. - Highlights: • The financial Schrödinger equation is derived using the principle of minimum Fisher information. • Statistical models for price variation are mapped by the quantum models of coupled particle. • The model of quantum particle in parabolic potential well corresponds to Efficient market.

  1. New potentialities for noninvasive optical investigation of microcirculation in extended space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Youri I.; Mikhailov, Valery M.

    2002-05-01

    Goals of the investigation were to analyze the spectrum of microcirculation parameters and collection of baseline data healthy subjects during extended isolation and relative hypokinesia as a model of mission to the International space station. There were investigated four healthy volunteers at the age of 37, 40, 41 and 48 during the baseline 240-d isolation period starting from July 3, 1999. With the regularity of 3 times a week each subject made records at the same time between 1 and 2 pm. Optical computerized capillaroscope for noninvasive measurement of the capillary diameters, blood flow velocity as well as the size of the perivascular zone and the number of the blood aggregates was used. About 1500 episodes were recorded on laser disks and analyzed. Parameters of microcirculation were compared with other physiological parameters monitored in the experiment. All subjects had wave-like variations in the microcirculation parameters within the minute, week, and month ranges. Mean blood flow velocity in the baseline period was lower than in the period of isolation. Results of the daily body mass measurement were found to correlate with the perivascular zone size, that could be explained as retention of body fluids in tissues. Computerized capillaroscopy is easy to perform, noninvasive, highly sensitive and informative. It enables analysis of the character of rhythmic processes, adaptability of organism to long-term experiments and, therefore, can be proposed for use in extended space missions.

  2. Reducing multisensor monthly mean aerosol optical depth uncertainty: 2. Optimal locations for potential ground observation deployments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Li, Xichen; Carlson, Barbara E.; Kahn, Ralph A.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Dubovik, Oleg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2017-04-01

    Surface remote sensing of aerosol properties provides "ground truth" for satellite and model validation and is an important component of aerosol observation system. Due to the different characteristics of background aerosol variability, information obtained at different locations usually has different spatial representativeness, implying that the location should be carefully chosen so that its measurement could be extended to a greater area. In this study, we present an objective observation array design technique that automatically determines the optimal locations with the highest spatial representativeness based on the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) theory. The ensemble is constructed using aerosol optical depth (AOD) products from five satellite sensors. The optimal locations are solved sequentially by minimizing the total analysis error variance, which means that observations at these locations will reduce the background error variance to the largest extent. The location determined by the algorithm is further verified to have larger spatial representativeness than some other arbitrary location. In addition to the existing active Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) sites, the 40 selected optimal locations are mostly concentrated on regions with both high AOD inhomogeneity and its spatial representativeness, namely, the Sahel, South Africa, East Asia, and North Pacific Islands. These places should be the focuses of establishing future AERONET sites in order to further reduce the uncertainty in the monthly mean AOD. Observations at these locations contribute to approximately 50% of the total background uncertainty reduction.

  3. Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network modeling Using Optical System Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla Abdulrahman Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the continuing demand for larger bandwidth, the optical transport becoming general in the access network. Using optical fiber technologies, the communications infrastructure becomes powerful, providing very high speeds to transfer a high capacity of data. Existing telecommunications infrastructures is currently widely used Passive Optical Network that apply Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM and is awaited to play an important role in the future Internet supporting a large diversity of services and next generation networks. This paper presents a design of WDM-PON network, the simulation and analysis of transmission parameters in the Optisystem 7.0 environment for bidirectional traffic. The simulation shows the behavior of optical fiber links when the signal passes through all the components such as optical fiber, splitters, multiplexers then find a good quality of signal in all receivers. The system performance is presented through various parameters such as BER analyzer and the Eye Diagram.

  4. Constructing A Small Strain Potential for Multi-Scale Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Mallik, A; Cheng, H P; Dufty, J W; Mallik, Aditi; Runge, Keith; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Dufty, James W.; Mallik, Aditi; Runge, Keith; Cheng, Hai-Ping; Dufty, James W.

    2005-01-01

    For problems relating to fracture, a consistent embedding of a quantum (QM) domain in its classical (CM) environment requires that the classical system should yield the same structure and elastic properties as the QM domain for states near equilibrium. It is proposed that an appropriate classical potential can be constructed using ab initio data on the equilibrium and weakly strained configurations calculated from the quantum description, rather than the more usual approach of fitting to a wide range of empirical data. The scheme is illustrated in detail for a model system, silica nanorod that has the proper stiochiometric ratio of Si:O as observed in real silica. The potential is chosen to be pairwise additive, with the same pair potential functional form as familiar phenomenological TTAM potential. Here, the parameters are determined using a genetic algorithm with force data obtained directly from a quantum calculation. The resulting potential gives excellent agreement with properties of the reference quant...

  5. A New Method for Characterizing Single Parametric Model Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.S. Vyas; P.N. Gajjar; B.Y. Thakore; A.R. Jani

    2008-01-01

    A novel approach of characterizing single parametric model potential is proposed by equating total pair wise force to zero.Our well-established single parametric model potential is characterized using the proposed idea and compared the obtained parameter with parameters computed by previously used approaches.Thus characterized pseudopotential is then tested to compute total energy of alkali metals.The results establish the reliability of proposed idea of making total pair wise force to zero in determining the parameter of the pseudopotential.

  6. Design-oriented analytic model of phase and frequency modulated optical links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsurrò, Pietro; Saitto, Antonio; Tommasino, Pasquale; Trifiletti, Alessandro; Vannucci, Antonello; Cimmino, Rosario F.

    2016-07-01

    An analytic design-oriented model of phase and frequency modulated microwave optical links has been developed. The models are suitable for design of broadband high dynamic range optical links for antenna remoting and optical beamforming, where noise and linearity of the subsystems are a concern Digital filter design techniques have been applied to the design of optical filters working as frequency discriminator, that are the bottleneck in terms of linearity for these systems. The models of frequency modulated, phase modulated, and coherent I/Q link have been used to compare performance of the different architectures in terms of linearity and SFDR.

  7. Calculation of neutron cross sections for sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi in the energy range of 0.5-25 MeV by using the optical model potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Miah, M M H; Faruque, M R I

    2003-01-01

    Neutron total cross sections and differential elastic scattering cross sections for the nuclides sup 9 sup 0 Zr, sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi were calculated using different global spherical optical potential (SOP) parameter sets at neutron energies from 0.5-25 MeV. Calculated cross sections for the corresponding nuclides were compared with their experimental data obtained by the EXFOR file to select the best fit parameter sets. It is found that the parameter sets of Ferer Rapaport for sup 9 sup 0 Zr and Bechetti and Greenless for sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb and sup 2 sup 0 sup 9 Bi are the best fitted set to obtain the experimental data of total cross sections and angular distributions of these nuclides. (author)

  8. Modeling the reverberation of optical polarization in AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R.; Marin, F.

    2016-12-01

    According to the standard paradigm, the strong and compact luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is due to multi-temperature black body emission originating from an accretion disk formed around a supermassive black hole. This central engine is thought to be surrounded by a dusty region along the equatorial plane and by ionized winds along the poles. The innermost regions cannot yet be resolved neither in the optical nor in the infrared and it is fair to say that we still lack a satisfactory understanding of the physical processes, geometry and composition of the central (sub-parsec) components of AGN. Like spectral or polarimetric observations, the reverberation data needs to be modeled in order to infer constraints on the AGN geometry (such as the inner radius or the half-opening angle of the dusty torus). In this research note, we present preliminary modeling results using a time-dependent Monte Carlo method to solve the radiative transfer in a simplified AGN set up. We investigate different model configurations using both polarization and time lags and find a high dependency on the geometry to the time-lag response. For all models there is a clear distinction between edge-on or face-on viewing angles for fluxes and time lags, the later showing a higher wavelength-dependence than the former. Time lags, polarization and fluxes point toward a clear dichotomy between the different inclinations of AGN, a method that could help us to determine the true orientation of the nucleus in Seyfert galaxies.

  9. Realization of non-PT -symmetric optical potentials with all-real spectra in a coherent atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Chao; Gabadadze, Gregory; Huang, Guoxiang

    2017-02-01

    We present a physical setup for realizing all-real-spectrum optical potentials with arbitrary gain-and-loss distributions in a coherent medium consisting of a cold three-level atomic gas driven by control and probe laser fields. We show that by the interference of Raman resonances and the Stark shift induced by a far-detuned laser field, tunable, non-parity-time (non-PT )-symmetric optical potentials with all-real spectra proposed recently by Nixon and Yang [Phys. Rev. A 93, 031802(R) (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.031802] can be actualized physically. We also show that when the real parts of the non-PT -symmetric optical potentials are tuned cross certain thresholds, phase transitions—where the eigenspectrum of the system changes from all real to complex—may occur and hence the stability of the probe-field propagation is altered. Our scheme can also be extended to high dimensions and to a nonlinear propagation regime, where stable optical solitons with power of the order of nano-Watts may be generated in the system.

  10. Teratogenic Potential of Antiepileptic Drugs in the Zebrafish Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung Hak Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The zebrafish model is an attractive candidate for screening of developmental toxicity during early drug development. Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs arouse concern for the risk of teratogenicity, but the data are limited. In this study, we evaluated the teratogenic potential of seven AEDs (carbamazepine (CBZ, ethosuximide (ETX, valproic acid (VPN, lamotrigine (LMT, lacosamide (LCM, levetiracetam (LVT, and topiramate (TPM in the zebrafish model. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to AEDs from initiation of gastrula (5.25 hours post-fertilization (hpf to termination of hatching (72 hpf which mimic the mammalian teratogenic experimental design. The lethality and teratogenic index (TI of AEDs were determined and the TI values of each drug were compared with the US FDA human pregnancy categories. Zebrafish model was useful screening model for teratogenic potential of antiepilepsy drugs and was in concordance with in vivo mammalian data and human clinical data.

