Analysis of a Thin Optical Lens Model
Ivchenko, Vladimir V.
2011-01-01
In this article a thin optical lens model is considered. It is shown that the limits of its applicability are determined not only by the ratio between the thickness of the lens and the modules of the radii of curvature, but above all its geometric type. We have derived the analytical criteria for the applicability of the model for different types…
Optical model analysis of intermediate energy p-4He scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greben, J.M.; Gourishankar, R.
1983-03-01
Recent Wolfenstein R-parameter data are used to explain and resolve previous problems with optical model descriptions of p- 4 He elastic scattering at 500 MeV. An essential component in this optical model analysis is a qualitative interpretation of different features of the elastic data in terms of the Born approximation. First we show that the R-data require the real spin-orbit potential to have certain geometrical properties which were missing in previous analyses. We can then show that the fast fall-off of the cross-section for small angles, together with the rapid increase and subsequent decrease of the polarization, establishes the need for an attractive tail in the real central potentials can also be inferred from this qualitative analysis, in particular a strong reduction of the spin-orbit potential. Our final potential gives a reduction of the X 2 /datapoint by about 20 in comparison to previous potentials, and underlines the usefulness of the qualitative Born analysis
Optical-model analysis of exotic atom data. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Batty, C.J.
1981-01-01
Data for kaonic atoms are fitted using a simple optical model with a potential proportional to the nuclear density. Very satisfactory fits to strong interaction shift and width values are obtained but difficulties in fitting yield values indicate that the model is not completely satisfactory. The potential strength can be related to the free kaon-nucleon scattering lengths using a model due to Deloff. A good overall representation of the data is obtained with a black-sphere model. (orig.)
Modeling and analysis of laser active interference optical path
Shan, Cong-miao; Sun, Hua-yan; Zhao, Yan-zhong; Chen, Jian-biao; Ren, Jian-ying
2017-10-01
By using the geometrical optics and physical optics method, the models of wedge plate interference optical path, Michelson interferometer and Mach Zehnder interferometer thus three different active interference pattern are built. The optical path difference (OPD) launched by different interference patterns, fringe spacing and contrast expression have been derived. The results show that far field interference peak intensity of the wedge plate interference is small, so the detection distance is limited, Michelson interferometer with low contrast affects the performance of detection system, Mach Zehnder interferometer has greater advantages in peak intensity, the variable range of interference fringe spacing and contrast ratio. The results of this study are useful for the theoretical research and practical application of laser active interference detection.
Yanqing solar field: Dynamic optical model and operational safety analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Dongming; Wang, Zhifeng; Xu, Ershu; Zhu, Lingzhi; Lei, Dongqiang; Xu, Li; Yuan, Guofeng
2017-01-01
Highlights: • A dynamic optical model of the Yanqing solar field was built. • Tracking angle characteristics were studied with different SCA layouts and time. • The average energy flux was simulated across four clear days. • Influences of defocus angles for energy flux were analyzed. - Abstract: A dynamic optical model was established for the Yanqing solar field at the parabolic trough solar thermal power plant and a simulation was conducted on four separate days of clear weather (March 3rd, June 2nd, September 25th, December 17th). The solar collector assembly (SCA) was comprised of a North-South and East-West layout. The model consisted of the following modules: DNI, SCA operational, and SCA optical. The tracking angle characteristics were analyzed and the results showed that the East-West layout of the tracking system was the most viable. The average energy flux was simulated for a given time period and different SCA layouts, yielding an average flux of 6 kW/m 2 , which was then used as the design and operational standards of the Yanqing parabolic trough plant. The mass flow of North-South layout was relatively stable. The influences of the defocus angles on both the average energy flux and the circumferential flux distribution were also studied. The results provided a theoretical basis for the following components: solar field design, mass flow control of the heat transfer fluid, design and operation of the tracking system, operational safety of SCAs, and power production prediction in the Yanqing 1 MW parabolic trough plant.
General MACOS Interface for Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems
Sigrist, Norbert; Basinger, Scott A.; Redding, David C.
2012-01-01
The General MACOS Interface (GMI) for Modeling and Analysis for Controlled Optical Systems (MACOS) enables the use of MATLAB as a front-end for JPL s critical optical modeling package, MACOS. MACOS is JPL s in-house optical modeling software, which has proven to be a superb tool for advanced systems engineering of optical systems. GMI, coupled with MACOS, allows for seamless interfacing with modeling tools from other disciplines to make possible integration of dynamics, structures, and thermal models with the addition of control systems for deformable optics and other actuated optics. This software package is designed as a tool for analysts to quickly and easily use MACOS without needing to be an expert at programming MACOS. The strength of MACOS is its ability to interface with various modeling/development platforms, allowing evaluation of system performance with thermal, mechanical, and optical modeling parameter variations. GMI provides an improved means for accessing selected key MACOS functionalities. The main objective of GMI is to marry the vast mathematical and graphical capabilities of MATLAB with the powerful optical analysis engine of MACOS, thereby providing a useful tool to anyone who can program in MATLAB. GMI also improves modeling efficiency by eliminating the need to write an interface function for each task/project, reducing error sources, speeding up user/modeling tasks, and making MACOS well suited for fast prototyping.
Lindemann, J.P.; Kern, R.; Hateren, J.H. van; Ritter, H.; Egelhaaf, M.
2005-01-01
For many animals, including humans, the optic flow generated on the eyes during locomotion is an important source of information about self-motion and the structure of the environment. The blowfly has been used frequently as a model system for experimental analysis of optic flow processing at the
Semi-classical analysis of optical model ambiguities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cuer, M.
1979-01-01
The ambiguities in the inverse problem at fixed energy in quantum mechanics are analyzed in the framework of the JWKB method. When the classical turning point is unique for all values of the impact parameter (high energies region), the ambiguities proceed only from the quantization of the angular momentum. In the asymptotic region the difference between two particular equivalent potentials changes sign infinitely often. In addition, the set of equivalent potentials which have a given asymptotic form is bounded (except perhaps at the origin). When there are several turning points for small values of the impact parameter (low-energy region), new ambiguities arise from the fact that the parts of the potential that are located between turning points are not ''visible'' in the classical limit. The set of equivalent potentials wich have a given asymptotic form is then not bounded. Mumerical examples (of real and complex equivalent potentials) are given. The optical model ambiguities are studied. The potential depth ambiguities also appear in classical mechanics, but their discrete nature is a quantum property. The VR/sup p//sup( V/)=constant ambiguities can be explained by the quantum corrections to the spiral scattering phenomenon. An attempt to explain why ambiguities arise only with heavy particles scattering is also given
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mercer, R L [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, N.Y. (USA); Arnold, L G; Clark, B C [Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA). Dept. of Physics
1978-01-30
The results of a Dirac equation optical model analysis of p-/sup 4/He elastic scattering data are reported. The optical potential obtained at 1029 MeV reproduces the systematics of p-/sup 4/He data over the energy range from 560 to 1730 MeV.
Bridging the Gap between RF and Optical Patch Antenna Analysis via the Cavity Model.
Unal, G S; Aksun, M I
2015-11-02
Although optical antennas with a variety of shapes and for a variety of applications have been proposed and studied, they are still in their infancy compared to their radio frequency (rf) counterparts. Optical antennas have mainly utilized the geometrical attributes of rf antennas rather than the analysis tools that have been the source of intuition for antenna engineers in rf. This study intends to narrow the gap of experience and intuition in the design of optical patch antennas by introducing an easy-to-understand and easy-to-implement analysis tool in rf, namely, the cavity model, into the optical regime. The importance of this approach is not only its simplicity in understanding and implementation but also its applicability to a broad class of patch antennas and, more importantly, its ability to provide the intuition needed to predict the outcome without going through the trial-and-error simulations with no or little intuitive guidance by the user.
Jamshidi, Kambiz; Salehi, Jawad A.
2005-05-01
This paper describes a study of the performance of various configurations for placing multiple optical amplifiers in a typical coherent ultrashort light pulse code-division multiple access (CULP-CDMA) communication system using the additive noise model. For this study, a comprehensive performance analysis was developed that takes into account multiple-access noise, noise due to optical amplifiers, and thermal noise using the saddle-point approximation technique. Prior to obtaining the overall system performance, the input/output statistical models for different elements of the system such as encoders/decoders,star coupler, and optical amplifiers were obtained. Performance comparisons between an ideal and lossless quantum-limited case and a typical CULP-CDMA with various losses exhibit more than 30 dB more power requirement to obtain the same bit-error rate (BER). Considering the saturation effect of optical amplifiers, this paper discusses an algorithm for amplifiers' gain setting in various stages of the network in order to overcome the nonlinear effects on signal modulation in optical amplifiers. Finally, using this algorithm,various configurations of multiple optical amplifiers in CULP-CDMA are discussed and the rules for the required optimum number of amplifiers are shown with their corresponding optimum locations to be implemented along the CULP-CDMA system.
Quantum-mechanical analysis of the VRsup(n) ambiguity in the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shastry, C.S.
1982-01-01
Using analytical methods and without adopting numerical calculations or semiclassical arguments, it is shown that the well known VRsup(n), n is approximately equal to 2, parameter ambiguity in the neutron-nucleus optical potential can be attributed to the closeness of the Woods-Saxon potential to the corresponding square well inside the nucleus. This parameter ambiguity is absent in individual partial waves but is more apparent in the differential cross section. The analysis is generalised to the proton-nucleus optical model. The present method clearly pinpoints the mathematical origin of the VRsup(n) ambiguity which is difficult to deduce by purely numerical methods. (author)
Modeling and Performance Analysis of 10 Gbps Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication Link
Singh, Mehtab
2017-12-01
Free-space optical (FSO) communication has the advantages of two of the most predominant data transmission technologies - optical fiber communication and wireless communication. Most of the technical aspects of FSO are similar to that of optical fiber communication, with major difference in the information signal propagation medium which is free space in case of FSO rather than silica glass in optical fiber communication. One of the most important applications of FSO is inter-satellite optical wireless communication (IsOWC) links which will be deployed in the future in space. The IsOWC links have many advantages over the previously existing microwave satellite communication technologies such as higher bandwidth, lower power consumption, low cost of implementation, light size, and weight. In this paper, modeling and performance analysis of a 10-Gbps inter-satellite communication link with two satellites separated at a distance of 1,200 km has been done using OPTISYSTEM simulation software. Performance has been analyzed on the basis of quality factor, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and total power of the received signal.
Vogel, Curtis R; Tyler, Glenn A; Wittich, Donald J
2014-07-01
We introduce a framework for modeling, analysis, and simulation of aero-optics wavefront aberrations that is based on spatial-temporal covariance matrices extracted from wavefront sensor measurements. Within this framework, we present a quasi-homogeneous structure function to analyze nonhomogeneous, mildly anisotropic spatial random processes, and we use this structure function to show that phase aberrations arising in aero-optics are, for an important range of operating parameters, locally Kolmogorov. This strongly suggests that the d5/3 power law for adaptive optics (AO) deformable mirror fitting error, where d denotes actuator separation, holds for certain important aero-optics scenarios. This framework also allows us to compute bounds on AO servo lag error and predictive control error. In addition, it provides us with the means to accurately simulate AO systems for the mitigation of aero-effects, and it may provide insight into underlying physical processes associated with turbulent flow. The techniques introduced here are demonstrated using data obtained from the Airborne Aero-Optics Laboratory.
and three-dimensional models for analysis of optical absorption in ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
The optical energy gaps of WS2 single crystal were determined from the analysis of the absorption spectrum near ... Optical band gap; two- and three-dimensional; optical absorption. 1. ..... ssion, New Delhi, in the form of a research project is.
Generalized Tensor Analysis Model for Multi-Subcarrier Analog Optical Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhao, Ying; Yu, Xianbin; Zheng, Xiaoping
2011-01-01
We propose and develop a general tensor analysis framework for a subcarrier multiplex analog optical fiber link for applications in microwave photonics. The goal of this work is to construct an uniform method to address nonlinear distortions of a discrete frequency transmission system. We employ....... In addition, it is demonstrated that each corresponding tensor is formally determined by device structures, which allows for a synthesized study of device combinations more systematically. For implementing numerical methods, the practical significance of the tensor model is it simplifies the derivation...... details compared with series-based approaches by hiding the underlying multi-fold summation and index operation. The integrity of the proposed methodology is validated by investigating the classical intensity modulated system. Furthermore, to give an application model of the tensor formalism, we make...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, J. M.; Shane, R.; Waldecker, S. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.; Charity, R. J.; Sobotka, L. G.; Crowell, A. S.; Esterline, J. H.; Fallin, B.; Howell, C. R.; Westerfeldt, C.; Youngs, M.; Crowe, B. J. III; Pedroni, R. S.
2011-01-01
Neutron elastic-scattering angular distributions were measured at beam energies of 11.9 and 16.9 MeV on 40,48 Ca targets. These data plus other elastic-scattering measurements, total and reaction cross-sections measurements, (e,e ' p) data, and single-particle energies for magic and doubly magic nuclei have been analyzed in the dispersive optical-model (DOM), generating nucleon self-energies (optical-model potentials) that can be related, via the many-body Dyson equation, to spectroscopic factors and occupation probabilities. It is found that, for stable nuclei with N≥Z, the imaginary surface potential for protons exhibits a strong dependence on the neutron-proton asymmetry. This result leads to a more modest dependence of the spectroscopic factors on asymmetry. The measured data and the DOM analysis of all considered nuclei clearly demonstrate that the neutron imaginary surface potential displays very little dependence on the neutron-proton asymmetry for nuclei near stability (N≥Z).
Neutron Skin Thickness of 48Ca from a Nonlocal Dispersive Optical-Model Analysis
Mahzoon, M. H.; Atkinson, M. C.; Charity, R. J.; Dickhoff, W. H.
2017-12-01
A nonlocal dispersive optical-model analysis has been carried out for neutrons and protons in 48Ca. Elastic-scattering angular distributions, total and reaction cross sections, single-particle energies, the neutron and proton numbers, and the charge distribution have been fitted to extract the neutron and proton self-energies both above and below the Fermi energy. From the single-particle propagator resulting from these self-energies, we have determined the charge and neutron matter distributions in 48Ca. A best fit neutron skin of 0.249 ±0.023 fm is deduced, but values up to 0.33 fm are still consistent. The energy dependence of the total neutron cross sections is shown to have a strong sensitivity to the skin thickness.
FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis
Shihada, Basem
2013-04-01
FAST TCP is important for promoting data-intensive applications since it can cleverly react to both packet loss and delay for detecting network congestion. This paper provides a continuous time model and extensive stability analysis of FAST TCP congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets from a single round is dropped. Second, it shows that FAST TCP is vulnerable to burst delay and fails to detect network congestion due to the little variation of round-trip time, thus unstable. Finally it shows that introducing extra delays by implementing burst retransmission stabilizes FAST TCP over OBS. The paper proves that FAST TCP is not stable over barebone OBS. However, it is locally, exponentially, and asymptotically stable over OBS with burst retransmission.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, Hongbo; You, Shijun; Zhang, Huan
2016-01-01
A PTC (parabolic trough solar collector) focuses direct solar radiation reflected by the reflector onto a receiver located on its focal line. The solar flux distribution on the absorber is non-uniform generally, thus it needs to carry out optical simulation to analyze the concentrated flux density and optical performance. In this paper, three different optical models based on ray tracing for a PTC were proposed and compared in detail. They were proved to be feasible and reliable in comparison with other literature. Model 1 was based on MCM (Monte Carlo Method). Model 2 initialized photon distribution with FVM (Finite Volume Method), and calculated reflection, transmission, and absorption by means of MCM. Model 3 utilized FVM to determine ray positions initially, while it changed the photon energy by multiplying reflectivity, transmissivity and absorptivity. The runtime and computation effort of Model 3 were approximately 40% and 60% of that of Model 1 in the present work. Moreover, the simulation result of Model 3 was not affected by the algorithm for generating random numbers, however, it needed to take account of suitable grid configurations for different sections of the system. Additionally, effects of varying the geometric parameters for a PTC on optical efficiency were estimated. Effect of offsetting the absorber in width direction of aperture was greater than that in its normal direction at the same offset distance, which was more obvious with offset distance increasing. Furthermore, absorber offset at the opposite direction of tracking error was beneficial for improving optical performance. The larger rim angle (≤90°) was, the less sensitive optical efficiency was to tracking error for the same aperture width of a PTC. In contrast, a larger aperture width was more sensitive to tracking error for a certain rim angle. - Highlights: • Three different optical models for parabolic trough solar collectors were derived. • Their running time, computation
Scola, Salvatore; Stavely, Rebecca; Jackson, Trevor; Boyer, Charlie; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Stimson, Chad
2016-09-01
Performance-related effects of system level temperature changes can be a key consideration in the design of many types of optical instruments. This is especially true for space-based imagers, which may require complex thermal control systems to maintain alignment of the optical components. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis is a multi-disciplinary process that can be used to assess the performance of these optical systems when subjected to the expected design environment. This type of analysis can be very time consuming, which makes it difficult to use as a trade study tool early in the project life cycle. In many cases, only one or two iterations can be performed over the course of a project. This limits the design space to best practices since it may be too difficult, or take too long, to test new concepts analytically. In order to overcome this challenge, automation, and a standard procedure for performing these studies is essential. A methodology was developed within the framework of the Comet software tool that captures the basic inputs, outputs, and processes used in most STOP analyses. This resulted in a generic, reusable analysis template that can be used for design trades for a variety of optical systems. The template captures much of the upfront setup such as meshing, boundary conditions, data transfer, naming conventions, and post-processing, and therefore saves time for each subsequent project. A description of the methodology and the analysis template is presented, and results are described for a simple telescope optical system.
Scola, Salvatore; Stavely, Rebecca; Jackson, Trevor; Boyer, Charlie; Osmundsen, Jim; Turczynski, Craig; Stimson, Chad
2016-01-01
Performance-related effects of system level temperature changes can be a key consideration in the design of many types of optical instruments. This is especially true for space-based imagers, which may require complex thermal control systems to maintain alignment of the optical components. Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) analysis is a multi-disciplinary process that can be used to assess the performance of these optical systems when subjected to the expected design environment. This type of analysis can be very time consuming, which makes it difficult to use as a trade study tool early in the project life cycle. In many cases, only one or two iterations can be performed over the course of a project. This limits the design space to best practices since it may be too difficult, or take too long, to test new concepts analytically. In order to overcome this challenge, automation, and a standard procedure for performing these studies is essential. A methodology was developed within the framework of the Comet software tool that captures the basic inputs, outputs, and processes used in most STOP analyses. This resulted in a generic, reusable analysis template that can be used for design trades for a variety of optical systems. The template captures much of the upfront setup such as meshing, boundary conditions, data transfer, naming conventions, and post-processing, and therefore saves time for each subsequent project. A description of the methodology and the analysis template is presented, and results are described for a simple telescope optical system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Naruse, Makoto, E-mail: naruse@nict.go.jp [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Nanophotonics Research Center, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu [Photonic Network Research Institute, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Holmström, Petter [Laboratory of Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Thylén, Lars [Laboratory of Photonics and Microwave Engineering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); Hewlett-Packard Laboratories, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Huant, Serge [Institut Néel, CNRS and Université Joseph Fourier, 25 rue des Martyrs BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ohtsu, Motoichi [Nanophotonics Research Center, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Electrical Engineering and Information Systems, Graduate School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)
2014-04-21
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naruse, Makoto; Akahane, Kouichi; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Holmström, Petter; Thylén, Lars; Huant, Serge; Ohtsu, Motoichi
2014-01-01
We theoretically and experimentally demonstrate energy transfer mediated by optical near-field interactions in a multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) structure composed of a single layer of larger dots and N layers of smaller ones. We construct a stochastic model in which optical near-field interactions that follow a Yukawa potential, QD size fluctuations, and temperature-dependent energy level broadening are unified, enabling us to examine device-architecture-dependent energy transfer efficiencies. The model results are consistent with the experiments. This study provides an insight into optical energy transfer involving inherent disorders in materials and paves the way to systematic design principles of nanophotonic devices that will allow optimized performance and the realization of designated functions
AlQuwaiee, Hessa
2016-11-01
One of the potential solutions to the radio frequency (RF) spectrum scarcity problem is optical wireless communications (OWC), which utilizes the unlicensed optical spectrum. Long-range outdoor OWC are usually referred to in the literature as free-space optical (FSO) communications. Unlike RF systems, FSO is immune to interference and multi-path fading. Also, the deployment of FSO systems is flexible and much faster than optical fibers. These attractive features make FSO applicable for broadband wireless transmission such as optical fiber backup, metropolitan area network, and last mile access. Although FSO communication is a promising technology, it is negatively affected by two physical phenomenon, namely, scintillation due to atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors. These two critical issues have prompted intensive research in the last decade. To quantify the effect of these two factors on FSO system performance, we need effective mathematical models. In this work, we propose and study a generalized pointing error model based on the Beckmann distribution. Then, we aim to generalize the FSO channel model to span all turbulence conditions from weak to strong while taking pointing errors into consideration. Since scintillation in FSO is analogous to the fading phenomena in RF, diversity has been proposed too to overcome the effect of irradiance fluctuations. Thus, several combining techniques of not necessarily independent dual-branch free-space optical links were investigated over both weak and strong turbulence channels in the presence of pointing errors. On another front, improving the performance, enhancing the capacity and reducing the delay of the communication link has been the motivation of any newly developed schemes, especially for backhauling. Recently, there has been a growing interest in practical systems to integrate RF and FSO technologies to solve the last mile bottleneck. As such, we also study in this thesis asymmetric an RF-FSO dual-hop relay
Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharan, Lucky; Rupanshi,; Chaubey, V. K.
2016-01-01
This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.
Simulink models for performance analysis of high speed DQPSK modulated optical link
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharan, Lucky, E-mail: luckysharan@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Rupanshi,, E-mail: f2011222@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in; Chaubey, V. K., E-mail: vkc@pilani.bits-pilani.ac.in [EEE Department, BITS-Pilani, Rajasthan, 333031 (India)
2016-03-09
This paper attempts to present the design approach for development of simulation models to study and analyze the transmission of 10 Gbps DQPSK signal over a single channel Peer to Peer link using Matlab Simulink. The simulation model considers the different optical components used in link design with their behavior represented initially by theoretical interpretation, including the transmitter topology, Mach Zehnder Modulator(MZM) module and, the propagation model for optical fibers etc. thus allowing scope for direct realization in experimental configurations. It provides the flexibility to incorporate the various photonic components as either user-defined or fixed and, can also be enhanced or removed from the model as per the design requirements. We describe the detailed operation and need of every component model and its representation in Simulink blocksets. Moreover the developed model can be extended in future to support Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) system, thereby allowing high speed transmission with N × 40 Gbps systems. The various compensation techniques and their influence on system performance can be easily investigated by using such models.
Stress strain modelling and analysis of a piezo-coated optical fibre sensor
Al-Raweshidy, H.; Ali, H.; Obayya, S. S. A.; Langley, R.; Batchelor, J.
2005-02-01
A finite element model, using commercially available software, is presented to simulate the piezoelectrically induced stresses and strains in an optical fibre to be used as antenna. These stresses and strains are generated by a layer of piezoelectric polymer deposited on the cladding of a short fibre sample. The theoretical basis for the work is briefly explained and the modelling process is emphasised. Two types of fibre are investigated - circular fibre and D-fibre, and the results compared, analysed and discussed. It is shown that in the D-fibre, the stress and displacement increased by 1.46 and 115 times, respectively, in comparison with the circular fibre.
Optical model analysis of quasielastic (p, n) reactions at 22.8 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlson, J.D.; Zafiratos, C.D.; Lind, D.A.
1975-01-01
Quasielastic (p, n) differential cross sections have been measured for 29 nuclei ranging from 9 Be to 208 Pb at an energy of 22.8 MeV in approximately 7.5 0 steps from 10 0 to 152 0 . The results have been analysed with a distorted-wave Born approximation in terms of the generalized optical model due to Lane. Starting with a complex isospin interaction form factor, U 1 , deduced from the Becchetti-Greenlees global set of proton optical parameters, the shape of the surface-peaked, imaginary part of U 1 was varied until good fits to the data were obtained. The shape of the real part of U 1 and the ratio of the real to imaginary well depths were kept fixed at the Becchetti-Greenlees values. The resulting best-fit form factors had overall strengths 20-30% less than the Becchetti-Greenlees value. Further, the resulting imaginary part of U 1 was found to peak at a decreasing radius relative to the real part of U 1 with an increasing width as A increased. A smoothed parametrization of the best-fit U 1 is given for all nuclei with A > 40. The individual best-fit U 1 is used to generate self-consistent neutron optical potentials from the Becchetti-Greenlees proton optical potentials as prescribed by the Lane model. Neutron elastic scattering angular distributions and reaction cross sections predicted by these self-consistent potentials are in good agreement with observed neutron scattering data. (Auth.)
Optical model analysis for 30MeV polarized proton elastic scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pham, D.-L.; Swiniarski, R. de.
1977-05-01
The proton elastic scattering cross sections and analyzing powers at 30MeV have been used to derive optical model parameters for ten elements from 10 B to 32 S. A set of average geometrical parameters (rsub(o)=1.10fm, rsub(LS)=1.0fm and asub(I)=0.60fm) is found to give good fits to the entire data, the other geometrical parameters being rsub(I)=(1.35+-0.15)fm, asub(o)=(0.75+-0.10)fm and asub(LS)=(0.35+-0.07)fm. The dynamical parameters with fixed geometry are presented
Neutron-/sup 90/Zr mean field from a dispersive optical model analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delaroche, J.P.; Wang, Y.; Rapaport, J.
1989-01-01
Elastic scattering cross sections have been measured for 8, 10, and 24 MeV neutrons incident on /sup 90/Zr. These measurements, together with other neutron elastic scattering and total cross section data available up to 29 MeV, are used in grid searches to obtain an optical model potential which contains a dispersion relation term. This potential is then extrapolated toward negative energies to predict bound single-particle state properties. An overall good description of the data at positive and negative energies is achieved
Models of optical quantum computing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krovi Hari
2017-03-01
Full Text Available I review some work on models of quantum computing, optical implementations of these models, as well as the associated computational power. In particular, we discuss the circuit model and cluster state implementations using quantum optics with various encodings such as dual rail encoding, Gottesman-Kitaev-Preskill encoding, and coherent state encoding. Then we discuss intermediate models of optical computing such as boson sampling and its variants. Finally, we review some recent work in optical implementations of adiabatic quantum computing and analog optical computing. We also provide a brief description of the relevant aspects from complexity theory needed to understand the results surveyed.
Modeling of semiconductor optical amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Bischoff, Svend; Berg, Tommy Winther
We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed.......We discuss the modelling of semiconductor optical amplifiers with emphasis on their high-speed properties. Applications in linear amplification as well as ultrafast optical signal processing are reviewed. Finally, the possible role of quantum-dot based optical amplifiers is discussed....
Optical model potential analysis of n ¯A and n A interactions
Lee, Teck-Ghee; Wong, Cheuk-Yin
2018-05-01
We use a momentum-dependent optical model potential to analyze the annihilation cross sections of the antineutron n ¯ on C, Al, Fe, Cu, Ag, Sn, and Pb nuclei for projectile momenta plab ≲500 MeV /c . We obtain a good description of annihilation cross section data of Barbina et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 612, 346 (1997), 10.1016/S0375-9474(96)00331-4] and of Astrua et al. [Nucl. Phys. A 697, 209 (2002), 10.1016/S0375-9474(01)01252-0] which exhibit an interesting dependence of the cross sections on plab as well as on the target mass number A . We also obtain the neutron (n ) nonelastic reaction cross sections for the same targets. Comparing the n A reaction cross sections σrecn A to the n ¯A annihilation cross sections σannn ¯A, we find that σannn ¯A is significantly larger than σrecn A, that is, the σannn ¯A/σrecn A cross section ratio lies between the values of about 1.5 to 4.0 in the momentum region where comparison is possible. The dependence of the n ¯ annihilation cross section on the projectile charge is also examined in comparison with the antiproton p ¯. Here we predict the p ¯A annihilation cross section on the simplest assumption that both p ¯A and n ¯A interactions have the same nuclear part of the optical potential but differ only in the electrostatic Coulomb interaction. Deviation from a such simple model extrapolation in measurements will provide new information on the difference between n ¯A and p ¯A potentials.
A global analysis of the elastic 3He scattering in the framework of the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Trost, H.J.
1981-01-01
The elastic scattering of 3 He at projetile energies from 10 MeV to 220 MeV on target nuclei in the mass range 10 to 208 is coherently studied in the framework of the simple optical model. It succeeds to obtain in the whole range a reasonable description by means of the usual Woods-Saxon potentials. This is illustrated by the presentation of a global mass and energy dependent potential. The light target nuclei are included in these systematics without the introduction of any special procedures. The omission of the antisymmetrization by the use of a purely local potential and the spin-orbit interaction have no important influence in the determination of the central potential. The cancelling of the discerte ambiguity is globally guaranted by the presented parametrization. The tradional sum rule 'number of projectile nucleons multiplied by nucleon-nucleus potential is equal to nucleus-nuclear potential' is not fulfilled. Starting from existing theoretical papers the properties of the global 3 He potential can be quantitatively explained. On the base of the 3 He potentials determined here and existing nucleon and deuteron potentials finally an approach to a projectile systematic is indicated. (orig.) [de
FAST TCP over optical burst switched networks: Modeling and stability analysis
Shihada, Basem; El-Ferik, Sami; Ho, Pin-Han
2013-01-01
congestion-control mechanism in bufferless Optical Burst Switched Networks (OBS). The paper first shows that random burst contentions are essential to stabilize the network, but cause throughput degradation in FAST TCP flows when a burst with all the packets
Liu, Pudong; Shi, Runhe; Wang, Hong; Bai, Kaixu; Gao, Wei
2014-10-01
Leaf pigments are key elements for plant photosynthesis and growth. Traditional manual sampling of these pigments is labor-intensive and costly, which also has the difficulty in capturing their temporal and spatial characteristics. The aim of this work is to estimate photosynthetic pigments at large scale by remote sensing. For this purpose, inverse model were proposed with the aid of stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) analysis. Furthermore, a leaf radiative transfer model (i.e. PROSPECT model) was employed to simulate the leaf reflectance where wavelength varies from 400 to 780 nm at 1 nm interval, and then these values were treated as the data from remote sensing observations. Meanwhile, simulated chlorophyll concentration (Cab), carotenoid concentration (Car) and their ratio (Cab/Car) were taken as target to build the regression model respectively. In this study, a total of 4000 samples were simulated via PROSPECT with different Cab, Car and leaf mesophyll structures as 70% of these samples were applied for training while the last 30% for model validation. Reflectance (r) and its mathematic transformations (1/r and log (1/r)) were all employed to build regression model respectively. Results showed fair agreements between pigments and simulated reflectance with all adjusted coefficients of determination (R2) larger than 0.8 as 6 wavebands were selected to build the SMLR model. The largest value of R2 for Cab, Car and Cab/Car are 0.8845, 0.876 and 0.8765, respectively. Meanwhile, mathematic transformations of reflectance showed little influence on regression accuracy. We concluded that it was feasible to estimate the chlorophyll and carotenoids and their ratio based on statistical model with leaf reflectance data.
Li, X.; Zhang, C.; Li, W.
2017-12-01
Long-term spatiotemporal analysis and modeling of aerosol optical depth (AOD) distribution is of paramount importance to study radiative forcing, climate change, and human health. This study is focused on the trends and variations of AOD over six stations located in United States and China during 2003 to 2015, using satellite-retrieved Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) Collection 6 retrievals and ground measurements derived from Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model is applied to simulate and predict AOD values. The R2, adjusted R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE), and Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) are used as indices to select the best fitted model. Results show that there is a persistent decreasing trend in AOD for both MODIS data and AERONET data over three stations. Monthly and seasonal AOD variations reveal consistent aerosol patterns over stations along mid-latitudes. Regional differences impacted by climatology and land cover types are observed for the selected stations. Statistical validation of time series models indicates that the non-seasonal ARIMA model performs better for AERONET AOD data than for MODIS AOD data over most stations, suggesting the method works better for data with higher quality. By contrast, the seasonal ARIMA model reproduces the seasonal variations of MODIS AOD data much more precisely. Overall, the reasonably predicted results indicate the applicability and feasibility of the stochastic ARIMA modeling technique to forecast future and missing AOD values.
Hoff, Claus; Cady, Eric; Chainyk, Mike; Kissil, Andrew; Levine, Marie; Moore, Greg
2011-01-01
The efficient simulation of multidisciplinary thermo-opto-mechanical effects in precision deployable systems has for years been limited by numerical toolsets that do not necessarily share the same finite element basis, level of mesh discretization, data formats, or compute platforms. Cielo, a general purpose integrated modeling tool funded by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and the Exoplanet Exploration Program, addresses shortcomings in the current state of the art via features that enable the use of a single, common model for thermal, structural and optical aberration analysis, producing results of greater accuracy, without the need for results interpolation or mapping. This paper will highlight some of these advances, and will demonstrate them within the context of detailed external occulter analyses, focusing on in-plane deformations of the petal edges for both steady-state and transient conditions, with subsequent optical performance metrics including intensity distributions at the pupil and image plane.
Deuteron microscopic optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo Hairui; Han Yinlu; Shen Qingbiao; Xu Yongli
2010-01-01
A deuteron microscopic optical model potential is obtained by the Green function method through nuclear-matter approximation and local-density approximation based on the effective Skyrme interaction. The microscopic optical model potential is used to calculate the deuteron reaction cross sections and the elastic scattering angular distributions for some target nuclei in the mass range 6≤A≤208 with incident deuteron energies up to 200 MeV. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.
Model building with wind and water: Friedrich Ahlborn's photo-optical flow analysis.
Hinterwaldner, Inge
2015-02-01
Around 1900, several experimenters investigated turbulences in wind tunnels or water basins by creating visualizations. One of them, the German zoologist Friedrich Ahlborn (1858-1937), was familiar with the works by his contemporaries but he struck a new path. He combined three different kinds of photographs taken at the same time and showed the same situation in his water trough-but each in a different way. With this first basic operation, Ahlborn heuristically opened up a previously non-existent space for experimentation, analysis, and recombination. He generated an astonishing diversity of information by adopting the tactics of 'inversions' in which he interpreted one part of the experimental setup, or its results, in different ways. Between the variants of the 'autographs' which he developed, he defined areas of intersection to be able to translate results from individual records into each other. To this end, Ahlborn created other sets of visual artifacts such as drawn diagrams, three-dimensional wire frame constructions, and clay reliefs. His working method can be described as a cascading array of successive modeling steps, as elaborated by Eric Winsberg (1999), or of inscriptions in Bruno Latour's words (Latour, 1986). By examining Ahlborn's procedures closely we propose conceptualizations for the experimenter's various operations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Integration of a thermo-structural analysis with an optical model for PEPSI polarimeter
Di Varano, Igor; Strassmeier, Klaus G.; Ilyin, Ilya; Woche, Manfred; Kaercher, Hans J.
2011-09-01
The two spectropolarimeters for PEPSI (Potsdam Echelle Polarimetric and Spectroscopic Instrument) have been de¬signed in order to reconstruct the full Stokes vector measuring linear and circular polarization simultaneously with a re¬solving power of 120,000. The polarimeters will be attached to the Gregorian focus of the so far largest LBT 2x8.4m telescope and will feed together with permanent focus stations the spectrograph via 44m long fibers connection. The spectrograph will be located in a pressure-temperature controlled chamber within the telescope pier. We present hereafter the last results from combined structural and CFD analyses in order to fulfill the optical requirements.
Scola, Salvatore J.; Osmundsen, James F.; Murchison, Luke S.; Davis, Warren T.; Fody, Joshua M.; Boyer, Charles M.; Cook, Anthony L.; Hostetler, Chris A.; Seaman, Shane T.; Miller, Ian J.;
2014-01-01
An integrated Structural-Thermal-Optical-Performance (STOP) model was developed for a field-widened Michelson interferometer which is being built and tested for the High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) project at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). The performance of the interferometer is highly sensitive to thermal expansion, changes in refractive index with temperature, temperature gradients, and deformation due to mounting stresses. Hand calculations can only predict system performance for uniform temperature changes, under the assumption that coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch effects are negligible. An integrated STOP model was developed to investigate the effects of design modifications on the performance of the interferometer in detail, including CTE mismatch, and other three- dimensional effects. The model will be used to improve the design for a future spaceflight version of the interferometer. The STOP model was developed using the Comet SimApp'TM' Authoring Workspace which performs automated integration between Pro-Engineer®, Thermal Desktop®, MSC Nastran'TM', SigFit'TM', Code V'TM', and MATLAB®. This is the first flight project for which LaRC has utilized Comet, and it allows a larger trade space to be studied in a shorter time than would be possible in a traditional STOP analysis. This paper describes the development of the STOP model, presents a comparison of STOP results for simple cases with hand calculations, and presents results of the correlation effort to bench-top testing of the interferometer. A trade study conducted with the STOP model which demonstrates a few simple design changes that can improve the performance seen in the lab is also presented.
Analysis of the 48Ca neutron skin using a nonlocal dispersive-optical-model self-energy
Atkinson, Mack; Mahzoon, Hossein; Dickhoff, Willem; Charity, Robert
2017-09-01
A nonlocal dispersive-optical-model (DOM) analysis of the 40Ca and 48Ca nuclei has been implemented. The real and imaginary potentials are constrained by fitting to elastic-scattering data, total and reaction cross sections, energy level information, particle number, and the charge densities of 40Ca and 48Ca, respectively. The nonlocality of these potentials permits a proper dispersive self-energy which accurately describes both positive and negative energy observables. 48Ca is of particular interest because it is doubly magic and has a neutron skin due to the excess of neutrons. The DOM neutron skin radius is found to be rskin = 0.245 , which is larger than most previous calculations. The neutron skin is closely related to the symmetry energy which is a crucial part of the nuclear equation of state. The combined analysis of 40Ca and 48Ca energy densities provides a description of the density dependence of the symmetry energy which is compared with the 48Ca neutron skin. Results for 208Pb will also become available in the near future. NSF.
Analysis of NN amplitudes up to 2.5 GeV: an optical model and geometric interpretation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Geramb, H.V. von; Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg,; Amos, K.A.; Labes, H.; Sander, M.
1998-01-01
We analyse the SM97 partial wave amplitudes for nucleon-nucleon (NN) scattering to 2.5 GeV, in which resonance and meson production effects are evident for energies above pion production threshold. Our analyses are based upon boson exchange or quantum inversion potentials with which the sub-threshold data are fit perfectly. Above 300 MeV they are extrapolations, to which complex short ranged Gaussian potentials are added in the spirit of the optical models of nuclear physics and of diffraction models of high energy physics. The data to 2.5 GeV are all well fit. The energy dependences of these Gaussians are very smooth save for precise effects caused by the known Δ and N* resonances. With this approach, we confirm that the geometrical implications of the profile function found from diffraction scattering are pertinent in the regime 300 MeV to 2.5 GeV and that the overwhelming part of meson production comes from the QCD sector of the nucleons when they have a separation of their centres of 1 to 1.2 fm. This analysis shows that the elastic NN scattering data above 300 MeV can be understood with a local potential operator as well as has the data below 300 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gover, A.; Friedman, A.; Luccio, A.
1986-09-01
A full 3-D Analysis of super-radiant (bunched electron) free electron harmonic radiation is presented. A generalized form of the FEL pendulum equation was derived and numerically solved. Both spectral and phasor formulation were developed to treat the radiation in the time domain. In space the radiation field is expanded in terms of either a set of free space discrete modes or plane waves. The numerical solutions reveal some new distinctly 3-D effects to which we provide a physical explanation. 12 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs
Optical model analysis of 3He elastic scattering from s-d shell nuclei at 25 MeV
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vernotte, J.; Berrier-Ronsin, G.; Kalifa, J.; Tamisier, R.; Nantes Univ., 44
1982-01-01
Angular distributions of elastically scattered 3 He particles from 16 O, 18 O, 19 F, 23 Na, 24 Mg, 25 Mg, 26 Mg, 27 Al, 28 Si, 29 Si, 30 Si, 31 P, 35 Cl, 37 Cl, 39 K and 40 Ca nuclei were measured at 25 MeV bombarding energy. The absolute differential cross-section data were analysed in the framework of the standard optical model with either a volume or a surface imaginary part. Three families of parameters were considered. For all these families, the real potential volume integral Jsub(R) per interacting nucleon pair decreases as the mass number A increases. The family with Jsub(R) = 380 MeV x fm 3 for 40 Ca and Jsub(R) = 590 MeV x fm 3 for 16 O has been identified with the unique family obtained at higher energies, and is therefore considered as the 'physical' family. The matter and charge radii deduced from the analysis are presented. The charge radii are compared with the ones obtained from muonic X-ray transitions and electron scattering measurements. (orig.)
12C-12C total and reaction cross-section between 6 and 85 MeV/A from an optical model analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandan, M.E.
1982-07-01
Values of σsub(R) and σsub(T) are obtained from an optical model analysis of 12 C- 12 C elastic scattering data between 6 and 85 MeV/A. They confirm the general trends predicted by DeVries and collaborators but show discrepancies at the region of the maxima. The o.m. analysis indicates a significant decrease of the real potential strength with energy
Optical modeling and simulation of thin-film photovoltaic devices
Krc, Janez
2013-01-01
In wafer-based and thin-film photovoltaic (PV) devices, the management of light is a crucial aspect of optimization since trapping sunlight in active parts of PV devices is essential for efficient energy conversions. Optical modeling and simulation enable efficient analysis and optimization of the optical situation in optoelectronic and PV devices. Optical Modeling and Simulation of Thin-Film Photovoltaic Devices provides readers with a thorough guide to performing optical modeling and simulations of thin-film solar cells and PV modules. It offers insight on examples of existing optical models
Collision models in quantum optics
Ciccarello, Francesco
2017-12-01
Quantum collision models (CMs) provide advantageous case studies for investigating major issues in open quantum systems theory, and especially quantum non-Markovianity. After reviewing their general definition and distinctive features, we illustrate the emergence of a CM in a familiar quantum optics scenario. This task is carried out by highlighting the close connection between the well-known input-output formalism and CMs. Within this quantum optics framework, usual assumptions in the CMs' literature - such as considering a bath of noninteracting yet initially correlated ancillas - have a clear physical origin.
Optics equations for aero-optical analysis
Sutton, George W.; Pond, John E.
2011-05-01
Aero-optical effects occur around moving air vehicles and impact passive imaging or active systems. The air flow around the vehicle is compressed, and often there is a turbulent shear and/or boundary layer both of which cause variations in the index of refraction. Examples of these are reconnaissance aircraft, the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Optics (SOFIA), and optically homing hypersonic interceptors. In other applications, a laser beam can be formed within the vehicle, and projected outward and focused on an object. These include the Airborne Laser Laboratory, Airborne Laser and the Airborne Tactical Laser. There are many compressible fluid mechanics computer programs that can predict the air density distribution of the surrounding flow field including density fluctuations in turbulent shear and/or boundary layers. It is necessary for the physical optics to be used to predict the properties of the ensuing image plane intensity distribution, whether passive or active. These include the time-averaged image blur circle and instantaneous realizations. (Ray tracing is a poor approximation that gives erroneous results for small aberrations.)
The neutron optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hodgson, P.E.
1989-01-01
The present status of optical model calculations of neutron scattering and interactions is reviewed, with special emphasis on more recent developments and the more promising lines of research. The use of dispersion relations to provide an extra constraint on the potential is discussed, together with their application to studies of the Fermi surface anomaly. The application of potential inversion techniques to determine the form of the potential is also considered. (author). 39 refs, figs
Khalifa, Intissar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad
2018-04-01
To survive the competition, companies always think about having the best employees. The selection is depended on the answers to the questions of the interviewer and the behavior of the candidate during the interview session. The study of this behavior is always based on a psychological analysis of the movements accompanying the answers and discussions. Few techniques are proposed until today to analyze automatically candidate's non verbal behavior. This paper is a part of a work psychology recognition system; it concentrates in spontaneous hand gesture which is very significant in interviews according to psychologists. We propose motion history representation of hand based on an hybrid approach that merges optical flow and history motion images. The optical flow technique is used firstly to detect hand motions in each frame of a video sequence. Secondly, we use the history motion images (HMI) to accumulate the output of the optical flow in order to have finally a good representation of the hand`s local movement in a global temporal template.
Lakra, Suchita; Mandal, Sanjoy
2017-06-01
A quadruple micro-optical ring resonator (QMORR) with multiple output bus waveguides is mathematically modeled and analyzed by making use of the delay-line signal processing approach in Z-domain and Mason's gain formula. The performances of QMORR with two output bus waveguides with vertical coupling are analyzed. This proposed structure is capable of providing wider free spectral response from both the output buses with appreciable cross talk. Thus, this configuration could provide increased capacity to insert a large number of communication channels. The simulated frequency response characteristic and its dispersion and group delay characteristics are graphically presented using the MATLAB environment.
Phenomenological optical potentials and optical model computer codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prince, A.
1980-01-01
An introduction to the Optical Model is presented. Starting with the purpose and nature of the physical problems to be analyzed, a general formulation and the various phenomenological methods of solution are discussed. This includes the calculation of observables based on assumed potentials such as local and non-local and their forms, e.g. Woods-Saxon, folded model etc. Also discussed are the various calculational methods and model codes employed to describe nuclear reactions in the spherical and deformed regions (e.g. coupled-channel analysis). An examination of the numerical solutions and minimization techniques associated with the various codes, is briefly touched upon. Several computer programs are described for carrying out the calculations. The preparation of input, (formats and options), determination of model parameters and analysis of output are described. The class is given a series of problems to carry out using the available computer. Interpretation and evaluation of the samples includes the effect of varying parameters, and comparison of calculations with the experimental data. Also included is an intercomparison of the results from the various model codes, along with their advantages and limitations. (author)
Optics Program Simplifies Analysis and Design
2007-01-01
Engineers at Goddard Space Flight Center partnered with software experts at Mide Technology Corporation, of Medford, Massachusetts, through a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract to design the Disturbance-Optics-Controls-Structures (DOCS) Toolbox, a software suite for performing integrated modeling for multidisciplinary analysis and design. The DOCS Toolbox integrates various discipline models into a coupled process math model that can then predict system performance as a function of subsystem design parameters. The system can be optimized for performance; design parameters can be traded; parameter uncertainties can be propagated through the math model to develop error bounds on system predictions; and the model can be updated, based on component, subsystem, or system level data. The Toolbox also allows the definition of process parameters as explicit functions of the coupled model and includes a number of functions that analyze the coupled system model and provide for redesign. The product is being sold commercially by Nightsky Systems Inc., of Raleigh, North Carolina, a spinoff company that was formed by Mide specifically to market the DOCS Toolbox. Commercial applications include use by any contractors developing large space-based optical systems, including Lockheed Martin Corporation, The Boeing Company, and Northrup Grumman Corporation, as well as companies providing technical audit services, like General Dynamics Corporation
Integrable models of quantum optics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yudson Vladimir
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We give an overview of exactly solvable many-body models of quantum optics. Among them is a system of two-level atoms which interact with photons propagating in a one-dimensional (1D chiral waveguide; exact eigenstates of this system can be explicitly constructed. This approach is used also for a system of closely located atoms in the usual (non-chiral waveguide or in 3D space. Moreover, it is shown that for an arbitrary atomic system with a cascade spontaneous radiative decay, the fluorescence spectrum can be described by an exact analytic expression which accounts for interference of emitted photons. Open questions related with broken integrability are discussed.
Optical Imaging and Radiometric Modeling and Simulation
Ha, Kong Q.; Fitzmaurice, Michael W.; Moiser, Gary E.; Howard, Joseph M.; Le, Chi M.
2010-01-01
OPTOOL software is a general-purpose optical systems analysis tool that was developed to offer a solution to problems associated with computational programs written for the James Webb Space Telescope optical system. It integrates existing routines into coherent processes, and provides a structure with reusable capabilities that allow additional processes to be quickly developed and integrated. It has an extensive graphical user interface, which makes the tool more intuitive and friendly. OPTOOL is implemented using MATLAB with a Fourier optics-based approach for point spread function (PSF) calculations. It features parametric and Monte Carlo simulation capabilities, and uses a direct integration calculation to permit high spatial sampling of the PSF. Exit pupil optical path difference (OPD) maps can be generated using combinations of Zernike polynomials or shaped power spectral densities. The graphical user interface allows rapid creation of arbitrary pupil geometries, and entry of all other modeling parameters to support basic imaging and radiometric analyses. OPTOOL provides the capability to generate wavefront-error (WFE) maps for arbitrary grid sizes. These maps are 2D arrays containing digital sampled versions of functions ranging from Zernike polynomials to combination of sinusoidal wave functions in 2D, to functions generated from a spatial frequency power spectral distribution (PSD). It also can generate optical transfer functions (OTFs), which are incorporated into the PSF calculation. The user can specify radiometrics for the target and sky background, and key performance parameters for the instrument s focal plane array (FPA). This radiometric and detector model setup is fairly extensive, and includes parameters such as zodiacal background, thermal emission noise, read noise, and dark current. The setup also includes target spectral energy distribution as a function of wavelength for polychromatic sources, detector pixel size, and the FPA s charge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fan Bai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a theoretical study to characterize the transmission of optical code division multiple access (CDMA systems deploying polarization shift keying (PolSK over a free space optical (FSO link under the impact of atmospheric turbulence. In our analysis, a novel transceiver architecture for atmospheric OCDMA FSO systems based on polarization modulation with direct detection is proposed and discussed. A detailed analytical model for PolSK-OCDMA systems over a turbulent FSO link is provided. Further, we derive a closed-form bit error ratio (BER and outage probability expressions, taking into account the multiple-access interference (MAI, optical noise and the atmospheric turbulence effect on the FSO link modeled by the Gamma-Gamma distribution. Finally, the results of this study show the most significant parameters that degrade the transmission performance of the PolSK-OCDMA signal over FSO links and indicate that the proposed approach offers improved bit error ratio (BER performances compared to the on-off-keying (OOK modulation scheme in the presence of turbulence.
Optical models of the human eye.
Atchison, David A; Thibos, Larry N
2016-03-01
Optical models of the human eye have been used in visual science for purposes such as providing a framework for explaining optical phenomena in vision, for predicting how refraction and aberrations are affected by change in ocular biometry and as computational tools for exploring the limitations imposed on vision by the optical system of the eye. We address the issue of what is understood by optical model eyes, discussing the 'encyclopaedia' and 'toy train' approaches to modelling. An extensive list of purposes of models is provided. We discuss many of the theoretical types of optical models (also schematic eyes) of varying anatomical accuracy, including single, three and four refracting surface variants. We cover the models with lens structure in the form of nested shells and gradient index. Many optical eye models give accurate predictions only for small angles and small fields of view. If aberrations and image quality are important to consider, such 'paraxial' model eyes must be replaced by 'finite model' eyes incorporating features such as aspheric surfaces, tilts and decentrations, wavelength-dependent media and curved retinas. Many optical model eyes are population averages and must become adaptable to account for age, gender, ethnicity, refractive error and accommodation. They can also be customised for the individual when extensive ocular biometry and optical performance data are available. We consider which optical model should be used for a particular purpose, adhering to the principle that the best model is the simplest fit for the task. We provide a glimpse into the future of optical models of the human eye. This review is interwoven with historical developments, highlighting the important people who have contributed so richly to our understanding of visual optics. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2016 Optometry Australia.
Optical spectra analysis for breast cancer diagnostics
Belkov, S. A.; Kochemasov, G. G.; Lyubynskaya, T. E.; Maslov, N. V.; Nuzhny, A. S.; da Silva, L. B.; Rubenchik, A.
2011-11-01
Minimally invasive probe and optical biopsy system based on optical spectra recording and analysis seem to be a promising tool for early diagnostics of breast cancer. Light scattering and absorption spectra are generated continuously as far as the needle-like probe with one emitting and several collecting optical fibers penetrates through the tissues toward to the suspicious area. That allows analyzing not only the state of local site, but also the structure of tissues along the needle trace. The suggested method has the advantages of automated on-line diagnosing and minimal tissue destruction and in parallel with the conventional diagnostic procedures provides the ground for decision-making. 165 medical trials were completed in Nizhny Novgorod Regional Oncology Centre, Russia. Independent diagnoses were the results of fine biopsy and histology. Application of wavelet expansion and clasterization techniques for spectra analysis revealed several main spectral types for malignant and benign tumors. Automatic classification algorithm demonstrated specificity ˜90% and sensitivity ˜91%. Large amount of information, fuzziness in criteria and data noisiness make neural networks to be an attractive analytic tool. The model based on three-layer perceptron was tested over the sample of 29 `cancer' and 29 `non-cancer' cases and demonstrated total separation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dridi, Kim; Bjarklev, Anders Overgaard
1999-01-01
An electromagnetic vector-field modle for design of optical components based on the finite-difference-time-domain method and radiation integrals in presented. Its ability to predict the optical electromagnetic dynamics in structures with complex material distribution is demonstrated. Theoretical...
Theoretical study on optical model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lim Hung Gi.
1984-08-01
The optical model potential of non-local effect on the rounded edge of the potential is derived. On the basis of this potential the functional form of the optical model potential, the energy dependence and relationship of its parameters, and the dependency of the values of the parameters on energy change are shown in this paper. (author)
Application of optical deformation analysis system on wedge splitting test and its inverse analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik
2010-01-01
. Results of the inverse analysis are compared with traditional inverse analysis based on clip gauge data. Then the optically measured crack profile and crack tip position are compared with predictions done by the non-linear hinge model and a finite element analysis. It is shown that the inverse analysis...... based on the optically measured data can provide material parameters of the fictitious crack model matching favorably those obtained by classical inverse analysis based on the clip gauge data. Further advantages of using of the optical deformation analysis lie in identification of such effects...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wiktor, S.; Mayer-Boericke, C.; Kiss, A.; Rogge, M; Turek, P.
1980-12-01
The 120,145 and 172.5 MeV α-particle beams from JULIC were used to measure differential cross sections for elastic scattering on 12 C, 24 Mg and 27 Al in the angular range from about 5deg to 70deg (c.m. system). The angular distributions were analysed extensively in terms of the optical model using a variety of potential forms. Apart from the parametrized forms of potential, as Wood-Saxon (WS) or rather (WS)sup(ν) also a model independent representation of potential spline potential was employed. The analysis based on the parametrized forms of the potential made it possible to find the best fit parameter sets, which were than examined on their uniqueness and energy dependence. Emphasis was given to gaining information on the radial shape of the potential. (author)
Automated optics inspection analysis for NIF
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kegelmeyer, Laura M., E-mail: kegelmeyer1@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Clark, Raelyn; Leach, Richard R.; McGuigan, David; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Potter, Daniel; Salmon, J. Thad; Senecal, Joshua; Conder, Alan; Nostrand, Mike; Whitman, Pamela K. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)
2012-12-15
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.
Automated optics inspection analysis for NIF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kegelmeyer, Laura M.; Clark, Raelyn; Leach, Richard R.; McGuigan, David; Kamm, Victoria Miller; Potter, Daniel; Salmon, J. Thad; Senecal, Joshua; Conder, Alan; Nostrand, Mike; Whitman, Pamela K.
2012-01-01
The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-energy laser facility comprised of 192 beamlines that house thousands of optics. These optics guide, amplify and tightly focus light onto a tiny target for fusion ignition research and high energy density physics experiments. The condition of these optics is key to the economic, efficient and maximally energetic performance of the laser. Our goal, and novel achievement, is to find on the optics any imperfections while they are tens of microns in size, track them through time to see if they grow and if so, remove the optic and repair the single site so the entire optic can then be re-installed for further use on the laser. This paper gives an overview of the image analysis used for detecting, measuring, and tracking sites of interest on an optic while it is installed on the beamline via in situ inspection and after it has been removed for maintenance. In this way, the condition of each optic is monitored throughout the optic's lifetime. This overview paper will summarize key algorithms and technical developments for custom image analysis and processing and highlight recent improvements. (Associated papers will include more details on these issues.) We will also discuss the use of OI Analysis for daily operation of the NIF laser and its extension to inspection of NIF targets.
Analytical solution of dispersion relations for the nuclear optical model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
VanderKam, J.M. [Center for Communications Research, Thanet Road, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Weisel, G.J. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States); Penn State Altoona, 3000 Ivyside Park, Altoona, PA 16601-3760 (United States); Tornow, W. [Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, and Duke University, Box 90308, Durham, NC 27708-0308 (United States)
2000-12-01
Analytical solutions of dispersion integral relations, linking the real and imaginary parts of the nuclear optical model, have been derived. These are displayed for some widely used forms of the volume- and surface-absorptive nuclear potentials. When the analytical solutions are incorporated into the optical-model search code GENOA, replacing a numerical integration, the code runs three and a half to seven times faster, greatly aiding the analysis of direct-reaction, elastic scattering data. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Schlenz
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS L1c brightness temperature and L2 optical depth data are analysed with a coupled land surface (PROMET and radiative transfer model (L-MEB. The coupled models are validated with ground and airborne measurements under contrasting soil moisture, vegetation and land surface temperature conditions during the SMOS Validation Campaign in May and June 2010 in the SMOS test site Upper Danube Catchment in southern Germany. The brightness temperature root-mean-squared errors are between 6 K and 9 K. The L-MEB parameterisation is considered appropriate under local conditions even though it might possibly be further optimised. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data are processed and analysed in the Upper Danube Catchment using the coupled models in 2011 and during the SMOS Validation Campaign 2010 together with airborne L-band brightness temperature data. Only low to fair correlations are found for this comparison (R between 0.1–0.41. SMOS L1c brightness temperature data do not show the expected seasonal behaviour and are positively biased. It is concluded that RFI is responsible for a considerable part of the observed problems in the SMOS data products in the Upper Danube Catchment. This is consistent with the observed dry bias in the SMOS L2 soil moisture products which can also be related to RFI. It is confirmed that the brightness temperature data from the lower SMOS look angles and the horizontal polarisation are less reliable. This information could be used to improve the brightness temperature data filtering before the soil moisture retrieval. SMOS L2 optical depth values have been compared to modelled data and are not considered a reliable source of information about vegetation due to missing seasonal behaviour and a very high mean value. A fairly strong correlation between SMOS L2 soil moisture and optical depth was found (R = 0.65 even though the two variables are considered independent in the
Analytical models of optical response in one-dimensional semiconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedersen, Thomas Garm
2015-01-01
The quantum mechanical description of the optical properties of crystalline materials typically requires extensive numerical computation. Including excitonic and non-perturbative field effects adds to the complexity. In one dimension, however, the analysis simplifies and optical spectra can be computed exactly. In this paper, we apply the Wannier exciton formalism to derive analytical expressions for the optical response in four cases of increasing complexity. Thus, we start from free carriers and, in turn, switch on electrostatic fields and electron–hole attraction and, finally, analyze the combined influence of these effects. In addition, the optical response of impurity-localized excitons is discussed. - Highlights: • Optical response of one-dimensional semiconductors including excitons. • Analytical model of excitonic Franz–Keldysh effect. • Computation of optical response of impurity-localized excitons
Optical MEMS for chemical analysis and biomedicine
Jiang, Hongrui
2016-01-01
This book describes the current state of optical MEMS in chemical and biomedical analysis and brings together current trends and highlights topics representing the most exciting progress in recent years in the field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander eSchwegmann
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Knowing the depth structure of the environment is crucial for moving animals in many behavioral contexts, such as collision avoidance, targeting objects, or spatial navigation. An important source of depth information is motion parallax. This powerful cue is generated on the eyes during translatory self-motion with the retinal images of nearby objects moving faster than those of distant ones. To investigate how the visual motion pathway represents motion-based depth information we analyzed its responses to image sequences recorded in natural cluttered environments with a wide range of depth structures. The analysis was done on the basis of an experimentally validated model of the visual motion pathway of insects, with its core elements being correlation-type elementary motion detectors (EMDs. It is the key result of our analysis that the absolute EMD responses, i.e. the motion energy profile, represent the contrast-weighted nearness of environmental structures during translatory self-motion at a roughly constant velocity. In other words, the output of the EMD array highlights contours of nearby objects. This conclusion is largely independent of the scale over which EMDs are spatially pooled and was corroborated by scrutinizing the motion energy profile after eliminating the depth structure from the natural image sequences. Hence, the well-established dependence of correlation-type EMDs on both velocity and textural properties of motion stimuli appears to be advantageous for representing behaviorally relevant information about the environment in a computationally parsimonious way.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borgermans, P.
2002-01-01
The document is an abstract of a PhD thesis. The PhD work concerns the detailed investigation of the behaviour of optical fibres in radiation fields such as is the case for various nuclear and space application,s. The core of the work concerns the spectral and kinetic analysis of the radiation induced optical attenuation. Models describing underlying physical phenomena, both for the spectral and the time dimensions, have been developed. The potential of silica optical fibre waveguides for intrinsic dosimetry has been assessed by employing specific properties of radiation induced defects in the silica waveguide material
Kim, Richard S; Zhu, Jinfeng; Park, Jeung Hun; Li, Lu; Yu, Zhibin; Shen, Huajun; Xue, Mei; Wang, Kang L; Park, Gyechoon; Anderson, Timothy J; Pei, Qibing
2012-06-04
We report the plasmon-assisted photocurrent enhancement in Ag-nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) embedded PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM organic solar cells, and systematically investigate the causes of the improved optical absorption based on a cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model which is simulated with a 3-Dimensional finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The proposed cylindrical Ag-NPs optical model is able to explain the optical absorption enhancement by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) modes, and to provide a further understanding of Ag-NPs shape parameters which play an important role to determine the broadband absorption phenomena in plasmonic organic solar cells. A significant increase in the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the plasmonic solar cell was experimentally observed and compared with that of the solar cells without Ag-NPs. Finally, our conclusion was made after briefly discussing the electrical effects of the fabricated plasmonic organic solar cells.
Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu
2011-09-26
Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links. © 2011 Optical Society of America
Analysis and modeling of optical crosstalk in InP-based Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode FPAs
Chau, Quan; Jiang, Xudong; Itzler, Mark A.; Entwistle, Mark; Piccione, Brian; Owens, Mark; Slomkowski, Krystyna
2015-05-01
Optical crosstalk is a major factor limiting the performance of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (GmAPD) focal plane arrays (FPAs). This is especially true for arrays with increased pixel density and broader spectral operation. We have performed extensive experimental and theoretical investigations on the crosstalk effects in InP-based GmAPD FPAs for both 1.06-μm and 1.55-μm applications. Mechanisms responsible for intrinsic dark counts are Poisson processes, and their inter-arrival time distribution is an exponential function. In FPAs, intrinsic dark counts and cross talk events coexist, and the inter-arrival time distribution deviates from purely exponential behavior. From both experimental data and computer simulations, we show the dependence of this deviation on the crosstalk probability. The spatial characteristics of crosstalk are also demonstrated. From the temporal and spatial distribution of crosstalk, an efficient algorithm to identify and quantify crosstalk is introduced.
Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naulleau, Patrick P.; Mochi, Iacopo; Goldberg, Kenneth A.
2011-01-01
Defect free masks remain one of the most significant challenges facing the commercialization of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. Progress on this front requires high-performance wavelength-specific metrology of EUV masks, including high-resolution and aerial-image microscopy performed near the 13.5 nm wavelength. Arguably the most cost-effective and rapid path to proliferating this capability is through the development of Fresnel zoneplate-based microscopes. Given the relative obscurity of such systems, however, modeling tools are not necessarily optimized to deal with them and their imaging properties are poorly understood. Here we present a modeling methodology to analyze zoneplate microscopes based on commercially available optical modeling software and use the technique to investigate the imaging performance of an off-axis EUV microscope design. The modeling predicts that superior performance can be achieved by tilting the zoneplate, making it perpendicular to the chief ray at the center of the field, while designing the zoneplate to explicitly work in that tilted plane. Although the examples presented here are in the realm of EUV mask inspection, the methods described and analysis results are broadly applicable to zoneplate microscopes in general, including full-field soft-x-ray microscopes routinely used in the synchrotron community.
Arockia Bazil Raj, A.; Padmavathi, S.
2016-07-01
Atmospheric parameters strongly affect the performance of Free Space Optical Communication (FSOC) system when the optical wave is propagating through the inhomogeneous turbulent medium. Developing a model to get an accurate prediction of optical attenuation according to meteorological parameters becomes significant to understand the behaviour of FSOC channel during different seasons. A dedicated free space optical link experimental set-up is developed for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m. The diurnal profile of received power and corresponding meteorological parameters are continuously measured using the developed optoelectronic assembly and weather station, respectively, and stored in a data logging computer. Measured meteorological parameters (as input factors) and optical attenuation (as response factor) of size [177147 × 4] are used for linear regression analysis and to design the mathematical model that is more suitable to predict the atmospheric optical attenuation at our test field. A model that exhibits the R2 value of 98.76% and average percentage deviation of 1.59% is considered for practical implementation. The prediction accuracy of the proposed model is investigated along with the comparative results obtained from some of the existing models in terms of Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) during different local seasons in one-year period. The average RMSE value of 0.043-dB/km is obtained in the longer range dynamic of meteorological parameters variations.
Nonlinear optical model for strip plasmonic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lysenko, Oleg; Bache, Morten; Lavrinenko, Andrei
2016-01-01
This paper presents a theoretical model of nonlinear optical properties for strip plasmonic waveguides. The particular waveguides geometry that we investigate contains a gold core, adhesion layers, and silicon dioxide cladding. It is shown that the third-order susceptibility of the gold core...... significantly depends on the layer thickness and has the dominant contribution to the effective third-order susceptibility of the long-range plasmon polariton mode. This results in two nonlinear optical effects in plasmonic waveguides, which we experimentally observed and reported in [Opt. Lett. 41, 317 (2016...... approaches. (C) 2016 Optical Society of America...
Modeling and optimization of LCD optical performance
Yakovlev, Dmitry A; Kwok, Hoi-Sing
2015-01-01
The aim of this book is to present the theoretical foundations of modeling the optical characteristics of liquid crystal displays, critically reviewing modern modeling methods and examining areas of applicability. The modern matrix formalisms of optics of anisotropic stratified media, most convenient for solving problems of numerical modeling and optimization of LCD, will be considered in detail. The benefits of combined use of the matrix methods will be shown, which generally provides the best compromise between physical adequacy and accuracy with computational efficiency and optimization fac
Failure probability analysis of optical grid
Zhong, Yaoquan; Guo, Wei; Sun, Weiqiang; Jin, Yaohui; Hu, Weisheng
2008-11-01
Optical grid, the integrated computing environment based on optical network, is expected to be an efficient infrastructure to support advanced data-intensive grid applications. In optical grid, the faults of both computational and network resources are inevitable due to the large scale and high complexity of the system. With the optical network based distributed computing systems extensive applied in the processing of data, the requirement of the application failure probability have been an important indicator of the quality of application and an important aspect the operators consider. This paper will present a task-based analysis method of the application failure probability in optical grid. Then the failure probability of the entire application can be quantified, and the performance of reducing application failure probability in different backup strategies can be compared, so that the different requirements of different clients can be satisfied according to the application failure probability respectively. In optical grid, when the application based DAG (directed acyclic graph) is executed in different backup strategies, the application failure probability and the application complete time is different. This paper will propose new multi-objective differentiated services algorithm (MDSA). New application scheduling algorithm can guarantee the requirement of the failure probability and improve the network resource utilization, realize a compromise between the network operator and the application submission. Then differentiated services can be achieved in optical grid.
Rapid Process to Generate Beam Envelopes for Optical System Analysis
Howard, Joseph; Seals, Lenward
2012-01-01
The task of evaluating obstructions in the optical throughput of an optical system requires the use of two disciplines, and hence, two models: optical models for the details of optical propagation, and mechanical models for determining the actual structure that exists in the optical system. Previous analysis methods for creating beam envelopes (or cones of light) for use in this obstruction analysis were found to be cumbersome to calculate and take significant time and resources to complete. A new process was developed that takes less time to complete beam envelope analysis, is more accurate and less dependent upon manual node tracking to create the beam envelopes, and eases the burden on the mechanical CAD (computer-aided design) designers to form the beam solids. This algorithm allows rapid generation of beam envelopes for optical system obstruction analysis. Ray trace information is taken from optical design software and used to generate CAD objects that represent the boundary of the beam envelopes for detailed analysis in mechanical CAD software. Matlab is used to call ray trace data from the optical model for all fields and entrance pupil points of interest. These are chosen to be the edge of each space, so that these rays produce the bounding volume for the beam. The x and y global coordinate data is collected on the surface planes of interest, typically an image of the field and entrance pupil internal of the optical system. This x and y coordinate data is then evaluated using a convex hull algorithm, which removes any internal points, which are unnecessary to produce the bounding volume of interest. At this point, tolerances can be applied to expand the size of either the field or aperture, depending on the allocations. Once this minimum set of coordinates on the pupil and field is obtained, a new set of rays is generated between the field plane and aperture plane (or vice-versa). These rays are then evaluated at planes between the aperture and field, at a
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conny, J.M.; Norris, G.A.; Gould, T.R.
2009-01-01
Thermal-optical transmission (TOT) analysis measures black carbon (BC) in atmospheric aerosol on a fibrous filter. The method pyrolyzes organic carbon (OC) and employs laser light absorption to distinguish BC from the pyrolyzed OC; however, the instrument does not necessarily separate the two physically. In addition, a comprehensive temperature protocol for the analysis based on the Beer-Lambert Law remains elusive. Here, empirical response-surface modeling was used to show how the temperature protocol in TOT analysis can be modified to distinguish pyrolyzed OC from BC based on the Beer-Lambert Law. We determined the apparent specific absorption cross sections for pyrolyzed OC (σ Char ) and BC (σ BC ), which accounted for individual absorption enhancement effects within the filter. Response-surface models of these cross sections were derived from a three-factor central-composite factorial experimental design: temperature and duration of the high-temperature step in the helium phase, and the heating increase in the helium-oxygen phase. The response surface for σ BC , which varied with instrument conditions, revealed a ridge indicating the correct conditions for OC pyrolysis in helium. The intersection of the σ BC and σ Char surfaces indicated the conditions where the cross sections were equivalent, satisfying an important assumption upon which the method relies. 95% confidence interval surfaces defined a confidence region for a range of pyrolysis conditions. Analyses of wintertime samples from Seattle, WA revealed a temperature between 830 deg. C and 850 deg. C as most suitable for the helium high-temperature step lasting 150 s. However, a temperature as low as 750 deg. C could not be rejected statistically
Optical Coherence Tomography: Advanced Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T.
2013-01-01
- and multiple-scattering regimes is derived. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also derived, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images...... are discussed. Finally, the Wigner phase-space distribution function is derived in a closed-form solution, which may have applications in OCT....
FDTD method and models in optical education
Lin, Xiaogang; Wan, Nan; Weng, Lingdong; Zhu, Hao; Du, Jihe
2017-08-01
In this paper, finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method has been proposed as a pedagogical way in optical education. Meanwhile, FDTD solutions, a simulation software based on the FDTD algorithm, has been presented as a new tool which helps abecedarians to build optical models and to analyze optical problems. The core of FDTD algorithm is that the time-dependent Maxwell's equations are discretized to the space and time partial derivatives, and then, to simulate the response of the interaction between the electronic pulse and the ideal conductor or semiconductor. Because the solving of electromagnetic field is in time domain, the memory usage is reduced and the simulation consequence on broadband can be obtained easily. Thus, promoting FDTD algorithm in optical education is available and efficient. FDTD enables us to design, analyze and test modern passive and nonlinear photonic components (such as bio-particles, nanoparticle and so on) for wave propagation, scattering, reflection, diffraction, polarization and nonlinear phenomena. The different FDTD models can help teachers and students solve almost all of the optical problems in optical education. Additionally, the GUI of FDTD solutions is so friendly to abecedarians that learners can master it quickly.
Analytical model of the optical vortex microscope.
Płocinniczak, Łukasz; Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz
2016-04-20
This paper presents an analytical model of the optical vortex scanning microscope. In this microscope the Gaussian beam with an embedded optical vortex is focused into the sample plane. Additionally, the optical vortex can be moved inside the beam, which allows fine scanning of the sample. We provide an analytical solution of the whole path of the beam in the system (within paraxial approximation)-from the vortex lens to the observation plane situated on the CCD camera. The calculations are performed step by step from one optical element to the next. We show that at each step, the expression for light complex amplitude has the same form with only four coefficients modified. We also derive a simple expression for the vortex trajectory of small vortex displacements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yajie Jiang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The optical properties of perovskites at ambient temperatures are important both to the design of optimised solar cells as well as in other areas such as the refinement of electronic band structure calculations. Limited previous information on the optical modelling has been published. The experimental fitting parameters for optical constants of CH3NH3PbI3−xClx and CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite films are reported at 297 K as determined by detailed analysis of reflectance and transmittance data. The data in this study is related to the research article “Room temperature optical properties of organic–inorganic lead halide perovskites” in Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells [1].
Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy
2006-12-15
of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.
Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.
2006-01-01
One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings
Student project of optical system analysis API-library development
Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhukova, Tatiana; Dantcaranov, Ruslan; Romanova, Maria; Zhadin, Alexander; Ivanov, Vyacheslav; Kalinkina, Olga
2017-08-01
In the paper API-library software developed by students of Applied and Computer Optics Department (ITMO University) for optical system design is presented. The library performs paraxial and real ray tracing, calculates 3d order (Seidel) aberration and real ray aberration of axis and non-axis beams (wave, lateral, longitudinal, coma, distortion etc.) and finally, approximate wave aberration by Zernike polynomials. Real aperture can be calculated by considering of real rays tracing failure on each surface. So far we assume optical system is centered, with spherical or 2d order aspherical surfaces. Optical glasses can be set directly by refraction index or by dispersion coefficients. The library can be used for education or research purposes in optical system design area. It provides ready to use software functions for optical system simulation and analysis that developer can simply plug into their software development for different purposes, for example for some specific synthesis tasks or investigation of new optimization modes. In the paper we present an example of using the library for development of cemented doublet synthesis software based on Slusarev's methodology. The library is used in optical system optimization recipes course for deep studying of optimization model and its application for optical system design. Development of such software is an excellent experience for students and help to understanding optical image modeling and quality analysis. This development is organized as student group joint project. We try to organize it as a group in real research and development project, so each student has his own role in the project and then use whole library functionality in his own master or bachelor thesis. Working in such group gives students useful experience and opportunity to work as research and development engineer of scientific software in the future.
The optical model in atomic physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCarthy, I.E.
1978-01-01
The optical model for electron scattering on atoms has quite a short history in comparison with nuclear physics. The main reason for this is that there were insufficient data. Angular distribution for elastic and some inelastic scattering have now been measured for the atoms which exist in gaseous form at reasonable temperatures, inert gases, hydrogen, alkalies and mercury being the main ones out in. The author shows that the optical model makes sense in atomic physics by considering its theory and recent history. (orig./AH) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayhurst, T.L.
1980-01-01
Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the analysis of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multiconfiguration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e. wavefunctions with radical correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to screen the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the KI sequence from K 0+ through Fe 7+ , fitting to experimental levels for V 4+ , and Cr 5+ ; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: Energy levels of the Uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX 6 ) 2- for X = F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f 2 configuration in O/sub h/ symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayhurst, T.L.
1980-05-01
Techniques for applying ab-initio calculations to the analysis of atomic spectra are investigated, along with the relationship between the semi-empirical and ab-initio forms of Slater-Condon theory. Slater-Condon theory is reviewed with a focus on the essential features that lead to the effective Hamiltonians associated with the semi-empirical form of the theory. Ab-initio spectroscopic parameters are calculated from wavefunctions obtained via self-consistent field methods, while multi-configuration Hamiltonian matrices are constructed and diagonalized with computer codes written by Robert Cowan of Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Group theoretical analysis demonstrates that wavefunctions more general than Slater determinants (i.e., wavefunctions with radial correlations between electrons) lead to essentially the same parameterization of effective Hamiltonians. In the spirit of this analysis, a strategy is developed for adjusting ab-initio values of the spectroscopic parameters, reproducing parameters obtained by fitting the corresponding effective Hamiltonian. Secondary parameters are used to screen the calculated (primary) spectroscopic parameters, their values determined by least squares. Extrapolations of the secondary parameters determined from analyzed spectra are attempted to correct calculations of atoms and ions without experimental levels. The adjustment strategy and extrapolations are tested on the K I sequence from K 0+ through Fe 7+ , fitting to experimental levels for V 4+ , and Cr 5+ ; unobserved levels and spectra are predicted for several members of the sequence. A related problem is also discussed: energy levels of the uranium hexahalide complexes, (UX 6 ) 2- for X = F, Cl, Br, and I, are fit to an effective Hamiltonian (the f 2 configuration in O/sub h/ symmetry) with corrections proposed by Brian Judd
Features of optical modeling in educational and scientific activity ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The article discusses the functionality of existing software for the modeling, analysis and optimization of lighting systems and optical elements, through which the stage of their design can be automated completely. The use of these programs is shown using the example of scientific work and the educational activity of ...
An optical channel modeling of a single mode fiber
Nabavi, Neda; Liu, Peng; Hall, Trevor James
2018-05-01
The evaluation of the optical channel model that accurately describes the single mode fibre as a coherent transmission medium is reviewed through analytical, numerical and experimental analysis. We used the numerical modelling of the optical transmission medium and experimental measurements to determine the polarization drift as a function of time for a fixed length of fibre. The probability distribution of the birefringence vector was derived, which is associated to the 'Poole' equation. The theory and experimental evidence that has been disclosed in the literature in the context of polarization mode dispersion - Stokes & Jones formulations and solutions for key statistics by integration of stochastic differential equations has been investigated. Besides in-depth definition of the single-mode fibre-optic channel, the modelling which concerns an ensemble of fibres each with a different instance of environmental perturbation has been analysed.
Modeling GMPLS and Optical MPLS Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Henrik Lehrmann; Wessing, Henrik
2003-01-01
. The MPLS concept is attractive because it can work as a unifying control structure. covering all technologies. This paper describes how a novel scheme for optical MPLS and circuit switched GMPLS based networks can incorporated in such multi-domain, MPLS-based scenarios and how it could be modeled. Network...
Theoretical aspects of the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahaux, C.
1980-01-01
We first recall the definition of the optical-model potential for nucleons and the physical interpretation of the main related quantities. We then survey the recent theoretical progress towards a reliable calculation of this potential. The present limitations of the theory and some prospects for future developments are outlined. (author)
Parametric uncertainty in optical image modeling
Potzick, James; Marx, Egon; Davidson, Mark
2006-10-01
Optical photomask feature metrology and wafer exposure process simulation both rely on optical image modeling for accurate results. While it is fair to question the accuracies of the available models, model results also depend on several input parameters describing the object and imaging system. Errors in these parameter values can lead to significant errors in the modeled image. These parameters include wavelength, illumination and objective NA's, magnification, focus, etc. for the optical system, and topography, complex index of refraction n and k, etc. for the object. In this paper each input parameter is varied over a range about its nominal value and the corresponding images simulated. Second order parameter interactions are not explored. Using the scenario of the optical measurement of photomask features, these parametric sensitivities are quantified by calculating the apparent change of the measured linewidth for a small change in the relevant parameter. Then, using reasonable values for the estimated uncertainties of these parameters, the parametric linewidth uncertainties can be calculated and combined to give a lower limit to the linewidth measurement uncertainty for those parameter uncertainties.
Optical scattering measurement and analysis
Stover, John C
2012-01-01
Newly included are scatter models for pits and particles as well as the use of wafer scanners to locate and size isolated surface features. New sections cover the multimillion-dollar wafer scanner business, establishing that microroughness is the noise, not the signal, in these systems. Scatter measurements, now routinely used to determine whether small-surface features are pits or particles and inspiring new technology that provides information on particle material, are also discussed. These new capabilities are now supported by a series of international standards, and a new chapter reviews t
Novel applications of the dispersive optical model
Dickhoff, W. H.; Charity, R. J.; Mahzoon, M. H.
2017-03-01
A review of recent developments of the dispersive optical model (DOM) is presented. Starting from the original work of Mahaux and Sartor, several necessary steps are developed and illustrated which increase the scope of the DOM allowing its interpretation as generating an experimentally constrained functional form of the nucleon self-energy. The method could therefore be renamed as the dispersive self-energy method. The aforementioned steps include the introduction of simultaneous fits of data for chains of isotopes or isotones allowing a data-driven extrapolation for the prediction of scattering cross sections and level properties in the direction of the respective drip lines. In addition, the energy domain for data was enlarged to include results up to 200 MeV where available. An important application of this work was implemented by employing these DOM potentials to the analysis of the (d, p) transfer reaction using the adiabatic distorted wave approximation. We review these calculations which suggest that physically meaningful results are easier to obtain by employing DOM ingredients as compared to the traditional approach which relies on a phenomenologically-adjusted bound-state wave function combined with a global (nondispersive) optical-model potential. Application to the exotic 132Sn nucleus also shows great promise for the extrapolation of DOM potentials towards the drip line with attendant relevance for the physics of FRIB. We note that the DOM method combines structure and reaction information on the same footing providing a unique approach to the analysis of exotic nuclei. We illustrate the importance of abandoning the custom of representing the non-local Hartree-Fock (HF) potential in the DOM by an energy-dependent local potential as it impedes the proper normalization of the solution of the Dyson equation. This important step allows for the interpretation of the DOM potential as representing the nucleon self-energy permitting the calculations of
Nanoparticles displacement analysis using optical coherence tomography
StrÄ kowski, Marcin R.; Kraszewski, Maciej; StrÄ kowska, Paulina
2016-03-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a versatile optical method for cross-sectional and 3D imaging of biological and non-biological objects. Here we are going to present the application of polarization sensitive spectroscopic OCT system (PS-SOCT) for quantitative measurements of materials containing nanoparticles. The PS-SOCT combines the polarization sensitive analysis with time-frequency analysis. In this contribution the benefits of using the combination of timefrequency and polarization sensitive analysis are being expressed. The usefulness of PS-SOCT for nanoparticles evaluation is going to be tested on nanocomposite materials with TiO2 nanoparticles. The OCT measurements results have been compared with SEM examination of the PMMA matrix with nanoparticles. The experiment has proven that by the use of polarization sensitive and spectroscopic OCT the nanoparticles dispersion and size can be evaluated.
Ray-optics analysis of inhomogeneous optically anisotropic media
Sluijter, M.
2010-01-01
When the optical behavior of light in a medium depends on the direction in which light is traveling, the medium is called optically anisotropic. Light is an electromagnetic wave and in this thesis, we discuss the electromagnetic theory on optical anisotropy. We do this with the assumption that the
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Papayannis
2012-05-01
Full Text Available A strong Saharan dust event that occurred over the city of Athens, Greece (37.9° N, 23.6° E between 27 March and 3 April 2009 was followed by a synergy of three instruments: a 6-wavelength Raman lidar, a CIMEL sun-sky radiometer and the MODIS sensor. The BSC-DREAM model was used to forecast the dust event and to simulate the vertical profiles of the aerosol concentration. Due to mixture of dust particles with low clouds during most of the reported period, the dust event could be followed by the lidar only during the cloud-free day of 2 April 2009. The lidar data obtained were used to retrieve the vertical profile of the optical (extinction and backscatter coefficients properties of aerosols in the troposphere. The aerosol optical depth (AOD values derived from the CIMEL ranged from 0.33–0.91 (355 nm to 0.18–0.60 (532 nm, while the lidar ratio (LR values retrieved from the Raman lidar ranged within 75–100 sr (355 nm and 45–75 sr (532 nm. Inside a selected dust layer region, between 1.8 and 3.5 km height, mean LR values were 83 ± 7 and 54 ± 7 sr, at 355 and 532 nm, respectively, while the Ångström-backscatter-related (ABR_{355/532} and Ångström-extinction-related (AER_{355/532} were found larger than 1 (1.17 ± 0.08 and 1.11 ± 0.02, respectively, indicating mixing of dust with other particles. Additionally, a retrieval technique representing dust as a mixture of spheres and spheroids was used to derive the mean aerosol microphysical properties (mean and effective radius, number, surface and volume density, and mean refractive index inside the selected atmospheric layers. Thus, the mean value of the retrieved refractive index was found to be 1.49( ± 0.10 + 0.007( ± 0.007i, and that of the effective radiuses was 0.30 ± 0.18 μm. The final data set of the aerosol optical and microphysical properties along with the water vapor profiles obtained by Raman lidar were incorporated into the ISORROPIA II model to provide
Anatomically accurate, finite model eye for optical modeling.
Liou, H L; Brennan, N A
1997-08-01
There is a need for a schematic eye that models vision accurately under various conditions such as refractive surgical procedures, contact lens and spectacle wear, and near vision. Here we propose a new model eye close to anatomical, biometric, and optical realities. This is a finite model with four aspheric refracting surfaces and a gradient-index lens. It has an equivalent power of 60.35 D and an axial length of 23.95 mm. The new model eye provides spherical aberration values within the limits of empirical results and predicts chromatic aberration for wavelengths between 380 and 750 nm. It provides a model for calculating optical transfer functions and predicting optical performance of the eye.
Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, Peter E; Thrane, Lars; Yura, Harold T; Tycho, Andreas; Joergensen, Thomas M; Frosz, Michael H
2004-01-01
Analytical and numerical models for describing and understanding the light propagation in samples imaged by optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems are presented. An analytical model for calculating the OCT signal based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle valid both for the single and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally. From the analytical model, an algorithm for enhancing OCT images is developed; the so-called true-reflection algorithm in which the OCT signal may be corrected for the attenuation caused by scattering. For the first time, the algorithm is demonstrated by using the Monte Carlo model as a numerical tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging
A Thermo-Optic Propagation Modeling Capability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schrader, Karl; Akau, Ron
2014-10-01
A new theoretical basis is derived for tracing optical rays within a finite-element (FE) volume. The ray-trajectory equations are cast into the local element coordinate frame and the full finite-element interpolation is used to determine instantaneous index gradient for the ray-path integral equation. The FE methodology (FEM) is also used to interpolate local surface deformations and the surface normal vector for computing the refraction angle when launching rays into the volume, and again when rays exit the medium. The method is implemented in the Matlab(TM) environment and compared to closed- form gradient index models. A software architecture is also developed for implementing the algorithms in the Zemax(TM) commercial ray-trace application. A controlled thermal environment was constructed in the laboratory, and measured data was collected to validate the structural, thermal, and optical modeling methods.
Analysis technique for controlling system wavefront error with active/adaptive optics
Genberg, Victor L.; Michels, Gregory J.
2017-08-01
The ultimate goal of an active mirror system is to control system level wavefront error (WFE). In the past, the use of this technique was limited by the difficulty of obtaining a linear optics model. In this paper, an automated method for controlling system level WFE using a linear optics model is presented. An error estimate is included in the analysis output for both surface error disturbance fitting and actuator influence function fitting. To control adaptive optics, the technique has been extended to write system WFE in state space matrix form. The technique is demonstrated by example with SigFit, a commercially available tool integrating mechanical analysis with optical analysis.
Microrheology with optical tweezers: data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tassieri, Manlio; Warren, Rebecca L; Cooper, Jonathan M; Evans, R M L; Bailey, Nicholas J
2012-01-01
We present a data analysis procedure that provides the solution to a long-standing issue in microrheology studies, i.e. the evaluation of the fluids' linear viscoelastic properties from the analysis of a finite set of experimental data, describing (for instance) the time-dependent mean-square displacement of suspended probe particles experiencing Brownian fluctuations. We report, for the first time in the literature, the linear viscoelastic response of an optically trapped bead suspended in a Newtonian fluid, over the entire range of experimentally accessible frequencies. The general validity of the proposed method makes it transferable to the majority of microrheology and rheology techniques. (paper)
Plasma geometric optics analysis and computation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, T.M.
1983-01-01
Important practical applications in the generation, manipulation, and diagnosis of laboratory thermonuclear plasmas have created a need for elaborate computational capabilities in the study of high frequency wave propagation in plasmas. A reduced description of such waves suitable for digital computation is provided by the theory of plasma geometric optics. The existing theory is beset by a variety of special cases in which the straightforward analytical approach fails, and has been formulated with little attention to problems of numerical implementation of that analysis. The standard field equations are derived for the first time from kinetic theory. A discussion of certain terms previously, and erroneously, omitted from the expansion of the plasma constitutive relation is given. A powerful but little known computational prescription for determining the geometric optics field in the neighborhood of caustic singularities is rigorously developed, and a boundary layer analysis for the asymptotic matching of the plasma geometric optics field across caustic singularities is performed for the first time with considerable generality. A proper treatment of birefringence is detailed, wherein a breakdown of the fundamental perturbation theory is identified and circumvented. A general ray tracing computer code suitable for applications to radiation heating and diagnostic problems is presented and described
Green Network Planning Model for Optical Backbones
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Riaz, M. Tahir; Jensen, Michael
2010-01-01
on the environment in general. In network planning there are existing planning models focused on QoS provisioning, investment minimization or combinations of both and other parameters. But there is a lack of a model for designing green optical backbones. This paper presents novel ideas to be able to define......Communication networks are becoming more essential for our daily lives and critically important for industry and governments. The intense growth in the backbone traffic implies an increment of the power demands of the transmission systems. This power usage might have a significant negative effect...
Geometrical optics model of Mie resonances
Roll; Schweiger
2000-07-01
The geometrical optics model of Mie resonances is presented. The ray path geometry is given and the resonance condition is discussed with special emphasis on the phase shift that the rays undergo at the surface of the dielectric sphere. On the basis of this model, approximate expressions for the positions of first-order resonances are given. Formulas for the cavity mode spacing are rederived in a simple manner. It is shown that the resonance linewidth can be calculated regarding the cavity losses. Formulas for the mode density of Mie resonances are given that account for the different width of resonances and thus may be adapted to specific experimental situations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanovsky, E.A.; Bespalova, O.V.; Goncharov, S.A.; Pleshkov, D.V.; Spasskaya, T.I.
2000-01-01
Data on the scattering of protons with energies 5 MeV 90 Zr nuclei and data on the energies of proton particle and hole levels in the A + 1 and A - 1 systems with A = 90 are analyzed within the dispersive optical model. The parameters of the mean proton field for 90 Zr are determined in the energy range -60 MeV 3 He), ( 3 He, d), (n, d), and (d, n) reactions for levels near the Fermi surface and in (e, e'p) and (p, 2p) reactions for deep levels
Establishing a cat model of acute optic nerve injury
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
optic nerve (about 3 mm) went through optic foramen and entered into brain tissue. It was squeezed with noninvasive vascular clip for 20 seconds, then the clip was removed, and then the skull was closed after it was examined to be no bleeding. The size of bilateral pupils, direct and indirect light reflexes were observed postoperatively. Successfully established models were judged by larger operated pupil than controlateral one,disappearance of direct light reflex and the existence of indirect light reflex. No model establishment was performed in the control group. Each cat was tested with flash visual evoked potential (F-VEP) to observe the electrophysiological changes before and after experiment. All the cats in the control group and model groups were killed under anesthesia before model establishment and at 6 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days after model establishment respectively, and the pathological changes of the optic nerve after injury were observed under electron microscope and light microscope.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VEP and the ultrastructural changes of optic nerve after acute optic nerve injury in both groups.RESULTS: All the 28 cats were involved in the analysis of results. ① VEP results: The VEP latencies were obviously different between the control group and model group at each time point (P ＜ 0.05), whereas there were no obvious differences among different time points in the model group (P ＞ 0.05). The VEP amplitudes were obviously different between the control group and model group at each time point (P ＜ 0.05), whereas there were no obvious differences among different time points in the model group (P ＞ 0.05).② Ultrastructural changes of the optic nerve: Under electron microscope, normal optic nerve myelin sheath had complete structure, tramal plates were clear and arranged tightly, axolemma was complete, whereas the structures of endoneurium, myelin sheath, tramal plates, axolemma and axon were in disorders after optic nerve injury
Optical analysis of down-conversion OLEDs
Krummacher, Benjamin; Klein, Markus; von Malm, Norwin; Winnacker, Albrecht
2008-02-01
Phosphor down-conversion of blue organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) is one approach to generate white light, which offers the possibility of easy color tuning, a simple device architecture and color stability over lifetime. In this article previous work on down-conversion devices in the field of organic solid state lighting is briefly reviewed. Further, bottom emitting down-conversion OLEDs are studied from an optical point of view. Therefore the physical processes occurring in the down-conversion layer are translated into a model which is implemented in a ray tracing simulation. By comparing its predictions to experimental results the model is confirmed. For the experiments a blue-emitting polymer OLED (PLED) panel optically coupled to a series of down-conversion layers is used. Based on results obtained from ray tracing simulation some of the implications of the model for the performance of down-conversion OLEDs are discussed. In particular it is analysed how the effective reflectance of the underlying blue OLED and the particle size distribution of the phosphor powder embedded in the matrix of the down-conversion layer influence extraction efficiency.
Optical Model and Cross Section Uncertainties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herman,M.W.; Pigni, M.T.; Dietrich, F.S.; Oblozinsky, P.
2009-10-05
Distinct minima and maxima in the neutron total cross section uncertainties were observed in model calculations using spherical optical potential. We found this oscillating structure to be a general feature of quantum mechanical wave scattering. Specifically, we analyzed neutron interaction with 56Fe from 1 keV up to 65 MeV, and investigated physical origin of the minima.We discuss their potential importance for practical applications as well as the implications for the uncertainties in total and absorption cross sections.
The forward tracking, an optical model method
Benayoun, M
2002-01-01
This Note describes the so-called Forward Tracking, and the underlying optical model, developed in the context of LHCb-Light studies. Starting from Velo tracks, cheated or found by real pattern recognition, the tracks are found in the ST1-3 chambers after the magnet. The main ingredient to the method is a parameterisation of the track in the ST1-3 region, based on the Velo track parameters and an X seed in one ST station. Performance with the LHCb-Minus and LHCb-Light setups is given.
Optical model representation of coupled channel effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wall, N.S.; Cowley, A.A.; Johnson, R.C.; Kobas, A.M.
1977-01-01
A modification to the usual 6-parameter Woods-Saxon parameterization of the optical model for the scattering of composite particles is proposed. This additional real term reflects the effect of coupling other channels to the elastic scattering. The analyses favor a repulsive interaction for this term, especially for alpha particles. It is found that the repulsive term when combined with a Woods-Saxon term yields potentials with central values and volume integrals similar to those found by uncoupled elastic scattering calculations. These values are V(r = 0) approximately equal to 125 MeV and J/4A approximately equal to 300 MeV-fm 3
THz - ToF Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) to determine optical properties of dielectric materials
Spranger, Holger; Beckmann, Jörg
2017-02-01
Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between 0.1 and 10 THz are described as THz-radiation (T-ray). The ability to penetrate dielectric materials makes T-rays attractive to reveal discontinuities in polymer and ceramic materials. THz-Time Domain Spectroscopy Systems (THz-TDS) are available on the market today which operates with THz-pulses transmitted and received by optically pumped semiconductor antennas. In THz-TDS the travelling time (ToF) and shape of the pulse is changed if it interacts with the dielectric material and its inherent discontinuities. A tomogram of the object under the test can be reconstructed from time of flight diffraction (ToFD) scans if a synthetic focusing aperture (SAFT) algorithm is applied. The knowledge of the base materials shape and optical properties is essential for a proper reconstruction result. To obtain these properties a model is assumed which describes the device under the test as multilayer structure composed of thin layers with different dielectric characteristics. The Optical Layer Analysis (OLA) is able to fulfill these requirements. A short description why the optical properties are crucial for meaningful SAFT reconstruction results will be given first. Afterwards the OLA will be derived and applied on representative samples to discuss and evaluate its benefits and limits.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Yiren; Hsu Long; Chi Sien
2006-01-01
Since their invention in 1986, optical tweezers have become a popular manipulation and force measurement tool in cellular and molecular biology. However, until recently there has not been a sophisticated model for optical tweezers on trapping cells in the ray-optics regime. We present a model for optical tweezers to calculate the optical force upon a spherically symmetric multilayer sphere representing a common biological cell. A numerical simulation of this model shows that not only is the magnitude of the optical force upon a Chinese hamster ovary cell significantly three times smaller than that upon a polystyrene bead of the same size, but the distribution of the optical force upon a cell is also much different from that upon a uniform particle, and there is a 30% difference in the optical trapping stiffness of these two cases. Furthermore, under a small variant condition for the refractive indices of any adjacent layers of the sphere, this model provides a simple approximation to calculate the optical force and the stiffness of an optical tweezers system
Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu
2013-01-01
The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...
FDTD modeling of anisotropic nonlinear optical phenomena in silicon waveguides.
Dissanayake, Chethiya M; Premaratne, Malin; Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Agrawal, Govind P
2010-09-27
A deep insight into the inherent anisotropic optical properties of silicon is required to improve the performance of silicon-waveguide-based photonic devices. It may also lead to novel device concepts and substantially extend the capabilities of silicon photonics in the future. In this paper, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we present a three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method for modeling optical phenomena in silicon waveguides, which takes into account fully the anisotropy of the third-order electronic and Raman susceptibilities. We show that, under certain realistic conditions that prevent generation of the longitudinal optical field inside the waveguide, this model is considerably simplified and can be represented by a computationally efficient algorithm, suitable for numerical analysis of complex polarization effects. To demonstrate the versatility of our model, we study polarization dependence for several nonlinear effects, including self-phase modulation, cross-phase modulation, and stimulated Raman scattering. Our FDTD model provides a basis for a full-blown numerical simulator that is restricted neither by the single-mode assumption nor by the slowly varying envelope approximation.
Analysis of seawater flow through optical fiber
Fernández López, Sheila; Carrera Ramírez, Jesús; Rodriguez Sinobar, Leonor; Benitez, Javier; Rossi, Riccardo; Laresse de Tetto, Antonia
2015-04-01
The relation between sea and coastal aquifer is very important to the human populations living in coastal areas. The interrelation involves the submarine ground water discharge of relatively fresh water to the sea and the intrusion of sea water into the aquifer, which impairs the quality of ground water. The main process in seawater intrusion is managed by fluid-density effects which control the displacement of saline water. The underlain salinity acts as the restoring force, while hydrodynamic dispersion and convection lead to a mixing and vertical displacement of the brine. Because of this, a good definition of this saltwater-freshwater interface is needed what is intimately joined to the study of the movements (velocity fields) of fresh and salt water. As it is well known, the flow of salt water studied in seawater intrusion in stationary state, is nearly null or very low. However, in the rest of cases, this flux can be very important, so it is necessary its study to a better comprehension of this process. One possible manner of carry out this analysis is through the data from optical fiber. So, to research the distribution and velocity of the fresh and saltwater in the aquifer, a fiber optic system (OF) has been installed in Argentona (Baix Maresme, Catalonia). The main objective is to obtain the distributed temperature measurements (OF-DTS) and made progress in the interpretation of the dynamic processes of water. For some applications, the optical fiber acts as a passive temperature sensor but in our case, the technique Heated Active Fiber Optic will be used. This is based on the thermal response of the ground as a heat emission source is introduced. The thermal properties of the soil, dependent variables of soil water content, will make a specific temperature distribution around the cable. From the analyzed data we will deduce the velocity field, the real objective of our problem. To simulate this phenomenon and the coupled transport and flow problem
Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation
2009-09-01
Introduction This presentation summarizes recent activity in monitoring spacecraft health status using passive remote optical nonimaging ...Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Space Object Radiometric Modeling for Hardbody Optical Signature Database Generation...It is beneficial to the observer/analyst to understand the fundamental optical signature variability associated with these detection and
Optical choppers with rotational elements: modeling, design and prototypes
Duma, Virgil-Florin; Cira, Octavian; Demian, Dorin
2017-05-01
We present a brief overview of our contributions regarding the analysis and design of optical choppers. Their applications range numerous domains, from optical sensing in radiometry or telescopes to laser manufacturing and biomedical imaging - for example for the controlled attenuation of light, the elimination of selected spectral domains, or the switching of optical paths. While these aspects are pointed out, the paper describes our analysis, modeling, and manufacturing of prototypes for choppers with: (a) wheels with windows with linear margins; (b) wheels with windows with non-linear margins (semi-circular or elliptical), outward or inward; (c) rotational shafts with different shapes, with slits or with holes. While variant (a) represents classical choppers, variant (b) represents the "eclipse" choppers that we have developed and also patented for the solution with two adjustable wheels that can produce circular windows. Variant (c), of choppers with shafts is also a patent application. Their transmission functions are discussed, for the shape of the laser pulses produced and for the attenuation coefficients obtained. While this discussion has been completed analytically for top-hat laser beams, it has been modeled using simulations for Gaussian and Bessel beams. Design, manufacturing aspects, and prototypes of the different chopper configurations complete the presentation.