  11. Parity-Even and Time-Reversal-Odd Neutron Optical Potential in Spinning Matter Induced by Gravitational Torsion

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A N

    2016-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that spin $1/2$ particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P--odd, T--even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  12. Parity-even and time-reversal-odd neutron optical potential in spinning matter induced by gravitational torsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, A. N.; Snow, W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent theoretical work has shown that spin 1/2 particles moving through unpolarized matter which sources torsion fields experience a new type of parity-even and time-reversal-odd optical potential if the matter is spinning in the lab frame. This new type of optical potential can be sought experimentally using the helicity dependence of the total cross sections for longitudinally polarized neutrons moving through a rotating cylindrical target. In combination with recent experimental constraints on short-range P-odd, T-even torsion interactions derived from polarized neutron spin rotation in matter one can derive separate constraints on the time components of scalar and pseudoscalar torsion fields in matter. We estimate the sensitivity achievable in such an experiment and briefly outline some of the potential sources of systematic error to be considered in any future experimental search for this effect.

  13. Dispersive spherical optical model of neutron scattering from Al27 up to 250 MeV

    CERN Document Server

    Molina, A; Quesada, J M; Lozano, M

    2002-01-01

    A spherical optical model potential (OMP) containing a dispersive term is used to fit the available experimental database of angular distribution and total cross section data for n + Al27 covering the energy range 0.1- 250 MeV using relativistic kinematics and a relativistic extension of the Schroedinger equation. A dispersive OMP with parameters that show a smooth energy dependence and energy independent geometry are determined from fits to the entire data set. A very good overall agreement between experimental data and predictions is achieved up to 150 MeV. Inclusion of nonlocality effects in the absorptive volume potential allows to achieve an excellent agreement up to 250 MeV.

  14. Extended Quark Potential Model from Random Phase Approximation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Wei-Zhen; CHEN Xiao-Lin; LU Da-Hai; YANG Li-Ming

    2002-01-01

    The quark potential model is extended to include the sea quark excitation using the random phase approx-imation. The effective quark interaction preserves the important QCD properties - chiral symmetry and confinementsimultaneously. A primary qualitative analysis shows that the π meson as a well-known typical Goldstone boson andthe other mesons made up of valence qq quark pair such as the ρ meson can also be described in this extended quarkpotential model.

  15. Monitoring of shallow landslides by distributed optical fibers: insights from a physical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Schenato; Matteo, Camporese; Luca, Palmieri; Alessandro, Pasuto; Salandin, Paolo

    2017-04-01

    Shallow landslides represent an extreme risk for individuals and structures due to their fast propagation and the very short time between appearance of warning signs and collapse. A lot of attention has been paid in the last decades to the analysis of activation mechanisms and to the implementation of appropriate early warning systems. Intense rainfall, stream erosion, flash floods, etc, are only few of the possible triggering factors that have been identified. All those factors may induce an increase in the forces acting and/or in the pore water pressure that eventually trigger the collapse. Due to the decrease of the shear resistance of soils, significant stresses develop at the sliding surface, determining local anomalous strain even before the collapse. This highlights the importance of monitoring the early appearance of hazardous strain fields. In light of the intrinsic lack of control and reproducibility in real cases, strain sensors have been applied in small-scale physical models and testbeds. Nonetheless, it has been observed that a reliable correlation between the landslide evolution and the strain field can be determined only by using minimally invasive sensors, while comprehensive information can be achieved at the cost of very fine spatial sampling, which represents the primary issue with small-to-medium scale physical models. It is evident how the two requirements, i.e., minimal invasiveness and high spatial resolution, are a limiting factor for standard sensor technology. In this regard, strain is one of the first variable addressed by optical fiber sensors, yet only recently for geotechnical applications and in very few case for landslide monitoring. In particular, the technology of distributed fiber optic sensors, with centimeter scale resolution, has the potential to address the aforementioned needs of small scale physical testing. In this work, for the first time, the strain field at the failure surface of a shallow landslide, reproduced in an

  16. Accurate mask model implementation in optical proximity correction model for 14-nm nodes and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zine El Abidine, Nacer; Sundermann, Frank; Yesilada, Emek; Farys, Vincent; Huguennet, Frederic; Armeanu, Ana-Maria; Bork, Ingo; Chomat, Michael; Buck, Peter; Schanen, Isabelle

    2016-04-01

    In a previous work, we demonstrated that the current optical proximity correction model assuming the mask pattern to be analogous to the designed data is no longer valid. An extreme case of line-end shortening shows a gap up to 10 nm difference (at mask level). For that reason, an accurate mask model has been calibrated for a 14-nm logic gate level. A model with a total RMS of 1.38 nm at mask level was obtained. Two-dimensional structures, such as line-end shortening and corner rounding, were well predicted using scanning electron microscopy pictures overlaid with simulated contours. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the implementation of our improved model in current flow. The improved model consists of a mask model capturing mask process and writing effects, and a standard optical and resist model addressing the litho exposure and development effects at wafer level. The second part will focus on results from the comparison of the two models, the new and the regular.

  17. Electrical Equivalent Model for an Optical VCO in a PLL Synchronization Scheme for Ultrashort Optical Pulse Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogoni, Antonella; Potì, Luca; Ponzini, Filippo; Ghelfi, Paolo

    2006-01-01

    The electrical modeling of complex electrooptical devices is a useful task for the correct design of its schemes and for the estimation of its performance. In this paper, we consider an electrooptical phase-locked loop (PLL) used to synchronize an RF system clock to the repetition rate of an optical pulsed source, realized by an active fiber mode-locking (ML) technique in the regenerative configuration. The synchronization scheme is suggested by a description of the pulsed source, for the first time, as an optical voltage-control oscillator (VCO). In particular, we present a simple new all-electrical model for the proposed optical VCO, and we verify its accuracy by the implementation of the whole PLL scheme at 2.5 and 10 GHz.

  18. Simple inflationary quintessential model. II. Power law potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Amorós, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-09-01

    The present work is a sequel of our previous work [Phys. Rev. D 93, 084018 (2016)] which depicted a simple version of an inflationary quintessential model whose inflationary stage was described by a Higgs-type potential and the quintessential phase was responsible due to an exponential potential. Additionally, the model predicted a nonsingular universe in past which was geodesically past incomplete. Further, it was also found that the model is in agreement with the Planck 2013 data when running is allowed. But, this model provides a theoretical value of the running which is far smaller than the central value of the best fit in ns , r , αs≡d ns/d l n k parameter space where ns, r , αs respectively denote the spectral index, tensor-to-scalar ratio and the running of the spectral index associated with any inflationary model, and consequently to analyze the viability of the model one has to focus in the two-dimensional marginalized confidence level in the allowed domain of the plane (ns,r ) without taking into account the running. Unfortunately, such analysis shows that this model does not pass this test. However, in this sequel we propose a family of models runs by a single parameter α ∈[0 ,1 ] which proposes another "inflationary quintessential model" where the inflation and the quintessence regimes are respectively described by a power law potential and a cosmological constant. The model is also nonsingular although geodesically past incomplete as in the cited model. Moreover, the present one is found to be more simple compared to the previous model and it is in excellent agreement with the observational data. In fact, we note that, unlike the previous model, a large number of the models of this family with α ∈[0 ,1/2 ) match with both Planck 2013 and Planck 2015 data without allowing the running. Thus, the properties in the current family of models compared to its past companion justify its need for a better cosmological model with the successive

  19. Zebrafish (Danio rerio): A Potential Model for Toxinological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Rafael Antonio; Sarmiento, Karen; Vásquez, Isabel Cristina

    2015-10-01

    Zebrafish are an emerging basic biomedical research model that has multiple advantages compared with other research models. Given that biotoxins, such as toxins, poisons, and venoms, represent health hazards to animals and humans, a low-cost biological model that is highly sensitive to biotoxins is useful to understand the damage caused by such agents and to develop biological tests to prevent and reduce the risk of poisoning in potential cases of bioterrorism or food contamination. In this article, a narrative review of the general aspects of zebrafish as a model in basic biomedical research and various studies in the field of toxinology that have used zebrafish as a biological model are presented. This information will provide useful material to beginner students and researchers who are interested in developing toxinological studies with the zebrafish model.

  20. Action potential initiation in the hodgkin-huxley model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J Colwell

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A recent paper of B. Naundorf et al. described an intriguing negative correlation between variability of the onset potential at which an action potential occurs (the onset span and the rapidity of action potential initiation (the onset rapidity. This correlation was demonstrated in numerical simulations of the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to this antagonism, it is argued that Hodgkin-Huxley-type models are unable to explain action potential initiation observed in cortical neurons in vivo or in vitro. Here we apply a method from theoretical physics to derive an analytical characterization of this problem. We analytically compute the probability distribution of onset potentials and analytically derive the inverse relationship between onset span and onset rapidity. We find that the relationship between onset span and onset rapidity depends on the level of synaptic background activity. Hence we are able to elucidate the regions of parameter space for which the Hodgkin-Huxley model is able to accurately describe the behavior of this system.

  1. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length...

  2. Optical Network Models and Their Application to Software-Defined Network Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Szyrkowiec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Software-defined networking is finding its way into optical networks. Here, it promises a simplification and unification of network management for optical networks allowing automation of operational tasks despite the highly diverse and vendor-specific commercial systems and the complexity and analog nature of optical transmission. Common abstractions and interfaces are a fundamental component for software-defined optical networking. Currently, a number of models for optical networks are available. They all claim to provide open and vendor agnostic management of optical equipment. In this work, we survey and compare the most important models and propose an intent interface for creating virtual topologies which is integrated in the existing model ecosystem.

  3. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  4. On matrix model partition functions for QCD with chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Akemann, G; Vernizzi, G

    2004-01-01

    Partition functions of two different matrix models for QCD with chemical potential are computed for an arbitrary number of quark and complex conjugate anti-quark flavors. In the large-N limit of weak nonhermiticity complete agreement is found between the two models. This supports the universality of such fermionic partition functions, that is of products of characteristic polynomials in the complex plane. In the strong nonhermiticity limit agreement is found for an equal number of quark and conjugate flavours. For a general flavor content the equality of partition functions holds only for small chemical potential. The chiral phase transition is analyzed for an arbitrary number of quarks, where the free energy presents a discontinuity of first order at a critical chemical potential. In the case of nondegenerate flavors there is first order phase transition for each separate mass scale.