Monte Carlo modeling of human tooth optical coherence tomography imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi, Boya; Meng, Zhuo; Wang, Longzhi; Liu, Tiegen
2013-01-01
We present a Monte Carlo model for optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of human tooth. The model is implemented by combining the simulation of a Gaussian beam with simulation for photon propagation in a two-layer human tooth model with non-parallel surfaces through a Monte Carlo method. The geometry and the optical parameters of the human tooth model are chosen on the basis of the experimental OCT images. The results show that the simulated OCT images are qualitatively consistent with the experimental ones. Using the model, we demonstrate the following: firstly, two types of photons contribute to the information of morphological features and noise in the OCT image of a human tooth, respectively. Secondly, the critical imaging depth of the tooth model is obtained, and it is found to decrease significantly with increasing mineral loss, simulated as different enamel scattering coefficients. Finally, the best focus position is located below and close to the dental surface by analysis of the effect of focus positions on the OCT signal and critical imaging depth. We anticipate that this modeling will become a powerful and accurate tool for a preliminary numerical study of the OCT technique on diseases of dental hard tissue in human teeth. (paper)
Adhesive bonds for optics: analysis and trade-offs
Daly, John G.; Hawk, Matthew D.
2017-08-01
Fastening optical elements with adhesives presents challenges when dissimilar materials (almost always the case) are encountered and environmental exposures from temperature changes, shock and vibration must be met. A brief review of standard processes will be followed by a selection criteria for the optic, its substrate, the bond geometry, surface preparation, application and cure. Common analysis practices will be compared to Finite Element models. The impact of stress in terms of distortion and level of risk of bond failure is highlighted. Trade-offs will be presented as aids in determination of the best approach. Some areas addressed will be different adhesive types, matching CTE's, stress effects, athermal bonds, monolithic designs, and the use of flexures.
Optical analysis and alignment applications using the infrared Smartt interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viswanathan, V.K.; Bolen, P.D.; Liberman, I.; Seery, B.D.
1981-01-01
The possibility of using the infrared Smartt interferometer for optical analysis and alignment of infrared laser systems has been discussed previously. In this paper, optical analysis of the Gigawatt Test Facility at Los Alamos, as well as a deformable mirror manufactured by Rocketdyne, are discussed as examples of the technique. The possibility of optically characterizing, as well as aligning, pulsed high energy laser systems like Helios and Antares is discussed in some detail
Analysis of blocking probability for OFDM-based variable bandwidth optical network
Gong, Lei; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yongli; Lin, Xuefeng; Wu, Yuyao; Gu, Wanyi
2011-12-01
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM) has recently been proposed as a modulation technique. For optical networks, because of its good spectral efficiency, flexibility, and tolerance to impairments, optical OFDM is much more flexible compared to traditional WDM systems, enabling elastic bandwidth transmissions, and optical networking is the future trend of development. In OFDM-based optical network the research of blocking rate has very important significance for network assessment. Current research for WDM network is basically based on a fixed bandwidth, in order to accommodate the future business and the fast-changing development of optical network, our study is based on variable bandwidth OFDM-based optical networks. We apply the mathematical analysis and theoretical derivation, based on the existing theory and algorithms, research blocking probability of the variable bandwidth of optical network, and then we will build a model for blocking probability.
Analysis of Free-Space Optics Development
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikołajczyk Janusz
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The article presents state of work in technology of free-space optical communications (Free Space Optics − FSO. Both commercially available optical data links and their further development are described. The main elements and operation limiting factors of FSO systems have been identified. Additionally, analyses of FSO/RF hybrid systems application are included. The main aspects of LasBITer project related to such hybrid technology for security and defence applications are presented.
Physical model of optical inhomogeneities of water
Shybanov, E. B.
2017-11-01
The paper is devoted to theoretical aspects of the light scattering of water that does not contain suspended particles. To be consistent with current physical point of view the water as far as any liquid is regarded as a complex unstable nonergodic media. It was proposed that at fixed time the water as a condensed medium had global inhomogeneities similar to linear and planar defects in a solid. Anticipated own global inhomogeneities of water have been approximated by the system randomly distributed spherical clusters filling the entire water bulk. An analytical expression for the single scattered light has been derived. The formula simultaneously describes both the high anisotropy of light scattering and the high degree of polarization which one close to those for molecular scattering. It is shown that at general angles there is a qualitative coincidence with the two-component Kopelevich's model for the light scattering by marine particles. On the contrary towards to forwards angles the spectral law becomes much more prominent i.e. it corresponds to results for model of optically soft particles.
MIA analysis of FPGA BPMs and beam optics at APS
Ji, Da-Heng; Wang, Chun-Xi; Qin, Qing
2012-11-01
Model independent analysis, which was developed for high precision and fast beam dynamics analysis, is a promising diagnostic tool for modern accelerators. We implemented a series of methods to analyze the turn-by-turn BPM data. Green's functions corresponding to the local transfer matrix elements R12 or R34 are extracted from BPM data and fitted with the model lattice using least-square fitting. Here, we report experimental results obtained from analyzing the transverse motion of a beam in the storage ring at the Advanced Photon Source. BPM gains and uncoupled optics parameters are successfully determined. Quadrupole strengths are adjusted for fitting but can not be uniquely determined in general due to an insufficient number of BPMs.
Computer programs simplify optical system analysis
1965-01-01
The optical ray-trace computer program performs geometrical ray tracing. The energy-trace program calculates the relative monochromatic flux density on a specific target area. This program uses the ray-trace program as a subroutine to generate a representation of the optical system.
Constitutive Modeling of the Mechanical Properties of Optical Fibers
Moeti, L.; Moghazy, S.; Veazie, D.; Cuddihy, E.
1998-01-01
Micromechanical modeling of the composite mechanical properties of optical fibers was conducted. Good agreement was obtained between the values of Young's modulus obtained by micromechanics modeling and those determined experimentally for a single mode optical fiber where the wave guide and the jacket are physically coupled. The modeling was also attempted on a polarization-maintaining optical fiber (PANDA) where the wave guide and the jacket are physically decoupled, and found not to applicable since the modeling required perfect bonding at the interface. The modeling utilized constituent physical properties such as the Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and shear modulus to establish bounds on the macroscopic behavior of the fiber.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ingram, W.J.
1987-06-01
The report describes a fiber-optics system model and its computer implementation. This implementation can calculate the bit error ratio (BER) versus time for optical fibers that have been exposed to gamma radiation. The program is designed so that the user may arbitrarily change any or all of the system input variables and produce separate outputs. The primary output of the program is a table of the BER as a function of time. This table may be stored on magnetic media and later incorporated into computer graphic programs. The program was written in FORTRAN 77 for the IBM PC/AT/XT computers. Flow charts and program listings are included in the report
Amir Farbin
The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vucic, S.; Potvliege, R.M.; Joachain, C.J.; Louvain Univ., Louvain-la-Neuve
1987-01-01
We study the elastic scattering of electrons by the metastable states H(2s), He(2 1 S) and He(2 3 S) at intermediate energies within the framework of the third-order optical potential theory. The first-, second- and third-order contributions to the optical potential are analysed separately, and are compared with the corresponding quantities for e - H(1s) and e - He(1 1 S) elastic scattering. Results for positron impact scattering are also presented. (author)
Optical Coherence Tomography: Modeling and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thrane, Lars
this system. A demonstration of the imaging capabilities of the OCT system is given. Moreover, a novel truereflection OCT imaging algorithm, based on the new OCT model presented in this thesis, is demonstrated. Finally, a theoretical analysis of the Wigner phase-space distribution function for the OCT...... geometry, i.e., reflection geometry, is developed. As in the new OCT model, multiple scattered photons has been taken into account together with multiple scattering effects. As an important result, a novel method of creating images based on measurements of the momentum width of the Wigner phase...
Development of optical apparatus with remote analysis in nuclear industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Sung Ho; Cha, Byung Heon; Ko, Do Kyeong; Cha, Hyeong Ky
1999-12-01
Optical apparatus with remote analysis was developed. It is composed with Dye laser, optical fiber and optical transmitter, and optical corrector. Laser light is arming in untested sample, and there is back scattered fluorescence. Material is identified by detecting and analysis of this fluorescence. Liquid and solid dye laser was carry out. The maximum efficiency was up to 34 percent. and the divergency and bandwidth of laser light are 2 mrad and 4.2 GHz, respectively. A dye laser with two wavelength was also carry out. 3 inch optical transmitter with fluorite lens was developed and the spatial resolution was less than 2 arc sec. And large optical corrector with 6 inch was developed and that mirror was coated by enhanced aluminum. Thus the efficiency was up to 92 percent. (author)
Optical bandgap of semiconductor nanostructures: Methods for experimental data analysis
Raciti, R.; Bahariqushchi, R.; Summonte, C.; Aydinli, A.; Terrasi, A.; Mirabella, S.
2017-06-01
Determination of the optical bandgap (Eg) in semiconductor nanostructures is a key issue in understanding the extent of quantum confinement effects (QCE) on electronic properties and it usually involves some analytical approximation in experimental data reduction and modeling of the light absorption processes. Here, we compare some of the analytical procedures frequently used to evaluate the optical bandgap from reflectance (R) and transmittance (T) spectra. Ge quantum wells and quantum dots embedded in SiO2 were produced by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition, and light absorption was characterized by UV-Vis/NIR spectrophotometry. R&T elaboration to extract the absorption spectra was conducted by two approximated methods (single or double pass approximation, single pass analysis, and double pass analysis, respectively) followed by Eg evaluation through linear fit of Tauc or Cody plots. Direct fitting of R&T spectra through a Tauc-Lorentz oscillator model is used as comparison. Methods and data are discussed also in terms of the light absorption process in the presence of QCE. The reported data show that, despite the approximation, the DPA approach joined with Tauc plot gives reliable results, with clear advantages in terms of computational efforts and understanding of QCE.
Measuring optical properties of a blood vessel model using optical coherence tomography
Levitz, David; Hinds, Monica T.; Tran, Noi; Vartanian, Keri; Hanson, Stephen R.; Jacques, Steven L.
2006-02-01
In this paper we develop the concept of a tissue-engineered optical phantom that uses engineered tissue as a phantom for calibration and optimization of biomedical optics instrumentation. With this method, the effects of biological processes on measured signals can be studied in a well controlled manner. To demonstrate this concept, we attempted to investigate how the cellular remodeling of a collagen matrix affected the optical properties extracted from optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the samples. Tissue-engineered optical phantoms of the vascular system were created by seeding smooth muscle cells in a collagen matrix. Four different optical properties were evaluated by fitting the OCT signal to 2 different models: the sample reflectivity ρ and attenuation parameter μ were extracted from the single scattering model, and the scattering coefficient μ s and root-mean-square scattering angle θ rms were extracted from the extended Huygens-Fresnel model. We found that while contraction of the smooth muscle cells was clearly evident macroscopically, on the microscopic scale very few cells were actually embedded in the collagen. Consequently, no significant difference between the cellular and acellular samples in either set of measured optical properties was observed. We believe that further optimization of our tissue-engineering methods is needed in order to make the histology and biochemistry of the cellular samples sufficiently different from the acellular samples on the microscopic level. Once these methods are optimized, we can better verify whether the optical properties of the cellular and acellular collagen samples differ.
Optical Fibres in the Modeling of Translucent Concrete Blocks
M.N.V.Padma Bhushan, D.Johnson, Md. Afzal Basheer Pasha And Ms. K. Prasanthi
2013-01-01
Translucent concrete is a concrete based material with light-transmissive properties, obtained due to embedded light optical elements like Optical fibers in it. Light is conducted through the stone from one end to the other. This results into a certain light pattern on the other surface, depending on the fibre structure. Optical fibres transmit light so effectively that there is virtually no loss of light conducted through the fibres. Our paper deals with the modelling of such translucent or ...
Wave-optics modeling of the optical-transport line for passive optical stochastic cooling
Andorf, M. B.; Lebedev, V. A.; Piot, P.; Ruan, J.
2018-03-01
Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is expected to enable fast cooling of dense particle beams. Transition from microwave to optical frequencies enables an achievement of stochastic cooling rates which are orders of magnitude higher than ones achievable with the classical microwave based stochastic cooling systems. A subsystemcritical to the OSC scheme is the focusing optics used to image radiation from the upstream "pickup" undulator to the downstream "kicker" undulator. In this paper, we present simulation results using wave-optics calculation carried out with the SYNCHROTRON RADIATION WORKSHOP (SRW). Our simulations are performed in support to a proof-of-principle experiment planned at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) at Fermilab. The calculations provide an estimate of the energy kick received by a 100-MeV electron as it propagates in the kicker undulator and interacts with the electromagnetic pulse it radiated at an earlier time while traveling through the pickup undulator.
Wave-Optics Modeling of the Optical-Transport Line for Passive Optical Stochastic Cooling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andorf, M. B. [NICADD, DeKalb; Lebedev, V. A. [Fermilab; Piot, P. [Fermilab; Ruan, J. [Fermilab
2018-03-01
Optical stochastic cooling (OSC) is expected to enable fast cooling of dense particle beams. Transition from microwave to optical frequencies enables an achievement of stochastic cooling rates which are orders of magnitude higher than ones achievable with the classical microwave based stochastic cooling systems. A subsytem critical to the OSC scheme is the focusing optics used to image radiation from the upstream "pickup" undulator to the downstream "kicker" undulator. In this paper, we present simulation results using wave-optics calculation carried out with the {\\sc Synchrotron Radiation Workshop} (SRW). Our simulations are performed in support to a proof-of-principle experiment planned at the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) at Fermilab. The calculations provide an estimate of the energy kick received by a 100-MeV electron as it propagates in the kicker undulator and interacts with the electromagnetic pulse it radiated at an earlier time while traveling through the pickup undulator.
Optical model theory of elastic electron- and positron-atom scattering at intermediate energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Joachain, C.J.
1977-01-01
It is stated that the basic idea of the optical model theory is to enable analysis of the elastic scattering of a particle from a complex target by replacing the complicated interactions between the beam and the target by an optical potential, or pseudopotential, in which the incident particle moves. Once the optical potential is determined the original many-body elastic scattering problem reduces to a one-body situation. The resulting optical potential is, however, a very complicated operator, and the formal expressions obtained from first principles for the optical potential can only be evaluated approximately in a few simple cases, such as high energy elastic hadron-nucleus scattering, for the the optical potential can be expressed in terms of two-body hadron-nucleon amplitudes, and the non-relativistic elastic scattering of fast charged particles by atoms. The elastic scattering of an electron or positron by a neutral atom at intermediate energies is here considered. Exchange effects between the projectile and the atomic electrons are considered; also absorption and polarisation effects. Applications of the full-wave optical model have so far only been made to the elastic scattering of fast electrons and positrons by atomic H, He, Ne, and Ar. Agreements of the optical model results with absolute measurements of differential cross sections for electron scattering are very good, an agreement that improves as the energy increases, but deteriorates quickly as the incident energy becomes lower than 50 eV for atomic H or 100 eV for He. For more complex atoms the optical model calculations also appear very encouraging. With regard to positron-atom elastic scattering the optical model results for positron-He scattering differ markedly at small angles from the corresponding electron-He values. It would be interesting to have experimental angular distributions of positron-atom elastic scattering in order to check predictions of the optical model theory. (U.K.)
Panel discussion on: trends in optical and radio data analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, R.
1985-01-01
The panel begins by placing optical and radio astronomy into the same category and then goes on to discuss a wide variety of hardware and software approaches which have been or can be utilized in the analysis of optical and radio data
Analysis of the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials on ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
6. — journal of. June 2016 physics pp. 1275–1286. Analysis of the normal ... the levels are obtained for the three optical potentials to estimate the quality ... The experimental angular distribution data for the 40Ca(6Li, d)44Ti reaction .... analysed using the normal optical, Michel and molecular potentials within the framework.
Dynamical analysis of an optical rocking ratchet: Theory and experiment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Arzola, Alejandro V.; Volke-Sepúlveda, K.; Mateos, J.L.
2013-01-01
Roč. 87, č. 6 (2013), 062910:1-9 ISSN 1539-3755 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH12018; GA MŠk EE2.4.31.0016 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : deterministic optical rocking ratchet * analysis of the dynamics Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.326, year: 2013
Choi, Bo-Hun; Kwon, Il-Bum
2015-03-09
We propose a distributed residual strain sensor that uses an Al-packaged optical fiber for the first time. The residual strain which causes Brillouin frequency shifts in the optical fiber was measured using Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis with 2 cm spatial resolution. We quantified the Brillouin frequency shifts in the Al-packaged optical fiber by the tensile stress and compared them for a varying number of Al layers in the optical fiber. The Brillouin frequency shift of an optical fiber with one Al layer had a slope of 0.038 MHz/με with respect to tensile stress, which corresponds to 78% of that for an optical fiber without Al layers. After removal of the stress, 87% of the strain remained as residual strain. When different tensile stresses were randomly applied, the strain caused by the highest stress was the only one detected as residual strain. The residual strain was repeatedly measured for a time span of nine months for the purpose of reliability testing, and there was no change in the strain except for a 4% reduction, which is within the error tolerance of the experiment. A composite material plate equipped with our proposed Al-packaged optical fiber sensor was hammered for impact experiment and the residual strain in the plate was successfully detected. We suggest that the Al-packaged optical fiber can be adapted as a distributed strain sensor for smart structures, including aerospace structures.
Analysis of contour images using optics of spiral beams
Volostnikov, V. G.; Kishkin, S. A.; Kotova, S. P.
2018-03-01
An approach is outlined to the recognition of contour images using computer technology based on coherent optics principles. A mathematical description of the recognition process algorithm and the results of numerical modelling are presented. The developed approach to the recognition of contour images using optics of spiral beams is described and justified.
Optical polarimeter based on Fourier analysis and electronic control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vilardy, J; Salas, V.; Torres, C.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we show the design and implementation of an optical polarimeter using electronic control and the Fourier analysis. The polarimeter prototype will be used as a main tool for the students of the Universidad Popular del Cesar that belong to the following university programs: Electronics engineering (optoelectronics area), Math and Physics degree and the Master in Physics Sciences, in order to learning the theory and experimental aspects of the state of optical polarization via the Stokes vector measurement. Using the electronic polarimeter proposed in this paper, the students will be able to observe (in an optical bench) and understand the different interactions of the states of optical polarization when the optical waves pass through to the polarizers and retarder waves plates. The electronic polarimeter has a software that captures the optical intensity measurement and evaluates the Stokes vector. (Author)
The Maxwell-Lorentz Model for optical Pulses
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Mads Peter; Brio, Moysey
2007-01-01
Dynamics of optical pulses, especially of ultra short femtosecond pulses, are of great technological and theoretical interest. The dynamics of optical pulses is usually studied using the nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equation model. While such approach works surprisingly well for description of pulse...
Modelling of Extrinsic Fiber Optic Sagnac Ultrasound Interferometer ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Ultrasonic waves are used extensively in nondestructive testing both for characterization of material properties, in this paper, we describe a fiber optic sensor suitable for detection of ultrasonic waves. This sensor is based on an extrinsic fiber optic sagnac interferometer. The proposed sensor model can act as a conventional ...
Vega, David; Kiekens, Kelli C.; Syson, Nikolas C.; Romano, Gabriella; Baker, Tressa; Barton, Jennifer K.
2018-02-01
While Optical Coherence Microscopy (OCM), Multiphoton Microscopy (MPM), and narrowband imaging are powerful imaging techniques that can be used to detect cancer, each imaging technique has limitations when used by itself. Combining them into an endoscope to work in synergy can help achieve high sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis at the point of care. Such complex endoscopes have an elevated risk of failure, and performing proper modelling ensures functionality and minimizes risk. We present full 2D and 3D models of a multimodality optical micro-endoscope to provide real-time detection of carcinomas, called a salpingoscope. The models evaluate the endoscope illumination and light collection capabilities of various modalities. The design features two optical paths with different numerical apertures (NA) through a single lens system with a scanning optical fiber. The dual path is achieved using dichroic coatings embedded in a triplet. A high NA optical path is designed to perform OCM and MPM while a low NA optical path is designed for the visible spectrum to navigate the endoscope to areas of interest and narrowband imaging. Different tests such as the reflectance profile of homogeneous epithelial tissue were performed to adjust the models properly. Light collection models for the different modalities were created and tested for efficiency. While it is challenging to evaluate the efficiency of multimodality endoscopes, the models ensure that the system is design for the expected light collection levels to provide detectable signal to work for the intended imaging.
Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yonatan Stern
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both, however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b estimating the stiffness and Young’s modulus of a composite beam; and (c distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.
Brillouin Optical Correlation Domain Analysis in Composite Material Beams.
Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal; Antman, Yair; Diamandi, Hilel Hagai; Silbiger, Maayan; Adler, Gadi; Levenberg, Eyal; Shalev, Doron; Zadok, Avi
2017-10-02
Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b) estimating the stiffness and Young's modulus of a composite beam; and (c) distributed strain measurements across the surfaces of a model wing of an unmanned aerial vehicle. The measurements are supported by the predictions of structural analysis calculations. The results illustrate the potential added values of high-resolution, distributed Brillouin sensing in the structural health monitoring of composites.
Zaghloul, Mohamed A S; Wang, Mohan; Milione, Giovanni; Li, Ming-Jun; Li, Shenping; Huang, Yue-Kai; Wang, Ting; Chen, Kevin P
2018-04-12
Brillouin optical time domain analysis is the sensing of temperature and strain changes along an optical fiber by measuring the frequency shift changes of Brillouin backscattering. Because frequency shift changes are a linear combination of temperature and strain changes, their discrimination is a challenge. Here, a multicore optical fiber that has two cores is fabricated. The differences between the cores' temperature and strain coefficients are such that temperature (strain) changes can be discriminated with error amplification factors of 4.57 °C/MHz (69.11 μ ϵ /MHz), which is 2.63 (3.67) times lower than previously demonstrated. As proof of principle, using the multicore optical fiber and a commercial Brillouin optical time domain analyzer, the temperature (strain) changes of a thermally expanding metal cylinder are discriminated with an error of 0.24% (3.7%).
Optical metrology for analysis of lobster-eye x-ray optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Irving, Thomas H.K.; Peele, Andrew G.; Nugent, Keith A.
2003-01-01
A new method that uses optical microscopy to determine the physical structure of lobster-eye x-ray optics is described. This approach offers the ability to predict x-ray performance without having to take an x-ray measurement. An overlapping series of images of the entrance and exit faces of an optic are obtained and examined by purpose-built software. A 24-parameter description of each channel is obtained from which a quantitative analysis of all the major optic defects, except surface roughness, is performed. Results for a planar lobster-eye optic are used to illustrate this technique and discuss its abilities as well as directions for future enhancements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed A. S. Zaghloul
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Brillouin optical time domain analysis is the sensing of temperature and strain changes along an optical fiber by measuring the frequency shift changes of Brillouin backscattering. Because frequency shift changes are a linear combination of temperature and strain changes, their discrimination is a challenge. Here, a multicore optical fiber that has two cores is fabricated. The differences between the cores’ temperature and strain coefficients are such that temperature (strain changes can be discriminated with error amplification factors of 4.57 °C/MHz (69.11 μ ϵ /MHz, which is 2.63 (3.67 times lower than previously demonstrated. As proof of principle, using the multicore optical fiber and a commercial Brillouin optical time domain analyzer, the temperature (strain changes of a thermally expanding metal cylinder are discriminated with an error of 0.24% (3.7%.
Wave optics modeling of real-time holographic wavefront compensation systems using OSSim
Carbon, Margarita A.; Guthals, Dennis M.; Logan, Jerry D.
2005-08-01
OSSim (Optical System Simulation) is a wave-optics, time-domain simulation toolbox with both optical and data processing components developed for adaptive optics (AO) systems. Diffractive wavefront control elements have recently been added that accurately model optically and electrically addressed spatial light modulators as real time holographic (RTH) devices in diffractive wavefront control systems. The developed RTH toolbox has found multiple applications for a variety of Boeing programs in solving problems of AO system analysis and design. Several complex diffractive wavefront control systems have been modeled for compensation of static and dynamic aberrations such as imperfect segmented primary mirrors and atmospheric and boundary layer turbulence. The results of OSSim simulations of RTH wavefront compensation show very good agreement with available experimental data.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.M. Shapar
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Performed in this work is a comprehensive theoretical computer analysis of performances inherent to two types of multichannel optical rotary connectors (ORC of compensation operation based on mirror and prismatic compensators. This analysis relies on exact analytical expressions obtained for light ray paths in ORC models with a mirror compensator made in the form of bilateral mirror placed between two optical hemispheres and with prismatic compensator made in the form of Dove prism placed between two non-aberrational elliptic lenses. Found in ORC with the mirror compensator is the essential deficiency inherent to all these constructions, which is related with considerable rotary oscillations in the value of optical signals in mirror angular positions when the mirror halves the input light beam. In these mirror positions, the amplitude value of optical signal oscillations exceeds 95%, and optical losses are higher than –13 dB, when the rotor turns. One deficiency more in these constructions is also strict technical requirements to the accuracy of making the optical components and mechanisms at the level of 1…2 µm. Concerning the ORC construction with a prismatic compensator as well as collimator and focusing lenses common for all the channels, one should note the inadmissibly high optical losses of the signal value (higher than –30…40 dB in the case of construction with fiber-optic interfaces, and large dimensions and mass in the case of active construction with optoelectronic transducers at the inputs and outputs of ORC. For example, when the number of channels N = 10 the longitudinal dimension of optical transfer channel (prism and lenses exceeds 300 mm, and this dimension increases with increasing the number of channels. When this dimension is lower than 100 mm, the facility can be equipped with only one optical communication channel containing one LED and one photodiode located on the rotation axis. Optical losses in these
The accuracy of heavy ion optical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kozik, T.
1980-01-01
There is investigated in detail the sources and magnitude of numerical errors in heavy ion optical model calculations. It is shown on example of 20 Ne + 24 Mg scattering at Esub(LAB)=100 MeV. (author)
NLOM - a program for nonlocal optical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, B.T.; Kyum, M.C.; Hong, S.W.; Park, M.H.; Udagawa, T.
1992-01-01
A FORTRAN program NLOM for nonlocal optical model calculations is described. It is based on a method recently developed by Kim and Udagawa, which utilizes the Lanczos technique for solving integral equations derived from the nonlocal Schroedinger equation. (orig.)
Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation
Li, Muxingzi
2017-01-01
of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous
Economics In Optical Design, Analysis, And Production
Willey, Ronald R.
1983-10-01
There are indications that we are entering an era wherein economics will play an increasing role in the optical design and production process. Economics has always been a factor in the competition between commercial ventures in the product arena. Now, we may begin to see competition between different technologies for the scarce resources of the society, including money. A proper design approach begins with a thorough examination and refinement of the requirements from the top down. The interrelationships of the various components must be properly understood and balanced. The specifications must be clear, complete, and realistic. Improper or incomplete system design can cause an extensive waste of resources. The detail optical design to meet the performance requirements has sometimes been the only part of the process that the designer has considered his own responsibility. The final optimization should also consider economic related factors: the cost of tolerances, the available tools test plates, materials, and test equipment. In the preliminary design stage, he should have decided which alignment and test methods are most appropriate to the system. The distribution of tolerances in an optical/mechanical system is a frequently neglected opportunity to reduce cost. We have reported previously on our work in this area, and expand further on it in the context of this paper. The designer now has an opportunity to generate better designs at a lower cost that are more economical to produce. The watchword for the 1980's may become the one found in the assembly automation industry: "more, better, for less".
Beam Optics Analysis - An Advanced 3D Trajectory Code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ives, R. Lawrence; Bui, Thuc; Vogler, William; Neilson, Jeff; Read, Mike; Shephard, Mark; Bauer, Andrew; Datta, Dibyendu; Beal, Mark
2006-01-01
Calabazas Creek Research, Inc. has completed initial development of an advanced, 3D program for modeling electron trajectories in electromagnetic fields. The code is being used to design complex guns and collectors. Beam Optics Analysis (BOA) is a fully relativistic, charged particle code using adaptive, finite element meshing. Geometrical input is imported from CAD programs generating ACIS-formatted files. Parametric data is inputted using an intuitive, graphical user interface (GUI), which also provides control of convergence, accuracy, and post processing. The program includes a magnetic field solver, and magnetic information can be imported from Maxwell 2D/3D and other programs. The program supports thermionic emission and injected beams. Secondary electron emission is also supported, including multiple generations. Work on field emission is in progress as well as implementation of computer optimization of both the geometry and operating parameters. The principle features of the program and its capabilities are presented
Optical Propagation Modeling for the National Ignition Facility
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Williams, W H; Auerbach, J M; Henesian, M A; Jancaitis, K S; Manes, K R; Mehta, N C; Orth, C D; Sacks, R A; Shaw, M J; Widmayer, C C
2004-01-12
Optical propagation modeling of the National Ignition Facility has been utilized extensively from conceptual design several years ago through to early operations today. In practice we routinely (for every shot) model beam propagation starting from the waveform generator through to the target. This includes the regenerative amplifier, the 4-pass rod amplifier, and the large slab amplifiers. Such models have been improved over time to include details such as distances between components, gain profiles in the laser slabs and rods, transient optical distortions due to the flashlamp heating of laser slabs, measured transmitted and reflected wavefronts for all large optics, the adaptive optic feedback loop, and the frequency converter. These calculations allow nearfield and farfield predictions in good agreement with measurements.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Iribas
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a simplified configuration for distributed Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors that aims to reduce the cost of the sensor by reducing the number of components required for the generation of the two optical waves involved in the sensing process. The technique is based on obtaining the pump and probe waves by passive optical filtering of the spectral components generated in a single optical source that is driven by a pulsed RF signal. The optical source is a compact laser with integrated electroabsorption modulator and the optical filters are based on fiber Bragg gratings. Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate 1 m spatial resolution over a 20 km sensing fiber with a 0.9 MHz precision in the measurement of the Brillouin frequency shift, a performance similar to that of much more complex setups. Furthermore, we discuss the factors limiting the sensor performance, which are basically related to residual spectral components in the filtering process.
Measurement of rotational dynamics by the simultaneous nonlinear analysis of optical and EPR data.
Hustedt, E J; Cobb, C E; Beth, A H; Beechem, J M
1993-01-01
In the preceding companion article in this issue, an optical dye and a nitroxide radical were combined in a new dual function probe, 5-SLE. In this report, it is demonstrated that time-resolved optical anisotropy and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data can be combined in a single analysis to measure rotational dynamics. Rigid-limit and rotational diffusion models for simulating nitroxide EPR data have been incorporated into a general non-linear least-squares procedure based on the Marq...
Optical solitons in nematic liquid crystals: model with saturation effects
Borgna, Juan Pablo; Panayotaros, Panayotis; Rial, Diego; de la Vega, Constanza Sánchez F.
2018-04-01
We study a 2D system that couples a Schrödinger evolution equation to a nonlinear elliptic equation and models the propagation of a laser beam in a nematic liquid crystal. The nonlinear elliptic equation describes the response of the director angle to the laser beam electric field. We obtain results on well-posedness and solitary wave solutions of this system, generalizing results for a well-studied simpler system with a linear elliptic equation for the director field. The analysis of the nonlinear elliptic problem shows the existence of an isolated global branch of solutions with director angles that remain bounded for arbitrary electric field. The results on the director equation are also used to show local and global existence, as well as decay for initial conditions with sufficiently small L 2-norm. For sufficiently large L 2-norm we show the existence of energy minimizing optical solitons with radial, positive and monotone profiles.
Generic distortion model for metrology under optical microscopes
Liu, Xingjian; Li, Zhongwei; Zhong, Kai; Chao, YuhJin; Miraldo, Pedro; Shi, Yusheng
2018-04-01
For metrology under optical microscopes, lens distortion is the dominant source of error. Previous distortion models and correction methods mostly rely on the assumption that parametric distortion models require a priori knowledge of the microscopes' lens systems. However, because of the numerous optical elements in a microscope, distortions can be hardly represented by a simple parametric model. In this paper, a generic distortion model considering both symmetric and asymmetric distortions is developed. Such a model is obtained by using radial basis functions (RBFs) to interpolate the radius and distortion values of symmetric distortions (image coordinates and distortion rays for asymmetric distortions). An accurate and easy to implement distortion correction method is presented. With the proposed approach, quantitative measurement with better accuracy can be achieved, such as in Digital Image Correlation for deformation measurement when used with an optical microscope. The proposed technique is verified by both synthetic and real data experiments.
Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Litovko Irina V.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.
Deep-lying hole states in the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klevansky, S.P.; Lemmer, R.H.
1982-01-01
The strength function for deep-lying hole states in an optical potential is studied by the method of Green's functions. The role of isospin is emphasized. It is shown that, while the main trends of the experimental data on hole states in isotopes of Sn and Pd can be described by an energy independent optical potential, intermediate structures in these data indicate the specific nuclear polarization effects have to be included. This is done by introducing doorway states of good isospin into the optical model potential. Such states consist of neutron hole plus proton core vibrations as well as more complicated excitations that are analog states of proton hole plus neutron core vibrations of the parent nuclear system. Specific calculations for 115 Sn and 103 Pd give satisfactory fits to the strength function data using optical model and doorway state parameters that are reasonable on physical grounds
ECISVIEW. An interactive toolbox for optical model development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Van Wijk, J.J.; Delaroche, J.P.
1997-01-01
The software package ECISVIEW is a graphical interface built around the multi-disciplinary nuclear reaction code ECIS-95. The key feature of the working method is that the user can specify the value of optical potential parameters as any mathematical function of the energy, A, Z or user defined parameters. This enables us to obtain conveniently the optimal optical potential parameters for a given nucleus over the whole energy region of interest. ECISVIEW makes it possible to simultaneously study the dependence of all calculated angular distributions, polarizations and total cross sections on optical model parameters. This method is perhaps more than 100 times faster than the conventional method of preparing an input file, running the code, editing the output file and finally viewing the data with a graphical program. As an example, a spherical 0-200 MeV nucleon optical model for 90 Zr is presented. A demonstration of ECISVIEW has been given at this Specialist's Meeting. (author)
Radon-Wigner transform for optical field analysis
Alieva, T.; Bastiaans, M.J.; Nijhawan, O.P.; Gupta, A.K.; Musla, A.K.; Singh, Kehar
1998-01-01
The Radon-Wigner transform, associated with the intensity distribution in the fractional Fourier transform system, is used for the analysis of complex structures of coherent as well as partially coherent optical fields. The application of the Radon-Wigner transform to the analysis of fractal fields
Quantum model for electro-optical amplitude modulation.
Capmany, José; Fernández-Pousa, Carlos R
2010-11-22
We present a quantum model for electro-optic amplitude modulation, which is built upon quantum models of the main photonic components that constitute the modulator, that is, the guided-wave beamsplitter and the electro-optic phase modulator and accounts for all the different available modulator structures. General models are developed both for single and dual drive configurations and specific results are obtained for the most common configurations currently employed. Finally, the operation with two-photon input for the control of phase-modulated photons and the important topic of multicarrier modulation are also addressed.
Isotopic analysis using optical spectroscopy (1963)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstenkorn, S.
1963-01-01
The isotopic displacement in the atomic lines of certain elements (H, He, Li, Ne, Sr, Hg, Pb, U, Pu) is used for dosing these elements isotopically. The use of the Fabry-Perot photo-electric interference spectrometer is shown to be particularly adapted for this sort of problem: in each case we give on the one hand the essential results obtained with this apparatus, and on the other hand the results previously obtained with a conventional apparatus (grating, photographic plate). These results together give an idea of the possibilities of optical spectroscopy: in the best case, the precision which may be expected is of the order of 1 to 2 per cent for isotopes whose concentration is about 1 per cent. (author) [fr
Quantitative analysis of eyes and other optical systems in linear optics.
Harris, William F; Evans, Tanya; van Gool, Radboud D
2017-05-01
To show that 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics, matrices obtained from the ray transference, are suitable for quantitative analysis although only the latter define an inner-product space and only on it can one define distances and angles. The paper examines the nature of the spaces and their relationships to other spaces including symmetric dioptric power space. The paper makes use of linear optics, a three-dimensional generalization of Gaussian optics. Symmetric 2 × 2 dioptric power matrices F define a three-dimensional inner-product space which provides a sound basis for quantitative analysis (calculation of changes, arithmetic means, etc.) of refractive errors and thin systems. For general systems the optical character is defined by the dimensionally-heterogeneous 4 × 4 symplectic matrix S, the transference, or if explicit allowance is made for heterocentricity, the 5 × 5 augmented symplectic matrix T. Ordinary quantitative analysis cannot be performed on them because matrices of neither of these types constitute vector spaces. Suitable transformations have been proposed but because the transforms are dimensionally heterogeneous the spaces are not naturally inner-product spaces. The paper obtains 14-dimensional spaces of augmented point P and angle Q characteristics. The 14-dimensional space defined by the augmented angle characteristics Q is dimensionally homogenous and an inner-product space. A 10-dimensional subspace of the space of augmented point characteristics P is also an inner-product space. The spaces are suitable for quantitative analysis of the optical character of eyes and many other systems. Distances and angles can be defined in the inner-product spaces. The optical systems may have multiple separated astigmatic and decentred refracting elements. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.
Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Juergensen, Ole
2015-06-05
In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.
Optical linear algebra processors - Noise and error-source modeling
Casasent, D.; Ghosh, A.
1985-01-01
The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAPs) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.
Optical linear algebra processors: noise and error-source modeling.
Casasent, D; Ghosh, A
1985-06-01
The modeling of system and component noise and error sources in optical linear algebra processors (OLAP's) are considered, with attention to the frequency-multiplexed OLAP. General expressions are obtained for the output produced as a function of various component errors and noise. A digital simulator for this model is discussed.
Event-based Simulation Model for Quantum Optics Experiments
De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.; Jaeger, G; Khrennikov, A; Schlosshauer, M; Weihs, G
2011-01-01
We present a corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one. The event-based corpuscular model gives a unified
Optical Associative Memory Model With Threshold Modification Using Complementary Vector
Bian, Shaoping; Xu, Kebin; Hong, Jing
1989-02-01
A new criterion to evaluate the similarity between two vectors in associative memory is presented. According to it, an experimental research about optical associative memory model with threshold modification using complementary vector is carried out. This model is capable of eliminating the posibility to recall erroneously. Therefore the accuracy of reading out is improved.
Extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Juergensen, Ole
2015-01-01
In this thesis, the phase diagrams and dynamics of various extended Hubbard models for ultracold atoms in optical lattices are studied. Hubbard models are the primary description for many interacting particles in periodic potentials with the paramount example of the electrons in solids. The very same models describe the behavior of ultracold quantum gases trapped in the periodic potentials generated by interfering beams of laser light. These optical lattices provide an unprecedented access to the fundamentals of the many-particle physics that govern the properties of solid-state materials. They can be used to simulate solid-state systems and validate the approximations and simplifications made in theoretical models. This thesis revisits the numerous approximations underlying the standard Hubbard models with special regard to optical lattice experiments. The incorporation of the interaction between particles on adjacent lattice sites leads to extended Hubbard models. Offsite interactions have a strong influence on the phase boundaries and can give rise to novel correlated quantum phases. The extended models are studied with the numerical methods of exact diagonalization and time evolution, a cluster Gutzwiller approximation, as well as with the strong-coupling expansion approach. In total, this thesis demonstrates the high relevance of beyond-Hubbard processes for ultracold atoms in optical lattices. Extended Hubbard models can be employed to tackle unexplained problems of solid-state physics as well as enter previously inaccessible regimes.
Event-Based Corpuscular Model for Quantum Optics Experiments
Michielsen, K.; Jin, F.; Raedt, H. De
A corpuscular simulation model of optical phenomena that does not require the knowledge of the solution of a wave equation of the whole system and reproduces the results of Maxwell's theory by generating detection events one-by-one is presented. The event-based corpuscular model is shown to give a
The Watanabe model for 6Li-nucleus optical potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abul-Magd, A.Y.; Rabie, A.; El-Gazzar, M.A.
1980-09-01
Optical potentials for the scattering of 6 Li projectiles are calculated using the Watanabe model and an α+d cluster model wave function for 6 Li. Reasonable fits to the elastic differential cross-section and vector polarization are obtained. (author)
A Novel Rodent Model of Posterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy
Wang, Yan; Brown, Dale P.; Duan, Yuanli; Kong, Wei; Watson, Brant D.; Goldberg, Jeffrey L.
2014-01-01
Objectives To develop a reliable, reproducible rat model of posterior ischemic optic neuropathy (PION) and study the cellular responses in the optic nerve and retina. Methods Posterior ischemic optic neuropathy was induced in adult rats by photochemically induced ischemia. Retinal and optic nerve vasculature was examined by fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran extravasation. Tissue sectioning and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the pathologic changes. Retinal ganglion cell survival at different times after PION induction, with or without neurotrophic application, was quantified by fluorogold retrograde labeling. Results Optic nerve injury was confirmed after PION induction, including local vascular leakage, optic nerve edema, and cavernous degeneration. Immunostaining data revealed microglial activation and focal loss of astrocytes, with adjacent astrocytic hypertrophy. Up to 23%, 50%, and 70% retinal ganglion cell loss was observed at 1 week, 2 weeks, and 3 weeks, respectively, after injury compared with a sham control group. Experimental treatment by brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor remarkably prevented retinal ganglion cell loss in PION rats. At 3 weeks after injury, more than 40% of retinal ganglion cells were saved by the application of neurotrophic factors. Conclusions Rat PION created by photochemically induced ischemia is a reproducible and reliable animal model for mimicking the key features of human PION. Clinical Relevance The correspondence between the features of this rat PION model to those of human PION makes it an ideal model to study the pathophysiologic course of the disease, most of which remains to be elucidated. Furthermore, it provides an optimal model for testing therapeutic approaches for optic neuropathies. PMID:23544206
Ion induced optical emission for surface and depth profile analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
White, C.W.
1977-01-01
Low-energy ion bombardment of solid surfaces results in the emission of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation produced by inelastic ion-solid collision processes. The emitted optical radiation provides important insight into low-energy particle-solid interactions and provides the basis for an analysis technique which can be used for surface and depth profile analysis with high sensitivity. The different kinds of collision induced optical radiation emitted as a result of low-energy particle-solid collisions are reviewed. Line radiation arising from excited states of sputtered atoms or molecules is shown to provide the basis for surface and depth profile analysis. The spectral characteristics of this type of radiation are discussed and applications of the ion induced optical emission technique are presented. These applications include measurements of ion implant profiles, detection sensitivities for submonolayer quantities of impurities on elemental surfaces, and the detection of elemental impurities on complex organic substrates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolin Zheng
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Surface plasmon resonance (SPR sensor is widely used for its high precision and real-time analysis. Fiber-optic SPR sensor is easy for miniaturization, so it is commonly used in the development of portable detection equipment. It can also be used for remote, real-time, and online detection. In this study, a wavelength modulation fiber-optic SPR sensor is designed, and theoretical analysis of optical propagation in the optical fiber is also done. Compared with existing methods, both the transmission of a skew ray and the influence of the chromatic dispersion are discussed. The resonance wavelength is calculated at two different cases, in which the chromatic dispersion in the fiber core is considered. According to the simulation results, a novel multi-channel fiber-optic SPR sensor is likewise designed to avoid defaults aroused by the complicated computation of the skew ray as well as the chromatic dispersion. Avoiding the impact of skew ray can do much to improve the precision of this kind of sensor.
Design and analysis study of a spacecraft optical transceiver package
Lambert, S. G.
1985-01-01
A detailed system level design of an Optical Transceiver Package (OPTRANSPAC) for a deep space vehicle whose mission is outer planet exploration is developed. In addition to the terminal design, this study provides estimates of the dynamic environments to be encountered by the transceiver throughout its mission life. Optical communication link analysis, optical thin lens design, electronic functional design and mechanical layout and packaging are employed in the terminal design. Results of the study describe an Optical Transceiver Package capable of communicating to an Earth Orbiting Relay Station at a distance of 10 Astronomical Units (AU) and data rates up to 100 KBPS. The transceiver is also capable of receiving 1 KBPS of command data from the Earth Relay. The physical dimensions of the terminal are contained within a 3.5' x 1.5' x 2.0' envelope and the transceiver weight and power are estimated at 52.2 Kg (115 pounds) and 57 watts, respectively.
Analysis of artificial opals by scanning near field optical microscopy
Barrio, J.; Lozano, G.; Lamela, J.; Lifante, G.; Dorado, L. A.; Depine, R. A.; Jaque, F.; Míguez, H.
2011-04-01
Herein we present a detailed analysis of the optical response of artificial opal films realized employing a near-field scanning optical microscope in collection and transmission modes. Near-field patterns measured at the rear surface when a plane wave impinges on the front face are presented with the finding that optical intensity maps present a clear correlation with the periodic arrangement of the outer surface. Calculations based on the vector Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker method reproduce the different profiles experimentally observed as well as the response to the polarization of the incident field. These observations constitute the first experimental confirmation of the collective lattice resonances that give rise to the optical response of these three dimensional periodic structures in the high-energy range.
Observation and analysis of water inherent optical properties
Sun, Deyong; Li, Yunmei; Le, Chengfeng; Huang, Changchun
2008-03-01
Inherent optical property is an important part of water optical properties, and is the foundation of water color analytical model establishment. Through quantity filter technology (QFT) and backscattering meter BB9 (WETlabs Inc), absorption coefficients of CDOM, total suspended minerals and backscattering coefficients of total suspended minerals had been observed in Meiliang Bay of Taihu lake at summer and winter respectively. After analyzing the spectral characteristics of absorption and backscattering coefficients, the differences between two seasons had been illustrated adequately, and the reasons for the phenomena, which are related to the changes of water quality coefficient, had also been explained. So water environment states can be reflected by inherent optical properties. In addition, the relationship models between backscattering coefficients and suspended particle concentrations had been established, which can support coefficients for analytical models.
Advanced modelling of optical coherence tomography systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter E.; Thrane, L.; Yura, H.T.
2004-01-01
and multiple scattering regimes is reviewed. An advanced Monte Carlo model for calculating the OCT signal is also reviewed, and the validity of this model is shown through a mathematical proof based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle. Moreover, for the first time the model is verified experimentally...... tissue phantom. Such algorithm holds promise for improving OCT imagery and to extend the possibility for functional imaging....
Linking Aerosol Optical Properties Between Laboratory, Field, and Model Studies
Murphy, S. M.; Pokhrel, R. P.; Foster, K. A.; Brown, H.; Liu, X.
2017-12-01
The optical properties of aerosol emissions from biomass burning have a significant impact on the Earth's radiative balance. Based on measurements made during the Fourth Fire Lab in Missoula Experiment, our group published a series of parameterizations that related optical properties (single scattering albedo and absorption due to brown carbon at multiple wavelengths) to the elemental to total carbon ratio of aerosols emitted from biomass burning. In this presentation, the ability of these parameterizations to simulate the optical properties of ambient aerosol is assessed using observations collected in 2017 from our mobile laboratory chasing wildfires in the Western United States. The ambient data includes measurements of multi-wavelength absorption, scattering, and extinction, size distribution, chemical composition, and volatility. In addition to testing the laboratory parameterizations, this combination of measurements allows us to assess the ability of core-shell Mie Theory to replicate observations and to assess the impact of brown carbon and mixing state on optical properties. Finally, both laboratory and ambient data are compared to the optical properties generated by a prominent climate model (Community Earth System Model (CESM) coupled with the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM 5)). The discrepancies between lab observations, ambient observations and model output will be discussed.
Analysis of multiple scattering effects in optical Doppler tomography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yura, H.T.; Thrane, L.; Andersen, Peter E.
2005-01-01
Optical Doppler tomography (ODT) combines Doppler velocimetry and optical coherence tomography (OCT) to obtain high-resolution cross-sectional imaging of particle flow velocity in scattering media such as the human retina and skin. Here, we present the results of a theoretical analysis of ODT where...... multiple scattering effects are included. The purpose of this analysis is to determine how multiple scattering affects the estimation of the depth-resolved localized flow velocity. Depth-resolved velocity estimates are obtained directly from the corresponding mean or standard deviation of the observed...
A Fourier Optical Model for the Laser Doppler Velocimeter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lading, Lars
1972-01-01
The treatment is based on a fourier optical model. It is shown how the various configurations (i.e. ldquodifferential moderdquo and reference beam mode with both one and two incident beams) are incorporated in the model, and how it can be extended to three dimensions. The particles are represented...... filtering ability vanishes as the aperture size converges towards zero. The results based on fourier optics are compared with the rough estimates obtainable by using the "antenna formular" for heterodyning (ArΩr≈λ2)....
ABC Algorithm based Fuzzy Modeling of Optical Glucose Detection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
SARACOGLU, O. G.
2016-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a modeling approach based on the use of fuzzy reasoning mechanism to define a measured data set obtained from an optical sensing circuit. For this purpose, we implemented a simple but effective an in vitro optical sensor to measure glucose content of an aqueous solution. Measured data contain analog voltages representing the absorbance values of three wavelengths measured from an RGB LED in different glucose concentrations. To achieve a desired model performance, the parameters of the fuzzy models are optimized by using the artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm. The modeling results presented in this paper indicate that the fuzzy model optimized by the algorithm provide a successful modeling performance having the minimum mean squared error (MSE of 0.0013 which are in clearly good agreement with the measurements.
Hierarchical Models for Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the Optical and Near Infrared
Mandel, Kaisey; Narayan, G.; Kirshner, R. P.
2011-01-01
I have constructed a comprehensive statistical model for Type Ia supernova optical and near infrared light curves. Since the near infrared light curves are excellent standard candles and are less sensitive to dust extinction and reddening, the combination of near infrared and optical data better constrains the host galaxy extinction and improves the precision of distance predictions to SN Ia. A hierarchical probabilistic model coherently accounts for multiple random and uncertain effects, including photometric error, intrinsic supernova light curve variations and correlations across phase and wavelength, dust extinction and reddening, peculiar velocity dispersion and distances. An improved BayeSN MCMC code is implemented for computing probabilistic inferences for individual supernovae and the SN Ia and host galaxy dust populations. I use this hierarchical model to analyze nearby Type Ia supernovae with optical and near infared data from the PAIRITEL, CfA3, and CSP samples and the literature. Using cross-validation to test the robustness of the model predictions, I find that the rms Hubble diagram scatter of predicted distance moduli is 0.11 mag for SN with optical and near infrared data versus 0.15 mag for SN with only optical data. Accounting for the dispersion expected from random peculiar velocities, the rms intrinsic prediction error is 0.08-0.10 mag for SN with both optical and near infrared light curves. I discuss results for the inferred intrinsic correlation structures of the optical-NIR SN Ia light curves and the host galaxy dust distribution captured by the hierarchical model. The continued observation and analysis of Type Ia SN in the optical and near infrared is important for improving their utility as precise and accurate cosmological distance indicators.
Optical propagation analysis in photobioreactor measurements on cyanobacteria
Fanjul-Vélez, F.; Arce-Diego, J. L.
2017-12-01
Biotechnology applications are nowadays increasing in many areas, from agriculture to biochemistry, or even biomedicine. Knowledge on biological processes is becoming essential in order to be able to adequately estimate and control the production of these elements. Cyanobacteria present the capability of producing oxygen and biomass, from CO2 and light irradiation. Therefore, they could be fundamental for human subsistence in adverse environments, as basic needs of breathing and food would be guaranteed. Cyanobacteria cultivation, as other microorganisms, is carried out in photo-bioreactors. The adequate design of photobioreactors greatly influences elements production throughput. This design includes optical illumination and optical measurement of cyanobacteria growth. In this work an analysis of optical measurement of cyanobacteria growth in a photobioreactor is made. As cyanobacteria are inhomogeneous elements, the influence of light scattering is significant. Several types of cyanobacteria are considered, as long as several spatial profiles and irradiances of the incident light. Depending on cyanobacteria optical properties, optical distribution of transmitted light can be estimated. These results allow an appropriate consideration, in the optical design, of the relationship between detected light and cyanobacteria growth. As a consequence, the most adequate conditions of elements production from cyanobacteria could be estimated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chyla, K.; Jarczyk, L.; Maciuk, B.; Zipper, W.
1976-01-01
Alpha particle scattering from 28 Si has been studied at five bombarding energies from 23.5 to 28.5 MeV. iota-dependent resonance absorption has been introduced to the optical model analysis of 28 Si (α,β) 28 Si reaction. (author)
Optical model and calibration of a sun tracker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, Sergei N.; Samokhvalov, Ignatii V.; Cheong, Hai Du; Kim, Dukhyeon
2016-01-01
Sun trackers are widely used to investigate scattering and absorption of solar radiation in the Earth's atmosphere. We present a method for optimization of the optical altazimuth sun tracker model with output radiation direction aligned with the axis of a stationary spectrometer. The method solves the problem of stability loss in tracker pointing at the Sun near the zenith. An optimal method for tracker calibration at the measurement site is proposed in the present work. A method of moving calibration is suggested for mobile applications in the presence of large temperature differences and errors in the alignment of the optical system of the tracker. - Highlights: • We present an optimal optical sun tracker model for atmospheric spectroscopy. • The problem of loss of stability of tracker pointing at the Sun has been solved. • We propose an optimal method for tracker calibration at a measurement site. • Test results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed optimization methods.
LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis
Brandt, N.; Fichter, W.; Kersten, M.; Lucarelli, S.; Montemurro, F.
2005-05-01
End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised.
LISA Pathfinder E2E performance simulation: optical and self-gravity stability analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, N; Fichter, W; Kersten, M; Lucarelli, S; Montemurro, F
2005-01-01
End-to-end (E2E) modelling and simulation, i.e. verifying the science performance of LISA Pathfinder (spacecraft and payload), is mandatory in order to minimize mission risks. In this paper, focus is on two particular applications of the E2E performance simulator currently being developed at EADS Astrium GmbH: the opto-dynamical stability and the self-gravity disturbance stability analysis. The E2E models applied here comprise the opto-dynamical modelling of the optical metrology systems (OMS) laser interferometry, the thermo-elastic distortion modelling of the OMS optical elements and the self-gravity disturbance model accounting for structural distortions. Preliminary analysis results are presented in detail, identifying shortcomings of the current LISA technology package (LTP) mounting baseline. As a consequence, the design is now being revised
Neutron strength functions: the link between resolved resonances and the optical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moldauer, P.A.
1980-01-01
Neutron strength functions and scattering radii are useful as energy and channel radius independent parameters that characterize neutron scattering resonances and provide a connection between R-matrix resonance analysis and the optical model. The choice of R-matrix channel radii is discussed, as are limitations on the accuracies of strength functions. New definitions of the p-wave strength function and scattering radius are proposed. For light nuclei, where strength functions display optical model energy variations over the resolved resonances, a doubly reduced partial neutron width is introduced for more meaningful statistical analyses of widths. The systematic behavior of strength functions and scattering radii is discussed
Chemical analysis of steel by optical emission spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hayakawa, M.O.; Kajita, T.; Jeszensky, G.
1981-01-01
The development of the chemical analysis for special steels by optical emission spectrometry direct reading method with computer, at the Siderurgica N.S. Aparecida S.A. is presented. Results are presented for the low alloy steels and high speed steel. Also, the contribution of this method to the special steel preparation is commented. (Author) [pt
Incorporating Basic Optical Microscopy in the Instrumental Analysis Laboratory
Flowers, Paul A.
2011-01-01
A simple and versatile approach to incorporating basic optical microscopy in the undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory is described. Attaching a miniature CCD spectrometer to the video port of a standard compound microscope yields a visible microspectrophotometer suitable for student investigations of fundamental spectrometry concepts,…
Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.
1985-01-01
Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating
Mathematical modeling of optical glazing performance
Nijnatten, van P.A.; Wittwer, V.; Granqvist, C.G.; Lampert, C.M.
1994-01-01
Mathematical modelling can be a powerful tool in the design and optimalization of glazing. By calculation, the specifications of a glazing design and the optimal design parameters can be predicted without building costly prototypes first. Furthermore, properties which are difficult to measure, like
Electron Correlation Models for Optical Activity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Höhn, E. G.; O. E. Weigang, Jr.
1968-01-01
A two-system no-overlap model for rotatory strength is developed for electric-dipole forbidden as well as allowed transitions. General equations which allow for full utilization of symmetry in the chromophore and in the environment are obtained. The electron correlation terms are developed in full...
Building better optical model potentials for nuclear astrophysics applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bauge, Eric; Dupuis, Marc
2004-01-01
In nuclear astrophysics, optical model potentials play an important role, both in the nucleosynthesis models, and in the interpretation of astrophysics related nuclear physics measurements. The challenge of nuclear astrophysics resides in the fact that it involves many nuclei far from the stability line, implying than very few (if any) experimental results are available for these nuclei. The answer to this challenge is a heavy reliance on microscopic optical models with solid microscopic physics foundations that can predict the relevant physical quantities with good accuracy. This use of microscopic information limits the likelihood of the model failing spectacularly (except if some essential physics was omitted in the modeling) when extrapolating away from the stability line, in opposition to phenomenological models which are only suited for interpolation between measured data points and not for extrapolating towards unexplored areas of the chart of the nuclides.We will show how these microscopic optical models are built, how they link to our present knowledge of nuclear structure, and how they affect predictions of nuclear astrophysics models and the interpretation of some key nuclear physics measurements for astrophysics
Imminent Cardiac Risk Assessment via Optical Intravascular Biochemical Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wetzel, D.; Wetzel, L; Wetzel, M; Lodder, R
2009-01-01
Heart disease is by far the biggest killer in the United States, and type II diabetes, which affects 8% of the U.S. population, is on the rise. In many cases, the acute coronary syndrome and/or sudden cardiac death occurs without warning. Atherosclerosis has known behavioral, genetic and dietary risk factors. However, our laboratory studies with animal models and human post-mortem tissue using FT-IR microspectroscopy reveal the chemical microstructure within arteries and in the arterial walls themselves. These include spectra obtained from the aortas of ApoE-/- knockout mice on sucrose and normal diets showing lipid deposition in the former case. Also pre-aneurysm chemical images of knockout mouse aorta walls, and spectra of plaque excised from a living human patient are shown for comparison. In keeping with the theme of the SPEC 2008 conference Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Disease this paper describes the background and potential value of a new catheter-based system to provide in vivo biochemical analysis of plaque in human coronary arteries. We report the following: (1) results of FT-IR microspectroscopy on animal models of vascular disease to illustrate the localized chemical distinctions between pathological and normal tissue, (2) current diagnostic techniques used for risk assessment of patients with potential unstable coronary syndromes, and (3) the advantages and limitations of each of these techniques illustrated with patent care histories, related in the first person, by the physician coauthors. Note that the physician comments clarify the contribution of each diagnostic technique to imminent cardiac risk assessment in a clinical setting, leading to the appreciation of what localized intravascular chemical analysis can contribute as an add-on diagnostic tool. The quality of medical imaging has improved dramatically since the turn of the century. Among clinical non-invasive diagnostic tools, laboratory tests of body fluids, EKG, and physical examination are
ECISVIEW. An interactive toolbox for optical model development
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koning, A.J.; Van Wijk, J.J.; Delaroche, J.P.
1997-09-01
The software package ECISVIEW is a graphical interface built around the multi-disciplinary nuclear reaction code ECIS-95. The basic purpose of ECISVIEW is the possibility to change optical potential parameters interactively, with the keyboard or the mouse, and to display the calculated result immediately on the screen. The key feature of the working method is that the user can specify the value of optical potential parameters as any mathematical function of the energy, A, Z or user defined parameters. This enables us to obtain conveniently the optimal optical potential parameters for a given nucleus over the whole energy region of interest. ECISVIEW makes it possible to simultaneously study the dependence of all calculated angular distributions, polarizations and total cross sections on optical model parameters. This method is perhaps more than 100 times faster than the conventional method of preparing an input file, running the code, editing the output file and finally viewing the data with a graphical program. ECISVIEW has been developed at ECN in Petten, Netherlands, and has been extensively used at CEA, Bruyeres-le-Chatel, France. A spherical 0-200 MeV nucleon optical model for 90 Zr is presented as an example. 4 figs., 1 tab., 5 refs
Fog Density Estimation and Image Defogging Based on Surrogate Modeling for Optical Depth.
Jiang, Yutong; Sun, Changming; Zhao, Yu; Yang, Li
2017-05-03
In order to estimate fog density correctly and to remove fog from foggy images appropriately, a surrogate model for optical depth is presented in this paper. We comprehensively investigate various fog-relevant features and propose a novel feature based on the hue, saturation, and value color space which correlate well with the perception of fog density. We use a surrogate-based method to learn a refined polynomial regression model for optical depth with informative fog-relevant features such as dark-channel, saturation-value, and chroma which are selected on the basis of sensitivity analysis. Based on the obtained accurate surrogate model for optical depth, an effective method for fog density estimation and image defogging is proposed. The effectiveness of our proposed method is verified quantitatively and qualitatively by the experimental results on both synthetic and real-world foggy images.
Convenient models of the atmosphere: optics and solar radiation
Alexander, Ginsburg; Victor, Frolkis; Irina, Melnikova; Sergey, Novikov; Dmitriy, Samulenkov; Maxim, Sapunov
2017-11-01
Simple optical models of clear and cloudy atmosphere are proposed. Four versions of atmospheric aerosols content are considered: a complete lack of aerosols in the atmosphere, low background concentration (500 cm-3), high concentrations (2000 cm-3) and very high content of particles (5000 cm-3). In a cloud scenario, the model of external mixture is assumed. The values of optical thickness and single scattering albedo for 13 wavelengths are calculated in the short wavelength range of 0.28-0.90 µm, with regard to the molecular absorption bands, that is simulated with triangle function. A comparison of the proposed optical parameters with results of various measurements and retrieval (lidar measurement, sampling, processing radiation measurements) is presented. For a cloudy atmosphere models of single-layer and two-layer atmosphere are proposed. It is found that cloud optical parameters with assuming the "external mixture" agrees with retrieved values from airborne observations. The results of calculating hemispherical fluxes of the reflected and transmitted solar radiation and the radiative divergence are obtained with the Delta-Eddington approach. The calculation is done for surface albedo values of 0, 0.5, 0.9 and for spectral values of the sandy surface. Four values of solar zenith angle: 0°, 30°, 40° and 60° are taken. The obtained values are compared with data of radiative airborne observations. Estimating the local instantaneous radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols and clouds for considered models is presented together with the heating rate.
Classification of scalar and dyadic nonlocal optical response models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wubs, Martijn
2015-01-01
Nonlocal optical response is one of the emerging effects on the nanoscale for particles made of metals or doped semiconductors. Here we classify and compare both scalar and tensorial nonlocal response models. In the latter case the nonlocality can stem from either the longitudinal response...
Modelling exciton–phonon interactions in optically driven quantum dots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nazir, Ahsan; McCutcheon, Dara
2016-01-01
We provide a self-contained review of master equation approaches to modelling phonon effects in optically driven self-assembled quantum dots. Coupling of the (quasi) two-level excitonic system to phonons leads to dissipation and dephasing, the rates of which depend on the excitation conditions...
Mathematical model of an optically pumped molecular laser
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Botha, LR
2009-07-01
Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed that accurately predicts the performance of an optically pumped HBr laser. Relatively high conversion efficiency was achieved. Tm pumped Ho:YLF is a viable source for pumping HBr laser, while HBr can be scaled...
Model of optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bondo, Torsten; Enghoff, Martin Andreas Bødker; Svensmark, Henrik
2010-01-01
In order to elucidate the effect of galactic cosmic rays on cloud formation, we investigate the optical response of marine aerosols to Forbush decreases - abrupt decreases in galactic cosmic rays - by means of modeling. We vary the nucleation rate of new aerosols, in a sectional coagulation...
Modeling light–tissue interaction in optical coherence tomography systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Peter E.; Jørgensen, Thomas Martini; Thrane, Lars
2015-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) performs high-resolution, cross-sectional tomographic imaging of the internal tissue microstructure by measuring backscattered or backreflected light. The scope of this chapter is to present analytical and numerical models that are able to describe light-tissue ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pouyat, D.; Couston, L.; Noire, M.H.; Davin, T.; Delage, J.; Bouzon, C.; Goutier, J.; Marty, P.
1998-01-01
In nuclear fuel reprocessing factories, an in line determination of actinides and acidity is useful to control the efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction steps. Although molecular absorptiometric methods are very efficient at the laboratory scale, in-line analysis require to develop passive optical fibre sensor, spectral treatment, and optical fibre active sensors for ions or molecule without optical property such H + . In the first case, a specific optical fibre sensor has been developed to reduce radiological or optical contamination, and to remove the hydraulic perturbations of an intrusive technology. The optical spectrum is directly measured- through a Teflon-PFA tube. Five determination (U IV , U VI , Pu III , Pu IV and HNO 2 ) on eight different process point are achieved every 3 seconds, by using Partial Least Square (PLS) multivariate treatment based on a standards data base. For non linear interference, such as matrix effects on U VI spectrum in nitric acid media, PLS is not very efficient. A physical-chemical model is then required to get a linear relationship. For acidity measurements, an acid-sensitive dye is coated on the core of an optical fiber by the Sol-Gel process. The sensor response, proportional to the indicator protonation, is based on the evanescent wave absorption. This system is free from spectral interference, the response time is fast and measurements are reversible, even with Pu IV at 4 g/l. (author)
Analysis of laser-induced heating in optical neuronal guidance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ebbesen, Christian L.; Bruus, Henrik
2012-01-01
Recently, it has been shown that it is possible to control the growth direction of neuronal growth cones by stimulation with weak laser light; an effect dubbed optical neuronal guidance. The effect exists for a broad range of laser wavelengths, spot sizes, spot intensities, optical intensity...... profiles and beam modulations, but it is unknown which biophysical mechanisms govern it. Based on thermodynamic modeling and simulation using published experimental parameters as input, we argue that the guidance is linked to heating. Until now, temperature effects due to laser-induced heating...
Systems engineering and analysis of electro-optical and infrared systems
Arrasmith, William Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Introduction to Electro-optic and Infrared (EO/IR) Systems Engineering?Radiation in the Visible and Infrared Parts of the Electromagnetic SpectrumRadiation SourcesThe Effect of the Atmosphere on Optical PropagationBasic OpticsOptical ModulationThe Detection of Optical RadiationNoise in the Optical Detection ProcessTechnical Performance Measures and Metrics of Optical DetectorsModern Detectors and their Measures of PerformanceThe Effects of Cooling on Optical Detector NoiseSignal and Image ProcessingElectro-Optic and Infrared Systems AnalysisLaser Imaging Systems?Spectral Imaging?LIDAR and LADA
Geometrical optics modeling of the grating-slit test.
Liang, Chao-Wen; Sasian, Jose
2007-02-19
A novel optical testing method termed the grating-slit test is discussed. This test uses a grating and a slit, as in the Ronchi test, but the grating-slit test is different in that the grating is used as the incoherent illuminating object instead of the spatial filter. The slit is located at the plane of the image of a sinusoidal intensity grating. An insightful geometrical-optics model for the grating-slit test is presented and the fringe contrast ratio with respect to the slit width and object-grating period is obtained. The concept of spatial bucket integration is used to obtain the fringe contrast ratio.
Quantum Electrostatic Model for Optical Properties of Nanoscale Gold Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qian Haoliang
2015-11-01
Full Text Available The optical properties of thin gold films with thickness varying from 2.5 nm to 30 nm are investigated. Due to the quantum size effect, the optical constants of the thin gold film deviate from the Drude model for bulk material as film thickness decreases, especially around 2.5 nm, where the electron energy level becomes discrete. A theory based on the self-consistent solution of the Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation is proposed and its predictions agree well with experimental results.
Final Report: Posttest Analysis of Omega II Optical Specimens
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newlander, C D; Fisher, J H
2007-01-01
Preliminary posttest analyses have been completed on optical specimens exposed during the Omega II test series conducted on 14 July 2006. The Omega Facility, located at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester was used to produce X-ray environments through the interaction of intense pulsed laser radiation upon germanium-loaded silica aerogels. The optical specimen testing was supported by GH Systems through experiment design, pre- and post-test analyses, specimen acquisition, and overall technical experience. The test specimens were fabricated and characterized by Surface Optics Corporation (SOC), San Diego, CA and were simple protected gold coatings on silica substrates. Six test specimens were exposed, five filtered with thin beryllium foil filters, and one unfiltered which was exposed directly to the raw environment. The experimental objectives were: (1) demonstrate that tests of optical specimens could be performed at the Omega facility; (2) evaluate the use and survivability of beryllium foil filters as a function of thickness; (3) obtain damage data on optical specimens which ranged from no damage to damage; (4) correlate existing thermal response models with the damage data; (5) evaluate the use of the direct raw environment upon the specimen response and the ability/desirability to conduct sensitive optical specimen tests using the raw environment; and (6) initiate the development of a protocol for performing optical coatings/mirror tests. This report documents the activities performed by GH Systems in evaluating and using the environments provided by LLNL, the PUFFTFT analyses performed using those environments, and the calculated results compared to the observed and measured posttest data
Modelling the response of quasi-optical corner cube mixers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kelly, W.M.; Eivers, J.G.; Gans, M.J.
1986-01-01
A three-dimensional modeling technique is developed to analyze and predict the optical performance of Schottky-diode corner-cube/wire-antenna devices for submm-astronomy applications. The model determines the antenna efficiency for the case of Gaussian input beams, and simulations of performance in a variety of configurations can be used to optimize instrument designs. Corner-to-whisker spacing and antenna/beam orientation are found to be the most important coupling parameters. 12 references
Use of the optical model in the actinide region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salvy, J.
1985-11-01
This paper reviews current methods as well as recent developments in the use of optical model for calculating actinide nuclear data in the incident neutron energy range from 10 keV to 20 MeV. Special consideration is given of the general role of the model, parameterization procedures with taking account of nuclear deformations, parameters sets to be recommended, and some utilization problems [fr
Two methodologies for optical analysis of contaminated engine lubricants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aghayan, Hamid; Yang, Jun; Bordatchev, Evgueni
2012-01-01
The performance, efficiency and lifetime of modern combustion engines significantly depend on the quality of the engine lubricants. However, contaminants, such as gasoline, moisture, coolant and wear particles, reduce the life of engine mechanical components and lubricant quality. Therefore, direct and indirect measurements of engine lubricant properties, such as physical-mechanical, electro-magnetic, chemical and optical properties, are intensively utilized in engine condition monitoring systems and sensors developed within the last decade. Such sensors for the measurement of engine lubricant properties can be used to detect a functional limit of the in-use lubricant, increase drain interval and reduce the environmental impact. This paper proposes two new methodologies for the quantitative and qualitative analysis of the presence of contaminants in the engine lubricants. The methodologies are based on optical analysis of the distortion effect when an object image is obtained through a thin random optical medium (e.g. engine lubricant). The novelty of the proposed methodologies is in the introduction of an object with a known periodic shape behind a thin film of the contaminated lubricant. In this case, an acquired image represents a combined lubricant–object optical appearance, where an a priori known periodic structure of the object is distorted by a contaminated lubricant. In the object shape-based optical analysis, several parameters of an acquired optical image, such as the gray scale intensity of lubricant and object, shape width at object and lubricant levels, object relative intensity and width non-uniformity coefficient are newly proposed. Variations in the contaminant concentration and use of different contaminants lead to the changes of these parameters measured on-line. In the statistical optical analysis methodology, statistical auto- and cross-characteristics (e.g. auto- and cross-correlation functions, auto- and cross-spectrums, transfer function
Analysis of nonlinear optical properties in donor–acceptor materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Day, Paul N. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); General Dynamics Information Technology, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45431 (United States); Pachter, Ruth [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); Nguyen, Kiet A. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433 (United States); UES, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45432 (United States)
2014-05-14
Time-dependent density functional theory has been used to calculate nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, including the first and second hyperpolarizabilities as well as the two-photon absorption cross-section, for the donor-acceptor molecules p-nitroaniline and dimethylamino nitrostilbene, and for respective materials attached to a gold dimer. The CAMB3LYP, B3LYP, PBE0, and PBE exchange-correlation functionals all had fair but variable performance when compared to higher-level theory and to experiment. The CAMB3LYP functional had the best performance on these compounds of the functionals tested. However, our comprehensive analysis has shown that quantitative prediction of hyperpolarizabilities is still a challenge, hampered by inadequate functionals, basis sets, and solvation models, requiring further experimental characterization. Attachment of the Au{sub 2}S group to molecules already known for their relatively large NLO properties was found to further enhance the response. While our calculations show a modest enhancement for the first hyperpolarizability, the enhancement of the second hyperpolarizability is predicted to be more than an order of magnitude.
Traffic analysis and signal processing in optical packet switched networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fjelde, Tina
2002-01-01
/s optical packet switched network exploiting the best of optics and electronics, is used as a thread throughout the thesis. An overview of the DAVID network architecture is given, focussing on the MAN and WAN architecture as well as the MPLS-based network hierarchy. Subsequently, the traffic performance...... of the DAVID core optical packet router, which exploits wavelength conversion and fibre delay-line buffers for contention resolution, is analysed using a numerical model developed for that purpose. The robustness of the shared recirculating loop buffer with respect to´bursty traffic is demonstrated...... the injection of an additional clock signal into the IWC is presented. Results show very good transmission capabilities combined with a high-speed response. It is argued that signal regeneration is an inherent attribute of the IWC employed as a wavelength converter due to the sinusoidal transfer function...
Optical conductivity of the Hubbard model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vicente Alvarez, J.J.; Balseiro, C.A.; Ceccatto, H.A.
1996-07-01
We study the response to a static electric field (charge stiffness) and the frequency-dependent conductivity of the Hubbard model in a resonant-valence-bond-type paramagnetic phase. This phase is described by means of a charge and spin rotational-invariant approach, based on a mixed fermion-boson representation of the original strongly correlated electrons. We found that the Mott transition at half filling is well described by the charge stiffness behaviour, and that the values for this quantity off half filling agree reasonably well with numerical results. Furthermore, for the frequency-dependent conductivity we trace back the origin of the band which appears inside the Hubbard gap to magnetic pair breaking. This points to a magnetic origin of midinfrared band in high-T c compounds, with no relation to superconductivity. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs
Computational Modeling of Ultrafast Pulse Propagation in Nonlinear Optical Materials
Goorjian, Peter M.; Agrawal, Govind P.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
1996-01-01
There is an emerging technology of photonic (or optoelectronic) integrated circuits (PICs or OEICs). In PICs, optical and electronic components are grown together on the same chip. rib build such devices and subsystems, one needs to model the entire chip. Accurate computer modeling of electromagnetic wave propagation in semiconductors is necessary for the successful development of PICs. More specifically, these computer codes would enable the modeling of such devices, including their subsystems, such as semiconductor lasers and semiconductor amplifiers in which there is femtosecond pulse propagation. Here, the computer simulations are made by solving the full vector, nonlinear, Maxwell's equations, coupled with the semiconductor Bloch equations, without any approximations. The carrier is retained in the description of the optical pulse, (i.e. the envelope approximation is not made in the Maxwell's equations), and the rotating wave approximation is not made in the Bloch equations. These coupled equations are solved to simulate the propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in semiconductor materials. The simulations describe the dynamics of the optical pulses, as well as the interband and intraband.
Welding wire velocity modelling and control using an optical sensor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Kirsten M.; Pedersen, Tom S.
2007-01-01
In this paper a method for controlling the velocity of a welding wire at the tip of the handle is described. The method is an alternative to the traditional welding apparatus control system where the wire velocity is controlled internal in the welding machine implying a poor disturbance reduction....... To obtain the tip velocity a dynamic model of the wire/liner system is developed and verified. In the wire/liner system it turned out that backlash and reflections are influential factors. An idea for handling the backlash has been suggested. In addition an optical sensor for measuring the wire velocity...... at the tip has been constructed. The optical sensor may be used but some problems due to focusing cause noise in the control loop demanding a more precise mechanical wire feed system or an optical sensor with better focusing characteristics....
Modeling heading and path perception from optic flow in the case of independently moving objects
Raudies, Florian; Neumann, Heiko
2013-01-01
Humans are usually accurate when estimating heading or path from optic flow, even in the presence of independently moving objects (IMOs) in an otherwise rigid scene. To invoke significant biases in perceived heading, IMOs have to be large and obscure the focus of expansion (FOE) in the image plane, which is the point of approach. For the estimation of path during curvilinear self-motion no significant biases were found in the presence of IMOs. What makes humans robust in their estimation of heading or path using optic flow? We derive analytical models of optic flow for linear and curvilinear self-motion using geometric scene models. Heading biases of a linear least squares method, which builds upon these analytical models, are large, larger than those reported for humans. This motivated us to study segmentation cues that are available from optic flow. We derive models of accretion/deletion, expansion/contraction, acceleration/deceleration, local spatial curvature, and local temporal curvature, to be used as cues to segment an IMO from the background. Integrating these segmentation cues into our method of estimating heading or path now explains human psychophysical data and extends, as well as unifies, previous investigations. Our analysis suggests that various cues available from optic flow help to segment IMOs and, thus, make humans' heading and path perception robust in the presence of such IMOs. PMID:23554589
Modeling Heading and Path Perception from Optic Flow in the Case of Independently Moving Objects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Florian eRaudies
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Humans are usually accurate when estimating heading or path from optic flow, even in the presence of independently moving objects (IMO in an otherwise rigid scene. To invoke significant biases in perceived heading, IMOs have to be large and obscure the focus of expansion (FOE in the image plane, which is the point of approach. For the estimation of path during curvilinear self-motion no significant biases were found in the presence of IMOs. What makes humans robust in their estimation of heading or path using optic flow? We derive analytical models of optic flow for linear and curvilinear self-motion using geometric scene models. Heading biases of a linear least squares method, which builds upon these analytical models, are large, larger than those reported for humans. This motivated us to study segmentation cues that are available from optic flow. We derive models of accretion / deletion, expansion / contraction, acceleration / deceleration, local spatial curvature, and local temporal curvature, to be used as cues to segment an IMO from the background. Integrating these segmentation cues into our method of estimating heading or path now explains human psychophysical data and extends, as well as unifies, previous investigations. Our analysis suggests that various cues available from optic flow help to segment IMOs and, thus, make humans’ heading and path perception robust in the presence of such IMOs.
Kim, Hwi; Min, Sung-Wook; Lee, Byoungho
2008-12-01
Geometrical optics analysis of the structural imperfection of retroreflection corner cubes is described. In the analysis, a geometrical optics model of six-beam reflection patterns generated by an imperfect retroreflection corner cube is developed, and its structural error extraction is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem. The nonlinear conjugate gradient method is employed for solving the nonlinear optimization problem, and its detailed implementation is described. The proposed method of analysis is a mathematical basis for the nondestructive optical inspection of imperfectly fabricated retroreflection corner cubes.
Fast neutrons and the optical model: some observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.B.; Lawson, R.D.; Guenther, P.T.
1985-01-01
The optical model of fast-neutron-induced phenomena is considered from the observational viewpoint. Experimental characteristics governing the reliability of the modeling are outlined with attention to implications on model parameters and their uncertainties. The physical characteristics of experimentally-deduced ''regional'' and ''specific'' model parameters are examined including: parameter trends with mass and energy, implications of collective effects, and fundamental relations between real and imaginary potentials. These physical properties are illustrated by studies in the A=60 and 90 regions. General trends are identified and outstanding issues cited. Throughout, the approach is that of observational interpretation for basic and applied purposes. 20 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs
Analysis method of beam pointing stability based on optical transmission matrix
Wang, Chuanchuan; Huang, PingXian; Li, Xiaotong; Cen, Zhaofen
2016-10-01
Quite a lot of factors will make effects on beam pointing stability of an optical system, Among them, the element tolerance is one of the most important and common factors. In some large laser systems, it will make final micro beams spot on the image plane deviate obviously. So it is essential for us to achieve effective and accurate analysis theoretically on element tolerance. In order to make the analysis of beam pointing stability convenient and theoretical, we consider transmission of a single chief ray rather than beams approximately to stand for the whole spot deviation. According to optical matrix, we also simplify this complex process of light transmission to multiplication of many matrices. So that we can set up element tolerance model, namely having mathematical expression to illustrate spot deviation in an optical system with element tolerance. In this way, we can realize quantitative analysis of beam pointing stability theoretically. In second half of the paper, we design an experiment to get the spot deviation in a multipass optical system caused by element tolerance, then we adjust the tolerance step by step and compare the results with the datum got from tolerance model, finally prove the correction of tolerance model successfully.
Zhu, Lei; Guo, Ning; Li, Quanzheng; Ma, Ying; Jacboson, Orit; Lee, Seulki; Choi, Hak Soo; Mansfield, James R; Niu, Gang; Chen, Xiaoyuan
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/(64)Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide. The integrin α(v)β(3) binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD) method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data. The dual-labeled probe (64)Cu-RGD-C(DOTA)-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp) derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020) is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026). The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.
Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity.
Lim, Diana H; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Murphy, Timothy H
2015-10-01
With modern optical imaging methods, it is possible to map structural and functional connectivity. Optical imaging studies that aim to describe large-scale neural connectivity often need to handle large and complex datasets. In order to interpret these datasets, new methods for analyzing structural and functional connectivity are being developed. Recently, network analysis, based on graph theory, has been used to describe and quantify brain connectivity in both experimental and clinical studies. We outline how to apply regional, functional network analysis to mesoscale optical imaging using voltage-sensitive-dye imaging and channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in a mouse model. We include links to sample datasets and an analysis script. The analyses we employ can be applied to other types of fluorescence wide-field imaging, including genetically encoded calcium indicators, to assess network properties. We discuss the benefits and limitations of using network analysis for interpreting optical imaging data and define network properties that may be used to compare across preparations or other manipulations such as animal models of disease.
Some Advances in the Circuit Modeling of Extraordinary Optical Transmission
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Medina
2009-06-01
Full Text Available The phenomenon of extraordinary optical transmission (EOT through electrically small holes perforated on opaque metal screens has been a hot topic in the optics community for more than one decade. This experimentally observed frequency-selective enhanced transmission of electromagnetic power through holes, for which classical Bethe's theory predicts very poor transmission, later attracted the attention of engineers working on microwave engineering or applied electromagnetics. Extraordinary transmission was ﬁrst linked to the plasma-like behavior of metals at optical frequencies. However, the primary role played by the periodicity of the distribution of holes was soon made evident, in such a way that extraordinary transmission was disconnected from the particular behavior of metals at optical frequencies. Indeed, the same phenomenon has been observed in the microwave and millimeter wave regime, for instance. Nowadays, the most commonly accepted theory explains EOT in terms of the interaction of the impinging plane wave with the surface plasmon-polariton-Bloch waves (SPP-Bloch supported by the periodically perforated plate. The authors of this paper have recently proposed an alternative model whose details will be brieﬂy summarized here. A parametric study of the predictions of the model and some new potential extensions will be reported to provide additional insight.
Streak detection and analysis pipeline for optical images
Virtanen, J.; Granvik, M.; Torppa, J.; Muinonen, K.; Poikonen, J.; Lehti, J.; Säntti, T.; Komulainen, T.; Flohrer, T.
2014-07-01
We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data to support the development and validation of population models, and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. We focus on the low signal-to-noise (SNR) detection of objects with high angular velocities, resulting in long and faint object trails, or streaks, in the optical images. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and, particularly for satellites, within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a 'track-before-detect' problem, resulting in streaks of arbitrary lengths. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, algorithms are not readily available yet. In the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project, we develop and evaluate an automated processing pipeline applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The algorithmic
Mathematical Model of the One-stage Magneto-optical Sensor Based on Faraday Effect
Babaev, O. G.; Paranin, V. D.; Sinitsin, L. I.
2018-01-01
The aim of this work is to refine a model of magneto-optical sensors based on Faraday’s longitudinal magneto-optical effect. The tasks of the study include computer modeling and analysis of the transfer characteristic of a single-stage magneto-optical sensor for various polarization of the input beam and non-ideal optical components. The proposed mathematical model and software make it possible to take into account the non-ideal characteristics of film polaroids observed in operation in the near infrared region and at increased temperatures. On the basis of the results of the model analysis it was found that the dependence of normalized transmission T(γ2) has periodic nature. Choosing the angle (γ 2-γ 1) makes it possible to shift the initial operation point and change the sensitivity dT/dγ 2. The influence of the input beam polarization increases with the increase of polaroid parameter deviation from ideal and shows itself as reduction of modulation depth and angular shift of the sensor conversion response.
Binocular optical axis parallelism detection precision analysis based on Monte Carlo method
Ying, Jiaju; Liu, Bingqi
2018-02-01
According to the working principle of the binocular photoelectric instrument optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument, and in view of all components of the instrument, the various factors affect the system precision is analyzed, and then precision analysis model is established. Based on the error distribution, Monte Carlo method is used to analyze the relationship between the comprehensive error and the change of the center coordinate of the circle target image. The method can further guide the error distribution, optimize control the factors which have greater influence on the comprehensive error, and improve the measurement accuracy of the optical axis parallelism digital calibration instrument.
Nonlinear optical polarization analysis in chemistry and biology
Simpson, Garth J
2017-01-01
This rigorous yet accessible guide presents a molecular-based description of nonlinear optical polarization analysis of chemical and biological assemblies. It includes discussion of the most common nonlinear optical microscopy and interfacial measurements used for quantitative analysis, specifically second harmonic generation (SHG), two-photon excited fluorescence (2PEF), vibrational sum frequency generation (SFG), and coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy/stimulated Raman spectroscopy (CARS/SRS). A linear algebra mathematical framework is developed, allowing step-wise systematic connections to be made between the observable measurements and the molecular response. Effects considered include local field corrections, the molecular orientation distribution, rotations between the molecular frame, the local frame and the laboratory frame, and simplifications from molecular and macromolecular symmetry. Specific examples are provided throughout the book, working from the common and relatively simple case studies ...
Dual-layer ultrathin film optics: I. Theory and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qian; Lim, Kim Peng
2015-01-01
This paper revisits dual-layer ultrathin film optics, which can be used for functional graded refractive index thin film stack. We present the detailed derivation including s-polarized and p-polarized light under arbitrary incidence angle showing the equivalence between the dual-layer ultrathin films and a negative birefringent thin film and also the approximations made during the derivation. Analysis of the approximations shows the influence of thickness of dual-layer thin films, the incidence angle and desired refractive index of the birefringent film. Numerical comparison between the titanium dioxide/aluminum oxide based dual-layer ultrathin film stack and the equivalent birefringent film verifies the theoretical analysis. The detailed theoretical study and numerical comparison provide a physical insight and design guidelines for dual-layer ultrathin film based optical devices. (paper)
Optical System Error Analysis and Calibration Method of High-Accuracy Star Trackers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zheng You
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.
Optical system error analysis and calibration method of high-accuracy star trackers.
Sun, Ting; Xing, Fei; You, Zheng
2013-04-08
The star tracker is a high-accuracy attitude measurement device widely used in spacecraft. Its performance depends largely on the precision of the optical system parameters. Therefore, the analysis of the optical system parameter errors and a precise calibration model are crucial to the accuracy of the star tracker. Research in this field is relatively lacking a systematic and universal analysis up to now. This paper proposes in detail an approach for the synthetic error analysis of the star tracker, without the complicated theoretical derivation. This approach can determine the error propagation relationship of the star tracker, and can build intuitively and systematically an error model. The analysis results can be used as a foundation and a guide for the optical design, calibration, and compensation of the star tracker. A calibration experiment is designed and conducted. Excellent calibration results are achieved based on the calibration model. To summarize, the error analysis approach and the calibration method are proved to be adequate and precise, and could provide an important guarantee for the design, manufacture, and measurement of high-accuracy star trackers.
Mathieu, Jean Paul
1975-01-01
Optics, Parts 1 and 2 covers electromagnetic optics and quantum optics. The first part of the book examines the various of the important properties common to all electromagnetic radiation. This part also studies electromagnetic waves; electromagnetic optics of transparent isotropic and anisotropic media; diffraction; and two-wave and multi-wave interference. The polarization states of light, the velocity of light, and the special theory of relativity are also examined in this part. The second part is devoted to quantum optics, specifically discussing the classical molecular theory of optical p
Use of results from microscopic methods in optical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lagrange, C.
1985-11-01
A concept of vectorization for coupled-channel programs based upon conventional methods is first presented. This has been implanted in our program for its use on the CRAY-1 computer. In a second part we investigate the capabilities of a semi-microscopic optical model involving fewer adjustable parameters than phenomenological ones. The two main ingredients of our calculations are, for spherical or well-deformed nuclei, the microscopic optical-model calculations of Jeukenne, Lejeune and Mahaux and nuclear densities from Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov calculations using the density-dependent force D1. For transitional nuclei deformation-dependent nuclear structure wave functions are employed to weigh the scattering potentials for different shapes and channels [fr
Multilayer optics for x-ray analysis: design - fabrication - application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietsch, R.; Holz, Th.; Bruegemann, L.
2002-01-01
Full text: The use of multilayer optics induced a decisive extension of opportunities in laboratory based X-ray analysis. With the growing number of different applications, more and more dedicated X-ray optics are required, optimized for the spectral range they are intended to be used for. Both the characteristic of the used X-ray source and the design of the multilayer optics finally define the performance of the conditioned incident beam for the application. In any case, qualified spacer and absorber materials have to be selected for the deposition of the multilayer in respect to the designated X-ray wavelength. X-ray optical devices based on uniform multilayers have the advantage of a wide acceptance angle but show chromatic aberrations. This effect can be avoided by synthesizing a multilayer with a lateral thickness gradient. The gradient ensures that any beam of a certain wavelength emitted from an infinite narrow X-ray source impinging the multilayer optics fulfills the Bragg condition. Three different types of curvature of laterally graded multilayer mirrors are used for X-ray analysis experiments: parabolic, elliptic and planar, which result in parallel, focusing and divergent beam conditions, respectively. Furthermore, the X-ray beam characteristics: intensity, monochromasy, divergence, beam width and brilliance can be additionally conditioned by combining one multilayer optics with either a different optic and/or with a crystal monochromator. The deposition of nanometer-multilayers, used as X-ray optical components, result in extraordinary requirements of the deposition process concerning precision, reproducibility and long term stability. Across a stack of more than 150 individual layers with thicknesses in the range between 1 to 10 nm, a variation of single layer thickness considerably lower than σ D = 0.1 nm and an interface roughness below σ R = 0.25 nm have to be achieved. Thickness homogeneity Δd/d -8 have to be guaranteed across macroscopic
Morphometric analysis of the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Radunović Miroslav
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. The optic nerve is anatomically observed in four segments: intrabulbar, orbital, canalicular, and cranial. According to the literature, the surface of the transversal cut of the nerve is different through it. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fascicular organisation of the optic nerve, throughout its three segments from the eye. Methods. Five pairs of optic nerves, obtained from the autopsies were examined. Using Heidenhain's (azan staining, the cuts were prepared for microscopy. Morphometric analysis was performed using the stereological methods for morphometric cytology - the Weible’s testing system M42. The following measures were established: the surface of the transverse cut of the nerve, the entire surface of fasciculi, the entire surface of connective tissue and blood vessels, the number of fasciculi, the surface of a single fasciculus. Results. The surface of the transverse cut of the nerve was found to grow from the orbital to the cranial segment, as well as the entire surface of fasciculi. While their number is significantly lower in the cranial segment, the number of fasciculi varied slightly between the orbital and the canalicular segment. The surface of a single fasciculus grows from the bulb to the chiasma. There is probable a cause to believe that this may be due to fusion of the “small” fasciculi in the orbitocranial direction. Conclusion. There are significant differences among the examined parameters of the different parts of the optic nerve.
Residual Stress Analysis Based on Acoustic and Optical Methods
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sanichiro Yoshida
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Co-application of acoustoelasticity and optical interferometry to residual stress analysis is discussed. The underlying idea is to combine the advantages of both methods. Acoustoelasticity is capable of evaluating a residual stress absolutely but it is a single point measurement. Optical interferometry is able to measure deformation yielding two-dimensional, full-field data, but it is not suitable for absolute evaluation of residual stresses. By theoretically relating the deformation data to residual stresses, and calibrating it with absolute residual stress evaluated at a reference point, it is possible to measure residual stresses quantitatively, nondestructively and two-dimensionally. The feasibility of the idea has been tested with a butt-jointed dissimilar plate specimen. A steel plate 18.5 mm wide, 50 mm long and 3.37 mm thick is braze-jointed to a cemented carbide plate of the same dimension along the 18.5 mm-side. Acoustoelasticity evaluates the elastic modulus at reference points via acoustic velocity measurement. A tensile load is applied to the specimen at a constant pulling rate in a stress range substantially lower than the yield stress. Optical interferometry measures the resulting acceleration field. Based on the theory of harmonic oscillation, the acceleration field is correlated to compressive and tensile residual stresses qualitatively. The acoustic and optical results show reasonable agreement in the compressive and tensile residual stresses, indicating the feasibility of the idea.
Fast and accurate modeling of stray light in optical systems
Perrin, Jean-Claude
2017-11-01
The first problem to be solved in most optical designs with respect to stray light is that of internal reflections on the several surfaces of individual lenses and mirrors, and on the detector itself. The level of stray light ratio can be considerably reduced by taking into account the stray light during the optimization to determine solutions in which the irradiance due to these ghosts is kept to the minimum possible value. Unhappily, the routines available in most optical design software's, for example CODE V, do not permit all alone to make exact quantitative calculations of the stray light due to these ghosts. Therefore, the engineer in charge of the optical design is confronted to the problem of using two different software's, one for the design and optimization, for example CODE V, one for stray light analysis, for example ASAP. This makes a complete optimization very complex . Nevertheless, using special techniques and combinations of the routines available in CODE V, it is possible to have at its disposal a software macro tool to do such an analysis quickly and accurately, including Monte-Carlo ray tracing, or taking into account diffraction effects. This analysis can be done in a few minutes, to be compared to hours with other software's.
Probabilistic Modeling of Intracranial Pressure Effects on Optic Nerve Biomechanics
Ethier, C. R.; Feola, Andrew J.; Raykin, Julia; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Samuels, Brian C.
2016-01-01
Altered intracranial pressure (ICP) is involved/implicated in several ocular conditions: papilledema, glaucoma and Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. The biomechanical effects of altered ICP on optic nerve head (ONH) tissues in these conditions are uncertain but likely important. We have quantified ICP-induced deformations of ONH tissues, using finite element (FE) and probabilistic modeling (Latin Hypercube Simulations (LHS)) to consider a range of tissue properties and relevant pressures.
Explicit versus Implicit Solvent Modeling of Raman Optical Activity Spectra
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hopmann, K. H.; Ruud, K.; Pecul, M.; Kudelski, A.; Dračínský, Martin; Bouř, Petr
2011-01-01
Roč. 115, č. 14 (2011), s. 4128-4137 ISSN 1520-6106 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH11033; GA ČR GAP208/11/0105 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) M200550902 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : raman optical activity * lactamide * solvent models Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.696, year: 2011
Optical model calculations with the code ECIS95
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carlson, B V [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Tecnologico da Aeronautica, Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (Brazil)
2001-12-15
The basic features of elastic and inelastic scattering within the framework of the spherical and deformed nuclear optical models are discussed. The calculation of cross sections, angular distributions and other scattering quantities using J. Raynal's code ECIS95 is described. The use of the ECIS method (Equations Couplees en Iterations Sequentielles) in coupled-channels and distorted-wave Born approximation calculations is also reviewed. (author)
Theoretical analysis for the optical deformation of emulsion droplets.
Tapp, David; Taylor, Jonathan M; Lubansky, Alex S; Bain, Colin D; Chakrabarti, Buddhapriya
2014-02-24
We propose a theoretical framework to predict the three-dimensional shapes of optically deformed micron-sized emulsion droplets with ultra-low interfacial tension. The resulting shape and size of the droplet arises out of a balance between the interfacial tension and optical forces. Using an approximation of the laser field as a Gaussian beam, working within the Rayleigh-Gans regime and assuming isotropic surface energy at the oil-water interface, we numerically solve the resulting shape equations to elucidate the three-dimensional droplet geometry. We obtain a plethora of shapes as a function of the number of optical tweezers, their laser powers and positions, surface tension, initial droplet size and geometry. Experimentally, two-dimensional droplet silhouettes have been imaged from above, but their full side-on view has not been observed and reported for current optical configurations. This experimental limitation points to ambiguity in differentiating between droplets having the same two-dimensional projection but with disparate three-dimensional shapes. Our model elucidates and quantifies this difference for the first time. We also provide a dimensionless number that indicates the shape transformation (ellipsoidal to dumbbell) at a value ≈ 1.0, obtained by balancing interfacial tension and laser forces, substantiated using a data collapse.
Quasi-optical analysis of a far-infrared spatio-spectral space interferometer concept
Bracken, C.; O'Sullivan, C.; Murphy, J. A.; Donohoe, A.; Savini, G.; Lightfoot, J.; Juanola-Parramon, R.; Fisica Consortium
2016-07-01
FISICA (Far-Infrared Space Interferometer Critical Assessment) was a three year study of a far-infrared spatio-spectral double-Fourier interferometer concept. One of the aims of the FISICA study was to set-out a baseline optical design for such a system, and to use a model of the system to simulate realistic telescope beams for use with an end-to-end instrument simulator. This paper describes a two-telescope (and hub) baseline optical design that fulfils the requirements of the FISICA science case, while minimising the optical mass of the system. A number of different modelling techniques were required for the analysis: fast approximate simulation tools such as ray tracing and Gaussian beam methods were employed for initial analysis, with GRASP physical optics used for higher accuracy in the final analysis. Results are shown for the predicted far-field patterns of the telescope primary mirrors under illumination by smooth walled rectangular feed horns. Far-field patterns for both on-axis and off-axis detectors are presented and discussed.
Universal squash model for optical communications using linear optics and threshold detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.; Lo, Hoi-Kwong
2011-01-01
Transmission of photons through open-air or optical fibers is an important primitive in quantum-information processing. Theoretical descriptions of this process often consider single photons as information carriers and thus fail to accurately describe experimental implementations where any number of photons may enter a detector. It has been a great challenge to bridge this big gap between theory and experiments. One powerful method for achieving this goal is by conceptually squashing the received multiphoton states to single-photon states. However, until now, only a few protocols admit a squash model; furthermore, a recently proven no-go theorem appears to rule out the existence of a universal squash model. Here we show that a necessary condition presumed by all existing squash models is in fact too stringent. By relaxing this condition, we find that, rather surprisingly, a universal squash model actually exists for many protocols, including quantum key distribution, quantum state tomography, Bell's inequality testing, and entanglement verification.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, S.