  5. Effective constraint potential in lattice Weinberg - Salam model

    CERN Document Server

    Polikarpov, M I

    2011-01-01

    We investigate lattice Weinberg - Salam model without fermions for the value of the Weinberg angle $\\theta_W \\sim 30^o$, and bare fine structure constant around $\\alpha \\sim 1/150$. We consider the value of the scalar self coupling corresponding to bare Higgs mass around 150 GeV. The effective constraint potential for the zero momentum scalar field is used in order to investigate phenomena existing in the vicinity of the phase transition between the physical Higgs phase and the unphysical symmetric phase of the lattice model. This is the region of the phase diagram, where the continuum physics is to be approached. We compare the above mentioned effective potential (calculated in selected gauges) with the effective potential for the value of the scalar field at a fixed space - time point. We also calculate the renormalized fine structure constant using the correlator of Polyakov lines and compare it with the one - loop perturbative estimate.

  6. A New Vision Of Management: Full Potential Management Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Fujimoto

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes the Full Potential Management (FPM Model based upon the social model of disabilities coupled with principles of diversity management and disability-oriented human resource management. Despite the fact that the concept of management was once envisioned as having ‘value to society’ by improving the quality of life through efficient practices (Rimler, 1976, management literature has narrowly defined management as a means to gain increased productivity and achieve organizational goals, thus overlooking the social formation and implementation design for a better life (Diener & Seligman, 2004; Small, 2004; Whitley 1989. Based upon the diversity literature, we propose that social-oriented diversity management principles and practices are the key to transforming management concepts from achieving organizational potential to achieving social aims that maximize the potential and quality of life of each person.

  7. Modeling of coherent ultrafast magneto-optical experiments: Light-induced molecular mean-field model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinschberger, Y. [Instituto de Física dos Materiais da Universidade do Porto, Departamento de Física et Astronomia, Rua do campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Hervieux, P.-A. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, CNRS UMR 7504 BP 43 - F-67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France)

    2015-12-28

    We present calculations which aim to describe coherent ultrafast magneto-optical effects observed in time-resolved pump-probe experiments. Our approach is based on a nonlinear semi-classical Drude-Voigt model and is used to interpret experiments performed on nickel ferromagnetic thin film. Within this framework, a phenomenological light-induced coherent molecular mean-field depending on the polarizations of the pump and probe pulses is proposed whose microscopic origin is related to a spin-orbit coupling involving the electron spins of the material sample and the electric field of the laser pulses. Theoretical predictions are compared to available experimental data. The model successfully reproduces the observed experimental trends and gives meaningful insight into the understanding of magneto-optical rotation behavior in the ultrafast regime. Theoretical predictions for further experimental studies are also proposed.

  8. Proposal for the Quantum Simulation of the CP(2) Model on Optical Lattices

    CERN Document Server

    Laflamme, Catherine; Dalmonte, Marcello; Gerber, Urs; Mejía-Díaz, Héctor; Bietenholz, Wolfgang; Wiese, Uwe-Jens; Zoller, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The 2d CP(N-1) models share a number of features with QCD, like asymptotic freedom, a dynamically generated mass gap and topological sectors. They have been formulated and analysed successfully in the framework of the so-called D-theory, which provides a smooth access to the continuum limit. In that framework, we propose an experimental set-up for the quantum simulation of the CP(2) model. It is based on ultra-cold Alkaline-Earth Atoms (AEAs) located on the sites of an optical lattice, where the nuclear spins represent the relevant degrees of freedom. We present numerical results for the correlation length and for the real time decay of a false vacuum, to be compared with such a future experiment. The latter could also enable the exploration of theta-vacua and of the phase diagram at finite chemical potentials, since it does not suffer from any sign problem.

  9. The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther

    2003-01-01

    The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...

  10. General Theoretical Model for Resonantly Enhanced Optical Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuvaraja; S.; Visagathilagar; Arnan; Mitchell; Michael; W.; Austin

    2003-01-01

    1 IntroductionLiNbO3 optical modulators have become essential transmission devices for current and future wideband fibre-optic communications for both military and telecommunications applications. For many telecommunications applications, only a narrow bandwidth is required and thus resonantly enhancedMach-Zehndermodulators(RE-MZMs)have been developed to improve modulation efficiency at the expense of bandwidth.

  11. Analytic Models for Radiation Induced Loss in Optical Fibers II. A Physical Model,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-06-01

    and identify by Mock number) PIEL GRUP UB.GR. Optical fibers Analytical models Radiation effects 19. ABSTRACT (ConinueII. anl mwr,f fneciua,, and...conditions specified in the derivation of the equations existed during the irradiations. This is because the functional form of the equations is not...tion is not necessarily incorrect. If one assumes a relatively simple form of re- covery as a function of time, such as an exponential recovery, it can

  12. A constructive model potential method for atomic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1974-01-01

    A model potential method is presented that can be applied to many electron single centre and two centre systems. The development leads to a Hamiltonian with terms arising from core polarization that depend parametrically upon the positions of the valence electrons. Some of the terms have been introduced empirically in previous studies. Their significance is clarified by an analysis of a similar model in classical electrostatics. The explicit forms of the expectation values of operators at large separations of two atoms given by the model potential method are shown to be equivalent to the exact forms when the assumption is made that the energy level differences of one atom are negligible compared to those of the other.

  13. Nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model and chiral chemical potential

    CERN Document Server

    Frasca, Marco

    2016-01-01

    We derive the critical temperature in a nonlocal Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model with the presence of a chiral chemical potential. The model we consider uses a form factor derived from recent studies of the gluon propagator in Yang-Mills theory and has the property to fit in excellent way the form factor arising from the instanton liquid picture for the vacuum of the theory. Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model is derived form quantum chromodynamics providing all the constants of the theory without any need for fits. We show that the critical temperature in this case always exists and increases as the square of the chiral chemical potential. The expression we obtain for the critical temperature depends on the mass gap that naturally arises from Yang-Mills theory at low-energy as also confirmed by lattice computations.

  14. Modelling Thermoelastic Distortion of Optics Using Elastodynamic Reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    King, Eleanor; Veitch, Peter; Levin, Yuri

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelastic distortion resulting from optical absorption by transmissive and reflective optics can cause unacceptable changes in optical systems that employ high power beams. In advanced-generation laser-interferometric gravitational wave detectors for example, optical absorption is expected to result in wavefront distortions that would compromise the sensitivity of the detector; thus necessitating the use of adaptive thermal compensation. Unfortunately, these systems have long thermal time constants and so predictive feed-forward control systems could be required - but the finite-element analysis is computationally expensive. We describe here the use of the Betti-Maxwell elastodynamic reciprocity theorem to calculate the response of linear elastic bodies (optics) to heating that has arbitrary spatial distribution. We demonstrate using a simple example, that it can yield accurate results in computational times that are significantly less than those required for finite-element analyses.

  15. Potential of 3D City Models to assess flood vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröter, Kai; Bochow, Mathias; Schüttig, Martin; Nagel, Claus; Ross, Lutz; Kreibich, Heidi

    2016-04-01

    Vulnerability, as the product of exposure and susceptibility, is a key factor of the flood risk equation. Furthermore, the estimation of flood loss is very sensitive to the choice of the vulnerability model. Still, in contrast to elaborate hazard simulations, vulnerability is often considered in a simplified manner concerning the spatial resolution and geo-location of exposed objects as well as the susceptibility of these objects at risk. Usually, area specific potential flood loss is quantified on the level of aggregated land-use classes, and both hazard intensity and resistance characteristics of affected objects are represented in highly simplified terms. We investigate the potential of 3D City Models and spatial features derived from remote sensing data to improve the differentiation of vulnerability in flood risk assessment. 3D City Models are based on CityGML, an application scheme of the Geography Markup Language (GML), which represents the 3D geometry, 3D topology, semantics and appearance of objects on different levels of detail. As such, 3D City Models offer detailed spatial information which is useful to describe the exposure and to characterize the susceptibility of residential buildings at risk. This information is further consolidated with spatial features of the building stock derived from remote sensing data. Using this database a spatially detailed flood vulnerability model is developed by means of data-mining. Empirical flood damage data are used to derive and to validate flood susceptibility models for individual objects. We present first results from a prototype application in the city of Dresden, Germany. The vulnerability modeling based on 3D City Models and remote sensing data is compared i) to the generally accepted good engineering practice based on area specific loss potential and ii) to a highly detailed representation of flood vulnerability based on a building typology using urban structure types. Comparisons are drawn in terms of

  16. Multimodal nonlinear optical imaging of cartilage development in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Sicong; Xue, Wenqian; Sun, Qiqi; Li, Xuesong; Huang, Jiandong; Qu, Jianan Y.

    2017-02-01

    Kinesin-1 is a kind of motor protein responsible for intracellular transportation and has been studied in a variety of tissues. However, its roles in cartilage development are not clear. In this study, a kinesin-1 heavy chain (Kif5b) knockout mouse model is used to study the functions of kinesin-1 in the cartilage development. We developed a multimodal nonlinear optical (NLO) microscope system integrating stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), second harmonic generation (SHG) and two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) to investigate the morphological and biomedical characteristics of fresh tibial cartilage from normal and mutant mice at different developmental stages. The combined forward and backward SHG imaging resolved the fine structure of collagen fibrils in the extracellular matrix of cartilage. Meanwhile, the chondrocyte morphology in different zones of cartilage was visualized by label-free SRS and TPEF images. The results show that the fibrillar collagen in the superficial zone of cartilage in postnatal day 10 and 15 (P10 and P15) knockout mice was significantly less than that of control mice. Moreover, we observed distorted morphology and disorganization of columnar arrangement of chondrocytes in the growth plate cartilage of mutant mice. This study reveals the significant roles of kinesin-1 in collagen formation and chondrocyte morphogenesis.

  17. Modelling of bio-optical parameters of open ocean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim N. Pelevin

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available An original method for estimating the concentration of chlorophyll pigments, absorption of yellow substance and absorption of suspended matter without pigments and yellow substance in detritus using spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance data has been applied to sea waters of different types in the open ocean (case 1. Using the effective numerical single parameter classification with the water type optical index m as a parameter over the whole range of the open ocean waters, the calculations have been carried out and the light absorption spectra of sea waters tabulated. These spectra are used to optimize the absorption models and thus to estimate the concentrations of the main admixtures in sea water. The value of m can be determined from direct measurements of the downward irradiance attenuation coefficient at 500 nm or calculated from remote sensing data using the regressions given in the article. The sea water composition can then be readily estimated from the tables given for any open ocean area if that one parameter m characterizing the basin is known.

  18. Three-body recombination of two-component cold atomic gases into deep dimers in an optical model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mathias; Jensen, A. S.; Fedorov, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    . The Efimov scaling between recombination peaks is calculated and shown to depend on both scattering lengths. Recombination is predicted to be largest for heavy-heavy-light systems. Universal properties of the optical parameters are indicated. We compare to available experiments and find in general very......We consider three-body recombination into deep dimers in a mass-imbalanced two-component atomic gas. We use an optical model where a phenomenological imaginary potential is added to the lowest adiabatic hyper-spherical potential. The consequent imaginary part of the energy eigenvalue corresponds...... to the decay rate or recombination probability of the three-body system. The method is formulated in details and the relevant qualitative features are discussed as functions of scattering lengths and masses. We use zero-range model in analyses of recent recombination data. The dominating scattering length...

  19. First-harmonic sensitivity functions for a linearised diffusion model of ultrasound-modulated optical tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Samuel; Arridge, Simon R.; Leung, Terence S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrasound-modulated optical tomography is an emerging biomedical imaging modality which uses the spatially localised acoustically-driven modulation of coherent light as a probe of the structure and optical properties of biological tissues. In this work we model the first-harmonic flux generated by the coupled physics using a simple linearised diffusion-style forward model. We derive analytical expressions for the sensitivity of this measurement type with respect to the optical absorption and scattering coefficients. These correlation measurement density functions can be employed as part of an image-reconstruction procedure capable of reconstructing quantitative images of the optical properties of a medium under investigation.

  20. A traffic model of optical networks based on time-space complexity and traffic grooming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Yongli; Zhang Jie; Han Dahai; Wang Lei; Chen Xiuzhong; Gu Wanyi

    2009-01-01

    This paper researched the traffic of optical networks in time-space complexity, proposed a novel traffic model for complex optical networks based on traffic grooming, designed a traffic generator GTS (generator based on time and space) with "centralized + distributed" idea, and then made a simulation in C language. Experiments results show that GTS can produce the virtual network topology which can change dynamically with the characteristic of scaling-free network. GTS can also groom the different traffic and trigger them under real-time or scheduling mechanisms, generating different optical connections. This traffic model is convenient for the simulation of optical networks considering the traffic complexity.

  1. Neutron scattering from 208Pb at 30.4 and 40.0 MeV and isospin dependence of the nucleon optical potential

    CERN Document Server

    DeVito, R P; Austin, Sam M; Berg, U E P; Loc, Bui Minh

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of data involving nuclei far from stability often requires optical potential (OP) for neutron scattering. Since neutron data is seldom available, while proton scattering data is more abundant, it is useful to have estimates of the difference of the neutron and proton optical potentials. This information is contained in the isospin dependence of the nucleon OP. Here we attempt to provide it for the nucleon-208Pb system. The goal of this paper is to obtain accurate n+208Pb scattering data, and use it, together with existing p+208Pb and 208Pb(p,n)208$Bi*_{IAS} data, to obtain an accurate estimate of the isospin dependence of the nucleon OP at energies in the 30-60 MeV range. Cross sections for n+208Pb scattering were measured at 30.4 and 40.0 MeV, with a typical relative (normalization) accuracy of 2-4% (3%). An angular range of 15 to 130 degrees was covered using the beam-swinger time of flight system at Michigan State University. These data were analyzed by a consistent optical model study of the neut...

  2. On the assimilation of optical reflectances and snow depth observations into a detailed snowpack model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charrois, Luc; Cosme, Emmanuel; Dumont, Marie; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Morin, Samuel; Libois, Quentin; Picard, Ghislain

    2016-05-01

    This paper examines the ability of optical reflectance data assimilation to improve snow depth and snow water equivalent simulations from a chain of models with the SAFRAN meteorological model driving the detailed multilayer snowpack model Crocus now including a two-stream radiative transfer model for snow, TARTES. The direct use of reflectance data, allowed by TARTES, instead of higher level snow products, mitigates uncertainties due to commonly used retrieval algorithms.Data assimilation is performed with an ensemble-based method, the Sequential Importance Resampling Particle filter, to represent simulation uncertainties. In snowpack modeling, uncertainties of simulations are primarily assigned to meteorological forcings. Here, a method of stochastic perturbation based on an autoregressive model is implemented to explicitly simulate the consequences of these uncertainties on the snowpack estimates.Through twin experiments, the assimilation of synthetic spectral reflectances matching the MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spectral bands is examined over five seasons at the Col du Lautaret, located in the French Alps. Overall, the assimilation of MODIS-like data reduces by 45 % the root mean square errors (RMSE) on snow depth and snow water equivalent. At this study site, the lack of MODIS data on cloudy days does not affect the assimilation performance significantly. The combined assimilation of MODIS-like reflectances and a few snow depth measurements throughout the 2010/2011 season further reduces RMSEs by roughly 70 %. This work suggests that the assimilation of optical reflectances has the potential to become an essential component of spatialized snowpack simulation and forecast systems. The assimilation of real MODIS data will be investigated in future works.

  3. Quantification of joint inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis by time-resolved diffuse optical spectroscopy and tracer kinetic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioussoufovitch, Seva; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith; Diop, Mamadou

    2015-03-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic synovial inflammation, which can cause progressive joint damage and disability. Diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) and imaging have the potential to become potent monitoring tools for RA. We devised a method that combined time-resolved DOS and tracer kinetics modeling to rapidly and reliably quantify blood flow in the joint. Preliminary results obtained from two animals show that the technique can detect joint inflammation as early as 5 days after onset.

  4. Inflation with hyperbolic potential in the braneworld model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dilip Paul; Bikash Chandra Paul; Xin-He Meng

    2009-05-01

    In this paper we study inflationary dynamics with a scalar field in an inverse coshyperbolic potential in the braneworld model. We note that a sufficient inflation may be obtained with the potential considering slow-roll approximation in the high energy limit. We determine the minimum values of the initial inflaton field required to obtain sufficient inflation and also determine the relevant inflationary parameters. The numerical values of spectral index of the scalar perturbation spectrum are determined by varying the number of e-foldings for different initial values of the inflaton field. The result obtained here is in good agreement with the current observational limits.

  5. Stationary configurations of the Standard Model Higgs potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacobellis, Giuseppe; Masina, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    the stability of the SM electroweak minimum and ii) the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point. We examine in detail and reappraise the experimental and theoretical uncertainties which plague their determination, finding that i) the stability of the SM is compatible with the present data...... at the 1.5σ level and ii) despite the large theoretical error plaguing the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point, the application of such a configuration to models of primordial inflation displays a 3σ tension with the recent bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of cosmological...

  6. Stationary configurations of the Standard Model Higgs potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacobellis, Giuseppe; Masina, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    the stability of the SM electroweak minimum and ii) the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point. We examine in detail and reappraise the experimental and theoretical uncertainties which plague their determination, finding that i) the stability of the SM is compatible with the present data...... at the 1.5σ level and ii) despite the large theoretical error plaguing the value of the Higgs potential at a rising inflection point, the application of such a configuration to models of primordial inflation displays a 3σ tension with the recent bounds on the tensor-to-scalar ratio of cosmological...

  7. Sol-gels with fiber-optic chemical sensor potential: Effects of preparation, aging, and long-term storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badini, G. E.; Grattan, K. T. V.; Tseung, A. C. C.

    1995-08-01

    The features of sol-gels, incorporating pH-sensitive dyes, designed as potential substrates for fiber-optic chemical sensors, have been investigated in terms of a variety of characteristics resulting from the preparation methods used and following the storage of samples for a period of several years. These materials, organically doped sol-gels, have been used as the heart of a number of prototype chemical sensing instruments, and a key issue in their effective use in instrumentation is their long-term durability and stability. In this work, it has been shown that such aged gel substrates can withstand immersion in water, drying, and reimmersion without fragmenting. Such impregnated gels were shown to still exhibit strong fluorescence, although some changes to the gel structure, determined from microhardness measurements, were observed and reported, reflecting their potential for use in chemically sensitive fiber optic-based instruments.

  8. A model of the mammalian optic nerve fibre based on experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oozeer, M; Veraart, C; Legat, V; Delbeke, J

    2006-08-01

    Several experimental data about membrane dynamics and pharmacological sensitivities of optic nerve axons have been published. The present work summarizes these data and computer simulations have been used to develop a model of the mammalian optic nerve fibre. The ionic currents description were derived from existing membrane models and particularly from a model of the somatic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) impulse generation. However, original equations had to be modified to match experimental data, which suggests that in RGCs, axonal and somatic ion channel expression are different. The new model is consistent with recent experimental results about optic nerve axonal excitability.

  9. Optical Evaluation of the Rear Contacts of Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells by Coupled Electromagnetic and Statistical Ray-Optics Modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Dabirian, Ali

    2017-02-15

    High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.

  10. Study of interaction in silica glass via model potential approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Sarita; Rani, Pooja

    2016-05-01

    Silica is one of the most commonly encountered substances in daily life and in electronics industry. Crystalline SiO2 (in several forms: quartz, cristobalite, tridymite) is an important constituent of many minerals and gemstones, both in pure form and mixed with related oxides. Cohesive energy of amorphous SiO2 has been investigated via intermolecular potentials i.e weak Van der Waals interaction and Morse type short-range interaction. We suggest a simple atom-atom based Van der Waals as well as Morse potential to find cohesive energy of glass. It has been found that the study of silica structure using two different model potentials is significantly different. Van der Waals potential is too weak (P.E =0.142eV/molecule) to describe the interaction between silica molecules. Morse potential is a strong potential, earlier given for intramolecular bonding, but if applied for intermolecular bonding, it gives a value of P.E (=-21.92eV/molecule) to appropriately describe the structure of silica.