2011-05-05
The Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Organization requested that Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) develop a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method to mix and blend the miscible contents of the blend tanks to ensure the contents are properly blended before they are transferred from the blend tank; such as, Tank 50H, to the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) feed tank. The work described here consists of two modeling areas. They are the mixing modeling analysis during miscible liquid blending operation, and the flow pattern analysis during transfer operation of the blended liquid. The transient CFD governing equations consisting of three momentum equations, one mass balance, two turbulence transport equations for kinetic energy and dissipation rate, and one species transport were solved by an iterative technique until the species concentrations of tank fluid were in equilibrium. The steady-state flow solutions for the entire tank fluid were used for flow pattern analysis, for velocity scaling analysis, and the initial conditions for transient blending calculations. A series of the modeling calculations were performed to estimate the blending times for various jet flow conditions, and to investigate the impact of the cooling coils on the blending time of the tank contents. The modeling results were benchmarked against the pilot scale test results. All of the flow and mixing models were performed with the nozzles installed at the mid-elevation, and parallel to the tank wall. From the CFD modeling calculations, the main results are summarized as follows: (1) The benchmark analyses for the CFD flow velocity and blending models demonstrate their consistency with Engineering Development Laboratory (EDL) and literature test results in terms of local velocity measurements and experimental observations. Thus, an application of the established criterion to SRS full scale tank will provide a better, physically-based estimate of the required mixing time, and
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Yaohui; Xue, Weiqi; Öhman, Filip
2008-01-01
We present a model to interpret enhanced microwave phase shifts based on filter assisted slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The model also demonstrates the spectral phase impact of input optical signals.......We present a model to interpret enhanced microwave phase shifts based on filter assisted slow and fast light effects in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The model also demonstrates the spectral phase impact of input optical signals....
Behavioral Model of High Performance Camera for NIF Optics Inspection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hackel, B M
2007-01-01
The purpose of this project was to develop software that will model the behavior of the high performance Spectral Instruments 1000 series Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera located in the Final Optics Damage Inspection (FODI) system on the National Ignition Facility. NIF's target chamber will be mounted with 48 Final Optics Assemblies (FOAs) to convert the laser light from infrared to ultraviolet and focus it precisely on the target. Following a NIF shot, the optical components of each FOA must be carefully inspected for damage by the FODI to ensure proper laser performance during subsequent experiments. Rapid image capture and complex image processing (to locate damage sites) will reduce shot turnaround time; thus increasing the total number of experiments NIF can conduct during its 30 year lifetime. Development of these rapid processes necessitates extensive offline software automation -- especially after the device has been deployed in the facility. Without access to the unique real device or an exact behavioral model, offline software testing is difficult. Furthermore, a software-based behavioral model allows for many instances to be running concurrently; this allows multiple developers to test their software at the same time. Thus it is beneficial to construct separate software that will exactly mimic the behavior and response of the real SI-1000 camera
Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) and its experimental models
Bernstein, Steven L.; Johnson, Mary A.; Miller, Neil R.
2011-01-01
Anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION) can be divided into nonarteritic (NAION) and arteritic (AAION) forms. NAION makes up ~85% of all cases of AION, and until recently was poorly understood. There is no treatment for NAION, and its initiating causes are poorly understood, in part because NAION is not lethal, making it difficult to obtain fresh, newly affected tissue for study. In-vivo electrophysiology and post-mortem studies reveal specific responses that are associated with NAION. New models of NAION have been developed which enable insights into the pathophysiological events surrounding this disease. These models include both rodent and primate species, and the power of a `vertically integrated' multi-species approach can help in understanding the common cellular mechanisms and physiological responses to clinical NAION, and to identify potential approaches to treatment. The models utilize laser light to activate intravascular photoactive dye to induce capillary vascular thrombosis, while sparing the larger vessels. The observable optic nerve changes associated with rodent models of AION (rAION) and primate NAION (pNAION) are indistinguishable from that seen in clinical disease, including sectoral axonal involvement, and in-vivo electrophysiological data from these models are consistent with clinical data. Early post-infarct events reveal an unexpected inflammatory response, and changes in intraretinal gene expression for both stress response, while sparing outer retinal function, which occurs in AAION models. Histologically, the NAION models reveal an isolated loss of retinal ganglion cells by apoptosis. There are changes detectable by immunohistochemistry suggesting that other retinal cells mount a brisk response to retinal ganglion cell distress without themselves dying. The optic nerve ultimately shows axonal loss and scarring. Inflammation is a prominent early histological feature. This suggests that clinically, specific modulation of inflammation may
Modeling the influence of LASIK surgery on optical properties of the human eye
Szul-Pietrzak, Elżbieta; Hachoł, Andrzej; Cieślak, Krzysztof; Drożdż, Ryszard; Podbielska, Halina
2011-11-01
The aim was to model the influence of LASIK surgery on the optical parameters of the human eye and to ascertain which factors besides the central corneal radius of curvature and central thickness play the major role in postsurgical refractive change. Ten patients were included in the study. Pre- and postsurgical measurements included standard refraction, anterior corneal curvature and pachymetry. The optical model used in the analysis was based on the Le Grand and El Hage schematic eye, modified by the measured individual parameters of corneal geometry. A substantial difference between eye refractive error measured after LASIK and estimated from the eye model was observed. In three patients, full correction of the refractive error was achieved. However, analysis of the visual quality in terms of spot diagrams and optical transfer functions of the eye optical system revealed some differences in these measurements. This suggests that other factors besides corneal geometry may play a major role in postsurgical refraction. In this paper we investigated whether the biomechanical properties of the eyeball and changes in intraocular pressure could account for the observed discrepancies.
Fringe pattern analysis for optical metrology theory, algorithms, and applications
Servin, Manuel; Padilla, Moises
2014-01-01
The main objective of this book is to present the basic theoretical principles and practical applications for the classical interferometric techniques and the most advanced methods in the field of modern fringe pattern analysis applied to optical metrology. A major novelty of this work is the presentation of a unified theoretical framework based on the Fourier description of phase shifting interferometry using the Frequency Transfer Function (FTF) along with the theory of Stochastic Process for the straightforward analysis and synthesis of phase shifting algorithms with desired properties such
Simplifying BRDF input data for optical signature modeling
Hallberg, Tomas; Pohl, Anna; Fagerström, Jan
2017-05-01
Scene simulations of optical signature properties using signature codes normally requires input of various parameterized measurement data of surfaces and coatings in order to achieve realistic scene object features. Some of the most important parameters are used in the model of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and are normally determined by surface reflectance and scattering measurements. Reflectance measurements of the spectral Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) at various incident angles can normally be performed in most spectroscopy labs, while measuring the BRDF is more complicated or may not be available at all in many optical labs. We will present a method in order to achieve the necessary BRDF data directly from DHR measurements for modeling software using the Sandford-Robertson BRDF model. The accuracy of the method is tested by modeling a test surface by comparing results from using estimated and measured BRDF data as input to the model. These results show that using this method gives no significant loss in modeling accuracy.
Determination and analysis of dispersive optical constants of CuIn3S5 thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khemiri, N.; Sinaoui, A.; Kanzari, M.
2011-01-01
CuIn 3 S 5 thin films were prepared from powder by thermal evaporation under vacuum (10 -6 mbar) onto glass substrates. The glass substrates were heated from 30 to 200 o C. The films were characterized for their optical properties using optical measurement techniques (transmittance and reflectance). We have determined the energy and nature of the optical transitions of films. The optical constants of the deposited films were determined in the spectral range 300-1800 nm from the analysis of transmission and reflection data. The Swanepoel envelope method was employed on the interference fringes of transmittance patterns for the determination of variation of refractive index with wavelength. Wemple-Di Domenico single oscillator model was applied to determine the optical constants such as oscillator energy E 0 and dispersion energy E d of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures. The electric free carrier susceptibility and the ratio of the carrier concentration to the effective mass were estimated according to the model of Spitzer and Fan.
Fincham, W H A
2013-01-01
Optics: Ninth Edition Optics: Ninth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommen
On unitarity of the particle-hole dispersive optical model
Gorelik, M. L.; Shlomo, S.; Tulupov, B. A.; Urin, M. H.
2018-02-01
For the recently developed particle-hole dispersive optical model, weak violations of unitarity due to a phenomenological description of the spreading effect are considered. Methods for unitarity restoration are proposed and implemented for the 208Pb nucleus in the description of the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density and strength functions in a wide excitation energy interval that includes the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone. To illustrate abilities of the model, direct neutron decay of the mentioned giant resonance is also considered.
Analysis of rocket flight stability based on optical image measurement
Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Junhu; Shen, Si; Wang, Min; Liu, Jun
2018-02-01
Based on the abundant optical image measurement data from the optical measurement information, this paper puts forward the method of evaluating the rocket flight stability performance by using the measurement data of the characteristics of the carrier rocket in imaging. On the basis of the method of measuring the characteristics of the carrier rocket, the attitude parameters of the rocket body in the coordinate system are calculated by using the measurements data of multiple high-speed television sets, and then the parameters are transferred to the rocket body attack angle and it is assessed whether the rocket has a good flight stability flying with a small attack angle. The measurement method and the mathematical algorithm steps through the data processing test, where you can intuitively observe the rocket flight stability state, and also can visually identify the guidance system or failure analysis.
Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis in composite material beams
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stern, Yonatan; London, Yosef; Preter, Eyal
2017-01-01
Structural health monitoring is a critical requirement in many composites. Numerous monitoring strategies rely on measurements of temperature or strain (or both), however these are often restricted to point-sensing or to the coverage of small areas. Spatially-continuous data can be obtained...... with optical fiber sensors. In this work, we report high-resolution distributed Brillouin sensing over standard fibers that are embedded in composite structures. A phase-coded, Brillouin optical correlation domain analysis (B-OCDA) protocol was employed, with spatial resolution of 2 cm and sensitivity of 1 °K...... or 20 micro-strain. A portable measurement setup was designed and assembled on the premises of a composite structures manufacturer. The setup was successfully utilized in several structural health monitoring scenarios: (a) monitoring the production and curing of a composite beam over 60 h; (b...
Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Wang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
Detection of Abnormal Events via Optical Flow Feature Analysis
Wang, Tian; Snoussi, Hichem
2015-01-01
In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed to detect abnormal events in video streams. The algorithm is based on the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor and the classification method. The details of the histogram of the optical flow orientation descriptor are illustrated for describing movement information of the global video frame or foreground frame. By combining one-class support vector machine and kernel principal component analysis methods, the abnormal events in the current frame can be detected after a learning period characterizing normal behaviors. The difference abnormal detection results are analyzed and explained. The proposed detection method is tested on benchmark datasets, then the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm. PMID:25811227
Applications of optical fiber to the remote fluorescence analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Jang Soo; Kim, Duck Hueon; Lee, Soo Ho
1992-12-01
The laser fluorometer developed in 1987 has been used in real circumstances for trace uranium analysis. And, we have been trying to improve the instrument to be able to apply in analytical circumstances of remote measurement using optical fiber. The N 2 laser beam and the resulting fluorescence light could be successfully transmitted through a quartz-made optical fiber. The wavelength resolution and the fluorescence decay time resolution induced by pulsed N 2 laser were used to the uranium fluorescence analyses. The fluorescence of uranium in nitric acid medium was measured successfully using the system. The fluorescence signal was analysed using simplex method which is useful to deconvolute the mixed signals. An analytical method using thermal lens effect was developed. The method will be a complementary one for the fluorescence measurement. (Author)
Multiple Scattering Model for Optical Coherence Tomography with Rytov Approximation
Li, Muxingzi
2017-04-24
Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a coherence-gated, micrometer-resolution imaging technique that focuses a broadband near-infrared laser beam to penetrate into optical scattering media, e.g. biological tissues. The OCT resolution is split into two parts, with the axial resolution defined by half the coherence length, and the depth-dependent lateral resolution determined by the beam geometry, which is well described by a Gaussian beam model. The depth dependence of lateral resolution directly results in the defocusing effect outside the confocal region and restricts current OCT probes to small numerical aperture (NA) at the expense of lateral resolution near the focus. Another limitation on OCT development is the presence of a mixture of speckles due to multiple scatterers within the coherence length, and other random noise. Motivated by the above two challenges, a multiple scattering model based on Rytov approximation and Gaussian beam optics is proposed for the OCT setup. Some previous papers have adopted the first Born approximation with the assumption of small perturbation of the incident field in inhomogeneous media. The Rytov method of the same order with smooth phase perturbation assumption benefits from a wider spatial range of validity. A deconvolution method for solving the inverse problem associated with the first Rytov approximation is developed, significantly reducing the defocusing effect through depth and therefore extending the feasible range of NA.
Parametric Covariance Model for Horizon-Based Optical Navigation
Hikes, Jacob; Liounis, Andrew J.; Christian, John A.
2016-01-01
This Note presents an entirely parametric version of the covariance for horizon-based optical navigation measurements. The covariance can be written as a function of only the spacecraft position, two sensor design parameters, the illumination direction, the size of the observed planet, the size of the lit arc to be used, and the total number of observed horizon points. As a result, one may now more clearly understand the sensitivity of horizon-based optical navigation performance as a function of these key design parameters, which is insight that was obscured in previous (and nonparametric) versions of the covariance. Finally, the new parametric covariance is shown to agree with both the nonparametric analytic covariance and results from a Monte Carlo analysis.
Zhao, Huawei
2009-01-01
A ZEMAX model was constructed to simulate a clinical trial of intraocular lenses (IOLs) based on a clinically oriented Monte Carlo ensemble analysis using postoperative ocular parameters. The purpose of this model is to test the feasibility of streamlining and optimizing both the design process and the clinical testing of IOLs. This optical ensemble analysis (OEA) is also validated. Simulated pseudophakic eyes were generated by using the tolerancing and programming features of ZEMAX optical design software. OEA methodology was verified by demonstrating that the results of clinical performance simulations were consistent with previously published clinical performance data using the same types of IOLs. From these results we conclude that the OEA method can objectively simulate the potential clinical trial performance of IOLs.
Frequency and time domain analysis of an external cavity laser with strong filtered optical feedback
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Detoma, Enrico; Tromborg, Bjarne; Montrosset, Ivo
The stability properties of an external cavity laser with strong grating-filtered optical feedback to an anti-reflection coated facet are studied with a general frequency domain model. The model takes into account non-linear effects like four wave mixing and gain compression. A small......-signal analysis in the frequency domain allows a calculation of the range of operation without mode hopping around the grating reflectivity peak. This region should be as large as possible for proper operation of the tunable laser source. The analysis shows this stabilizing effect of mode coupling and gain...
Optical modelling of photoluminescence emitted by thin doped films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pigeat, P.; Easwarakhanthan, T.; Briancon, J.L.; Rinnert, H.
2011-01-01
Photoluminescence (PL) spectra emitted by doped films are deformed owing to film thickness-dependent wave interference. This hampers knowing well their PL generating mechanisms as well as designing photonic devices with suitable geometries that improve their PL efficiency. We develop in this paper an energy model for PL emitted by doped films considering the interaction between the wavelength-differing incident standing and emitted waves, their energy transfer in-between, and the interferences undergone by both. The film optical constants are estimated fitting the model to the measured PL. This simple model has thus allowed us to interpret the evolution of PL emitted by Er-doped AlN films prepared on Si substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering. The shapes, the amplitudes, and the illusive sub-spectral features of the PL spectra depend essentially on the film thickness. The model further predicts high sensitivity for PL emitted by non-homogenously doped stacked-films to incident light wavelengths and film-thickness variations. This property has potential applications in tracking wavelength variations and in measuring physical quantities producing thickness variations. This model may be used to optimise PL efficiency of photonic devices through different film geometries and optical properties.
Wavefront Sensing for WFIRST with a Linear Optical Model
Jurling, Alden S.; Content, David A.
2012-01-01
In this paper we develop methods to use a linear optical model to capture the field dependence of wavefront aberrations in a nonlinear optimization-based phase retrieval algorithm for image-based wavefront sensing. The linear optical model is generated from a ray trace model of the system and allows the system state to be described in terms of mechanical alignment parameters rather than wavefront coefficients. This approach allows joint optimization over images taken at different field points and does not require separate convergence of phase retrieval at individual field points. Because the algorithm exploits field diversity, multiple defocused images per field point are not required for robustness. Furthermore, because it is possible to simultaneously fit images of many stars over the field, it is not necessary to use a fixed defocus to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio despite having images with high dynamic range. This allows high performance wavefront sensing using in-focus science data. We applied this technique in a simulation model based on the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) Intermediate Design Reference Mission (IDRM) imager using a linear optical model with 25 field points. We demonstrate sub-thousandth-wave wavefront sensing accuracy in the presence of noise and moderate undersampling for both monochromatic and polychromatic images using 25 high-SNR target stars. Using these high-quality wavefront sensing results, we are able to generate upsampled point-spread functions (PSFs) and use them to determine PSF ellipticity to high accuracy in order to reduce the systematic impact of aberrations on the accuracy of galactic ellipticity determination for weak-lensing science.
Modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lavrinenko, Andrei; Lysenko, Oleg
2015-01-01
This paper describes modeling, fabrication and high power optical characterization of thin gold films embedded in silicon dioxide. The propagation vector of surface plasmon polaritons has been calculated by the effective index method for the wavelength range of 750-1700 nm and film thickness of 15......, 30 and 45 nm. The fabrication process of such plasmonic waveguides with width in the range of 1-100 μm and their quality inspection are described. The results of optical characterization of plasmonic waveguides using a high power laser with the peak power wavelength 1064 nm show significant deviation...... from the linear propagation regime of surface plasmon polaritons at the average input power of 100 mW and above. Possible reasons for this deviation are heating of the waveguides and subsequent changes in the coupling and propagation losses....
Numerical modelling of multimode fibre-optic communication lines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sidelnikov, O S; Fedoruk, M P [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Sygletos, S; Ferreira, F [Aston University, England, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)
2016-01-31
The results of numerical modelling of nonlinear propagation of an optical signal in multimode fibres with a small differential group delay are presented. It is found that the dependence of the error vector magnitude (EVM) on the differential group delay can be reduced by increasing the number of ADC samples per symbol in the numerical implementation of the differential group delay compensation algorithm in the receiver. The possibility of using multimode fibres with a small differential group delay for data transmission in modern digital communication systems is demonstrated. It is shown that with increasing number of modes the strong coupling regime provides a lower EVM level than the weak coupling one. (fibre-optic communication lines)
Optical model calculation of neutron-nucleus scattering cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, M.E.; Camarda, H.S.
1980-01-01
A program to calculate the total, elastic, reaction, and differential cross section of a neutron interacting with a nucleus is described. The interaction between the neutron and the nucleus is represented by a spherically symmetric complex potential that includes spin-orbit coupling. This optical model problem is solved numerically, and is treated with the partial-wave formalism of scattering theory. The necessary scattering theory required to solve this problem is briefly stated. Then, the numerical methods used to integrate the Schroedinger equation, calculate derivatives, etc., are described, and the results of various programming tests performed are presented. Finally, the program is discussed from a user's point of view, and it is pointed out how and where the program (OPTICAL) can be changed to satisfy particular needs
Applications of optical fiber to remote laser fluorescence analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Cheol Jung; Shin, Jang Soo; Lee, Sang Mock; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Heon; Hong, Seok Kyung
1991-12-01
Fluorescence analysis using time-resolved laser fluorimetry has been used for trace uranium analysis because this method shows high sensitivity and low detection limit and is less matrix dependent than any other fluorimetric measurement. By this time, the uranium analyses in the solution of reprocessing process or high radioactive area have been primarily analyzed by sampling of the solution, but recently, a study on a remote uranium fluorescence analysis using optical fiber has been setting out based on the development of an optical fiber with radiation resistivity and of an advanced laser excitation source. Laser fluorimetry developed by our laboratory for trace uranium analyses in uranium handling process or in urine samples of workers in a nuclear facility has been used in our institute since 1988. A development of the system for remote control of uranium fluorescence analysis will be expected to contribute to an on-line uranium concentration monitoring in the cooling water of reconversion stream. In this report, we summarize the information related to fluorescence analyses and remote fluorescence monitoring methods established by foreign countries and our laboratory. We also present a future research direction for remote on-line monitoring of uranium in conversion or reconversion process. (Author)
Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping
2016-01-01
Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks. (paper)
Simulation of multicomponent light source for optical-electronic system of color analysis objects
Peretiagin, Vladimir S.; Alekhin, Artem A.; Korotaev, Valery V.
2016-04-01
Development of lighting technology has led to possibility of using LEDs in the specialized devices for outdoor, industrial (decorative and accent) and domestic lighting. In addition, LEDs and devices based on them are widely used for solving particular problems. For example, the LED devices are widely used for lighting of vegetables and fruit (for their sorting or growing), textile products (for the control of its quality), minerals (for their sorting), etc. Causes of active introduction LED technology in different systems, including optical-electronic devices and systems, are a large choice of emission color and LED structure, that defines the spatial, power, thermal and other parameters. Furthermore, multi-element and color devices of lighting with adjustable illumination properties can be designed and implemented by using LEDs. However, devices based on LEDs require more attention if you want to provide a certain nature of the energy or color distribution at all the work area (area of analysis or observation) or surface of the object. This paper is proposed a method of theoretical modeling of the lighting devices. The authors present the models of RGB multicomponent light source applied to optical-electronic system for the color analysis of mineral objects. The possibility of formation the uniform and homogeneous on energy and color illumination of the work area for this system is presented. Also authors showed how parameters and characteristics of optical radiation receiver (by optical-electronic system) affect on the energy, spatial, spectral and colorimetric properties of a multicomponent light source.
Strain transfer analysis of optical fiber based sensors embedded in an asphalt pavement structure
Wang, Huaping; Xiang, Ping
2016-07-01
Asphalt pavement is vulnerable to random damage, such as cracking and rutting, which can be proactively identified by distributed optical fiber sensing technology. However, due to the material nature of optical fibers, a bare fiber is apt to be damaged during the construction process of pavements. Thus, a protective layer is needed for this application. Unfortunately, part of the strain of the host material is absorbed by the protective layer when transferring the strain to the sensing fiber. To account for the strain transfer error, in this paper a theoretical analysis of the strain transfer of a three-layered general model has been carried out by introducing Goodman’s hypothesis to describe the interfacial shear stress relationship. The model considers the viscoelastic behavior of the host material and protective layer. The effects of one crack in the host material and the sensing length on strain transfer relationship are been discussed. To validate the effectiveness of the strain transfer analysis, a flexible asphalt-mastic packaged distributed optical fiber sensor was designed and tested in a laboratory environment to monitor the distributed strain and appearance of cracks in an asphalt concrete beam at two different temperatures. The experimental results indicated that the developed strain transfer formula can significantly reduce the strain transfer error, and that the asphalt-mastic packaged optical fiber sensor can successfully monitor the distributed strain and identify local cracks.
Mathematic models for a ray tracing method and its applications in wireless optical communications.
Zhang, Minglun; Zhang, Yangan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Jinnan
2010-08-16
This paper presents a new ray tracing method, which contains a whole set of mathematic models, and its validity is verified by simulations. In addition, both theoretical analysis and simulation results show that the computational complexity of the method is much lower than that of previous ones. Therefore, the method can be used to rapidly calculate the impulse response of wireless optical channels for complicated systems.
Isospin term of the real part of the Lane optical-model potential
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandenberger, J.D.; Schrils, R.
1976-01-01
Previous neutron differential cross section measurements for Ni, Fe, and Co at 9 MeV are reanalyzed to obtain the isospin term in the real part of the Lane optical model potential employing a surface-centered form factor. The strength determined is 1.4 +- 0.2 MeV. It is further shown that analysis of the data is little affected by the choice of a volume or surface form for the isospin term in the real potential
Modeling optical and UV polarization of AGNs. IV. Polarization timing
Rojas Lobos, P. A.; Goosmann, R. W.; Marin, F.; Savić, D.
2018-03-01
Context. Optical observations cannot resolve the structure of active galactic nuclei (AGN), and a unified model for AGN was inferred mostly from indirect methods, such as spectroscopy and variability studies. Optical reverberation mapping allowed us to constrain the spatial dimension of the broad emission line region and thereby to measure the mass of supermassive black holes. Recently, reverberation was also applied to the polarized signal emerging from different AGN components. In principle, this should allow us to measure the spatial dimensions of the sub-parsec reprocessing media. Aim. We conduct numerical modeling of polarization reverberation and provide theoretical predictions for the polarization time lag induced by different AGN components. The model parameters are adjusted to the observational appearance of the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4151. Methods: We modeled scattering-induced polarization and tested different geometries for the circumnuclear dust component. Our tests included the effects of clumpiness and different dust prescriptions. To further extend the model, we also explored the effects of additional ionized winds stretched along the polar direction, and of an equatorial scattering ring that is responsible for the polarization angle observed in pole-on AGN. The simulations were run using a time-dependent version of the STOKES code. Results: Our modeling confirms the previously found polarization characteristics as a function of the observer`s viewing angle. When the dust adopts a flared-disk geometry, the lags reveal a clear difference between type 1 and type 2 AGN. This distinction is less clear for a torus geometry where the time lag is more sensitive to the geometry and optical depth of the inner surface layers of the funnel. The presence of a scattering equatorial ring and ionized outflows increased the recorded polarization time lags, and the polar outflows smooths out dependence on viewing angle, especially for the higher optical depth of the
11 Foot Unitary Plan Tunnel Facility Optical Improvement Large Window Analysis
Hawke, Veronica M.
2015-01-01
The test section of the 11 by 11-foot Unitary Plan Transonic Wind Tunnel (11-foot UPWT) may receive an upgrade of larger optical windows on both the North and South sides. These new larger windows will provide better access for optical imaging of test article flow phenomena including surface and off body flow characteristics. The installation of these new larger windows will likely produce a change to the aerodynamic characteristics of the flow in the Test Section. In an effort understand the effect of this change, a computational model was employed to predict the flows through the slotted walls, in the test section and around the model before and after the tunnel modification. This report documents the solid CAD model that was created and the inviscid computational analysis that was completed as a preliminary estimate of the effect of the changes.
Human tissue optical properties measurements and light propagation modelling
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Dam, JS
2006-07-01
Full Text Available Biomedical Optics is the study of the optical properties of living biological material, especially its scattering and absorption characteristics, and their significance to light propagation within the material. Determination of tissue optical...
Operations and Modeling Analysis
Ebeling, Charles
2005-01-01
The Reliability and Maintainability Analysis Tool (RMAT) provides NASA the capability to estimate reliability and maintainability (R&M) parameters and operational support requirements for proposed space vehicles based upon relationships established from both aircraft and Shuttle R&M data. RMAT has matured both in its underlying database and in its level of sophistication in extrapolating this historical data to satisfy proposed mission requirements, maintenance concepts and policies, and type of vehicle (i.e. ranging from aircraft like to shuttle like). However, a companion analyses tool, the Logistics Cost Model (LCM) has not reached the same level of maturity as RMAT due, in large part, to nonexistent or outdated cost estimating relationships and underlying cost databases, and it's almost exclusive dependence on Shuttle operations and logistics cost input parameters. As a result, the full capability of the RMAT/LCM suite of analysis tools to take a conceptual vehicle and derive its operations and support requirements along with the resulting operating and support costs has not been realized.
Modeling of Semiconductor Optical Amplifier Gain Characteristics for Amplification and Switching
Mahad, Farah Diana; Sahmah, Abu; Supa'at, M.; Idrus, Sevia Mahdaliza; Forsyth, David
2011-05-01
The Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (SOA) is presently commonly used as a booster or pre-amplifier in some communication networks. However, SOAs are also a strong candidate for utilization as multi-functional elements in future all-optical switching, regeneration and also wavelength conversion schemes. With this in mind, the purpose of this paper is to simulate the performance of the SOA for improved amplification and switching functions. The SOA is modeled and simulated using OptSim software. In order to verify the simulated results, a MATLAB mathematical model is also used to aid the design of the SOA. Using the model, the gain difference between simulated and mathematical results in the unsaturated region is <1dB. The mathematical analysis is in good agreement with the simulation result, with only a small offset due to inherent software limitations in matching the gain dynamics of the SOA.
Analysis of large optical ground stations for deep-space optical communications
Garcia-Talavera, M. Reyes; Rivera, C.; Murga, G.; Montilla, I.; Alonso, A.
2017-11-01
Inter-satellite and ground to satellite optical communications have been successfully demonstrated over more than a decade with several experiments, the most recent being NASA's lunar mission Lunar Atmospheric Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE). The technology is in a mature stage that allows to consider optical communications as a high-capacity solution for future deep-space communications [1][2], where there is an increasing demand on downlink data rate to improve science return. To serve these deep-space missions, suitable optical ground stations (OGS) have to be developed providing large collecting areas. The design of such OGSs must face both technical and cost constraints in order to achieve an optimum implementation. To that end, different approaches have already been proposed and analyzed, namely, a large telescope based on a segmented primary mirror, telescope arrays, and even the combination of RF and optical receivers in modified versions of existing Deep-Space Network (DSN) antennas [3][4][5]. Array architectures have been proposed to relax some requirements, acting as one of the key drivers of the present study. The advantages offered by the array approach are attained at the expense of adding subsystems. Critical issues identified for each implementation include their inherent efficiency and losses, as well as its performance under high-background conditions, and the acquisition, pointing, tracking, and synchronization capabilities. It is worth noticing that, due to the photon-counting nature of detection, the system performance is not solely given by the signal-to-noise ratio parameter. To start with the analysis, first the main implications of the deep space scenarios are summarized, since they are the driving requirements to establish the technical specifications for the large OGS. Next, both the main characteristics of the OGS and the potential configuration approaches are presented, getting deeper in key subsystems with strong impact in the
Fincham, W H A
2013-01-01
Optics: Eighth Edition covers the work necessary for the specialization in such subjects as ophthalmic optics, optical instruments and lens design. The text includes topics such as the propagation and behavior of light; reflection and refraction - their laws and how different media affect them; lenses - thick and thin, cylindrical and subcylindrical; photometry; dispersion and color; interference; and polarization. Also included are topics such as diffraction and holography; the limitation of beams in optical systems and its effects; and lens systems. The book is recommended for engineering st
Spectral analysis of optical emission of microplasma in sea water
Gamaleev, Vladislav; Morita, Hayato; Oh, Jun-Seok; Furuta, Hiroshi; Hatta, Akimitsu
2016-09-01
This work presents an analysis of optical emission spectra from microplasma in three types of liquid, namely artificial sea water composed of 10 typical agents (10ASW), reference solutions each containing a single agent (NaCl, MgCl2 + H2O, Na2SO4, CaCl2, KCl, NaHCO3, KBr, NaHCO3, H3BO3, SrCl2 + H2O, NaF) and naturally sampled deep sea water (DSW). Microplasma was operated using a needle(Pd)-to-plate(Pt) electrode system sunk into each liquid in a quartz cuvette. The radius of the tip of the needle was 50 μm and the gap between the electrodes was set at 20 μm. An inpulse generator circuit, consisting of a MOSFET switch, a capacitor, an inductor and the resistance of the liquid between the electrodes, was used as a pulse current source for operation of discharges. In the spectra, the emission peaks for the main components of sea water and contaminants from the electrodes were detected. Spectra for reference solutions were examined to enable the identification of unassigned peaks in the spectra for sea water. Analysis of the Stark broadening of H α peak was carried out to estimate the electron density of the plasma under various conditions. The characteristics of microplasma discharge in sea water and the analysis of the optical emission spectra will be presented. This work was supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26600129.
Development of the Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS)
Jeganathan, M.; Mecherle, G.; Lesh, J.
1998-01-01
The Free-space Optical Communications Analysis Software (FOCAS) was developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to provide mission planners, systems engineers and communications engineers with an easy to use tool to analyze optical communications link.
Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khalil Al Handawi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber’s modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.
Analytical Modeling Tool for Design of Hydrocarbon Sensitive Optical Fibers.
Al Handawi, Khalil; Vahdati, Nader; Shiryayev, Oleg; Lawand, Lydia
2017-09-28
Pipelines are the main transportation means for oil and gas products across large distances. Due to the severe conditions they operate in, they are regularly inspected using conventional Pipeline Inspection Gages (PIGs) for corrosion damage. The motivation for researching a real-time distributed monitoring solution arose to mitigate costs and provide a proactive indication of potential failures. Fiber optic sensors with polymer claddings provide a means of detecting contact with hydrocarbons. By coating the fibers with a layer of metal similar in composition to that of the parent pipeline, corrosion of this coating may be detected when the polymer cladding underneath is exposed to the surrounding hydrocarbons contained within the pipeline. A Refractive Index (RI) change occurs in the polymer cladding causing a loss in intensity of a traveling light pulse due to a reduction in the fiber's modal capacity. Intensity losses may be detected using Optical Time Domain Reflectometry (OTDR) while pinpointing the spatial location of the contact via time delay calculations of the back-scattered pulses. This work presents a theoretical model for the above sensing solution to provide a design tool for the fiber optic cable in the context of hydrocarbon sensing following corrosion of an external metal coating. Results are verified against the experimental data published in the literature.
Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements
Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.
2012-01-01
The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies, in order to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) task to help remediate the LEO environment. Rotation rates are needed to plan and develop proximity operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-watt Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The light source is mounted on a rotary arm, allowing access any phase angle between 0 -- 360 degrees. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48), SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard government "gray" scheme and the second target is primary white, as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each rotated about two primary axes: (a) a spin-stabilized rotation and (b) an end-over-end rotation. The two rotation states are being investigated as a basis for possible spin states of rocket bodies, beginning with simple spin states about the two primary axes. The data will be used to create a database of potential spin states for future works to convolve with more complex spin states. The optical signatures will be presented for specific phase angles for each rocket body and shown in conjunction with acquired optical data from multiple telescope sources.
Optical model with multiple band couplings using soft rotator structure
Martyanov, Dmitry; Soukhovitskii, Efrem; Capote, Roberto; Quesada, Jose Manuel; Chiba, Satoshi
2017-09-01
A new dispersive coupled-channel optical model (DCCOM) is derived that describes nucleon scattering on 238U and 232Th targets using a soft-rotator-model (SRM) description of the collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM Hamiltonian parameters are adjusted to the observed collective levels of the target nucleus. SRM nuclear wave functions (mixed in K quantum number) have been used to calculate coupling matrix elements of the generalized optical model. Five rotational bands are coupled: the ground-state band, β-, γ-, non-axial- bands, and a negative parity band. Such coupling scheme includes almost all levels below 1.2 MeV of excitation energy of targets. The "effective" deformations that define inter-band couplings are derived from SRM Hamiltonian parameters. Conservation of nuclear volume is enforced by introducing a monopolar deformed potential leading to additional couplings between rotational bands. The present DCCOM describes the total cross section differences between 238U and 232Th targets within experimental uncertainty from 50 keV up to 200 MeV of neutron incident energy. SRM couplings and volume conservation allow a precise calculation of the compound-nucleus (CN) formation cross sections, which is significantly different from the one calculated with rigid-rotor potentials with any number of coupled levels.
Oubei, Hassan M.; Zedini, Emna; Elafandy, Rami T.; Kammoun, Abla; Ng, Tien Khee; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Ooi, Boon S.
2017-01-01
Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tonkyn, Russell G.; Danby, Tyler O.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Taubman, Matthew S.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Myers, Tanya L.
2017-05-03
The complex optical refractive index contains the optical constants, n($\\tilde{u}$)and k($\\tilde{u}$), which correspond to the dispersion and absorption of light within a medium, respectively. By obtaining the optical constants one can in principle model most optical phenomena in media and at interfaces including reflection, refraction and dispersion. We have developed improved protocols based on the use of multiple path lengths to determine the optical constants for dozens of liquids, including organic and organophosphorous compounds. Detailed description of the protocols to determine the infrared indices will be presented, along with preliminary results using the constants with their applications to optical modeling.
Strahler, Alan H.; Jupp, David L. B.
1990-01-01
Geometric-optical discrete-element mathematical models for forest canopies have been developed using the Boolean logic and models of Serra. The geometric-optical approach is considered to be particularly well suited to describing the bidirectional reflectance of forest woodland canopies, where the concentration of leaf material within crowns and the resulting between-tree gaps make plane-parallel, radiative-transfer models inappropriate. The approach leads to invertible formulations, in which the spatial and directional variance provides the means for remote estimation of tree crown size, shape, and total cover from remotedly sensed imagery.
Optical modeling of waveguide coupled TES detectors towards the SAFARI instrument for SPICA
Trappe, N.; Bracken, C.; Doherty, S.; Gao, J. R.; Glowacka, D.; Goldie, D.; Griffin, D.; Hijmering, R.; Jackson, B.; Khosropanah, P.; Mauskopf, P.; Morozov, D.; Murphy, A.; O'Sullivan, C.; Ridder, M.; Withington, S.
2012-09-01
The next generation of space missions targeting far-infrared wavelengths will require large-format arrays of extremely sensitive detectors. The development of Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array technology is being developed for future Far-Infrared (FIR) space applications such as the SAFARI instrument for SPICA where low-noise and high sensitivity is required to achieve ambitious science goals. In this paper we describe a modal analysis of multi-moded horn antennas feeding integrating cavities housing TES detectors with superconducting film absorbers. In high sensitivity TES detector technology the ability to control the electromagnetic and thermo-mechanical environment of the detector is critical. Simulating and understanding optical behaviour of such detectors at far IR wavelengths is difficult and requires development of existing analysis tools. The proposed modal approach offers a computationally efficient technique to describe the partial coherent response of the full pixel in terms of optical efficiency and power leakage between pixels. Initial wok carried out as part of an ESA technical research project on optical analysis is described and a prototype SAFARI pixel design is analyzed where the optical coupling between the incoming field and the pixel containing horn, cavity with an air gap, and thin absorber layer are all included in the model to allow a comprehensive optical characterization. The modal approach described is based on the mode matching technique where the horn and cavity are described in the traditional way while a technique to include the absorber was developed. Radiation leakage between pixels is also included making this a powerful analysis tool.
Optical analysis of Cr-doped ITO films deposited by double-target laser ablation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cesaria, M., E-mail: maura.cesaria@le.infn.it [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Caricato, A.P. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Maruccio, G. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); National Nanotechnology Laboratory (NNL) Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Martino, M. [Departiment of Mathematics and Physics ”Ennio De Giorgi”, University of Salento, Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy)
2015-06-15
We investigate the optical properties of ITO and Cr-doped ITO films deposited at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition onto amorphous SiO{sub 2} substrates. Our analysis approach is based on the Tauc's plot method applied to the absorption coefficient estimated by a route realistically describing the film structural features and including the contribution of the non-measurable film–substrate interface. Going beyond the conventional application of the Tauc's plot method, we quote two different transition energies for ITO and Cr-doped ITO and discuss their origin in the framework of a band-structure picture as a function of film thickness, Cr changes of the host ITO dispersion and Cr-doping content. In contrast to the conventional optical ITO description, we account for the existence of direct dipole forbidden transitions between the ITO fundamental band edges, involving different electronic and optical band gaps. Our results and discussion demonstrate that disregarding this theoretically established picture, as occurs in the experimental literature, would lead to conclusions inconsistent with the Cr-induced band occupation and effects on ITO dispersions. Preliminary optical (based on transmittance and reflectance spectra as well as band-tailing effects), electrical and structural inspection of the samples are also considered to check reliability and consistency of our discussion. - Highlights: • Realistic absorption coefficient of very thin films. • Electronic and optical band gap: ITO dipole forbidden optical transitions. • Interpretative model combining realistic band structure and Tauc's plot approach. • Inconsistencies stemming from conventional application of the Tauc's plot. • General model applicable to In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-like systems.
Optical analysis of Cr-doped ITO films deposited by double-target laser ablation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cesaria, M.; Caricato, A.P.; Maruccio, G.; Martino, M.
2015-01-01
We investigate the optical properties of ITO and Cr-doped ITO films deposited at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition onto amorphous SiO 2 substrates. Our analysis approach is based on the Tauc's plot method applied to the absorption coefficient estimated by a route realistically describing the film structural features and including the contribution of the non-measurable film–substrate interface. Going beyond the conventional application of the Tauc's plot method, we quote two different transition energies for ITO and Cr-doped ITO and discuss their origin in the framework of a band-structure picture as a function of film thickness, Cr changes of the host ITO dispersion and Cr-doping content. In contrast to the conventional optical ITO description, we account for the existence of direct dipole forbidden transitions between the ITO fundamental band edges, involving different electronic and optical band gaps. Our results and discussion demonstrate that disregarding this theoretically established picture, as occurs in the experimental literature, would lead to conclusions inconsistent with the Cr-induced band occupation and effects on ITO dispersions. Preliminary optical (based on transmittance and reflectance spectra as well as band-tailing effects), electrical and structural inspection of the samples are also considered to check reliability and consistency of our discussion. - Highlights: • Realistic absorption coefficient of very thin films. • Electronic and optical band gap: ITO dipole forbidden optical transitions. • Interpretative model combining realistic band structure and Tauc's plot approach. • Inconsistencies stemming from conventional application of the Tauc's plot. • General model applicable to In 2 O 3 -like systems
Optical vector network analysis of ultranarrow transitions in 166Er3+ : 7LiYF4 crystal.
Kukharchyk, N; Sholokhov, D; Morozov, O; Korableva, S L; Cole, J H; Kalachev, A A; Bushev, P A
2018-02-15
We present optical vector network analysis (OVNA) of an isotopically purified Er166 3+ :LiYF 4 7 crystal. The OVNA method is based on generation and detection of a modulated optical sideband by using a radio-frequency vector network analyzer. This technique is widely used in the field of microwave photonics for the characterization of optical responses of optical devices such as filters and high-Q resonators. However, dense solid-state atomic ensembles induce a large phase shift on one of the optical sidebands that results in the appearance of extra features on the measured transmission response. We present a simple theoretical model that accurately describes the observed spectra and helps to reconstruct the absorption profile of a solid-state atomic ensemble as well as corresponding change of the refractive index in the vicinity of atomic resonances.
Improving the durability of the optical fiber sensor based on strain transfer analysis
Wang, Huaping; Jiang, Lizhong; Xiang, Ping
2018-05-01
To realize the reliable and long-term strain detection, the durability of optical fiber sensors has attracted more and more attention. The packaging technique has been considered as an effective method, which can enhance the survival ratios of optical fiber sensors to resist the harsh construction and service environment in civil engineering. To monitor the internal strain of structures, the embedded installation is adopted. Due to the different material properties between host material and the protective layer, the monitored structure embedded with sensors can be regarded as a typical model containing inclusions. Interfacial characteristic between the sensor and host material exists obviously, and the contacted interface is prone to debonding failure induced by the large interfacial shear stress. To recognize the local interfacial debonding damage and extend the effective life cycle of the embedded sensor, strain transfer analysis of a general three-layered sensing model is conducted to investigate the failure mechanism. The perturbation of the embedded sensor on the local strain field of host material is discussed. Based on the theoretical analysis, the distribution of the interfacial shear stress along the sensing length is characterized and adopted for the diagnosis of local interfacial debonding, and the sensitive parameters influencing the interfacial shear stress are also investigated. The research in this paper explores the interfacial debonding failure mechanism of embedded sensors based on the strain transfer analysis and provides theoretical basis for enhancing the interfacial bonding properties and improving the durability of embedded optical fiber sensors.
Optical measurements for the gaseous phase speciation of HIx mixtures: experiments and modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denis Doizi; Vincent Dauvois; Vincent Delanne; Jean Luc Roujou; Bruno Larousse; Olivier Hercher; Christophe Moulin; Pierre Fauvet; P Carles; Jean Michel Hartmann
2006-01-01
To design and optimize the efficiency of the reactive distillation column of HI we have proposed for the HI section of the I-S cycle, analytical optical 'online' techniques have been proposed to measure the partial and total pressures of the liquid vapour equilibrium of the ternary HI/I 2 /H 2 O mixtures: - FTIR spectrometry for the measurement of hydrogen iodide and water vapours, - Visible spectrometry for the measurement of iodine vapour. The use of these optical techniques has been validated in an experimental device around 130 C and 2 bars. This device is composed of a glass cell equipped with two optical path lengths and placed in a thermo-regulated oven to allow the optical measurements of the concentrations of the three species in the vapour phase. Using an experimental design analysis, the infrared spectra of hydrogen iodide and water have been measured in a selected wavelength range versus temperature and for different HI x compositions. The spectra are then analyzed in particular using a model especially developed for this objective. This model relies on the fitting of the experimental infrared data using a root mean square method and an appropriate spectroscopic database. The visible spectrum of iodine has also been measured. (authors)
[Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy animal model and its treatment applications].
Chuman, Hideki
2014-04-01
Nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) is one of the most common acute unilaterally onset optic nerve diseases. One management problem in terms of NAION is the difficulty of differential diagnosis between NAION and anterior optic neuritis (ON). A second problem is that there is no established treatment for the acute stage of NAION. A third problem is that there is no preventive treatment for a subsequent attack on the fellow eye, estimated to occur in 15 to 25% of patients with NAION. For differentiation of acute NAION from anterior optic neuritis, we investigated the usefulness of laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG). In the normal control group, the tissue blood flow did not significantly differ between the right and left eyes. In the NAION group, all 6 patients had 29.5% decreased mean blur rate (MBR), which correlates to optic disc blood flow, of the NAION eye compared with the unaffected eye. In the anterior ON group, all 6 cases had 15.9% increased MBR of the anterior ON eye compared with the unaffected eye. Thus, LSFG showed a difference of the underlying pathophysiology between NAION and anterior ON despite showing disc swelling in both groups and could be useful for differentiating both groups. For the treatment of acute stage of NAION, we tried to reproduce the rodent model of NAION (rNAION) developed by Bernstein and colleagues. To induce rNAION, after the administration of rose bengal(RB) (2.5 mM) into the tail vein of SD rats, the small vessels of the left optic nerve were photoactivated using a 514 nm argon green laser (RB-laser-induction). In the RB-laser-induction eyes, the capillaries within the optic disc were reduced markedly, the optic disc became swollen, and fluorescein angiography showed filling defect in the choroid and the optic disc at an early stage, followed by hyperfluorescence at a late stage. Electrophysiological evaluation revealed that visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude was significantly decreased but an electroretinogram
A sensitivity analysis approach to optical parameters of scintillation detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghal-Eh, N.; Koohi-Fayegh, R.
2008-01-01
In this study, an extended version of the Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, has been used for a sensitivity analysis to estimate the importance of different wavelength-dependent parameters in the modelling of light collection process in scintillators
2014-01-01
This study developed a new snow model and a database which warehouses geometric, weather and traffic : data on New Jersey highways. The complexity of the model development lies in considering variable road : width, different spreading/plowing pattern...
Sinusoidal modulation analysis for optical system MTF measurements.
Boone, J M; Yu, T; Seibert, J A
1996-12-01
The modulation transfer function (MTF) is a commonly used metric for defining the spatial resolution characteristics of imaging systems. While the MTF is defined in terms of how an imaging system demodulates the amplitude of a sinusoidal input, this approach has not been in general use to measure MTFs in the medical imaging community because producing sinusoidal x-ray patterns is technically difficult. However, for optical systems such as charge coupled devices (CCD), which are rapidly becoming a part of many medical digital imaging systems, the direct measurement of modulation at discrete spatial frequencies using a sinusoidal test pattern is practical. A commercially available optical test pattern containing spatial frequencies ranging from 0.375 cycles/mm to 80 cycles/mm was sued to determine the MRF of a CCD-based optical system. These results were compared with the angulated slit method of Fujita [H. Fujita, D. Tsia, T. Itoh, K. Doi, J. Morishita, K. Ueda, and A. Ohtsuka, "A simple method for determining the modulation transfer function in digital radiography," IEEE Trans. Medical Imaging 11, 34-39 (1992)]. The use of a semiautomated profiled iterated reconstruction technique (PIRT) is introduced, where the shift factor between successive pixel rows (due to angulation) is optimized iteratively by least-squares error analysis rather than by hand measurement of the slit angle. PIRT was used to find the slit angle for the Fujita technique and to find the sine-pattern angle for the sine-pattern technique. Computer simulation of PIRT for the case of the slit image (a line spread function) demonstrated that it produced a more accurate angle determination than "hand" measurement, and there is a significant difference between the errors in the two techniques (Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test, p < 0.001). The sine-pattern method and the Fujita slit method produced comparable MTF curves for the CCD camera evaluated.
A New Simple Model for Underwater Wireless Optical Channels in the Presence of Air Bubbles
Zedini, Emna
2018-01-15
A novel statistical model is proposed to characterize turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles for fresh and salty waters, based on experimental data. In this model, the channel irradiance fluctuations are characterized by the mixture Exponential-Gamma distribution. We use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood parameter estimation of the new model. Interestingly, the proposed model is shown to provide a perfect fit with the measured data under all the channel conditions for both types of water. The major advantage of the new model is that it has a simple mathematical form making it attractive from a performance analysis point of view. Indeed, the application of the Exponential-Gamma model leads to closed-form and analytically tractable expressions for key system performance metrics such as the outage probability and the average bit-error rate.
A New Simple Model for Underwater Wireless Optical Channels in the Presence of Air Bubbles
Zedini, Emna; Oubei, Hassan M.; Kammoun, Abla; Hamdi, Mounir; Ooi, Boon S.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2018-01-01
A novel statistical model is proposed to characterize turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels in the presence of air bubbles for fresh and salty waters, based on experimental data. In this model, the channel irradiance fluctuations are characterized by the mixture Exponential-Gamma distribution. We use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to obtain the maximum likelihood parameter estimation of the new model. Interestingly, the proposed model is shown to provide a perfect fit with the measured data under all the channel conditions for both types of water. The major advantage of the new model is that it has a simple mathematical form making it attractive from a performance analysis point of view. Indeed, the application of the Exponential-Gamma model leads to closed-form and analytically tractable expressions for key system performance metrics such as the outage probability and the average bit-error rate.