  11. On the scalar potential of two-Higgs doublet models

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Indrani

    2015-01-01

    We perform a detailed analysis of the Two-Higgs Doublet Model (2HDM) potential. At the tree-level, the potential may accommodate more than one minima, one of them being the electroweak (EW) minimum where the universe lives. The parameter space allowed after the data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) came in almost excludes those cases where the EW vacuum is shallower than the second minimum. We extend the analysis by including terms in the 2HDM potential that break the $Z_2$ symmetry of the potential by dimension-4 operators and show that the conclusions remain unchanged. Furthermore, a one-loop analysis of the potential is performed for both cases, namely, where the $Z_2$ symmetry of the potential is broken by dimension-2 or dimension-4 operators. For quantitative analysis, we show our results for the Type-II 2HDM, qualitative results remaining the same for other 2HDMs. We find that the nature of the vacua from the tree-level analysis does not change; the EW vacuum still remains deeper.

  12. Cryogenic optical performance of a lightweighted mirror assembly for future space astronomical telescopes: correlating optical test results and thermal optical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Ron; Arnold, William R.; Baker, Markus A.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Burdick, Gregory; Effinger, Michael R.; Gaddy, Darrell E.; Goode, Brian K.; Hanson, Craig; Hogue, William D.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Kirk, Charlie; Maffett, Steven P.; Matthews, Gary W.; Siler, Richard D.; Smith, W. Scott; Stahl, H. Philip; Tucker, John M.; Wright, Ernest R.

    2013-09-01

    A 43cm diameter stacked core mirror demonstrator was interferometrically tested at room temperature down to 250 degrees Kelvin for thermal deformation. The 2.5m radius of curvature spherical mirror assembly was constructed by low temperature fusing three abrasive waterjet core sections between two CNC pocket milled face sheets. The 93% lightweighted Corning ULE® mirror assembly represents the current state of the art for future UV, optical, near IR space telescopes. During the multiple thermal test cycles, test results of interferometric test, thermal IR images of the front face were recorded in order to validate thermal optical model.

  13. Cryogenic Optical Performance of a Lightweighted Mirror Assembly for Future Space Astronomical Telescopes: Correlating Optical Test Results and Thermal Optical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Ron; Arnold, William R.; Baker, Marcus A.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Burdick, Gregory; Effinger, Michael R.; Gaddy, Darrell E.; Goode, Brian K.; Hanson, Craig; Hogue, William D.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Kirk, Charlie; Maffett, Steven P.; Matthews, Gary W.; Siler, Richard D.; Smith, W. Scott; Stahl, H. Philip; Tucker, John M.; Wright, Ernest R.

    2013-01-01

    A 43cm diameter stacked core mirror demonstrator was interferometrically tested at room temperature down to 250 degrees Kelvin for thermal deformation. The 2.5m radius of curvature spherical mirror assembly was constructed by low temperature fusing three abrasive waterjet core sections between two CNC pocket milled face sheets. The 93% lightweighted Corning ULE® mirror assembly represents the current state of the art for future UV, optical, near IR space telescopes. During the multiple thermal test cycles, test results of interferometric test, thermal IR images of the front face were recorded in order to validate thermal optical model.

  14. Cryogenic Optical Performance of a Light-weight Mirror Assembly for Future Space Astronomical Telescopes: Optical Test Results and Thermal Optical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, Ron; Arnold, William; Baker, Markus A.; Bevan, Ryan M.; Carpenter, James R.; Effinger, Michael R.; Gaddy, Darrell E.; Goode, Brian K.; Kegley, Jeffrey R.; Hogue, William D.; Siler, Richard D.; Smith, W. Scott; Stahl. H. Philip; Tucker, John M.; Wright, Ernest R.; Kirk, Charles S.; Hanson, Craig; Burdick, Gregory; Maffett, Steven

    2013-01-01

    A 40 cm diameter mirror assembly was interferometrically tested at room temperature down to 250 degrees Kelvin for thermal deformation. The 2.5 m radius of curvature spherical mirror assembly was constructed by low temperature fusing three abrasive waterjet core sections between two face sheets. The 93% lightweighted Corning ULE mirror assembly represents the current state of the art for future UV, optical, near IR space telescopes. During the multiple thermal test cycles, test results of interferometric test, thermal IR images of the front face were recorded in order to validate thermal optical model.

  15. Analytical model of optical field distribution of thin disk laser with thermal-optical aberration gain medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guangzhi; Qiu, Yuli; Wang, Zexiong; Zhu, Xiao; Zhu, Changhong

    2016-08-01

    An analytical model is developed to analyze the optical field distribution of thin disk laser with a thermal-optical aberration gain medium. The fundamental mode field distribution is calculated by using the eigenvector method of the resonator transit matrix for different pumping parameters. The analytical results show that the uniformity of the pumping spot is an important factor that impacts the beam quality of thin disk laser. The uniform pumping spot is beneficial to decrease thermal aberration and Optical Path Difference (OPD) of thin disk crystal, and to improve the beam quality. However, the beam quality still decreases slightly with the increasing of pumping intensity under the uniform pumping condition. The main reason for degradation of beam quality is the aspherical part of OPD which leads to diffraction losses of the resonator and wavefront deformation.

  16. Focal-plane wavefront sensing for active optics in the VST based on an analytical optical aberration model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzlöhner, R.; Taubenberger, S.; Rakich, A. P.; Noethe, L.; Schipani, P.; Kuijken, K.

    2016-08-01

    We study a novel focal plane wavefront sensing and active optics control scheme at the VST on Cerro Paranal, an f/5.5 survey telescope with a 1x1 degree field of view and a 2.6m primary mirror. This scheme analyzes the elongation pattern of stellar PSFs across the full science image (256 Mpixels) and compares their second moments with an analytical model based on 5th-order geometrical optics. We consider 11 scalar degrees of freedom in mirror misalignments and deformations (M2 piston, tip/tilt and lateral displacement, detector tip/tilt, plus M1 figure astigmatism and trefoil). Using a numerical optimization method, we extract up to 4000 stars and complete the fitting process in under one minute. We demonstrate successful closed-loop active optics control based on maximum likelihood filtering.

  17. Synthesis and characterization of rare earth doped novel optical materials and their potential applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Madhab

    There are many application of photonic materials but selection of photonic materials are always constrained by number of factors such as cost, availability of materials, thermal and chemical stability, toxicity, size and more importantly ease of synthesis and processing along with the efficient emission. For example, quantum dots are efficient emitter but they are significantly toxic, whereas dyes are also efficient emitters but they are chemically unstable. On the other hand, display and LED requires the micron size particles but bio application requires the nano-sized particles. On the other hand, laser gain media requires the ceramics glass or single crystal not the nanoparticles. So, realization of practical optical systems critically depends on suitable materials that offer specific combinations of properties. Solid-state powders such as rare-earth ions doped nano and micron size phosphors are one of the most promising candidates for several photonic applications discussed above. In this dissertation, we investigate the upconversion (UC) fluorescence characteristics of rare earth (RE) doped M2O2S (M = Y, Gd, La) oxysulphide phosphors, for near-infrared to visible UC. Both nano and micron size phosphors were investigated depending on their applications of interest. This oxysulphide phosphor possesses several excellent properties such as chemical stability, low toxicity and can be easily mass produced at low cost. Mainly, Yb3+, Er3+, and Ho3+ were doped in the host lattice, resulting in bright red, green, blue and NIR emissions under 980 nm and 1550 nm excitation at various excitation power densities. Maximum UC quantum yields (QY) up to 6.2 %, 5.8%, and 4.6% were respectively achieved in Yb3+/Er3+ :La2O2S, Y2O2S, and Gd2O 2S. Comparisons have been made with respect to reported most efficient upconverting phosphors beta-NaYF4:20 % Yb/ 2% Er. We believe that present phosphors are the most efficient and lower excitation threshold upconverting phosphors at 980 and

  18. Potential of bismuth nanoparticles embedded in a glass matrix for spectral-selective thermo-optical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez de Castro, M.; Cabello, F.; Toudert, J.; Serna, R.; Haro-Poniatowski, E.

    2014-09-01

    The optical transmission at a fixed visible wavelength of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a dielectric is known to show a sharp hysteretic evolution as a function of the temperature due to the reversible melting-solidification of the nanoparticles. In this work, we explore the temperature-dependent optical response of Bi nanoparticles embedded in a doped germanate glass (GeO2-Al2O3-Na2O) in a broad range from the visible to the near infrared. The transmission contrast induced by melting of the nanoparticles is shown to be strongly wavelength-dependent and evolves from positive to negative as the wavelength increases. This behaviour is well modelled using effective medium calculations, assuming that the nanoparticles size, shape, and distribution are unmodified upon melting, while their dielectric function turns from that of solid Bi to that of liquid Bi thus modifying markedly their optical response. These results open a route to the spectral tailoring of the thermo-optical response of Bi nanoparticles-based materials, which can be profitable for the engineering of wavelength-selective thermo-optical modulators and filters with optimized amplitude of modulation and wavelength dependence.

  19. Strongly Interacting Matter at Finite Chemical Potential: Hybrid Model Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, C. P.

    2013-06-01

    Search for a proper and realistic equation of state (EOS) for strongly interacting matter used in the study of the QCD phase diagram still appears as a challenging problem. Recently, we constructed a hybrid model description for the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) as well as hadron gas (HG) phases where we used an excluded volume model for HG and a thermodynamically consistent quasiparticle model for the QGP phase. The hybrid model suitably describes the recent lattice results of various thermodynamical as well as transport properties of the QCD matter at zero baryon chemical potential (μB). In this paper, we extend our investigations further in obtaining the properties of QCD matter at finite value of μB and compare our results with the most recent results of lattice QCD calculation.

  20. Maxent modelling for predicting the potential distribution of Thai Palms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovaranonte, Jantrararuk; Barfod, Anders S.; Overgaard, Anne Blach

    2011-01-01

    Increasingly species distribution models are being used to address questions related to ecology, biogeography and species conservation on global and regional scales. We used the maximum entropy approach implemented in the MAXENT programme to build a habitat suitability model for Thai palms based...... on presence data. The aim was to identify potential hot spot areas, assess the determinants of palm distribution ranges, and provide a firmer knowledge base for future conservation actions. We focused on a relatively small number of climatic, environmental and spatial variables in order to avoid...... overprediction of species distribution ranges. The models with the best predictive power were found by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) of receiver-operating characteristic (ROC). Here, we provide examples of contrasting predicted species distribution ranges as well as a map of modeled palm diversity...