Effect of the internal optics on the outcome of custom-LASIK in an eye model
Manns, Fabrice; Ho, Arthur; Parel, Jean-Marie
2004-07-01
Purpose. The purpose of this study was to evaluate if changes in the aberration-contribution of the internal optics of the eye have a significant effect on the outcome of wavefront-guided corneal reshaping. Methods. The Navarro-Escudero eye model was simulated using optical analysis software. The eye was rendered myopic by shifting the plane of the retina. Custom-LASIK was simulated by changing the radius of curvature and asphericity of the anterior corneal surface of the eye model. The radius of curvature was adjusted to provide a retinal conjugate at infinity. Three approaches were used to determine the postoperative corneal asphericity: minimizing third-order spherical aberration, minimizing third-order coma, and maximizing the Strehl ratio. The aberration contribution of the anterior corneal surface and internal optics was calculated before and after each simulated customized correction. Results. For a 5.2mm diameter pupil, the contribution of the anterior corneal surface to third-order spherical aberration and coma (in micrometers) was 2.22 and 2.49 preop, -0.36 and 2.83 postop when spherical aberration is minimized, 5.88 and 1.10 postop when coma is minimized, and -0.63 and 2.91 postop when Strehl ratio is maximized. The contribution of the internal optics of the eye to spherical aberration and coma for the same four conditions was: 0.43 and -1.13, 0.37 and -1.10, 0.37 and -1.10 and 0.37 and -1.10, respectively. Conclusion. In the model eye, the contribution of the internal optics of the eye to the change in the ocular aberration state is negligible.
Dual permeability FEM models for distributed fiber optic sensors development
Aguilar-López, Juan Pablo; Bogaard, Thom
2017-04-01
Fiber optic cables are commonly known for being robust and reliable mediums for transferring information at the speed of light in glass. Billions of kilometers of cable have been installed around the world for internet connection and real time information sharing. Yet, fiber optic cable is not only a mean for information transfer but also a way to sense and measure physical properties of the medium in which is installed. For dike monitoring, it has been used in the past for detecting inner core and foundation temperature changes which allow to estimate water infiltration during high water events. The DOMINO research project, aims to develop a fiber optic based dike monitoring system which allows to directly sense and measure any pore pressure change inside the dike structure. For this purpose, questions like which location, how many sensors, which measuring frequency and which accuracy are required for the sensor development. All these questions may be initially answered with a finite element model which allows to estimate the effects of pore pressure change in different locations along the cross section while having a time dependent estimation of a stability factor. The sensor aims to monitor two main failure mechanisms at the same time; The piping erosion failure mechanism and the macro-stability failure mechanism. Both mechanisms are going to be modeled and assessed in detail with a finite element based dual permeability Darcy-Richards numerical solution. In that manner, it is possible to assess different sensing configurations with different loading scenarios (e.g. High water levels, rainfall events and initial soil moisture and permeability conditions). The results obtained for the different configurations are later evaluated based on an entropy based performance evaluation. The added value of this kind of modelling approach for the sensor development is that it allows to simultaneously model the piping erosion and macro-stability failure mechanisms in a time
Time-resolved analysis of nonlinear optical limiting for laser synthesized carbon nanoparticles
Chen, G. X.; Hong, M. H.
2010-11-01
Nonlinear optical limiting materials have attracted much research interest in recent years. Carbon nanoparticles suspended in liquids show a strong nonlinear optical limiting function. It is important to investigate the nonlinear optical limiting process of carbon nanoparticles for further improving their nonlinear optical limiting performance. In this study, carbon nanoparticles were prepared by laser ablation of a carbon target in tetrahydrofuran (THF). Optical limiting properties of the samples were studied with 532-nm laser light, which is in the most sensitive wavelength band for human eyes. The shape of the laser pulse plays an important role for initializing the nonlinear optical limiting effect. Time-resolved analysis of laser pulses discovered 3 fluence stages of optical limiting. Theoretical simulation indicates that the optical limiting is initialized by a near-field optical enhancement effect.
Zhao, Yongli; Li, Shikun; Song, Yinan; Sun, Ji; Zhang, Jie
2015-12-01
Hierarchical control architecture is designed for software-defined multidomain optical networks (SD-MDONs), and a unified service logic processing model (USLPM) is first proposed for various applications. USLPM-based virtual optical network (VON) provisioning process is designed, and two VON mapping algorithms are proposed: random node selection and per controller computation (RNS&PCC) and balanced node selection and hierarchical controller computation (BNS&HCC). Then an SD-MDON testbed is built with OpenFlow extension in order to support optical transport equipment. Finally, VON provisioning service is experimentally demonstrated on the testbed along with performance verification.
Analysis of optical bleaching of OSL signal in sediment quartz
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Przegiętka, K.R.; Chruścińska, A.
2013-01-01
The aim of this work was to study the effect of the quality of optical bleaching on the results of OSL (Optically Stimulated Luminescence) dating method. The large aliquots of coarse quartz grains extracted from fluvial deposit were used in the study. The poor, medium and good bleaching were simulated in laboratory with help of Blue LED light source in series of experiments. Then the samples were irradiated with a common laboratory dose. The equivalent doses (DE) were measured by the help of standard Single Aliquot Regeneration (SAR) technique, but obtained DE distributions are analyzed in a new way. The method for recognizing and compensating for partial bleaching is proposed. The conclusions for dating sediment quartz samples are presented and discussed. -- Highlights: ► Bleaching experiments on sediment quartz are performed. ► Blue LED light source incorporated in luminescence reader is used. ► New analysis of data measured by standard SAR OSL technique is proposed. ► The results are promising for recognizing and compensating for partial bleaching
Analysis and Design of Adaptive OCDMA Passive Optical Networks
Hadi, Mohammad; Pakravan, Mohammad Reza
2017-07-01
OCDMA systems can support multiple classes of service by differentiating code parameters, power level and diversity order. In this paper, we analyze BER performance of a multi-class 1D/2D OCDMA system and propose a new approximation method that can be used to generate accurate estimation of system BER using a simple mathematical form. The proposed approximation provides insight into proper system level analysis, system level design and sensitivity of system performance to the factors such as code parameters, power level and diversity order. Considering code design, code cardinality and system performance constraints, two design problems are defined and their optimal solutions are provided. We then propose an adaptive OCDMA-PON that adaptively shares unused resources of inactive users among active ones to improve upstream system performance. Using the approximated BER expression and defined design problems, two adaptive code allocation algorithms for the adaptive OCDMA-PON are presented and their performances are evaluated by simulation. Simulation results show that the adaptive code allocation algorithms can increase average transmission rate or decrease average optical power consumption of ONUs for dynamic traffic patterns. According to the simulation results, for an adaptive OCDMA-PON with BER value of 1e-7 and user activity probability of 0.5, transmission rate (optical power consumption) can be increased (decreased) by a factor of 2.25 (0.27) compared to fixed code assignment.
Loyd, Jody; Gregory, Don; Gaskin, Jessica
2016-01-01
This presentation discusses work done to assess the design of a focusing column in a miniaturized Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) developed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) for use in-situ on the Moon-in particular for mineralogical analysis. The MSFC beam column design uses purely electrostatic fields for focusing, because of the severe constraints on mass and electrical power consumption imposed by the goals of lunar exploration and of spaceflight in general. The resolution of an SEM ultimately depends on the size of the focused spot of the scanning beam probe, for which the stated goal here is a diameter of 10 nanometers. Optical aberrations are the main challenge to this performance goal, because they blur the ideal geometrical optical image of the electron source, effectively widening the ideal spot size of the beam probe. In the present work the optical aberrations of the mini SEM focusing column were assessed using direct tracing of non-paraxial rays, as opposed to mathematical estimates of aberrations based on paraxial ray-traces. The geometrical ray-tracing employed here is completely analogous to ray-tracing as conventionally understood in the realm of photon optics, with the major difference being that in electron optics the lens is simply a smoothly varying electric field in vacuum, formed by precisely machined electrodes. Ray-tracing in this context, therefore, relies upon a model of the electrostatic field inside the focusing column to provide the mathematical description of the "lens" being traced. This work relied fundamentally on the boundary element method (BEM) for this electric field model. In carrying out this research the authors discovered that higher accuracy in the field model was essential if aberrations were to be reliably assessed using direct ray-tracing. This led to some work in testing alternative techniques for modeling the electrostatic field. Ultimately, the necessary accuracy was attained using a BEM
Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo
2013-03-01
In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.
Optical Signature Analysis of Tumbling Rocket Bodies via Laboratory Measurements
Cowardin, H.; Lederer, S.; Liou, J.-C.; Ojakangas, G.; Mulrooney, M.
2012-09-01
The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has acquired telescopic lightcurve data on massive intact objects, specifically spent rocket bodies (R/Bs), to ascertain tumble rates in support of the Active Debris Removal (ADR) studies to help remediate the LEO environment. Tumble rates are needed to plan and develop proximity and docking operations for potential future ADR operations. To better characterize and model optical data acquired from ground-based telescopes, the Optical Measurements Center (OMC) at NASA/JSC emulates illumination conditions in space using equipment and techniques that parallel telescopic observations and source-target-sensor orientations. The OMC employs a 75-W Xenon arc lamp as a solar simulator, an SBIG CCD camera with standard Johnson/Bessel filters, and a robotic arm to simulate an object's position and rotation. The OMC does not attempt to replicate the rotation rates, but focuses on ascertaining how an object is rotating as seen from multiple phase angles. The two targets studied are scaled (1:48) SL-8 Cosmos 3M second stages. The first target is painted in the standard Russian government "gray" scheme and the second target is white/orange as used for commercial missions. This paper summarizes results of the two scaled rocket bodies, each observed in three independent rotation states: (a) spin-stabilized rotation (about the long axis), (b) end-over-end rotation, and (c) a 10 degree wobble about the center of mass. The first two cases represent simple spin about either primary axis. The third - what we call "wobble" - represents maximum principal axis rotation, with an inertia tensor that is offset from the symmetry axes. By comparing the resultant phase and orientation-dependent laboratory signatures with actual lightcurves derived from telescopic observations of orbiting R/Bs, we intend to assess the intrinsic R/B rotation states. In the simplest case, simulated R/B behavior coincides with principal axis spin states, while more complex R
Inc, Mustafa; Aliyu, Aliyu Isa; Yusuf, Abdullahi; Baleanu, Dumitru
2018-01-01
This paper addresses the coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equation (CNLSE) in monomode step-index in optical fibers which describes the nonlinear modulations of two monochromatic waves, whose group velocities are almost equal. A class of dark, bright, dark-bright and dark-singular optical solitary wave solutions of the model are constructed using the complex envelope function ansatz. Singular solitary waves are also retrieved as bye products of the in integration scheme. This naturally lead to some constraint conditions placed on the solitary wave parameters which must hold for the solitary waves to exist. The modulation instability (MI) analysis of the model is studied based on the standard linear-stability analysis. Numerical simulation and physical interpretations of the obtained results are demonstrated. It is hoped that the results reported in this paper can enrich the nonlinear dynamical behaviors of the CNLSE.
Discriminant analysis of functional optical topography for schizophrenia diagnosis
Chuang, Ching-Cheng; Nakagome, Kazuyuki; Pu, Shenghong; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Lee, Chia-Yen; Sun, Chia-Wei
2014-01-01
Abnormal prefrontal function plays a central role in the cognition deficits of schizophrenic patients; however, the character of the relationship between discriminant analysis and prefrontal activation remains undetermined. Recently, evidence of low prefrontal cortex (PFC) activation in individuals with schizophrenia has also been found during verbal fluency tests (VFT) and other cognitive tests with several neuroimaging methods. The purpose of this study is to assess the hemodynamic changes of the PFC and discriminant analysis between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during VFT task by utilizing functional optical topography. A total of 99 subjects including 53 schizophrenic patients and 46 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were studied. The results showed that the healthy group had larger activation in the right and left PFC than in the middle PFC. Besides, the schizophrenic group showed weaker task performance and lower activation in the whole PFC than the healthy group. The result of the discriminant analysis showed a significant difference with P value <0.001 in six channels (CH 23, 29, 31, 40, 42, 52) between the schizophrenic and healthy groups. Finally, 68.69% and 71.72% of subjects are correctly classified as being schizophrenic or healthy with all 52 channels and six significantly different channels, respectively. Our findings suggest that the left PFC can be a feature region for discriminant analysis of schizophrenic diagnosis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lei Zhu, Ning Guo, Quanzheng Li, Ying Ma, Orit Jacboson, Seulki Lee, Hak Soo Choi, James R. Mansfield, Gang Niu, Xiaoyuan Chen
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study is to determine if dynamic optical imaging could provide comparable kinetic parameters to that of dynamic PET imaging by a near-infrared dye/64Cu dual-labeled cyclic RGD peptide.Methods: The integrin αvβ3 binding RGD peptide was conjugated with a macrocyclic chelator 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA for copper labeling and PET imaging and a near-infrared dye ZW-1 for optical imaging. The in vitro biological activity of RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 was characterized by cell staining and receptor binding assay. Sixty-min dynamic PET and optical imaging were acquired on a MDA-MB-435 tumor model. Singular value decomposition (SVD method was applied to compute the dynamic optical signal from the two-dimensional optical projection images. Compartment models were used to quantitatively analyze and compare the dynamic optical and PET data.Results: The dual-labeled probe 64Cu-RGD-C(DOTA-ZW-1 showed integrin specific binding in vitro and in vivo. The binding potential (Bp derived from dynamic optical imaging (1.762 ± 0.020 is comparable to that from dynamic PET (1.752 ± 0.026.Conclusion: The signal un-mixing process using SVD improved the accuracy of kinetic modeling of 2D dynamic optical data. Our results demonstrate that 2D dynamic optical imaging with SVD analysis could achieve comparable quantitative results as dynamic PET imaging in preclinical xenograft models.
Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Zhao
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM. Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation. To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE. The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel’s microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.
Modeling silica aerogel optical performance by determining its radiative properties
Zhao, Lin; Yang, Sungwoo; Bhatia, Bikram; Strobach, Elise; Wang, Evelyn N.
2016-02-01
Silica aerogel has been known as a promising candidate for high performance transparent insulation material (TIM). Optical transparency is a crucial metric for silica aerogels in many solar related applications. Both scattering and absorption can reduce the amount of light transmitted through an aerogel slab. Due to multiple scattering, the transmittance deviates from the Beer-Lambert law (exponential attenuation). To better understand its optical performance, we decoupled and quantified the extinction contributions of absorption and scattering separately by identifying two sets of radiative properties. The radiative properties are deduced from the measured total transmittance and reflectance spectra (from 250 nm to 2500 nm) of synthesized aerogel samples by solving the inverse problem of the 1-D Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE). The obtained radiative properties are found to be independent of the sample geometry and can be considered intrinsic material properties, which originate from the aerogel's microstructure. This finding allows for these properties to be directly compared between different samples. We also demonstrate that by using the obtained radiative properties, we can model the photon transport in aerogels of arbitrary shapes, where an analytical solution is difficult to obtain.
Corneal modeling for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy
Della Vecchia, Michael A.; Lamkin-Kennard, Kathleen
1997-05-01
Procedurally, excimer photorefractive keratectomy is based on the refractive correction of composite spherical and cylindrical ophthalmic errors of the entire eye. These refractive errors are inputted for correction at the corneal plane and for the properly controlled duration and location of laser energy. Topography is usually taken to correspondingly monitor spherical and cylindrical corneorefractive errors. While a corneal topographer provides surface morphologic information, the keratorefractive photoablation is based on the patient's spherical and cylindrical spectacle correction. Topography is at present not directly part of the procedural deterministic parameters. Examination of how corneal curvature at each of the keratometric reference loci affect the shape of the resultant corneal photoablated surface may enhance the accuracy of the desired correction. The objective of this study was to develop a methodology to utilize corneal topography for construction of models depicting pre- and post-operative keratomorphology for analysis of photorefractive keratectomy. Multiple types of models were developed then recreated in optical design software for examination of focal lengths and other optical characteristics. The corneal models were developed using data extracted from the TMS I corneal modeling system (Computed Anatomy, New York, NY). The TMS I does not allow for manipulation of data or differentiation of pre- and post-operative surfaces within its platform, thus models needed to be created for analysis. The data were imported into Matlab where 3D models, surface meshes, and contour plots were created. The data used to generate the models were pre- and post-operative curvatures, heights from the corneal apes, and x-y positions at 6400 locations on the corneal surface. Outlying non-contributory points were eliminated through statistical operations. Pre- and post- operative models were analyzed to obtain the resultant changes in the corneal surfaces during PRK
Relativistic analysis of the LISA long range optical links
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chauvineau, Bertrand; Regimbau, Tania; Vinet, Jean-Yves; Pireaux, Sophie
2005-01-01
The joint ESA/NASA LISA mission consists of three spacecraft on heliocentric orbits, flying in a triangular formation of 5 Mkm each side, linked by infrared optical beams. The aim of the mission is to detect gravitational waves in a low frequency band. For properly processing the scientific data, the propagation delays between spacecraft must be accurately known. We thus analyze the propagation of light between spacecraft in order to systematically derive the relativistic effects due to the static curvature of the Schwarzschild space-time in which the spacecraft are orbiting with time-varying light distances. In particular, our analysis allows us to evaluate rigorously the Sagnac effect, and the gravitational (Einstein) redshift
General analysis of slab lasers using geometrical optics.
Chung, Te-yuan; Bass, Michael
2007-02-01
A thorough and general geometrical optics analysis of a slab-shaped laser gain medium is presented. The length and thickness ratio is critical if one is to achieve the maximum utilization of absorbed pump power by the laser light in such a medium; e.g., the fill factor inside the slab is to be maximized. We point out that the conditions for a fill factor equal to 1, laser light entering and exiting parallel to the length of the slab, and Brewster angle incidence on the entrance and exit faces cannot all be satisfied at the same time. Deformed slabs are also studied. Deformation along the width direction of the largest surfaces is shown to significantly reduce the fill factor that is possible.
Multilayer Markov Random Field models for change detection in optical remote sensing images
Benedek, Csaba; Shadaydeh, Maha; Kato, Zoltan; Szirányi, Tamás; Zerubia, Josiane
2015-09-01
In this paper, we give a comparative study on three Multilayer Markov Random Field (MRF) based solutions proposed for change detection in optical remote sensing images, called Multicue MRF, Conditional Mixed Markov model, and Fusion MRF. Our purposes are twofold. On one hand, we highlight the significance of the focused model family and we set them against various state-of-the-art approaches through a thematic analysis and quantitative tests. We discuss the advantages and drawbacks of class comparison vs. direct approaches, usage of training data, various targeted application fields and different ways of Ground Truth generation, meantime informing the Reader in which roles the Multilayer MRFs can be efficiently applied. On the other hand we also emphasize the differences between the three focused models at various levels, considering the model structures, feature extraction, layer interpretation, change concept definition, parameter tuning and performance. We provide qualitative and quantitative comparison results using principally a publicly available change detection database which contains aerial image pairs and Ground Truth change masks. We conclude that the discussed models are competitive against alternative state-of-the-art solutions, if one uses them as pre-processing filters in multitemporal optical image analysis. In addition, they cover together a large range of applications, considering the different usage options of the three approaches.
Simultaneous thermal and optical imaging of two-phase flow in a micro-model.
Karadimitriou, N K; Nuske, P; Kleingeld, P J; Hassanizadeh, S M; Helmig, R
2014-07-21
In the study of non-equilibrium heat transfer in multiphase flow in porous media, parameters and constitutive relations, like heat transfer coefficients between phases, are unknown. In order to study the temperature development of a relatively hot invading immiscible non-wetting fluid and, ultimately, approximate heat transfer coefficients, a transparent micro-model is used as an artificial porous medium. In the last few decades, micro-models have become popular experimental tools for two-phase flow studies. In this work, the design of an innovative, elongated, PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) micro-model with dimensions of 14.4 × 39 mm(2) and a constant depth of 100 microns is described. A novel setup for simultaneous thermal and optical imaging of flow through the micro-model is presented. This is the first time that a closed flow cell like a micro-model is used in simultaneous thermal and optical flow imaging. The micro-model is visualized by a novel setup that allowed us to monitor and record the distribution of fluids throughout the length of the micro-model continuously and also record the thermal signature of the fluids. Dynamic drainage and imbibition experiments were conducted in order to obtain information about the heat exchange between the phases. In this paper the setup as well as analysis and qualitative results are presented.
Model for optical-laser-induced impulse in vacuo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dingus, R.S.; Goldman, S.R.
1985-01-01
A simple model, along with its derivation, is presented for calculating the impulse from targets in a vacuum exposed to single-pulse, optical lasers. Figures demonstrate that throughout most of the range of interest, results from the model agree well with experimental data and LASNEX radiation-hydrodynamic computer code calculations. The model assumes isothermal blowoff and thus takes advantage of the insensitivity of impulse to energy distribution within the ablated mass. The density profile in the blowoff is estimated and the Saha equation is used to evaluate the degree of ionization. The laser absorption coefficient and thermal radiation opacity are evaluated as a function of position in the blowoff in order to evaluate the energy reaching the ablation surface. An overall energy balance plus an energy balance at the ablation surface are used to determine the blowoff mass and temperature. The success of the model indicates that the impulse is insensitive to detailed interactions in the vicinity of the ablation surface. 11 refs., 6 figs
Statistical modeling of optical attenuation measurements in continental fog conditions
Khan, Muhammad Saeed; Amin, Muhammad; Awan, Muhammad Saleem; Minhas, Abid Ali; Saleem, Jawad; Khan, Rahimdad
2017-03-01
Free-space optics is an innovative technology that uses atmosphere as a propagation medium to provide higher data rates. These links are heavily affected by atmospheric channel mainly because of fog and clouds that act to scatter and even block the modulated beam of light from reaching the receiver end, hence imposing severe attenuation. A comprehensive statistical study of the fog effects and deep physical understanding of the fog phenomena are very important for suggesting improvements (reliability and efficiency) in such communication systems. In this regard, 6-months real-time measured fog attenuation data are considered and statistically investigated. A detailed statistical analysis related to each fog event for that period is presented; the best probability density functions are selected on the basis of Akaike information criterion, while the estimates of unknown parameters are computed by maximum likelihood estimation technique. The results show that most fog attenuation events follow normal mixture distribution and some follow the Weibull distribution.
Ramkilowan, A.; Griffith, D. J.
2017-10-01
Surveillance modelling in terms of the standard Detect, Recognise and Identify (DRI) thresholds remains a key requirement for determining the effectiveness of surveillance sensors. With readily available computational resources it has become feasible to perform statistically representative evaluations of the effectiveness of these sensors. A new capability for performing this Monte-Carlo type analysis is demonstrated in the MORTICIA (Monte- Carlo Optical Rendering for Theatre Investigations of Capability under the Influence of the Atmosphere) software package developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). This first generation, python-based open-source integrated software package, currently in the alpha stage of development aims to provide all the functionality required to perform statistical investigations of the effectiveness of optical surveillance systems in specific or generic deployment theatres. This includes modelling of the mathematical and physical processes that govern amongst other components of a surveillance system; a sensor's detector and optical components, a target and its background as well as the intervening atmospheric influences. In this paper we discuss integral aspects of the bespoke framework that are critical to the longevity of all subsequent modelling efforts. Additionally, some preliminary results are presented.
Shan, Mao
2016-10-01
In this dissertation, the mathematical model of effect of manufacturing errors including microstructure relative height error and relative width error on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements (HDEs) is set up. According to the expression of the phase delay and diffraction efficiency of the HDEs, the expression of diffraction efficiency of refraction and diffractive optical element with the microstructure height and periodic width errors in fabrication process is presented in this paper. Furthermore, the effect of manufacturing errors on diffraction efficiency for the harmonic diffractive optical elements is studied, and diffraction efficiency change is analyzed as the relative microstructure height-error in the same and in the opposite sign as well as relative width-error in the same and in the opposite sign. Example including infrared wavelength with materials GE has been discussed in this paper. Two kinds of manufacturing errors applied in 3.7 4.3um middle infrared and 8.7-11.5um far infrared optical system which results in diffraction efficiency and PIDE of HDEs are studied. The analysis results can be used for manufacturing error control in micro-structure height and periodic width. Results can be used for HDEs processing.
Varotsos, G. K.; Nistazakis, H. E.; Petkovic, M. I.; Djordjevic, G. T.; Tombras, G. S.
2017-11-01
Over the last years terrestrial free-space optical (FSO) communication systems have demonstrated an increasing scientific and commercial interest in response to the growing demands for ultra high bandwidth, cost-effective and secure wireless data transmissions. However, due the signal propagation through the atmosphere, the performance of such links depends strongly on the atmospheric conditions such as weather phenomena and turbulence effect. Additionally, their operation is affected significantly by the pointing errors effect which is caused by the misalignment of the optical beam between the transmitter and the receiver. In order to address this significant performance degradation, several statistical models have been proposed, while particular attention has been also given to diversity methods. Here, the turbulence-induced fading of the received optical signal irradiance is studied through the M (alaga) distribution, which is an accurate model suitable for weak to strong turbulence conditions and unifies most of the well-known, previously emerged models. Thus, taking into account the atmospheric turbulence conditions along with the pointing errors effect with nonzero boresight and the modulation technique that is used, we derive mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average bit error rate performance for SIMO FSO links. Finally, proper numerical results are given to verify our derived expressions and Monte Carlo simulations are also provided to further validate the accuracy of the analysis proposed and the obtained mathematical expressions.
Modeling the behavior of optical elements in radiation environments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barlow, T.A.; Rhoades, C.E. Jr.; Merker, M.; Triplett, J.R.
1986-01-01
Calculation of heating caused by the deposition of x-rays in thin film optical elements is complicated because the mean free path of photo and autoionization electrons is comparable to the thin film thickness and thus the electron deposition cannot be considered local. This paper describes the modeling in a 1-D code of: (a) x-ray deposition and transport; (b) electron production, deposition and transport; and (c) thermal conduction and transport. X-ray transport is handled by multigroup discrete ordinates, electron transport is done by the method of characteristics, applied to the two term spherical harmonics expansion approximation (P1) to the Spencer-Lewis transport equation, and thermal transport is computed by a simple Richardson extrapolation of a backward Euler solution to the heat conduction equations. Results of a few test cases are presented. 8 refs., 26 figs., 2 tabs
Spectroscopic Doppler analysis for visible-light optical coherence tomography
Shu, Xiao; Liu, Wenzhong; Duan, Lian; Zhang, Hao F.
2017-12-01
Retinal oxygen metabolic rate can be effectively measured by visible-light optical coherence tomography (vis-OCT), which simultaneously quantifies oxygen saturation and blood flow rate in retinal vessels through spectroscopic analysis and Doppler measurement, respectively. Doppler OCT relates phase variation between sequential A-lines to the axial flow velocity of the scattering medium. The detectable phase shift is between -π and π due to its periodicity, which limits the maximum measurable unambiguous velocity without phase unwrapping. Using shorter wavelengths, vis-OCT is more vulnerable to phase ambiguity since flow induced phase variation is linearly related to the center wavenumber of the probing light. We eliminated the need for phase unwrapping using spectroscopic Doppler analysis. We split the whole vis-OCT spectrum into a series of narrow subbands and reconstructed vis-OCT images to extract corresponding Doppler phase shifts in all the subbands. Then, we quantified flow velocity by analyzing subband-dependent phase shift using linear regression. In the phantom experiment, we showed that spectroscopic Doppler analysis extended the measurable absolute phase shift range without conducting phase unwrapping. We also tested this method to quantify retinal blood flow in rodents in vivo.
MILES extended : Stellar population synthesis models from the optical to the infrared
Rock, B.; Vazdekis, A.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peletier, R. F.; Knapen, J. H.; Falcon-Barroso, J.
We present the first single-burst stellar population models, which covers the optical and the infrared wavelength range between 3500 and 50 000 angstrom and which are exclusively based on empirical stellar spectra. To obtain these joint models, we combined the extended MILES models in the optical
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarah A Figley
Full Text Available In vivo and direct imaging of the murine spinal cord and its vasculature using multimodal (optical and acoustic imaging techniques could significantly advance preclinical studies of the spinal cord. Such intrinsically high resolution and complementary imaging technologies could provide a powerful means of quantitatively monitoring changes in anatomy, structure, physiology and function of the living cord over time after traumatic injury, onset of disease, or therapeutic intervention. However, longitudinal in vivo imaging of the intact spinal cord in rodent models has been challenging, requiring repeated surgeries to expose the cord for imaging or sacrifice of animals at various time points for ex vivo tissue analysis. To address these limitations, we have developed an implantable spinal cord window chamber (SCWC device and procedures in mice for repeated multimodal intravital microscopic imaging of the cord and its vasculature in situ. We present methodology for using our SCWC to achieve spatially co-registered optical-acoustic imaging performed serially for up to four weeks, without damaging the cord or induction of locomotor deficits in implanted animals. To demonstrate the feasibility, we used the SCWC model to study the response of the normal spinal cord vasculature to ionizing radiation over time using white light and fluorescence microscopy combined with optical coherence tomography (OCT in vivo. In vivo power Doppler ultrasound and photoacoustics were used to directly visualize the cord and vascular structures and to measure hemoglobin oxygen saturation through the complete spinal cord, respectively. The model was also used for intravital imaging of spinal micrometastases resulting from primary brain tumor using fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging. Our SCWC model overcomes previous in vivo imaging challenges, and our data provide evidence of the broader utility of hybridized optical-acoustic imaging methods for obtaining
Shaaban, Rana; Faruque, Saleh
2018-01-01
Light emitting diodes - LEDs are modernizing the indoor illumination and replacing current incandescent and fluorescent lamps rapidly. LEDs have multiple advantages such as extremely high energy efficient, longer lifespan, and lower heat generation. Due to the ability to switch to different light intensity at a very fast rate, LED has given rise to a unique communication technology (visible light communication - VLC) used for high speed data transmission. By studying various kinds of commonly used VLC channel analysis: diffuse and line of sight channels, we presented a simply improved indoor and intra-vehicle visible light communication transmission model. Employing optical wireless communications within the vehicle, not only enhance user mobility, but also alleviate radio frequency interference, and increase efficiency by lowering the complexity of copper cabling. Moreover, a solution to eliminate ambient noise caused by environmental conditions is examined by using optical differential receiver. The simulation results show the improved received power distribution and signal to noise ratio - SNR.
Numerical analysis of modal tomography for solar multi-conjugate adaptive optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong Bing; Ren Deqing; Zhang Xi
2012-01-01
Multi-conjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) can considerably extend the corrected field of view with respect to classical adaptive optics, which will benefit solar observation in many aspects. In solar MCAO, the Sun structure is utilized to provide multiple guide stars and a modal tomography approach is adopted to implement three-dimensional wavefront restorations. The principle of modal tomography is briefly reviewed and a numerical simulation model is built with three equivalent turbulent layers and a different number of guide stars. Our simulation results show that at least six guide stars are required for an accurate wavefront reconstruction in the case of three layers, and only three guide stars are needed in the two layer case. Finally, eigenmode analysis results are given to reveal the singular modes that cannot be precisely retrieved in the tomography process.
Survival analysis models and applications
Liu, Xian
2012-01-01
Survival analysis concerns sequential occurrences of events governed by probabilistic laws. Recent decades have witnessed many applications of survival analysis in various disciplines. This book introduces both classic survival models and theories along with newly developed techniques. Readers will learn how to perform analysis of survival data by following numerous empirical illustrations in SAS. Survival Analysis: Models and Applications: Presents basic techniques before leading onto some of the most advanced topics in survival analysis.Assumes only a minimal knowledge of SAS whilst enablin
An efficient method for model refinement in diffuse optical tomography
Zirak, A. R.; Khademi, M.
2007-11-01
Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a non-linear, ill-posed, boundary value and optimization problem which necessitates regularization. Also, Bayesian methods are suitable owing to measurements data are sparse and correlated. In such problems which are solved with iterative methods, for stabilization and better convergence, the solution space must be small. These constraints subject to extensive and overdetermined system of equations which model retrieving criteria specially total least squares (TLS) must to refine model error. Using TLS is limited to linear systems which is not achievable when applying traditional Bayesian methods. This paper presents an efficient method for model refinement using regularized total least squares (RTLS) for treating on linearized DOT problem, having maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimator and Tikhonov regulator. This is done with combination Bayesian and regularization tools as preconditioner matrices, applying them to equations and then using RTLS to the resulting linear equations. The preconditioning matrixes are guided by patient specific information as well as a priori knowledge gained from the training set. Simulation results illustrate that proposed method improves the image reconstruction performance and localize the abnormally well.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malik, S; Bloom, K; Shipsey, I; Cavanaugh, R; Klima, B; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J; Narain, M; Palla, F; Rolandi, G; Schörner-Sadenius, T
2014-01-01
To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malik, S. [Nebraska U.; Shipsey, I. [Purdue U.; Cavanaugh, R. [Illinois U., Chicago; Bloom, K. [Nebraska U.; Chan, Kai-Feng [Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; D' Hondt, J. [Vrije U., Brussels; Klima, B. [Fermilab; Narain, M. [Brown U.; Palla, F. [INFN, Pisa; Rolandi, G. [CERN; Schörner-Sadenius, T. [DESY
2014-01-01
To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.
Time course Analysis of Gene expression patterns in ZebrafIsh Eye during Optic Nerve Regeneration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amy T. Mccurley
2010-01-01
Full Text Available It is well-established that neurons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS are terminally differentiated and, if injured, will be unable to regenerate their connections. In contrast to mammals, zebrafish and other teleosts display a robust neuroregenerative response. Following optic nerve crush (ONX, retinal ganglion cells (RGC regrow their axons to synapse with topographically correct targets in the optic tectum, such that vision is restored in ~21 days. What accounts for these differences between teleostean and mammalian responses to neural injury is not fully understood. A time course analysis of global gene expression patterns in the zebrafish eye after ONX can help to elucidate cellular and molecular mechanisms that contribute to a successful neuroregeneration. To define different phases of regeneration after ONX, alpha tubulin 1 ( tuba1 and growth-associated protein 43 ( gap43 , markers previously shown to correspond to morphophological events, were measured by real time quantitative PCR (qPCR. Microarray analysis was then performed at defined intervals (6 hours, 1, 4, 12, and 21 days post-ONX and compared to SHAM. Results show that optic nerve damage induces multiple, phase-related transcriptional programs, with the maximum number of genes changed and highest fold-change occurring at 4 days. Several functional groups affected by optic nerve regeneration, including cell adhesion, apoptosis, cell cycle, energy metabolism, ion channel activity, and calcium signaling, were identified. Utilizing the whole eye allowed us to identify signaling contributions from the vitreous, immune and glial cells as well as the neural cells of the retina. Comparisons between our dataset and transcriptional profiles from other models of regeneration in zebrafish retina, heart and fin revealed a subset of commonly regulated transcripts, indicating shared mechanisms in different regenerating tissues. Knowledge of gene expression patterns in all
3D Monte Carlo model of optical transport in laser-irradiated cutaneous vascular malformations
Majaron, Boris; Milanič, Matija; Jia, Wangcun; Nelson, J. S.
2010-11-01
We have developed a three-dimensional Monte Carlo (MC) model of optical transport in skin and applied it to analysis of port wine stain treatment with sequential laser irradiation and intermittent cryogen spray cooling. Our MC model extends the approaches of the popular multi-layer model by Wang et al.1 to three dimensions, thus allowing treatment of skin inclusions with more complex geometries and arbitrary irradiation patterns. To overcome the obvious drawbacks of either "escape" or "mirror" boundary conditions at the lateral boundaries of the finely discretized volume of interest (VOI), photons exiting the VOI are propagated in laterally infinite tissue layers with appropriate optical properties, until they loose all their energy, escape into the air, or return to the VOI, but the energy deposition outside of the VOI is not computed and recorded. After discussing the selection of tissue parameters, we apply the model to analysis of blood photocoagulation and collateral thermal damage in treatment of port wine stain (PWS) lesions with sequential laser irradiation and intermittent cryogen spray cooling.
Towards multi-exponential analysis in optically stimulated luminescence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ankjærgaard, Christina; Jain, Mayank; Hansen, Per Christian
2010-01-01
analysis of the performance and stability of two models, the decay and peak form, and we consider different transformation methods for obtaining the peak form. For the numerical computations we use a nonlinear least squares (NLS) method and a method based on a first-kind Fredholm integral equation (FIE......). Our analysis uses artificial data with three components (seven parameters including the background) and ten different levels of background, both the signal and the background contain Poisson distributed noise. Parameters derived using both models are acceptable (statistically consistent...
Stability Analysis for Car Following Model Based on Control Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xiang-Pei; Li Zhi-Peng; Ge Hong-Xia
2014-01-01
Stability analysis is one of the key issues in car-following theory. The stability analysis with Lyapunov function for the two velocity difference car-following model (for short, TVDM) is conducted and the control method to suppress traffic congestion is introduced. Numerical simulations are given and results are consistent with the theoretical analysis. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
ORGANISATIONAL CULTURE ANALYSIS MODEL
Mihaela Simona Maracine
2012-01-01
The studies and researches undertaken have demonstrated the importance of studying organisational culture because of the practical valences it presents and because it contributes to increasing the organisation’s performance. The analysis of the organisational culture’s dimensions allows observing human behaviour within the organisation and highlighting reality, identifying the strengths and also the weaknesses which have an impact on its functionality and development. In this paper, we try to...
An Optic Nerve Crush Injury Murine Model to Study Retinal Ganglion Cell Survival
Tang, Zhongshu; Zhang, Shuihua; Lee, Chunsik; Kumar, Anil; Arjunan, Pachiappan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Fan; Li, Xuri
2011-01-01
Injury to the optic nerve can lead to axonal degeneration, followed by a gradual death of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), which results in irreversible vision loss. Examples of such diseases in human include traumatic optic neuropathy and optic nerve degeneration in glaucoma. It is characterized by typical changes in the optic nerve head, progressive optic nerve degeneration, and loss of retinal ganglion cells, if uncontrolled, leading to vision loss and blindness. The optic nerve crush (ONC) injury mouse model is an important experimental disease model for traumatic optic neuropathy, glaucoma, etc. In this model, the crush injury to the optic nerve leads to gradual retinal ganglion cells apoptosis. This disease model can be used to study the general processes and mechanisms of neuronal death and survival, which is essential for the development of therapeutic measures. In addition, pharmacological and molecular approaches can be used in this model to identify and test potential therapeutic reagents to treat different types of optic neuropathy. Here, we provide a step by step demonstration of (I) Baseline retrograde labeling of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at day 1, (II) Optic nerve crush injury at day 4, (III) Harvest the retinae and analyze RGC survival at day 11, and (IV) Representative result. PMID:21540827
Wan, Songlin; Zhang, Xiangchao; He, Xiaoying; Xu, Min
2016-12-20
Computer controlled optical surfacing requires an accurate tool influence function (TIF) for reliable path planning and deterministic fabrication. Near the edge of the workpieces, the TIF has a nonlinear removal behavior, which will cause a severe edge-roll phenomenon. In the present paper, a new edge pressure model is developed based on the finite element analysis results. The model is represented as the product of a basic pressure function and a correcting function. The basic pressure distribution is calculated according to the surface shape of the polishing pad, and the correcting function is used to compensate the errors caused by the edge effect. Practical experimental results demonstrate that the new model can accurately predict the edge TIFs with different overhang ratios. The relative error of the new edge model can be reduced to 15%.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huaying Zhao
Full Text Available Fluorescence optical detection in sedimentation velocity analytical ultracentrifugation allows the study of macromolecules at nanomolar concentrations and below. This has significant promise, for example, for the study of systems of high-affinity protein interactions. Here we describe adaptations of the direct boundary modeling analysis approach implemented in the software SEDFIT that were developed to accommodate unique characteristics of the confocal fluorescence detection system. These include spatial gradients of signal intensity due to scanner movements out of the plane of rotation, temporal intensity drifts due to instability of the laser and fluorophores, and masking of the finite excitation and detection cone by the sample holder. In an extensive series of experiments with enhanced green fluorescent protein ranging from low nanomolar to low micromolar concentrations, we show that the experimental data provide sufficient information to determine the parameters required for first-order approximation of the impact of these effects on the recorded data. Systematic deviations of fluorescence optical sedimentation velocity data analyzed using conventional sedimentation models developed for absorbance and interference optics are largely removed after these adaptations, resulting in excellent fits that highlight the high precision of fluorescence sedimentation velocity data, thus allowing a more detailed quantitative interpretation of the signal boundaries that is otherwise not possible for this system.
Optimised Design and Analysis of All-Optical Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Glenstrup, Arne John
2002-01-01
through various experiments and is shown to produce good results and to be able to scale up to networks of realistic sizes. A novel method, subpath wavelength grouping, for routing connections in a multigranular all-optical network where several wavelengths can be grouped and switched at band and fibre......This PhD thesis presents a suite of methods for optimising design and for analysing blocking probabilities of all-optical networks. It thus contributes methodical knowledge to the field of computer assisted planning of optical networks. A two-stage greenfield optical network design optimiser...... is developed, based on shortest-path algorithms and a comparatively new metaheuristic called simulated allocation. It is able to handle design of all-optical mesh networks with optical cross-connects, considers duct as well as fibre and node costs, and can also design protected networks. The method is assessed...
Light distribution analysis of optical fibre probe-based near-field optical tweezers using FDTD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, B H; Yang, L J; Wang, Y [School of Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang, Harbin, 150001 (China)], E-mail: richelaw@163.com
2009-09-01
Optical fibre probe-based near-field optical tweezers overcomes the diffraction limit of conventional optical tweezers, utilizing strong mechanical forces and torque associated with highly enhanced electric fields to trap and manipulate nano-scale particles. Near-field evanescent wave generated at optical fibre probe decays rapidly with the distance that results a significant reduced trapping volume, thus it is necessary to analyze the near-field distribution of optical fibre probe. The finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is applied to characterize the near-field distribution of optical fibre probe. In terms of the distribution patterns, depolarization and polarization, the near-field distributions in longitudinal sections and cross-sections of tapered metal-coated optical fibre probe are calculated. The calculation results reveal that the incident polarized wave becomes depolarized after exiting from the nano-scale aperture of probe. The near-field distribution of the probe is unsymmetrical, and the near-field distribution in the cross-section vertical to the incident polarized wave is different from that in the cross-section parallel to the incident polarized wave. Moreover, the polarization of incident wave has a great impact on the light intensity distribution.
Continuous monitoring of arthritis in animal models using optical imaging modalities
Son, Taeyoon; Yoon, Hyung-Ju; Lee, Saseong; Jang, Won Seuk; Jung, Byungjo; Kim, Wan-Uk
2014-10-01
Given the several difficulties associated with histology, including difficulty in continuous monitoring, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of optical imaging modalities-cross-polarization color (CPC) imaging, erythema index (EI) imaging, and laser speckle contrast (LSC) imaging-for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models. C57BL/6 mice, used for the evaluation of arthritis, were divided into three groups: arthritic mice group (AMG), positive control mice group (PCMG), and negative control mice group (NCMG). Complete Freund's adjuvant, mineral oil, and saline were injected into the footpad for AMG, PCMG, and NCMG, respectively. LSC and CPC images were acquired from 0 through 144 h after injection for all groups. EI images were calculated from CPC images. Variations in feet area, EI, and speckle index for each mice group over time were calculated for quantitative evaluation of arthritis. Histological examinations were performed, and the results were found to be consistent with those from optical imaging analysis. Thus, optical imaging modalities may be successfully applied for continuous evaluation and monitoring of arthritis in animal models.
Vogel, Andreas; Durant, Adam; Sytchkova, Anna; Diplas, Spyros; Bonadonna, Costanza; Scarnato, Barbara; Krüger, Kirstin; Kylling, Arve; Kristiansen, Nina; Stohl, Andreas
2016-04-01
Explosive volcanic eruptions emit up to 50 wt.% (total erupted mass) of fine ash particles (estimates of the volcanic source term and the nature of the constituent volcanic ash properties. Consequently, it is important to include a quantitative assessment of measurement uncertainties of ash properties to provide realistic ash forecast uncertainty. Currently, information on volcanic ash physicochemical and optical properties is derived from a small number of somewhat dated publications. In this study, we provide a reference dataset for physical (size distribution and shape), chemical (bulk vs. surface chemistry) and optical properties (complex refractive index in the UV-vis-NIR range) of a representative selection of volcanic ash samples from 10 different volcanic eruptions covering the full variability in silica content (40-75 wt.% SiO2). Through the combination of empirical analytical methods (e.g., image analysis, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy and UV/Vis/NIR/FTIR Spectroscopy) and theoretical models (e.g., Bruggeman effective medium approach), it was possible to fully capture the natural variability of ash physicochemical and optical characteristics. The dataset will be applied in atmospheric measurement retrievals and atmospheric transport modelling to determine the sensitivity to uncertainty in ash particle characteristics.
Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amaya, F.; Cárdenas, A.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso
2011-01-01
In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we...... consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks....
Modeling the video distribution link in the Next Generation Optical Access Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amaya, F; Cardenas, A; Tafur, I
2011-01-01
In this work we present a model for the design and optimization of the video distribution link in the next generation optical access network. We analyze the video distribution performance in a SCM-WDM link, including the noise, the distortion and the fiber optic nonlinearities. Additionally, we consider in the model the effect of distributed Raman amplification, used to extent the capacity and the reach of the optical link. In the model, we use the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the purpose to obtain capacity limitations and design constrains of the next generation optical access networks.
Models of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leblond, H.; Mihalache, D.
2013-01-01
In the past years there was a huge interest in experimental and theoretical studies in the area of few-optical-cycle pulses and in the broader fast growing field of the so-called extreme nonlinear optics. This review concentrates on theoretical studies performed in the past decade concerning the description of few optical cycle solitons beyond the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA). Here we systematically use the powerful reductive expansion method (alias multiscale analysis) in order to derive simple integrable and nonintegrable evolution models describing both nonlinear wave propagation and interaction of ultrashort (femtosecond) pulses. To this aim we perform the multiple scale analysis on the Maxwell–Bloch equations and the corresponding Schrödinger–von Neumann equation for the density matrix of two-level atoms. We analyze in detail both long-wave and short-wave propagation models. The propagation of ultrashort few-optical-cycle solitons in quadratic and cubic nonlinear media are adequately described by generic integrable and nonintegrable nonlinear evolution equations such as the Korteweg–de Vries equation, the modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the complex modified Korteweg–de Vries equation, the sine–Gordon equation, the cubic generalized Kadomtsev–Petviashvili equation, and the two-dimensional sine–Gordon equation. Moreover, we consider the propagation of few-cycle optical solitons in both (1+1)- and (2+1)-dimensional physical settings. A generalized modified Korteweg–de Vries equation is introduced in order to describe robust few-optical-cycle dissipative solitons. We investigate in detail the existence and robustness of both linearly polarized and circularly polarized few-cycle solitons, that is, we also take into account the effect of the vectorial nature of the electric field. Some of these results concerning the systematic use of the reductive expansion method beyond the SVEA can be relatively easily extended to few
Multivariable Parametric Cost Model for Ground Optical Telescope Assembly
Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Reese, Gayle; Byberg, Alicia
2005-01-01
A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multivariable statistical analysis of both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, diffraction-limited wavelength is found to be a secondary driver. Other parameters such as radius of curvature are examined. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e., multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models Based on aperture diameter are derived.
Multivariable Parametric Cost Model for Ground Optical: Telescope Assembly
Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes; Reese, Gayle; Byberg, Alicia
2004-01-01
A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis of both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, diffraction limited wavelength is found to be a secondary driver. Other parameters such as radius of curvature were examined. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter were derived.
Optical microscope illumination analysis using through-focus scanning optical microscopy.
Attota, Ravi Kiran; Park, Haesung
2017-06-15
Misalignment of the aperture diaphragm present in optical microscopes results in angular illumination asymmetry (ANILAS) at the sample plane. Here we show that through-focus propagation of ANILAS results in a lateral image shift with a focus position. This could lead to substantial errors in quantitative results for optical methods that use through-focus images such as three-dimensional nanoparticle tracking, confocal microscopy, and through-focus scanning optical microscopy (TSOM). A correlation exists between ANILAS and the slant in TSOM images. Hence, the slant in the TSOM image can be used to detect, analyze, and rectify the presence of ANILAS.
Tangelder, J.W.H.; Lebert, E.; Burghouts, G.J.; Zon, K. van; Den Uyl, M.J.
2014-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach to detect persons in video by combining optical flow based motion analysis and silhouette based recognition. A new fast optical flow computation method is described, and its application in a motion based analysis framework unifying human tracking and detection is
Optical character recognition of handwritten Arabic using hidden Markov models
Aulama, Mohannad M.; Natsheh, Asem M.; Abandah, Gheith A.; Olama, Mohammed M.
2011-04-01
The problem of optical character recognition (OCR) of handwritten Arabic has not received a satisfactory solution yet. In this paper, an Arabic OCR algorithm is developed based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) combined with the Viterbi algorithm, which results in an improved and more robust recognition of characters at the sub-word level. Integrating the HMMs represents another step of the overall OCR trends being currently researched in the literature. The proposed approach exploits the structure of characters in the Arabic language in addition to their extracted features to achieve improved recognition rates. Useful statistical information of the Arabic language is initially extracted and then used to estimate the probabilistic parameters of the mathematical HMM. A new custom implementation of the HMM is developed in this study, where the transition matrix is built based on the collected large corpus, and the emission matrix is built based on the results obtained via the extracted character features. The recognition process is triggered using the Viterbi algorithm which employs the most probable sequence of sub-words. The model was implemented to recognize the sub-word unit of Arabic text raising the recognition rate from being linked to the worst recognition rate for any character to the overall structure of the Arabic language. Numerical results show that there is a potentially large recognition improvement by using the proposed algorithms.