  1. Local random potentials of high differentiability to model the Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Battefeld, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    We generate random functions locally via a novel generalization of Dyson Brownian motion, such that the functions are in a desired differentiability class, while ensuring that the Hessian is a member of the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble (other ensembles might be chosen if desired). Potentials in such higher differentiability classes are required/desirable to model string theoretical landscapes, for instance to compute cosmological perturbations (e.g., smooth first and second derivatives for the power-spectrum) or to search for minima (e.g., suitable de Sitter vacua for our universe). Since potentials are created locally, numerical studies become feasible even if the dimension of field space is large (D ~ 100). In addition to the theoretical prescription, we provide some numerical examples to highlight properties of such potentials; concrete cosmological applications will be discussed in companion publications.

  2. Potential for Remotely Sensed Soil Moisture Data in Hydrologic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engman, Edwin T.

    1997-01-01

    Many hydrologic processes display a unique signature that is detectable with microwave remote sensing. These signatures are in the form of the spatial and temporal distributions of surface soil moisture and portray the spatial heterogeneity of hydrologic processes and properties that one encounters in drainage basins. The hydrologic processes that may be detected include ground water recharge and discharge zones, storm runoff contributing areas, regions of potential and less than potential ET, and information about the hydrologic properties of soils and heterogeneity of hydrologic parameters. Microwave remote sensing has the potential to detect these signatures within a basin in the form of volumetric soil moisture measurements in the top few cm. These signatures should provide information on how and where to apply soil physical parameters in distributed and lumped parameter models and how to subdivide drainage basins into hydrologically similar sub-basins.

  3. Minimal model for short-time diffusion in periodic potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emary, Clive; Gernert, Robert; Klapp, Sabine H L

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the dynamics of a single, overdamped colloidal particle, which is driven by a constant force through a one-dimensional periodic potential. We focus on systems with large barrier heights where the lowest-order cumulants of the density field, that is, average position and the mean-squared displacement, show nontrivial (nondiffusive) short-time behavior characterized by the appearance of plateaus. We demonstrate that this "cage-like" dynamics can be well described by a discretized master equation model involving two states (related to two positions) within each potential valley. Nontrivial predictions of our approach include analytic expressions for the plateau heights and an estimate of the "de-caging time" obtained from the study of deviations from Gaussian behavior. The simplicity of our approach means that it offers a minimal model to describe the short-time behavior of systems with hindered dynamics.

  4. Modeling of Transmembrane Potential in Realistic Multicellular Structures before Electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murovec, Tomo; Sweeney, Daniel C; Latouche, Eduardo; Davalos, Rafael V; Brosseau, Christian

    2016-11-15

    Many approaches for studying the transmembrane potential (TMP) induced during the treatment of biological cells with pulsed electric fields have been reported. From the simple analytical models to more complex numerical models requiring significant computational resources, a gamut of methods have been used to recapitulate multicellular environments in silico. Cells have been modeled as simple shapes in two dimensions as well as more complex geometries attempting to replicate realistic cell shapes. In this study, we describe a method for extracting realistic cell morphologies from fluorescence microscopy images to generate the piecewise continuous mesh used to develop a finite element model in two dimensions. The preelectroporation TMP induced in tightly packed cells is analyzed for two sets of pulse parameters inspired by clinical irreversible electroporation treatments. We show that high-frequency bipolar pulse trains are better, and more homogeneously raise the TMP of tightly packed cells to a simulated electroporation threshold than conventional irreversible electroporation pulse trains, at the expense of larger applied potentials. Our results demonstrate the viability of our method and emphasize the importance of considering multicellular effects in the numerical models used for studying the response of biological tissues exposed to electric fields. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Instanton-Dyon Liquid Model III: Finite Chemical Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yizhuang; Zahed, Ismail

    2016-01-01

    We discuss an extension of the instanton-dyon liquid model that includes light quarks at finite chemical potential in the center symmetric phase. We develop the model in details for the case of SU_c(2)\\times SU_f(2) by mapping the theory on a 3-dimensional quantum effective theory. We analyze the different phases in the mean-field approximation. We extend this analysis to the general case of SU_c(N_c)\\times SU_f(N_f) and note that the chiral and diquark pairings are always comparable.

  6. Open flavour charmed mesons in a quantum chromodynamics potential model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Krishna Kingkar Pathak; D K Choudhury

    2012-12-01

    We modify the mesonic wave function by using a short distance scale 0 in analogy with hydrogen atom and estimate the values of masses and decay constants of the open flavour charm mesons , $D_{s}$ and $B_{c}$ within the framework of a QCD potential model. We also calculate leptonic decay widths of these mesons to study branching ratios and lifetime. The results are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical values.

  7. Structural properties of effective potential model by liquid state theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Yuan-Tao; Andrej Jamnik; Yang Kai-Wei

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the structural properties of a model fluid dictated by an effective inter-particle oscillatory potential by grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (GCEMC) simulation and classical liquid state theories. The chosen oscillatory potential incorporates basic interaction terms used in modeling of various complex fluids which is composed of mesoscopic particles dispersed in a solvent bath, the studied structural properties include radial distribution function in bulk and inhomogeneous density distribution profile due to influence of several external fields. The GCEMC results are employed to test the validity of two recently proposed theoretical approaches in the field of atomic fluids. One is an Ornstein-Zernike integral equation theory approach; the other is a third order + second order perturbation density functional theory. Satisfactory agreement between the GCEMC simulation and the pure theories fully indicates the ready adaptability of the atomic fluid theories to effective model potentials in complex fluids, and classifies the proposed theoretical approaches as convenient tools for the investigation of complex fluids under the single component macro-fluid approximation.

  8. N-1-Alkylated Pyrimidine Films as a New Potential Optical Data Storage Medium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohse, Brian; Hvilsted, Søren; Berg, Rolf Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    We investigate several compounds of the type 1,1’-(a,w-alkanediyl)bis[pyrimidinej and 1-(w- bromoalkyl)uracil, which can undergo photoinduced (2jr + 2n) cycloaddition reactions on exposure to UV light at 254 and 257 nm, which have been synthesized for application in high capacity optical data...

  9. Dye-modified ZnO nanohybrids: optical properties of the potential solar cell nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayinde, Wasiu B.; Dare, Enock O.; Bada, Damilola A.; Alayande, Samson O.; Oladoyinbo, Fatai O.; Idowu, Mopelola A.; Bolaji, Bukola. O.; Ezeh, Miriam I.; Osuji, Rose U.

    2017-06-01

    We report the hybridization of ZnO with natural dyes [Laali, Zobo] or synthetic dye [methyl red] forming ZnO-laali, ZnO-zobo and ZnO-methyl red nanocomposites in bright colours. The structural, optical and dye photosensitization influence of the hybrid nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL). The surface plasmon absorption band of ZnO-laali and ZnO-zobo shifts towards red and blue, respectively, with significantly enhanced absorption intensities, indicating the interaction and optical influence of the respective dyes in photosensitization. Optical and absorption character of ZnO methyl red and bare ZnO are similar indicating the insignificant effect of methyl red on photosensitization. PL spectra of ZnO-laali and ZnO-zobo display enhanced UV light emission due not only to the surface electron transfer from their respective inherent isoplumbagin and anthocyanin to ZnO but also to the extension of the Fermi energy level to the ZnO. Dyes adopted influence the optical band gaps of the evolved hybrid nanocomposites.

  10. Potentiality of optical diffraction grating technology in the fabrication of miniaturized multicapillary chromatographic and electrophoresis columns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, Y N

    2001-10-01

    A possible way of fabricating miniaturized multicapillary columns for gas and liquid chromatographs or electrophoresis devices containing many thousands of identical channels with a width (or depth) of approximately 1-30 microm by means of industrial technology for the production of optical plane reflecting diffraction gratings is proposed.

  11. Probabilistic delay differential equation modeling of event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostwald, Dirk; Starke, Ludger

    2016-08-01

    "Dynamic causal models" (DCMs) are a promising approach in the analysis of functional neuroimaging data due to their biophysical interpretability and their consolidation of functional-segregative and functional-integrative propositions. In this theoretical note we are concerned with the DCM framework for electroencephalographically recorded event-related potentials (ERP-DCM). Intuitively, ERP-DCM combines deterministic dynamical neural mass models with dipole-based EEG forward models to describe the event-related scalp potential time-series over the entire electrode space. Since its inception, ERP-DCM has been successfully employed to capture the neural underpinnings of a wide range of neurocognitive phenomena. However, in spite of its empirical popularity, the technical literature on ERP-DCM remains somewhat patchy. A number of previous communications have detailed certain aspects of the approach, but no unified and coherent documentation exists. With this technical note, we aim to close this gap and to increase the technical accessibility of ERP-DCM. Specifically, this note makes the following novel contributions: firstly, we provide a unified and coherent review of the mathematical machinery of the latent and forward models constituting ERP-DCM by formulating the approach as a probabilistic latent delay differential equation model. Secondly, we emphasize the probabilistic nature of the model and its variational Bayesian inversion scheme by explicitly deriving the variational free energy function in terms of both the likelihood expectation and variance parameters. Thirdly, we detail and validate the estimation of the model with a special focus on the explicit form of the variational free energy function and introduce a conventional nonlinear optimization scheme for its maximization. Finally, we identify and discuss a number of computational issues which may be addressed in the future development of the approach.

  12. Potential of a spectroscopic measurement method using adding-doubling to retrieve the bulk optical properties of dense microalgal media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, Sarah; Bendoula, Ryad; Latrille, Eric; Roger, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    In the context of algal mass cultivation, current techniques used for the characterization of algal cells require time-consuming sample preparation and a large amount of costly, standard instrumentation. As the physical and chemical properties of the algal cells strongly affect their optical properties, the optical characterization is seen as a promising method to provide an early diagnosis in the context of mass cultivation monitoring. This article explores the potential of a spectroscopic measurement method coupled with the inversion of the radiative transfer theory for the retrieval of the bulk optical properties of dense algal samples. Total transmittance and total reflectance measurements were performed over the 380-1020 nm range on dense algal samples with a double integrating sphere setup. The bulk absorption and scattering coefficients were thus extracted over the 380-1020 nm range by inverting the radiative transfer theory using inverse-adding-doubling computations. The experimental results are presented and discussed; the configuration of the optical setup remains a critical point. The absorption coefficients obtained for the four samples of this study appear not to be more informative about pigment composition than would be classical methods in analytical spectroscopy; however, there is a real added value in measuring the reduced scattering coefficient, as it appears to be strongly correlated to the size distribution of the algal cells.

  13. A General Epipolar-Line Model between Optical and SAR Images and Used in Image Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Xing

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The search space and strategy are important for optical and SAR image matching. In this paper a general epipolar-line model has been proposed between linear array push-broom optical and SAR images. Then a dynamic approximate epipolar-line constraint model (DAELCM has been constructed and used to construct a new image matching algorithm with Harris operator and CRA. Experimental results have shown that the general epipolar-line model is valid and successfully used in optical and SAR image matching, and effectively limits the search space and decreased computation.

  14. Problems of large neurodynamics system modeling: optical synergetics and neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A.

    1991-04-01

    The possibilities of modeling developed neuronetwork dynamics are investigated by nonlinear coherent optical systems with a 2-D feedback. A comparative analysis of neuron-like systems of various physical nature has been made. The results of experimental investigations of nonlinear optical system dynamics with nonlocal connections are discussed.

  15. Modelling of optically stimulated luminescence of zircon : assessment of the suitability for dating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turkin, A.A.; Vainshtein, D.I.; Hartog, H.W. den

    2006-01-01

    The mineral zircon, ZrSiO4, is a candidate material for optical dating because it exhibits luminescence after exposure to natural radioactivity. The kinetic model of zircon thermally stimulated luminescence proposed before has been modified and used to investigate optically Stimulated luminescence (

  16. Modeling of semiconductor devices for high-speed all-optical signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bischoff, Svend; Højfeldt, Sune; Mørk, Jesper

    2001-01-01

    The all-optical signal processing performance of devices based on active semiconductor waveguides is investigated. A large signal model is used to analyse the physical mechanisms limiting the high-speed performance of both semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and electro-absorption modulators ...

  17. Capturing optically important constituents and properties in a marine biogeochemical and ecosystem model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Dutkiewicz

    2015-07-01

    This new model that captures bio-optical feedbacks will be important for improving our understanding of the role of light and optical constituents on ocean biogeochemistry, especially in a changing environment. Further, resolving surface upwelling irradiance will make it easier to connect to satellite-derived products in the future.

  18. Modelling of the Optical Detector System in a Compact Disc Player

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle;

    2003-01-01

    The cross-couplings between focus and radial tracking servos in compact disc players are important, but the optical cross couplings are not well described in the literature. In this paper an optical model of a compact disc player based on the three beam single foucault detector principle is found......, which includes the cross couplings between focus and radial loops....

  19. Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we...

  20. Uncertainties of optical-model parameters for the study of the threshold anomaly

    CERN Document Server

    Abriola, Daniel; Testoni, J; Gollan, F; Martí, G V

    2015-01-01

    In the analysis of elastic-scattering experimental data, optical-model parameters (usually, depths of real and imaginary potentials) are fitted and conclusions are drawn analyzing their variations at bombardment energies close to the Coulomb barrier (threshold anomaly). The judgement about the shape of this variation (related to the physical processes producing this anomaly) depends on these fitted values but the robustness of the conclusions strongly depends on the uncertainties with which these parameters are derived. We will show that previous published studies have not used a common criterium for the evaluation of the parameter uncertainties. In this work, a study of these uncertainties is presented, using conventional statistic tools as well as bootstrapping techniques. As case studies, these procedures are applied to re-analyze detailed elastic-scattering data for the $^{12}$C + $^{208}$Pb and the $^6$Li + $^{80}$Se systems.

  1. Optical modeling and polarization calibration for CMB measurements with ACTPol and Advanced ACTPol

    CERN Document Server

    Koopman, Brian; Cho, Hsiao-Mei; Coughlin, Kevin P; Duff, Shannon M; Gallardo, Patricio A; Hasselfield, Matthew; Henderson, Shawn W; Ho, Shuay-Pwu Patty; Hubmayr, Johannes; Irwin, Kent D; Li, Dale; McMahon, Jeff; Nati, Federico; Niemack, Michael D; Newburgh, Laura; Page, Lyman A; Salatino, Maria; Schillaci, Alessandro; Schmitt, Benjamin L; Simon, Sara M; Vavagiakis, Eve M; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J

    2016-01-01

    The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope. Located at an elevation of 5190 m, ACTPol measures the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular resolution. Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing maps of the CMB polarization. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We present our optical modeling and measurements associated with calibrating the detector angles in ACTPol.

  2. Re-modeling Chara action potential: II. The action potential form under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Jane Beilby

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In part I we established Thiel-Beilby model of the Chara action potential (AP. In part II the AP is investigated in detail at the time of saline stress. Even very short exposure of salt-sensitive Chara cells to artificial pond water with 50 mM NaCl (Saline APW modified the AP threshold and drastically altered the AP form. Detailed modeling of 14 saline APs from 3 cells established that both the Ca2+ pump and the Ca2+ channels on internal stores seem to be affected, with the changes sometimes cancelling and sometimes re-enforcing each other, leading to APs with long durations and very complex forms. The exposure to salinity offers further insights into AP mechanism and suggests future experiments. The prolonged APs lead to greater loss of chloride and potassium ions, compounding the effects of saline stress.

  3. Transparent half metallic g-C4N3 nanotubes: potential multifunctional applications for spintronics and optical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tao; Hashmi, Arqum; Hong, Jisang

    2014-08-14

    Multifunctional material brings many interesting issues because of various potential device applications. Using first principles calculations, we predict that the graphitic carbon nitride (g-C4N3) nanotubes can display multifunctional properties for both spintronics and optical device applications. Very interestingly, armchair tubes (n, n) with n = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and (5, 0) zigzag tubes are found to be half metallic, while zigzag tubes (n, 0) with n = 4, 6 show an antiferromagnetic ground state with band gaps. However, larger zigzag tubes of (7, 0), (8, 0), and (10, 0) are turned out to be half metallic. Along with the half metallic behavior of the tubes, those tubes seem to be optically transparent in the visible range. Due to these magnetic and optical properties, we suggest that the g-C4N3 nanotubes (CNNTs) can be used for both ideal spintronics and transparent electrode materials. We also explored the stability of magnetic state and nanotube structure using ab initio molecular dynamics. The CNNTs were found to be thermally stable and the magnetic moment was robust against the structural deformation at 300 K. Overall, our theoretical prediction in one dimensional CNNTs may provide a new physics in spintronics and also in other device applications because of potential multifunctional properties.

  4. Optically tunable nanoparticle contrast agents for early cancer detection: model-based analysis of gold nanoshells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Alex W H; Lewinski, Nastassja A; West, Jennifer L; Halas, Naomi J; Drezek, Rebekah A

    2005-01-01

    Many optical diagnostic approaches rely on changes in scattering and absorption properties to generate optical contrast between normal and diseased tissue. Recently, there has been increasing interest in using exogenous agents to enhance this intrinsic contrast with particular emphasis on the development for targeting specific molecular features of disease. Gold nanoshells are a class of core-shell nanoparticles with an extremely tunable peak optical resonance ranging from the near-UV to the mid-IR wavelengths. Using current chemistries, nanoshells of a wide variety of core and shell sizes can easily be fabricated to scatter and/or absorb light with optical cross sections often several times larger than the geometric cross section. Using gold nanoshells of different size and optical parameters, we employ Monte Carlo models to predict the effect of varying concentrations of nanoshells on tissue reflectance. The models demonstrate the importance of absorption from the nanoshells on remitted signals even when the optical extinction is dominated by scattering. Furthermore, because of the strong optical response of nanoshells, a considerable change in reflectance is observed with only a very small concentration of nanoshells. Characterizing the optical behavior of gold nanoshells in tissue will aid in developing nanoshells as contrast agents for optical diagnostics.

  5. Quantum simulation of correlated-hopping models with fermions in optical lattices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liberto, M. Di; Creffield, C. E.; Japaridze, G. I.; Smith, C. Morais

    2014-01-01

    By using a modulated magnetic field in a Feshbach resonance for ultracold fermionic atoms in optical lattices, we show that it is possible to engineer a class of models usually referred to as correlated-hopping models. These models differ from the Hubbard model in exhibiting additional density-depen

  6. Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued

    2013-01-01

    Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...

  7. Full wave model of image formation in optical coherence tomography applicable to general samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Peter R T; Curatolo, Andrea; Sampson, David D

    2015-02-09

    We demonstrate a highly realistic model of optical coherence tomography, based on an existing model of coherent optical microscopes, which employs a full wave description of light. A defining feature of the model is the decoupling of the key functions of an optical coherence tomography system: sample illumination, light-sample interaction and the collection of light scattered by the sample. We show how such a model can be implemented using the finite-difference time-domain method to model light propagation in general samples. The model employs vectorial focussing theory to represent the optical system and, thus, incorporates general illumination beam types and detection optics. To demonstrate its versatility, we model image formation of a stratified medium, a numerical point-spread function phantom and a numerical phantom, based upon a physical three-dimensional structured phantom employed in our laboratory. We show that simulated images compare well with experimental images of a three-dimensional structured phantom. Such a model provides a powerful means to advance all aspects of optical coherence tomography imaging.

  8. Generalization of iterative perturbation theory and coherent potential approximation (ITP+CPA) to double exchange model with orbital degeneracy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zi-Xin; Wen Sheng-Hui; Li Ming

    2008-01-01

    A combination of the iterative perturbation theory (ITP) of the dynamical mean field theory (DMFT) and coherent-potential approximation (CPA) is generalized to the double exchange model with orbital degeneracy. The Hubbard interaction and the off-diagonal components for the hopping matrix tmnijn(m≠n) are considered in our calculation of spectrum and optical conductivity. The numerical results show that the effects of the non-diagonal hopping matrix elements are important.