Electro-optical modeling of bulk heterojunction solar cells
Kirchartz, Thomas; Pieters, Bart E.; Taretto, Kurt; Rau, Uwe
2008-11-01
We introduce a model for charge separation in bulk heterojunction solar cells that combines exciton transport to the interface between donor and acceptor phases with the dissociation of the bound electron/hole pair. We implement this model into a standard semiconductor device simulator, thereby creating a convenient method to simulate the optical and electrical characteristics of a bulk heterojunction solar cell with a commercially available program. By taking into account different collection probabilities for the excitons in the polymer and the fullerene, we are able to reproduce absorptance, internal and external quantum efficiency, as well as current/voltage curves of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We further investigate the influence of mobilities of the free excitons as well as the mobilities of the free charge carriers on the performance of bulk heterojunction solar cells. We find that, in general, the highest efficiencies are achieved with the highest mobilities. However, an optimum finite mobility of free charge carriers can result from a large recombination velocity at the contacts. In contrast, Langevin-type of recombination cannot lead to finite optimum mobilities even though this mechanism has a strong dependence on the free carrier mobilities.
Electro-optical parameters of bond polarizability model for aluminosilicates.
Smirnov, Konstantin S; Bougeard, Daniel; Tandon, Poonam
2006-04-06
Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of bond polarizability model (BPM) for aluminosilicate structures were derived from quantum-chemical DFT calculations of molecular models. The tensor of molecular polarizability and the derivatives of the tensor with respect to the bond length are well reproduced with the BPM, and the EOPs obtained are in a fair agreement with available experimental data. The parameters derived were found to be transferable to larger molecules. This finding suggests that the procedure used can be applied to systems with partially ionic chemical bonds. The transferability of the parameters to periodic systems was tested in molecular dynamics simulation of the polarized Raman spectra of alpha-quartz. It appeared that the molecular Si-O bond EOPs failed to reproduce the intensity of peaks in the spectra. This limitation is due to large values of the longitudinal components of the bond polarizability and its derivative found in the molecular calculations as compared to those obtained from periodic DFT calculations of crystalline silica polymorphs by Umari et al. (Phys. Rev. B 2001, 63, 094305). It is supposed that the electric field of the solid is responsible for the difference of the parameters. Nevertheless, the EOPs obtained can be used as an initial set of parameters for calculations of polarizability related characteristics of relevant systems in the framework of BPM.
Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.
2016-03-29
A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.
Oubei, Hassan M.
2017-12-13
Recent advances in underwater wireless optical communications necessitate a better understanding of the underwater channel. We propose the Weibull model to characterize the fading of salinity induced turbulent underwater wireless optical channels. The model shows an excellent agreement with the measured data under all channel conditions.
Improving Estimated Optical Constants With MSTM and DDSCAT Modeling
Pitman, K. M.; Wolff, M. J.
2015-12-01
We present numerical experiments to determine quantitatively the effects of mineral particle clustering on Mars spacecraft spectral signatures and to improve upon the values of refractive indices (optical constants n, k) derived from Mars dust laboratory analog spectra such as those from RELAB and MRO CRISM libraries. Whereas spectral properties for Mars analog minerals and actual Mars soil are dominated by aggregates of particles smaller than the size of martian atmospheric dust, the analytic radiative transfer (RT) solutions used to interpret planetary surfaces assume that individual, well-separated particles dominate the spectral signature. Both in RT models and in the refractive index derivation methods that include analytic RT approximations, spheres are also over-used to represent nonspherical particles. Part of the motivation is that the integrated effect over randomly oriented particles on quantities such as single scattering albedo and phase function are relatively less than for single particles. However, we have seen in previous numerical experiments that when varying the shape and size of individual grains within a cluster, the phase function changes in both magnitude and slope, thus the "relatively less" effect is more significant than one might think. Here we examine the wavelength dependence of the forward scattering parameter with multisphere T-matrix (MSTM) and discrete dipole approximation (DDSCAT) codes that compute light scattering by layers of particles on planetary surfaces to see how albedo is affected and integrate our model results into refractive index calculations to remove uncertainties in approximations and parameters that can lower the accuracy of optical constants. By correcting the single scattering albedo and phase function terms in the refractive index determinations, our data will help to improve the understanding of Mars in identifying, mapping the distributions, and quantifying abundances for these minerals and will address long
Establishing an experimental model of photodynamic induced anterior ischemic optic neuropathy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Runsheng Wang; Xiaodi Wang; Peilin Lü; Jianwei Bai; Jianzhou Wang; Xiaoqin Lei; Xiaoliang Zhou; Hongfen Sun; Aizhu Pan
2006-01-01
injected with HPD (10 mg/kg)via caudal vein; Those in the blank control group were untouched. ① Visual electrophysiological test: The F-VEP was used to evaluate the function of visual nerve. ② FFA: After mydriasis and anesthesia as describe above, the fluorescein sodium parenteral solution (1 mL/kg) was injected via caudal vein and finished within about 3 s, the time of FFA was recorded from the beginning of injection, the video sight aimed at the optic disc and the surrounding area. ③ After mydrias is and anesthesia as describe above, the rats were examined with OCT. ④ Histological observation: After hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, the optic disc and surrounding blood vessels of retina were observed under light microscope at high power field.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The results of fundus, FFA, visual electrophysiological test and OCT detection within 90 days after model establishment were observed.RESULTS: Of the 30 rats, 1 died after anesthesia in the laser group and 2 died in the AION group respectively, and finally 27 rats were involved in the analysis of results. ① Changes in fundus: In the AION group, there was edema in upper optic disc and unclear boundary at 1 day after establishment, edema still could be observed at 6 days, and upper optic disc atrophied and appeared as pale at 90 days. ② FFA results: In the AION group, early "low fluorescence", middle and late "high fluorescence" were observed in upper optic disc 1 day after model establishment, and there was "low fluorescence" at 6 days, and the low fluorescence could be observed all the time at 23 days. ③ Visual electrophysiological changes: In the AION group as compared with the control eyes, the experimental ones had prolonged F-VEP P100 latency [(71.65±8.81), (57.58±8.38) ms, t =3.148, P=0.012], and decreased wave amplitude [(4.77±1.90), (10.06±3.66) μV, t =4.082, P =0.003], and these changes lasted to 35 days after model establishment. ④ OCT results: In the AION group, the reflection
Analytical analysis of sensitivity of optical waveguide sensor
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
Section 2 provides the principle and basic theory of optical sensors and the modal ... this paper for optical sensor, a chemically selective layer or adlayer is ... Applying boundary condition at n1/n2 and n1/n3 the interface, and using the above.
Power Budget Analysis of Fiber Optics Communication Links Along ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
With the development of optical fiber communication system most telecommunication companies now prefer to use optical fiber transmission medium for higher information bandwidth. The design of such a system involves many aspects such as the type of source to be used, the kind of fiber to be employed and detector.
The analysis of an optical fibre communication system using laser ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Such techniques include electrical and optical dispersion compensation, optical and electrical pulse shaping, and modifications of the fibre dispersion profiles. Some of these techniques and methods have resulted into very effective but expensive systems, and it has been difficult to adopt them. Others have resulted into ...
ROCK PROPERTIES MODEL ANALYSIS MODEL REPORT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clinton Lum
2002-01-01
The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) is to document Rock Properties Model (RPM) 3.1 with regard to input data, model methods, assumptions, uncertainties and limitations of model results, and qualification status of the model. The report also documents the differences between the current and previous versions and validation of the model. The rock properties models are intended principally for use as input to numerical physical-process modeling, such as of ground-water flow and/or radionuclide transport. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. This work was conducted in accordance with the following planning documents: WA-0344, ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1998'' (SNL 1997, WA-0358), ''3-D Rock Properties Modeling for FY 1999'' (SNL 1999), and the technical development plan, Rock Properties Model Version 3.1, (CRWMS MandO 1999c). The Interim Change Notice (ICNs), ICN 02 and ICN 03, of this AMR were prepared as part of activities being conducted under the Technical Work Plan, TWP-NBS-GS-000003, ''Technical Work Plan for the Integrated Site Model, Process Model Report, Revision 01'' (CRWMS MandO 2000b). The purpose of ICN 03 is to record changes in data input status due to data qualification and verification activities. These work plans describe the scope, objectives, tasks, methodology, and implementing procedures for model construction. The constraints, caveats, and limitations associated with this model are discussed in the appropriate text sections that follow. The work scope for this activity consists of the following: (1) Conversion of the input data (laboratory measured porosity data, x-ray diffraction mineralogy, petrophysical calculations of bound water, and petrophysical calculations of porosity) for each borehole into stratigraphic coordinates; (2) Re-sampling and merging of data sets; (3) Development of geostatistical simulations of porosity; (4
Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model
Ming Lu; Hai Zhu; Xia Luo; Lei Lei
2014-01-01
It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model...
Uncertainty analysis of environmental models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monte, L.
1990-01-01
In the present paper an evaluation of the output uncertainty of an environmental model for assessing the transfer of 137 Cs and 131 I in the human food chain are carried out on the basis of a statistical analysis of data reported by the literature. The uncertainty analysis offers the oppotunity of obtaining some remarkable information about the uncertainty of models predicting the migration of non radioactive substances in the environment mainly in relation to the dry and wet deposition
Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling
Zayed, Ahmed
2013-01-01
Multiscale Signal Analysis and Modeling presents recent advances in multiscale analysis and modeling using wavelets and other systems. This book also presents applications in digital signal processing using sampling theory and techniques from various function spaces, filter design, feature extraction and classification, signal and image representation/transmission, coding, nonparametric statistical signal processing, and statistical learning theory. This book also: Discusses recently developed signal modeling techniques, such as the multiscale method for complex time series modeling, multiscale positive density estimations, Bayesian Shrinkage Strategies, and algorithms for data adaptive statistics Introduces new sampling algorithms for multidimensional signal processing Provides comprehensive coverage of wavelets with presentations on waveform design and modeling, wavelet analysis of ECG signals and wavelet filters Reviews features extraction and classification algorithms for multiscale signal and image proce...
Longitudinal analysis of progression in glaucoma using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography.
Wessel, Julia M; Horn, Folkert K; Tornow, Ralf P; Schmid, Matthias; Mardin, Christian Y; Kruse, Friedrich E; Juenemann, Anselm G; Laemmer, Robert
2013-05-01
To compare the longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness measurements by SD-OCT in healthy individuals and glaucoma patients with or without progression concerning optic disc morphology. A total of 62 eyes, comprising 38 glaucomatous eyes with open angle glaucoma and 24 healthy controls, were included in the study (Erlangen Glaucoma Registry, NTC00494923). All patients were investigated annually over a period of 3 years by Spectralis SD-OCT measuring peripapillary RNFL thickness. By masked comparative analysis of photographs, the eyes were classified into nonprogressive and progressive glaucoma cases. Longitudinal loss of RNFL thickness was compared with morphological changes of optic disc morphology. Mixed model analysis of annual OCT scans revealed an estimated annual decrease of the RNFL thickness by 2.12 μm in glaucoma eyes with progression, whereas glaucoma eyes without progression in optic disc morphology lost 1.18 μm per year in RNFL thickness (P = 0.002). The rate of change in healthy eyes was 0.60 μm and thereby also significantly lower than in glaucoma eyes with progression (P < 0.001). The intrasession variability of three successive measurements without head repositioning was 1.5 ± 0.7 μm. The loss of mean RNFL thickness exceeded the intrasession variability in 60% of nonprogressive eyes, and in 85% of progressive eyes after 3 years. LONGITUDINAL MEASUREMENTS OF RNFL THICKNESS USING SD-OCT SHOW A MORE PRONOUNCED REDUCTION OF RNFL THICKNESS IN PATIENTS WITH PROGRESSION COMPARED WITH PATIENTS WITHOUT PROGRESSION IN GLAUCOMATOUS OPTIC DISC CHANGES. (www.clinicaltrials.gov number, NTC00494923.).
The Dynamics of Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers – Modeling and Applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mørk, Jesper; Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Berg, Tommy Winther
2003-01-01
The importance of semiconductor optical amplifiers is discussed. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is a semiconductor laser with anti-reflection coated facets that amplifies an injected light signal by means of stimulated emission. SOAs have a number of unique properties that open up...
Bakker schut, T.C.; Bakker Schut, Tom C.; Hesselink, Gerlo; Hesselink, Gerlo; de Grooth, B.G.; Greve, Jan
1991-01-01
We have developed a computer program based on the geometrical optics approach proposed by Roosen to calculate the forces on dielectric spheres in focused laser beams. We have explicitly taken into account the polarization of the laser light and thd divergence of the laser beam. The model can be used
Automatic analysis of ciliary beat frequency using optical flow
Figl, Michael; Lechner, Manuel; Werther, Tobias; Horak, Fritz; Hummel, Johann; Birkfellner, Wolfgang
2012-02-01
Ciliary beat frequency (CBF) can be a useful parameter for diagnosis of several diseases, as e.g. primary ciliary dyskinesia. (PCD). CBF computation is usually done using manual evaluation of high speed video sequences, a tedious, observer dependent, and not very accurate procedure. We used the OpenCV's pyramidal implementation of the Lukas-Kanade algorithm for optical flow computation and applied this to certain objects to follow the movements. The objects were chosen by their contrast applying the corner detection by Shi and Tomasi. Discrimination between background/noise and cilia by a frequency histogram allowed to compute the CBF. Frequency analysis was done using the Fourier transform in matlab. The correct number of Fourier summands was found by the slope in an approximation curve. The method showed to be usable to distinguish between healthy and diseased samples. However there remain difficulties in automatically identifying the cilia, and also in finding enough high contrast cilia in the image. Furthermore the some of the higher contrast cilia are lost (and sometimes found) by the method, an easy way to distinguish the correct sub-path of a point's path have yet to be found in the case where the slope methods doesn't work.
Noncontact optical motion sensing for real-time analysis
Fetzer, Bradley R.; Imai, Hiromichi
1990-08-01
The adaptation of an image dissector tube (IDT) within the OPTFOLLOW system provides high resolution displacement measurement of a light discontinuity. Due to the high speed response of the IDT and the advanced servo loop circuitry, the system is capable of real time analysis of the object under test. The image of the discontinuity may be contoured by direct or reflected light and ranges spectrally within the field of visible light. The image is monitored to 500 kHz through a lens configuration which transposes the optical image upon the photocathode of the IDT. The photoelectric effect accelerates the resultant electrons through a photomultiplier and an enhanced current is emitted from the anode. A servo loop controls the electron beam, continually centering it within the IDT using magnetic focusing of deflection coils. The output analog voltage from the servo amplifier is thereby proportional to the displacement of the target. The system is controlled by a microprocessor with a 32kbyte memory and provides a digital display as well as instructional readout on a color monitor allowing for offset image tracking and automatic system calibration.
Optical characterisation of nanostructures using a discretised forward model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Karamehmedovic, Mirza; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Hansen, Poul-Erik
2012-01-01
problem. Finally, the size of the measured nanostructure is typically comparable to the wavelength of the illuminating light, so the scattering needs to be described using the full Maxwellian electromagnetic model, rather than (numerically inexpensive) asymptotic formulations. We here describe...... an efficient, accurate and robust forward scattering model [1,2] based on discrete sources and tailor-made for the reconstruction of 2D nanoparticles on substrates from ODM data. We adopt an analysis-based modelling paradigm, and attempt to incorporate as much available a priori information as possible...... be extended to include the roughness and contamination of the substrate without sacricing the speed of computation [3]. We validate the model and show its feasibility in a decomposition-type inverse scheme with synthetic measurement data ([1], figure 1), as well as in the inversion of experimental...
Multivariate analysis: models and method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanz Perucha, J.
1990-01-01
Data treatment techniques are increasingly used since computer methods result of wider access. Multivariate analysis consists of a group of statistic methods that are applied to study objects or samples characterized by multiple values. A final goal is decision making. The paper describes the models and methods of multivariate analysis
Domain specific modeling and analysis
Jacob, Joost Ferdinand
2008-01-01
It is desirable to model software systems in such a way that analysis of the systems, and tool development for such analysis, is readily possible and feasible in the context of large scientific research projects. This thesis emphasizes the methodology that serves as a basis for such developments.
Total CMB analysis of streaker aerosol samples by PIXE, PIGE, beta- and optical-absorption analyses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Annegarn, H.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.
1993-01-01
Multielemental analyses of aerosol samples are widely used in air pollution receptor modelling. Specifically, the chemical mass balance (CMB) model has become a powerful tool in urban air quality studies. Input data required for the CMB includes not only the traditional X-ray fluorescence (and hence PIXE) detected elements, but also total mass, organic and inorganic carbon, and other light elements including Mg, Na and F. The circular streaker sampler, in combination with PIXE analysis, has developed into a powerful tool for obtaining time-resolved, multielemental aerosol data. However, application in CMB modelling has been limited by the absence of total mass and complementary light element data. This study reports on progress in using techniques complementary to PIXE to obtain additional data from circular streaker samples, maintaining the nondestructive, instrumental approach inherent in PIXE: Beta-gauging using a 147 Pm source for total mass; optical absorption for inorganic carbon; and PIGE to measure the lighter elements. (orig.)
Miniaturised wireless smart tag for optical chemical analysis applications.
Steinberg, Matthew D; Kassal, Petar; Tkalčec, Biserka; Murković Steinberg, Ivana
2014-01-01
A novel miniaturised photometer has been developed as an ultra-portable and mobile analytical chemical instrument. The low-cost photometer presents a paradigm shift in mobile chemical sensor instrumentation because it is built around a contactless smart card format. The photometer tag is based on the radio-frequency identification (RFID) smart card system, which provides short-range wireless data and power transfer between the photometer and a proximal reader, and which allows the reader to also energise the photometer by near field electromagnetic induction. RFID is set to become a key enabling technology of the Internet-of-Things (IoT), hence devices such as the photometer described here will enable numerous mobile, wearable and vanguard chemical sensing applications in the emerging connected world. In the work presented here, we demonstrate the characterisation of a low-power RFID wireless sensor tag with an LED/photodiode-based photometric input. The performance of the wireless photometer has been tested through two different model analytical applications. The first is photometry in solution, where colour intensity as a function of dye concentration was measured. The second is an ion-selective optode system in which potassium ion concentrations were determined by using previously well characterised bulk optode membranes. The analytical performance of the wireless photometer smart tag is clearly demonstrated by these optical absorption-based analytical experiments, with excellent data agreement to a reference laboratory instrument. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sensitivity Analysis of Simulation Models
Kleijnen, J.P.C.
2009-01-01
This contribution presents an overview of sensitivity analysis of simulation models, including the estimation of gradients. It covers classic designs and their corresponding (meta)models; namely, resolution-III designs including fractional-factorial two-level designs for first-order polynomial
A fluorescence model of the murine lung for optical detection of pathogenic bacteria
Durkee, Madeleine S.; Cirillo, Jeffrey D.; Maitland, Kristen C.
2017-07-01
We present a computer model of intravital excitation and external fluorescence detection in the murine lungs validated with a three-dimensional lung tissue phantom. The model is applied to optical detection of pulmonary tuberculosis infection.
Experimental stress–strain analysis of tapered silica optical fibers with nanofiber waist
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holleis, S.; Hoinkes, T.; Wuttke, C.; Schneeweiss, P.; Rauschenbeutel, A.
2014-01-01
We experimentally determine tensile force–elongation diagrams of tapered optical fibers with a nanofiber waist. The tapered optical fibers are produced from standard silica optical fibers using a heat and pull process. Both, the force–elongation data and scanning electron microscope images of the rupture points indicate a brittle material. Despite the small waist radii of only a few hundred nanometers, our experimental data can be fully explained by a nonlinear stress–strain model that relies on material properties of macroscopic silica optical fibers. This is an important asset when it comes to designing miniaturized optical elements as one can rely on the well-founded material characteristics of standard optical fibers. Based on this understanding, we demonstrate a simple and non-destructive technique that allows us to determine the waist radius of the tapered optical fiber. We find excellent agreement with independent scanning electron microscope measurements of the waist radius
Modelling of bio-optical parameters of open ocean waters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vadim N. Pelevin
2001-12-01
Full Text Available An original method for estimating the concentration of chlorophyll pigments, absorption of yellow substance and absorption of suspended matter without pigments and yellow substance in detritus using spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient for downwelling irradiance and irradiance reflectance data has been applied to sea waters of different types in the open ocean (case 1. Using the effective numerical single parameter classification with the water type optical index m as a parameter over the whole range of the open ocean waters, the calculations have been carried out and the light absorption spectra of sea waters tabulated. These spectra are used to optimize the absorption models and thus to estimate the concentrations of the main admixtures in sea water. The value of m can be determined from direct measurements of the downward irradiance attenuation coefficient at 500 nm or calculated from remote sensing data using the regressions given in the article. The sea water composition can then be readily estimated from the tables given for any open ocean area if that one parameter m characterizing the basin is known.
Stochastic modeling analysis and simulation
Nelson, Barry L
1995-01-01
A coherent introduction to the techniques for modeling dynamic stochastic systems, this volume also offers a guide to the mathematical, numerical, and simulation tools of systems analysis. Suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate-level industrial engineers and management science majors, it proposes modeling systems in terms of their simulation, regardless of whether simulation is employed for analysis. Beginning with a view of the conditions that permit a mathematical-numerical analysis, the text explores Poisson and renewal processes, Markov chains in discrete and continuous time, se
Theoretical analysis of stack gas emission velocity measurement by optical scintillation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Yang; Dong Feng-Zhong; Ni Zhi-Bo; Pang Tao; Zeng Zong-Yong; Wu Bian; Zhang Zhi-Rong
2014-01-01
Theoretical analysis for an online measurement of the stack gas flow velocity based on the optical scintillation method with a structure of two parallel optical paths is performed. The causes of optical scintillation in a stack are first introduced. Then, the principle of flow velocity measurement and its mathematical expression based on cross correlation of the optical scintillation are presented. The field test results show that the flow velocity measured by the proposed technique in this article is consistent with the value tested by the Pitot tube. It verifies the effectiveness of this method. Finally, by use of the structure function of logarithmic light intensity fluctuations, the theoretical explanation of optical scintillation spectral characteristic in low frequency is given. The analysis of the optical scintillation spectrum provides the basis for the measurement of the stack gas flow velocity and particle concentration simultaneously. (general)
Analysis of Optical CDMA Signal Transmission: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lawrence R. Chen
2005-06-01
Full Text Available We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA transmission when single-user detection (SUD is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA transmission as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN is corrupting the received signals. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary signaling for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA transmission. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and M-ary OCDMA transmission systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences with good bit error rate system performance.
Analysis of Optical CDMA Signal Transmission: Capacity Limits and Simulation Results
Garba, Aminata A.; Yim, Raymond M. H.; Bajcsy, Jan; Chen, Lawrence R.
2005-12-01
We present performance limits of the optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA) networks. In particular, we evaluate the information-theoretical capacity of the OCDMA transmission when single-user detection (SUD) is used by the receiver. First, we model the OCDMA transmission as a discrete memoryless channel, evaluate its capacity when binary modulation is used in the interference-limited (noiseless) case, and extend this analysis to the case when additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is corrupting the received signals. Next, we analyze the benefits of using nonbinary signaling for increasing the throughput of optical CDMA transmission. It turns out that up to a fourfold increase in the network throughput can be achieved with practical numbers of modulation levels in comparison to the traditionally considered binary case. Finally, we present BER simulation results for channel coded binary and[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]-ary OCDMA transmission systems. In particular, we apply turbo codes concatenated with Reed-Solomon codes so that up to several hundred concurrent optical CDMA users can be supported at low target bit error rates. We observe that unlike conventional OCDMA systems, turbo-empowered OCDMA can allow overloading (more active users than is the length of the spreading sequences) with good bit error rate system performance.
Optical Kerr effect in graphene: Theoretical analysis of the optical heterodyne detection technique
Savostianova, N. A.; Mikhailov, S. A.
2018-04-01
Graphene is an atomically thin two-dimensional material demonstrating strong optical nonlinearities, including harmonics generation, four-wave mixing, Kerr, and other nonlinear effects. In this paper we theoretically analyze the optical heterodyne detection (OHD) technique of measuring the optical Kerr effect (OKE) in two-dimensional crystals and show how to relate the quantities measured in such experiments with components of the third-order conductivity tensor σαβ γ δ (3 )(ω1,ω2,ω3) of the two-dimensional crystal. Using results of a recently developed quantum theory of the third-order nonlinear electrodynamic response of graphene, we analyze the frequency, charge carrier density, temperature, and other dependencies of the OHD-OKE response of this material. We compare our results with a recent OHD-OKE experiment in graphene and find good agreement between the theory and experiment.
Dabirian, Ali
2017-02-15
High-efficiency crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells increasingly feature sophisticated electron and hole contacts aimed at minimizing electronic losses. At the rear of photovoltaic devices, such contacts—usually consisting of stacks of functional layers—offer opportunities to enhance the infrared response of the solar cells. Here, we propose an accurate and simple modeling procedure to evaluate the infrared performance of rear contacts in c-Si solar cells. Our method combines full-wave electromagnetic modeling of the rear contact with a statistical ray optics model to obtain the fraction of optical energy dissipated from the rear contact relative to that absorbed by the Si wafer. Using this technique, we study the impact of the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and thickness of the rear-passivating layer and establish basic design rules. In addition, we evaluate novel optical structures, including stratified thin films, nanoparticle composites, and conductive nanowires embedded in a low-index dielectric matrix, for integration into advanced rear contacts in c-Si photovoltaic devices. From an optical perspective, nanowire structures preserving low contact resistance appear to be the most effective approach to mitigating dissipation losses from the rear contact.
Gralewicz, Grzegorz; Owczarek, Grzegorz
2016-01-01
The paper analyses the selected optical parameters of protective optic filters used for protection of the eyes against hazardous radiation within the visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrum range. The indexes characterizing transmission and reflection of optic radiation incident on the filter are compared. As it follows from the completed analysis, the newly developed interference filters provide more effective blocking of infrared radiation in comparison with the currently used protec...
STRESS MODELING IN COMPOSITE PRODUCTS USING STANDARD OPTICALLY SENSITIVE MATERIAL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elifkhan K. Agakhanov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives The problem of physically modelling stresses in a compound solid body of revolution having a complex shape and with a complex load distribution is considered. According to the similarity criteria of stress, deformations and displacements from the volume forces decrease proportionally to the scale of similarity of geometric dimensions, which complicates their direct modelling by the photoelasticity method typically using models made from epoxy materials. Methods Based on the principle of the independent action of the forces, the initial problem is represented as the sum of two problems. In the first uniform problem, the stresses in the body of revolution from the centrifugal forces are simulated by the conventional “freezing” method. In order to solve the second nonuniform problem, the stresses in the region of the model, corresponding to the acting centrifugal forces, are “frozen”. The models are glued in a natural state at room temperature, and the compound model is annealed. Results The band patterns in sections as well as components of radial, tangential and axial stresses on contours and in sections of models are obtained by the methods of normal transmission and numerical integration of the equilibrium equation. According to the modelling criteria, the formula for the transition from stresses in models to stresses in the natural structure is established. The results of the analysis of the effect of a body's material density ratio on the stress state of the entire structure are obtained. Conclusion Axial stresses have insignificant value as compared to radial and tangential stresses; in addition, the ratio of the densities of the compound body has both a quantitative and qualitative influence on the stress state of the structure.
Hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness of high-speed optical access networks
Bai, Hui-feng
2018-03-01
As the speed of optical access networks soars with ever increasing multiple services, the service-supporting ability of optical access networks suffers greatly from the shortage of service awareness. Aiming to solve this problem, a hierarchy Bayesian model based services awareness mechanism is proposed for high-speed optical access networks. This approach builds a so-called hierarchy Bayesian model, according to the structure of typical optical access networks. Moreover, the proposed scheme is able to conduct simple services awareness operation in each optical network unit (ONU) and to perform complex services awareness from the whole view of system in optical line terminal (OLT). Simulation results show that the proposed scheme is able to achieve better quality of services (QoS), in terms of packet loss rate and time delay.
Su, Peiran; Eri, Qitai; Wang, Qiang
2014-04-10
Optical roughness was introduced into the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model to simulate the reflectance characteristics of thermal radiation. The optical roughness BRDF model stemmed from the influence of surface roughness and wavelength on the ray reflectance calculation. This model was adopted to simulate real metal emissivity. The reverse Monte Carlo method was used to display the distribution of reflectance rays. The numerical simulations showed that the optical roughness BRDF model can calculate the wavelength effect on emissivity and simulate the real metal emissivity variance with incidence angles.
The Research of Optical Turbulence Model in Underwater Imaging System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liying Sun
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In order to research the effect of turbulence on underwater imaging system and image restoration, the underwater turbulence model is simulated by computer fluid dynamics. This model is obtained in different underwater turbulence intensity, which contains the pressure data that influences refractive index distribution. When the pressure value is conversed to refractive index, the refractive index distribution can be received with the refraction formula. In the condition of same turbulent intensity, the distribution of refractive index presents gradient in the whole region, with disorder and mutations in the local region. With the turbulence intensity increase, the holistic variation of the refractive index in the image is larger, and the refractive index change more tempestuously in the local region. All the above are illustrated by the simulation results with he ray tracing method and turbulent refractive index model. According to different turbulence intensity analysis, it is proved that turbulence causes image distortion and increases noise.
Single and dual fiber nano-tip optical tweezers: trapping and analysis
Decombe , Jean-Baptiste; Huant , Serge; Fick , Jochen
2013-01-01
International audience; An original optical tweezers using one or two chemically etched fiber nano-tips is developed. We demonstrate optical trapping of 1 micrometer polystyrene spheres at optical powers down to 2 mW. Harmonic trap potentials were found in the case of dual fiber tweezers by analyzing the trapped particle position fluctuations. The trap stiffness was deduced using three different models. Consistent values of up to 1 fN/nm were found. The stiffness linearly decreases with decre...
Non-LTE model atmosphere analysis of Nova Cygni 1992
Hauschildt, P. H.; Starrfield, S.; Austin, S.; Wagner, R. M.; Shore, S. N.; Sonneborn, G.
1994-01-01
We use spherically symmetric non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (non-LTE), line-blanketed, expanding model atmospheres to analyze the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) and optical spectra of Nova Cygni 1992 during the early phases of its outburst. We find that the first IUE spectrum obtained just after discovery on 1992 February 20, is best reproduced by a model atmosphere with a steep density gradient and homologous expansion, whereas the IUE and optical spectra obtained on February 24 show an extended, optically thick, wind structure. Therefore, we distinguish two phases of the early evolution of the nova photosphere: the initial, rapid, 'fireball' phase and the subsequent, much longer, optically thick 'wind' phase. The importance of line-blanketing in nova spectra is demonstrated. Our preliminary abundance analysis implies that hydrogen is depeleted in the ejecta, corresponding to abundance enhancements of Fe by a factor of approximately 2 and of CNO by more than a factor of 10 when compared to solar abundances. The synthetic spectra reproduce both the observed pseudo-continua as well as most of the observed features from the UV to the optical spectral range and demonstrate the importance of obtaining nearly simultaneous UV and optical spectra for performing accurate analyses of expanding stellar atmospheres (for both novae and supernovae).
Optical Coherence Tomography in Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gianluca Coppola
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is a neurodegenerative disorder, which is likely to start as mild cognitive impairment (MCI several years before the its full-blown clinical manifestation. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to detect a loss in peripapillary retina nerve fiber layer (RNFL and a reduction in macular thickness and volume of people affected by MCI or AD. Here, we performed an aggregate meta-analysis combining results from different studies.Data sources were case-control studies published between January 2001 and August 2014 (identified through PubMed and Google Scholar databases that examined the RNFL thickness by means of OCT in AD and MCI patients compared with cognitively healthy controls.11 studies were identified, including 380 patients with AD, 68 with MCI and 293 healthy controls (HC. The studies suggest that the mean RNFL thickness is reduced in MCI (weighted mean differences in μm, WMD = -13.39, 95% CI: -17.34 to -9.45, p = 0.031 and, even more so, in AD (WMD = -15.95, 95% CI: -21.65 to -10.21, p<0.0001 patients compared to HC. RNFL in the 4 quadrants were all significantly thinner in AD superior (superior WMD = -24.0, 95% CI: -34.9 to -13.1, p<0.0001; inferior WMD = -20.8, 95% CI: -32.0 to -9.7, p<0.0001; nasal WMD = -14.7, 95% CI: -23.9 to -5.5, p<0.0001; and temporal WMD = -10.7, 95% CI: -19.9 to -1.4, p<0.0001; the same significant reduction in quadrant RNFL was observed in MCI patients compared with HC (Inferior WMD = -20.22, 95% CI: -30.41 to -10.03, p = 0.0001; nasal WMD = -7.4, 95% CI: -10.08 to -4.7, p = 0.0000; and temporal WMD = -6.88, 95% CI: -12.62 to -1.13, p = 0.01, with the exception of superior quadrant (WMD = -19.45, 95% CI: -40.23 to 1.32, p = 0.06.Results from the meta-analysis support the important role of OCT for RNFL analysis in monitoring the progression of AD and in assessing the effectiveness of purported AD treatments.
Dynamic Analysis with Fibre Optic Sensors for Structural Health Monitoring
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Paolozzi, Antonio; Gasbarri, Paolo
2006-01-01
Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) is a new frontier of non destructing testing. Often SHM is associated with fibre optic sensors whose signals can be used to identify the structure and consequently its damage...
Online analysis by a fiber-optic diode array spectrophotometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Van Hare, D.R.; Prather, W.S.; O'Rourke, P.E.
1987-01-01
An online photometric analyzer has been developed which can make remote measurements over the 350 to 900 nm region at distances of up to 100 feet. The analyzer consists of a commercially available diode array spectrophotometer interfaced to a fiber-optic multiplexer to allow online monitoring of up to ten locations sequentially. The development of the fiber-optic interface is discussed and data from several online applications are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the measurement system
Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties
Avoine , Amaury; Ngoc Hong , Phan; Frederich , Hugo; Aregahegn , Kifle; Bénalloul , Paul; Coolen , Laurent; Schwob , Catherine; Thu Nga , Pham; Gallas , Bruno; Maître , Agnès
2014-01-01
International audience; We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflect...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan, Jinming; Bai, Li; Tench, Christopher; Gottlob, Irene; Proudlock, Frank
2015-01-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging plays an important role in clinical diagnosis and monitoring of diseases of the human retina. Automated analysis of optical coherence tomography images is a challenging task as the images are inherently noisy. In this paper, a novel variational image decomposition model is proposed to decompose an OCT image into three components: the first component is the original image but with the noise completely removed; the second contains the set of edges representing the retinal layer boundaries present in the image; and the third is an image of noise, or in image decomposition terms, the texture, or oscillatory patterns of the original image. In addition, a fast Fourier transform based split Bregman algorithm is developed to improve computational efficiency of solving the proposed model. Extensive experiments are conducted on both synthesised and real OCT images to demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms the state-of-the-art speckle noise reduction methods and leads to accurate retinal layer segmentation. (paper)
Rogers, P. J.; Fischer, R. E.
1983-01-01
Topics considered include: optical system requirements, analysis, and system engineering; optical system design using microcomputers and minicomputers; optical design theory and computer programs; optical design methods and computer programs; optical design methods and philosophy; unconventional optical design; diffractive and gradient index optical system design; optical production and system integration; and optical systems engineering. Particular attention is given to: stray light control as an integral part of optical design; current and future directions of lens design software; thin-film technology in the design and production of optical systems; aspherical lenses in optical scanning systems; the application of volume phase holograms to avionic displays; the effect of lens defects on thermal imager performance; and a wide angle zoom for the Space Shuttle.
LLIMAS: Revolutionizing integrating modeling and analysis at MIT Lincoln Laboratory
Doyle, Keith B.; Stoeckel, Gerhard P.; Rey, Justin J.; Bury, Mark E.
2017-08-01
MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Integrated Modeling and Analysis Software (LLIMAS) enables the development of novel engineering solutions for advanced prototype systems through unique insights into engineering performance and interdisciplinary behavior to meet challenging size, weight, power, environmental, and performance requirements. LLIMAS is a multidisciplinary design optimization tool that wraps numerical optimization algorithms around an integrated framework of structural, thermal, optical, stray light, and computational fluid dynamics analysis capabilities. LLIMAS software is highly extensible and has developed organically across a variety of technologies including laser communications, directed energy, photometric detectors, chemical sensing, laser radar, and imaging systems. The custom software architecture leverages the capabilities of existing industry standard commercial software and supports the incorporation of internally developed tools. Recent advances in LLIMAS's Structural-Thermal-Optical Performance (STOP), aeromechanical, and aero-optical capabilities as applied to Lincoln prototypes are presented.
The analysis of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence: I. Theoretical considerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chithambo, M L
2007-01-01
This is the first of two linked papers on the analysis of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence. This paper focusses on a theoretical basis of analytical methods and on methods for interpretation of time-resolved luminescence spectra and calculation of luminescence throughput. Using a comparative analysis of the principal features of time-resolved luminescence and relevant analogues from steady state optical stimulation, formulae for configuring a measurement system for optimum performance are presented. We also examine the possible use of stretched-exponential functions for analysis of time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence spectra
Zedini, Emna
2014-09-01
In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we introduce a novel unified expression for the distribution of a single FSO link modeled by the Gamma fading that accounts for pointing errors subject to both types of detection techniques at the receiver side (i.e. heterodyne detection and intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD)). Then, we provide analytical expressions for the outage probability, the average number of transmissions, and the average transmission rate for HARQ with IR, assuming a maximum number of rounds for the HARQ protocol. In our study, the communication rate per HARQ round is constant. Our analysis demonstrates the importance of HARQ in improving the performance and reliability of FSO communication systems. All the given results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations.
Fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model in college teaching of physics experiment
Su, Liping; Zhang, Yang; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yu
2017-08-01
Optical fiber sensor technology is one of the main contents of modern information technology, which has a very important position in modern science and technology. Fiber optic sensor experiment can improve students' enthusiasm and broaden their horizons in college physics experiment. In this paper the main structure and working principle of fiberoptical sensor with intensity compensation model are introduced. And thus fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model is applied to measure micro displacement of Young's modulus measurement experiment and metal linear expansion coefficient measurement experiment in the college physics experiment. Results indicate that the measurement accuracy of micro displacement is higher than that of the traditional methods using fiber-optical sensor with intensity compensation model. Meanwhile this measurement method makes the students understand on the optical fiber, sensor and nature of micro displacement measurement method and makes each experiment strengthen relationship and compatibility, which provides a new idea for the reform of experimental teaching.
Reliability analysis and operator modelling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollnagel, Erik
1996-01-01
The paper considers the state of operator modelling in reliability analysis. Operator models are needed in reliability analysis because operators are needed in process control systems. HRA methods must therefore be able to account both for human performance variability and for the dynamics of the interaction. A selected set of first generation HRA approaches is briefly described in terms of the operator model they use, their classification principle, and the actual method they propose. In addition, two examples of second generation methods are also considered. It is concluded that first generation HRA methods generally have very simplistic operator models, either referring to the time-reliability relationship or to elementary information processing concepts. It is argued that second generation HRA methods must recognise that cognition is embedded in a context, and be able to account for that in the way human reliability is analysed and assessed
Optical modeling of induction-linac driven free-electron lasers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scharlemann, E.T.; Fawley, W.M.
1986-01-01
The free-electron laser (FEL) simulation code FRED, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) primarily to model single-pass FEL amplifiers driven by induction linear accelerators, is described. The main emphasis is on the modeling of optical propagation in the laser and on the differences between the requirements for modeling rf-linac-driven vs. induction-linac-driven FELs. Examples of optical guiding and mode cleanup are presented for a 50 μm FEL
Intraocular Telescopic System Design: Optical and Visual Simulation in a Human Eye Model
Zoulinakis, Georgios; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa
2017-01-01
Purpose. To design an intraocular telescopic system (ITS) for magnifying retinal image and to simulate its optical and visual performance after implantation in a human eye model. Methods. Design and simulation were carried out with a ray-tracing and optical design software. Two different ITS were designed, and their visual performance was simulated using the Liou-Brennan eye model. The difference between the ITS was their lenses’ placement in the eye model and their powers. Ray tracing in bot...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wædegaard, Kristian Juncher; Frislev, Martin Thomas; Balling, Peter
2013-01-01
Modeling of the interaction between a dielec- tric material and ultrashort laser pulses provides the tem- poral evolution of the electronic excitation and the optical properties of the dielectric. Experimentally determined re- flectances and ablation depths for sapphire are compared...... to the calculations. A decrease in reflectance at high fluences is observed experimentally, which demonstrates the neces- sity of a temperature-dependent electron scattering rate in the model. The comparison thus provides new constraints on the optical parameters of the model....
NEB in Analysis of Optical Flow 4 x 4 and 6 x 6-Patches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia, Shengxiang; Liang, Di
2017-01-01
We apply the nudged elastic band technique to non-lineal high-dimensional datasets, we analyze spaces of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches and detect their topological properties. We experimentally prove that subsets of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches can be modeled a circle, which confirm some results of 4 x 4 and 6 x 6 optical flow patches by using a new method-NEB, and expend Adams et al's result to larger patches of optical flow. (paper)
Konnik, Mikhail V.
2012-04-01
Wavefront coding paradigm can be used not only for compensation of aberrations and depth-of-field improvement but also for an optical encryption. An optical convolution of the image with the PSF occurs when a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a known point spread function (PSF) is placed in the optical path. In this case, an optically encoded image is registered instead of the true image. Decoding of the registered image can be performed using standard digital deconvolution methods. In such class of optical-digital systems, the PSF of the DOE is used as an encryption key. Therefore, a reliability and cryptographic resistance of such an encryption method depends on the size and complexity of the PSF used for optical encoding. This paper gives a preliminary analysis on reliability and possible vulnerabilities of such an encryption method. Experimental results on brute-force attack on the optically encrypted images are presented. Reliability estimation of optical coding based on wavefront coding paradigm is evaluated. An analysis of possible vulnerabilities is provided.
Underwater wireless optical communications: From system-level demonstrations to channel modelling
Oubei, Hassan M.
2018-01-09
In this paper, we discuss about recent experimental advances in underwater wireless optical communications (UWOC) over various underwater channel water types using different modulation schemes as well as modelling and describing the statistical properties of turbulence-induced fading in underwater wireless optical channels using laser beam intensity fluctuations measurements.
Modelling of the Optical Detector System in a Compact Disc Player
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle
2003-01-01
The cross-couplings between focus and radial tracking servos in compact disc players are important, but the optical cross couplings are not well described in the literature. In this paper an optical model of a compact disc player based on the three beam single foucault detector principle is found...
Nerovny, N. A.; Zimin, V. N.
2018-04-01
In this paper, the problem of representing the light pressure force upon the surface of a thin wrinkled film is discussed. The common source of wrinkles is the shear deformation of the membrane sample. The optical model of such a membrane is assumed to be optically orthotropic and an analytic equation for infinitesimal light pressure force is written. A linear regression model in the case of wrinkle geometry, where a surface element can have different optical parameters, is constructed and the Bayesian approach is used to calculate the parameters of this model.
Multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic tissue Raman spectroscopy.
Bergholt, Mads Sylvest; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Zheng, Wei; Huang, Zhiwei
2013-12-03
We report a novel method making use of multivariate reference signals of fused silica and sapphire Raman signals generated from a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of in vivo tissue Raman measurements in real time. Partial least-squares (PLS) regression modeling is applied to extract the characteristic internal reference Raman signals (e.g., shoulder of the prominent fused silica boson peak (~130 cm(-1)); distinct sapphire ball-lens peaks (380, 417, 646, and 751 cm(-1))) from the ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe for quantitative analysis of fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy. To evaluate the analytical value of this novel multivariate reference technique, a rapid Raman spectroscopy system coupled with a ball-lens fiber-optic Raman probe is used for in vivo oral tissue Raman measurements (n = 25 subjects) under 785 nm laser excitation powers ranging from 5 to 65 mW. An accurate linear relationship (R(2) = 0.981) with a root-mean-square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 2.5 mW can be obtained for predicting the laser excitation power changes based on a leave-one-subject-out cross-validation, which is superior to the normal univariate reference method (RMSE = 6.2 mW). A root-mean-square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 2.4 mW (R(2) = 0.985) can also be achieved for laser power prediction in real time when we applied the multivariate method independently on the five new subjects (n = 166 spectra). We further apply the multivariate reference technique for quantitative analysis of gelatin tissue phantoms that gives rise to an RMSEP of ~2.0% (R(2) = 0.998) independent of laser excitation power variations. This work demonstrates that multivariate reference technique can be advantageously used to monitor and correct the variations of laser excitation power and fiber coupling efficiency in situ for standardizing the tissue Raman intensity to realize quantitative analysis of tissue Raman measurements in vivo, which is particularly appealing in
Surface analysis of Borkron glass for neutron optics applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farnoux, B.; Maaza, M.; Maaza, M.; Samuel, F.; Sella, C.
1991-01-01
Grazing Angle Neutron Reflectometry, Optical and Mechanical Roughness Profilometry techniques have been used to study the effects of the polishing operations on the surface of Borkron Schott glass (special borosilicate glass for neutron optics applications) as the polishing tool pressure P and the mean grain size of the polishing powder Φ. The neutron reflectivity investigations have shown that there is formation of a layer at the surface glass substrate. This layer is less dense than the bulk substrate and its thickness is around 60A. The optical and mechanical profilometry measurements have shown that both roughness and waviness decrease with P and Φ. All the experimental results show a good correlation between the neutron refractive index, the thickness and the roughness of the surface layer and the waviness of the glass surface with the two mechanical polishing parameters. The previous techniques have been completed by Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy measurements
The use of optical scanning for analysis of casting shape
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Wieczorowski
2011-04-01
Full Text Available In the paper the use of optical scanning for inspection of casting shape and its accuracy was described. Optical system applied todigitization of objects determines all dimensions and shape of inspected object. This technology is used in quality control and reverse engineering. System is based on triangulation: sensor head performs projection of different patterns of fringes onto measured object and scanner tracks their distribution with two cameras. Basing on optical transform equations, a processing unit automatically and with remarkable accuracy calculates 3D coordinates for every pixel of camera. Depending on camera resolution the result of such a scan is acloud of points with up to 5 million points for every image. In the paper examples of applications for castings with different designationwas presented.
Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems
Wu, Zhizheng; Ben Amara, Foued
2013-01-01
Modeling and Control of Magnetic Fluid Deformable Mirrors for Adaptive Optics Systems presents a novel design of wavefront correctors based on magnetic fluid deformable mirrors (MFDM) as well as corresponding control algorithms. The presented wavefront correctors are characterized by their linear, dynamic response. Various mirror surface shape control algorithms are presented along with experimental evaluations of the performance of the resulting adaptive optics systems. Adaptive optics (AO) systems are used in various fields of application to enhance the performance of optical systems, such as imaging, laser, free space optical communication systems, etc. This book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students, professors, engineers, scientists and researchers working on the design of adaptive optics systems and their various emerging fields of application. Zhizheng Wu is an associate professor at Shanghai University, China. Azhar Iqbal is a research associate at the University of Toronto, Canada. Foue...
Determination and analysis of dispersive optical constants of CuIn{sub 3}S{sub 5} thin films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khemiri, N., E-mail: naoufel_khemiri@yahoo.f [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semiconducteurs-ENIT, Universite Tunis, ElManar BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia); Sinaoui, A.; Kanzari, M. [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique et Materiaux Semiconducteurs-ENIT, Universite Tunis, ElManar BP 37, Le belvedere, 1002 Tunis (Tunisia)
2011-04-15
CuIn{sub 3}S{sub 5} thin films were prepared from powder by thermal evaporation under vacuum (10{sup -6} mbar) onto glass substrates. The glass substrates were heated from 30 to 200 {sup o}C. The films were characterized for their optical properties using optical measurement techniques (transmittance and reflectance). We have determined the energy and nature of the optical transitions of films. The optical constants of the deposited films were determined in the spectral range 300-1800 nm from the analysis of transmission and reflection data. The Swanepoel envelope method was employed on the interference fringes of transmittance patterns for the determination of variation of refractive index with wavelength. Wemple-Di Domenico single oscillator model was applied to determine the optical constants such as oscillator energy E{sub 0} and dispersion energy E{sub d} of the films deposited at different substrate temperatures. The electric free carrier susceptibility and the ratio of the carrier concentration to the effective mass were estimated according to the model of Spitzer and Fan.
Dynamic analysis of trapping and escaping in dual beam optical trap
Li, Wenqiang; Hu, Huizhu; Su, Heming; Li, Zhenggang; Shen, Yu
2016-10-01
In this paper, we simulate the dynamic movement of a dielectric sphere in optical trap. This dynamic analysis can be used to calibrate optical forces, increase trapping efficiency and measure viscous coefficient of surrounding medium. Since an accurate dynamic analysis is based on a detailed force calculation, we calculate all forces a sphere receives. We get the forces of dual-beam gradient radiation pressure on a micron-sized dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime and utilize Einstein-Ornstein-Uhlenbeck to deal with its Brownian motion forces. Hydrodynamic viscous force also exists when the sphere moves in liquid. Forces from buoyance and gravity are also taken into consideration. Then we simulate trajectory of a sphere when it is subject to all these forces in a dual optical trap. From our dynamic analysis, the sphere can be trapped at an equilibrium point in static water, although it permanently fluctuates around the equilibrium point due to thermal effects. We go a step further to analyze the effects of misalignment of two optical traps. Trapping and escaping phenomena of the sphere in flowing water are also simulated. In flowing water, the sphere is dragged away from the equilibrium point. This dragging distance increases with the decrease of optical power, which results in escaping of the sphere with optical power below a threshold. In both trapping and escaping process we calculate the forces and position of the sphere. Finally, we analyze a trapping region in dual optical tweezers.
Combustion instability modeling and analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santoro, R.J.; Yang, V.; Santavicca, D.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Sheppard, E.J. [Tuskeggee Univ., Tuskegee, AL (United States). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering
1995-12-31
It is well known that the two key elements for achieving low emissions and high performance in a gas turbine combustor are to simultaneously establish (1) a lean combustion zone for maintaining low NO{sub x} emissions and (2) rapid mixing for good ignition and flame stability. However, these requirements, when coupled with the short combustor lengths used to limit the residence time for NO formation typical of advanced gas turbine combustors, can lead to problems regarding unburned hydrocarbons (UHC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, as well as the occurrence of combustion instabilities. The concurrent development of suitable analytical and numerical models that are validated with experimental studies is important for achieving this objective. A major benefit of the present research will be to provide for the first time an experimentally verified model of emissions and performance of gas turbine combustors. The present study represents a coordinated effort between industry, government and academia to investigate gas turbine combustion dynamics. Specific study areas include development of advanced diagnostics, definition of controlling phenomena, advancement of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities, and assessment of the current status of our ability to apply these tools to practical gas turbine combustors. The present work involves four tasks which address, respectively, (1) the development of a fiber-optic probe for fuel-air ratio measurements, (2) the study of combustion instability using laser-based diagnostics in a high pressure, high temperature flow reactor, (3) the development of analytical and numerical modeling capabilities for describing combustion instability which will be validated against experimental data, and (4) the preparation of a literature survey and establishment of a data base on practical experience with combustion instability.
Music-Elicited Emotion Identification Using Optical Flow Analysis of Human Face
Kniaz, V. V.; Smirnova, Z. N.
2015-05-01
Human emotion identification from image sequences is highly demanded nowadays. The range of possible applications can vary from an automatic smile shutter function of consumer grade digital cameras to Biofied Building technologies, which enables communication between building space and residents. The highly perceptual nature of human emotions leads to the complexity of their classification and identification. The main question arises from the subjective quality of emotional classification of events that elicit human emotions. A variety of methods for formal classification of emotions were developed in musical psychology. This work is focused on identification of human emotions evoked by musical pieces using human face tracking and optical flow analysis. Facial feature tracking algorithm used for facial feature speed and position estimation is presented. Facial features were extracted from each image sequence using human face tracking with local binary patterns (LBP) features. Accurate relative speeds of facial features were estimated using optical flow analysis. Obtained relative positions and speeds were used as the output facial emotion vector. The algorithm was tested using original software and recorded image sequences. The proposed technique proves to give a robust identification of human emotions elicited by musical pieces. The estimated models could be used for human emotion identification from image sequences in such fields as emotion based musical background or mood dependent radio.
Development and analysis of new type microresonator with electro-optic feedback
Janusas, Giedrius; Palevicius, Arvydas; Cekas, Elingas; Brunius, Alfredas; Bauce, Jokubas
2016-04-01
Micro-resonators are fundamental components integrated in a hosts of MEMS applications: safety and stability systems, biometric sensors, switches, mechanical filters, micro-mirror devices, material characterization, gyroscopes, etc. A constituent part of the micro-resonator is a diffractive optical element (DOE). Different methods and materials are used to produce diffraction gratings for DOEs. Two-dimensional or three-dimensional periodic structures of micrometer-scale period are widely used in microsystems or their components. They can be used as elements for micro-scale synthesis, processing, and analysis of chemical and biological samples. On the other hand micro-resonator was designed using composite piezoelectric material. In case when microscopes, vibrometers or other direct measurement methods are destructive and hardly can be employed for in-situ analysis, indirect measurement of electrical signal generated by composite piezoelectric layer allows to measure natural frequency changes. Also piezoelectric layer allows to create a novel micro-resonator with controllable parameters, which could assure much higher functionality of micro-electromechanical systems. The novel micro-resonator for pollution detection is proposed. Mathematical model of the micro-resonator and its dynamical, electrical and optical characteristics are presented.
Intercity Travel Demand Analysis Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming Lu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available It is well known that intercity travel is an important component of travel demand which belongs to short distance corridor travel. The conventional four-step method is no longer suitable for short distance corridor travel demand analysis for the time spent on urban traffic has a great impact on traveler's main mode choice. To solve this problem, the author studied the existing intercity travel demand analysis model, then improved it based on the study, and finally established a combined model of main mode choice and access mode choice. At last, an integrated multilevel nested logit model structure system was built. The model system includes trip generation, destination choice, and mode-route choice based on multinomial logit model, and it achieved linkage and feedback of each part through logsum variable. This model was applied in Shenzhen intercity railway passenger demand forecast in 2010 as a case study. As a result, the forecast results were consistent with the actuality. The model's correctness and feasibility were verified.
Reflector antenna analysis using physical optics on Graphics Processing Units
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Sørensen, Hans Henrik Brandenborg; Dammann, Bernd
2014-01-01
The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate the perform......The Physical Optics approximation is a widely used asymptotic method for calculating the scattering from electrically large bodies. It requires significant computational work and little memory, and is thus well suited for application on a Graphics Processing Unit. Here, we investigate...
The Linearity of Optical Tomography: Sensor Model and Experimental Verification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siti Zarina MOHD. MUJI
2011-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to show the linearization of optical sensor. Linearity of the sensor response is a must in optical tomography application, which affects the tomogram result. Two types of testing are used namely, testing using voltage parameter and testing with time unit parameter. For the former, the testing is by measuring the voltage when the obstacle is placed between transmitter and receiver. The obstacle diameters are between 0.5 until 3 mm. The latter is also the same testing but the obstacle is bigger than the former which is 59.24 mm and the testing purpose is to measure the time unit spend for the ball when it cut the area of sensing circuit. Both results show a linear relation that proves the optical sensors is suitable for process tomography application.
Modeling for deformable mirrors and the adaptive optics optimization program
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henesian, M.A.; Haney, S.W.; Trenholme, J.B.; Thomas, M.
1997-01-01
We discuss aspects of adaptive optics optimization for large fusion laser systems such as the 192-arm National Ignition Facility (NIF) at LLNL. By way of example, we considered the discrete actuator deformable mirror and Hartmann sensor system used on the Beamlet laser. Beamlet is a single-aperture prototype of the 11-0-5 slab amplifier design for NIF, and so we expect similar optical distortion levels and deformable mirror correction requirements. We are now in the process of developing a numerically efficient object oriented C++ language implementation of our adaptive optics and wavefront sensor code, but this code is not yet operational. Results are based instead on the prototype algorithms, coded-up in an interpreted array processing computer language
Bayesian analysis of CCDM models
Jesus, J. F.; Valentim, R.; Andrade-Oliveira, F.
2017-09-01
Creation of Cold Dark Matter (CCDM), in the context of Einstein Field Equations, produces a negative pressure term which can be used to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this work we tested six different spatially flat models for matter creation using statistical criteria, in light of SNe Ia data: Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Bayesian Evidence (BE). These criteria allow to compare models considering goodness of fit and number of free parameters, penalizing excess of complexity. We find that JO model is slightly favoured over LJO/ΛCDM model, however, neither of these, nor Γ = 3αH0 model can be discarded from the current analysis. Three other scenarios are discarded either because poor fitting or because of the excess of free parameters. A method of increasing Bayesian evidence through reparameterization in order to reducing parameter degeneracy is also developed.
Bayesian analysis of CCDM models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jesus, J.F. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp), Câmpus Experimental de Itapeva, Rua Geraldo Alckmin 519, Vila N. Sra. de Fátima, Itapeva, SP, 18409-010 Brazil (Brazil); Valentim, R. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Ambientais, Químicas e Farmacêuticas—ICAQF, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), Unidade José Alencar, Rua São Nicolau No. 210, Diadema, SP, 09913-030 Brazil (Brazil); Andrade-Oliveira, F., E-mail: jfjesus@itapeva.unesp.br, E-mail: valentim.rodolfo@unifesp.br, E-mail: felipe.oliveira@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation—University of Portsmouth, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX United Kingdom (United Kingdom)
2017-09-01
Creation of Cold Dark Matter (CCDM), in the context of Einstein Field Equations, produces a negative pressure term which can be used to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. In this work we tested six different spatially flat models for matter creation using statistical criteria, in light of SNe Ia data: Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and Bayesian Evidence (BE). These criteria allow to compare models considering goodness of fit and number of free parameters, penalizing excess of complexity. We find that JO model is slightly favoured over LJO/ΛCDM model, however, neither of these, nor Γ = 3α H {sub 0} model can be discarded from the current analysis. Three other scenarios are discarded either because poor fitting or because of the excess of free parameters. A method of increasing Bayesian evidence through reparameterization in order to reducing parameter degeneracy is also developed.
Two-dimensional models for the optical response of thin films
Li, Yilei; Heinz, Tony F.
2018-04-01
In this work, we present a systematic study of 2D optical models for the response of thin layers of material under excitation by normally incident light. The treatment, within the framework of classical optics, analyzes a thin film supported by a semi-infinite substrate, with both the thin layer and the substrate assumed to exhibit local, isotropic linear response. Starting from the conventional three-dimensional (3D) slab model of the system, we derive a two-dimensional (2D) sheet model for the thin film in which the optical response is described by a sheet optical conductivity. We develop criteria for the applicability of this 2D sheet model for a layer with an optical thickness far smaller than the wavelength of the light. We examine in detail atomically thin semi-metallic and semiconductor van-der-Waals layers and ultrathin metal films as representative examples. Excellent agreement of the 2D sheet model with the 3D slab model is demonstrated over a broad spectral range from the radio frequency limit to the near ultraviolet. A linearized version of system response for the 2D model is also presented for the case where the influence of the optically thin layer is sufficiently weak. Analytical expressions for the applicability and accuracy of the different optical models are derived, and the appropriateness of the linearized treatment for the materials is considered. We discuss the advantages, as well as limitations, of these models for the purpose of deducing the optical response function of the thin layer from experiment. We generalize the theory to take into account in-plane anisotropy, layered thin film structures, and more general substrates. Implications of the 2D model for the transmission of light by the thin film and for the implementation of half- and totally absorbing layers are discussed.
Romano, Renan A.; Vollet-Filho, Jose D.; Pratavieira, Sebastião.; Fernandez, Jorge L.; Kurachi, Cristina; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.; Castro-e-Silva, Orlando; Sankarankutty, Ajith K.
2015-06-01
Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for liver failure. However, the success of the transplantation procedure depends on liver graft conditions. The tissue function evaluation during the several transplantation stages is relevant, in particular during the organ harvesting, when a decision is made concerning the viability of the graft. Optical fluorescence spectroscopy is a good option because it is a noninvasive and fast technique. A partial normothermic hepatic ischemia was performed in rat livers, with a vascular occlusion of both median and left lateral lobes, allowing circulation only for the right lateral lobe and the caudate lobe. Fluorescence spectra under excitation at 532 nm (doubled frequency Nd:YAG laser) were collected using a portable spectrometer (USB2000, Ocean Optics, USA). The fluorescence emission was collected before vascular occlusion, after ischemia, and 24 hours after reperfusion. A morphometric histology analysis was performed as the gold standard evaluation - liver samples were analyzed, and the percentage of necrotic tissue was obtained. The results showed that changes in the fluorescence emission after ischemia can be correlated with the amount of necrosis evaluated by a morphometric analysis, the Pearson correlation coefficient of the generated model was 0.90 and the root mean square error was around 20%. In this context, the laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy technique after normothermic ischemia showed to be a fast and efficient method to differentiate ischemic injury from viable tissues.
Wilke, Marcus; Teichert, Gerd; Gemma, Ryota; Pundt, Astrid; Kirchheim, Reiner; Romanus, Henry; Schaaf, Peter
2011-01-01
overview on new developments in instrument design for accurate and well resolved thin film analyses is presented. The article focuses on the analytical capabilities of glow discharge optical emission spectrometry in the analysis of metallic coatings
Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Free-Space Optical Links with Nonzero Boresight Pointing Errors
Ansari, Imran Shafique; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Cheng, Julian
2015-01-01
A unified capacity analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link that accounts for nonzero boresight pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. intensity modulation/ direct detection as well as heterodyne detection) is addressed
Zedini, Emna; Chelli, Ali; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2014-01-01
In this paper, we carry out a unified performance analysis of hybrid automatic repeat request (HARQ) with incremental redundancy (IR) from an information theoretic perspective over a point-to-point free-space optical (FSO) system. First, we
Motion analysis of optically trapped particles and cells using 2D Fourier analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Martin Verner; Ahrendt, Peter; Lindballe, Thue Bjerring
2012-01-01
Motion analysis of optically trapped objects is demonstrated using a simple 2D Fourier transform technique. The displacements of trapped objects are determined directly from the phase shift between the Fourier transform of subsequent images. Using end-and side-view imaging, the stiffness...... of the trap is determined in three dimensions. The Fourier transform method is simple to implement and applicable in cases where the trapped object changes shape or where the lighting conditions change. This is illustrated by tracking a fluorescent particle and a myoblast cell, with subsequent determination...
Optical modelling of far-infrared astronomical instrumentation exploiting multimode horn antennas
O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Mc Auley, Ian; Wilson, Daniel; Gradziel, Marcin L.; Trappe, Neil; Cahill, Fiachra; Peacocke, T.; Savini, G.; Ganga, K.
2014-07-01
In this paper we describe the optical modelling of astronomical telescopes that exploit bolometric detectors fed by multimoded horn antennas. In cases where the horn shape is profiled rather than being a simple cone, we determine the beam at the horn aperture using an electromagnetic mode-matching technique. Bolometers, usually placed in an integrating cavity, can excite many hybrid modes in a corrugated horn; we usually assume they excite all modes equally. If the waveguide section feeding the horn is oversized these modes can propagate independently, thereby increasing the throughput of the system. We use an SVD analysis on the matrix that describes the scattering between waveguide (TE/TM) modes to recover the independent orthogonal fields (hybrid modes) and then propagate these to the sky independently where they are added in quadrature. Beam patterns at many frequencies across the band are then added with a weighting appropriate to the source spectrum. Here we describe simulations carried out on the highest-frequency (857-GHz) channel of the Planck HFI instrument. We concentrate in particular on the use of multimode feedhorns and consider the effects of possible manufacturing tolerances on the beam on the sky. We also investigate the feasibility of modelling far-out sidelobes across a wide band for electrically large structures and bolometers fed by multi-mode feedhorns. Our optical simulations are carried out using the industry-standard GRASP software package.
Optical-potential model for electron-atom scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callaway, J.; Oza, D.H.
1985-01-01
It is proposed that the addition of a matrix optical potential to a close-coupling calculation should lead to improved results in studies of electron-atom scattering. This procedure is described with use of a pseudostate expansion to evaluate the optical potential. The integro-differential equations are solved by a linear-algebraic method. As a test case, applications are made to electron-hydrogen scattering, and the results are compared with those obtained by other calculational procedures, and with experiment
Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties
Avoine, Amaury; Hong, Phan Ngoc; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Thu Nga, Pham; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès
2014-03-01
We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter.
Measurement and modelization of silica opal optical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avoine, Amaury; Ngoc Hong, Phan; Frederich, Hugo; Aregahegn, Kifle; Bénalloul, Paul; Coolen, Laurent; Schwob, Catherine; Gallas, Bruno; Maître, Agnès; Thu Nga, Pham
2014-01-01
We present the synthesis process and optical characterization of artificial silica opals. The specular reflection spectra are analyzed and compared to band structure calculations and finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The silica optical index is a key parameter to correctly describe an opal and is usually not known and treated as a free parameter. Here we propose a method to infer the silica index, as well as the silica spheres diameter, from the reflection spectra and we validate it by comparison with two independent infrared methods for the index and, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements for the spheres diameter. (paper)
Optical fiber communication systems with Matlab and Simulink models
Binh, Le Nguyen
2014-01-01
""This book adds an aspect of programming and simulation not so well developed in other books. It is complete in this sense and enables directly linking the physics of optical components and systems to realistic results.""-Martin Rochette, Associate Professor, McGill University, Quebec, Canada""…this will be an excellent textbook since it has all new development and information on optical communication systems…I think this book can easily replace many other textbooks in this field.""-Massoud Moussavi, California State Polytechnic University-Pomona""The book is well written. It describes the fu
Fonseca, E. S. R.; de Jesus, M. E. P.
2007-07-01
The estimation of optical properties of highly turbid and opaque biological tissue is a difficult task since conventional purely optical methods rapidly loose sensitivity as the mean photon path length decreases. Photothermal methods, such as pulsed or frequency domain photothermal radiometry (FD-PTR), on the other hand, show remarkable sensitivity in experimental conditions that produce very feeble optical signals. Photothermal Radiometry is primarily sensitive to absorption coefficient yielding considerably higher estimation errors on scattering coefficients. Conversely, purely optical methods such as Local Diffuse Reflectance (LDR) depend mainly on the scattering coefficient and yield much better estimates of this parameter. Therefore, at moderate transport albedos, the combination of photothermal and reflectance methods can improve considerably the sensitivity of detection of tissue optical properties. The authors have recently proposed a novel method that combines FD-PTR with LDR, aimed at improving sensitivity on the determination of both optical properties. Signal analysis was performed by global fitting the experimental data to forward models based on Monte-Carlo simulations. Although this approach is accurate, the associated computational burden often limits its use as a forward model. Therefore, the application of analytical models based on the diffusion approximation offers a faster alternative. In this work, we propose the calculation of the diffuse reflectance and the fluence rate profiles under the δ-P I approximation. This approach is known to approximate fluence rate expressions better close to collimated sources and boundaries than the standard diffusion approximation (SDA). We extend this study to the calculation of the diffuse reflectance profiles. The ability of the δ-P I based model to provide good estimates of the absorption, scattering and anisotropy coefficients is tested against Monte-Carlo simulations over a wide range of scattering to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Afshin Aslian
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC, all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as 92%, whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings.
Mueller, J. L.; Fargion, G. S.; McClain, C. R. (Editor); Pegau, S.; Zanefeld, J. R. V.; Mitchell, B. G.; Kahru, M.; Wieland, J.; Stramska, M.
2003-01-01
This document stipulates protocols for measuring bio-optical and radiometric data for the Sensor Intercomparision and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) Project activities and algorithm development. The document is organized into 6 separate volumes as Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 4. Volume I: Introduction, Background, and Conventions; Volume II: Instrument Specifications, Characterization and Calibration; Volume III: Radiometric Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume IV: Inherent Optical Properties: Instruments, Characterization, Field Measurements and Data Analysis Protocols; Volume V: Biogeochemical and Bio-Optical Measurements and Data Analysis Methods; Volume VI: Special Topics in Ocean Optics Protocols and Appendices. The earlier version of Ocean Optics Protocols for Satellite Ocean Color Sensor Validation, Revision 3 is entirely superseded by the six volumes of Revision 4 listed above.
Using the particle beam optics lab. (PBO LABtm) for beamline design and analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gillespie, G.H.; Hill, B.W.; Martono, H.; Moore, J.M.; Lampel, M.C.; Brown, N.A.
1999-01-01
The Particle Beam Optics Interactive Computer Laboratory (PBO Lab) represents a new approach to providing software for particle beam optics modeling. The PBO Lab includes four key elements: a graphic user interface shell; a graphic beamline construction kit for users to interactively and visually construct optical beam lines; a knowledge database on the physics and technology of optical elements, and various charged particle optics computational engines. A first-order matrix code, including a space charge model, can be used to produce scaled images of beamlines together with overlays of single trajectories and beam envelopes. The qualitative results of graphically sliding beamline components, or adjusting bend angles, can be explored interactively. Quantitative computational engines currently include the third-order TRANSPORT code and the multi-particle ray tracing program TURTLE. The use of the PBO Lab for designing and analyzing a second order achromatic bend is illustrated with the Windows 95/NT version of the software. (authors)
Optical analysis of the fine crystalline structure of artificial opal films.
Lozano, G; Dorado, L A; Schinca, D; Depine, R A; Míguez, H
2009-11-17
Herein, we present a detailed analysis of the structure of artificial opal films. We demonstrate that, rather than the generally assumed face centered cubic lattice of spheres, opal films are better approximated by rhombohedral assemblies of distorted colloids. Detailed analysis of the optical response in a very wide spectral range (0.4 opal films is provided, as well as of the photonic band structure of the proposed arrangement. The implications of this distortion in the optical response of the lattice are discussed.
Experimental display of Fourier analysis through the optical physics and its didatical utilization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, S.M.M. de.
1983-01-01
The properties of Fourier analysis through physical optics are displayed experimentally. Within physical optics topics that illustrate didactically Fourier analysis, a subject usually considered purely mathematical are selected. The most important properties of Fourier transform and their utilization in cleaning up images through spatial filtering are presented, in this way the properties of convolution to analyse image formation and characterize some diffraction patterns are also used. (Author) [pt
Optical packet switching in HPC : an analysis of applications performance
Meyer, Hugo; Sancho, Jose Carlos; Mrdakovic, Milica; Miao, Wang; Calabretta, Nicola
2018-01-01
Optical Packet Switches (OPS) could provide the needed low latency transmissions in today large data centers. OPS can deliver lower latency and higher bandwidth than traditional electrical switches. These features are needed for parallel High Performance Computing (HPC) applications. For this
Power Spectral Density Specification and Analysis of Large Optical Surfaces
Sidick, Erkin
2009-01-01
The 2-dimensional Power Spectral Density (PSD) can be used to characterize the mid- and the high-spatial frequency components of the surface height errors of an optical surface. We found it necessary to have a complete, easy-to-use approach for specifying and evaluating the PSD characteristics of large optical surfaces, an approach that allows one to specify the surface quality of a large optical surface based on simulated results using a PSD function and to evaluate the measured surface profile data of the same optic in comparison with those predicted by the simulations during the specification-derivation process. This paper provides a complete mathematical description of PSD error, and proposes a new approach in which a 2-dimentional (2D) PSD is converted into a 1-dimentional (1D) one by azimuthally averaging the 2D-PSD. The 1D-PSD calculated this way has the same unit and the same profile as the original PSD function, thus allows one to compare the two with each other directly.
Analysis of Electrically Large Antennas using Fast Physical Optics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borries, Oscar Peter; Viskum, Hans-Henrik; Meincke, Peter
2015-01-01
accelerated Physical Optics (Fast-PO) and show that this approach allows for a timely and accurate solution of realistic designs. Several examples, ranging from canonical tests of the scaling of the method against the wavelength to real-life applications, illustrate the performance of the approach in practice....
Crowd Analysis by Using Optical Flow and Density Based Clustering
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Santoro, Francesco; Pedro, Sergio; Tan, Zheng-Hua
2010-01-01
In this paper, we present a system to detect and track crowds in a video sequence captured by a camera. In a first step, we compute optical flows by means of pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking. Afterwards, a density based clustering is used to group similar vectors. In the last step...
Performance Analysis of Optical Code Division Multiplex System
Kaur, Sandeep; Bhatia, Kamaljit Singh
2013-12-01
This paper presents the Pseudo-Orthogonal Code generator for Optical Code Division Multiple Access (OCDMA) system which helps to reduce the need of bandwidth expansion and improve spectral efficiency. In this paper we investigate the performance of multi-user OCDMA system to achieve data rate more than 1 Tbit/s.
Analysis of the optical parameters of phase holographic gratings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Є.О. Тихонов
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Suitability of 2- wave approximation of the coupled waves theory tor description of holographic phase gratings recorded on photopolymer compound ФПК-488 is proved. Using the basic formulas of the theory, main grating optical parameters - a depth of modulation and finished thickness are not measured immediately are determined.
Vergucht, Eva; Brans, Toon; Beunis, Filip; Garrevoet, Jan; Bauters, Stephen; De Rijcke, Maarten; Deruytter, David; Janssen, Colin; Riekel, Christian; Burghammer, Manfred; Vincze, Laszlo
2015-07-01
Recently, a radically new synchrotron radiation-based elemental imaging approach for the analysis of biological model organisms and single cells in their natural in vivo state was introduced. The methodology combines optical tweezers (OT) technology for non-contact laser-based sample manipulation with synchrotron radiation confocal X-ray fluorescence (XRF) microimaging for the first time at ESRF-ID13. The optical manipulation possibilities and limitations of biological model organisms, the OT setup developments for XRF imaging and the confocal XRF-related challenges are reported. In general, the applicability of the OT-based setup is extended with the aim of introducing the OT XRF methodology in all research fields where highly sensitive in vivo multi-elemental analysis is of relevance at the (sub)micrometre spatial resolution level.
Performance Analysis of DPSK-OCDMA System for Optical Access Network
Islam, Monirul; Ahmed, N.; Aljunid, S. A.; Ali, Sharafat; Sayeed, S.; Sabri, Naseer
2016-03-01
In this research, the performance of optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) using differential phase shift keying (DPSK) has been compared with OCDMA On-Off Keying (OOK). This comparison took place in terms of bit error rate (BER) and receiver power where two bit rates (155 Mbps and 622 Mbps) have been used for this analysis. Using of OptiSystem 7.0 simulation, comparing eye diagram and optical spectrum alongside with BER and Rx power. It is found that OCDMA-DPSK performs better in comparison to OCDMA-OOK. The performance analysis also provides parameter for designing and development of an OCDMA system for optical access network using DPSK.
Numerical model for the deformation of nucleated cells by optical stretchers
Sraj, Ihab; Francois, Joshua; Marr, David W M; Eggleton, Charles D.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we seek to numerically study the deformation of nucleated cells by single diode-laser bar optical stretchers. We employ a recently developed computational model, the dynamic ray-tracing method, to determine the force distribution
Numerical Modelling of Spontaneous Emission in Optical Parametric Amplifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Rottwitt, Karsten
2013-01-01
Fiber optical parametric processes offer a wide range of applications including phase sensitive as well as phase insensitive amplification, wavelength conversion and signal regeneration. One of the difficult challenges is any of these applications is to predict their associated noise performance....
Moar, Peter N; Love, John D; Ladouceur, François; Cahill, Laurence W
2006-09-01
We analyze two basic aspects of a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) probe's operation: (i) spot-size evolution of the electric field along the probe with and without a metal layer, and (ii) a modal analysis of the SNOM probe, particularly in close proximity to the aperture. A slab waveguide model is utilized to minimize the analytical complexity, yet provides useful quantitative results--including losses associated with the metal coating--which can then be used as design rules.
PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF OPTICAL CDMA SYSTEM USING VC CODE FAMILY UNDER VARIOUS OPTICAL PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HASSAN YOUSIF AHMED
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The intent of this paper is to study the performance of spectral-amplitude coding optical code-division multiple-access (OCDMA systems using Vector Combinatorial (VC code under various optical parameters. This code can be constructed by an algebraic way based on Euclidian vectors for any positive integer number. One of the important properties of this code is that the maximum cross-correlation is always one which means that multi-user interference (MUI and phase induced intensity noise are reduced. Transmitter and receiver structures based on unchirped fiber Bragg grating (FBGs using VC code and taking into account effects of the intensity, shot and thermal noise sources is demonstrated. The impact of the fiber distance effects on bit error rate (BER is reported using a commercial optical systems simulator, virtual photonic instrument, VPITM. The VC code is compared mathematically with reported codes which use similar techniques. We analyzed and characterized the fiber link, received power, BER and channel spacing. The performance and optimization of VC code in SAC-OCDMA system is reported. By comparing the theoretical and simulation results taken from VPITM, we have demonstrated that, for a high number of users, even if data rate is higher, the effective power source is adequate when the VC is used. Also it is found that as the channel spacing width goes from very narrow to wider, the BER decreases, best performance occurs at a spacing bandwidth between 0.8 and 1 nm. We have shown that the SAC system utilizing VC code significantly improves the performance compared with the reported codes.
Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis | Energy Analysis | NREL
Generation (ReEDS Model Analysis) U.S. Energy Sector Vulnerabilities to Climate Change and Extreme Weather Modeling and Analysis Energy-Water Modeling and Analysis NREL's energy-water modeling and analysis vulnerabilities from various factors, including water. Example Projects Renewable Electricity Futures Study
Distinguishing ischaemic optic neuropathy from optic neuritis by ganglion cell analysis.
Erlich-Malona, Natalie; Mendoza-Santiesteban, Carlos E; Hedges, Thomas R; Patel, Nimesh; Monaco, Caitlin; Cole, Emily
2016-12-01
To determine whether a pattern of altitudinal ganglion cell loss, as detected and measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used to distinguish non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from optic neuritis (ON) during the acute phase, and whether the rate or severity of ganglion cell loss differs between the two diseases. We performed a retrospective, case-control study of 44 patients (50 eyes) with ON or NAION and 44 age-matched controls. Non-arteritic ischaemic optic neuropathy and ON patients had OCT at presentation and four consecutive follow-up visits. Controls had OCT at one point in time. The ganglion cell complex (GCC) was evaluated in the macula, and the retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) was evaluated in the peripapillary region. Ganglion cell complex thickness, RNFL thickness and GCC mean superior and inferior hemispheric difference were compared between NAION and ON patients at each time-point using unpaired t-tests and between disease and control subjects at first measurement using paired t-tests. Mean time from onset of symptoms to initial presentation was 10.7 ± 6.6 days in NAION and 11.7 ± 8.6 days in ON (p = 0.67). There was a significantly greater vertical hemispheric difference in GCC thickness in NAION patients than ON patients at all time-points (5.5-10.7 μm versus 3.1-3.6 μm, p = 0.01-0.049). Mean GCC thickness was significantly decreased at less than 2 weeks after onset in NAION compared to age-matched controls (72.1 μm versus 82.1 μm, p < 0.001), as well as in ON compared to age-matched controls (74.3 μm versus 84.5 μm, p < 0.001). Progression and severity of GCC and RNFL loss did not differ significantly between NAION and ON. A quantitative comparison of mean superior and inferior hemispheric GCC thickness with OCT may be used to distinguish NAION from ON. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markelov, G; Endemann, M; Wernham, D
2008-01-01
ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes
Numerical analysis of ALADIN optics contamination due to outgassing of solar array materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Markelov, G [Advanced Operations and Engineering Services (AOES) Group BV, Postbus 342, 2300 AH Leiden (Netherlands); Endemann, M [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAS, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands); Wernham, D [ESA-ESTEC/EOP-PAQ, Postbus 299, 2200 AG Noordwijk (Netherlands)], E-mail: Gennady.Markelov@aoes.com
2008-03-01
ALADIN is the very first space-based lidar that will provide global wind profile and a special attention has been paid to contamination of ALADIN optics. The paper presents a numerical approach, which is based on the direct simulation Monte Carlo method. The method allows one to accurately compute collisions between various species, in the case under consideration, free-stream flow and outgassing from solar array materials. The collisions create a contamination flux onto the optics despite there is no line-of-sight from the solar arrays to the optics. Comparison of obtained results with a simple analytical model prediction shows that the analytical model underpredicts mass fluxes.
The optical/ultraviolet excess of isolated neutron stars in the resonant cyclotron scattering model
Tong, Hao; Xu, Ren-Xin; Song, Li-Ming
2011-12-01
X-ray dim isolated neutron stars are peculiar pulsar-like objects, characterized by their Planck-like spectrum. In studying their spectral energy distributions, optical/ultraviolet (UV) excess is a long standing problem. Recently Kaplan et al. measured the optical/UV excess for all seven sources, which is understandable in the resonant cyclotron scattering (RCS) model previously addressed. The RCS model calculations show that the RCS process can account for the observed optical/UV excess for most sources. The flat spectrum of RX J2143.0+0654 may be due to contributions from the bremsstrahlung emission of the electron system in addition to the RCS process.
Numerical models and experiment of air flow in a simulation box for optical wireless communications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Latal Jan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this article, the authors focused on real measurements of mechanical turbulence generated by ventilators in the simulation box for Optical Wireless Communications. The mechanical turbulences disturb the optical beam that propagates along the central axis of the simulation box. The aim of authors is to show the effect of mechanical turbulence on optical beams at different heights in the simulation box. In the Ansys Fluent, we created numerical models which were then compared with real measurements. Authors compared the real and numerical models according to statistical methods.
Using optical remote sensing model to estimate oil slick thickness based on satellite image
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y C; Tian, Q J; Lyu, C G; Fu, W X; Han, W C
2014-01-01
An optical remote sensing model has been established based on two-beam interference theory to estimate marine oil slick thickness. Extinction coefficient and normalized reflectance of oil are two important parts in this model. Extinction coefficient is an important inherent optical property and will not vary with the background reflectance changed. Normalized reflectance can be used to eliminate the background differences between in situ measured spectra and remotely sensing image. Therefore, marine oil slick thickness and area can be estimated and mapped based on optical remotely sensing image and extinction coefficient
Light Path Model of Fiber Optic Liquid Level Sensor Considering Residual Liquid Film on the Wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhijun Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The working principle of the refractive-type fiber optic liquid level sensor is analyzed in detail based on the light refraction principle. The optic path models are developed in consideration of common simplification and the residual liquid film on the glass tube wall. The calculating formulae for the model are derived, constraint conditions are obtained, influencing factors are discussed, and the scopes and skills of application are analyzed through instance simulations. The research results are useful in directing the correct usage of the fiber optic liquid level sensor, especially in special cases, such as those involving viscous liquid in the glass tube monitoring.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elie Nadal
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In this study we fabricate gold nanocomposites and model their optical properties. The nanocomposites are either homogeneous films or gratings containing gold nanoparticles embedded in a polymer matrix. The samples are fabricated using a recently developed technique making use of laser interferometry. The gratings present original plasmon-enhanced diffraction properties. In this work, we develop a new approach to model the optical properties of our composites. We combine the extended Maxwell–Garnett model of effective media with the Rigorous Coupled Wave Analysis (RCWA method and compute both the absorption spectra and the diffraction efficiency spectra of the gratings. We show that such a semi-analytical approach allows us to reproduce the original plasmonic features of the composites and can provide us with details about their inner structure. Such an approach, considering reasonably high particle concentrations, could be a simple and efficient tool to study complex micro-structured system based on plasmonic components, such as metamaterials.
Wang, Yukun; Xu, Huanyu; Li, Dayu; Wang, Rui; Jin, Chengbin; Yin, Xianghui; Gao, Shijie; Mu, Quanquan; Xuan, Li; Cao, Zhaoliang
2018-01-18
The performance of free-space optics communication (FSOC) is greatly degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Adaptive optics (AO) is an effective method for attenuating the influence. In this paper, the influence of the spatial and temporal characteristics of turbulence on the performance of AO in a FSOC system is investigated. Based on the Greenwood frequency (GF) and the ratio of receiver aperture diameter to atmospheric coherent length (D/r 0 ), the relationship between FSOC performance (CE) and AO parameters (corrected Zernike modes number and bandwidth) is derived for the first time. Then, simulations and experiments are conducted to analyze the influence of AO parameters on FSOC performance under different GF and D/r 0 . The simulation and experimental results show that, for common turbulence conditions, the number of corrected Zernike modes can be fixed at 35 and the bandwidth of the AO system should be larger than the GF. Measurements of the bit error rate (BER) for moderate turbulence conditions (D/r 0 = 10, f G = 60 Hz) show that when the bandwidth is two times that of GF, the average BER is decreased by two orders of magnitude compared with f G /f 3dB = 1. These results and conclusions can provide important guidance in the design of an AO system for FSOC.
Kim, Min Kyung; Kim, Ungsoo Samuel
2016-08-01
We evaluated fundus and fluorescein angiography (FAG) findings and characteristics that can help distinguish nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) from optic neuritis (ON). Twenty-three NAION patients and 17 ON with disc swelling patients were enrolled in this study. We performed fundus photography and FAG. The disc-swelling pattern, hyperemia grade, presence of splinter hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, artery/vein ratio and degree of focal telangiectasia were investigated. The FAG findings for each patient were compared with respect to the following features: the pattern of disc leakage in the early phase, arteriovenous (artery/vein) transit time (second), and the presence and pattern of the filling delay. Cotton-wool spots, focal telangiectasia, and venous congestion were more common in the affected eyes of NAION patients. Upon FAG, 76.5% of the patients in the ON group exhibited normal choroidal circulation. However, 56.5% of patients in the NAION group demonstrated abnormal filling defects, such as peripapillary, generalized, or watershed zone filling delays. Fundus findings, including cotton-wool spots, focal telangiectasia, and venous congestion in the affected eye, may be clues that can be used to diagnose NAION. In addition, choroidal insufficiencies on FAG could be also helpful in differentiating NAION from ON.
Junda, Maxwell M.; Karki Gautam, Laxmi; Collins, Robert W.; Podraza, Nikolas J.
2018-04-01
Virtual interface analysis (VIA) is applied to real time spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements taken during the growth of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films using various hydrogen dilutions of precursor gases and on different substrates during plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. A procedure is developed for optimizing VIA model configurations by adjusting sampling depth into the film and the analyzed spectral range such that model fits with the lowest possible error function are achieved. The optimal VIA configurations are found to be different depending on hydrogen dilution, substrate composition, and instantaneous film thickness. A depth profile in the optical properties of the films is then extracted that results from a variation in an optical absorption broadening parameter in a parametric a-Si:H model as a function of film thickness during deposition. Previously identified relationships are used linking this broadening parameter to the overall shape of the optical properties. This parameter is observed to converge after about 2000-3000 Å of accumulated thickness in all layers, implying that similar order in the a-Si:H network can be reached after sufficient thicknesses. In the early stages of growth, however, significant variations in broadening resulting from substrate- and processing-induced order are detected and tracked as a function of bulk layer thickness yielding an optical property depth profile in the final film. The best results are achieved with the simplest film-on-substrate structures while limitations are identified in cases where films have been deposited on more complex substrate structures.
Analysis of Plasmonics Based Fiber Optic Sensing Structures
Moayyed, Hamed
The work described in this PhD Thesis focuses on the post-processing of optical fibers and their enhancement as sensing element. Since the majority of sensors presented are based in Fabry-Perot interferometers, an historical overview of this category of optical fiber sensors is firstly presented. This review considers the works published since the early years, in the beginning of the 1980s, until the middle of 2015. The incorporation of microcavities at the tip of a single mode fiber was extensively studied, particularly for the measurement of nitrogen and methane gas pressure. These cavities were fabricated using hollow core silica tubes and a hollow core photonic crystal fiber. Following a different approach, the microcavities were incorporated between two sections of single mode fiber. In this case, the low sensitivity to temperature makes these microcavities highly desirable for the measurement of strain at high temperatures. Competences in post-processing techniques such as the chemical etching and the writing of periodical structures in the fiber core by means of an excimer or a femtosecond laser were also acquired in the course of the PhD programme. One of the works consisted in the design and manufacturing of a double clad optical fiber. The refractive index of the inner cladding was higher than the one of the outer cladding and the core. Thus, light was guided in the inner cladding instead of propagating in the core. This situation was overcome by applying chemical etching, thus removing the inner cladding. The core, surrounded by air, was then able to guide light. Two different applications were found for this fiber, as a temperature sensor and as an optical refractometer. In the last, the optical phase changes with the liquid refractive index. Two different types of fiber Bragg gratings were characterized in strain and temperature. Sensing structures obtained through the phase mask technique at the tip of an optical fiber were subjected to chemical
Fiber optic system design for vehicle detection and analysis
Nedoma, Jan; Zboril, Ondrej; Fajkus, Marcel; Zavodny, Petr; Kepak, Stanislav; Bednarek, Lukas; Martinek, Radek; Vasinek, Vladimir
2016-04-01
Fiber optic interferometers belong to a group of highly sensitive and precise devices enabling to measure small changes in the deformation shapes, changes in pressure, temperature, vibration and so on. The basis of their activity is to evaluate the number of fringes over time, not changes in the intensity of the optical signal. The methodology described in the article is based on using the interferometer to monitor traffic density. The base of the solution is a Mach-Zehnder interferometer operating with single-mode G.652 optical fiber at the wavelength of 1550 nm excited by a DFB laser. The power distribution of the laser light into the individual arms of the interferometer is in the ratio 1:1. Realized measuring scheme was terminated by an optical receiver including InGaAs PIN photodiode. Registered signal from the photodetector was through 8 Hz high pass filter fed to the measuring card that captures the analog input voltage using an application written in LabView development environment. The interferometer was stored in a waterproof box and placed at the side of the road. Here panned individual transit of cars in his environs. Vertically across the road was placed in contact removable belt simulating a retarder, which was used when passing cars to create sufficient vibration response detecting interferometer. The results demonstrated that the individual vehicles passing around boxing showed characteristic amplitude spectra, which was unique for each object, and had sufficient value signal to noise ratio (SNR). The signal was processed by applications developed for the amplitude-frequency spectrum. Evaluated was the maximum amplitude of the signal and compared to the noise. The results were verified by repeated transit of the different types of cars.
Optical Illusions. Semiotic Analysis of Their Use in Commercials
Chromečková, Lucie
2013-01-01
Optical illusions are inseparably part of our lives. We are influenced by illusions on daily base, in commercials, various tests or fun web pages. But we must ask a questions about background of illusions, about their history. What was the original meaning of illusions? When we are confronted with illusion, what's happend? Do we understood illusions? How should be our attitude to illusions? These are only few questions, that this work try to answer. Due to history we try to understand illusio...
Conformational analysis of lignin models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Helio F. dos
2001-01-01
The conformational equilibrium for two 5,5' biphenyl lignin models have been analyzed using a quantum mechanical semiempirical method. The gas phase and solution structures are discussed based on the NMR and X-ray experimental data. The results obtained showed that the observed conformations are solvent-dependent, being the geometries and the thermodynamic properties correlated with the experimental information. This study shows how a systematic theoretical conformational analysis can help to understand chemical processes at a molecular level. (author)
Performance Analysis of an Optical CDMA MAC Protocol With Variable-Size Sliding Window
Mohamed, Mohamed Aly A.; Shalaby, Hossam M. H.; Abdel-Moety El-Badawy, El-Sayed
2006-10-01
A media access control protocol for optical code-division multiple-access packet networks with variable length data traffic is proposed. This protocol exhibits a sliding window with variable size. A model for interference-level fluctuation and an accurate analysis for channel usage are presented. Both multiple-access interference (MAI) and photodetector's shot noise are considered. Both chip-level and correlation receivers are adopted. The system performance is evaluated using a traditional average system throughput and average delay. Finally, in order to enhance the overall performance, error control codes (ECCs) are applied. The results indicate that the performance can be enhanced to reach its peak using the ECC with an optimum number of correctable errors. Furthermore, chip-level receivers are shown to give much higher performance than that of correlation receivers. Also, it has been shown that MAI is the main source of signal degradation.
Computation and analysis of backward ray-tracing in aero-optics flow fields.
Xu, Liang; Xue, Deting; Lv, Xiaoyi
2018-01-08
A backward ray-tracing method is proposed for aero-optics simulation. Different from forward tracing, the backward tracing direction is from the internal sensor to the distant target. Along this direction, the tracing in turn goes through the internal gas region, the aero-optics flow field, and the freestream. The coordinate value, the density, and the refractive index are calculated at each tracing step. A stopping criterion is developed to ensure the tracing stops at the outer edge of the aero-optics flow field. As a demonstration, the analysis is carried out for a typical blunt nosed vehicle. The backward tracing method and stopping criterion greatly simplify the ray-tracing computations in the aero-optics flow field, and they can be extended to our active laser illumination aero-optics study because of the reciprocity principle.
The use of an optical data acquisition system for bladed disk vibration analysis
Lawrence, C.; Meyn, E. H.
1985-01-01
A new concept in instrumentation was developed by engineers at NASA Lewis Research Center to collect vibration data from multi-bladed rotors. This new concept, known as the optical data acquisition system, uses optical transducers to measure bladed tip deflections by reflection of light beams off the tips of the blades as they pass in front of the optical transducer. By using an array of transducers around the perimeter of the rotor, detailed vibration signals can be obtained. In this study, resonant frequencies and mode shapes were determined for a 56 bladed rotor using the optical system. Frequency data from the optical system was also compared to data obtained from strain gauge measurements and finite element analysis and was found to be in good agreement.
Fused Silica Final Optics for Inertial Fusion Energy: Radiation Studies and System-Level Analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kubota, Alison; Caturla, Maria J.; Dixit, Sham N.; Speth, Joel A.; Payne, Stephen A.
2003-01-01
The survivability of the final optic, which must sit in the line of sight of high-energy neutrons and gamma rays, is a key issue for any laser-driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) concept. Previous work has concentrated on the use of reflective optics. Here, we introduce and analyze the use of a transmissive final optic for the IFE application. Our experimental work has been conducted at a range of doses and dose rates, including those comparable to the conditions at the IFE final optic. The experimental work, in conjunction with detailed analysis, suggests that a thin, fused silica Fresnel lens may be an attractive option when used at a wavelength of 351 nm. Our measurements and molecular dynamics simulations provide convincing evidence that the radiation damage, which leads to optical absorption, not only saturates but that a 'radiation annealing' effect is observed. A system-level description is provided, including Fresnel lens and phase plate designs
OPT13B and OPTIM4 - computer codes for optical model calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal, S.; Srivastava, D.K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Ganguly, N.K.
1975-01-01
OPT13B is a computer code in FORTRAN for optical model calculations with automatic search. A summary of different formulae used for computation is given. Numerical methods are discussed. The 'search' technique followed to obtain the set of optical model parameters which produce best fit to experimental data in a least-square sense is also discussed. Different subroutines of the program are briefly described. Input-output specifications are given in detail. A modified version of OPT13B specifications are given in detail. A modified version of OPT13B is OPTIM4. It can be used for optical model calculations where the form factors of different parts of the optical potential are known point by point. A brief description of the modifications is given. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sasanthi Peiris
2014-12-01
Full Text Available We describe a hybrid Raman-optical parametric amplifier (HROPA operating at the O- and E-bands and designed for coarse wavelength division multiplexed (CWDM passive optical networks (PONs. We present the mathematical model and simulation results for the optimization of this HROPA design. Our analysis shows that separating the two amplification processes allows for optimization of each one separately, e.g., proper selection of pump optical powers and wavelengths to achieve maximum gain bandwidth and low gain ripple. Furthermore, we show that the proper design of optical filters incorporated in the HROPA architecture can suppress idlers generated during the OPA process, as well as other crosstalk that leaks through the passive optical components. The design approach enables error free performance for all nine wavelengths within the low half of the CWDM band, assigned to upstream traffic in a CWDM PON architecture, for all possible transmitter wavelength misalignments (±6 nm from the center wavelength of the channel band. We show that the HROPA can achieve error-free performance with a 170-nm gain bandwidth (e.g., 1264 nm–1436 nm, a gain of >20 dB and a gain ripple of <4 dB.
Structural analysis of herpes simplex virus by optical super-resolution imaging
Laine, Romain F.; Albecka, Anna; van de Linde, Sebastian; Rees, Eric J.; Crump, Colin M.; Kaminski, Clemens F.
2015-01-01
Herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) is one of the most widespread pathogens among humans. Although the structure of HSV-1 has been extensively investigated, the precise organization of tegument and envelope proteins remains elusive. Here we use super-resolution imaging by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) in combination with a model-based analysis of single-molecule localization data, to determine the position of protein layers within virus particles. We resolve different protein layers within individual HSV-1 particles using multi-colour dSTORM imaging and discriminate envelope-anchored glycoproteins from tegument proteins, both in purified virions and in virions present in infected cells. Precise characterization of HSV-1 structure was achieved by particle averaging of purified viruses and model-based analysis of the radial distribution of the tegument proteins VP16, VP1/2 and pUL37, and envelope protein gD. From this data, we propose a model of the protein organization inside the tegument.
Advanced optical modeling of TiN metal hard mask for scatterometric critical dimension metrology
Ebersbach, Peter; Urbanowicz, Adam M.; Likhachev, Dmitriy; Hartig, Carsten
2017-03-01
The majority of scatterometric production control models assume constant optical properties of the materials and only dimensional parameters are allowed to vary. However, this assumption, especially in case of thin-metal films, negatively impacts model precision and accuracy. In this work we focus on optical modeling of the TiN metal hardmask for scatterometry applications. Since the dielectric function of TiN exhibits thickness dependence, we had to take this fact into account. Moreover, presence of the highly absorbing films influences extracted thicknesses of dielectric layers underneath the metal films. The later phenomenon is often not reflected by goodness of fit. We show that accurate optical modeling of metal is essential to achieve desired scatterometric model quality for automatic process control in microelectronic production. Presented modeling methodology can be applied to other TiN applications such as diffusion barriers and metal gates as well as for other metals used in microelectronic manufacturing for all technology nodes.
Heh, Ding Yu; Tan, Eng Leong
2011-04-12
This paper presents the modeling of hemoglobin at optical frequency (250 nm - 1000 nm) using the unconditionally stable fundamental alternating-direction-implicit finite-difference time-domain (FADI-FDTD) method. An accurate model based on complex conjugate pole-residue pairs is proposed to model the complex permittivity of hemoglobin at optical frequency. Two hemoglobin concentrations at 15 g/dL and 33 g/dL are considered. The model is then incorporated into the FADI-FDTD method for solving electromagnetic problems involving interaction of light with hemoglobin. The computation of transmission and reflection coefficients of a half space hemoglobin medium using the FADI-FDTD validates the accuracy of our model and method. The specific absorption rate (SAR) distribution of human capillary at optical frequency is also shown. While maintaining accuracy, the unconditionally stable FADI-FDTD method exhibits high efficiency in modeling hemoglobin.
Zhang, Xuming; Li, Liu; Zhu, Fei; Hou, Wenguang; Chen, Xinjian
2014-06-01
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images are usually degraded by significant speckle noise, which will strongly hamper their quantitative analysis. However, speckle noise reduction in OCT images is particularly challenging because of the difficulty in differentiating between noise and the information components of the speckle pattern. To address this problem, the spiking cortical model (SCM)-based nonlocal means method is presented. The proposed method explores self-similarities of OCT images based on rotation-invariant features of image patches extracted by SCM and then restores the speckled images by averaging the similar patches. This method can provide sufficient speckle reduction while preserving image details very well due to its effectiveness in finding reliable similar patches under high speckle noise contamination. When applied to the retinal OCT image, this method provides signal-to-noise ratio improvements of >16 dB with a small 5.4% loss of similarity.