  9. Experimental verification of optical models of graphene with multimode slab waveguides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Zeshan; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2016-05-01

    We compare three optical models of graphene, namely, the interface model, the isotropic model, and the anisotropic model, and verify them experimentally with two multimode slab waveguide samples operating at the wavelengths of 632.8 and 1536 nm. By comparing the calculated graphene-induced losses and the measurement data, we confirm that the interface model and the anisotropic model give correct results for both the transverse electric (TE) and transverse magnetic modes, while the isotropic model gives correct results only for the TE modes. With the experimental data, we also quantitatively verify the widely used expression for the surface conductivity of graphene in the optical regime. Our findings clarify the issue of modeling graphene in the analysis of graphene-incorporated waveguides and offer deeper insight into the optical properties of graphene for waveguide applications.

  10. Optical Thermal Ratchet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucheux, L. P.; Bourdieu, L. S.; Kaplan, P. D.; Libchaber, A. J.

    1995-02-01

    We present an optical realization of a thermal ratchet. Directed motion of Brownian particles in water is induced by modulating in time a spatially periodic but asymmetric optical potential. The net drift shows a maximum as a function of the modulation period. The experimental results agree with a simple theoretical model based on diffusion.

  11. Surface modeling for optical fabrication with linear ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Lixiang; Shao, Jianda

    2016-01-01

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. It is the first time that we have a surface descriptor for building a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on PSD analysis, which akin to Zernike polynomials used for mapping the relationship between surface errors and Seidel aberrations. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of surface errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that, in theory, optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approac...

  12. Potential clinical utility of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter for dose measurements in diagnostic radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A Kyle; Hintenlang, David

    2008-01-01

    Many types of dosemeters have been investigated for absorbed dose measurements in diagnostic radiology, including ionisation chambers, metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor dosemeters, thermoluminescent dosemeters, optically stimulated luminescence detectors, film and diodes. Each of the aforementioned dosemeters suffers from a critical limitation, either the need to interrogate, or read, the dosemeter to retrieve dose information or large size to achieve adequate sensitivity. This work presents an evaluation of a fibre optic-coupled dosemeter (FOCD) for use in diagnostic radiology dose measurement. This dosemeter is small, tissue-equivalent and capable of providing true real-time dose information. The FOCD has been evaluated for dose linearity, angular dependence, sensitivity and energy dependence at energies, beam qualities and beam quantities relevant to diagnostic radiology. The FOCD displayed excellent dose linearity and high sensitivity, while exhibiting minimal angular dependence of response. However, the dosemeter does exhibit positive energy dependence, and is subject to attenuation of response when bent.

  13. DFT Investigation of Osmium Terpyridinyl Complexes as Potential Optical Limiting Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Alok, Shashwat

    2015-01-01

    The development of optical power limiting materials is important to protect individuals or materials from intense laser irradiation. The photophysical behavior of Os(II) polypyridinyl complexes having aromatic hydrocarbon terpyridyl ligands has received considerable attention as systems exhibiting intramolecular energy transfer to yield a long excited states lifetime. Here we present a focused discussion to illustrate the photophysical behavior of transition metal complexes with modified terpyridyl ligands, utilizing density functional theory. Our DFT studies of the excited state behavior of Os(II) complexes containing pyrene-vinylene derived terpyridine (pyr-v-tpy) ligands can be applied to the development of optical limiting materials controlling the laser power at longer wavelength range.

  14. The value of adding optics to ecosystem models: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Fujii

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Many ecosystem models have been developed to study the ocean's biogeochemical properties, but most of these models use simple formulations to describe light penetration and spectral quality. Here, an optical model is coupled with a previously published ecosystem model that explicitly represents two phytoplankton (picoplankton and diatoms and two zooplankton functional groups, as well as multiple nutrients and detritus. Surface ocean color fields and subsurface light fields are calculated by coupling the ecosystem model with an optical model that relates biogeochemical standing stocks with inherent optical properties (absorption, scattering; this provides input to a commercially available radiative transfer model (Ecolight. We apply this bio-optical model to the equatorial Pacific upwelling region, and find the model to be capable of reproducing many measured optical properties and key biogeochemical processes in this region. Our model results suggest that non-algal particles largely contribute to the total scattering or attenuation (>50% at 660 nm but have a much smaller contribution to particulate absorption (<20% at 440 nm, while picoplankton dominate the total phytoplankton absorption (>95% at 440 nm. These results are consistent with the field observations. In order to achieve such good agreement between data and model results, however, key model parameters, for which no field data are available, have to be constrained. Sensitivity analysis of the model results to optical parameters reveals a significant role played by colored dissolved organic matter through its influence on the quantity and quality of the ambient light. Coupling explicit optics to an ecosystem model provides advantages in generating: (1 a more accurate subsurface light-field, which is important for light sensitive biogeochemical processes such as photosynthesis and photo-oxidation, (2 additional constraints on model parameters that help to reduce uncertainties in

  15. Spatial Modelling of Solar energy Potential in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Omondi Oloo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy is one of the readily available renewable energy resources in the developing countries within the tropical region. Kenya is one of the countries which receive an average of approximately 6.5 sunshine hours in a single day throughout the year. However, there is slow adoption of solar energy resources in the country due to limited information on the spatial variability solar energy potential. This study aims at assessing the potential of photovoltaic solar energy in Kenya. The factors that influence incident solar radiation which were considered in this task included atmospheric transmissivity and topography. The influence of atmospheric transmissivity was factored in by modelling monthly transmissivity factors from a combination of cloud cover, diffuse ratios and the effect of altitude. The contribution of topography was included by applying hemispherical viewshed analysis to determine the amount of incident global radiation on the surface based on the orientation of the terrain. GIS concepts were used to integrate the spatial datasets from different themes. The results showed that, about 70% of the land area in Kenya has the potential of receiving approximately 5kWh/m2/day throughout the year. In outline, this work successfully assessed the spatio-temporal variability in the characteristics of solar energy potential in Kenya and can be used as a basis for policy support in the country.

  16. Thin As-Se-Sb Films as Potential Medium for Optics and Sensor Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilcheva, Vania; Boev, V.; Petkova, T.; Petkov, Plamen; Petkov, Emil; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I. N.

    Thin films have been deposited onto quartz substrates by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method from the corresponding glassy bulk As-Se-Sb chalcogenide materials. Photoinduced changes have been observed after illumination of the films with a Xe lamp. The transmission spectra of the thin films have been measured before and after irradiation and the optical constants have been derived by the Swanepoel method. The results suggest feasible applications of these materials for waveguide-sensors.

  17. Characterization of novel microsphere chain fiber optic tips for potential use in ophthalmic laser surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchens, Thomas C.; Darafsheh, Arash; Fardad, Amir; Antoszyk, Andrew N.; Ying, Howard S.; Astratov, Vasily N.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Ophthalmic surgery may benefit from use of more precise fiber delivery systems during laser surgery. Some current ophthalmic surgical techniques rely on tedious mechanical dissection of tissue layers. In this study, chains of sapphire microspheres integrated into a hollow waveguide distal tip are used for erbium:YAG laser ablation studies in contact mode with ophthalmic tissues, ex vivo. The laser’s short optical penetration depth combined with the small spot diameters achieved with this fibe...

  18. Potential of optical spectral transmission measurements for joint inflammation measurements in rheumatoid arthritis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, A. J. Louise; Rensen, Wouter H. J.; de Bokx, Pieter K.; de Nijs, Ron N. J.

    2012-08-01

    Frequent monitoring of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients enables timely treatment adjustments and improved outcomes. Currently this is not feasible due to a shortage of rheumatologists. An optical spectral transmission device is presented for objective assessment of joint inflammation in RA patients, while improving diagnostic accuracy and clinical workflow. A cross-sectional, nonrandomized observational study was performed with this device. In the study, 77 proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 67 patients have been analyzed. Inflammation of these PIP joints was also assessed by a rheumatologist with a score varying from 1 (not inflamed) to 5 (severely inflamed). Out of 77 measurements, 27 were performed in moderate to strongly inflamed PIP joints. Comparison between the clinical assessment and an optical measurement showed a correlation coefficient r=0.63, p<0.001, 95% CI [0.47, 0.75], and a ROC curve (AUC=0.88) that shows a relative good specificity and sensitivity. Optical spectral transmission measurements in a single joint correlate with clinical assessment of joint inflammation, and therefore might be useful in monitoring joint inflammation in RA patients.

  19. Optical coherence tomography findings in Huntington's disease: a potential biomarker of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersten, Hannah M; Danesh-Meyer, Helen V; Kilfoyle, Dean H; Roxburgh, Richard H

    2015-11-01

    Previous reports of ocular abnormalities in Huntington's disease (HD) have detailed eye movement disorders. The objective of this case-control study was to investigate optic nerve and macular morphology in HD using optical coherence tomography (OCT). A total of 26 HD patients and 29 controls underwent a thorough ophthalmic examination including spectral domain OCT scans of the macula and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL). Genetic testing results, disease duration, HD disease burden scores and Unified HD Rating Scale motor scores were acquired for HD patients. Temporal RNFL thickness was significantly reduced in the HD group (62.3 vs. 69.8 μm, p = 0.005), and there was a significant negative correlation between temporal RNFL thickness and disease duration (R (2) = -0.51, p = 0.04). Average peripapillary RNFL thickness was not significantly different between the HD and control groups. There was a significant negative correlation between macular volume and disease duration (R (2) = -0.71, p = 0.002), and motor scores (R (2) = -0.56, p = 0.01). Colour vision was significantly poorer in the HD group. Temporal RNFL is preferentially thinned in HD patients, possibly implicating mitochondrial dysfunction as the temporal RNFL is reduced in the patients with some mitochondrial disorders, including Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy. The correlation between the decrease in macular volume and temporal RNFL, and increasing disease severity suggests that OCT may be a useful biomarker for disease progression in HD. Larger, longitudinal studies are required.

  20. Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models

    CERN Document Server

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    ""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu